Science.gov

Sample records for plasma waves observed

  1. First plasma wave observations at uranus.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L; Poynter, R L

    1986-07-04

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 kilohertz. About 10 hours before closest approach the bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence at a radial distance of 23.5 Uranus radii. Once Voyager was inside the magnetosphere, strong whistler-mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 Uranus radii, in the same region where the energetic particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. Various other plasma waves were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micrometer-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 30 to 50 impacts per second, and the north-south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 kilometers.

  2. First plasma wave observations at uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A.; Kurth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.; Poynter, R.L.

    1986-07-04

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 kilohertz. About 10 hours before closest approach the bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence at a radial distance of 23.5 Uranus radii. Once Voyager was inside the magnetosphere, strong whistler-mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 Uranus radii, in the same region where the energetic-particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. Various other plasma waves were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma-wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micrometer-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 30 to 50 impacts per second, and the north south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 kilometers.

  3. Voyager 2 plasma wave observations at saturn.

    PubMed

    Scarf, F L; Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Poynter, R L

    1982-01-29

    The first inbound Voyager 2 crossing of Saturn's bow shock [at 31.7 Saturn radii (RS), near local noon] and the last outbound crossing (at 87.4 RS, near local dawn) had similar plasma wave signatures. However, many other aspects of the plasma wave measurements differed considerably during the inbound and outbound passes, suggesting the presence of effects associated with significant north-south or noon-dawn asymmetries, or temporal variations. Within Saturn's magnetosphere, the plasma wave instrument detected electron plasma oscillations, upper hybrid resonance emissions, half-gyrofrequency harmonics, hiss and chorus, narrowband electromagnetic emissions and broadband Saturn radio noise, and noise bursts with characteristics of static. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument also detected a large number of intense impulses that we interpret in terms of ring particle impacts on Voyager 2.

  4. Unusual radio and plasma wave phenomena observed in March 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the intense solar flare activity in March 1991 a number of unusual radio emission and Langmuir wave phenomena were observed by the radio and plasma wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft. These phenomena were associated with unusual conditions in the interplanetary medium (IPM) presumably resulting from intense solar activity. Some of these URAP observations cannot be explained by mechanisms usually attributed to interplanetary (IP) radio emissions and Langmuir wave activity and require other interpretations.

  5. Unusual radio and plasma wave phenomena observed in March 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the intense solar flare activity in March 1991 a number of unusual radio emission and Langmuir wave phenomena were observed by the radio and plasma wave (URAP) experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft. These phenomena were associated with unusual conditions in the interplanetary medium (IPM) presumably resulting from intense solar activity. Some of these URAP observations cannot be explained by mechanisms usually attributed to interplanetary (IP) radio emissions and Langmuir wave activity and require other interpretations.

  6. Observations and Modeling of Plasma Waves in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Downs, C.

    2016-12-01

    The solar atmosphere, especially the extended corona, provides rich observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and plasma waves in general. Such waves can be used as seismological tools to probe the physical conditions of the medium in which they travel, such as the coronal magnetic field and plasma parameters. Recent high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and in UV by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have opened a new chapter in understanding these waves and in utilizing them for coronal seismology. We will review such new observations of two intimately related phenomena - global EUV waves (so-called "EIT waves") associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and quasi-periodic, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains associated with flares. We will focus on the generation and propagation of global EUV waves and their interaction with coronal structures, as well as the correlation of AIA-detected fast-mode wave trains with flare pulsations seen from radio to hard X-ray wavelengths. We will also present recent MHD modeling efforts in reproducing these waves using realistic, observationally-driven simulations. We will discuss the roles of such waves in energy transport within the solar atmosphere and in their associated CME/flare eruptions.

  7. High Frequency Plasma Waves Associated With Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts: WIND/WAVES Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, K. E.; Bale, S. D.; Phan, T. D.; Davis, M.; Gosling, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of strong plasma wave activity near reconnection X-line regions in THE laboratory and in the Earth's magnetosphere have suggested that plasma waves may play AN important role in the reconnection process by providing anomalous resistivity through wave-particle interactions and by accelerating electrons. Recent observations of quasi-steady magnetic reconnection in the solar wind introduces an important new environment to study the role of plasma waves in a collisionless plasma associated with the reconnection process. We have used observations by the WIND spacecraft to study high frequency plasma waves associated with 28 solar wind reconnection exhausts. The TNR (Thermal Noise Receiver) experiment included in the WAVES instrument on WIND measures electric spectral density from 4 to 256 kHz and the TDS (Time Domain Sampler) experiment also included in WAVES samples electric field waveforms at rates up to 120,000 samples/s. A large fraction (79%) of the investigated events showed significant enhancements in the wave power around ~ 4 kHz, while only about one third (39%) of the exhausts were associated with intensifications around THE local electron plasma frequency (few tens of kHz). TDS waveform samples revealed three different wave modes: electron solitary waves, ion acoustic waves and Langmuir waves. The intense plasma waves were most frequently observed close to the X-line and near the exhaust boundaries, although wave emissions were commonly observed elsewhere within the exhausts as well

  8. Plasma Wave Observations during Ion Gun Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-20

    Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasma , Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics , Vol. 47, ed. A. Rosen, IAA, pp. 15-30 (1976). 3. H. C. Koons, P. F...AIAA 75-92 (January 20-22, 1975). 2. D. A. McPherson and W. R. Schober, " Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes: The SCATHA Satellite Program," in...on the AF/NASI P78-2 (SCATHA) satellite were conducted with a plasma /ion source in the inner magnetosphere . These experiments were monitored with

  9. Plasma wave observations at comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma wave instrument on the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) detected strong ion acoustic waves together with electromagnetic whistlers and low-level electron plasma oscillations when the spacecraft was within two million km of the nucleus of comet Giacobini-Zinner. As ICE approached the anticipated bow-shock location, electromagnetic and electrostatic wave levels increased significantly, but even amidst this turbulence, the wave instrument detected structures with familiar bow shock characteristics that were correlated with observations of localized electron heating phenomena. Just beyond the visible coma, high-amplitude broadband waves were detected accounting for the significant electron heating observed in this region. Near closest approach, broadband electrostatic noise was detected together with a changing pattern of weak electron plasma oscillations that yielded a density profile for the outer layers of the cold plasma tail. Near the tail axis, the plasma wave instrument also detected a nonuniform flux of dust impacts, and a preliminary profile of the Giacobini-Zinner dust distribution for micrometer-sized particles is presented.

  10. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  11. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  12. Comparative observations of plasma waves at the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the plasma-wave spectra from the four major outer planets are examined with particular attention given to the instabilities related to the precipitation of energetic particles. Wave-particle interactions involving hiss, chorus, and electron-cyclotron harmonic emissions are studied. These interactions contribute about 10 exp 13 W into the Jovian atmosphere, and the electron-cyclotron emissions on Saturn are shown to contribute significantly to the precipitation of energetic electrons. Whistler-mode waves are shown to exist at Uranus with intensities that could put 3-40 keV electrons on strong diffusion, but the amplitudes of the emissions are not sufficient to make them a significant part of precipitation. Weak electron-cyclotron harmonic emissions and whistler modes are detected at Neptune, suggesting that the present dataset is based on regions of low wave intensities.

  13. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  14. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment.

    PubMed

    Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P

    1992-09-11

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  15. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  16. Plasma and wave observations in the night sector of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Nairn, C.M.C.; Grard, R.; Skalsky, A. ); Trotignon, J.G. )

    1991-07-01

    The Phobos 2 spacecraft, initially injected into an elliptical orbit around Mars on January 29, 1989, was subsequently transferred, on February 18, 1989, to a nearly circular orbit, close to that of the Phobos moon, with an areocentric radius of the order of 9,600 km. The spacecraft remained in this orbit until the end of the mission, on March 27, 1989. This paper summarizes the plasma and wave observations carried out in the night sector of Mars with the plasma wave system (PWS). Embedded in the magnetic field structure of the Martian tail, cold electron enhancements (tail rays) with densities in the range 10-65 cm{sup {minus}3} are observed in association with broadband wave activity extending from a few hertz up to several kilohertz; these enhancements appear to have characteristics analogous to enhancements observed at Venus. The ion outflow through the Martian eclipse region is estimated from Langmuir probe measurements to be of the order of 10{sup 25} ions/s.

  17. Plasma wave phenomena at interplanetary shocks observed by the Ulysses URAP experiment. [Unified Radio and Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.

  18. Plasma wave phenomena at interplanetary shocks observed by the Ulysses URAP experiment. [Unified Radio and Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.

  19. Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Ceccni, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first few orbits around Saturn. During the approach the intensity modulation of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) showed that the radio rotation period of Saturn has increased to 10 hr 45 min plus or minus 36 sec, about 6 min longer than measured by Voyager in 1980-81. Also, many intense impulsive radio signals called Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs) were detected from saturnian lightning, starting as far as 1.08 AU from Saturn, much farther than terrestrial lightning can be detected from Earth. Some of the SED episodes have been linked to cloud systems observed in Saturn s atmosphere by the Cassini imaging system. Within the magnetosphere plasma wave emissions have been used to construct an electron density profile through the inner region of the magnetosphere. With decreasing radial distance the electron density increases gradually to a peak of about 100 per cubic centimeter near the outer edge of the A ring, and then drops precipitously to values as low as .03 per cubic centimeter over the rings. Numerous nearly monochromatic whistler-mode emissions were observed as the spacecraft passed over the rings that are believed to be produced by meteoroid impacts on the rings. Whistlermode emissions, similar to terrestrial auroral hiss were also observed over the rings, indicating that an electrodynamic interaction, similar to auroral particle acceleration, may be occurring in or near the rings. During the Titan flybys Langmuir probe and plasma wave measurements provided observations of the density and temperature in Titan's ionosphere.

  20. Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Ceccni, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first few orbits around Saturn. During the approach the intensity modulation of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) showed that the radio rotation period of Saturn has increased to 10 hr 45 min plus or minus 36 sec, about 6 min longer than measured by Voyager in 1980-81. Also, many intense impulsive radio signals called Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs) were detected from saturnian lightning, starting as far as 1.08 AU from Saturn, much farther than terrestrial lightning can be detected from Earth. Some of the SED episodes have been linked to cloud systems observed in Saturn s atmosphere by the Cassini imaging system. Within the magnetosphere plasma wave emissions have been used to construct an electron density profile through the inner region of the magnetosphere. With decreasing radial distance the electron density increases gradually to a peak of about 100 per cubic centimeter near the outer edge of the A ring, and then drops precipitously to values as low as .03 per cubic centimeter over the rings. Numerous nearly monochromatic whistler-mode emissions were observed as the spacecraft passed over the rings that are believed to be produced by meteoroid impacts on the rings. Whistlermode emissions, similar to terrestrial auroral hiss were also observed over the rings, indicating that an electrodynamic interaction, similar to auroral particle acceleration, may be occurring in or near the rings. During the Titan flybys Langmuir probe and plasma wave measurements provided observations of the density and temperature in Titan's ionosphere.

  1. Voyager plasma wave observations near the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    With the completion of the reconnaissance of the magnetospheres of the outer planets by Voyager, a first-order view is obtained of the existence of plasma waves in a wide variety of settings with which to begin the task of intercomparison. Voyager carried the first plasma-wave receivers to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and some very strong statements can be made about the likelihood of several types of plasma-wave modes and where in a planetary magnetosphere these emissions will occur. Further, the role of plasma waves can be understood, in general, in the physics of the magnetospheres and their effects on the energy budget, plasma energization and transport, and the generation of planetary radio emissions.

  2. Magnetic field and plasma wave observations in a plasma cloud at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Elphic, R. C.; Scarf, F. L.; Brace, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Pioneer Venus magnetic field and plasma wave data are examined in a particularly clear example of a plasma cloud above the Venus ionosphere. The magnetic configuration is suggestive of acceleration of the plasma cloud by magnetic tension. If the plasma is at rest at the subsolar point, it could be accelerated to approximately 90 km/sec by the observed stress at the location of the measurement. This far exceeds the escape velocity and suggests that plasma clouds do form a significant loss mechanism for the Venus ionosphere but does not necessarily indicate that the plasma cloud is detached from the ionosphere proper. The plasma cloud is accompanied by strong plasma wave activity and is significantly hotter than the ionospheric plasma encountered later on the same pass. A loss rate of the order of 2 x 10 to the 25th ions/sec is estimated during this event. The geometry suggested by these observations is one of a ridge of dense cold plasma starting in the subsolar regions and flowing over the poles of the planet. Thus, these plasma clouds may be the planetary analog of cometary tail rays.

  3. Polar cap electron densities from DE 1 plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Electric-field-spectum measurements from the plasma-wave instrument on the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft are used to study the local electron density at high altitudes in the northern polar-cap region. The electron density is determined from the upper cutoff of whistler-mode radiation at the electron plasma frequency. Median density values over the polar cap at L greater than 10 are found to vary from 35.2 + or - 8.5 cu cm at 2.1 earth radii to 0.99 + or - 0.51 cu cm at 4.66 earth radii. The steady-state radial-outflow model is examined for consistency with the observed density profile. A power-law fit to the radial variation of the electron density yields an exponent of - 3.85 + or - 0.32, which for the radial-outflow model implies a flow velocity increasing nearly linearly with incresing radial distance. Comparison of the observed electron densities with theoretical polar-wind densities yields consistent results up to 2.8 earth radii. A comparison of the observed electron densities with low-altitude density profiles from the Alouette II and ISIS 1 spacecraft illustrates transitions in the slope of the profile at 1.16 earth radii and between 1.55 and 2.0 earth radii. The changes in the density profile suggest that changes occur in the basic radial-transport processes at these altitudes.

  4. RF wave observations in beam-plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD) was produced in the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (20 x 30 m) using an energetic electron beam of moderately high perveance. A more complete expression of the threshold current I sub c taking into account the pitch angle injection dependence is given. Ambient plasma density inferred from wave measurements under various beam conditions are reported. Maximum frequency of the excited RF band behaves differently than the frequency of the peak amplitude. The latter shows signs of parabolic saturation consistent with the light data. Beam plasma state (pre-BPD or BPD) does not affect the pitch angle dependence. Unexpected strong modulation of the RF spectrum at half odd integer of the electron cyclotron frequency (n + 1/2)f sub ce is reported (5 n 10). Another new feature, the presence of wave emission around 3/2 f sub ce for I sub b is approximate I sub c is reported.

  5. RF wave observations in beam-plasma discharge. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, W.

    1986-02-01

    The Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD) was produced in the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (20 x 30 m) using an energetic electron beam of moderately high perveance. A more complete expression of the threshold current I sub c taking into account the pitch angle injection dependence is given. Ambient plasma density inferred from wave measurements under various beam conditions are reported. Maximum frequency of the excited RF band behaves differently than the frequency of the peak amplitude. The latter shows signs of parabolic saturation consistent with the light data. Beam plasma state (pre-BPD or BPD) does not affect the pitch angle dependence. Unexpected strong modulation of the RF spectrum at half odd integer of the electron cyclotron frequency (n + 1/2)f sub ce is reported (5 n 10). Another new feature, the presence of wave emission around 3/2 f sub ce for I sub b is approximate I sub c is reported.

  6. In situ observations of magnetosonic waves modulated by background plasma density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2017-08-01

    We report in situ observations by the Van Allen Probe mission that magnetosonic (MS) waves are clearly relevant to the background plasma number density. As the satellite moved across dense and tenuous plasma alternatively, MS waves occurred only in lower density region. As the observed protons with "ring" distributions provide free energy, local linear growth rates are calculated and show that magnetosonic waves can be locally excited in tenuous plasma. With variations of the background plasma density, the temporal variations of local wave growth rates calculated with the observed proton ring distributions show a remarkable agreement with those of the observed wave amplitude. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that background plasma densities can modulate the amplitudes of magnetosonic waves through controlling the wave growth rates.

  7. Plasma wave observations near jupiter: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L

    1979-11-23

    This report provides an initial survey of results from the plasma wave instrument on the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Jupiter on 9 July 1979. Measurements made during the approach to the planet show that low-frequency radio emissions from Jupiter have a strong latitudinal dependence, with a sharply defined shadow zone near the equatorial plane. At the magnetopause a new type of broadband electric field turbulence was detected, and strong electrostatic emissions near the upper hybrid resonance frequency were discovered near the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation. Strong whistler-mode turbulence was again detected in the inner magnetosphere, although in this case extending out to substantially larger radial distances than for Voyager 1. In the predawn tail region, continuum radiation was observed extending down to extremely low frequencies, approximately 30 hertz, an indication that the spacecraft was entering a region of very low density, approximately 1.0 x 10(-5) per cubic centimeter, possibly similar to the lobes of Earth's magnetotail.

  8. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  9. Wave and plasma observations during a compressional Pc 5 wave event August 10, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Chandler, M. O.; Sugiura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetometer and thermal plasma instruments on the polar-orbiting Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite observed a small-amplitude ultralow frequency pulsation event at the outer edge of the plasmapause near the geomagnetic equator in the midafternoon sector on August 10, 1982, during the recovery phase of a magnetic storm. Transverse pulsations of 30-50 s period were observed throughout the event, and a 270-s period, purely compressional Pc 5 pulsation with several shifts in phase occurred within + or - 5 deg of the geomagnetic equator. Electric fields and the motion of thermal ions appeared to be in quadrature with pulsations in magnetic field magnitude throughout the event. This suggests that the net Poynting flux for the compressional waves was zero, consistent with their being standing waves. Large fluxes of trapped 90 deg pitch angle 10-eV protons, also symmetric about the geomagnetic equator, were observed in conjunction with the waves. These may serve as a source of free energy for the pulsations. These observations lend support to recent studies suggesting that many dayside compressional wave events are related to localized field line resonance near plasmapauselike boundaries, but also include features that cannot be explained by existing theories.

  10. THEMIS observation of Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Waves in the High Bz Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Evgeny V.; Nakamura, Rumi; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; A, Sergeev, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Using THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) signatures, we investigate the properties of the waves when a high background plasma sheet Bz is seen. We find that such waves are in a better agreement with the existing kinetic simulations. Using adapted Tsyganenko models, we also show conjugate all-sky camera observations in the course of the development of the waves.

  11. Electrostatic wave observation during a space simulation beam-plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D. N.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELF waves which were observed during beam-plasma discharge in the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center are studied. Phase delays as a function of radius (obtained from cross-correlation measurements of density fluctuations) along with measurements of frequency and plasma potential, density, and temperature have been compared to a zero-order slab model of nonlocal azimuthal drift wave propagation. The inferred wave phase velocity in the plasma frame after Doppler correction is found to be near one half the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. Although the measurements presented do not uniquely define a propagation mode, a model of azimuthal drift wave propagation is found to be consistent with observations.

  12. Observations of Plasma Waves near Mars and Their Implications for Atmospheric Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espley, J. R.; Cloutier, P. A.; Brain, D. A.; Crider, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    We use data from over 500 premapping orbits of Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer data to present statistical results on the characteristics of the plasma waves in the near Mars space. We find that plasma waves in the dayside Martian magnetosheath are primarily compressional waves (i.e. magnetosonic or mirror mode waves) and in the nightside magnetosheath and tail regions that the waves are primarily associated with ion gyromotion. Some of these waves are produced by gyrating oxygen ions and as such represent observations of the ongoing erosion of the Martian atmosphere by the solar wind.

  13. Observation of helicon wave with m = 0 antenna in a weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingboe, Bert; Sirse, Nishant; Moloney, Rachel; McCarthy, John

    2015-09-01

    Bounded whistler wave, called ``helicon wave,'' is known to produce high-density plasmas and has been exploited as a high density plasma source for many applications, including electric propulsion for spacecraft. In a helicon plasma source, an antenna wrapped around the magnetized plasma column launches a low frequency wave, ωce/2 >ωhelicon >ωce/100, in the plasma which is responsible for maintaining high density plasma. Several antenna designs have been proposed in order to match efficiently the wave modes. In our experiment, helicon wave mode is observed using an m = 0 antenna. A floating B dot probe, compensated to the capacitively coupled E field, is employed to measure axial-wave-field-profiles (z, r, and θ components) in the plasma at multiple radial positions as a function of rf power and pressure. The Bθ component of the rf-field is observed to be unaffected as the wave propagates in the axial direction. Power coupling between the antenna and the plasma column is identified and agrees with the E, H, and wave coupling regimes previously seen in M =1 antenna systems. That is, the Bz component of the rf-field is observed at low plasma density as the Bz component from the antenna penetrates the plasma. The Bz component becomes very small at medium density due to shielding at the centre of the plasma column; however, with increasing density, a sudden ``jump'' occurs in the Bz component above which a standing wave under the antenna with a propagating wave away from the antenna are observed.

  14. Observation of self-excited dust acoustic wave in dusty plasma with nanometer size dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Tonuj; Boruah, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Bailung, H.

    2017-09-01

    Dusty plasma with a nanometer size dust grain is produced by externally injecting carbon nanopowder into a radio frequency discharge argon plasma. A self-excited dust acoustic wave with a characteristic frequency of ˜100 Hz is observed in the dust cloud. The average dust charge is estimated from the Orbital Motion Limited theory using experimentally measured parameters. The measured wave parameters are used to determine dusty plasma parameters such as dust density and average inter particle distance. The screening parameter and the coupling strength of the dusty plasma indicate that the system is very close to the strongly coupled state.

  15. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF AN EIT WAVE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS AND SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M.; Goemoery, P.; Vrsnak, B.; Warren, H. P.

    2011-12-10

    We present plasma diagnostics of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave observed with high cadence in Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) sit-and-stare spectroscopy and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imagery obtained during the HOP-180 observing campaign on 2011 February 16. At the propagating EIT wave front, we observe downward plasma flows in the EIS Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XVI spectral lines (log T Almost-Equal-To 6.1-6.4) with line-of-sight (LOS) velocities up to 20 km s{sup -1}. These redshifts are followed by blueshifts with upward velocities up to -5 km s{sup -1} indicating relaxation of the plasma behind the wave front. During the wave evolution, the downward velocity pulse steepens from a few km s{sup -1} up to 20 km s{sup -1} and subsequently decays, correlated with the relative changes of the line intensities. The expected increase of the plasma densities at the EIT wave front estimated from the observed intensity increase lies within the noise level of our density diagnostics from EIS Fe XIII 202/203 A line ratios. No significant LOS plasma motions are observed in the He II line, suggesting that the wave pulse was not strong enough to perturb the underlying chromosphere. This is consistent with the finding that no H{alpha} Moreton wave was associated with the event. The EIT wave propagating along the EIS slit reveals a strong deceleration of a Almost-Equal-To -540 m s{sup -2} and a start velocity of v{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 590 km s{sup -1}. These findings are consistent with the passage of a coronal fast-mode MHD wave, pushing the plasma downward and compressing it at the coronal base.

  16. Experimental observation of electron-acoustic wave propagation in laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Satyajit; Biswas, Subir; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath

    2017-06-01

    In the field of fundamental plasma waves, the direct observation of electron-acoustic wave (EAW) propagation in laboratory plasmas remains a challenging problem, mainly because of heavy damping. In the Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental device, the wave is observed and seen to propagate with the phase velocity ˜ 1.8 times the electron thermal velocity. A small amount of cold, drifting electrons, with the moderate bulk to cold temperature ratio ( ≈ 2 - 3), is present in the device. It plays a crucial role in reducing the damping. Our calculation reveals that the drift relaxes the stringent condition on the temperature ratio for wave destabilization. Growth rate becomes positive above a certain drift velocity even if the temperature ratio is moderate. The observed phase velocity agrees well with the theoretical estimate. Experimental realization of the mode may open up a new avenue in the EAW research.

  17. A Review of Nonlinear Low Frequency (LF) Wave Observations in Space Plasmas: On the Development of Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1995-01-01

    As the lead-off presentation for the topic of nonlinear waves and their evolution, we will illustrate some prominent examples of waves in space plasmas. We will describe recent observations detected within planetary foreshocks, near comets and in interplanetary space. It is believed that the nonlinear LF plasma wave features discussed here are part of and may be basic to the development of plasma turbulence. In this sense, this is one area of space plasma physics that is fundamental, with applications to fusion physics and astrophysics as well. It is hoped that the reader(s) will be stimulated to study nonlinear wave development themselves, if he/she is not already involved.

  18. Ulysses Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at High Southern Heliographic Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kellogg, P. J.; Lin, N.; Osherovich, V. A.; Bougeret, J. L.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.; Harvey, C. C.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Manning, R.; Reiner, M. J.; Steinberg, J. L.; Thejappa, G.

    1995-05-01

    Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solar type III radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high-latitude solar wind.

  19. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations at high southern heliographic latitudes.

    PubMed

    Stone, R G; Macdowall, R J; Fainberg, J; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Goldstein, M L; Hoang, S; Bougeret, J L; Harvey, C C; Manning, R; Steinberg, J L; Kellogg, P J; Lin, N; Goetz, K; Osherovich, V A; Reiner, M J; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Lengyel-Frey, D; Thejappa, G

    1995-05-19

    Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solartype Ill radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high- latitude solar wind.

  20. Auroral plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of auroral plasma wave phenomena, starting with the earliest ground-based observations and ending with the most recent satellite observations. Two types of waves are considered, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Electromagnetic waves include auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, ELF noise bands, and low-frequency electric and magnetic noise. Electrostatic waves include upper hybrid resonance emissions, electron cyclotron waves, lower hybrid waves, ion cyclotron waves and broadband electrostatic noise. In each case, a brief overview is given describing the observations, the origin of the instability, and the role of the waves in the physics of the auroral acceleration region.

  1. Standing hydromagnetic waves in the Io plasma torus - Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt to analyze Voyager 1 magnetic field data for the existence of any ultralow-frequency hydromagnetic waves in the Io plasma torus is presented. The coincidence between the increase in wave activity and the entry into the Io plasma torus is in support of treating the torus as a low Alfven velocity region and thus as a hydromagnetic waveguide. A first theoretical treatment of hydromagnetic wave propagation within the torus suggests that decoupling of toroidal and poloidal type oscillations can occur under the condition of axisymmetry of the wave field. Numerical calculations of the fundamental mode toroidal and first harmonic poloidal eigenperiods for a model Jovian magnetosphere give values quite in agreement with the observed periods. Observations of nearly axisymmetric, decoupled toroidal and poloidal mode eigenoscillations of the Io plasma torus suggest a large-scale source mechanism for the detected magnetic field fluctuations.

  2. Plasma Waves Related to Solar Wind - Moon Interaction Observed by WFC onboard KAGUYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Y.; Kitaguchi, S.; Kanatani, K.; Goto, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Omura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Saito, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2010-12-01

    The waveform capture (WFC) [1] is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) [2,3] on board the KAGUYA spacecraft. The WFC measures two components of electric wave signals detected by the two orthogonal 30 m tip-to-tip antennas from 100Hz to 1MHz. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC is expected to measure plasma waves related to solar wind-moon interaction, mini-magnetospheres caused by magnetic anomaly on the lunar surface, and radio emissions to be observed from the moon. Because the moon is basically non-magnetized, the solar wind particles directly hit the lunar surface and a plasma cavity called the “lunar wake” is created behind the moon. Around the terminator of the moon, sudden density decrease derived from local plasma frequency was observed by WFC when the moon was in the solar wind. In addition, because of the difference of thermal speed between ions and electrons, electrons first attempt to refill the cavity, which causes an electric field at the boundary region of the wake and ions are assumed to be accelerated by the DC E-field. The wake boundary, therefore, could be a source region of plasma waves caused by this instability. On the other hand, there are numbers of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface and it was suggested that a kind of mini-magnetosphere might be constructed as a result of interaction between the solar wind and these magnetic anomalies. According to our plasma wave observation, intense wave activities below several kHz were frequently observed over these magnetic anomalies. It was found that the spatial distribution of plasma wave clearly corresponds to the magnetic anomalies, especially around the South Pole Aitken basin, and also depends on the solar wind parameters; intense wave was observed over magnetic anomalies when the solar wind velocity was slow while wave originated from magnetic anomalies was not clearly recognized when the solar wind velocity was high. It was also found that the wave

  3. Mesospheric gravity waves and ionospheric plasma bubbles observed during the COPEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, I.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Buriti, R. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.

    2011-07-01

    During the Conjugate Point Experiment (COPEX) campaign performed at Boa Vista (2.80∘N;60.70∘W, dip angle21.7∘N) from October to December 2002, 15 medium-scale gravity waves in the OHNIR airglow images were observed. Using a Keogram image analysis, we estimate their parameters. Most of the waves propagate to Northwest, indicating that their main sources are Southeast of Boa Vista. Quasi-simultaneous plasma bubble activities in the OI 630 nm images were observed in seven cases. The distances between the bubble depletions have a linear relationship with the wavelengths of the gravity waves observed in the mesosphere, which suggests a direct contribution of the mesospheric medium-scale gravity waves in seeding the equatorial plasma bubbles.

  4. Electron plasma waves in the solar wind - AMPTE/IRM and UKS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treumann, R. A.; Bauer, O. H.; Labelle, J.; Haerendel, G.; Christiansen, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Selected events of plasma wave and electromagnetic emissions in the earth's electron fore-shock region have been studied. Strong emissions are observed in the plasma-wave band when the site of the satellite is magnetically connected to the bow shock. These emissions are generally highly fluctuating. Under certain conditions one observes electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic produced locally. Electromagnetic emission generated at a position far away from the site of the spacecraft is occasionally detected giving rise to remote sensing of the bow shock. These emissions are related to energetic electron fluxes.

  5. An Overview of Observations by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Roux, A.; Canu, P.; Zarka, P.; Tokarev, Y.

    2001-01-01

    On August 18, 1999, the Cassini spacecraft flew by Earth at an altitude of 1186 km on its way to Saturn. Although the flyby was performed exclusively to provide the spacecraft with sufficient velocity to get to Saturn, the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument, along with several others, was operated to gain valuable calibration data and to validate the operation of a number of capabilities. In addition, an opportunity to study the terrestrial radio and plasma wave environment with a highly capable instrument on a swift fly-through of the magnetosphere was afforded by the encounter. This paper provides an overview of the RPWS observations, at Earth, including the identification of a number of magnetospheric plasma wave modes, an accurate measurement of the plasma density over a significant portion of the trajectory using the natural wave spectrum in addition to a relaxation sounder and Langmuir probe, the detection of natural and human-produced radio emissions, and the validation of the capability to measure the wave normal angle and Poynting flux of whistler-mode chorus emissions. The results include the observation of a double-banded structure at closest' approach including a band of Cerenkov emission bounded by electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies and an electron cyclotron harmonic band just above the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. In the near-Earth plasma sheet, evidence for electron phase space holes is observed, similar to those first reported by Geotail in the magnetotail. The wave normal analysis confirms the Polar result that chorus is generated very close to the magnetic equator and propagates to higher latitudes. The integrated power flux of auroral kilometric radiation is also used to identify a series of substorms observed during the outbound passage through the magnetotail.

  6. An Overview of Observations by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Roux, A.; Canu, P.; Zarka, P.; Tokarev, Y.

    2001-01-01

    On August 18, 1999, the Cassini spacecraft flew by Earth at an altitude of 1186 km on its way to Saturn. Although the flyby was performed exclusively to provide the spacecraft with sufficient velocity to get to Saturn, the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument, along with several others, was operated to gain valuable calibration data and to validate the operation of a number of capabilities. In addition, an opportunity to study the terrestrial radio and plasma wave environment with a highly capable instrument on a swift fly-through of the magnetosphere was afforded by the encounter. This paper provides an overview of the RPWS observations, at Earth, including the identification of a number of magnetospheric plasma wave modes, an accurate measurement of the plasma density over a significant portion of the trajectory using the natural wave spectrum in addition to a relaxation sounder and Langmuir probe, the detection of natural and human-produced radio emissions, and the validation of the capability to measure the wave normal angle and Poynting flux of whistler-mode chorus emissions. The results include the observation of a double-banded structure at closest' approach including a band of Cerenkov emission bounded by electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies and an electron cyclotron harmonic band just above the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. In the near-Earth plasma sheet, evidence for electron phase space holes is observed, similar to those first reported by Geotail in the magnetotail. The wave normal analysis confirms the Polar result that chorus is generated very close to the magnetic equator and propagates to higher latitudes. The integrated power flux of auroral kilometric radiation is also used to identify a series of substorms observed during the outbound passage through the magnetotail.

  7. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; Andre, M.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva

    2016-07-01

    This is the second in a pair of papers discussing a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected during 10 years (2001–2010) of Cluster observations. In the first paper, an analysis of EMIC wave properties (i.e., wave power, polarization, normal angle, and wave propagation angle) is presented in both the magnetic latitude (MLAT)-distance as well as magnetic local time (MLT)-L frames. In addition, this paper focuses on the distribution of EMIC wave-associated plasma conditions as well as two EMIC wave generation proxies (the electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio proxy and the linear theory proxy) in these same frames. Based on the distributions of hot H+ anisotropy, electron and hot H+ density measurements, hot H+ parallel plasma beta, and the calculated wave generation proxies, three source regions of EMIC waves appear to exist: (1) the well-known overlap between cold plasmaspheric or plume populations with hot anisotropic ring current populations in the postnoon to dusk MLT region; (2) regions all along the dayside magnetosphere at high L shells related to dayside magnetospheric compression and drift shell splitting; and (3) off-equator regions possibly associated with the Shabansky orbits in the dayside magnetosphere.

  8. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; ...

    2016-07-01

    This is the second in a pair of papers discussing a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected during 10 years (2001–2010) of Cluster observations. In the first paper, an analysis of EMIC wave properties (i.e., wave power, polarization, normal angle, and wave propagation angle) is presented in both the magnetic latitude (MLAT)-distance as well as magnetic local time (MLT)-L frames. In addition, this paper focuses on the distribution of EMIC wave-associated plasma conditions as well as two EMIC wave generation proxies (the electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio proxy and the linear theory proxy) in these samemore » frames. Based on the distributions of hot H+ anisotropy, electron and hot H+ density measurements, hot H+ parallel plasma beta, and the calculated wave generation proxies, three source regions of EMIC waves appear to exist: (1) the well-known overlap between cold plasmaspheric or plume populations with hot anisotropic ring current populations in the postnoon to dusk MLT region; (2) regions all along the dayside magnetosphere at high L shells related to dayside magnetospheric compression and drift shell splitting; and (3) off-equator regions possibly associated with the Shabansky orbits in the dayside magnetosphere.« less

  9. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; Andre, M.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva

    2016-07-01

    This is the second in a pair of papers discussing a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected during 10 years (2001–2010) of Cluster observations. In the first paper, an analysis of EMIC wave properties (i.e., wave power, polarization, normal angle, and wave propagation angle) is presented in both the magnetic latitude (MLAT)-distance as well as magnetic local time (MLT)-L frames. In addition, this paper focuses on the distribution of EMIC wave-associated plasma conditions as well as two EMIC wave generation proxies (the electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio proxy and the linear theory proxy) in these same frames. Based on the distributions of hot H+ anisotropy, electron and hot H+ density measurements, hot H+ parallel plasma beta, and the calculated wave generation proxies, three source regions of EMIC waves appear to exist: (1) the well-known overlap between cold plasmaspheric or plume populations with hot anisotropic ring current populations in the postnoon to dusk MLT region; (2) regions all along the dayside magnetosphere at high L shells related to dayside magnetospheric compression and drift shell splitting; and (3) off-equator regions possibly associated with the Shabansky orbits in the dayside magnetosphere.

  10. THEMIS Observations of Electrostatic Waves in Context with Ion Foreshock Plasma Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Wilber, M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mozer, F. S.; Angelopolous, V.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Le Contel, O.

    2008-12-01

    The terrestrial foreshock region plays an essential role in preprocessing the undisturbed solar wind en route to Earth's bow shock and magnetopause. Such preprocessing involves a rich array of plasma structures observed within the terrestrial ion foreshock, including short-duration large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS), hot flow anomalies (HFAs), foreshock cavities and recently examined density holes. Much work has been done to characterize the macroscopic structure of these objects, as revealed in plasma and DC fields data, and to study higher frequency waves using wave spectra. Little has been done to date to examine high-frequency waveform data in the foreshock, and to place such measurements into context of the sub-structure of the features observed there. Here we present case studies of foreshock electrostatic waves observed by THEMIS, from a few tens to few thousand Hz. The THEMIS/EFI, FGM and SCM instruments provide long duration three-axis measurements of electric and magnetic field waveforms from DC to 8000 Hz, allowing us to assess how these waves are organized within the substructure of various foreshock phenomena. Preliminary analysis indicates large (20-100 mV/m) amplitude oscillatory electrostatic waves from a few tens of Hz to few thousand Hz. Such waves are often but not always observed in association with fine-scale currents embedded within foreshock structures, which is suggestive of different generation mechanisms. These oscillatory waves appear to be consistent with short-scale, ion-acoustic like waves observed in the foreshock reported in the literature. Notably, we also see large amplitude, solitary-like electrostatic waveforms embedded within ion acoustic turbulence, which is suggestive of counter-streaming particles. We discuss the characteristics of the electrostatic waves, such as orientation with respect to magnetic field, wavelength, and relation to fine structure in the magnetic fields and plasma density.

  11. Observation of dust acoustic shock wave in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sumita K. Boruah, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.

    2016-05-15

    Dust acoustic shock wave is observed in a strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasma. A supersonic flow of charged microparticles is allowed to perturb a stationary dust fluid to excite dust acoustic shock wave. The evolution process beginning with steepening of initial wave front and then formation of a stable shock structure is similar to the numerical results of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. The measured Mach number of the observed shock wave agrees with the theoretical results. Reduction of shock amplitude at large distances is also observed due to the dust neutral collision and viscosity effects. The dispersion relation and the spatial damping of a linear dust acoustic wave are also measured and compared with the relevant theory.

  12. Plasma-wave observations at Uranus from Voyager 2. Progress report for period ending February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A.; Kurth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.; Poynter, R.L.

    1986-03-26

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma-wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 khz. The bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence about 10 hours before closest approach at a radial distance of 23.5 ru. Once inside of the magnetosphere, strong whistler mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 R/sub u/, in the same region where the energetic-particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. A variety of other plasma waves, such as (f sub c) electron-cyclotron waves, were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micron-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 20 to 30 impacts/sec, and the north-south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 km. This paper presents an overview of the principal results from the plasma-wave instrument, starting with the first detection of radio emissions from Uranus, and ending a few days after closest approach.

  13. Multiple harmonic ULF waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Kahlstorf, C. R. G.; Posch, J. L.; Keiling, A.; Walsh, A. P.; Denton, R. E.; Broughton, M. C.; Owen, C. J.; FornaçOn, K.-H.; RèMe, H.

    2010-12-01

    The passage of the Cluster satellites in a polar orbit through Earth's magnetotail has provided numerous observations of harmonically related Pc 1-2 ULF wave events, with the fundamental near the local proton cyclotron frequency Ωcp. Broughton et al. (2008) reported observations by Cluster of three such events in the plasma sheet boundary layer, and used the wave telescope technique to determine that their wave vectors k were nearly perpendicular to B. This paper reports the results of a search for such waves throughout the 2003 Cluster tail passage. During the 4 month period of July-October 2003, 35 multiple-harmonic wave events were observed, all in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). From the first observed event (22 July) to the last (28 October), 13 of Cluster's 42 tail passes had at least one event. The wave events were rather evenly distributed from XGSE = -7 RE out to the Cluster apogee distance of -18 RE, with one event observed at -4 RE. ZGSE for these events ranged from -10 to -3 RE and +3 to +7 RE (i.e., there were no events for ∣Z∣ < 3 RE). The wave events, with durations from ˜1 to 50 min, were consistently associated with signatures of the PSBL: elevated fluxes of counterstreaming ions with energies ranging from ˜3 to 30 keV, and elevated fluxes of electrons with energies ranging from 0.25 to ˜5 keV. Analysis of plasma parameters suggests that although waves occurred only when the ion beta exceeded 0.1 (somewhat larger than typical for the PSBL), ion particle pressure may be of more physical importance in controlling wave occurrence. Electron distributions were more isotropic in pitch angles than the ion distributions, but some evidence of counterstreaming electrons was detected in 83% of the events. The ions also showed clear signatures of shell-like or ring-like distributions; i.e., with reduced fluxes below the energy of maximum flux. The suprathermal ion fluxes were asymmetric in all events studied, with more ions streaming earthward

  14. Analysis of Wave and Particle Signatures Observed in Plasma Escape at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Intriligator, D. S.; Crider, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric gases escape from Venus as neutral and ionized atoms and molecules. Ion escape, considered here, occurs through ion pickup or collective plasma processes. The latter can arise from upward flow of nightside ionospheric plasma into the ionotail, day to night ionospheric flow into the ionotail, and scavenging of ionospheric plasma by ionosphere-magnetosheath instabilities at the ionopause. These plasma processes produce differing signatures in ion velocity and energy distributions and in ULF waves in the magnetic field. Using plasma ion spectra measured by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA) and magnetic field fluctuations observed by the PVO Orbiter Magnetometer (OMAG) along with the expected particle and field signatures, various ion escape processes occurring along Pioneer Venus orbits are identified. In particular, OPA ion energy distributions are used in parallel with magnetic field power spectra and wave phase angles derived from OMAG measurements to study the characteristics of escaping ions. The principle ions observed escaping the influence of Venus are H+, He+ and 0'. In the ion energy distributions of the OPA, pickup ions appear hot relative to the much cooler ions flowing away from Venus in the ionotail and in the plasma clouds detached from the ionopause. This energy contrast is particularly evident downstream when PVO crosses the ionotail boundary from the hot solar wind plasma to the much cooler plasma within the tail. Magnetic field signatures accompanying the escaping ions appear as peaks in the power spectra at the corresponding ion cyclotron frequencies. Also, coherent wave trains at the same frequencies are observed in the phase angle plots of magnetic field fluctuations about the mean field.

  15. Plasma waves observed at low altitudes in the tenuous Venus nightside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Ho, C. M.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus (PV) Orbiter Electric Field Detector (OEFD) measured many plasma wave bursts throughout the low altitude ionosphere during the final entry phase of the spacecraft. Apart from 100 Hz bursts observed at very low altitudes (approx. 130 km), the bursts fall into two classes. The first of these is a wideband signal that is observed in regions of low magnetic field, but average densities, in comparison to the prevailing ionospheric condition. This wideband signal is not observed in the 30 kHz channel of the OEFD, but is resricted to the 5.4 kHz channel and lower. Since these bursts are observed with roughly constant burst rate above 160 km altitude, we attribute them to ion acoustic mode waves generated by precipitating solar wind electrons. The second type of signal is restricted to 100 Hz only, and is observed in the regions of low electron beta, consistent with whistler-mode waves. These waves could be generated by lightning in the Venus atmosphere if the vertical component of the magnetic field greater than 3.6 nT. Because the ionosphere is very different during the entry phase, compared to the ionosphere as observed early in the Pioneer Venus mission, any conclusions regarding the source of the plasma waves detected during entry phase cannot be applied directly to the earlier observations.

  16. Observations of mirror waves and plasma depletion layer upstream of Saturn's magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Violante, L.; Cattaneo, M. B. Bavassano; Moreno, G.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The two inbound traversals of the Saturn's magnetosheath by Voyagers 1 and 2 have been studied using plasma and magnetic field data. In a great portion of the subsolar magnetosheath, large-amplitude compressional waves are observed at low frequency (approximately 0.1 f(sub p)) in a high-beta plasma regime. The fluctuations of the magnetic field magnitude and ion density are anticorrelated, as are those of the magnetic and thermal pressures. The normals to the structures are almost orthogonal to the background field, and the Doppler ratio is on the average small. Even though the data do not allow the determination of the ion thermal anisotropy, the observations are consistent with values of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) greater than 1, producing the onset of the mirror instability. All the above features indicate that the waves should be most probably identified with mirror modes. One of the two magnetopause crossings is of the high-shear type and the above described waves are seen until the magnetopause. The other crossing is of the low-shear type and, similarly to what has been observed at Earth, a plasma depletion occurs close to the magnetopause. In this layer, waves with smaller amplitude, presumably of the mirror mode, are present together with higher-frequency waves showing a transverse component.

  17. Electron distributions observed with Langmuir waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Junga; Rha, Kicheol; Seough, Jungjoon; Yoon, Peter H.

    2014-09-15

    The present paper investigates the Langmuir turbulence driven by counter-streaming electron beams and its plausible association with observed features in the Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer region. A one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulation code is employed in order to simulate broadband electrostatic waves with characteristic frequency in the vicinity of the electron plasma frequency ω/ω{sub pe}≃1.0. The present simulation confirms that the broadband electrostatic waves may indeed be generated by the counter-streaming electron beams. It is also found that the observed feature associated with low energy electrons, namely quasi-symmetric velocity space plateaus, are replicated according to the present simulation. However, the present investigation only partially succeeds in generating the suprathermal tails such that the origin of observed quasi power-law energetic population formation remains outstanding.

  18. Observation of nonlinear wave decay processes in the solar wind by the AMPTE IRM plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Roeder, J. L.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Treumann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear wave decay processes have been detected in the solar wind by the plasma wave experiment aboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) IRM spacecraft. The main process is the generation of ultralow-frequency ion acoustic waves from the decay of Langmuir waves near the electron plasma frequency. Frequently, this is accompanied by an enhancement of emissions near twice the plasma frequency. This enhancement is most likely due to the generation of electromagnetic waves from the coalescence of two Langmuir waves. These processes occur within the electron foreshock in front of the earth's bow shock.

  19. Experimental Observation of the Blob-Generation Mechanism from Interchange Waves in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.; Fasoli, A.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Graves, J.; Mueller, S. H.

    2008-02-08

    The mechanism for blob generation in a toroidal magnetized plasma is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional structures of electron density, temperature, and plasma potential. The blobs are observed to form from a radially elongated structure that is sheared off by the ExB flow. The structure is generated by an interchange wave that increases in amplitude and extends radially in response to a decrease of the radial pressure scale length. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the pressure radial scale length is discussed.

  20. Electrostatic solitary waves and plasma environment near the moon observed by KAGUYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2012-12-01

    WFC-L subsystem[1] of KAGUYA (SELENE)/LRS[2], observes waveforms of plasma waves in 100Hz-100kHz and a lot of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed[3]. Although the orthogonal dipole antennas are generally used in the observations, sometimes a pair of monopole antennas were used. We analyze the ESW and the plasma environment around the observed regions. Observed waveforms are fitted to ideal ESW waveforms parallel to the magnetic field and the perpendicular component. The propagation velocities and the potential scales are also evaluated in the case of the monopole observations. Particle data by PACE[4] are also evaluated near the regions where ESW's are observed like, in the solar wind, above the magnetic anomalies, in the wake boundaries, and inside the wake. The ESWs, the plasma environments, the magnetic fields, and their relations will be discussed. References [1] Y. Kasahara, et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [2] T. Ono, et al., Space Science Reviews, 154, Nos. 1-4, 145-192, DOI:10.1007/s11214-010-9673-8, 2010 [3] K. Hashimoto, et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L19204, doi:10.1029/2010GL044529, 2010. [4] Y. Saito, et al., Space Science Reviews, Vol. 154, No. 1-4, 265-303, 2010.

  1. Occurrence of EMIC waves and plasmaspheric plasmas derived from THEMIS observations in the outer magnetosphere: Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, G. J.; Lee, D. H.; Kwon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    We have statistically studied the relationship between electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and cold plasmaspheric plasma (Nsp) in the L range of 6-12 using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data for 2008-2011. The important observational results are as follows: (1) Under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp = 0-1), the maximum occurrence rate of the hydrogen (H) band EMIC waves appears in the early morning sector (0600-0900 MLT) at the outermost region (L = 10-12). (2) Under moderate and disturbed conditions (Kp > 2), the H-band occurrence rate is higher in the morning-to-early afternoon sector for L > 10. (3) The high occurrence region of helium (He) band waves for Kp = 0-1 varies from L = 7 to 12 in radial distances along the local time (i.e., at L 7 near noon and at L = 8-12 near late afternoon). (4) The He-band waves for Kp > 2 are mainly localized between 1200 and 1800 MLT with a peak around 1500-1600 MLT at L = 8-10. (5) Nsp is much higher for the He-band intervals than for the H-band intervals by a factor of 10 or more. The He-band high occurrence appears at a steep Nsp gradient region. (6) The morning-afternoon asymmetry of the normalized frequency seen both in H and He bands is similar to the asymmetric distribution of Nsp along the local time. These observations indicate that the cold plasma density plays a significant role in determining the spectral properties of EMIC waves. We discuss whether a morning-afternoon asymmetry of the EMIC wave properties can be explained by the spatial distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma.

  2. Occurrence of EMIC waves and plasmaspheric plasmas derived from THEMIS observations in the outer magnetosphere: Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Jeong; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Park, Jong-Sun

    2016-10-01

    We have statistically studied the relationship between electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and cold plasmaspheric plasma (Nsp) in the L range of 6-12 using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data for 2008-2011. The important observational results are as follows: (1) Under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≤ 1), the maximum occurrence rate of the hydrogen (H) band EMIC waves appears in the early morning sector (0600-0900 MLT) at the outermost region (L= 10-12). (2) Under moderate and disturbed conditions (Kp ≥ 2), the H-band occurrence rate is higher in the morning-to-early-afternoon sector for L > 10. (3) The high-occurrence region of helium (He) band waves for Kp ≤ 1 varies from L = 7 to 12 in radial distances along the local time (i.e., at L ˜ 7 near noon and at L= 8-12 near late afternoon). (4) The He-band waves for Kp ≥ 2 are mainly localized between 1200 and 1800 MLT with a peak around 1500-1600 MLT at L= 8-10. (5) Nsp is much higher for the He-band intervals than for the H-band intervals by a factor of 10 or more. The He-band high occurrence appears at a steep Nsp gradient region. (6) The morning-afternoon asymmetry of the normalized frequency seen both in H-band and He-band is similar to the asymmetric distribution of Nsp along the local time. These observations indicate that the cold plasma density plays a significant role in determining the spectral properties of EMIC waves. We discuss whether a morning-afternoon asymmetry of the EMIC wave properties can be explained by the spatial distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma.

  3. Plasma Waves Observed at Low Altitudes in the Tenuous Venus Nightside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Ho, C. M.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector (OEFD) measured many plasma wave bursts throughout the low altitude ionosphere during the final entry phase of the spacecraft. Apart from 100 Hz bursts observed at very low altitudes (approx. 130 km), the bursts fall into two classes. The first of these is a wideband signal that is observed in regions of low magnetic field, but average densities, in comparison to the prevailing ionospheric condition. This wideband signal is not observed in the 30 kHz channel of the OEFD, but is restricted to the 5.4 kHz channel and lower. Since these bursts are observed with roughly constant burst rate above 160 km altitude, we attribute them to ion acoustic mode waves generated by precipitating solar wind electrons. The second type of signal is restricted to 100 Hz only, and is observed in regions of low electron beta, consistent with whistler-mode waves. These waves could be generated by lightning in the Venus atmosphere if the vertical component of the magnetic field greater than 3.6 nT. Unfortunately, the spacecraft spin axis is mainly horizontal, and only that component of magnetic field can be measured. Alternatively, the 100 Hz bursts could be generated locally through gradient drift instabilities, provided the ambient magnetic field is horizontal. Because the ionosphere is very different during the entry phase, compared to the ionosphere as observed early in the Pioneer Venus mission, any conclusions regarding the source of the plasma waves detected during entry phase cannot be applied directly to the earlier observations.

  4. Direct observation of the two-plasmon-decay common plasma wave using ultraviolet Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Follett, R K; Edgell, D H; Henchen, R J; Hu, S X; Katz, J; Michel, D T; Myatt, J F; Shaw, J; Froula, D H

    2015-03-01

    A 263-nm Thomson-scattering beam was used to directly probe two-plasmon-decay (TPD) excited electron plasma waves (EPWs) driven by between two and five 351-nm beams on the OMEGA Laser System. The amplitude of these waves was nearly independent of the number of drive beams at constant overlapped intensity, showing that the observed EPWs are common to the multiple beams. In an experimental configuration where the Thomson-scattering diagnostic was not wave matched to the common TPD EPWs, a broad spectrum of TPD-driven EPWs was observed, indicative of nonlinear effects associated with TPD saturation. Electron plasma waves corresponding to Langmuir decay of TPD EPWs were observed in both Thomson-scattering spectra, suggesting the Langmuir decay instability as a TPD saturation mechanism. Simulated Thomson-scattering spectra from three-dimensional numerical solutions of the extended Zakharov equations of TPD are in excellent agreement with the experimental spectra and verify the presence of the Langmuir decay instability.

  5. Direct observation of the two-plasmon-decay common plasma wave using ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2015-03-26

    A 263-nm Thomson-scattering beam was used to directly probe two-plasmon-decay (TPD) excited electron plasma waves (EPWs) driven by between two and five 351-nm beams on the OMEGA Laser System. The amplitude of these waves was nearly independent of the number of drive beams at constant overlapped intensity, showing that the observed EPWs are common to the multiple beams. In an experimental configuration where the Thomson-scattering diagnostic was not wave matched to the common TPD EPWs, a broad spectrum of TPD-driven EPWs was observed, indicative of nonlinear effects associated with TPD saturation. Electron plasma waves corresponding to Langmuir decay of TPD EPWs were observed in both Thomson-scattering spectra, suggesting the Langmuir decay instability as a TPD saturation mechanism. Simulated Thomson-scattering spectra from three-dimensional numerical solutions of the extended Zakharov equations of TPD are in excellent agreement with the experimental spectra and verify the presence of the Langmuir decay instability.

  6. Plasma waves observed in the near vicinity of the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, I.H.; Gurnett, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions found intense broadband waves in the near vicinity of the space shuttle. This paper contains a detailed observational characterizaiton and theoretical investigation of the plasma waves observed within about 10 m of the space shuttle during the XPOP roll period of theSpacelab 2 mission. High wave levels are found from 31 Hz to 10 kHz (near the lower hybrid frequency). Above 10 kHz the wave levels decrease with frequency, reaching the background level near 56 kHz. The frequency distribution of wave electric is best interpreted in terms of three components below about 10 kHz and a high-frequency tail. The primary component is a fairly uniform, high level of waves covering the frequency range from 31 Hz to 10 kHz. The two superposed components in this frequency range have electric fields of order twice the uniform level. The second component corresponds to a low-frequency peak in the range 100-178 Hz. The third component is found near, and follows the trend of, the lower hybrid frequency. The waves show a pronounced amplitude and frequency variation with the quantity V{sub parallel}/V{sub T} {approximately} 1 and the shuttle is moving primarily along the magnetic field. This implies that the waves are probably driven by water pickup ions. A new theory involving Doppler-shifted lower hybrid waves driven by beamlike distributions of water ions near the space shuttle is developed using linear theory.

  7. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  8. Titan's induced magnetosphere from plasma wave, particle data and magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modolo, R.; Romanelli, N.; Canu, P.; Coates, A. J.; Berthelier, J.; Bertucci, C.; Leblanc, F.; Piberne, R.; Edberg, N. J.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Wahlund, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetometer (MAG) measurements, the particle data (CAPS) are combined with the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) observations to provide an overall and organized description of the electron plasma environment and the pickup ion distribution around Titan. RPWS observations are used to measure the electron number density of the thermal plasma close to Titan. This data set is combined with CAPS-ELS electron number density in Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's environment. A relatively good correspondence between the number density estimated from CAPS-ELS and RPWS are most of the time observed between 0.1 - 1 cm-3. Combining both ELS and RPWS data allows deducing a continuous electron density profile going from Saturn's magnetosphere to Titan's ionosphere leading to a global electron density map in Titan's vicinity. The MAG observations are used to derive information about the ambient magnetic field environment in the vicinity of Titan and also to emphasize the bipolar tail region. Ion information such the mass composition of the plasma and ion distribution function for specific time intervals are determined from CAPS-IMS. Pick-up ions have been identified from their energy signature and mass composition for few flybys. These observations also emphasized a ring distribution, characteristic of pick-up ions. The pick-up observations, in the DRAP coordinate system, are found to be located in the +E=-vxB hemisphere as expected.

  9. Multipoint observations of Pc1-2 waves associated with a cold plasma density enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ables, S. T.; Morley, S. K.; Sciffer, M. D.; Fraser, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    During mid-September 2003 the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-9 observed a number of Pc1-2 (0.1-1 Hz) emissions in the dusk sector, in association with the impact of a high-speed solar wind stream. Localized enhancements in the equatorial cold plasma density were measured by the LANL MPA instrument. For one of these observations, a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, F-13, intersected the same magnetic field-line as GOES-9. We present combined observations from GOES-9 at geostationary orbit, DMSP F-13 in the topside ionosphere, and the magnetic observatory at Chokurdakh (CHD). All three observations show evidence of Pc1-2 band wave activity across a limited region. The left-hand polarization of the waves indicates that these are electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves. In the region of field-line conjunction DMSP also observed high-energy ion precipitation. Using a variety of instruments and a 2.5 dimension MHD model we present a scenario for the generation of these waves and their propagation from geosynchronous orbit, through the ionosphere, to the ground.

  10. Radio and plasma wave observations at Saturn from Cassini's approach and first orbit.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Hospodarsky, G B; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Cecconi, B; Lecacheux, A; Zarka, P; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Galopeau, P; Roux, A; Harvey, C; Louarn, P; Bostrom, R; Gustafsson, G; Wahlund, J-E; Desch, M D; Farrell, W M; Kaiser, M L; Goetz, K; Kellogg, P J; Fischer, G; Ladreiter, H-P; Rucker, H; Alleyne, H; Pedersen, A

    2005-02-25

    We report data from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first orbit at Saturn. During the approach, radio emissions from Saturn showed that the radio rotation period is now 10 hours 45 minutes 45 +/- 36 seconds, about 6 minutes longer than measured by Voyager in 1980 to 1981. In addition, many intense impulsive radio signals were detected from Saturn lightning during the approach and first orbit. Some of these have been linked to storm systems observed by the Cassini imaging instrument. Within the magnetosphere, whistler-mode auroral hiss emissions were observed near the rings, suggesting that a strong electrodynamic interaction is occurring in or near the rings.

  11. Polar Plasma Wave Observations in the Auroral Region and Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kirchner, D. L.; Pickett, J. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), sometimes associated with auroral myriametric radiation (AMR), has been observed by the plasma wave instrument on board Polar on almost every northern hemisphere pass. High spectral resolution plots of the AKR obtained by the wide-band receiver of the plasma wave instrument on board the spacecraft often show discrete, negative-slope striations each extending over a period of several seconds. A preliminary survey of over 4000 spectrograms (each for 48 seconds of data) indicates that the striations are seen in the northern hemisphere near apogee about 5% of the time. The frequency range is 40 kHz less than f less than 100 kHz, but a few observations of signatures have been made at higher frequency (f less than 225 khz. The frequency drift rates R, are similar ranging from -9.0 kHz/sec less than R less than -1.0 kHz/sec. No data is currently available for perigee (southern hemisphere) passes. The paucity of positive-slope features may be due to the location of the satellite at altitudes well above the AKR source region. Past studies have suggested these features are due to AKR wave growth stimulated by the propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves travelling up (-R) or down (+R) the field line, through the source region. High-resolution waveform data from both Polar and FAST show the presence of solitary waves in the auroral region which may also be a source of these striations. AMR is seen as diffuse emission associated with, but at lower frequency than the lower AKR. Direction finding of these emissions is not conclusive, but for one case, they have a source region distinct from the magnetic field line containing the AKR source, but possibly associated with the auroral cavity density gradient.

  12. Plasma and wave properties downstream of Martian bow shock: Hybrid simulations and MAVEN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Winske, Dan; Cowee, Misa; Bougher, Stephen W.; Andersson, Laila; Connerney, Jack; Epley, Jared; Ergun, Robert; McFadden, James P.; Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Curry, Shannon; Nagy, Andrew; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional hybrid simulation codes are employed to investigate the kinetic properties of plasmas and waves downstream of the Martian bow shock. The simulations are two-dimensional in space but three dimensional in field and velocity components. Simulations show that ion cyclotron waves are generated by temperature anisotropy resulting from the reflected protons around the Martian bow shock. These proton cyclotron waves could propagate downward into the Martian ionosphere and are expected to heat the O+ layer peaked from 250 to 300 km due to the wave-particle interaction. The proton cyclotron wave heating is anticipated to be a significant source of energy into the thermosphere, which impacts atmospheric escape rates. The simulation results show that the specific dayside heating altitude depends on the Martian crustal field orientations, solar cycles and seasonal variations since both the cyclotron resonance condition and the non/sub-resonant stochastic heating threshold depend on the ambient magnetic field strength. The dayside magnetic field profiles for different crustal field orientation, solar cycle and seasonal variations are adopted from the BATS-R-US Mars multi-fluid MHD model. The simulation results, however, show that the heating of O+ via proton cyclotron wave resonant interaction is not likely in the relatively weak crustal field region, based on our simplified model. This indicates that either the drift motion resulted from the transport of ionospheric O+, or the non/sub-resonant stochastic heating mechanism are important to explain the heating of Martian O+ layer. We will investigate this further by comparing the simulation results with the available MAVEN data. These simulated ion cyclotron waves are important to explain the heating of Martian O+ layer and have significant implications for future observations.

  13. Jupiter Data Analysis Program: Analysis of Voyager wideband plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager plasma wave wideband frames from the Jovian encounters are analyzed. The 511 frames which were analyzed were chosen on the basis of low-rate spectrum analyzer data from the plasma wave receiver. These frames were obtained in regions and during times of various types of plasma or radio wave activity as determined by the low-rate, low-resolution data and were processed in order to provide high resolution measurements of the plasma wave spectrum for use in the study of a number of outstanding problems. Chorus emissions at Jupiter were analyzed. The detailed temporal and spectral form of the very complex chorus emissions near L = 8 on the Voyager 1 inbound passage was compared to both terrestrial chorus emissions as well as to the theory which was developed to explain the terrestrial waves.

  14. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  15. Simultaneous plasma wave and electron flux observations upstream of the Martian bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsky, A.; Grard, R.; Kiraly, P.; Klimov, S.; Kopanyi, V.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Trotignon, J. G.

    1993-03-01

    Flux enhancements of electrons with energies between 100 and 530 eV are observed simultaneously with electron plasma waves in the upstream region of the Martian bow shock. The electron flux appears to reach its maximum when the pitch angle is close to 0 deg, which corresponds to particles reflected from the shock region and backstreaming in the solar wind along the magnetic field. The correlation between high-frequency waves and enhanced electron fluxes is reminiscent of several studies on the electron foreshock of the Earth. Such a similarity indicates that, in spite of major differences between the global shock structures, the microscopic processes operating in the foreshocks of Earth and Mars are probably identical.

  16. Coordinated radar observations of plasma wave characteristics in the auroral F region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, R. A.; Bristow, W. A.

    2014-07-01

    Properties of decameter-scale plasma waves in the auroral F region are investigated using coordinated observations of plasma wave characteristics with the Kodiak HF coherent radar (KOD) and Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) systems in the Alaskan sector. We analyze one event on 14 November 2012 that occurred during the first PFISR Ion-Neutral Observations in the Thermosphere (PINOT) campaign when exceptionally good F region backscatter data at 1 s resolution were collected by KOD over the wide range of locations also monitored by PFISR. In particular, both radar systems were observing continuously along the same magnetic meridian, which allowed for a detailed comparison between the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocity data sets. It is shown that l-o-s velocity correlation for data points strictly matched in time (within 1 s) depends strongly on the number of ionospheric echoes detected by KOD in a given post-integration interval or, equivalently, on the KOD echo occurrence in that interval. The l-o-s velocity correlations reach 0.7-0.9 for echo occurrences exceeding 70%, while also showing considerable correlations of 0.5-0.6 for occurrences as low as 10%. Using the same approach of strictly matching the KOD and PFISR data points, factors controlling coherent echo power are investigated, focusing on the electric field and electron density dependencies. It is demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of F region echoes increases nearly monotonically with an increasing electric field strength as well as with an increasing electron density, except at large density values, where SNR drops significantly. The electric field control can be understood in terms of the growth rate of the gradient-drift waves being proportional to the convection drift speed under conditions of fast-changing convection flows, while the density effect may involve over-refraction at large density values and radar backscatter power proportionality to the perturbation density.

  17. Statistical studies of plasma waves and backstreaming electrons in the terrestrial electron foreshock observed by Geotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Anderson, R. R.; Mukai, T.; Saito, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present statistical studies of the direction finding of 2fp radiation and the spatial distribution of plasma waves and energetic particles in the terrestrial electron foreshock observed by Geotail. First, we investigate the geometry of the electron foreshock which is assumed to be the ``2fp radio source.'' The 2fp radio source is likely to be in the leading region of the electron foreshock where the most intense Langmuir waves are observed. The Langmuir wave activities and the population of energetic electrons gradually decrease in the region beyond 10RE from the contact point. The decreasing rate of Langmuir wave activity is very small, about 10-0.008/RE. We also find that in the region around the contact point of the tangential interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines and the bow shock, the observed amplitude of the 2fp radiation seems to become weak. We think that it is due to the weak activities of Langmuir waves in the region close to the contact point and/or the directivity of 2fp radiation along the tangential IMF line. Next, we investigate the influence of the solar wind conditions on the activities in the electron foreshock. We confirm a positive correlation of the 2fp radio activity with the solar wind kinetic energy flux and a decrease of 2fp radio activity with decreasing IMF cone angle resulting in IMF lines tangent to the far flank of the bow shock. The 2fp radio activity is more affected by both parameters than the amplitude of Langmuir waves is affected. This suggests that the 2fp radio emissivity is very sensitive to the energy of Langmuir waves as expected from the generation process of 2fp radiation. Such high sensitivity also supports the concentration of the radio emissivity in the leading region of the electron foreshock and the limitation of the radio source extension along the magnetic field line. We also reinvestigate the comparison between the terrestrial and Venusian foreshocks. The differences between them suggest the nonsimilarity

  18. Plasma waves in Jupiter's high-latitude regions: Observations from the Juno spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetrick, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Imai, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2017-05-01

    The Juno Waves instrument detected a new broadband plasma wave emission ( 50 Hz to 40 kHz) on 27 August 2016 as the spacecraft passed over the low-altitude polar regions of Jupiter. We investigated the characteristics of this emission and found similarities to whistler mode auroral hiss observed at Earth, including a funnel-shaped frequency-time feature. The electron cyclotron frequency is much higher than both the emission frequency and local plasma frequency, which is assumed to be 20-40 kHz. The E/cB ratio was about three near the start of the event and then decreased to one for the rest of the period. A correlation of the electric field spectral density with the flux of an upgoing 20 to 800 keV electron beam was found, with a correlation coefficient of 0.59. We conclude that the emission is propagating in the whistler mode and is driven by the energetic upgoing electron beam.

  19. Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn from Cassini's Approach and First Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Haspodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Cecconi, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    We report data from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first orbit at Saturn. During the approach, radio emissions from Saturn showed that the radio rotation period is now 10 hours 45 minutes 45 k 36 seconds, about 6 minutes longer than measured by Voyager in 1980 to 1981. In addition, many intense impulsive radio signals were detected from Saturn lightning during the approach and first orbit. Some of these have been linked to storm systems observed by the Cassini imaging instrument. Within the magnetosphere, whistler-mode auroral hiss emissions were observed near the rings, suggesting that a strong electrodynamic interaction is occurring in or near the rings.

  20. Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn from Cassini's Approach and First Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Haspodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Cecconi, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    We report data from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first orbit at Saturn. During the approach, radio emissions from Saturn showed that the radio rotation period is now 10 hours 45 minutes 45 k 36 seconds, about 6 minutes longer than measured by Voyager in 1980 to 1981. In addition, many intense impulsive radio signals were detected from Saturn lightning during the approach and first orbit. Some of these have been linked to storm systems observed by the Cassini imaging instrument. Within the magnetosphere, whistler-mode auroral hiss emissions were observed near the rings, suggesting that a strong electrodynamic interaction is occurring in or near the rings.

  1. Observations of plasma waves in the solar wind interaction region of Comet Giacobini-Zinner at high time resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1992-01-01

    High-time-resolution spectra of plasma wave emissions detected in the interaction region of Comet Giacobini-Zinner with the solar wind reveal a wave phenomenology much more complicated than first reported. Spectra often exhibit three or more independent peaks, which become more prominent the deeper into the interaction region the spacecraft traversed. The main peaks correspond to whistler emissions below the electron cyclotron frequency, a midfrequency peak near the maximum Doppler shift frequency for waves with k lambda(D) = 1, a high-frequency peak above the Doppler shift maximum frequency, and electron plasma oscillations at the plasma frequency. Similar multipeaked spectra are also observed downstream from weak shocks at Earth, which suggests that the plasma wave generation mechanisms responsible need not require particle populations created by photoionization.

  2. Observation of multiple mechanisms for stimulating ion waves in ignition scale plasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, R.K.; MacGowan, B.J.; Montgomery, D.S.

    1997-03-03

    The laser and plasma conditions expected in ignition experiments using indirect drive inertial confinement have been studied experimentally. It has been shown that there are at least three ways in which ion waves can be stimulated in these plasmas and have significant effect on the energy balance and distribution in the target. First ion waves can be stimulated by a single laser beam by the process of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in which an ion acoustic and a scattered electromagnetic wave grow from noise. Second, in a plasma where more than one beam intersect, ion waves can Lie excited at the `beat` frequency and wave number of the intersecting beams,, causing the side scatter instability to be seeded, and substantial energy to be transferred between the beams [R. K. Kirkwood et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2065 (1996)]. And third, ion waves may be stimulated by the decay of electron plasma waves produced by Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), thereby inhibiting the SRS process [R. K. Kirkwood et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2706 (1996)].

  3. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  4. Plasma waves near the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoppe, M. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Etcheto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma waves associated with the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath to the outer magnetosphere are investigated to obtain a clear definition of the boundaries and regions, to characterize the waves observed in these regions, to determine which wave modes are present, and to determine their origin. Emphasis is on high time resolution data and a comparison between measurements by different antenna systems. It is shown that the magnetosheath flux transfer events, the magnetopause current layer, the outer magnetosphere, and the boundary layer can be identified by their magnetic field and plasma wave characteristics, as well as by their plasma and energetic particle signatures. The plasma wave characteristics in the current layer and in the boundary layer are very similar to the features in the flux transfer events, and upon entry into their outer magnetosphere, the plasma wave spectra are dominated by intense electromagnetic chorus bursts and electrostatic emissions.

  5. Plasma waves observed by the IRM and UKS spacecraft during the AMPTE solar wind lithium releases - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeusler, B.; Woolliscroft, L. J.; Anderson, R. R.; Gurnett, D. A.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The wave measurements from the Ion Release Module and the United Kingdom Satellite in the diamagnetic cavity, the transition region, and the upstream region are examined. Solar wind conditions during the releases on September 11 and 20, 1984 are described. The quasi-static electric field, wideband, high-frequency waves, and medium and VLF waves observations are analyzed. The data reveal that extremely low levels of wave activity are observed in the boundary between the diamagnetic cavity and external magnetic field, medium and VLF waves in the ion acoustic electrostatic cyclotron harmonic modes are detected in the transition region from the diamagnetic cavity to the solar wind, and decay in the magnetic field strength and density, and an increase in the quasi-static electric field is seen in the upstream edge of the transition region. The emissions observed are related to the different phases of the Li cloud development and different spatial regimes of the Li plasma-solar wind interaction.

  6. Plasma wave observation using waveform capture in the Lunar Radar Sounder on board the SELENE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Kozo; Imachi, Tomohiko; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    The waveform capture (WFC) instrument is one of the subsystems of the Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) on board the SELENE spacecraft. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC is expected to measure plasma waves and radio emissions that are generated around the moon and/or that originated from the sun and from the earth and other planets. It is a high-performance and multifunctional software receiver in which most functions are realized by the onboard software implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP). The WFC consists of a fast-sweep frequency analyzer (WFC-H) covering the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and a waveform receiver (WFC-L) in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. By introducing the hybrid IC called PDC in the WFC-H, we created a spectral analyzer with a very high time and frequency resolution. In addition, new techniques such as digital filtering, automatic filter selection, and data compression are implemented for data processing of the WFC-L to extract the important data adequately under the severe restriction of total amount of telemetry data. Because of the flexibility of the instruments, various kinds of observation modes can be achieved, and we expect the WFC to generate many interesting data.

  7. Structure of the plasmapause from ISEE 1 low-energy ion and plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, T.; Horwitz, J. L.; Anderson, R. R.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Low-energy ion pitch angle distributions are compared with plasma density profiles in the near-earth magnetosphere using ISEE 1 observations. The classical plasmapause determined by the sharp density gradient is not always observed in the dayside region, whereas there almost always exists the ion pitch angle distribution transition from cold, isotropic to warm, bidirectional, field-aligned distributions. In the nightside region the plasmapause density gradient is typically found, and it normally coincides with the ion pitch angle distribution transition. The sunward motion of the plasma is found in the outer part of the 'plasmaspheric' plasma in the dusk bulge region.

  8. Structure of the plasmapause from ISEE 1 low-energy ion and plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, T.; Horwitz, J. L.; Anderson, R. R.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Low-energy ion pitch angle distributions are compared with plasma density profiles in the near-earth magnetosphere using ISEE 1 observations. The classical plasmapause determined by the sharp density gradient is not always observed in the dayside region, whereas there almost always exists the ion pitch angle distribution transition from cold, isotropic to warm, bidirectional, field-aligned distributions. In the nightside region the plasmapause density gradient is typically found, and it normally coincides with the ion pitch angle distribution transition. The sunward motion of the plasma is found in the outer part of the 'plasmaspheric' plasma in the dusk bulge region.

  9. Similar data retrieval from enormous datasets on plasma wave spectrum observed by solar-terrestrial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Y.; Zhang, F.; Goto, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing in recent years, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets because it is almost impossible to survey all datasets manually. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. Our aim is to develop a new computational technique to discover interesting and/or epoch-making datasets from enormous datasets [1]. There are two issues to be solved for similar data retrieval. One is to develop a general method which can be applied to different types of satellite data, and the other is to improve the efficiency of the retrieval method in the viewpoints of accuracy and speedup of retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by solar-terrestrial satellites such as KAGUYA and Akebono spacecraft. Second we introduce a detailed algorithm for similar data retrieval applied to the system. Faced with a large number of observation data, retrieval using walkthroughs is much time-consuming. In order to search appropriate datasets similar to the reference data within a finite computation time, we adopted the following two step search algorithm. In the first step, we adopted a multi-dimension index structure called the SR-tree (Sphere/Rectangle-tree) in order to pick up appropriate candidates for similar datasets rapidly matching a set of key descriptors at the central point (central grid) of a "test sub-region" with the set of key descriptors at the central point of the "reference sub-region." In the second step (Step 2), the root mean square error between each candidate for the test sub-region and the reference sub-region is calculated one by one. Finally, a list of datasets, which include spectra similar to the requested reference spectrum, is presented to the user. We applied the proposed method to plasma wave spectrum measured by WFC

  10. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  11. High beta plasma observations in Earth's Ring Current: Waves and particle oscillations, and drift-mirror instability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-chavez, A. R.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    We report on high beta ( > 1) plasma observations made by the RBSPICE instruments onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. The data presented covers almost two years of continuous measurements (March 9, 2013 to December 31, 2014). This coverage provides an unprecedented opportunity to identify and characterize high-beta plasma occurrences in the inner magnetosphere and their characteristics. It is known that high-beta events involve complex plasma physics dynamics. These events can also have global effects on Earth's magnetosphere. Here we show that on July 6, 2013 (one of many high-beta events) a Pc5 (˜ 2.5 min period) wave was locally generated in the magnetosphere through the drift-mirror instability. We describe the wave characteristics and its effects on particle modulations, specifically ring current ions (˜ 50-500 keV).

  12. Plasma waves produced by an ion beam: Observations by the VLF experiment on Porcupine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.

    1980-06-01

    Results are presented from the VLF electric field experiments flown on Porcupine flights F3 and F4, which also had ejectable xenon ion sources. The xenon ion beam was found to produce plasma instabilities whose frequencies could be linked to the local proton gyrofrequency. The main energy in the instabilities lies at 3kHz for events when the Xe+ source is close to the rocket, and at 7kHz when the source is farther away. Theory predicts that these frequencies should be the lower-hybrid-resonance and this implies that Xe+ is the dominant ion in the first case and that it is the ambient plasma that dominates later. There is no discernable antenna spin-modulation during the Xe events which indicates that the wave k-vectors are not unidirectional. A theory is cited based on the setting up of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves by the Xe+ or 0+ cyclotron harmonic waves. The second Xe+ event on both flights exhibited an, as yet, unexplained harmonic structure related to half the local proton gyrofrequency.

  13. Plasma rest frame frequencies and polarizations of the low-frequency upstream waves - ISEE 1 and 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, M. M.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma rest frame frequencies and polarizations of the large amplitude low frequency (0.03 Hz) upstream waves are investigated using magnetic field data from the dual ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft. The monochromatic sinusoidal waves associated with intermediate ion fluxes are propagating in both the Alfven and magnetosonic modes, in both cases with typical frequencies approximately 0.1 times the local proton gyrofrequency and wavelengths of approximately 1 R(E). It is shown that the generation of the magnetosonic mode can be explained by the cyclotron resonance mechanism driven by narrow reflected ion beams, but the concurrent observation of Alfven mode waves appears to require wave generation by the more isotropic diffuse ion distributions as well.

  14. The menagerie of geospace plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sounding rocket and satellite observations of space plasma waves within geospace in the frequency range from millihertz to megahertz are studied. Characteristic frequencies and source mechanisms of the plasma waves are described. The use of the Dynamic Explorer-1 Plasma Wave Instrument spectrograms to represent the plasma wave antenna and receiver system of geospace is examined. The ray tracing technique calculates the path of energy flow; the equations required for the analysis are presented. Cross-correlation of the wave electric and magnetic components provide data used to calculate the wave polarization, the direction of propagation, and the wave distribution function.

  15. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  16. Plasma Waves Observed in the Cusp Turbulent Boundary Layer: An Analysis of High Time Resolution Wave and Particle Measurements from the Polar Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, J. S.; Franz, J. R.; Scudder, J. D.; Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Braunger, R. M.; Kintner, P. M.; Kurth, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    The boundary layer located in the cusp and adjacent to the magnetopause is a region that is quite turbulent and abundant with waves. The Polar spacecraft's orbit and sophisticated instrumentation are ideal for studying this region of space. Our analysis of the waveform data obtained in this turbulent boundary layer shows broadband magnetic noise extending up to a few kilohertz (but less than the electron cyclotron frequency); sinusoidal bursts (a few tenths of a second) of whistler mode waves at around a few tens of hertz, a few hundreds of hertz, and just below the electron cyclotron frequency; and bipolar pulses, interpreted as electron phase-space holes. In addition, bursts of electron cyclotron harmonic waves are occasionally observed with magnetic components. We show evidence of broadband electrostatic bursts covering a range of approx. 3 to approx. 25 kHz (near but less than the plasma frequency) occurring in packets modulated at the frequency of some of the whistler mode waves. On the basis of high time resolution particle data from the Polar HYDRA instrument, we show that these bursts are consistent with generation by the resistive medium instability. The most likely source of the whistler mode waves is the magnetic reconnection site closest to the spacecraft, since the waves are observed propagating both toward and away from the Earth, are bursty, which is often the case with reconnection, and do not fit on the theoretical cold plasma dispersion relation curve.

  17. Plasma Waves Observed in the Cusp Turbulent Boundary Layer: An Analysis of High Time Resolution Wave and Particle Measurements from the Polar Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, J. S.; Franz, J. R.; Scudder, J. D.; Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Braunger, R. M.; Kintner, P. M.; Kurth, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    The boundary layer located in the cusp and adjacent to the magnetopause is a region that is quite turbulent and abundant with waves. The Polar spacecraft's orbit and sophisticated instrumentation are ideal for studying this region of space. Our analysis of the waveform data obtained in this turbulent boundary layer shows broadband magnetic noise extending up to a few kilohertz (but less than the electron cyclotron frequency); sinusoidal bursts (a few tenths of a second) of whistler mode waves at around a few tens of hertz, a few hundreds of hertz, and just below the electron cyclotron frequency; and bipolar pulses, interpreted as electron phase-space holes. In addition, bursts of electron cyclotron harmonic waves are occasionally observed with magnetic components. We show evidence of broadband electrostatic bursts covering a range of approx. 3 to approx. 25 kHz (near but less than the plasma frequency) occurring in packets modulated at the frequency of some of the whistler mode waves. On the basis of high time resolution particle data from the Polar HYDRA instrument, we show that these bursts are consistent with generation by the resistive medium instability. The most likely source of the whistler mode waves is the magnetic reconnection site closest to the spacecraft, since the waves are observed propagating both toward and away from the Earth, are bursty, which is often the case with reconnection, and do not fit on the theoretical cold plasma dispersion relation curve.

  18. Observations of auroral E-region plasma waves and electron heating with EISCAT and a VHF radar interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Providakes, J.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, B. G.; Sahr, J.; Swartz, W. E.

    1988-05-01

    Two radars were used simultaneously to study naturally occurring electron heating events in the auroral E-region ionosphere. During a joint campaign in March 1986 the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI) was positioned to look perpendicular to the magnetic field to observe unstable plasma waves over Tromso, Norway, while EISCAT measured the ambient conditions in the unstable region. On two nights EISCAT detected intense but short lived (less than 1 min) electron heating events during which the temperature suddenly increased by a factor of 2-4 at altitudes near 108 km and the electron densities were less than 70,000/cu cm. On the second of these nights CUPRI was operating and detected strong plasma waves with very large phase velocities at precisely the altitudes and times at which the heating was observed. The altitudes, as well as one component of the irregularity drift velocity, were determined by interferometric techniques. From the observations and our analysis, it is concluded that the electron temperature increases were caused by plasma wave heating and not by either Joule heating or particle precipitation.

  19. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  20. Plasma Waves Observed During CUSP Energetic Particle Events and Their Correlation With Polar and Akebono Satellite and Ground Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, J. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; LeDocq, M. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Ackerson, K. L.; Morgan, D. D.; Franz, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We present Polar plasma wave data during cusp energetic particle (CEP) events at 6-9 R(sub E). These data suggest the presence of coherent electrostatic structures that are highly localized and that have typical velocities on the order of hundreds to thousands of kilometers per second along the ambient magnetic field. Some of the wave signatures are solitary waves and some are wave packets. The Polar wave instrument also provides evidence that some of the bursts of electromagnetic waves (with frequencies of a few hundred Hz and just below the electron cyclotron frequency around 800 Hz to 1-2 kHz) that are observed are coher&nt and propagating both up and down the field lines. Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are often detected but their duration is usually short (less than 1 second). Low Frequency (less than 1 kHz), broadband, bursty electromagnetic waves are also present. The Polar wave data results are used to obtain a better understanding of the macro/microphysics during a CEP event that takes place on September 11, 1996, by correlating various Polar (approximately 7.0 R(sub E)) and Akebono (approximately 1.4 R(sub E)) data while both spacecraft are in or near the cusp/cleft region and nearly on the same field line, and magnetometer data from the Canadian Intermagnet and Canopus ground stations, which lie near the base of the magnetic footprint passing through Polar. Solar wind and magnetic field data from the interplanetary medium and magnetosheath are provided by the Geotail and IMP-8 satellites, respectively. Some of the cusp waves may be indicators of the reconnection process taking place through the cusp, the result of mixing of magnetosheath with magnetospheric plasma, and the consequence of an anisotropic electron population in a depressed magnetic field. The low frequency electromagnetic waves are still under study to determine their role, if any, in the heating and acceleration of the MeV He ions during CEP events.

  1. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitations, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by POLAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Scudder, J. D.; Maynard, N. C.; Mozer, F. S.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Nagai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFls) in and near the auroral oval on southern perigee (approximately 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass-angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the dusk side after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawn side during the recovery phase. The UFls showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approximately 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above approximately 200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument (EFI) were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs. the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  2. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitations, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by POLAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFls) in and near the auroral oval on southern perigee (approximately 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass-angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the dusk side after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawn side during the recovery phase. The UFls showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approximately 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above approximately 200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument (EFI) were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs. the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  3. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitation, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by Polar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Pickett, J. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Scudder, J. D.; Maynard, N. C.; Mozer, F. S.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Nagai, T.

    1998-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFIs) in and near the aurora] oval on southern perigee (approx. 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the duskside after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawnside during the recovery phase. The UFIs showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approx. 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above -200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs, the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  4. Radially propagating shock waves in the outer heliosphere: The evidence from Pioneer 10 energetic particle and plasma observations

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, F.B.; Trainor, J.H.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.; Webber, W.R.

    1981-06-15

    At heliocentric distances between 14 and 22 AU, some 14 increases in the flux of 1 MeV protons have been identified over a 3 yr period by the NASA Goddard/University of New Hampshire cosmic-ray experiment on Pioneer 10. These increases appear to be associated with large solar flares. Combining the particle data with the Pioneer 10 plasma observations from the NASA/Ames plasma analyzer reveals that the particle increases are produced by radially propagating shock waves generated by the solar events. While the characteristics of these particle events in the distant heliosphere appear to differ greatly from those observed at 1 AU, they represent the evolution expected as the interplanetary magnetic field becomes almost azimuthal. These long-lived shocks provide a valuable in situ laboratory for directly studying particle acceleration under a variety of conditions. They may also represent a significant factor in producing the long-term modulation of galactic cosmic rays.

  5. Experimental observation of nonlinear effects upon the excitation of large-amplitude cyclotron waves in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleskii, Y.G.; Zinchenko, V.I.; Nazarov, N.I.; Demchenko, V.V.

    1982-04-05

    A diamagnetic current flowing across the magnetic field has been detected in a system of a rotating electron beam and a plasma. This current is caused by the rf pressure of a packet of cyclotron waves excited in the plasma. The current flow is accompanied by intense electromagnetic emission from the plasma and by the appearance of electrons with a large transverse energy.

  6. Strong turbulence of plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work related to modulational instability and wave envelope self-focusing in dynamical and statistical systems. After introductory remarks pertinent to nonlinear optics realizations of these effects, the author summarizes the status of the subject in plasma physics, where it has come to be called 'strong Langmuir turbulence'. The paper treats the historical development of pertinent concepts, analytical theory, numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and spacecraft observations. The role of self-similar self-focusing Langmuir envelope wave packets is emphasized, both in the Zakharov equation model for the wave dynamics and in a statistical theory based on this dynamical model.

  7. Plasma Waves in the Magnetosheath of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Research supported by this grant is divided into three basic topics of investigation. These are: (1) Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath, (2) Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, (3) plasma waves in the Venus nightside ionosphere and ionotail. The main issues addressed in the first area - Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath - dealt with the wave modes observed in the magnetosheath and upper ionosphere, and whether these waves are a significant source of heating for the topside ionosphere. The source of the waves was also investigated. In the second area - Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, we carried out some research on waves observed upstream of the planetary bow shock known as the foreshock. The foreshock and bow shock modify the ambient magnetic field and plasma, and need to be understood if we are to understand the magnetosheath. Although most of the research was directed to wave observations on the dayside of the planet, in the last of the three basic areas studied, we also analyzed data from the nightside. The plasma waves observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on the nightside continue to be of considerable interest since they have been cited as evidence for lightning on Venus.

  8. Electron acoustic solitary waves and double layers for a magnetized plasma and its relevance with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Suktisama

    In situ measurements of particles and fields of the Earth’s auroral zone have revealed a reach variety of plasma phenomena on different spatial and temporal scales. One major aspects of them is the bursts of broadband electrostatic noise emissions (BEN) with frequencies from below the lower hybrid frequency (typically tens of Hertz) up to and higher than electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies (typically, a few kilohertz). Many detailed analysis of BEN have been performed using space-borne data from POLAR, FAST, GEOTAIL, and CLUSTER multi-spacecraft missions. It is well understood that the time scale of the high frequency part indicates the involvement of electron dynamics and may be interpreted as a nonlinear evolution electron acoustic instabilities leading to solitary waves and double layers. The study of the generation and propagation of such microstructures is important for understanding the Sun-Earth coupling and the energy dissipation and particle transports across the magnetospheric boundary layers. In the present work, we have delineated the parameter regime for the fully nonlinear solutions of electron acoustic solitary waves adopting the Sagdeev pseudopontial technique. The plasma is assumed to be magnetized and traversed by an electron beam. The ions are assumed to be hotter than electrons (viz., Ti > Te) and obey Boltzmann distribution. It has been observed that both positive and negative amplitude solitary waves may exist. The width-amplitude variation profile for a positive amplitude solution shows increase in the width with increasing amplitude, and the solution eventually terminates to a double layer. The width - amplitude variation profile has been found to agree qualitatively with the Fast satellite observations. On the other hand, the negative amplitude solutions reveal two distinct branches. For the fast moving one (with larger Mach numbers), the width decreases with increasing amplitude and no double layer solutions have been observed for

  9. Observations of Plasma Waves in the Colliding Jet Region of a 3D Magnetic Flux Rope Flanked by Two Active Reconnection X Lines at the Subsolar Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oieroset, M.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F.; McFadden, J. P.; Angelopoulos, V.; Andersson, L.; Eastwood, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of plasma and wave observations in a 3D magnetic flux rope encountered by the THEMIS spacecraft at the subsolar magnetopause. The extent of the flux rope was ˜270 ion skin depths in the outflow direction, and it was flanked by two active reconnection X lines producing colliding plasma jets in the flux rope core where ion heating and suprathermal electrons were observed. The colliding jet region was highly dynamic and characterized by the presence of high-frequency waves such as ion acoustic-like waves, electron holes, and whistler mode waves near the flux rope center and low-frequency kinetic Alfvén waves over a larger region. We will discuss possible links between these waves and particle heating.

  10. Plasma waves and electrostatic structures near propagating boundary layers in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere: Van Allen Probes and THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, David; Wygant, John; Ergun, Robert; Reeves, Geoff; Skoug, Ruth; Larsen, Brian

    2016-10-01

    A broad range of plasma wave phenomena, only recently reported in the near-equatorial inner terrestrial magnetosphere, have been detected using the Van Allen Probes. These phenomena include electrostatic structures, such as double layers and phase space holes, as well as plasma wave modes including nonlinearly steepened whistler waves and kinetic Alfvén waves. The ubiquity of these structures is now confirmed, but it is not understood what role these structures and waves play in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere and radiation belts. To quantify their importance, it is necessary to understand their distribution, generation, and impact on particle populations. In this study, we demonstrate a strong correlation between the occurrence of these phenomena and plasma boundaries, including the inner edge of the plasma sheet, propagating injection fronts, and the plasmapause. Further, we find that these structures and waves are continually generated as these boundaries propagate through the inner magnetosphere. Understanding the generation mechanisms of these structures and waves, as well as their impact on particle populations stands to benefit significantly from careful theoretical treatment, numerical simulation, and laboratory experiments.

  11. Plasma Wave and Electron Density Structure Observed in the Cusp with a Dual-Rocket Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S.; Cairns, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Twin Rockets to Investigate Cusp Electrodynamics (TRICE) were launched on December 10, 2007, from Andoya Research Range in Andenes, Norway, into the active cusp. Both payloads traveled north over Svalbard, with one payload reaching an apogee of ~1100 km, and the other reaching ~600 km. The payloads were separated by 100-400 km during the main portion of the flight. Both payloads included waveform receivers with 5 MHz bandwidth. These recorded several distinct types of auroral waves including whistler mode waves below ~1000 kHz and Langmuir-upper hybrid waves at 300-3000 kHz for several hundred km. Both payloads concurrently encountered a distinct period of Langmuir turbulence. Clearly defined wave cutoffs provide measurements of electron density and reveal significant density structure with density enhancements having amplitudes up to 100 percent and scale sizes from meters to tens of kilometers. Analysis of the inferred density profiles using windowed Fourier Transforms or Lomb-Scargle periodograms generates dynamic spectra of the density, which provide estimates of the spectral composition of the density irregularities for time intervals sufficiently short that the stationarity of the spectra can be investigated. The large-scale structures through which the two payloads propagated were measured by both the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars as well as by all-sky cameras operated at Longyearbyen and Ny-Alesund on Svalbard. Using this data when available, comparison of the density irregularity waveforms and spectra from the two flights is studied in relation to spatial and altitude variations of the turbulence. This examination of wave and density structures and the large scale formations with which they are associated will add to the understanding of the large scale electrodynamics of the cusp region.

  12. Stimulated plasma waves in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The reported discussion is concerned with longitudinal waves associated with electron motions. These waves are easily stimulated in the ionosphere by rocket- and satellite-borne RF sounders. Most of the observations of stimulated plasma waves in the ionosphere are based on ionograms obtained from the sounders carried on board five satellites, including Explorer 20, Alouette 1 and 2, and ISIS 1 and 2. The majority of the observations can be explained by considering the propagation of the sounder-stimulated plasma waves. Attention is given to aspects of plasma wave dispersion, linear phenomena, plasma wave instabilities and nonlinear phenomena, unexplained phenomena, diagnostic applications, geophysical and astrophysical applications, and a number of experiments planned for the future.

  13. In situ ionospheric observations of severe weather-related gravity waves and associated small-scale plasma structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 27, 1988, two sounding rockets were launched over a small thunderstorm cell which constituted the remnants of a large frontal event which had lasted for several hours over the eastern seaboard. One of the rockets was instrumented for detection of the electromagnetic impulse from lightning strikes and its subsequent interaction with the ionospheric plasma [Kelley et al., 1990]. The second had on board an absolute electron density probe, the results from which we report here. We present evidence that a gravity wave was spawned by the front and propagated nearly to the F peak in the ionosphere, where it steepened and created structure in the medium at scales much less than the vertical wavenumber of the major disturbance. The fluctuation spectrum along the rocket path was elevated for scales from 25 km down to less than 10 m. At scales between 10 km and just under 100 m, characterization of the spectrum by a power law yields a spectral index less than that displayed by such well-studied processes as bottomside spread F and barium cloud striations. Similar results have been reported for gravity wave induced intermediate scale structures at midlatitudes [Wernik et al., 1986]. The mixing theory described by Fridman [1990] may be relevant to these observations.

  14. Investigation of the role of plasma wave cascading processes in the formation of midlatitude irregularities utilizing GPS and radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltrass, A.; Scales, W. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies reveal that midlatitude ionospheric irregularities are less understood due to lack of models and observations that can explain the characteristics of the observed wave structures. In this paper, the cascading processes of both the temperature gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) are investigated as the cause of these irregularities. Based on observations obtained during a coordinated experiment between the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar and the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar, a time series for the growth rate of both TGI and GDI is calculated for observations in the subauroral ionosphere under both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Recorded GPS scintillation data are analyzed to monitor the amplitude scintillations and to obtain the spectral characteristics of irregularities producing ionospheric scintillations. Spatial power spectra of the density fluctuations associated with the TGI from nonlinear plasma simulations are compared with both the GPS scintillation spectral characteristics and previous in situ satellite spectral measurements. The spectral comparisons suggest that initially, TGI or/and GDI irregularities are generated at large-scale size (kilometer scale), and the dissipation of the energy associated with these irregularities occurs by generating smaller and smaller (decameter scale) irregularities. The alignment between experimental, theoretical, and computational results of this study suggests that in spite of expectations from linear growth rate calculations, cascading processes involving TGI and GDI are likely responsible for the midlatitude ionospheric irregularities associated with GPS scintillations during disturbed times.

  15. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves

  16. Eruption of a plasma blob, associated M-class flare, and large-scale extreme-ultraviolet wave observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Manoharan, P. K.

    2013-05-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the formation and ejection of a plasma blob and associated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves in active region (AR) NOAA 11176, observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO on 25 March 2011. The EUV images observed with the AIA instrument clearly show the formation and ejection of a plasma blob from the lower atmosphere of the Sun at ~9 min prior to the onset of the M1.0 flare. This onset of the M-class flare happened at the site of the blob formation, while the blob was rising in a parabolic path with an average speed of ~300 km s. The blob also showed twisting and de-twisting motion in the lower corona, and the blob speed varied from ~10-540 km s. The faster and slower EUV wavefronts were observed in front of the plasma blob during its impulsive acceleration phase. The faster EUV wave propagated with a speed of ~785 to 1020 km s, whereas the slower wavefront speed varied in between ~245 and 465 km s. The timing and speed of the faster wave match the shock speed estimated from the drift rate of the associated type II radio burst. The faster wave experiences a reflection by the nearby AR NOAA 11177. In addition, secondary waves were observed (only in the 171 Å channel), when the primary fast wave and plasma blob impacted the funnel-shaped coronal loops. The Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms revealed the continuous emergence of new magnetic flux along with shear flows at the site of the blob formation. It is inferred that the emergence of twisted magnetic fields in the form of arch-filaments/"anemone-type" loops is the likely cause for the plasma blob formation and associated eruption along with the triggering of M-class flare. Furthermore, the faster EUV wave formed ahead of the blob shows the signature of fast-mode MHD wave, whereas the slower wave seems to be generated by the field line compression by the plasma blob. The secondary wave trains originated from the funnel-shaped loops are probably the fast magnetoacoustic waves

  17. Surface plasma wave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, E.

    1989-01-01

    Surface plasma waves (SPWs) are electromagnetic oscillations that occur at the interface between a metal and a dielectric medium. The wave amplitude reaches a maximum at the interface and decays exponentially along the normal direction within each medium, with a decaying length on the order of a wavelength. Because SPW excitation is a resonant phenomenon which is strongly dependent on the boundary conditions, SPWs are sensitive probes of optical and structural properties of the interface, allowing, by means of visible light, the detection of changes of sub-angstrom dimensions in thin films covering a metal surface. The resonant nature of the excitation also leads to a wave intensity two to three orders of magnitude higher than the intensity produced by a conventional electromagnetic wave striking a metal surface. Therefore, light scattering from surface irregularities can be enhanced by the same factor under SPW excitation, and structural information can be obtained. Measurement of SPW basic parameters such as amplitude, velocity and damping is achieved using simple optical procedures. These procedures are described and applied in this thesis for the characterization of multilayer rough surfaces and for the simultaneous determination of coating thickness and substrate optical constants of dielectric-coated, metal mirrors. These applications are relevant in the diagnosis of optical and structural properties of thin films. We also use the high sensitivity of SPWs to the presence of very thin coatings to design a surface plasmon immunoassay (SPI) for monitoring immunochemical reactions occurring nearby a metal surface. In particular, the SPI can be used as a simple and rapid procedure to determine antibody levels in blood serum, which is of interest in the field of immunology.

  18. Direct observation of transition to electron Bernstein waves from electromagnetic mode by three mode-conversion scenarios in the dipole confinement torus plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchijima, K.; Takemoto, T.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Direct measurement experiments on the mode conversion to the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) have been conducted in dipole confinement torus plasmas for three excitation scenarios; i.e. perpendicular injections of an eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) from the low- and high-magnetic-field sides, and the oblique injection of an Ordinary mode (O-mode) from the low-magnetic-field side. By inserting probe antennas into plasmas, wave propagation has been directly measured. At plasma conditions for the EBW excitation, several characteristics which indicate the mode conversion to the EBWs have been observed; i.e. a short wavelength wave, an electrostatic and longitudinal mode, backward propagation at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) region. Meanwhile, the wavelengths experimentally observed might be slightly longer than those of theoretical prediction. In the case of the oblique injection of the O-mode, it has been identified that the window of the injection angle for the excitation of the EBW would be quite limited, and the optimum angle seems to be roughly in agreement with theory. These experimental results might support that the electromagnetic waves injected outside of torus plasmas reach to the UHR region and convert wave characteristics to the EBWs for three excitation scenarios.

  19. Plasma beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    We perform an analytic study of some quantities relevant to the plasma beat-wave accelerator (PBWA) concept. We obtain analytic expressions for the plasma frequency, longitudinal electron velocity, plasma density and longitudinal plasma electric field of a nonlinear longitudinal electron plasma oscillation with amplitude less than the wave-breaking limit and phase velocity approaching the speed of light. We also estimate the luminosity of a single-pass e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear PBWA collider assuming the energy and collision beamstrahlung are fixed parameters.

  20. Observed Seismic Solitary Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataille, K.

    2008-05-01

    A feature that has been observed for many decades in a variety of instruments, without a solid explanation, is a signal with a shape of a "bump" in velocity records, especially near small earthquakes. This signal arrives at times close to the S wave and has commonly being argued by some to be a nonlinear effect of the instrument (Aki and Richards, 1980), while by others as to be a real earth motion due to an unknown wave propagation phenomena. Here we propose that these observations are seismic solitary waves. The seismic solitary wave arises from an equation that describes the propagation of Love waves within a general nonlinear media. For a specific "bump-like" solution, the dispersive and nonlinear effects balance each other, allowing its propagation without distortion for long distances. Solitary waves have been observed in a variety of physical systems, including the ocean, but so far it has not been recognized in the seismological literature. The theory and modelling of several observations from different instruments will be presented.

  1. Nonlinear wave interaction in a plasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two particular cases of nonlinear wave interaction in a plasma column were investigated. The frequencies of the waves were on the order of magnitude of the electron plasma frequency, and ion motion was neglected. The nonlinear coupling of slow waves on a plasma column was studied by means of cold plasma theory, and the case of a plasma column surrounded by an infinite dielectric in the absence of a magnetic field was also examined. Nonlinear scattering from a plasma column in an electromagnetic field having it's magnetic field parallel to the axis of the column was investigated. Some experimental results on mode conversion in the presence of loss are presented along with some observations of nonlinear scattering, The effect of the earth's magnetic field and of discharge symmetry on the radiation pattern are discussed.

  2. Large amplitude relativistic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Timothy

    2010-05-15

    Relativistic, longitudinal plasma oscillations are studied for the case of a simple water bag distribution of electrons having cylindrical symmetry in momentum space with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the velocity of wave propagation. The plasma is required to obey the relativistic Vlasov-Poisson equations, and solutions are sought in the wave frame. An exact solution for the plasma density as a function of the electrostatic field is derived. The maximum electric field is presented in terms of an integral over the known density. It is shown that when the perpendicular momentum is neglected, the maximum electric field approaches infinity as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. It is also shown that for any nonzero perpendicular momentum, the maximum electric field will remain finite as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. The relationship to previously published solutions is discussed as is some recent controversy regarding the proper modeling of large amplitude relativistic plasma waves.

  3. Millimeter Wave Communication through Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave communication through plasma at frequencies of 35 GHz or higher shows promise in maintaining communications connectivity during rocket launch and re-entry, critical events which are typically plagued with communication dropouts. Extensive prior research into plasmas has characterized the plasma frequency at these events, and research at the Kennedy Space Center is investigating the feasibility of millimeter communication through these plasma frequencies.

  4. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  5. Creating and studying ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, T. C.; Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-05-15

    We excite ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas by imprinting density modulations during plasma creation. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to observe the density and velocity perturbations created by the waves. The effect of expansion of the plasma on the evolution of the wave amplitude is described by treating the wave action as an adiabatic invariant. After accounting for this effect, we determine that the waves are weakly damped, but the damping is significantly faster than expected for Landau damping.

  6. Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

  7. Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

  8. Nonlinear whistler wave scattering in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the evolution of nonlinear scattering of whistler mode waves by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in time and two spatial dimensions is studied analytically. The authors suggest this nonlinear process as a mechanism of kinetic Alfven wave generation in space plasmas. This mechanism can explain the dependence of Alfven wave generation on whistler waves observed in magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas. The observational data show a dependence for the generation of long periodic pulsations Pc5 on whistler wave excitation in the auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. This dependence was first observed by Ondoh T.I. For 79 cases of VLF wave excitation registered by Ondoh at College Observatory (L=64.6 N), 52 of them were followed by Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation generation. Similar results were obtained at the Loparskaia Observatory (L=64 N) for auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. Thus, in 95% of the cases when VLF wave excitation occurred the generation of long periodic geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 were observed. The observations also show that geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 are excited simultaneously or insignificantly later than VLF waves. In fact these two phenomena are associated genetically: the excitation of VLF waves leads to the generation of geomagnetic pulsations Pc5. The observations show intensive generation of geomagnetic pulsations during thunderstorms. Using an electromagnetic noise monitoring system covering the ULF range (0.01-10 Hz) A.S. Fraser-Smith observed intensive ULF electromagnetic wave during a large thunderstorm near the San-Francisco Bay area on September 23, 1990. According to this data the most significant amplification in ULF wave activity was observed for waves with a frequency of 0.01 Hz and it is entirely possible that stronger enhancements would have been measured at lower frequencies.

  9. Waves in Dusty Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheest, Frank

    2000-04-01

    In this volume a thorough review is given of waves in dusty plasmas, a fascinating new domain combining plasmas and charged dust, two omnipresent ingredients of the Universe. Spokes and braids observed in the rings of Saturn cannot be explained by gravitation alone, but need the presence of charged dust. Other examples abound, as in zodiacal light, noctilucent clouds, comets and molecular clouds. After discussing charging mechanisms, supported by exciting new experiments, and space observations, the book describes extensions of known plasma modes covering the low frequencies typical for charged dust. Mixing detailed theoretical steps with summaries of expert contributions, a systematic multi-species treatment puts the literature in perspective, suitable also for newcomers. Typical complications like fluctuating dust charges, self-gravitational effects, and size distributions are dealt with, before ending with an outlook to future work and open questions. In this way, experts as well as interested newcomers will find a reliable guide, not just a compendium. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6232-2

  10. Plasma wave profiles of earth's bow shock at low Mach numbers - ISEE 3 observations on the far flank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Coroniti, F. V.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of selected crossings far downstream from the subsolar shock is presented in which the overall plasma wave (PW) behavior of a selected set of nearly perpendicular crossings and another set of limited Mach number but broad geometry are delinated. The result is a generalizable PW signature, or signatures, of low Mach number shocks and some likely implications of those signatures for the weak shock's plasma physical processes on the flank. The data are found to be consistent with the presence of ion beam interactions producing noise ahead of the shock in the ion acoustic frequency range. The presence or absence, and the amplitudes, of PW activity are explainable by the presence or absence of a population of upstream ions controlled by the component of the interplanetary magnetic field normal to the solar wind flow.

  11. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations.

  12. Observation of an edge coherent mode and poloidal flow in the electron cyclotron wave induced high β{sub p} plasma in QUEST

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Santanu Mishra, K.; Zushi, H.; Mahira, Y.; Tashima, S.; Onchi, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishino, N.; Ejiri, A.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2016-08-15

    Fluctuations are measured in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of QUEST using fast visible imaging diagnostic. Electron cyclotron wave injection in the Ohmic plasma features excitation of low frequency coherent fluctuations near the separatrix and enhanced cross-field transport. Plasma shifts from initial high field side limiter bound (inboard limited, IL) towards inboard poloidal null (IPN) configuration with steepening of the density profile at the edge. This may have facilitated the increased edge and SOL fluctuation activities. Observation of the coherent mode, associated plasma flow, and particle out-flux, for the first time in the IPN plasma configuration in a spherical tokamak may provide further impetus to the edge and SOL turbulence studies in tokamaks.

  13. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  14. CRRES and DMSP Observations of Wave and Plasma Disturbances Associated with the Stormtime Ring Current in the Plasmasphere and Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Burke, W. J.

    2004-12-01

    We report on wave and plasma disturbances observed by Combined Release and Radiation Effects (CRRES) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during the magnetic storm of June 5, 1991 in the region of ring current/plasmasphere overlap and the conjugate topside ionosphere During three ring current nose encounters near L = 2.4, the plasmasphere was highly-structured. A rich variety of wave phenomena were observed simultaneous with enhanced fluxes of low-energy (< ˜ 1 keV) electrons and ions, indicating the wave heating/acceleration source. Earthward of the plasma sheet boundary, which was near L = 5.5, wave-like structures in the dawn-to-dusk electric field with spatial wave-lengths from about 300 to 1000 km and magnitudes of ~1-3 mV/m were apparent. Mapped to ionospheric altitudes, these fields should produce broad irregular SAPS with average sunward velocities ~ 1 km/s. At about the same time DMSP F8, F9, and F10 indeed observed highly-structured SAPS in the topside ionosphere coincident with precipitating ring current ions, enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons and ions, elevated electron temperatures, and deep highly-irregular density troughs. Overall, these events represent the so-called strong wave-SAPS phenomenon [Mishin et al., JGR (2003), 108, 1309, 10.1029/2002JA009793]. Their importance for Space Weather is indicated by strong GPS phase and amplitude scintillations observed over the continental US [Basu et al., JGR, 106, 30389, 2001; Ledvina et al., GRL, 29, 10.1029/2002GL014770] coincident with similar events.

  15. Sound wave propagation through glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.

    This work investigates the use of glow discharge plasma for acoustic wave manipulation. The broader goal is the suppression of aerodynamic noise using atmospheric glow discharge plasma as a sound barrier. Part of the effort was devoted to the development of a system for the generation of a large volume stable DC glow discharge in air both at atmospheric and at reduced pressures. The single tone sound wave propagation through the plasma was systematically studied. Attenuation of the acoustic wave passing through the glow discharge was measured for a range of experimental conditions including different discharge currents, electrode configurations, air pressures and sound frequencies including audible sound and ultrasound. Sound attenuation by glow discharge plasma as high as -28 dB was recorded in the experiments. Two types of possible mechanisms were considered that can potentially cause the observed sound attenuation. One is a global mechanism and the other is a local mechanism. The global mechanism considered is based on the reflection and refraction of acoustic wave due to the gas temperature gradients that form around the plasma. The local mechanism, on the other hand, is essentially the interaction of the acoustic wave with the plasma as it propagates inside the discharge and it can be viewed as a feedback system. Detailed temperature measurements, using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, were carried out in the glow discharge plasma in order to evaluate the role of global mechanism in the observed attenuation. These measurements were made for a range of conditions in the atmospheric glow discharge. Theoretical analysis of the sound attenuation was carried out to identify the physical mechanism for the observed sound attenuation by plasma. It was demonstrated that the global mechanism is the dominant mechanism of sound attenuation. As a result of this study, the potentials and limitations of the plasma noise suppression technology were determined and

  16. Generalized Langmuir Waves in Magnetized Kinetic Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willes, A. J.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of unmagnetized Langmuir waves and cold plasma magnetoionic waves (x, o, z and whistler) are well known. However, the connections between these modes in a magnetized kinetic plasma have not been explored in detail. Here, wave properties are investigated by numerically solving the dispersion equation derived from the Vlasov equations both with and without a beam instability present. For omega(sub p)>Omega(sub e), it is shown that the generalized Langmuir mode at oblique propagation angles has magnetic z-mode characteristics at low wave numbers and thermal Langmuir mode characteristics at high wave numbers. For omega(sub p)wave numbers. The transition from the Langmuir/z mode to the Langmuir/whistler mode near omega(sub p) = Omega(sub e) is rapid. In addition, the effects on wave dispersion and polarization after adding a beam are investigated. Applications of this theory to magnetized Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock and the solar wind, to waves observed near the plasma frequency in the auroral regions, and to solar type III bursts are discussed.

  17. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, Francois

    2008-11-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low frequency branch of electrostatic plasma waves; these waves exist in neutralized plasmas, pure electrons, and pure ion plasmas. The EAWs typically have a phase velocity Vphase / Vth ˜1.4, quite low compared to typical plasma waves. Linear Landau damping would suggest that such slow phase velocity waves are strongly damped; but at finite wave amplitudes, trapping of particles at the phase velocity effectively flattens the distribution function, resulting in a ``BGK-like'' state with weak damping. Our experiments on standing mz= 1, mθ= 0 waves show that the small-amplitude dispersion relation for both fast Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) and slow (EAW) plasma modes is in close agreement with the ``thumb-shaped'' dispersion relation predicted by kinetic theory neglecting damping. However, the surprise here is that a moderate amplitude ``off-resonant'' drive readily modifies the velocity distribution so as to make the plasma mode resonant with the drive frequency. We have observed the plasma adjusting its velocity distribution so as to become resonant with a 100 cycle drive ranging from 10 kHz to 30 kHz. With a chirped frequency drive, the particle velocity distribution suffers extreme distortion, and the resulting plasma wave is almost undamped with γ/ φ˜10-5. Laser-Induced-Fluorescence measurements of the wave-coherent particle distribution f (vz, t), clearly show particle trapping in the EAW, with trapping widths as expected from theory considering two non-interacting traveling waves forming the standing wave. The coherent f (vz, t ) measurement also shows that particles slower than the wave phase velocity vph oscillate in phase with the wave, contrasting with the 180^o out-of-phase response of the particles moving faster than vph. The differing response of the fast and slow particles results in a small net fluid velocity, because the electrostatic restoring force is almost totally balanced by the kinetic pressure, consistent

  18. Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Christopher E.

    2002-04-01

    Among all the advanced accelerator concepts that use lasers as the power source, most of the effort to date has been with the idea of using a laser pulse to excite a accelerating mode in a plasma. Within this area, there are a variety of approaches for creating the accelerating mode, as indicated by the other talks in this session. What is common to these approaches is the physics of how a laser pulse pushes on plasma electrons to organize electron-density perturbations, the sources of the ultra-high (> GeV/M) accelerating gradients. It is the "ponderomotive force", proportional to the local gradient of the of the laser intensity, that pushes plasma electrons forward (on the leading edge of the pulse) and backwards (on the trailing edge) which leads to harmonic motion of the electrons. As the laser pulse moves through the plasma at group velocity Vg c, the oscillating electrons show up macroscopically as a plasma mode or wave with frequency w equal to the plasma frequency and k = w/Vg. For short laser pulses, this is the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) concept. Closely related is the Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration (PBWA) concept. Here, the laser pulse that perturbs the plasma is composed of two closely-spaced frequencies that "beat", i.e., periodically constructively and destructively interfere, forming an electromagnetic beat wave. One can visualize this as a train of short pulses. If this beating frequency is set to the plasma frequency, then each pulse in the train will reinforce the density perturbation caused by the previous pulse. The principal advantage of multiple pulses driving up the plasma wave as opposed to a single pulse is in efficiency, allowing for the production of relatively large diameter (more 1-D like) accelerating modes. In this talk I will discuss past, current and planned PBWA experiments which are taking place at UCLA, RAL in England, and LULI in France.

  19. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  20. Millimeter-Wave Generation via Plasma Three-Wave Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Gliz radiation are listed below the oscilloscope waveform. 60 I I 16693 12 I 3 HYDROGEN KRYPTON - HELIUM XENON A RGON TIME (100 ns/div) TIME (20 ns/div...Pulses Overlap in Time ........ 48 29 Frequency Scaling with Waveguide Discharge Current is Determined by Observing the mm-wave Output with an Array of...59 37 Output mm-wave Radiation is Strongly Modulated on a Time Scale which is Near the Ion-Plasma Frequency ............................ 60 j

  1. An automated analysis of DEMETER ionospheric plasma waves observations and its application to the search for anomalous emissions over the Great Sichuan EQ region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Tatsuo; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Electric field observations in the VLF range from the ICE experiment onboard the CNES DEMETER micro-satellite have been analyzed to search for anomalies possibly related to the Great Sichuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008. This work was undertaken using results from a dedicated data processing that has been recently developed at LATMOS to perform an automated recognition and characterization of the various wave emissions that are regularly detected along the orbit of DEMETER. The data processing method and the associated algorithms will be first presented and a few typical results will be shown in order to provide a detailed understanding of the algorithm capabilities. As a first full-scale application of this method, a statistical study was conducted to analyze the plasma waves observed in day-time half orbits over a region of ~1000 kilometres extent centred on the Sichuan EQ epicentre and during a period of 20 days encompassing the day of the EQ. 5 years of observations have been used to derive the statistical distribution of various types of ionospheric plasma waves that can be compared to the signals detected during the seismic active period. The first outcome of our study was the detection of a localized variation in the characteristics of the electrostatic turbulence 6 days before the EQ that appears to be unique in the whole 5 year reference observations data base. We will discuss this result and its possible interpretations.

  2. The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Randall, R. F.; Odem, D. L.; Remington, S. L.; Averkamp, T. F.; Debower, M. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Huff, R. L.; Kirchner, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp -1).

  3. Ducted propagation of chorus waves: Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearby, K. H.; Balikhin, M. A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Walker, S. N.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Alleyne, H. St. C. K.; Agapitov, O.

    2011-09-01

    Ducted propagation of whistler waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system was discussed and studied long before the first in-situ spacecraft measurements. While a number of implicit examples of the existence of ducted propagation have been found, direct observation of ducts has been hampered by the low sampling rates of measurements of the plasma density. The present paper is based on Cluster observations of chorus waves. The ability to use measurements of the spacecraft potential as a proxy for high time resolution electron density measurements is exploited to identify a number of cases when increased chorus wave power, observed within the radiation belts, is observed simultaneously with density enchantments. It is argued that the observation of ducted propagation of chorus implies modification of numerical models for plasma-wave interactions within the radiation belts.

  4. Current in wave driven plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1985-06-01

    A theory for the generation of current in a toroidal plasma by radio-frequency waves is presented. The effect of an opposing electric field is included, allowing the case of time varying currents to be studied. The key quantities that characterize this regime are identified and numerically calculated. Circuit equations suitable for use in ray-tracing and transport codes are given.

  5. A simple electron plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-03-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large.

  6. Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Wynne

    1994-01-01

    Activities under this project have included participation in the Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program, a study of the data processing requirements for WISP, and theoretical studies of radio sounding, ducting, and magnetoionic theory. An analysis of radio sounding in the magnetosphere was prepared.

  7. On the breaking of a plasma wave in a thermal plasma. II. Electromagnetic wave interaction with the breaking plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Califano, Francesco; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-11-15

    In thermal plasma, the structure of the density singularity formed in a relativistically large amplitude plasma wave close to the wavebreaking limit leads to a refraction coefficient with discontinuous spatial derivatives. This results in a non-exponentially small above-barrier reflection of an electromagnetic wave interacting with the nonlinear plasma wave.

  8. Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Xu; Xu Jingzhou; Dai Jianming; Zhang, X.-C.

    2007-04-02

    It is well known that air plasma induced by ultrashort laser pulses emits broadband terahertz waves. The authors report the study of terahertz wave generation from the laser induced plasma where there is a preexisting plasma background. When a laser beam from a Ti:sapphire amplifier is used to generate a terahertz wave, enhancement of the generation is observed if there is another laser beam creating a plasma background. The enhancement of the terahertz wave amplitude lasts hundreds of picoseconds after the preionized background is created, with a maximum enhancement up to 250% observed.

  9. Wave structures observed in the equatorial F-region plasma density and temperature during the sunset period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio, S.; Muralikrishna, P.; Batista, I. S.; de Meneses, F. C.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density and temperature measurements were carried out with Langmuir probes (LP) on board Brazilian sounding rockets launched soon after the local sunset from Natal (5.8°S, 35.2°W, dip 23.7°S) and Alcântara (2.3°S, 44.4°W, dip 7°S), Brazil, on December 02, 2011, and December 08, 2012, respectively. Digisondes operating near the launching sites revealed a rapid rise in the F-region base indicating a probable pre-reversal enhancement of the vertical plasma drift. Strong spread-F traces are also visible on the ionograms simultaneously recorded, suggesting the occurrence of ionospheric bubbles during these campaigns. Electron density and temperature vertical profiles estimated from the LP data exhibit in the E-F region valley (120-300 km) the presence of large-amplitude wave activity, and electron temperature values higher than 1600 K, respectively, phenomena probably related to the electrodynamic processes that occur during the sunset period.

  10. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Nirmol K. Podder

    2009-03-17

    In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1–20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas.

  12. Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    This talk presents solutions to the plasma waves induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) train travelling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma. The computations constitute a very preliminary feasibility study for a possible ultra-high frequency gravitational wave detector, meant to take advantage of the observation that the plasma current is proportional to the GW amplitude, and not its square. This work is supported in part by NSFC Grant Number 11503003.

  13. The Galileo plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave investigation is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.

  14. Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-12-14

    A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.

  15. Laboratory Observations of Whistler Wave Resonances*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Blackwell, D. D.; Tejero, E. M.; Cothran, C. D.; Rudakov, L.; Ganguli, G.; Walker, D. N.

    2010-12-01

    Standing whistler wave patterns have been investigated in the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber. In the original experimental configuration, partial reflection of the antenna-launched whistler waves from the chamber end boundaries occurs, setting up a combination of standing and traveling waves. By controlling the axial magnetic field strength profile, cyclotron absorption of the whistler waves can be induced before reflection occurs, leaving only the forward propagating waves. By comparing standing wave amplitudes to that when the wave is prevented from reflecting, cavity Q's in excess of 30 have been observed. Under uniform axial magnetic field conditions, the addition of planar conducting grids across the vacuum chamber cross-section at the ends of the plasma column provides improved reflecting surfaces and corresponding increases in the value of Q. *Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and DARPA.

  16. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  17. Simulation of the nonlinear evolution of electron plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Cairns, I. H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic waves driven by an electron beam in an ambient magnetized plasma were studied using a quasi-1D PIC simulation of electron plasma waves (i.e., Langmuir waves). The results disclose the presence of a process for moving wave energy from frequencies and wavenumbers predicted by linear theory to the Langmuir-like frequencies during saturation of the instability. A decay process for producing backward propagating Langmuir-like waves, along with low-frequency waves, is observed. The simulation results, however, indicate that the backscattering process is not the conventional Langmuir wave decay. Electrostatic waves near multiples of the electron plasma frequency are generated by wave-wave coupling during the nonlinear stage of the simulations, confirming the suggestion of Klimas (1983).

  18. Waves in plasmas: some historical highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, T.H.

    1984-08-01

    To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and stochasticity. One may note not only the constructive interplay between observation and theory and experiment but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research.

  19. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves

    SciTech Connect

    O.Ya. Kolesnychenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White

    2005-06-15

    Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered.

  20. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Waves in a Plasma Described by Kappa Velocity Distribution as Observed in the Saturńs Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. V.; Barbosa, M. V. G.; Simoes, F. J. L., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Observations have shown that several regions in space plasmas exhibit non-Maxwellian distributions with high energy superthermal tails. Kappa velocity distribution functions can describe many of these regions and have been used since the 60's. They suit well to represent superthermal tails in solar wind as well as to obtain plasma parameters of plasma within planetary magnetospheres. A set of initial velocities following kappa distribution functions is used in KEMPO1 particle simulation code to analyze the normal modes of wave propagation. Initial conditions are determined using observed characteristics for Saturńs magnetosphere. Two electron species with different temperatures and densities and ions as a third species are used. Each electron population is described by a different kappa index. Particular attention is given to perpendicular propagation, Bernstein modes, and parallel propagation, Langmuir and electron-acoustic modes. The dispersion relation for the Bernstein modes is strongly influenced by the shape of the velocity distribution and consequently by the value of kappa index. Simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the dispersion relation obtained in the literature and they are in good agreement.

  1. Nonlocal Heat Transport by Longitudinal/Transverse EM Waves in Magnetically Confined Plasmas and Modelling of the Observed Nonlocal Phenomena in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.

    1996-11-01

    The nonlocal transport approach is formulated, based on anomalous cross-field energy transport (ACFET) by the longitudinal/tranverse EM waves of the mean free path of the order and much larger than plasma characteristic size and, correspondingly, on integral equation in space variables. Self-consistency of this approach is shown in interpreting those observed phenomena of nonlocality whose interpretation in "local", diffusion-like approaches gives instant jumps of thermal diffusivities in a large part of plasma volume. The modelling is carried out of the initial stage of recently observed phenomena of fast nonlocal energy transport: (i) net inward flux of energy during off-axis heating (vs. ECRH experiments on D-III-D); (ii) prompt rise of temperature in the core in "cold pulse" experiments (fast cooling of the periphery) on TEXT and TFTR; (iii) fast "volumetric" response of energy transport to plasma edge behavior during L-H transitions (in JET and JT-60U). The results suggest (a) universal and transparent physical explanation of the mechanism of nonlocal inward energy flux, which is lost in diffusion-like approaches, and (b) necessity to append existing numerical codes with nonlocal transport term, an integral in space variables.

  2. Principles of Space Plasma Wave Instrument Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Space plasma waves span the frequency range from somewhat below the ion cyclotron frequency to well above the electron cyclotron frequency and plasma frequency. Because of the large frequency range involved, the design of space plasma wave instrumentation presents many interesting challenges. This chapter discusses the principles of space plasma wave instrument design. The topics covered include: performance requirements, electric antennas, magnetic antennas, and signal processing. Where appropriate, comments are made on the likely direction of future developments.

  3. Ion cyclotron waves observed near the plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Pc2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE-1 and -2 between L = 7.6 - 5.8 on an inbound near equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width about 1 earth radius and penetrated about 1 earth radius into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He(+) and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O(+) and He(+) heavy ion populations. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by multicomponent cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. The results are considered as an example of wave-particle interactions occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase.

  4. Plasma wave signatures of collisionless shocks and the role of plasma wave turbulence in shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellott, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of the plasma waves associated with collisionless shocks are reviewed, and the understanding of their generation mechanisms and their importance to shock physics are summarized. The emphasis is on waves generated directly at the shock, especially ion acoustic and lower-hybrid-like modes. The observations are discussed in the context of shock structure, with attention given to the distinctions between waves generated in the shock foot and ramp. The behavior of resistive, dispersive, and supercritical quasi-perpendicular shocks is contrasted. Evidence for the operation of various generation mechanisms, including interactions with cross-field currents, gyrating reflected ions, and field-aligned electron beams, are summarized. The various forms of plasma heating which are actually observed are outlined, and the role of the various wave modes in this heating is discussed. Conclusion, it is argued that, while plasma wave turbulence may play a vital role in plasma heating for some special shocks, it is of second-order importance in most cases.

  5. Electron Bernstein Wave Emission from RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Thomas, M.; Anderson, J.; Forest, C. B.

    1998-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has proven to be a powerfull diagnostic tool in tokamak plasmas for determining the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. The standard technique of observing O-mode or X-mode electromagnetic waves normal to the magnetic field is not applicable to reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas since the plasma frequency is much larger than the electron cyclotron frequency. We are investigating the use of electron Bernstein waves (presumed to be in thermal equilibrium with the electrons) through the O-X-B mode conversion process. At oblique incidence, the evanescent layer separating the plamsa cutoff from the cyclotron cutoff vanishes, allowing conversion of the Bernstein mode waves to the extraordinary mode and finally to the ordinary mode. The O-mode radiation is received by a phased array antenna consisting of two waveguides on the edge of the plasma, and the spectrum of emitted radiation is measured using a radiometer spanning 4-8 GHz. In addition to providing information about the electron temperature profile, the spectrum can provide a novel method of measuring the central magnetic field strength for current profile reconstructions.

  6. Ion-wave stabilization of an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J.C.; Mackay, R.

    2006-04-24

    Stabilization of the rf power driving an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has implications for fields ranging from atomic clocks to analytical chemistry to illumination technology. Here, we demonstrate a technique in which the plasma itself acts as a probe of radio wave power, and provides a correction signal for active rf-power control. Our technique takes advantage of the resonant nature of forced ion waves in the plasma, and their observation in the ICP's optical emission.

  7. Dichromatic Langmuir waves in degenerate quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. E. Kitayev, I. N.

    2015-06-15

    Langmuir waves in fully degenerate quantum plasma are considered. It is shown that, in the linear approximation, Langmuir waves are always dichromatic. The low-frequency component of the waves corresponds to classical Langmuir waves, while the high-frequency component, to free-electron quantum oscillations. The nonlinear problem on the profile of dichromatic Langmuir waves is solved. Solutions in the form of a superposition of waves and in the form of beatings of its components are obtained.

  8. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Lin, R. -L.; Klecker, B.; Dunlop, M. W.; André, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of data from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.

  9. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster. 1. Wave properties. EMIC Wave Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; ...

    2015-07-23

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of datamore » from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.« less

  10. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v < vph< 2.1 v. Here, the final wave frequency may differ from the excitation frequency since the excitation modifies f (v); and recent theory analyzes frequency shifts from ``corners'' of a plateau at vph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  11. Solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-03-01

    By considering electrostatic surface waves propagating along a plasma cylinder, it is demonstrated that solitary variations in the cylinder radius may appear. The properties of these slow perturbations are determined by the surface wave intensities.

  12. New wave effects in nonstationary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Paul

    2012-10-01

    In plasma undergoing compression, embedded waves can have very unusual and possibly useful properties. For example, part of the mechanical energy of compressing plasma can be transferred controllably to hot electrons by seeding the plasma with plasma waves. Under compression, wherein wave action is conserved, the wave energy grows as its frequency and wavenumber change adiabatically, until, suddenly, the wave damps, resulting in switch-like production not only of heat [1], but also voltage and current [2]. These bursts can be controlled precisely in time by prescribing the compression script. Several classic problems in wave physics, including the bump-on-tail instability, exhibit new effects under compression [3]. In addition, the waves undergoing compression or expansion affect fundamental properties of plasma, such as the plasma compressibility; moreover, and rather remarkably, nonlinear waves, such as BGK modes, affect the plasma compressibility differently [4]. Wave-particle interactions mediated by plasma compression also can enhance the performance of plasma-based particle accelerators. To describe numerically all these effects, novel particle-in-cell simulations were developed. These findings point towards potentially beneficial applications, including in inertial confinement fusion and high energy density plasma physics, where extreme compression is exercised on dense plasma, which could be seeded with waves. [4pt] [1] P. F. Schmit, I. Y. Dodin, and N. J. Fisch, PRL 105, 175003 (2010).[0pt] [2] P. F. Schmit and N. J. Fisch, PRL 108, 215003 (2012).[0pt] [3] P. F. Schmit et al., J. Plasma Phys. 77, 629 (2011).[0pt] [4] P. F. Schmit, I. Y. Dodin, and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 18, 042103 (2011).[0pt] [5] P. F. Schmit and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102102 (2011).

  13. Plasma waves near saturn: initial results from voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L

    1981-04-10

    The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and upper hybrid resonance measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn.

  14. Low-Frequency Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiling, Andreas; Lee, Dong-Hun; Nakariakov, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Low-frequency waves in space plasmas have been studied for several decades, and our knowledge gain has been incremental with several paradigm-changing leaps forward. In our solar system, such waves occur in the ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets, and around our Moon. They occur in the solar wind, and more recently, they have been confirmed in the Sun's atmosphere as well. The goal of wave research is to understand their generation, their propagation, and their interaction with the surrounding plasma. Low-frequency Waves in Space Plasmas presents a concise and authoritative up-to-date look on where wave research stands: What have we learned in the last decade? What are unanswered questions? While in the past waves in different astrophysical plasmas have been largely treated in separate books, the unique feature of this monograph is that it covers waves in many plasma regions, including: Waves in geospace, including ionosphere and magnetosphere Waves in planetary magnetospheres Waves at the Moon Waves in the solar wind Waves in the solar atmosphere Because of the breadth of topics covered, this volume should appeal to a broad community of space scientists and students, and it should also be of interest to astronomers/astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas beyond our Solar System.

  15. Lidar Observations of Wave Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Raubenheimer, B.; Spore, N.; Gorrell, L.; Slocum, R. K.; Elgar, S.

    2016-02-01

    As waves propagate across the inner-surf zone, through a shorebreak, to the swash, their shapes can evolve rapidly, particularly if there are large changes in water depth over a wavelength. As wave shapes evolve, the time history of near-bed wave-orbital velocities also changes. Asymmetrical near-bed velocities result in preferential directions for sediment transport, and spatial variations in asymmetries can lead to morphological evolution. Thus, understanding and predicting wave shapes in the inner-surf and swash zones is important to improving sediment transport predictions. Here, rapid changes in wave shape, quantified by 3rd moments (skewness and asymmetry) of the sea-surface elevation time series, were observed on a sandy Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, NC using terrestrial lidar scanners that measure the elevation of the water surface along a narrow cross-shore transect with high spatial [O(1 cm)] and temporal [O(0.5 s)] resolution. The terrestrial lidar scanners were mounted on a tower on the beach dune (about 8 m above the water surface) and on an 8-m tall amphibious tripod [the Coastal Research Amphibious Buggy (CRAB)]. Observations with the dune lidar are used to investigate how bulk wave shape parameters such as wave skewness and asymmetry, and the ratio of wave height to water depth (gamma) vary with beach slope, tide level, and offshore wave conditions. Observations with the lidar mounted on the CRAB are used to investigate the evolution of individual waves propagating across the surf zone and shorebreak to the swash. For example, preliminary observations from the CRAB include a wave that appeared to shoal and then "pitch" backwards immediately prior to breaking and running up the beach. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program, ASD(R&E), and ONR.

  16. Plasma observations at the earth's magnetic equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Shawhan, S. D.; Gallagher, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Green, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    New observations of particle and wave data from the magnetic equator from the DE 1 spacecraft are reported. The results demonstrate that the equatorial plasma population is predominantly hydrogen and that the enhanced ion fluxes observed at the equator occur without an increase in the total plasma density. Helium is occasionally found heated along with the protons, and forms about 10 percent of the equatorially trapped population at such times. The heated H(+) ions can be characterized by a bi-Maxwellian with kT(parallel) = 0.5-1.0 eV and kT = 5-50 eV, with a density of 10-100/cu cm. The total plasma density is relatively constant with latitude. First measurements of the equatorially trapped plasma and coincident UHR measurements show that the trapped plasma is found in conjunction with equatorial noise.

  17. Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are studied in magnetized electron-ion plasmas with inertial cold ions and warm electrons. Using the two fluid model, the dispersion relation of the magnetoacoustic waves is obtained in the linear limit and the wave dispersive effects appear through the electron inertial length. The well known reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetoacoustic waves in plasmas. The Sagdeev potential approach is used, and the cnoidal wave solution of magnetoacoustic waves is obtained under periodic boundary conditions. The analytical solution for magnetoacoustic solitons is also presented. The phase plane portraits are also plotted for magnetoacoustic solitons shown as a separatrix, and the cnoidal wave structure always lies within the separatrix. It is found that plasma beta, which depends on the plasma density, electron temperature, and magnetic field intensity, has a significant effect on the amplitude and phase of the cnoidal waves, while it also affects the width and amplitude of the magnetoacoustic soliton in plasmas. The numerical results are plotted within the plasma parameters for laboratory and space plasmas for illustration. It is found that only compressive magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic wave and soliton structures are formed in magnetized plasmas.

  18. High-latitude distributions of plasma waves and spatial irregularities from DE 2 alternating current electric field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Maynard, N. C.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    The high-latitude spatial distributions of average signal intensities in 12 frequency channels between 4 Hz and 512 kHz as measured by the ac electric field spectrometers on the DE-2 spacecraft are analyzed for 18 mo of measurements. In MLT-INL (magnetic local time-invariant latitude) there are three distinct distributions that can be identified with 4-512 Hz signals from spatial irregularities and Alfven waves, 256-Hz to 4.1-kHz signals from ELF hiss, and 4.1-64 kHz signals from VLF auroral hiss, respectively. Overlap between ELF hiss and spatial irregularity signals occurs in the 256-512 Hz band. VLF hiss signals extend downward in frequency into the 1.0-4.1 kHz band and upward into the frequency range 128-512 kHz. The distinctly different spatial distribution patterns for the three bands, 4-256 Hz, 512-1204 Hz, and 4.1-64 kHz, indicate a lack of any causal relationships between VLF hiss, ELF hiss, and lower-frequency signals from spatial irregularities and Alfven waves.

  19. Electromagnetic waves in a strong Schwarzschild plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.; Tajima, T.

    1996-11-01

    The physics of high frequency electromagnetic waves in a general relativistic plasma with the Schwarzschild metric is studied. Based on the 3 + 1 formalism, we conformalize Maxwell`s equations. The derived dispersion relations for waves in the plasma contain the lapse function in the plasma parameters such as in the plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency, but otherwise look {open_quotes}flat.{close_quotes} Because of this property this formulation is ideal for nonlinear self-consistent particle (PIC) simulation. Some of the physical consequences arising from the general relativistic lapse function as well as from the effects specific to the plasma background distribution (such as density and magnetic field) give rise to nonuniform wave equations and their associated phenomena, such as wave resonance, cutoff, and mode-conversion. These phenomena are expected to characterize the spectroscopy of radiation emitted by the plasma around the black hole. PIC simulation results of electron-positron plasma are also presented.

  20. Seasonal, longitude, local time, and altitude distributions of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density components of depletions, structures, and waves observed on the C/NOFS satellite in the low latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides simultaneous measurements of electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with plasma depletions. C/NOFS was launched into a 401 km by 857 km orbit with a 13 degree inclination in April, 2008 and gathered near continuous data until November, 2015. We present C/NOFS observations that address a variety of questions regarding the nature of equatorial plasma depletions, irregularities, and Alfven waves in the low latitude ionosphere. The presentation includes distributions of the different components with respect to longitude, latitude, local time, altitude, and season. Among the predominant findings are: (1) the strong tendency for plasma depletions to occur post-midnight in the April-September time frame where they were also observed predominantly in the African sector; (2) the prevalence of nighttime electric field structures to exist without corresponding density depletions or irregularities, particularly during solar minimum conditions; and (3) AC magnetic field observations which we interpret as signatures of small-scale filamentary currents and/or Alfven waves which were most pronounced in the South American sector after sunset. We focus in particular on the magnetic signatures which were strongest towards the end of the mission where solar activity (and hence the ambient plasma density) was moderately elevated and the satellite sampling altitudes were lowest. The AC magnetic field signatures appear in two categories: wave-like strutures, which do not appear to be organized about the magnetic equator and may represent Alfven waves propagating between hemispheres along closed magnetic field lines, and magnetic structures associated with plasma density depletions which, when combined with simultaneous electric field structures, reveal Poynting Flux energy flow in the poleward direction. The

  1. Raman three-wave interaction in partially spin polarized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, M.; Iqbal, Z.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-10-01

    By employing the separate spin evolution-quantum hydrodynamic model (SSE-QHD), the nonlinear growth rate of the parametric decay instability is studied via the Raman scattering process of three-wave coupling. SSE-QHD equations are solved for the pump wave (O-mode), sideband Shear Alfvén wave, and the electron plasma perturbations. It is observed that the spectrum of the electron plasma waves is modified due to newly generated spin dependent waves which contribute in the coupling process. The nonlinear growth rate as a result of three wave coupling is plotted for different sets of parameters and conditions. It is also observed that the growth rate is suppressed due to the spin effects. Shifting of diamagnetic behavior of plasma to paramagnetic behavior is noticed.

  2. Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

  3. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  4. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  5. Sheath waves observed on OEDIPUS A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.; Balmain, K. G.; Bantin, C. C.; Hulbert, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    An important novel feature of the tethered sounding rocket experiment OEDIPUS A (Observations of Electric-field Distributions in the Ionospheric Plasma—A Unique Strategy) was its direct excitation and detection of electromagnetic waves on conductors in space plasmas. We present quantitative evidence about sheath waves excited in the ionosphere by a high-frequency transmitter on one end of the 1-km tether and detected by a synchronized receiver on the other end. An important characteristic of sheath waves is their sequence of sharply defined passbands and stop bands in the frequency range 0.1-5 MHz. The lowest passband is between 0.1 MHz and the plasma frequency near 2 MHz, the bandwidth where existing theory predicts sheath waves. Resonance fringes in this band have been scaled to determine the phase and group refractive indices of sheath waves. These agree reasonably well with the theory, considering the approximations therein. Passbands and stop bands observed in the range between 2 and 5 MHz are not expected on the basis of the current theory. In this range, band limits have clear signatures of the interaction of the tether fields with electrostatic cyclotron waves. Finite wire moment method modeling of the payload shows that in the low-frequency passband, RF coupling along the tether is increased by 20 dB over vacuum conditions. Similarly, isolation is greater than vacuum isolation in the stop bands. Because sheath waves at frequencies up to 2 MHz are guided efficiently along conductors in plasma, they are a significant design issue in the electromagnetic compatibility of avionics at frequencies up to HF on large metal space structures.

  6. First measurements of plasma waves near Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grard, R.; Pedersen, A.; Klimov, S.; Savin, S.; Skalskii, A.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results from electric field measurements in the environment of Mars using the plasma-wave system on board Phobos 2 are reported. Electron-plasma oscillations observed upstream of the bow shock correspond to a solar-wind density of 2/cu cm. The shock-foot boundary was crossed up to three times on each orbit. The shock ramp was detected at altitudes between 0.45 and 0.75 Mars radii R(M) above the planetary surface. The density increased by about a factor of two at the ramp. The shock position, although variable, seems to be consistent with previous measurements. The downstream magnetosheath contained broadband electric-field noise below the plasma frequency. The boundary of th obstacle, or plasmapause, was crossed at altitudes of the order of 0.28 R(M); the cold plasma density was highly variable within the planetopause and reached the unexpected value of 700/cu cm on the third orbit, at 0.25 R(M) altitude. Bursts of waves with frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency occur within the planetopause.

  7. Coupling between electron plasma waves in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. J.; Lal, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Johnston, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    A Lagrangian fluid model (cold plasma, fixed ions) is developed for analyzing the coupling between electron plasma waves. This model shows that a small wave number electron plasma wave (ω2,k2) will strongly affect a large wave number electron plasma wave (ω1,k1), transferring its energy into daughter waves or sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) in the lab frame. The accuracy of the model is checked via particle-in-cell simulations, which confirm that the energy in the mode at (ω1,k1) can be completely transferred to the sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) by the presence of the electron plasma mode at (ω2,k2). Conclusive experimental evidence for the generation of daughter waves via this coupling is then presented using time- and wave number-resolved spectra of the light from a probe laser coherently Thomson scattered by the electron plasma waves generated by the interaction of a two-frequency CO2 laser with a plasma.

  8. The role of plasma wave turbulence in the formation of shock waves in collisionless plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellott, M. M.

    1987-01-01

    A data set containing measurements for approximately 100 shock crossings was compiled, and plasma wave profiles were plotted in conjunction with magnetic field data. Three emissions analyzed include upstream electron plasma oscillations, ion acoustic noise, and low frequency electromagnetic noise. The data demonstrate that the observed waves are consistent with generation by the kinetic cross-field streaming instability. Reanalysis of shock overshoots prompted by the presence of plasma feet upstream of nominally subcritical shocks leads to the conclusion that no firm evidence exists for a sharp subcritical supercritical transition. Electron plasma oscillations persist up to the ramps of subcritical shocks and begin decaying at the front edge of the feet of supercritical shocks. Their intensity is anticorrelated with the amplitude of the foot ion acoustic noise. Wave measurements support the predicted predominance of lower hybrid-like modes over ion acoustic noise in the production of resistive (plasma) heating. Evidence for variable shock normal angles is seen upstream from nominally quasiparallel shocks. The first cases of very strong electron heating observed at the terrestrial bow shock were discovered.

  9. Visualization of Shock Wave Driven by Millimeter Wave Plasma in a Parabolic Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shimada, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yuya; Shibata, Teppei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-06

    By focusing a high-power millimeter wave beam generated by a 170 GHz gyrotron, a breakdown occurred and a shock wave was driven by plasma heated by following microwave energy. The shock wave and the plasma around a focal point of a parabolic thruster were visualized by a shadowgraph method, and a transition of structures between the shock wave and the plasma was observed. There was a threshold local power density to make the transition, and the propagation velocity at the transition was around 800 m/s.

  10. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2014-04-15

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  11. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-11-01

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor-metal oscillations and soliton formation. Here, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.

  12. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    DOE PAGES

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor–metal oscillations and soliton formation. In this paper, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Finally, parametric amplification is sensitivemore » to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.« less

  13. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-07-11

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor–metal oscillations and soliton formation. In this paper, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Finally, parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.

  14. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-07-11

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor–metal oscillations and soliton formation. In this paper, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Finally, parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.

  15. Turbulent boundary-layer control with plasma spanwise travelling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So

    2014-08-01

    Arrays of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators have been designed to generate spanwise travelling waves in the turbulent boundary layer for possible skin-friction drag reductions. Particle image velocimetry was used to elucidate the modifications to turbulence structures created by the plasma spanwise travelling waves. It has been observed that the plasma spanwise travelling waves amalgamated streamwise vortices, lifting low-speed fluid from the near-wall region up and around the peripheries of their cores to form wide ribbons of low-speed streamwise velocity within the viscous sublayer.

  16. Surface Josephson Plasma Waves in Layered Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel'Ev, Sergey; Yampol'Skii, Valery; Nori, Franco

    2005-10-01

    We predict the existence of surface waves in layered superconductors in the THz frequency range, below the Josephson plasma frequency ωJ. This wave propagates along the vacuum-superconductor interface and dampens in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). This is the first prediction of propagating surface waves in any superconductor. These predicted surface Josephson plasma waves are important for different phenomena, including the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood’s anomalies) and a huge enhancement of the wave absorption (which can be used as a THz detector).

  17. Acceleration of injected electrons by the plasma beat wave accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Leemans, W. P.; Williams, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W. B.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we describe the recent work at UCLA on the acceleration of externally injected electrons by a relativistic plasma wave. A two frequency laser was used to excite a plasma wave over a narrow range of static gas pressures close to resonance. Electrons with energies up to our detection limit of 9.1 MeV were observed when 2.1 MeV electrons were injected in the plasma wave. No accelerated electrons above the detection threshold were observed when the laser was operated on a single frequency or when no electrons were injected. Experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions, and future prospects for the plasma beat wave accelerator are discussed.

  18. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.

  19. Plasma wave aided two photon decay of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. K. Magesh; Singh, Rohtash; Krishan, Vinod

    2014-11-15

    The presence of a Langmuir wave in an unmagnetized plasma is shown to allow parametric decay of an electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic waves, which is otherwise not allowed due to wave number mismatch. The decay occurs at plasma densities below one ninth the critical density and the decay waves propagate at finite angles to the pump laser. Above the threshold, the growth rate scales linearly with the amplitude of the Langmuir wave and the amplitude of the pump electromagnetic wave. The frequency ω of the lower frequency decay wave increases with the angle its propagation vector makes with that of the pump. The growth rate, however, decreases with ω.

  20. A laboratory search for plasma erosion by Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.

    2007-12-01

    Obliquely propagating shear Alfven waves with transverse wavelengths on the order of the electron inertial length or even the ion gyro-radius are commonly observed in the earth's low-altitude auroral zones. These regions are also replete with observations of electron beams and transversely heated ions. A kinetic treatment of shear Alfven wave-particle interaction reveals how these waves can be responsible for some of the observed particle acceleration. The auroral plasma environment is further enriched by the presence of field-aligned depletions in plasma density, and it has been suggested* that the Alfven waves may, in fact, be the cause of the erosion of ionospheric density. In this laboratory experiment, shear waves will be launched using a variety of proven antennas, and also allowed to grow spontaneously as Drift-Alfven modes in seeded density depletions**. Detailed measurements of the wave magnetic fields in the perpendicular density gradient regions will be presented which demonstrate the generation of short perpendicular wave scales due to the perpendicular gradient in parallel wave phase speed. Miniature in-situ particle diagnostics will also be used to look for electron and ion acceleration. The waves will also be launched into an increasing region of background magnetic field in an attempt to model the ratios of Alfven speed to electron thermal speed, and density gradient scale length to electron inertial length appropriate to the earth's auroral zone. Preliminary results will be presented on the efficacy of shear Alfven waves to self-generate plasma density depletions, or deepen ambient density inhomogeneities. The experiments are conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility in the Large Plasma Device. *Chaston, et al., "Ionospheric erosion by Alfven Waves," JGR, V 111, A03206, 2006. **Penano, et al., "Drift-Alfven fluctuations associated with a narrow pressure striation," Phys. Plasmas, V 7, Issue 1, pp. 144-157 (2000).

  1. Plasma Wave Seed for Raman Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Kenan; Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-04-01

    It is proposed to replace the traditional counterpropagating laser seed in backward Raman amplifiers with a plasma wave seed. In the linear regime, namely, for a constant pump amplitude, a plasma wave seed may be found by construction that strictly produces the same output pulse as does a counterpropagating laser seed. In the nonlinear regime, or pump-depletion regime, the plasma-wave-initiated output pulse can be shown numerically to approach the same self-similar attractor solution for the corresponding laser seed. In addition, chirping the plasma wave wavelength can produce the same beneficial effects as chirping the seed wave frequency. This methodology is attractive because it avoids issues in preparing and synchronizing a frequency-shifted laser seed.

  2. Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Compernolle, B.; An, X.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are an important magnetospheric wave, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified. The research was funded by NSF/DOE Plasma Partnership program by grant DE-SC0010578. Work was done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BAPSF) also funded by NSF/DOE.

  3. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  4. A mysterious plasma wave emission and the determination of plasma densities in Neptune's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1991-01-01

    One of the strongest plasma wave signals observed during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is a narrowband emission between 3.0 and 4.3 kHz that was detected over a period of roughly 2 hours around closest approach. The emission occurs below the electron cyclotron frequency and the low-frequency cutoff of the radio continuum radiation. Of the naturally occurring signals in the earth's auroral zone and in Jupiter's magnetosphere this emission most resembles trapped Z mode waves found near the left-hand cutoff frequency. Using this identification, a plasma density profile is obtained that is independent of the plasma temperature. These densities greatly exceed those measured by the plasma science instrument on Voyager but are lower than estimates based on other models of Neptunian plasma wave phenomenology. If this wave mode is not a natural emission, it might arise from an unusual interaction of the spacecraft with the cold, dense ambient plasma.

  5. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp During IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 N reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  6. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF BZ North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S.; Acuna, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Maseide, K.; Sandholt, P. E.; Soraas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79degN reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind (interplanetary magnetic field) IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  7. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, W.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 deg N reaching altitudes of about 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP Fl 3 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  8. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF BZ North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S.; Acuna, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Maseide, K.; Sandholt, P. E.; Soraas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79degN reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind (interplanetary magnetic field) IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  9. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. [plasma simulation model applied to electrostatic waves in collisionless plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Y.

    1974-01-01

    A low-noise plasma simulation model is developed and applied to a series of linear and nonlinear problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. It is demonstrated that use of the hybrid simulation model allows economical studies to be carried out in both the linear and nonlinear regimes with better quantitative results, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the hybrid simulation model itself are first investigated, and it is shown to be capable of verifying the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as .000001 of the plasma thermal energy. Having established the validity of the hybrid simulation model, it is then used to study the nonlinear dynamics of monochromatic wave, sideband instability due to trapped particles, and satellite growth.

  10. Terahertz wave absorption via preformed air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, LiangLiang; Wu, Tong; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin

    2016-12-01

    Terahertz wave generation from laser-induced air plasma has continued to be an exciting field of research over the course of the past decade. In this paper, we report on an investigation concerning terahertz wave absorption with preformed plasma created by another laser pulse. We examine terahertz absorption behavior by varying the pump power and then analyze the polarization effect of the preplasma beam on terahertz wave absorption. The results of experiments conducted in which a type-I beta barium borate (BBO) crystal is placed before the preformed air plasma indicate that the fundamental (ω) and second harmonic (2ω) pulses can also influence terahertz absorption.

  11. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.

  12. Lagrangian methods in nonlinear plasma wave interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of nonlinear plasma wave interactions is usually very complicated, and simplifying mathematical approaches are highly desirable. The application of averaged-Lagrangian methods offers a considerable reduction in effort, with improved insight into synchronism and conservation (Manley-Rowe) relations. This chapter indicates how suitable Lagrangian densities have been defined, expanded, and manipulated to describe nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions in the microscopic, macroscopic and cold plasma models. Recently, further simplifications have been introduced by the use of techniques derived from Lie algebra. These and likely future developments are reviewed briefly.

  13. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  14. Observation of an antenna-plasma instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Monson, S. J.; Whalen, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the conditions leading to, and the causes of, the phenomenon observed during a rocket flight (to 585-km altitude) of an occasionally occurring narrow-band signal on an electric antenna whose frequency was found to vary as the rocket turned. The amplitude also varied by a factor larger than can be explained by variable coupling to the plasma; maximum oscillation amplitude occurred when the antenna was aligned with the earth's magnetic field. A tentative explanation of this phenomenon is given, suggesting that the signals on the antenna were caused by an interacton of the flowing plasma with sheath waves around the antenna.

  15. Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas Daniel D. Hickstein,1 Franklin Dollar,1 Jim A. Gaffney,2 Mark E. Foord,2 George M...distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas . We demonstrate that...i Nanoscale plasmas ( nanoplasmas ) offer enhanced laser absorption compared to solid or gas targets [1], enabling high-energy physics with tabletop

  16. Terahertz waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Hai-Wei; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Otani, Chiko; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-11-23

    Terahertz (THz) waves radiated from two noncollinear femtosecond plasma filaments with a crossing angle of 25° are investigated. The irradiated THz waves from the crossing filaments show a small THz pulse after the main THz pulse, which was not observed in those from single-filament scheme. Since the position of the small THz pulse changes with the time-delay of two filaments, this phenomenon can be explained by a model in which the small THz pulse is from the second filament. The denser plasma in the overlap region of the filaments changes the movement of space charges in the plasma, thereby changing the angular distribution of THz radiation. As a result, this schematic induces some THz wave from the second filament to propagate along the path of the THz wave from the first filament. Thus, this schematic alters the direction of the THz radiation from the filamentation, which can be used in THz wave remote sensing.

  17. Electron cyclotron harmonic waves observed by the AMPTE-IRM plasma wave experiment following a lithium release in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, J. L.; Koons, H. C.; Holzworth, R. H.; Anderson, R. R.; Bauer, O. H.

    1987-01-01

    An unexpected occurrence following the second lithium release by the AMPTE-IRM spacecraft in the solar wind on September 20, 1984, was the appearance of electron cyclotron harmonic emissions. These emissions began about 50 s after the release and continued for several minutes. Narrow-band emissions polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field with amplitudes of approximately 0.00001 V/m were observed in each of the first five harmonic bands. The diffuse emissions extended from below the lowest measured frequency channel to above the highest narrow-band emission with a maximum below the electron cyclotron frequency. It will be shown that these observations are inconsistent with their generation by several ion beam instabilities.

  18. Parametric Amplification of a Superconducting Plasma Wave.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Casandruc, E; Laplace, Y; Nicoletti, D; Gu, G D; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D; Cavalleri, A

    2016-11-01

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves1, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves (JPWs)2,3, involving oscillatory tunneling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear4, and exhibit striking phenomena like cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation5,6, superconductor-metal oscillations7 and soliton formation8. We show here that terahertz JPWs can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunneling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order parameter phase fluctuations9 or single terahertz-photon devices.

  19. Parametric Amplification of a Superconducting Plasma Wave

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves1, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves (JPWs)2,3, involving oscillatory tunneling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear4, and exhibit striking phenomena like cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation5,6, superconductor-metal oscillations7 and soliton formation8. We show here that terahertz JPWs can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunneling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order parameter phase fluctuations9 or single terahertz-photon devices. PMID:27833647

  20. Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-15

    Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed.

  1. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-12-15

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  2. Magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-11-15

    Quantum magnetoacoustic shock waves are studied in homogenous, magnetized, dissipative dense electron-ion plasma by using two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The weak dissipation effects in the system are taken into account through kinematic viscosity of the ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetoacoustic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the external magnetic field in dense plasmas. The strength of magnetoacoustic shock is investigated with the variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, and ion kinematic viscosity of dense plasma system. The necessary condition for the existence of monotonic and oscillatory shock waves is also discussed. The numerical results are presented for illustration by using the data of astrophysical dense plasma situations such as neutron stars exist in the literature.

  3. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Avanov, Levon A.; Bellan, Paul M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2017-03-01

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  4. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave

    DOE PAGES

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; ...

    2017-03-31

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth’s magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electronsmore » confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. As a result, the investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.« less

  5. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Avanov, Levon A.; Bellan, Paul M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations. PMID:28361881

  6. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Daniel J; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C; Boardsen, Scott A; Avanov, Levon A; Bellan, Paul M; Schwartz, Steven J; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N; Chandler, Michael O; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R; Fuselier, Stephen A; Ergun, Robert E; Strangeway, Robert J; Russell, Christopher T; Giles, Barbara L; Pollock, Craig J; Torbert, Roy B; Burch, James L

    2017-03-31

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  7. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.

    1980-05-01

    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of plasma waves in a cold magnetized plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Y.-C.

    1972-01-01

    Coupling equations are derived for the general case of nonlinear coupling of any wave modes in a cold magnetized plasma with particle drift motions. Specifically, the transformation of electrostatic waves is studied in connection with solar type-III radiation. A relevant numerical analysis is also presented.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    1998-11-01

    The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this

  10. Laboratory observations of self-excited dust acoustic shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Robert L.; Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Kim, Su-Hyun

    2009-11-01

    Dust acoustic waves have been discussed in connection with dust density structures in Saturn's rings and the Earth's mesosphere, and as a possible mechanism for triggering condensation of small grains in dust molecular clouds. Dust acoustic waves are a ubiquitous occurrence in laboratory dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges. We report observations of repeated, self-excited dust acoustic shock waves in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma using high-speed video imaging. Two major observations will be presented: (1) The self-steepening of a nonlinear dust acoustic wave into a saw-tooth wave with sharp gradient in dust density, very similar to those found in numerical solutions [1] of the fully nonlinear fluid equations for nondispersive dust acoustic waves, and (2) the collision and confluence of two dust acoustic shock waves. [4pt] [1] B. Eliasson and P. K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 69, 067401 (2004).

  11. Solitary Surface Waves at a Plasma Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    A new equation describing the behaviour of strongly nonlinear waves localized near the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is deduced. This equation has solitary wave solutions that can be found numerically. Various limiting cases are treated analytically in the present paper.

  12. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Angus, J. R.

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.

  13. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  14. Potential surface waves in anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, Yu. M. Vagin, K. Yu. Uryupin, S. A.; Frolov, A. A.

    2016-06-15

    The dependences of the frequency and damping rate of a potential surface wave on the wavenumber and the degree of anisotropy of a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution characterized by different temperatures along and across the plasma surface are established. It is demonstrated that the influence of electron thermal motion along the plasma surface on the surface wave properties is similar to the influence of thermal motion on the properties of a bulk Langmuir wave. On the contrary, thermal motion across the surface qualitatively affects the dispersion relation and substantially increases the damping rate.

  15. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    A. Pletzer; C.K. Phillips; D.N. Smithe

    2003-06-18

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach.

  16. Weak Wave Coupling Through Plasma Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    Some effects of linear wave coupling due to effects of plasma inhomogeneity are well known through the process of mode conversion(D. G. Swanson, Theory of Mode Conversion and Tunneling in Inhomogenous Plasmas), (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998).. Another type of resonant coupling in a periodically inhomogeneous plasma has been recently found(V. A. Svidzinski and D. G. Swanson, Physics of Plasmas series 5), 486 (1998)., but any two waves will generally be coupled if the plasma is inhomogeneous, although the coupling may be weak. If the wavelengths are close, nearly all of the energy in one mode may be transferred to the other mode over a distance that depends on the coupling strength. The coupling strength depends on gradients of the plasma parameters. This means that the coupling may occur over an extended region in space, but that substantial amounts of wave energy may be transferred to a wave traditionally thought to be independent. Low-frequency Alfvén waves are shown to be a good example of this type of coupling.

  17. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  18. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman, Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-08-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number qeff accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  19. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-08-15

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q{sub eff} accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  20. On nonlinear waves in Hall-MHD plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miteva, R.; Mann, G.

    2008-10-01

    Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations are observed in space plasmas, e.g. as upstream waves at the Earth's bow shock. Such upstream waves can steepen into very large amplitude wave phenomena, e.g. short large-amplitude magnetic structures (or SLAMS for short), shocklets or discrete wave packets. Such observations motivated us to study the nonlinear behavior of low-frequency and large-amplitude plasma waves in terms of the full nonlinear Hall-MHD framework. In the case of stationary (nonlinear) waves, the Hall-MHD equations can be rewritten in the so-called Sakai-Sonnerup system of equations that describe this plasma state and provide oscillatory and solitary types of solutions. An overall parameter study on the polarization characteristics, together with the magnetic field components and density variations of the different ranges of solutions, is presented here. These results can be further on applied to the theoretical treatment of particle interaction with such waves, e.g. at shocks in space plasmas, possibly leading to particle acceleration.

  1. Scattering of radio frequency waves by turbulence in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.

    2016-10-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments and incoherent fluctuations due to turbulence are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a tokamak, have to propagate through the scrape-off layer before reaching the core of the plasma. While the effect of fluctuations on RF waves has not been quantified experimentally, there are telltale signs, arising from differences between results from simulations and from experiments, that fluctuations can modify the spectrum of RF waves. Any effect on RF waves in the scrape-off layer can have important experimental consequences. For example, electron cyclotron waves are expected to stabilize the deleterious neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) in ITER. Spectral and polarization changes due to scattering will modify the spatial location and profile of the current driven by the RF waves, thereby affecting the control of NTMs. Pioneering theoretical studies and complementary computer simulations have been pursued to elucidate the impact of fluctuations on RF waves. From the full complement of Maxwell's equations for cold, magnetized plasmas, it is shown that the Poynting flux in the wake of filaments develops spatial structure due to diffraction and shadowing. The uniformity of power flow into the plasma is affected by side-scattering, modifications to the wave spectrum, and coupling to plasma waves other than the incident RF wave. The Snell's law and the Fresnel equations have been reformulated within the context of magnetized plasmas. They are distinctly different from their counterparts in scalar dielectric media, and reveal new and important physical insight into the scattering of RF waves. The Snell's law and Fresnel equations are the basis for the Kirchhoff approximation necessary to determine properties of the scattered waves. Furthermore, this theory is also relevant for studying back

  2. Atomic spectroscopy with surface wave plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J; Bordeleau, S; Tran, K C; Michaud, S; Milette, B; Sing, R; Jalbert, J; Boudreau, D; Moisan, M; Margot, J

    1996-06-01

    The use of microwave induced plasmas, particularly of surface wave plasmas, as detectors in atomic emission spectrometry for elemental analysis is reviewed. Surface wave plasmas have been produced at low HF power and used as gas chromatographic detectors. The analytical performances for the detection of non-metals with a Fourier transform spectrometer and a two-channel filter unit are reported. The excitation behavior of non-metals in helium-based mixed gas-plasmas has also be studied. In particular, the effect of power and of nitrogen concentration on the bromine emission has been systematically investigated. A nine-fold improvement of the detection limits for bromine can be obtained in a high power (900 W) helium-nitrogen (0.1-0.2%) plasma.

  3. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser.

  4. Plasma waves associated with energetic particles streaming into the solar wind from the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma wave and plasma data from ISEE 1 and 2 are examined. In the upstream solar wind, three dominant types of plasma waves are observed which are associated with energetic particle streams coming from the bow shock: ion acoustic waves, electron plasma oscillations, and whistler mode waves. The ion acoustic waves occur simultaneously with either ion beams or a dispersed ion population in the energy range from 0.5 to greater than 45 keV. The electron plasma oscillations are long-wavelength, nearly monochromatic electrostatic waves which are closely correlated with the flux of low-energy electrons, especially in the 0.2-1.5 keV range. Electromagnetic waves with frequencies below 200 Hz are observed when either ion beams or dispersed ion distributions are present; for these waves the refractive index determined from the wave B to E ratio is consistent with whistler mode radiation.

  5. Observation of an antenna-plasma instability

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J. ); Whalen, B.A. )

    1990-06-01

    During a rocket flight to high altitude (585 km) a narrow band signal on an electric antenna was sometimes observed, whose frequency varied as the rocket turned. Such a signal cannot be natural, but apparently must be generated by the interaction of the rocket-antenna system with the ambient plasma. Conditions for development of the instability are investigated. Maximum oscillation amplitude occurs when the antenna is aligned with the Earth's magnetic field. Similar observations have been reported by Gurnett and Mosier (1969). Several attempts are made to understand the nature of this interaction, but without success. The instability treated by Fiala, due to the interaction of an inductive antenna impedance with stray capacitance to a phase shifted point in the preamplifier, can be ruled out. It appears that a negative antenna resistance due to interaction with waves Doppler-shifted through zero is an unlikely explanation. The rocket velocity seems too small to give such an anomalous Doppler shift, and even if the observations of plasma density and temperature are stretched, the positive sheath resistance is larger than calculated negative resistances. Ion transit time instability in the sheath would only work at 10 times higher frequency. Interaction of the flowing plasma with sheath waves around the antenna is suggested and appears promising but the theory is not sufficiently developed for meaningful comparison.

  6. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.

    2010-02-15

    Two-dimensional quantum ion acoustic shock waves (QIASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons and ions. In this regard, a nonplanar quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (QKPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Using the tangent hyperbolic method, an analytical solution of the planar QKPB equation is obtained and subsequently used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar QKPB equation. It is observed that the increasing number density (and correspondingly the quantum Bohm potential) and kinematic viscosity affect the propagation characteristics of the QIASW. The temporal evolution of the nonplanar QIASW is investigated both in Cartesian and polar planes and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of propagation of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical environments.

  7. Lower hybrid drift waves: space observations.

    PubMed

    Norgren, Cecilia; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V; André, Mats

    2012-08-03

    Lower hybrid drift waves (LHDWs) are commonly observed at plasma boundaries in space and laboratory, often having the strongest measured electric fields within these regions. We use data from two of the Cluster satellites (C3 and C4) located in Earth's magnetotail and separated by a distance of the order of the electron gyroscale. These conditions allow us, for the first time, to make cross-spacecraft correlations of the LHDWs and to determine the phase velocity and wavelength of the LHDWs. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. We show that the electrostatic potential of LHDWs is linearly related to fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude, which allows us to determine the velocity vector through the relation ∫δEdt·v = ϕ(δB)(∥). The electrostatic potential fluctuations correspond to ∼10% of the electron temperature, which suggests that the waves can strongly affect the electron dynamics.

  8. Scattering of radio frequency waves by blobs in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis

    2013-05-15

    The density fluctuations and blobs present in the edge region of magnetic fusion devices can scatter radio frequency (RF) waves through refraction, reflection, diffraction, and coupling to other plasma waves. This, in turn, affects the spectrum of the RF waves and the electromagnetic power that reaches the core of the plasma. The usual geometric optics analysis of RF scattering by density blobs accounts for only refractive effects. It is valid when the amplitude of the fluctuations is small, of the order of 10%, compared to the background density. In experiments, density fluctuations with much larger amplitudes are routinely observed, so that a more general treatment of the scattering process is needed. In this paper, a full-wave model for the scattering of RF waves by a blob is developed. The full-wave approach extends the range of validity well beyond that of geometric optics; however, it is theoretically and computationally much more challenging. The theoretical procedure, although similar to that followed for the Mie solution of Maxwell's equations, is generalized to plasmas in a magnetic field. Besides diffraction and reflection, the model includes coupling to a different plasma wave than the one imposed by the external antenna structure. In the model, it is assumed that the RF waves interact with a spherical blob. The plasma inside and around the blob is cold, homogeneous, and imbedded in a uniform magnetic field. After formulating the complete analytical theory, the effect of the blob on short wavelength electron cyclotron waves and longer wavelength lower hybrid waves is studied numerically.

  9. Quantum physics of classical waves in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, I. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The Lagrangian approach to plasma wave physics is extended to a universal nonlinear theory which yields generic equations invariant with respect to the wave nature. The traditional understanding of waves as solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov system is abandoned. Oscillations are rather treated as physical entities, namely, abstract vectors |ψ> in a specific Hilbert space. The invariant product <ψ|ψ> is the total action and has the sign of the oscillation energy. The action density is then an operator. Projections of the corresponding operator equation generate assorted wave kinetic equations; the nonlinear Wigner-Moyal equation is just one example and, in fact, may be more delicate than commonly assumed. The linear adiabatic limit of this classical theory leads to quantum mechanics in its general form. The action conservation theorem, together with its avatars such as Manley-Rowe relations, then becomes manifest and in partial equilibrium can modify statistical properties of plasma fluctuations. In the quasi-monochromatic limit geometrical optics (GO) is recovered and can as well be understood as a particular field theory in its own right. For linear waves, the energy-momentum equations, in both canonical and (often) kinetic form, then follow automatically, even without a reference to electromagnetism. Yet for waves in plasma the general GO Lagrangian is also derived explicitly, in terms of single-particle oscillation-center Hamiltonians. Applications to various plasma waves are then discussed with an emphasis on the advantages of an abstract theory. Specifically covered are nonlinear dispersion, dynamics, and stability of BGK modes, and also other wave transformations in laboratory and cosmological plasmas.

  10. Electrostatic solitary waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Adhikary, N. C.

    2013-10-15

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts is studied for both large- and small-amplitude perturbations. Using a two-fluid model for pair-ions, it is shown that there appear two linear ion modes, namely the “fast” and “slow” waves in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of these wave modes are studied with different mass (m) and temperature (T) ratios of negative to positive ions, as well as the effects of immobile charged dusts (δ). For large-amplitude waves, the pseudopotential approach is performed, whereas the standard reductive perturbation technique is used to study the small-amplitude Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons. The profiles of the pseudopotential, the large amplitude solitons as well as the dynamical evolution of KdV solitons, are numerically studied with the system parameters as above. It is found that the pair-ion plasmas with positively charged dusts support the propagation of solitary waves (SWs) with only the negative potential. The results may be useful for the excitation of SWs in laboratory dusty pair-ion plasmas, electron-free industrial plasmas as well as for observation in space plasmas where electron density is negligibly small compared to that of negative ions.

  11. Plasma waves associated with the first AMPTE magnetotail barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Luehr, H.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma waves observed during the March 21, 1985, AMPTE magnetotail barium release are described. Electron plasma oscillations provided local measurements of the plasma density during both the expansion and decay phases. Immediately after the explosion, the electron density reached a peak of about 400,000/cu cm, and then started decreasing approximately as t to the -2.4 as the cloud expanded. About 6 minutes after the explosion, the electron density suddenly began to increase, reached a secondary peak of about 240/cu cm, and then slowly decayed down to the preevent level over a period of about 15 minutes. The density increase is believed to be caused by the collapse of the ion cloud into the diamagnetic cavity created by the initial expansion. The plasma wave intensities observed during the entire event were quite low. In the diamagnetic cavity, electrostatic emissions were observed near the barium ion plasma frequency, and in another band at lower frequencies. A broadband burst of electrostatic noise was also observed at the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. Except for electron plasma oscillations, no significant wave activity was observed outside of the diamagnetic cavity.

  12. ULF waves in other magnetospheres - observations and possible source mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, K. K.

    1993-01-01

    Five other planets besides the Earth (Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) in our solar system are now known to possess internal magnetic fields. The exploration of these planets by the Mariner, Pioneer, Voyager and Ulysses spacecraft has revealed that all of them possess fully expressed magnetospheres which share several similarities in their structures with the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper presents an overview of the work done so far in the field of the ULF waves in the magnetospheres of Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. To give an idea of the expected wave periods, gyroperiods of the dominant ion species and the fundamental periods of the standing Alfven waves are presented as functions of L parameter in these magnetospheres. In the magnetosphere of Mercury, ULF waves were observed in the vicinity of the magnetopause and in the inner magnetosphere with frequencies in the range of 0.1-0.5 Hz. In the magnetosphere of Jupiter, at least three different types of wave sources are observed. Near the dayside and the dawn magnetopause, waves with periods 5-20 min and amplitudes between 5 and 10 nT are observed which may be caused by an interaction between the corotating outflowing plasma and the antisunward moving plasma from the magnetosheath. In Saturn's magnetosphere, ULF waves have been observed to be strongly confined to the plasma sheet and have wave periods in the range of 5-60 minutes. The calculated fundamental has a wave period of 5-6 hours in the region where these waves were observed. The ULF waves have extremely small amplitudes (approximately = 0.3 nT) in the magnetosphere of Uranus. These waves were also seen to be confined to the low magnitude latitudes and have periods much shorter than that of the fundamental of a standing Alfven wave.

  13. An overview of plasma wave observations obtained during the Galileo A34 pass through the inner region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Roux, A.; Bolton, S. J.; Alexander, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    On November 5, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft, which is in orbit around Jupiter, made a pass in to a radial distance of 1.98 RJ (Jovian radii) from Jupiter, much closer than on any previous orbit. Data were successfully acquired during the entire inbound pass through the hot and cold plasma torii, and through the region inside the cold torus to a radial distance of 2.32 RJ, at which point the data system went into safing due to the intense radiation in the inner region of the magnetosphere. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the results obtained from the plasma wave investigation during this pass, which is designated A34. As on previous passes through the Io plasma torus a narrowband electrostatic emission at the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided a very accurate measurement of the electron density. The peak electron density, 2.6 x 103 cm-3, occurs just before the inner edge of the hot torus, which is at 5.62 RJ. As the spacecraft enters the cold torus the electron density drops to about 6.0 x 102 cm-3 and then gradually increases as the spacecraft approaches Jupiter, reaching a peak of about 2.5 x 103 cm-3 at 4.86 RJ, shortly before the inner edge of the cold torus. At the inner edge of the cold torus, which occurs at 4.76 RJ, the electron density drops dramatically to levels on the order of 1 cm-3. The electron density in this inner region is difficult to interpret because the upper hybrid emission can no longer be clearly identified, and there are numerous narrowband emissions with cutoffs that may or may not be associated with the local electron plasma frequency. As in the hot torus, the low density region inside the cold torus has a persistent level of plasma wave noise below about 103 Hz that is tentatively interpreted as whistler mode noise. The intensity of the whistler mode noise increases noticeably as the spacecraft crosses Thebe's orbit at 3.1 RJ, and increases markedly as the spacecraft crosses Amalthea's orbit at 2.6 RJ. The

  14. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  15. Langmuir Wave Decay in Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasmas: Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  16. Ground Detection of Gyro Resonant Plasma Waves During High Power Radio Waves Experiments at HAARP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Kendall, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    High power radio waves transmitted from the ground can enter the ionosphere and become transformed into electrostatic waves by mode coupling or parametric decay. The decay products may be electromagnetic (EM) waves that propagate to the ground and are detected by ground receivers. The decay products may also be electrostatic waves that are mode converted to EM waves for propagation to ground receivers. The EM signals have frequency offsets from the EM pump wave and are called stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). The production of SEE requires five factors for excitation. First, the EM pump wave must have sufficient amplitude in the ionosphere to excite the parametric decay process. Second, the EM pump wave must propagate to a region where it can couple into a resonant mode of the plasma. Third, the large amplitude EM or ES resonant mode drives a parametric decay instability to generate two other resonant modes in the plasma. Fourth, at least one resonant mode in the plasma must be weakly damped. Fifth, the high frequency daughter wave of the parametric decay process may need to be converted into an electromagnetic wave to be received on the ground. In the framework of these five criteria, the production of stimulated ion Bernstein (SIB) emissions is considered for an electromagnetic pump wave tuned to the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. For maximum pump amplitude, the plasma frequency should be nearly equal to the pump frequency. This double resonance occurs if the EM pump frequency is tuned to match the frequency at the altitude where the plasma frequency in the plasma layer is equal to twice the electron gyro frequency. The double resonance of pump frequency equals plasma frequency equals twice the electron gyro frequency insures that a large amplitude standing wave is formed at the point where the pump electric field can couple into the electron Bernstein resonance at twice the electron cyclotron frequency. The theory for generation

  17. Obliquely Propagating Waves in Bi-Kappa Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F.; Meneses, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of kappa velocity distribution functions (VDFs) have been the subjectof intense research. Such functions have beenfound to provide a better fitting to the VDFs measured by spacecraftin the solar wind. An anisotropic VDF contains free energy that can excite wavesin the plasma. The induced turbulence also determines the observed shape of the VDF.The general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established.However, for kappa distributions (isotropic or anisotropic), the majority of the studieswere restricted to the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation.Contributions to the general case of obliquely-propagating waves have been scarcely reported.The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interactionin kappa plasmas, since some instabilities can operate both in the parallel and oblique directions.A series of papers published by the authors begin to remedy this situation. In a first work [1],we have obtained the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. This approach was later generalized by [2],where the formalism was extended to the general case of electrostatic/electromagnetic waves propagatingin an isotropic kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles.In the present work [3], we generalize even further the formalism by the derivation of thegeneral dielectric tensor of an anisotropic bi-kappa plasma. We present the state-of-the-art of theformalism and show how it enables a systematic study of waves and instabilities propagating inarbitrary directions and frequencies in a bi-kappa plasma.[1] R. Gaelzer, L. F. Ziebell, J. Geophys. Res. 119, 9334 (2014), doi: 10.1002/2014JA020667.[2] R. Gaelzer, L. F. Ziebell, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016), doi: 10.1063/1.4941260.[3] R. Gaelzer et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062108 (2016), doi: 10.1063/1.4953430.

  18. Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior.

  19. Modulation of whistler waves in nonthermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, L. A.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2011-02-15

    The modulation of whistler waves in nonthermal plasmas is investigated. The dynamics of the magnetized plasma is described by the fluid equations and the electron velocity distribution function is modeled via a nonthermal {kappa} distribution. A multiscale perturbation analysis based on the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method is carried out and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the modulation of the high-frequency whistler is obtained. The effect of the superthermal electrons on the stability of the wave envelope and soliton formation is discussed and a comparison with previous results is presented.

  20. Nonplanar waves with electronegative dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zobaer, M. S.; Mukta, K. N.; Nahar, L.; Mamun, A. A.; Roy, N.

    2013-04-15

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of basic characteristics of the nonplanar dust-ion-acoustic shock and solitary waves in electronegative dusty plasma containing Boltzmann electrons, Boltzmann negative ions, inertial positive ions, and charge fluctuating (negatively charged) stationary dust. The Burgers' and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equations, which is derived by reductive perturbation technique, is numerically solved to examine the effects of nonplanar geometry on the basic features of the DIA shock and solitary waves formed in the electronegative dusty plasma. The implications of the results (obtained from this investigation) in space and laboratory experiments are briefly discussed.

  1. Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin

    This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e < 0.02. The saturated magnetic field energy of whistler waves roughly scales with the square of the electron beta beta∥e. 2, as shown in bothsatellite observations and particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a

  2. Electromagnetic cyclotron waves in the solar wind: Wind observation and wave dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Viñas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-03-25

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and α-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  3. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  4. Collisional Drift Waves in Stellarator Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-10-07

    A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a stellarator with an helical magnetic axis is presented. Three coupled field equations, describing the collisional drift wave dynamics in the linear approximation, are solved as an initial-value problem along the magnetic field line. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.

  5. On the freak waves in mesospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shewy, E. K.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.; El-Razek, H. N. Abd; El-Rahman, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The nonlinear properties of dusty ionic freak waves have been studied in homogeneous, unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing ions, isothermal electrons, negative and positive grains. By using the derivative expansion method and assuming strongly dispersive medium, the basic model equations are reduced to a nonlinear form of Schrodinger equation (NLSE). One of the solutions of the NLSE in the unstable region is the rational one which is responsible for the creation of the freak profiles. The reliance of freak waves profile on dusty grains charge and carrier wave number are discussed.

  6. Plasma shock waves excited by THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Shur, M.

    2016-10-01

    The shock plasma waves in Si MOS, InGaAs and GaN HEMTs are launched at a relatively small THz power that is nearly independent of the THz input frequency for short channel (22 nm) devices and increases with frequency for longer (100 nm to 1 mm devices). Increasing the gate-to-channel separation leads to a gradual transition of the nonlinear waves from the shock waves to solitons. The mathematics of this transition is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation that has the single propagating soliton solution.

  7. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-15

    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  9. Oblique ion acoustic shock waves in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2013-08-15

    Ion acoustic (IA) shock waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of a cold viscous ion fluid and Maxwellian electrons. The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the combined effects of external magnetic field and obliqueness significantly modify the basic properties (viz., amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of the IA shock waves. It is observed that the ion-viscosity is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of IA shock structures. The implications of our results in some space and laboratory plasma situations are discussed.

  10. Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.

  11. Observations of Ionospheric Langmuir-waves Enhanced by Electron Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Bjorn; Gunell, Herbert; Lamy, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations during auroral events regularly show strongly enhanced back-scatter from Langmuir-waves. In this presentation we show observations of significantly enhanced power in E-region plasma-lines. The observations show the altitude variation of the plasma-line power and frequency with 3 km altitude-resolution. One novel observation is that the back-scatter is just above a multiple of the electron gyro-frequency. This novel finding cannot be explained by the standard incoherent-scatter and electron transport theories. However, this frequency dependency is similar to the ionospheric responses to HF-radio-wave pumping. Electron-beam excited UH-waves converting to Langmuir-waves are suggested as a plausible explanation.

  12. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  13. Observations of running penumbral waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.; Stein, A.

    1972-01-01

    Quiet sunspots with well-developed penumbrae show running intensity waves with period running around 300 sec. The waves appear connected with umbral flashes of exactly half the period. Waves are concentric, regular, with velocity constant around 10 km/sec. They are probably sound waves and show intensity fluctuation in H alpha centerline or wing of 10 to 20%. The energy is tiny compared to the heat deficit of the umbra.

  14. Comparison of Dynamically Modeled EMIC Wave Activity with in situ Observations: Implications for Wave Growth Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, J. P., II; Elkington, S. R.; Usanova, M.; Bortnik, J.

    2016-12-01

    We employed a 3D test particle simulation and a global magnetohydrodynamic code to compute Electromagnetic Ion-Cyclotron (EMIC) wave saturation amplitudes from the linear theory of wave growth. This provided a global dynamical picture of EMIC wave activity for a geomagnetic storm observed on 29 June 2007 by THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft. Comparison of these amplitudes with values derived from on-board plasma measurements suggest re-evaluation of EMIC wave growth assumptions is necessary. We will present these comparisons along with analysis regarding the applicablity of the linear theory of wave growth during this event.

  15. FIRST EVIDENCE OF COEXISTING EIT WAVE AND CORONAL MORETON WAVE FROM SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. F.; Wu, Y.

    2011-05-10

    'EIT waves' are a globally propagating wavelike phenomenon. They were often interpreted as fast-mode magnetoacoustic waves in the corona, despite various discrepancies between the fast-mode wave model and observations. To reconcile these discrepancies, we suggested that 'EIT waves' are the apparent propagation of the plasma compression due to successive stretching of the magnetic field lines pushed by the erupting flux rope. According to this model, an EIT wave should be preceded by a fast-mode wave, which, however, had rarely been observed. With the unprecedented high cadence and sensitivity of the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, we discern a fast-moving wave front with a speed of 560 km s{sup -1} ahead of an EIT wave, which had a velocity of {approx}190 km s{sup -1}, in the 'EIT wave' event on 2010 July 27. The results, suggesting that 'EIT waves' are not fast-mode waves, confirm the prediction of our field-line stretching model for an EIT wave. In particular, it is found that the coronal Moreton wave was {approx}3 times faster than the EIT wave, as predicted.

  16. Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, W.

    1994-08-01

    Activities under this project have included participation in the Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program, a study of the data processing requirements for WISP, and theoretical studies of radio sounding, ducting, and magnetoionic theory. An analysis of radio sounding in the magnetosphere was prepared.

  17. ISEE/ICE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed for the period 1 Jan. 1985 to 30 Oct. 1989 is presented. The objective was to provide reduction and analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3)/International Cometary Explorer (ICE) missions.

  18. Nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, O. P.; Manta, J.

    2009-03-15

    The nonlinear wave structure of electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) is investigated in a three component unmagnetized dense quantum plasma consisting of two distinct groups of electrons (one inertial cold electron, and other inertialess hot electrons) and immobile ions. By employing one dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model and standard reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de-Vries equation governing the dynamics of EAWs is derived. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons along with periodical potential structures are found to exist for various ranges of dimensionless quantum parameter H. The quantum mechanical effects are also examined numerically on the profiles of the amplitude and the width of electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is observed that both the amplitude and the width of electron-acoustic solitary waves are significantly affected by the parameter H. The relevance of the present investigation to the astrophysical ultradense plasmas is also discussed.

  19. Low frequency nonlinear waves in electron depleted magnetized nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak Hossen, Md.; Sahadat Alam, Md.; Sultana, Sharmin; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical study on the ultra-low frequency small but finite amplitude solitary waves has been carried out in an electron depleted magnetized nonthermal dusty plasma consisting of both polarity (positively charged as well as negatively charged) inertial massive dust particles and nonextensive q distributed ions. The reductive perturbation technique is employed to derive the ZakharovKuznetsov (ZK) equation. The basic features of low frequency solitary wave are analyzed via the solution of ZK equation. It is observed that the intrinsic properties (e.g., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) are significantly influenced by the effects external magnetic field, obliqueness, nonextensivity of ions, and the ratio of ion number density to the product of electron and negative dust number density. The findings of our results may be useful to explain the low frequency nonlinear wave propagation in some plasma environments like cometary tails, the earth polar mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, etc.

  20. Waves and Instabilities in the Magnetospheric Plasma of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Leisner, J. S.; Wilson, R. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pérez-Enríquez, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    Ion Cyclotron Waves (ICW) and Mirror Mode Waves (MMW) have been observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's middle magnetosphere (Russell et al. 2006; Leisner et al. 2006). These waves have a common origin since they require plasma temperature anisotropy (pressure) to grow (T_{⊥}/T_{∥}≫ 1). ICW have frequencies close to the gyro-frequencies of water group ions (Ω_{W^+}), they are left-handed and in most regions propagate at small angles to the ambient magnetic field (B_o). There are some regions where ICW have been observed with frequencies at twice the fundamental gyro-frequency and propagate at oblique angles. We interpret these waves as a Harmonic Mode Wave (HMW) (Rodríguez-Martínez et al. 2010). On the other hand, MMW are very compressive modes characterized by strong dips in B_o which are anti-correlated with the density.

  1. Bounce harmonic Landau damping of plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Kabantsev, A. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Ashourvan, A.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of bounce harmonic Landau damping due to z-variations in the plasma potential, created by an azimuthally symmetric "squeeze" voltage Vs applied to the cylindrical wall. Traditional Landau damping on spatially uniform plasma is weak in regimes where the wave phase velocity vp h≡ω/k is large compared to the thermal velocity. However, z-variations in plasma density and potential create higher spatial harmonics, which enable resonant wave damping by particles with bounce-averaged velocities vp h/n , where n is an integer. In our geometry, the applied squeeze predominantly generates a resonance at vp h/3 . Wave-coherent laser induced fluorescence measurements of particle velocities show a distinctive Landau damping signature at vp h/3 , with amplitude proportional to the applied Vs. The measured (small amplitude) wave damping is then proportional to Vs2 , in quantitative agreement with theory over a range of 20 in temperature. Significant questions remain regarding "background" bounce harmonic damping due to ubiquitous confinement fields and regarding the saturation of this damping at large wave amplitudes.

  2. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Landau damping of a driven plasma wave from laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bu Zhigang; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-15

    The interaction between a laser pulse and a driven plasma wave with a phase velocity approaching the speed of light is studied, and our investigation is focused on the Gaussian laser pulse. It is demonstrated that when the resonance condition between the plasma wave and the laser pulse is satisfied, the Landau damping phenomenon of the plasma wave originated from the laser pulse will emerge. The dispersion relations for the plasma waves in resonance and non-resonance regions are obtained. It is proved that the Landau damping rate for a driven plasma wave is {gamma}>0 in the resonance region, so the laser pulse can produce an inverse damping effect, namely Landau growth effect, which leads an instability for the plasma wave. The Landau growth means that the energy is transmitted from the laser pulse to the plasma wave, which could be an effective process for enhancing the plasma wave.

  4. Observation of plasma microwave emission during the injection of supersonic plasma flows into magnetic arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, M. E.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Kiryuhin, N. D.; Golubev, S. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    The process of plasma deceleration during the injection of supersonic plasma flow across the magnetic field of an arched configuration is experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission in the electron cyclotron frequency range is observed. It is shown that the frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by the position of the deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc, and its bandwidth is defined by the magnetic field inhomogeneity in the deceleration region. The observed emission can be related to the cyclotron mechanism of wave generation by non-equilibrium energetic electrons in the dense plasma.

  5. Analysis of plasma wave interference patterns in the Spacelab 2 PDP data. [PDP (Plasma Diagnostics Package)

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wei.

    1992-01-01

    During the Spacelab 2 mission the University of Iowa's Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) explored the plasma environment around the shuttle. Wideband spectrograms of plasma waves were obtained from the PDP at frequencies from 0 to 30 kHz up to 400 m from the shuttle. These spectrograms frequently showed interference patterns caused by waves with wavelengths short compared to the antenna length (3.89 meters). Two types of interference patterns were observed in the wideband data: associated with the ejection of an electron beam from the space shuttle; associated with lower hybrid waves generated by an interaction between the neutral gas cloud around shuttle and the ambient ionospheric plasma. Analysis of these antenna interference patterns permits a determination of the wavelength, the plasma rest frame frequency, the direction of propagation, the power spectrum and in some cases the location of the source. The electric field noise associated with the electron beam was observed in the wideband data for two periods during which an electron frequency range at low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and shows clear evidence of interference patterns. The broadband low frequency noise was the dominant type of noise produced by the electron beam. The waves have a linear dispersion relation very similar to ion acoustic waves. The returning to the shuttle in response to the ejected electron beam. The waves associated with the lower hybrid resonance have rest frame frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and propagate perpendicular to the magnetic field. The occurrence of these waves depends strongly on the PDP's position relative to the shuttle and the magnetic field direction. The authors results confirm previous identifications of these waves as lower hybrid waves and suggest they are driven by pick-up ions (H[sub 2]O[sup +]) produced by a charge exchange interaction between a water cloud around the shuttle and the ambient ionosphere.

  6. Density Limit in TCABR Plasmas With Alfven Wave Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, C.; Bellintani, V.; Elfimov, A. G.; Elizondo, J. I.; Fagundes, A. N.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Kuznetsov, Yu K.; Nascimento, I. C.; Ozono, E. M.; Ruchko, L. F.; Sa, W. P. de; Sanada, E. K.; Usuriaga, O. C.

    2006-12-04

    Alfven Waves (AW) were launched in tokamak (TCABR) density limit plasmas for the first time. Experimental evidence of plasma heating is backed up by calculations from an 1-D numerical cylindrical code, based on the toroidal electric field diffusion. Simultaneously, increase in the density limit and plasma pressure with negligible impurities level launched by the AW antennas were also observed, without major appearance of a resistive disruption. The increase in the density limit and the heating might be related to the expected edge and off-axis AW power deposition, respectively, in agreement with the calculation performed by an 1-D numerical code linked to ASTRA.

  7. Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N P; Akhmediev, N

    2011-05-20

    The conventional definition of rogue waves in the ocean is that their heights, from crest to trough, are more than about twice the significant wave height, which is the average wave height of the largest one-third of nearby waves. When modeling deep water waves using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the most likely candidate satisfying this criterion is the so-called Peregrine solution. It is localized in both space and time, thus describing a unique wave event. Until now, experiments specifically designed for observation of breather states in the evolution of deep water waves have never been made in this double limit. In the present work, we present the first experimental results with observations of the Peregrine soliton in a water wave tank.

  8. Global observations of ocean Rossby waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chelton, D.B.; Schlax, M.G.

    1996-04-12

    Rossby waves play a critical role in the transient adjustment of ocean circulation to changes in large-scale atmospheric forcing. The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter has detected Rossby waves throughout much of the world ocean from sea level signals with {approx_lt} 10-centimeters amplitude and {approx_lt} 500-kilometer wavelength. Outside of the tropics Rossby waves are abruptly amplified by major topographic features. Analysis of 3 years of data reveals discrepancies between observed and theoretical Rossby wave phase speeds that indicate that the standard theory for free, linear Rossby waves in an incomplete description of the observed waves. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Plasma waves near Saturn: Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn provided the first opportunity to investigate plasma wave interactions in the magnetosphere of Saturn. An overview of the principal results from the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument is presented starting with the initial detection of Saturn and ending about four weeks after closest approach. A survey plot of the electric field intensities detected during the Saturn encounter is shown starting shortly before the inbound shock crossing and ending shortly after the outbound magnetopause crossing. Many intense waves were observed in the vicinity of Saturn. To provide a framework for presenting the observations, the results are discussed more or less according to the sequence in which the data were obtained.

  10. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive, high resolution plasma probes for analysis of the distribution functions and plasma wave instruments for measurements of electromagnetic and electrostatic wave modes are commonly flown together to provide information on plasma instabilities and wave particle interactions. Analysis of the data for the ISEE 3 mission is provided.

  11. Waves and Fine Structure in Expanding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Andrew; Gekelman, Walter

    2009-11-01

    The behavior of expanding dense plasmas has long been a topic of interest in space plasma research, particularly in the case of expansion within a magnetized background. Previous laser-plasma experiments at the UCLA Large Plasma Device have observed the creation of strong (δBB > 50%) diamagnetic cavities, along with large-scale wave activity and hints of fine-scale structure. A new series of experiments conducted recently at the LaPD performs direct measurement of the fields inside the expanding plasma via a novel 2D probe drive system. This system combines small-scale (0.5mm-1mm) magnetic and electric field probes with high-accuracy vacuum ceramic motors, to allow measurement of the plasma volume over a 2000-point grid at 1mm resolution. The data reveal both coherent high-amplitude waves associated with the formation of these magnetic features, and complicated small-scale structure in both the magnetic field and floating potential. In addition, we will present correlation techniques using multiple independent B and E field probes. This reveals behavior of turbulent, non-phase-locked phenomena. Both the case of a single expanding plasma and two colliding plasmas were studied.

  12. Formation mechanism of steep wave front in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, M. Kasuya, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kobayashi, T.; Arakawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, T.; Yagi, M.

    2015-03-15

    Bifurcation from a streamer to a solitary drift wave is obtained in three dimensional simulation of resistive drift waves in cylindrical plasmas. The solitary drift wave is observed in the regime where the collisional transport is important as well as fluctuation induced transport. The solitary drift wave forms a steep wave front in the azimuthal direction. The phase of higher harmonic modes are locked to that of the fundamental mode, so that the steep wave front is sustained for a long time compared to the typical time scale of the drift wave oscillation. The phase entrainment between the fundamental and second harmonic modes is studied, and the azimuthal structure of the stationary solution is found to be characterized by a parameter which is determined by the deviation of the fluctuations from the Boltzmann relation. There are two solutions of the azimuthal structures, which have steep wave front facing forward and backward in the wave propagation direction, respectively. The selection criterion of these solutions is derived theoretically from the stability of the phase entrainment. The simulation result and experimental observations are found to be consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  13. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; Denton, M. H.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-01-26

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1–0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10⁻³ nT², using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

  14. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes.

    PubMed

    Hartley, D P; Chen, Y; Kletzing, C A; Denton, M H; Kurth, W S

    2015-02-01

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1-0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10(-3) nT(2), using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

  15. Double beat-wave mechanism to keep particle in phase with accelerating plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Csonka, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two mechanisms are described by which the phase matching between accelerated particle and accelerating plasma wave in a plasma beat-wave accelerator can be maintained indefinitely. (1) Interference between two beat-waves to cancel (a) the fields in the interfering electromagnetic waves, and (b) electron oscillations which would otherwise be set up by those waves. (2) Alternating plasma density used in conjunction with one or two beat-waves.

  16. Electrostatic rogue-waves in relativistically degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the modulational instability and the possibility of electrostatic rogue-wave propagations in a completely degenerate plasma with arbitrary degree of degeneracy, i.e., relativistically degenerate plasma, ranging from solid density to the astrophysical compact stars. The hydrodynamic approach along with the perturbation method is used to reduce the governing equations to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation from which the modulational instability, the growth rate of envelope excitations and the occurrence of rogue as well as super-rogue waves in the plasma, is evaluated. It is observed that the modulational instability in a fully degenerate plasma can be quite sensitive to the plasma number-density and the wavenumber of envelop excitations. It is further revealed that the relativistically degeneracy plasmas (R{sub 0} > 1) are almost always modulationally unstable. It is found, however, that the highly energetic sharply localized electrostatic rogue as well as super-rogue waves can exist in the astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron star crusts. The later may provide a link to understand many physical processes in such stars and it may lead us to the origin of the random-localized intense short gamma-ray bursts, which “appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace” quite similar to oceanic rogue structures.

  17. Kinetic ion-acoustic solitary waves in collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2014-05-01

    The excitation and the propagation of solitary waves of ion-acoustic nature are analyzed by means of kinetic Eulerian simulations, in both collision-free and collisional plasmas, composed of kinetic warm protons and linear Boltzmannian electrons. The process of soliton formation is discussed in detail through the description of the time evolution of the electrostatic potential and of the associated phase space portraits of the proton distribution function. We study the effects of collisions on the propagation of solitary waves, by modeling proton-proton interactions through the one-dimensional nonlinear Dougherty operator, which is a collisional operator of the Fokker-Planck type. We show how, in a case of non-negligible collisionality, short spatial scales in the electrostatic potential are dissipated in time and the phase space structures, observed in the distribution function in absence of collisions, are significantly smoothed out. Finally, by exploiting the analogy between ion-acoustic waves in neutral infinite plasma and Trivelpiece-Gould waves in nonneutral plasmas columns, a recipe to observe solitary structures in nonneutral plasma devices is proposed.

  18. Dust structurization observed in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Kim, Su-Hyun; Merlino, Robert L.

    2010-11-01

    Dusty plasmas, which are inherently open systems which require an ionization source to replenish the plasma absorbed on the grains, tend to exhibit self-organization. Various structures have been observed in dusty plasmas such as dust crystals, voids, and vortices. Due to the presence of drifting ions in dc discharge plasmas, spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves are also a common occurrence. By adjusting the discharge parameters we have observed a new phenomenon in dusty plasmas -- the spontaneous formation of three-dimensional stationary dust density structures. These structures appear as an ordered pattern consisting of alternating regions of high and low dust density arranged in a nested bowl-type configuration The stationary structure evolves from dust density waves that slow down as their wavelength decreases and eventually stop moving when the wavelength reaches some minimum size.

  19. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M. |

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas.

  20. Relativistic Bernstein waves in a degenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Muddasir; Hussain, Azhar; Murtaza, G.

    2011-09-15

    Bernstein mode for a relativistic degenerate electron plasma is investigated. Using relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations, a general expression for the conductivity tensor is derived and then employing Fermi-Dirac distribution function a generalized dispersion relation for the Bernstein mode is obtained. Two limiting cases, i.e., non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic are discussed. The dispersion relations obtained are also graphically presented for some specific values of the parameters depicting how the propagation characteristics of Bernstein waves as well as the Upper Hybrid oscillations are modified with the increase in plasma number density.

  1. Shear-Alfven waves in gyrokinetic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. W.; Lewandowski, J. L. V.; Hahm, T. S.; Lin, Z.

    2001-10-01

    It is found that the thermal fluctuation level of the shear-Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma is dependent on plasma {beta}((equivalent to)c{sub s}{sup 2}/v{sub A}{sup 2}), where c{sub s} is the ion acoustic speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven velocity. This unique thermodynamic property based on the fluctuation--dissipation theorem is verified in this paper using a new gyrokinetic particle simulation scheme, which splits the particle distribution function into the equilibrium part as well as the adiabatic and nonadiabatic parts. The numerical implication of this property is discussed.

  2. Twisted dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.

    2012-08-15

    We examine linear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in a dusty plasma with strongly correlated dust grains, and discuss possibility of a twisted DA vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). For our purposes, we use the Boltzmann distributed electron and ion density perturbations, the dust continuity and generalized viscoelastic dust momentum equations, and Poisson's equation to obtain a dispersion relation for the modified DAWs. The effects of the polarization force, strong dust couplings, and dust charge fluctuations on the DAW spectrum are examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the DAW can propagate as a twisted vortex beam carrying OAM. A twisted DA vortex structure can trap and transport dust particles in dusty plasmas.

  3. Waves in space plasma dipole antenna subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Waves In Space Plasma (WISP) flight experiment requires a 50-meter-long deployable dipole antenna subsystem (DASS) to radiate radio frequencies from the STS Orbiter cargo bay. The transmissions are to excite outer ionospheric plasma between the dipole and a free-flying receiver (Spartan) for scientific purposes. This report describes the singular DASS design requirements and how the resulting design satisfies them. A jettison latch is described in some detail. The latch releases the antenna in case of any problems which might prevent the bay doors from closing for re-entry and landing of the Orbiter.

  4. Strongly Enhanced Laser Absorption and Electron Acceleration via Resonant Excitation of Surface Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, M.; Riconda, C.; Adam, J. C.; Heron, A.

    2010-02-01

    The possibility of creating enhanced fast electron bunches via the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPW) in laser overdense plasma interaction has been investigated by mean of relativistic one dimension motion of a test electron in the field of the surface plasma wave study and with two-dimensional (2D) Particle-In-Cell (PIC) numerical simulations. Strong electron acceleration together with a dramatic increase, up to 70%, of light absorption by the plasma is observed.

  5. A Schamel equation for ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. Kourakis, I.; Verheest, F.; Hellberg, M. A.; Anowar, M. G. M.

    2014-09-15

    An investigation of the propagation of ion acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas in the presence of trapped electrons has been undertaken. This has been motivated by space and laboratory plasma observations of plasmas containing energetic particles, resulting in long-tailed distributions, in combination with trapped particles, whereby some of the plasma particles are confined to a finite region of phase space. An unmagnetized collisionless electron-ion plasma is considered, featuring a non-Maxwellian-trapped electron distribution, which is modelled by a kappa distribution function combined with a Schamel distribution. The effect of particle trapping has been considered, resulting in an expression for the electron density. Reductive perturbation theory has been used to construct a KdV-like Schamel equation, and examine its behaviour. The relevant configurational parameters in our study include the superthermality index κ and the characteristic trapping parameter β. A pulse-shaped family of solutions is proposed, also depending on the weak soliton speed increment u{sub 0}. The main modification due to an increase in particle trapping is an increase in the amplitude of solitary waves, yet leaving their spatial width practically unaffected. With enhanced superthermality, there is a decrease in both amplitude and width of solitary waves, for any given values of the trapping parameter and of the incremental soliton speed. Only positive polarity excitations were observed in our parametric investigation.

  6. Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.

  7. Wave excitation by nonlinear coupling among shear Alfvén waves in a mirror-confined plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikezoe, R.; Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Hirata, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sumida, S.; Jang, S.; Takeyama, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-09-01

    A shear Alfvén wave at slightly below the ion-cyclotron frequency overcomes the ion-cyclotron damping and grows because of the strong anisotropy of the ion temperature in the magnetic mirror configuration, and is called the Alfvén ion-cyclotron (AIC) wave. Density fluctuations caused by the AIC waves and the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) waves used for ion heating have been detected using a reflectometer in a wide radial region of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasma. Various wave-wave couplings are clearly observed in the density fluctuations in the interior of the plasma, but these couplings are not so clear in the magnetic fluctuations at the plasma edge when measured using a pick-up coil. A radial dependence of the nonlinearity is found, particularly in waves with the difference frequencies of the AIC waves; bispectral analysis shows that such wave-wave coupling is significant near the core, but is not so evident at the periphery. In contrast, nonlinear coupling with the low-frequency background turbulence is quite distinct at the periphery. Nonlinear coupling associated with the AIC waves may play a significant role in the beta- and anisotropy-limits of a mirror-confined plasma through decay of the ICRF heating power and degradation of the plasma confinement by nonlinearly generated waves.

  8. Wave excitation by nonlinear coupling among shear Alfvén waves in a mirror-confined plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikezoe, R. Ichimura, M.; Okada, T.; Hirata, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sumida, S.; Jang, S.; Takeyama, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Wang, X.

    2015-09-15

    A shear Alfvén wave at slightly below the ion-cyclotron frequency overcomes the ion-cyclotron damping and grows because of the strong anisotropy of the ion temperature in the magnetic mirror configuration, and is called the Alfvén ion-cyclotron (AIC) wave. Density fluctuations caused by the AIC waves and the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) waves used for ion heating have been detected using a reflectometer in a wide radial region of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasma. Various wave-wave couplings are clearly observed in the density fluctuations in the interior of the plasma, but these couplings are not so clear in the magnetic fluctuations at the plasma edge when measured using a pick-up coil. A radial dependence of the nonlinearity is found, particularly in waves with the difference frequencies of the AIC waves; bispectral analysis shows that such wave-wave coupling is significant near the core, but is not so evident at the periphery. In contrast, nonlinear coupling with the low-frequency background turbulence is quite distinct at the periphery. Nonlinear coupling associated with the AIC waves may play a significant role in the beta- and anisotropy-limits of a mirror-confined plasma through decay of the ICRF heating power and degradation of the plasma confinement by nonlinearly generated waves.

  9. MESSENGER observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at Mercury's magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, T.; Boardsen, S. A.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Zurbuchen, T.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    We present a survey of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orbit. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. Remarkably, the results show that MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub-sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopause are much larger than at Earth. The wave amplitude was often on the order of 100 nT or more, and the wave periods were ~10-20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is also present in the data, with all of the observed events taking place in the post-noon and the dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is likely related to finite ion-gyroradius effects and is in agreement with the results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. Similar to most terrestrial events, the wave observations were made almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward. Accompanying measurements from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) show that the waves were associated with a substantial transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  10. Observations of velocity shear driven plasma turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic and magnetic turbulence observations from HAWKEYE-1 during the low altitude portion of its elliptical orbit over the Southern Hemisphere are presented. The magnetic turbulence is confined near the auroral zone and is similar to that seen at higher altitudes by HEOS-2 in the polar cusp. The electrostatic turbulence is composed of a background component with a power spectral index of 1.89 + or - .26 and an intense component with a power spectral index of 2.80 + or - .34. The intense electrostatic turbulence and the magnetic turbulence correlate with velocity shears in the convective plasma flow. Since velocity shear instabilities are most unstable to wave vectors perpendicular to the magnetic field, the shear correlated turbulence is anticipated to be two dimensional in character and to have a power spectral index of 3 which agrees with that observed in the intense electrostatic turbulence.

  11. Tunable Plasma-Wave Laser Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromage, J.; Haberberger, D.; Davies, A.; Bucht, S.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Trines, R.; Bingham, R.; Sadler, J.; Norreys, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Raman amplification is a process by which a long energetic pump pulse transfers its energy to a counter-propagating short seed pulse through a resonant electron plasma wave. Since its conception, theory and simulations have shown exciting results with up to tens of percent of energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. However, experiments have yet to surpass transfer efficiencies of a few percent. A review of past literature shows that largely chirped pump pulses and finite temperature wave breaking could have been the two most detrimental effects. A Raman amplification platform is being developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics where a combination of a high-intensity tunable seed laser with sophisticated plasma diagnostics (dynamic Thomson scattering) will make it possible to find the optimal parameter space for high-energy transfer. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; ...

    2015-01-26

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1–0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wavemore » intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10⁻³ nT², using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.« less

  13. Singular waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Sukanta; Misra, Amar P.

    2009-07-15

    The existence of singular waves along the boundary of a magnetized pair-ion plasma is proved for both plasma-metal and plasma-vacuum interfaces. Such waves are shown to propagate at the points of intersection of the complex-zone boundary and the surface wave dispersion curve in a weakly magnetized plasma. The results could be relevant for negative ion plasmas in the laboratory and space as well as for the modeling of a plasma sustained by a traveling surface wave.

  14. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Results of analyses of data received from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 mission are discussed in two papers prepared for publication. A study of plasma wave levels in and interplanetary magnetic field orientation preceding observations of interplanetary shocks by the satellite infers that quasi-parallel, interplanetary shocks are preceded by foreshocks whose presence is not obviously attributable to scattering of ion beams generated at quasi-perpendicular zones of these interplanetary shocks. Investigations of whistler mode turbulence in the disturbed solar wind resulted in various indirect lines of evidence indicating that these whistler waves are generated propagating at large angles to the local interplanetary field, a fact which helps identify possible free energy sources for their growth.

  15. Waves in plasmas: Highlights from the past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, T.H.

    1990-03-01

    To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, ray trajectories, amplitude transport, plasma wave echos, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and mode conversion. Also to the straight, trajectory approximation and two-level phase mixing. And to quasilinear diffusion and its relation to radiofrequency heating, current drive and induced neoclassical transport, and to stochasticity and superadiabaticity. One notes not only the constructive interplay between experiment and theory but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research. 47 refs., 33 figs.

  16. Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun

    2015-04-15

    The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θ{sub i}, which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.

  17. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program are identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail and throughout the Earth's outer magnetosphere. GEOTAIL was launched on July 24, 1992, and began its scientific mission with eighteen extensions into the deep-tail region with apogees ranging from around 60 R(sub e) to more than 208 R(sub e) in the period up to late 1994. Due to the nature of the GEOTAIL trajectory which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near-Earth phase. Perigee was reduced to 10 R(sub e) and apogee first to 50 R(sub e) and finally to 30 R(sub e) in early 1995. This orbit provides many more opportunities for GEOTAIL to explore the upstream solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere as well as the near-Earth tail regions. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994 and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to be used to conduct the global research for which the ISTP program was designed. The measurement and study of plasma waves have made and will continue to make important contributions to reaching the ISTP/GGS goals and solving the

  18. Collisional damping rates for plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tigik, S. F. Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-15

    The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  19. Collisional damping rates for plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic ("Spitzer") formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Shock waves in dusty plasma with two temperature superthermal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghai, Yashika; Saini, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    An investigation of dust acoustic shock waves in dusty plasma containing two temperature ions is presented. The present investigation is motivated by the observations of Geotail spacecraft that report the occurrence of two temperature ion populations in Earth's magnetotail. We have derived Burgers equation to study dust acoustic shock structures in an unmagnetized plasma with two temperature superthermal ions. We have also derived the modified Burgers equation at critical values of physical parameters for which nonlinear coefficient (A) of Burgers equation vanishes. The numerical analysis is performed in context with observations in Earth's magnetotail and the influence of various plasma parameters viz. ions temperature ratio, superthermality of hot and cold ions, kinematic viscosity etc. has been observed on characteristics of DA shocks. It is observed that the amplitude of positive shocks via Burgers equation decreases whereas that of modified shocks with higher order nonlinearity increases with increase in superthermality of cold ions.

  1. New waves at multiples of the plasma frequency upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1986-01-01

    The first observations of waves at harmonics higher than the second of the electron plasma frequency are reported. The observations were made by the ISEE 1 spacecraft upstream of the earth's bow shock. The waves are interpreted as electromagnetic radiation at the fundamental and up to the fifth harmonic of the plasma frequency, with effective temperatures decreasing from 5 x 10 to the 17th K to 10 billion K over this range. Two models are proposed for the emission of the waves.

  2. Waves in relativistic electron beam in low-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, I.; Sheinman (Chernenco, J.

    2016-11-01

    Waves in electron beam in low-density plasma are analyzed. The analysis is based on complete electrodynamics consideration. Dependencies of dispersion laws from system parameters are investigated. It is shown that when relativistic electron beam is passed through low-density plasma surface waves of two types may exist. The first type is a high frequency wave on a boundary between the beam and neutralization area and the second type wave is on the boundary between neutralization area and stationary plasma.

  3. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  4. Coronal magnetohydrodynamic waves and oscillations: observations and quests.

    PubMed

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2006-02-15

    Coronal seismology, a new field of solar physics that emerged over the last 5 years, provides unique information on basic physical properties of the solar corona. The inhomogeneous coronal plasma supports a variety of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) wave modes, which manifest themselves as standing waves (MHD oscillations) and propagating waves. Here, we briefly review the physical properties of observed MHD oscillations and waves, including fast kink modes, fast sausage modes, slow (acoustic) modes, torsional modes, their diagnostics of the coronal magnetic field, and their physical damping mechanisms. We discuss the excitation mechanisms of coronal MHD oscillations and waves: the origin of the exciter, exciter propagation, and excitation in magnetic reconnection outflow regions. Finally, we consider the role of coronal MHD oscillations and waves for coronal heating, the detectability of various MHD wave types, and we estimate the energies carried in the observed MHD waves and oscillations: Alfvénic MHD waves could potentially provide sufficient energy to sustain coronal heating, while acoustic MHD waves fall far short of the required coronal heating rates.

  5. Theoretical study of plasma effect on a conical shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, S.P.; Kuo, Steven S.

    2006-03-15

    Experiments conducted previously in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel showed that localized plasma generated by an on-board 60 Hz electric discharge in front of a 60 deg. cone-shaped model considerably increases the shock angle of the attached shock generated by the cone model. Based on the measured power and cycle energy of the electric discharge, the estimated peak and average temperature enhancements were too low to justify the heating effect as a possible cause of the observed shock wave modification. In this work, a theory also using a cone model as the shock wave generator is presented to explain the observed plasma effect on the shock wave. Through electron-neutral elastic collisions and ion-neutral charge transfer collisions, plasma generated in front of the baseline shock front can deflect the incoming flow before it reaches the cone model; such a flow deflection modifies the structure of the shock wave generated by the cone model from a conic shape to a slightly curved one. The shock remains to be attached to the tip of the cone; however, the shock front moves upstream to increase the shock angle, consistent with the experimental results.

  6. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  7. LASER PLASMA AND LASER APPLICATIONS: Plasma transparency in laser absorption waves in metal capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu

    1988-12-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.

  8. Rogue Waves Associated with Circularly Polarized Waves in Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakis, I.; Borhanian, J.; Saxena, V.; Veldes, G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    Extreme events occur in abundance in the ocean: an ultra-high ``ghost wave" often appears unexpectedly, against an otherwise moderate-on-average sea surface elevation, propagating for a short while and then disappearing without leaving a trace. Rogue waves are now recognized as proper nonlinear structures on their own. Unlike solitary waves, these events are localized in space and in time. Various approaches exist to model their dynamics, including nonlinear Schrodinger models, Ginzburg-Landau models, kinetic-theoretical models, and probabilistic models. We have undertaken an investigation, from first principles, of rogue waves in plasmas in the form of localized events associated with electromagnetic pulses. A multiple scale technique is employed to solve the fluid-Maxwell equations for nonlinear circularly polarized electromagnetic pulses. A nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) type equation is shown to govern the amplitude of the vector potential. A set of non-stationary envelope solutions of the NLS equation is presented, and the variation of their structural properties with the magnetic field are investigated.

  9. Theory of Slow Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Plasma Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Romanov, R.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    2005-02-15

    A general method is developed for a numerical analysis of the frequency spectra of internal, internal-surface, and surface slow waves in a waveguide with transverse plasma density variations. For waveguides with a piecewise constant plasma filling, the spectra of slow waves are thoroughly examined in the limits of an infinitely weak and an infinitely strong external magnetic field. For a smooth plasma density profile, the frequency spectrum of long-wavelength surface waves remains unchanged, but a slow damping rate appears that is caused by the conversion of the surface waves into internal plasma waves at the plasma resonance point. As for short-wavelength internal waves, they are strongly damped by this effect. It is pointed out that, for annular plasma geometry, which is of interest from the experimental point of view, the spectrum of the surface waves depends weakly on the magnetic field strength in the waveguide.

  10. Nonlinear wave interactions in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Klimachkov, D. A. Petrosyan, A. S.

    2016-05-15

    The rotating magnetohydrodynamic flows of a thin layer of astrophysical and space plasmas with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field are considered in the shallow water approximation. The presence of a vertical external magnetic field changes significantly the dynamics of wave processes in an astrophysical plasma, in contrast to a neutral fluid and a plasma layer in an external toroidal magnetic field. There are three-wave nonlinear interactions in the case under consideration. Using the asymptotic method of multiscale expansions, we have derived nonlinear equations for the interaction of wave packets: three magneto- Poincare waves, three magnetostrophic waves, two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplification is predicted. We show that a magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, a magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, a magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic waves, and a magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare waves. There are the following parametric amplification mechanisms: the parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, the parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, the amplification of a magneto-Poincare wave in the field of a magnetostrophic wave, and the amplification of a magnetostrophic wave in the field of a magneto-Poincare wave. The instability growth rates and parametric amplification factors have been found for the corresponding processes.

  11. Helicon waves in uniform plasmas. II. High m numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They have been studied in solids and plasmas where boundaries play a role. The present work shows that very similar modes exist in unbounded gaseous plasmas. Instead of boundaries, the antenna properties determine the topology of the wave packets. The simplest antenna is a magnetic loop which excites m = 0 or m = 1 helicons depending on whether the dipole moment is aligned parallel or perpendicular to the ambient background magnetic field B0. While these low order helicons have been described by J. M. Urrutia and R. L. Stenzel ["Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes," Phys. Plasmas 22, 092111 (2015)], the present work focuses on high order modes up to m = 8. These are excited by antenna arrays forming magnetic multipoles. Their wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma free of boundary effects. The observed wave topology exhibits m pairs of unique field line spirals which may have inspired the name "helicon" to this mode. All field lines converge into these nested spirals which propagate like corkscrews along B0. The field lines near the axis of helicons are perpendicular to B0 and circularly polarized as in parallel whistlers. Helical antennas couple to these transverse fields but not to the spiral fields of helicons. Using a circular antenna array of phased m = 0 loops, right or left rotating or non-rotating multipole antenna fields are generated. They excite m < 0 and m > 0 modes, showing that the plasma supports both modes equally well. The poor excitation of m < 0 modes is a characteristic of loops with dipole moment across B0. The radiation efficiency of multipole antennas has been found to decrease with m.

  12. Helicon waves in uniform plasmas. II. High m numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2015-09-15

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They have been studied in solids and plasmas where boundaries play a role. The present work shows that very similar modes exist in unbounded gaseous plasmas. Instead of boundaries, the antenna properties determine the topology of the wave packets. The simplest antenna is a magnetic loop which excites m = 0 or m = 1 helicons depending on whether the dipole moment is aligned parallel or perpendicular to the ambient background magnetic field B{sub 0}. While these low order helicons have been described by J. M. Urrutia and R. L. Stenzel [“Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 092111 (2015)], the present work focuses on high order modes up to m = 8. These are excited by antenna arrays forming magnetic multipoles. Their wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma free of boundary effects. The observed wave topology exhibits m pairs of unique field line spirals which may have inspired the name “helicon” to this mode. All field lines converge into these nested spirals which propagate like corkscrews along B{sub 0}. The field lines near the axis of helicons are perpendicular to B{sub 0} and circularly polarized as in parallel whistlers. Helical antennas couple to these transverse fields but not to the spiral fields of helicons. Using a circular antenna array of phased m = 0 loops, right or left rotating or non-rotating multipole antenna fields are generated. They excite m < 0 and m > 0 modes, showing that the plasma supports both modes equally well. The poor excitation of m < 0 modes is a characteristic of loops with dipole moment across B{sub 0}. The radiation efficiency of multipole antennas has been found to decrease with m.

  13. Waves in non-Maxwellian plasmas with excess superthermal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellberg, M. A.; Mace, R. L.; Verheest, F.

    2000-10-01

    Many space plasmas have an excess of superthermal particles and can be modelled by a κ-distribution. While κ-->∞ yields the Maxwellian, a low value of κ describes a power-law distribution with a strongly accelerated, hard spectrum. Wave studies require the generalized plasma dispersion function, which may be expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function, making it easily usable. We review studies of waves in κ-distribution plasmas, focusing inter alia on applications to space plasmas. Wave behavior for low-κ plasmas is significantly different from that found for Maxwellian plasmas. .

  14. Laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in a density-modulated plasma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devki Nandan; Nam, In Hyuk; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-11-01

    A laser-driven plasma beat wave, propagating through a plasma with a periodic density modulation, can generate two sideband plasma waves. One sideband moves with a smaller phase velocity than the pump plasma wave and the other propagates with a larger phase velocity. The plasma beat wave with a smaller phase velocity can accelerate modest-energy electrons to gain substantial energy and the electrons are further accelerated by the main plasma wave. The large phase velocity plasma wave can accelerate these electrons to higher energies. As a result, the electrons can attain high energies during the acceleration by the plasma waves in the presence of a periodic density modulation. The analytical results are compared with particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in reasonable agreement.

  15. Observations of wave effects on inlet circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Mara; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2014-07-01

    Observations of water levels, winds, waves, and currents in Katama Bay, Edgartown Channel, and Katama Inlet on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts are used to test the hypothesis that wave forcing is important to circulation in inlet channels of two-inlet systems and to water levels in the bay between the inlets. Katama Bay is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via Katama Inlet and to Vineyard Sound via Edgartown Channel. A numerical model based on the momentum and continuity equations that uses measured bathymetry and is driven with observed water levels in the ocean and sound, ocean waves, and local winds predicts the currents observed in Katama Inlet more accurately when wave forcing is included than when waves are ignored. During Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, when incident (12-m water depth) significant wave heights were greater than 5 m, breaking-wave cross-shore (along-inlet-channel) radiation stress gradients enhanced flows from the ocean into the bay during flood tides, and reduced (almost to zero during Irene) flows out of the bay during ebb tides. Model simulations without the effects of waves predict net discharge from the sound to the ocean both during Hurricane Irene and over a 1-month period with a range of conditions. In contrast, simulations that include wave forcing predict net discharge from the ocean to the sound, consistent with the observations.

  16. Electron plasma waves upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacombe, C.; Mangeney, A.; Harvey, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Electrostatic waves are observed around the plasma frequency fpe in the electron foreshock, together with electrons backstreaming from the bow shock. Using data from the sounder aboard ISEE 1, it is shown that this noise, previously understood as narrow band Langmuir waves more or less widened by Doppler shift or nonlinear effects, is in fact composed of two distinct parts: one is a narrow band noise, emitted just above fpe, and observed at the upstream boundary of the electron foreshock. This component has been interpreted as Langmuir waves emitted by a beam-plasma instability. It is suggested that it is of sufficiently large amplitude and monochromatic enough to trap resonant electrons. The other is a broad band noise, more impulsive than the narrow band noise, observed well above and/or well below fpe, deeper in the electron foreshock. The broad band noise has an average spectrum with a typical bi-exponential shape; its peak frequency is not exactly equal to fpe and depends on the Deybe length. This peak frequency also depends on the velocity for which the electron distribution has maximum skew. An experimental determination of the dispersion relation of the broad band noise shows that this noise, as well as the narrow band noise, may be due to the instability of a hot beam in a plasma.

  17. An observation of plasma inside of microwave boosted thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2004-03-01

    Experiments on a pulsed microwave-beaming thruster were conducted using a millimeter-wave, high-power gyrotrons developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Plasma inside of 2-dimensional and axsymmetric parabola reflectors were observed using a high-speed camera. Propagation velocity of the discharge front was well agreed with theoretical prediction assuming nonequilibrium photo ionization. Plasma was found to develop in three directions in a reflector absorbing direct or reflected microwaves. Shock wave propagation velocity varied depending on the distance from focal point and on angle from optical axis.

  18. Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-29

    Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.

  19. Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.

  20. Plasma waves and jets from moving conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfvén outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form for an arbitrary time-dependent, nonaxisymmetric incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  1. Ion Cyclotron Waves Observed in the Comet Halley: A New Look to Giotto Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, M. R.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Haro-Corzo, S. S. A. R., Sr.; Arriaga-Contreras, V. V. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ion Cyclotron Waves (ICW) were observed with Giotto spacecraft. Magnetic field data have been analyzed in the past to determine the nature of ICW and compared with other comets, as Giacobini-Zinner and Grigg-Skjellerup. It is important to develop tools that allow re-analyze these data in order to know better the characteristics of these waves. In this work we have applied a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis in which we define the transverse and compressive powers for a better contrast and characterization of ICW. The information obtained will be presented through dynamic spectra in several time intervals. This tool will allow to explore the possibility to check the existence of Harmonic Mode Waves (HMW) of these waves. Finally, we use linear kinetic theory, using WHAMP code, in order to determine conditions for wave growth in a plasma resembling the regions where these waves were observed.

  2. Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P.

    2009-08-15

    The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.

  3. Particle and Wave Dynamics during Plasma Injections,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-15

    Spectrograms of the VLF Wave Spectrum During the Plasma Injections Described in this Paper •............ ***.•o.o.0•.... • ..... 20 8. Iso ...soft but intense (ref. Figs. 8a- Ila) as evidenced by the high density of iso -f(v) contours near v < 2 x 10 4 km/sec. This is also borne out by the...100 1 -8 -6 - 6 8 -8 -6 - 2 2 4 6 8 -4 - -6 - Fig. 8. Iso -distribution function, f(v), contours in velocity space taken on April 18, 1979, (a) as

  4. Toroidal quarter waves in the Earth's magnetosphere: observational perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Jayashree; Sinha, A. K.; Vichare, Geeta

    2015-05-01

    Quarter waves in the Earth's magnetosphere are standing Alfvén waves excited on geomagnetic field lines when the conjugate ionospheres display strong asymmetry in conductivity. In this paper, we have examined the characteristics of these waves by analyzing two years (2007-2008) of magnetometer data from the geostationary satellite GOES-11. These waves are predominantly identified during quiet geomagnetic conditions based on interhemispheric conductivity contrast and opposite signs of wave reflection coefficients at the conjugate ionospheres. The observed frequencies are used in a numerical model to compute the equatorial ion density by assuming that the plasma consists only of protons at geostationary height during quiet conditions. The number density of protons thus obtained is compared with an empirical model. The phase difference between the waves observed at the satellite and northern conjugate ground station is in accord with model expectations for quarter mode waves. We also for the first time report the occurrence of an event depicting harmonically structured quarter wave oscillations. Statistical analysis of the seasonal and MLT (Magnetic local time) dependence of these oscillations shows that they mostly occur during solstices and around terminators (i.e. dawn and dusk time). In addition, it is observed that occurrence is more prevalent during dawn in the June solstice and dusk during the December solstice.

  5. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10−6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment. PMID:26647962

  6. Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic Waves through Induced Scattering by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Mithaiwala, M.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the conversion of electrostatic pump waves into electromagnetic waves through nonlinear induced scattering by thermal particles in a laboratory plasma. Electrostatic waves in the whistler branch are launched that propagate near the resonance cone. When the amplitude exceeds a threshold ~5 × 10-6 times the background magnetic field, wave power is scattered below the pump frequency with wave normal angles (~59°), where the scattered wavelength reaches the limits of the plasma column. The scattered wave has a perpendicular wavelength that is an order of magnitude larger than the pump wave and longer than the electron skin depth. The amplitude threshold, scattered frequency spectrum, and scattered wave normal angles are in good agreement with theory. The results may affect the analysis and interpretation of space observations and lead to a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the Earth’s plasma environment.

  7. Modulation of electron-acoustic waves in a plasma with kappa distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Demiray, Hilmi

    2016-03-15

    In the present work, employing a one dimensional model of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisting of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying κ velocity distribution, and stationary ions, we study the amplitude modulation of an electron-acoustic waves by use of the conventional reductive perturbation method. Employing the field equations of such a plasma, we obtained the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as the evolution equation. Seeking a harmonic wave solution with progressive wave amplitude to the evolution equation, as opposed to the plasma with vortex distribution, the amplitude wave assumes a shock wave type of solution. Finally, the modulational stability of the wave is studied and it is observed that the wave is modulationally stable for all admissible wave numbers.

  8. Low Frequency Waves in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight of STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find the electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the Shuttle. Broadband noise was observed at 250-20,000 Hz frequencies. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. It is shown that ion acoustic waves were observed, and two kinds of instabilities are suggested for explanation of the origin of these waves. According to the purposes of SAMPIE, samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the Shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and the surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and a theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this paper.

  9. Plasma waves produced by the xenon ion beam experiment on the Porcupine sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Kelley, M.

    1982-01-01

    The production of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves by a perpendicular ion beam in the F-region ionosphere is described. The ion beam experiment was part of the Porcupine program and produced electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves just above harmonics of the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. The plasma process may be thought of as a magnetized background ionosphere through which an unmagnetized beam is flowing. The dispersion equation for this hypothesis is constructed and solved. Preliminary solutions agree well with the observed plasma waves.

  10. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  11. Electromagnetic wave band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, S. V.; Ishihara, O.

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations can significantly modify plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The conditions necessary to observe the band-gap structure in laboratory dusty plasma and/or space (cosmic) dusty plasmas are discussed.

  12. Interference patterns in the Spacelab 2 plasma wave data: Lower hybrid waves driven by pickup ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wei; Gurnett, Donald A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1993-01-01

    During the Spacelab 2 mission the University of Iowa's Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) was released from the shuttle to explore the plasma environment around the shuttle. Wideband spectrograms were obtained from the PDP at frequencies from 0 to 30 kHz and distances up to 400 m from the shuttle. The wideband data frequently showed antenna interference patterns when the PDP was on the downstream side of the shuttle. Analysis of these interference patterns allows a determination of the wavelength, the plasma rest frame frequency, the direction of propagation, the power spectrum, and in some cases the location of the source. We concentrate our analysis on interference patterns due to lower hybrid waves: waves which have rest frame frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and propagate perpendicular to the magnetic field. The waves have an almost flat dispersion relation with frequencies just above the lower hybrid frequency and relatively short wavelengths (1 - 4 m). The observed lower hybrid waves depend strongly on the position of the PDP relative to the shuttle and the magnetic field direction. Our results confirm previous suggestions that the lower hybrid waves are generated primarily in the vicinity of the shuttle and that they are driven by a charge exchange interaction between the ambient ionosphere and a H2O cloud around the shuttle.

  13. Antenna excitation of drift wave in a toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, A.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Skiff, F.

    2007-10-15

    In a magnetized toroidal plasma, an antenna tunable in vertical wave number is used to excite density perturbations. Coherent detection is performed by means of Langmuir probes to directly determine both the wave vector and the plasma response induced by the antenna. Comparison between the theoretical density response predicted by the generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and the experimentally determined density response enables us the identification of one peak of the plasma response as a drift wave.

  14. Energy balance of a plasma with a wave, taking the wave nonpotentiality into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelberg, M. G.; Volosevich, A. V.

    It is shown that the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves in the ionosphere is phase-shifted by approximately -pi/2 with respect to current fluctuations, while the vortex field is nearly cophase with the current. Thus, the work of energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs primarily with the participation of the vortex field. The wave nonpotentiality is shown to have a substantial effect on the energy balance of the wave-plasma system.

  15. Observation of equipartition of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Hennino, R; Trégourès, N; Shapiro, N M; Margerin, L; Campillo, M; van Tiggelen, B A; Weaver, R L

    2001-04-09

    Equipartition is a first principle in wave transport, based on the tendency of multiple scattering to homogenize phase space. We report observations of this principle for seismic waves created by earthquakes in Mexico. We find qualitative agreement with an equipartition model that accounts for mode conversions at the Earth's surface.

  16. PLASMA-WAVE GENERATION IN A DYNAMIC SPACETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new electromagnetic (EM)-emission mechanism in magnetized, force-free plasma, which is driven by the evolution of the underlying dynamic spacetime. In particular, the emission power and angular distribution of the emitted fast-magnetosonic and Alfvén waves are separately determined. Previous numerical simulations of binary black hole mergers occurring within magnetized plasma have recorded copious amounts of EM radiation that, in addition to collimated jets, include an unexplained, isotropic component that becomes dominant close to the merger. This raises the possibility of multimessenger gravitational-wave and EM observations on binary black hole systems. The mechanism proposed here provides a candidate analytical characterization of the numerical results, and when combined with previously understood mechanisms such as the Blandford–Znajek process and kinetic-motion-driven radiation, it allows us to construct a classification of different EM radiation components seen in the inspiral stage of compact-binary coalescences.

  17. Observation and control of shock waves in individual nanoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dollar, Franklin; Xiong, Wei; Keister, K. Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Ding, Chengyuan; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark E.; Libby, Stephen B.; Palm, Brett B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Petrov, George M.

    2013-10-01

    Using short (40 fs) laser pulses at an intensity of 1014 W/cm2, we present the first observation of shock waves in nanometer-scale plasmas (nanoplasmas). Nanoplasmas offer enhanced laser absorption compared to either solid or gas targets, and the generation of shock waves presents an appealing method for creating new sources of monoenergetic ions and X-rays from a tabletop scale apparatus. By utilizing an instrument that images photoions from a single nanoparticle, we make the first experimental observation of individual nanoplasmas and observe clear shock waves. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, and produces a strong burst of quasi-monochromatic ions with energies around 100 eV. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations show that the energy of the quasi-monochromatic ions increases with the intensity of the driving laser, suggesting a possible avenue for production of higher-energy monoenergetic ions required for medical applications. Additionally, this observation of well-characterized shock waves in dense, low-temperature plasmas may enable the laboratory control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop lasers.

  18. Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song

    2014-02-15

    An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.

  19. Nonlinear Cylindrical Waves on a Plane Plasma Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.

    2004-01-01

    By means of the cold electron plasma equations, it is shown that surface soliton solutions can exist in the azimuthally symmetric case at the boundary of semi-infinite plasmas for both standing and running waves.

  20. Magnetospheric radio and plasma wave research - 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This review covers research performed in the area of magnetospheric plasma waves and wave-particle interactions as well as magnetospheric radio emissions. The report focuses on the near-completion of the discovery phase of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the planetary magnetospheres with the successful completion of the Voyager 2 encounters of Neptune and Uranus. Consideration is given to the advances made in detailed studies and theoretical investigations of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere or in magnetospheric plasmas in general.

  1. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.

  2. On the Toroidal Plasma Rotations Induced by Lower Hybrid Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyin; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2012-11-14

    A theoretical model is developed to explain the plasma rotations induced by lower hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod. In this model, torodial rotations are driven by the Lorentz force on the bulk electron flow across flux surfaces, which is a response of the plasma to the resonant-electron flow across flux surfaces induced by the lower hybrid waves. The flow across flux surfaces of the resonant electrons and the bulk electrons are coupled through the radial electric fi eld initiated by the resonant electrons, and the friction between ions and electrons transfers the toroidal momentum to ions from electrons. An improved quasilinear theory with gyrophase dependent distribution function is developed to calculate the perpendicular resonant-electron flow. Toroidal rotations are determined using a set of fluid equations for bulk electrons and ions, which are solved numerically by a fi nite- difference method. Numerical results agree well with the experimental observations in terms of flow pro file and amplitude. The model explains the strong correlation between torodial flow and internal inductance observed experimentally, and predicts both counter-current and co-current flows, depending on the perpendicular wave vectors of the lower hybrid waves. __________________________________________________

  3. Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

    1975-01-01

    Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

  4. ULF waves in the Martian foreshock: MAVEN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Lican; Mazelle, Christian; Meziane, Karim; Ruhunusiri, Suranga; Espley, Jared; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack; McFadden, Jim; Mitchell, Dave; Larson, Davin; Brain, Dave; Jakosky, Bruce; Ge, Yasong; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    Foreshock ULF waves constitute a significant physical phenomenon of the plasma environment for terrestrial planets. The occurrence of these ULF waves, associated with backstreaming ions reflected and accelerated at the bow shock, implies specific conditions and properties of the shock and its foreshock. Using measurements from MAVEN, we report clear observations of this type of ULF waves in the Martian foreshock. We show from different case studies that the peak frequency of the wave case in spacecraft frame is too far from the local ion cyclotron frequency to be associated with local pickup ions taking into account the Doppler shifted frequency from a cyclotron resonance, the obliquity of the mode, resonance broadening and experimental uncertainties. On the opposite their properties fit very well with foreshock waves driven unstable by backtreaming field-aligned ion beams. The propagation angle is usually less than 30 degrees from ambient magnetic field. The waves also display elliptical and left-hand polarizations with respect to interplanetary magnetic field in the spacecraft frame. It is clear for these cases that foreshock ions are simultaneous present for the ULF wave interval. Such observation is important in order to discriminate with the already well-reported pickup ion (protons) waves associated with exospheric hydrogen in order to quantitatively use the later to study seasonal variations of the hydrogen corona.

  5. Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.

  6. Nonlinear trapping and self-guiding of magnetized Langmuir waves due to thermal plasma filamentation

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Vladimir V.; Starodubtsev, Mikhail V.; Kostrov, Alexander V.

    2007-12-15

    Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir waves with a laboratory magnetoplasma has been studied under the conditions relevant to the ionospheric heating experiments. Self-guiding of magnetized Langmuir waves is observed at critical plasma density ({omega}={omega}{sub p}): Langmuir waves are trapped inside a narrow, magnetic-field-aligned plasma density depletion region, which is formed by trapped waves due to thermal plasma nonlinearity, i.e., due to local plasma heating and consequent thermodiffusion. Magnetized Langmuir waves are trapped inside the depletion region through their specific dispersion properties; this fact has been shown using the kinetically modified dispersion relation. The threshold of the nonlinear wave trapping exhibits significant growth in the vicinity of harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency.

  7. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's Plasma Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, J. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; DiBraccio, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a survey of plasma mantle observations identified in particle and magnetic field data from four years of MESSENGER spacecraft measurements of Mercury's magnetosphere. The plasma mantle is a region of solar wind plasma entry into the nightside high-latitude magnetosphere. The two common observational signatures of this region are ion energy latitude dispersions as well as diamagnetic depressions. From these observations we estimate the contribution of plasma from the solar wind via the mantle and infer magnitude and variability in the cross-magnetospheric electric fields present at Mercury's dynamic magnetosphere.

  8. Internal Waves in Straits (IWISE): Observations of Wave Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    deployment of a 2-D array of pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal...east of the strait to the westernmost deployments. Fig. 1 Deployment locations of Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] in South...measurements of nonlinear internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. David M Farmer, Li, Qiang & Jae-Hun

  9. Propagation velocity of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Amagishi, Y.; Nakagawa, H. ); Tanaka, M. )

    1994-09-01

    We have experimentally studied the behavior of Alfven wave packets in a dissipative plasma due to ion--neutral-atom collisions. It is urged that the central frequency of the packet is observed to gradually decrease with traveling distance in the absorption range of frequencies because of a differential damping among the Fourier components, and that the measured average velocity of its peak amplitude is not accounted for by the conventional group velocity, but by the prediction derived by Tanaka, Fujiwara, and Ikegami [Phys. Rev. A 34, 4851 (1986)]. Furthermore, when the initial central frequency is close to the critical frequency in the anomalous dispersion, the wave packet apparently collapses when traveling along the magnetic field; however, we have found that it is decomposed into another two wave packets with the central frequencies being higher or lower than the critical frequency.

  10. ISIS Topside-Sounder Plasma-Wave Investigations as Guides to Desired Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) Data Search Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fung, Shing F.

    2008-01-01

    Many plasma-wave phenomena, observed by space-borne radio sounders, cannot be properly explained in terms of wave propagation in a cold plasma consisting of mobile electrons and infinitely massive positive ions. These phenomena include signals known as plasma resonances. The principal resonances at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, the plasma frequency, and the upper-hybrid frequency are well explained by the warm-plasma propagation of sounder-generated electrostatic waves, Other resonances have been attributed to sounder-stimulated plasma instability and non-linear effects, eigenmodes of cylindrical electromagnetic plasma oscillations, and plasma memory processes. Data from the topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program played a major role in these interpretations. A data transformation and preservation effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center has produced digital ISIS topside ionograms and a metadata search program that has enabled some recent discoveries pertaining to the physics of these plasma resonances. For example, data records were obtained that enabled the long-standing question (several decades) of the origin of the plasma resonance at the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency to be explained [Muldrew, Radio Sci., 2006]. These data-search capabilities, and the science enabled by them, will be presented as a guide to desired data search capabilities to be included in the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO).

  11. ISIS Topside-Sounder Plasma-Wave Investigations as Guides to Desired Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) Data Search Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fung, Shing F.

    2008-01-01

    Many plasma-wave phenomena, observed by space-borne radio sounders, cannot be properly explained in terms of wave propagation in a cold plasma consisting of mobile electrons and infinitely massive positive ions. These phenomena include signals known as plasma resonances. The principal resonances at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, the plasma frequency, and the upper-hybrid frequency are well explained by the warm-plasma propagation of sounder-generated electrostatic waves, Other resonances have been attributed to sounder-stimulated plasma instability and non-linear effects, eigenmodes of cylindrical electromagnetic plasma oscillations, and plasma memory processes. Data from the topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program played a major role in these interpretations. A data transformation and preservation effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center has produced digital ISIS topside ionograms and a metadata search program that has enabled some recent discoveries pertaining to the physics of these plasma resonances. For example, data records were obtained that enabled the long-standing question (several decades) of the origin of the plasma resonance at the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency to be explained [Muldrew, Radio Sci., 2006]. These data-search capabilities, and the science enabled by them, will be presented as a guide to desired data search capabilities to be included in the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO).

  12. Plasma Shock Wave Modification Experiments in a Temperature Compensated Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vine, Frances J.; Mankowski, John J.; Saeks, Richard E.; Chow, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A number of researchers have observed that the intensity of a shock wave is reduced when it passes through a weakly ionized plasma. While there is little doubt that the intensity of a shock is reduced when it propagates through a weakly ionized plasma, the major question associated with the research is whether the reduction in shock wave intensity is due to the plasma or the concomitant heating of the flow by the plasma generator. The goal of this paper is to describe a temperature compensated experiment in a "large" diameter shock tube with an external heating source, used to control the temperature in the shock tube independently of the plasma density.

  13. Plasma Shock Wave Modification Experiments in a Temperature Compensated Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vine, Frances J.; Mankowski, John J.; Saeks, Richard E.; Chow, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A number of researchers have observed that the intensity of a shock wave is reduced when it passes through a weakly ionized plasma. While there is little doubt that the intensity of a shock is reduced when it propagates through a weakly ionized plasma, the major question associated with the research is whether the reduction in shock wave intensity is due to the plasma or the concomitant heating of the flow by the plasma generator. The goal of this paper is to describe a temperature compensated experiment in a "large" diameter shock tube with an external heating source, used to control the temperature in the shock tube independently of the plasma density.

  14. Observations and Observability of Magnetic Waves due to Newborn Interstellar Pickup Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. W.; Aggarwal, P.; Argall, M. R.; Cannon, B. E.; Fisher, M. K.; Isenberg, P. A.; Joyce, C. J.; Murphy, N.; Nuno, R. G.; Schwadron, N.; Taylor, D. K.; Vasquez, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    We bring together several newly published and recently submitted papers in an effort to develop a refined view of the magnetic waves excited by newborn interstellar pickup ions. First, we show examples of wave events from 3 separate catalogs we have developed: (1) waves excited by pickup H+ and observed by the Ulysses spacecraft inside 5.5AU, (2) waves excited by both pickup H+ and pickup He+ that are observed by the Voyager 1 & 2 spacecraft inside 7AU, and (3) waves excited by pickup He+ and seen by the ACE spacecraft at 1AU. It is now well-established that the dissipation of this wave energy is essential to the observed heating of the thermal plasma in the outer helioshere. However, the traditional theory for these waves suggests that they should be ubiquitous when they are, in fact, quite rare and difficult to find. We compare wave growth rates to turbulent cascade rates and argue that under most conditions the turbulence is too aggressive to allow the waves to achieve observable amplitudes.

  15. Effective-action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuan; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we give two examples: a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasmas are cold. These waves account for cyclotron absorption features observed in spectra of x-ray pulsars. Moreover, cutoff frequencies of the two nondegenerate electromagnetic waves are red-shifted by different amounts. These corrections need to be taken into account in order to correctly interpret diagnostic results in laser plasma experiments.

  16. Upstream waves at Mars: Phobos observations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G. ); Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W. ); Yeroshenko, Ye. )

    1990-05-01

    The region upstream from the Mars subsolar bow shock is surveyed for the presence of MHD wave phenomena using the high temporal resolution data from the MAGMA magnetometer. Strong turbulence is observed when the magnetic field is connected to the Mars bow shock in such a way as to allow diffuse ions to reach the spacecraft. On 2 occasions this turbulence occurred upon crossing the Phobos orbit. Also weak, {minus}0.15 nT, waves are observed at the proton gyro frequency. These waves are left-hand elliptically polarized and may be associated with the pick-up of protons from the Mars hydrogen exosphere.

  17. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission Indicator of Glow Plasma Discharges from Ionospheric HF Wave Transmissions with HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.; Briczinski, S. J.; Fu, H.; Mahmoudian, A.; Samimi, A.

    2012-12-01

    High power radio waves resonantly interact with to accelerate electrons for production of artificial aurora and plasma clouds. These plasma clouds are formed when the HF frequency is tuned near a harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. At a narrow band resonance, large electrostatic fields are produced below the F-layer and the neutral atmosphere breaks down with a glow plasma discharge. The conditions for this resonance are given by matching the pump wave frequency and wave-number with the sum of daughter frequencies and wave-numbers for several plasma modes. The most likely plasma mode that accelerates the electrons is the electron Bernstein wave in conjunction with an ion acoustic wave. Both upper hybrid and whistler mode waves are also possible sources of electron acceleration. To determine the plasma process for electron acceleration, stimulated electromagnetic emissions are measured using ground receivers in a north-south chain from the HAARP site. Recent observations have shown that broad band spectral lines downshifted from the HF pump frequency are observed when artificial plasma clouds are formed. For HF transmissions are the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th gyro harmonic, the downshifted indicators are found 500 Hz, 20 kHz, and 140 kHz, respectively, from the pump frequency. This Indicator Mode (IM) anticipates that a plasma layer will be formed before it is recorded with an ionosonde or optical imager.

  18. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  19. Heating of the plasma sheet by broadband electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Salem, C.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate that broadband low-frequency electromagnetic field fluctuations embedded within fast flows throughout the Earth's plasma sheet may drive significant ion heating. This heating is nearly entirely in the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field and is estimated to occur at an average rate of ~1 eV/s with rates in excess of 10 eV/s within one standard deviation of the average value over all observed events. For an Earthward flow the total change in temperature along a flow path may exceed one keV and for "wave-rich" flows can be comparable to that expected due to conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. The consequent increase in plasma pressure and flux tube entropy may lead to braking of inward motion and the suppression of plasma interchange.

  20. Dispersive ducting of MHD waves in the plasma sheet - A source of Pi2 wave bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves can be ducted by plasma inhomogeneities such as the plasma sheet. As this ducting is dispersive an impulsive source will give rise to a well-defined, quasi-periodic wave packet with time-scales determined by the width of the inhomogeneity and characteristic speeds in the wave duct and surrounding medium. The duration of the wave packet depends upon the distance from the source. It is argued that an impulsive source in the plasma sheet at substorm onset will produce a wave packet near earth with characteristics similar to pi2 wave bursts and put this idea forward as a mechanism for the generation of pi2 pulsations.

  1. New observations of plasma vortices and insights into their interpretation. [in magnetotail plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.; Birn, J.; Bame, S. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional plasma measurements and three-dimensional magnetic field measurements made with the ISEE 1 and 2 satellites during sixteen plasma vortex occurrences in the magnetotail plasma sheet are used to develop a fuller description of the vortex phenomenon than has existed heretofore. The phase and energy propagation properties of the vortex waves was studied in particular. The rotation period of the vortices (T = 10 + or - 5 minutes) is apparently independent of location, while the wavelength (lambda not less than several Re) increases with increasing distance down the tail, pointing to a global mode of propagation in which effects of inhomogeneous equilibrium are important. The flow rotation can be explained by propagation of surface waves or resonant waves in a uniform medium. Other observed features, however, require a nonuniform model: nonuniform propagation properties and differences of the phase propagation speed calculated from different components of velocity or magnetic field.

  2. Generation of acoustic rogue waves in dusty plasmas through three-dimensional particle focusing by distorted waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ya-Yi; Tsai, Jun-Yi; I, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Rogue waves--rare uncertainly emerging localized events with large amplitudes--have been experimentally observed in many nonlinear wave phenomena, such as water waves, optical waves, second sound in superfluid He II (ref. ) and ion acoustic waves in plasmas. Past studies have mainly focused on one-dimensional (1D) wave behaviour through modulation instabilities, and to a lesser extent on higher-dimensional behaviour. The question whether rogue waves also exist in nonlinear 3D acoustic-type plasma waves, the kinetic origin of their formation and their correlation with surrounding 3D waveforms are unexplored fundamental issues. Here we report the direct experimental observation of dust acoustic rogue waves in dusty plasmas and construct a picture of 3D particle focusing by the surrounding tilted and ruptured wave crests, associated with the higher probability of low-amplitude holes for rogue-wave generation.

  3. The plasma wave signature of a 'magnetic hole' in the vicinity of the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treumann, R. A.; Sckopke, N.; Brostrom, L.; Labelle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Wave spectral measurements in the region of the September 4, 1984 magnetic hole obtained with the plasma wave instrumentation aboard the AMPTE IRM spacecraft are presented. The instrument is briefly described. The full wave data is given and possible reasons for the typical form of the spectra inside the hole are discussed. Relevant observations are presented and different wave modes and their possible origins are discussed. A summary is given with a discussion of ideas about the origin and formation of holes.

  4. Statistics of beam-driven waves in plasmas with ambient fluctuations: Reduced-parameter approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2008-09-15

    A reduced-parameter (RP) model of quasilinear wave-plasma interactions is used to analyze statistical properties of beam-driven waves in plasmas with ambient density fluctuations. The probability distribution of wave energies in such a system is shown to have a relatively narrow peak just above the thermal wave level, and a power-law tail at high energies, the latter becoming progressively more evident for increasing characteristic amplitude of the ambient fluctuations. To better understand the physics behind these statistical features of the waves, a simplified model of stochastically driven thermal waves is developed on the basis of the RP model. An approximate analytic solution for stationary statistical distribution of wave energies W is constructed, showing a good agreement with that of the original RP model. The 'peak' and 'tail' features of the wave energy distribution are shown to be a result of contributions of two groups of wave clumps: those subject to either very slow or very fast random variations of total wave growth rate (due to fluctuations of ambient plasma density), respectively. In the case of significant ambient plasma fluctuations, the overall wave energy distribution is shown to have a clear power-law tail at high energies, P(W){proportional_to}W{sup -{alpha}}, with nontrivial exponent 1<{alpha}<2, while for weak fluctuations it is close to the lognormal distribution predicted by pure stochastic growth theory. The model's wave statistics resemble the statistics of plasma waves observed by the Ulysses spacecraft in some interplanetary type III burst sources. This resemblance is discussed qualitatively, and it is suggested that the stochastically driven thermal waves might be a candidate for explaining the power-law tails in the observed wave statistics without invoking mechanisms such as self-organized criticality or nonlinear wave collapse.

  5. MESSENGER Observations of ULF Waves in Mercury's Foreshock Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Chi, Peter J.; Bardsen, Scott; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth s is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury s bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury s foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury s foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the 1-Hz waves in the Earth s foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth s foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  6. Magnetosonic wave in pair-ion electron collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Hasnain, H.

    2017-03-01

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves in positive and negative ions of equal mass and opposite charges in the presence of electrons in collisional plasmas are studied. The collisions of ions and electrons with neutrals are taken into account. The nonlinearities in the plasma system arise due to ion and electrons flux, Lorentz forces, and plasma current densities. The reductive perturbation method is applied to derive the Damped Korteweg de Vries (DKdV) equation. The time dependent solution of DKdV is presented. The effects of variations of different plasma parameters on propagation characteristics of magnetosonic waves in pair-ion electron plasma in the context of laboratory plasmas are discussed.

  7. In situ observations of interstellar plasma with Voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Burlaga, L F; Ness, N F

    2013-09-27

    Launched over 35 years ago, Voyagers 1 and 2 are on an epic journey outward from the Sun to reach the boundary between the solar plasma and the much cooler interstellar medium. The boundary, called the heliopause, is expected to be marked by a large increase in plasma density, from about 0.002 per cubic centimeter (cm(-3)) in the outer heliosphere, to about 0.1 cm(-3) in the interstellar medium. On 9 April 2013, the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument began detecting locally generated electron plasma oscillations at a frequency of about 2.6 kilohertz. This oscillation frequency corresponds to an electron density of about 0.08 cm(-3), very close to the value expected in the interstellar medium. These and other observations provide strong evidence that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma.

  8. High-frequency Plasma Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Activities of high-frequency plasma waves associated with magnetic reconnection in the solar wind observed by Time Domain Sampler (TDS) experiments on STEREO/WAVES are preliminarily analyzed. The TDS instrument can provide burst mode electric fields data with as long as 16384 sample points at 250 kHz sampling rate. In all 1120 suspected reconnection events, it is found that the most commonly occurred waves are neither ion acoustic waves, electrostatic solitary waves, nor Langmuir/upper hybrid waves, but Bernstein-like waves with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency. In addition, to each type of waves, Langmuir/upper hybrid waves reveal the largest occurrence rate in the reconnection region than in the ambient solar wind. These results indicate that Bernstein-like waves and Langmuir/upper hybrid waves might play important roles in the reconnection associated particle heating processes and they might also influence the dissipation of magnetic reconnection.

  9. Harmonic plasma waves excitation and structure evolution of intense ion beams in background plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhang-Hu Wang, You-Nian

    2016-08-15

    The long-term dynamic evolutions of intense ion beams in plasmas have been investigated with two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations, taking into account the effect of the two-stream instability between beam ions and plasma electrons. Depending on the initial beam radial density profile and velocity distribution, ring structures may be formed in the beam edge regions. At the later stage of beam-plasma interactions, the ion beams are strongly modulated by the two-stream instability and multiple density spikes are formed in the longitudinal direction. The formation of these density spikes is shown to result from the excitation of harmonic plasma waves when the instability gets saturated. Comparisons between the beam cases with initial flat-top and Gaussian radial density profiles are made, and a higher instability growth rate is observed for the flat-top profile case.

  10. MHD waves and oscillations in the solar plasma. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, Robert

    2006-02-15

    The Sun's magnetic field is responsible for many spectacularly dynamic and intricate phenomena, such as the 11 year solar activity cycle, the hot and tenuous outer atmosphere called the solar corona, and the continuously expanding stream of solar particles known as the solar wind.Recently, there has been an enormous increase in our understanding of the role of solar magnetism in producing the observed complex atmosphere of the Sun. One such advance has occurred in the detection, by several different high-resolution space instruments on-board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer satellites, of magnetic waves and oscillations in the solar corona. The new subjects of solar atmospheric and coronal seismology are undergoing rapid development. The aim of this Scientific Discussion Meeting was to address the progress made through observational, theoretical and numerical studies of wave phenomena in the magnetic solar plasma. Major theoretical and observational advances were reported by a wide range of international scientists and pioneers in this field, followed by lively discussions and poster sessions on the many intriguing questions raised by the new results. Theoretical and observational aspects of magnetohydrodynamic waves and oscillations in general, and how these wave phenomena differ in various regions of the Sun, including sunspots, the transient lower atmosphere and the corona (in magnetic loops, plumes and prominences), were addressed through invited review papers and selected poster presentations. The results of these deliberations are collected together in this volume.

  11. Discovery of cometary kilometric radiations and plasma waves at Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, H.; Morioka, A.; Miyake, W.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1986-05-01

    The plasma-wave probe carried by the spacecraft Sakigake discovered discrete spectra of emissions from comet Halley in the frequency range 30 - 195 kHz. The observed cometary kilometric radiation appears to come from moving shocks in the coma region which are possibly associated with temporal variations of the solar wind. Waves due to plasma instabilities associated with the pick-up of cometary ions by the solar wind were observed within a region almost 107km from the comet nucleus.

  12. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  13. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  14. Plasma waves in the distant geomagnetic tail - ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma wave measurements obtained during ISEE 3's deep passes through the geomagnetic tail found that moderate to intense electric field turbulence occurred in association with the major plasma and magnetic field regions and flow phenomena. In the magnetopause boundary layer the electric field spectral amplitudes are typically sharply peaked at 316 Hz to 562 Hz. The tail lobe region which is upstream of slow shocks and is magnetically connected to the plasma sheet is characterized by wave spectras that peak in the 100- to 316-Hz range and at the electron plasma frequency. Within the plasma sheet, broadband electrostatic noise occurs in regions where the magnetic field strength exceeds 2 nT; this noise can also be found in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with strong field-aligned plasma flows. As ISEE 3 moved between the different distant tail regions, distinct but often subtle changes occurred in the plasma wave spectra.

  15. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented.

  16. Development of Small Plasma Wave Receiver with a Dedicated Chip for Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, H.; Kojima, H.; Ishii, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Since space is filled with collisionless plasmas, kinetic energy of each particle of the plasmas is exchanged via electric and magnetic fields, so-called plasma waves. The plasma waves have been observed a number of scientific spacecraft. Plasma wave receivers are classified into two kinds of the receiver, spectrum receivers, and waveform receivers. The spectrum receivers provide an overview of the plasma waves. The waveform receivers give not only amplitude but also phase of the plasma waves. Phase information between the plasma waves and plasma particle is essential in wave-particle interactions. It is important for understanding physical processes to combine both kinds of data of spectra and waveforms. Since the plasma waves have various intensities in wide-band frequency range, from DC to tens of MHz, the onboard instruments for the plasma wave observation are required to have low noise, high sensitivity, and wide dynamic range in wide-band. The required performances lead to increase the weight budget of the analog part of the instrument. The dedicated system chip can drastically decrease weight budget of the plasma wave instruments for multi-point observation missions and deep space exploration missions. It is also significant that manufacturing a number of instruments with the same performance becomes easy. In this paper, we demonstrate the miniaturized plasma wave receiver, which is realized in a dedicated chip for the analog part. The spectrum receiver is a double super heterodyne receiver, so-called `Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA).' This SFA is improved in the time resolution with keeping good frequency resolution by combining the analog frequency conversion and FFT. The SFA consists of an amplifier, a frequency synthesizer, mixers and band-pass filters. These component circuits are fabricated in chips and their performances are tested. The waveform receiver generally consists of the band-limiting filter, the amplifier, the anti-aliasing filter, and the A

  17. SAR observations of waves in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carolis, Giacomo

    2003-03-01

    Ocean waves properties propagating in grease ice composed of frazil and pancakes as observed by SAR images are discussed. An ERS-2 SAR scene relevant to the Greenland Sea in an area where the Odden ice tongue developed in 1997 is considered as case study. The scene includes open sea and ice covered waters where a wave field is traveling from the open sea region. Wind induced features known as "wind rolls" can be distinguished, allowing the estimation of the wind vector. Hence the related wind generated ocean waves can be retrieved using a SAR spectral inversion procedure. The wave field is tracked while it propagates inside the ice field, thus allowing the estimation of the wave changes. Under the assumption of continuum medium, physical ice properties are then retrieved using a special SAR inversion procedure in conjunction with a recently developed wave propagation model in sea ice. The model assumes both the ice layer and the water beneath it as a system of viscous fluids. As a result, the changes suffered by the ocean wave spectrum in terms of wave dispersion and energy attenuation are related to sea ice properties such as concentration and thickness. Although the free parameters to be inverted are the ice thickness and viscosity and the water viscosity, the ice thickness is the only parameter of geophysical interest. Results are finally compared with external ice parameters information.

  18. Channeled particle acceleration by plasma waves in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal is presented. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible. Particle dechanneling due to electron multiple scattering can be eliminated with a sufficiently high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

  19. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  20. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  1. Influence of electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability on the evolution of laser-driven plasma beat-wave

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D. N.; Singh, K. P.; Suk, H.

    2007-01-15

    The electrostatic oscillating two-stream instability of laser-driven plasma beat-wave was studied recently by Gupta et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 5250 (2004)], who applied their theory to limit the amplitude level of a plasma wave in the beat-wave accelerator. As a self-generated magnetic field is observed in laser-produced plasma, hence, the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability may be another possible mechanism for the saturation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave. The efficiency of this scheme is higher than the former.

  2. Observations of purely compressional waves in the upper ULF band observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, J. L.; Engebretson, M. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, E. H.; Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Reeves, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Purely compressional electromagnetic waves, also denoted fast magnetosonic waves, equatorial noise, and ion Bernstein modes, can both heat thermal protons and accelerate electrons up to relativistic energies. These waves have been observed both in the near-equatorial region in the inner magnetosphere and in the plasma sheet boundary layer. Although these waves have been observed by various types of satellite instruments (DC and AC magnetometers and electric field sensors), most recent studies have used data from AC sensors, and many have been restricted to frequencies above ~50 Hz. We report here on a survey of ~200 of these waves, based on DC electric and magnetic field data from the EFW double probe and EMFISIS fluxgate magnetometer instruments, respectively, on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during its first two years of operation. The high sampling rate of these instruments makes it possible to extend observational studies of the lower frequency population of such waves to lower L shells than any previous study. These waves, often with multiple harmonics of the local proton gyrofrequency, were observed both inside and outside the plasmapause, in regions with plasma number densities ranging from 10 to >1000 cm-3. Wave occurrence was sharply peaked near the magnetic equator and occurred at L shells from below 2 to ~6 (the spacecraft apogee). Waves appeared at all local times but were more common from noon to dusk. Outside the plasmapause, occurrence maximized broadly across noon. Inside the plasmapause, occurrence maximized in the dusk sector, in an extended plasmasphere. Every event occurred in association with a positive gradient in the HOPE omnidirectional proton flux in the range between 2 keV and 10 keV. The Poynting vector, determined for 8 events, was in all cases directed transverse to B, but with variable azimuth, consistent with earlier models and observations.

  3. Observation of intermittency in wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Falcon, E; Fauve, S; Laroche, C

    2007-04-13

    We report the observation of intermittency in gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. We measure the temporal fluctuations of surface wave amplitude at a given location. We show that the shape of the probability density function of the local slope increments of the surface waves strongly changes across the time scales. The related structure functions and the flatness are found to be power laws of the time scale on more than one decade. The exponents of these power laws increase nonlinearly with the order of the structure function. All these observations show the intermittent nature of the increments of the local slope in wave turbulence. We discuss the possible origin of this intermittency.

  4. Ionospheric Plasma Disturbances and Effects on Radio Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    power HF waves. This study will be based on to propose future heating experiments in Alaska, using the newly constructed HAARP facility. 2. Summary...unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Ionospheric plasma heating experiments were conducted at Arecibo to investigate generation of ionospheric plasma...Plasma Research Group at MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center has been conducting ionospheric plasma heating experiments at Arecibo, using the

  5. Observation of gravity-capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Falcon, Eric; Laroche, Claude; Fauve, Stéphan

    2007-03-02

    We report the observation of the crossover between gravity and capillary wave turbulence on the surface of mercury. The probability density functions of the turbulent wave height are found to be asymmetric and thus non-Gaussian. The surface wave height displays power-law spectra in both regimes. In the capillary region, the exponent is in fair agreement with weak turbulence theory. In the gravity region, it depends on the forcing parameters. This can be related to the finite size of the container. In addition, the scaling of those spectra with the mean energy flux is found in disagreement with weak turbulence theory for both regimes.

  6. Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) observed by Kaguya near the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hashitani, M.; Omura, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2010-12-01

    In KAGUYA (SELENE) LRS[1], WFC-L [2] observes waveforms of plasma waves in 100Hz-100kHz and a lot of electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed. Some results have been reported [3]. Although orthogonal dipole antennas are generally used in the observations, sometimes a pair of monopole antennas were used. We reports observations mainly by the latter antennas. The velocities and spatial scales of ESWs are evaluated from waveforms observed in the monopole mode. Generally their velocities are from several 100km/s to several 1000km/s. Their spatial scales are several 10m and the potential depths were less than 0.05 eV. Their velocities are very slow near the wake boundaries. The ESW waveforms have often components perpendicular to the background magnetic field and the potential structure has a component perpendicular to the background magnetic field. This means that these waves were observed close the source regions. Acknowledgments: The SELENE project has been organized by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The authors express their thanks to all members of the SELENE project team. References [1] Y. Kasahara, Y. Goto, K. Hashimoto, T. Imachi, A. Kumamoto, T. Ono, and H. Matsumoto, Plasma Wave Observation Using Waveform Capture in the Lunar Radar Sounder on board the SELENE Spacecraft, Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [2] K. Hashimoto, M. Hashitani, Y. Kasahara, Y. Omura, M.N. Nishino, Y. Saito, S. Yokota, T. Ono, H. Tsunakawa, H. Shibuya, M. Matsushima, H. Shimizu, and F. Takahashi, Electrostatic solitary waves associated with magnetic anomalies and wake boundary of the Moon observed by KAGUYA, accepted for publication in Geophys. Res. Lett., 2010.

  7. Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Taiurskii, A. A. Gavrikov, M. B.

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations.

  8. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of the final processing of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and analysis of late ISEE 3, ICE cometary, and ICE cruise trajectory data, where coronal mass ejections (CME's) were the first locus of attention. Interest in CME's inspired an effort to represent our pw data in a condensed spectrogram format that facilitated rapid digestion of interplanetary phenomena on long (greater than 1 day) time scales. The format serendipitously allowed us to also examine earth-orbiting data from a new perspective, invigorating older areas of investigation in Earth's immediate environment. We, therefore, continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording for days on end conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations has been the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data we revisited.

  9. Shock waves in strongly coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khlebnikov, Sergei; Kruczenski, Martin; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios

    2010-12-15

    Shock waves are supersonic disturbances propagating in a fluid and giving rise to dissipation and drag. Weak shocks, i.e., those of small amplitude, can be well described within the hydrodynamic approximation. On the other hand, strong shocks are discontinuous within hydrodynamics and therefore probe the microscopics of the theory. In this paper, we consider the case of the strongly coupled N=4 plasma whose microscopic description, applicable for scales smaller than the inverse temperature, is given in terms of gravity in an asymptotically AdS{sub 5} space. In the gravity approximation, weak and strong shocks should be described by smooth metrics with no discontinuities. For weak shocks, we find the dual metric in a derivative expansion, and for strong shocks we use linearized gravity to find the exponential tail that determines the width of the shock. In particular, we find that, when the velocity of the fluid relative to the shock approaches the speed of light v{yields}1 the penetration depth l scales as l{approx}(1-v{sup 2}){sup 1/4}. We compare the results with second-order hydrodynamics and the Israel-Stewart approximation. Although they all agree in the hydrodynamic regime of weak shocks, we show that there is not even qualitative agreement for strong shocks. For the gravity side, the existence of shock waves implies that there are disturbances of constant shape propagating on the horizon of the dual black holes.

  10. Electromagnetic-wave excitation in a large laboratory beam-plasma system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of a beam-plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves is of current interest in space physics and in tokamak fusion research. The process involved in the conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic waves at the critical layer is well understood. However, the radiation from uniform plasmas cannot be explained on the basis of this process. In connection with certain difficulties, it has not yet been possible to establish the involved emission processes by means of experimental observations. In the considered investigation these difficulties are overcome by employing a large laboratory plasma in a parameter range suitable for detailed diagnostics. A finite-diameter electron beam is injected into a uniform quiescent afterglow plasma of dimensions large compared with electromagnetic wavelengths. The considered generation mechanism concerning the electromagnetic waves is conclusively confirmed by observing the temporal evolution of an instability

  11. On the rogue waves propagation in non-Maxwellian complex space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; El-Awady, E. I.; Tribeche, M.

    2015-11-01

    The implications of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions (nonthermal/or suprathermal/or nonextensive distributions) are examined on the dust-ion acoustic (DIA) rogue/freak waves in a dusty warm plasma. Using a reductive perturbation technique, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable DIA wavepackets and to describe the rogue waves (RWs) propagation. Rogue waves are large-amplitude short-lived wave groups, routinely observed in space plasmas. The possible region for the rogue waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of space plasmas. It is shown that the RWs strengthen for decreasing plasma nonthermality and increasing superthermality. For nonextensive electrons, the RWs amplitude exhibits a bit more complex behavior, depending on the entropic index q. Moreover, our numerical results reveal that the RWs exist with all values of the ion-to-electron temperature ratio σ for nonthermal and superthermal distributions and there is no limitation for the freak waves to propagate in both two distributions in the present plasma system. But, for nonextensive electron distribution, the bright- and dark-type waves can propagate in this case, which means that there is a limitation for the existence of freak waves. Our systematic investigation should be useful in understanding the properties of DIA solitary waves that may occur in non-Maxwellian space plasmas.

  12. On the rogue waves propagation in non-Maxwellian complex space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Tantawy, S. A. El-Awady, E. I.; Tribeche, M. E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz

    2015-11-15

    The implications of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions (nonthermal/or suprathermal/or nonextensive distributions) are examined on the dust-ion acoustic (DIA) rogue/freak waves in a dusty warm plasma. Using a reductive perturbation technique, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable DIA wavepackets and to describe the rogue waves (RWs) propagation. Rogue waves are large-amplitude short-lived wave groups, routinely observed in space plasmas. The possible region for the rogue waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of space plasmas. It is shown that the RWs strengthen for decreasing plasma nonthermality and increasing superthermality. For nonextensive electrons, the RWs amplitude exhibits a bit more complex behavior, depending on the entropic index q. Moreover, our numerical results reveal that the RWs exist with all values of the ion-to-electron temperature ratio σ for nonthermal and superthermal distributions and there is no limitation for the freak waves to propagate in both two distributions in the present plasma system. But, for nonextensive electron distribution, the bright- and dark-type waves can propagate in this case, which means that there is a limitation for the existence of freak waves. Our systematic investigation should be useful in understanding the properties of DIA solitary waves that may occur in non-Maxwellian space plasmas.

  13. Alfven wave dispersion behavior in single- and multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Ullrich, S.; Sauer, K.

    2010-03-15

    Dispersion relations of driven Alfven waves (AWs) are measured in single- and multicomponent plasmas consisting of mixtures of argon, helium, and oxygen in a magnetized linear cylindrical plasma device VINETA [C. Franck, O. Grulke, and T. Klinger, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3254 (2002)]. The decomposition of the measured three-dimensional magnetic field fluctuations and the corresponding parallel current pattern reveals that the wave field is a superposition of L- and R-wave components. The dispersion relation measurements agree well with calculations based on a multifluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic model if the plasma resistivity is correctly taken into account.

  14. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  15. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Electron Acoustic Waves in Electron Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabantsev, A. A.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2006-10-01

    Electron-acoustic wave (EAW) solutions of the linearized electrostatic Vlasov equations are usually ignored because their small phase velocity implies a huge linear damping. However, recent nonlinear theory and simulations found that electrons trapped in wave potentials result in long-lived BGK states at the EAW mode frequency. Experimentally, the predicted modes are readily observed on pure electron plasmas, when they are excited by weak wall voltages which are resonant over ˜100 cycles. The modes have phase velocity vφ 1.3 vth, in close agreement with theory; and the long-wavelength BGK states exhibit only weak damping (-γ/ φ<=0.01) due to electron-electron collisions. The mode frequencies are unambiguously calibrated by comparison to electron plasma wave frequencies. Discrete standing modes are observed, but modes with mz= 2,3... show a strong decay instability into mz=1. This instability corresponds to a merger of vortices in (z, vz) phase space, which can be suppressed (or enhanced) by application of potential barriers (or wells) between the high mz wavelengths. J.P. Holloway and J.J. Dorning, Phys. Rev. A. 44 3856 (1991). F. Valentini, T.M. O'Neil, D.H.E. Dubin, Phy Plas 13, 052303 (2006).

  17. Bounce-harmonic Landau Damping of Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, Francois

    2015-11-01

    We present measurement of plasma wave damping, spanning the temperature regimes of direct Landau damping, bounce-harmonic Landau damping, inter-species drag damping, and viscous damping. Direct Landau damping is dominant at high temperatures, but becomes negligible as v plasmas contained in Penning-Malmberg trap, with wave-coherent LIF diagnostics of particle velocities. Our focus is on bounce harmonics damping, controlled by an applied ``squeeze'' potential, which generates harmonics in the wave potential and in the particle dynamics. A particle moving in z experiences a non-sinusoidal mode potential caused by the squeeze, producing high spatial harmonics with lower phase velocity. These harmonics are Landau damped even when the mode phase velocity vph is large compared to the thermal velocity v , since the nth harmonic is resonant with a particle bouncing at velocity vb =vph / n . Here we increase the bounce harmonics through applied squeeze potential; but some harmonics are always present in finite length systems. For our centered squeeze geometry, theory shows that only odd harmonics are generated, and predicts the Landau damping rate from vph / n . Experimentally, the squeeze potential increases the wave damping and reduces its frequency. The frequency shift occurs because the squeeze potential reduces the number of particle where the mode velocity is the largest, therefore reducing the mode frequency. We observe an increase in the damping proportional to Vs2,and a frequency reduction proportional to Vs , in quantitative agreement with theory. Wave-coherent laser induced fluorescence allows direct observation of bounce resonances on the particle distribution, here predominantly at vph / 3 . A clear increase of the bounce harmonics is visible on the particle distribution when the squeeze potential is applied. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693.

  18. Scattering of radio frequency waves by cylindrical density filaments in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. Radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a tokamak, have to propagate through the scrape-off layer before reaching the core of the plasma. While the effect of fluctuations on the properties of RF waves has not been quantified experimentally, it is of interest to carry out a theoretical study to determine if fluctuations can affect the propagation characteristics of RF waves. Usually, the difference between the plasma density inside the filament and the background plasma density is sizable, the ratio of the density difference to the background density being of order one. Generally, this precludes the use of geometrical optics in determining the effect of fluctuations, since the relevant ratio has to be much less than one, typically, of the order of 10% or less. In this paper, a full-wave, analytical model is developed for the scattering of a RF plane wave by a cylindrical plasma filament. It is assumed that the plasma inside and outside the filament is cold and uniform and that the major axis of the filament is aligned along the toroidal magnetic field. The ratio of the density inside the filament to the density of the background plasma is not restricted. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any cold plasma wave. In order to satisfy the boundary conditions at the interface between the filament and the background plasma, the electromagnetic fields inside and outside the filament need to have the same k∥ , the wave vector parallel to the ambient magnetic field, as the incident plane wave. Consequently, in contrast to the scattering of a RF wave by a spherical blob [Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 056110-1-056110-10 (2013)], the scattering by a field-aligned filament does not broaden the k∥ spectrum. However, the filament induces side-scattering leading to surface

  19. Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.

    2011-11-15

    We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.

  20. Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.

    2011-11-01

    We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.

  1. Simulation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in collisional weakly relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Nandan Gupta, Devki

    2016-11-01

    The process of interaction of lasers beating in a plasma has been explored by virtue of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the presence of electron-ion collisions. A plasma beat wave is resonantly excited by ponderomotive force by two relatively long laser pulses of different frequencies. The amplitude of the plasma wave become maximum, when the difference in the frequencies is equal to the plasma frequency. We propose to demonstrate the energy transfer between the laser beat wave and the plasma wave in the presence of electron-ion collision in nearly relativistic regime with 2D-PIC simulations. The relativistic effect and electron-ion collision both affect the energy transfer between the interacting waves. The finding of simulation results shows that there is a considerable decay in the plasma wave and the field energy over time in the presence of electron-ion collisions.

  2. The ''phase velocity'' of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    A calculational scheme for beat-wave accelerators is introduced that includes all orders in velocity and in plasma density, and additionally accounts for the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which it is possible to sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. It is found that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity, but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local ''effective phase velocity'' function. A time-space domain approach is followed. (LEW)

  3. Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, W.; Teppe, F.; Meziani, Y.; Dyakonova, N.; Lusakowski, J.; Boeuf, F.; Skotnicki, T.; Maude, D.; Rumyantsev, S.; Shur, M. S.

    2004-07-26

    We report on experiments on photoresponse to sub-THz (120 GHz) radiation of Si field-effect transistors (FETs) with nanometer and submicron gate lengths at 300 K. The observed photoresponse is in agreement with predictions of the Dyakonov-Shur plasma wave detection theory. This is experimental evidence of the plasma wave detection by silicon FETs. The plasma wave parameters deduced from the experiments allow us to predict the nonresonant and resonant detection in THz range by nanometer size silicon devices operating at room temperature.

  4. Plasma wave signatures in the magnetotail reconnection region - MHD simulation and ray tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, Yoshiharu; Green, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An MHD simulation was performed to obtain a self-consistent model of magnetic field and plasma density near the X point reconnection region. The MHD model was used to perform extensive ray tracing calculations in order to clarify the propagation characteristics of the plasma waves near the X point reconnection region. The dynamic wave spectra possibly observed by the Geotail spacecraft during a typical cross-tail trajectory are reconstructed. By comparing the extensive ray tracing calculations with the plasma wave data from Geotail, it is possible to perform a kind of 'remote sensing' to identify the location and structure of potential X point reconnection regions.

  5. Flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Surabhi; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sen, Abhijit

    2015-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of particle flow induced large amplitude shock waves in a dusty plasma. These dust acoustic shocks (DAS) are observed for strongly supersonic flows and have been studied in a U-shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device for charged kaolin dust in a background of Argon plasma. The strong flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of the dust density near the potential hill is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks. The dynamics of the shocks are captured by fast video pictures of the structures that are illuminated by a laser sheet beam. The physical characteristics of the shock are delineated from a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of plasma parameters and flow speeds. Details of these observations and a physical explanation based on model calculations will be presented.

  6. The transmission of Alfven waves through the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of Alfven wave propagation through the Io plasma torus was investigated using a one-dimensional model with uniform magnetic field and an exponential density decrease to a constant value. The solution was interpreted in terms of a wave that is incident upon the torus, a reflected wave, and a wave that is transmitted through the torus. The results obtained indicate that Io's Alfven waves may not propagate completely through the plasma torus, and, thus, the WKB theory and ray tracing may not provide meaningful estimates of the energy transport.

  7. Formation of shock waves in a cold dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, G. C.; Choudhury, Balen; Bora, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    In this brief report, we present our calculations leading to formation of coherent structures through shock waves, which is studied with the help of the Burger wave equation, in certain space plasmas contaminated by the massive cold dust grains. Burger equation, in an ideal Maxwellian complex plasma, is derived and results are reported, which could be relevant in case of different space and astrophysical plasmas including Saturn's spokes, F-ring, planetary nebulae, etc.

  8. Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khaira, Vibhooti Ahirwar, G.

    2015-07-31

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e{sup −}), hydrogen ions (denoted by H{sup +}), helium ions (denoted by He{sup +}) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O{sup +})in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region.

  9. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  10. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  11. Magnetosonic shock wave in collisional pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish Khan, Manoranjan; Sikdar, Arnab

    2016-06-15

    Nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic shock wave has been studied in collisional magnetized pair-ion plasma. The masses of both ions are same but the temperatures are slightly different. Two fluid model has been taken to describe the model. Two different modes of the magnetosonic wave have been obtained. The dynamics of the nonlinear magnetosonic wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers' equation. It has been shown that the ion-ion collision is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The numerical investigations reveal that the magnetosonic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the strength of the dissipation. The nonlinear wave exhibited the oscillatory shock wave for strong magnetic field (weak dissipation) and monotonic shock wave for weak magnetic field (strong dissipation). The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  12. Waves: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the Wind Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeret, J.-L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kellogg, P. J.; Manning, R.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Monge, N.; Friel, L.; Meetre, C. A.; Perche, C.; Sitruk, L.; Hoang, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft will provide comprehensive measurements of the radio and plasma wave phenomena which occur in Geospace. Analyses of these measurements, in coordination with the other onboard plasma, energetic particles, and field measurements will help us understand the kinetic processes that are important in the solar wind and in key boundary regions of the Geospace. These processes are then to be interpreted in conjunction with results from the other ISTP spacecraft in order to discern the measurements and parameters for mass, momentum, and energy flow throughout geospace. This investigation will also contribute to observations of radio waves emitted in regions where the solar wind is accelerated. The WAVES investigation comprises several innovations in this kind of instrumentation: among which the first use, to our knowledge, of neural networks in real-time on board a scientific spacecraft to analyze data and command observation modes, and the first use of a wavelet transform-like analysis in real time to perform a spectral analysis of a broad band signal.

  13. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  14. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2013-04-15

    A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves with frequencies near the cyclotron frequency {Omega}{sub c{sub s}} of a given plasma species s is developed for a multispecies non-neutral plasma column with general radial density and electric field profiles. Terms in the perturbed distribution function up to O(1/{Omega}{sub c{sub s}{sup 2}}) are kept, as are the effects of finite cyclotron radius r{sub c} up to O(r{sub c}{sup 2}). At this order, the equilibrium distribution is not Maxwellian if the plasma temperature or rotation frequency is not uniform. For r{sub c}{yields}0, the theory reproduces cold-fluid theory and predicts surface cyclotron waves propagating azimuthally. For finite r{sub c}, the wave equation predicts that the surface wave couples to radially and azimuthally propagating Bernstein waves, at locations where the wave frequency equals the local upper hybrid frequency. The equation also predicts a second set of Bernstein waves that do not couple to the surface wave, and therefore have no effect on the external potential. The wave equation is solved both numerically and analytically in the WKB approximation, and analytic dispersion relations for the waves are obtained. The theory predicts that both types of Bernstein wave are damped at resonances, which are locations where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local cyclotron frequency as seen in the rotating frame.

  15. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  16. ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es

    2013-04-20

    Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.

  17. Whistler-mode Waves in a Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2005-10-01

    The book provides an extensive theoretical treatment of whistler-mode propagation, instabilities and damping in a collisionless plasma. This book fills a gap between oversimplified analytical studies of these waves, based on the cold plasma approximation, and studies based on numerical methods. Although the book is primarily addressed to space plasma physicists and radio physicists, it will also prove useful to laboratory plasma physicists. Mathematical methods described in the book can be applied in a straightforward way to the analysis of other types of plasma waves. Problems included in this book, along with their solutions, allow it to be used as a textbook for postgraduate students.

  18. Observation of wave turbulence in vibrating plates.

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, Arezki; Cadot, Olivier; Odille, Benoît; Touzé, Cyril

    2008-06-13

    The nonlinear interaction of waves in a driven medium may lead to wave turbulence, a state such that energy is transferred from large to small length scales. Here, wave turbulence is observed in experiments on a vibrating plate. The frequency power spectra of the normal velocity of the plate may be rescaled on a single curve, with power-law behaviors that are incompatible with the weak turbulence theory of Düring et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025503 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.025503]. Alternative scenarios are suggested to account for this discrepancy -- in particular the occurrence of wave breaking at high frequencies. Finally, the statistics of velocity increments do not display an intermittent behavior.

  19. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example—generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently—with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications.

  20. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example--generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently--with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications.

  1. Plasma waves associated with the AMPTE artificial comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Haeusler, B.; Haerendel, G.; Bauer, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    Numerous plasma wave effects were detected by the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft during the artificial comet experiment on December 27, 1984. As the barium ion cloud produced by the explosion expanded over the spacecraft, emissions at the electron plasma frequency and ion plasma frequency provided a determination of the local electron density. The electron density in the diamagnetic cavity produced by the ion cloud reached a peak of more than 5 x 10 to the 5th per cu cm, then decayed smoothly as the cloud expanded, varying approximately as t exp-2. As the cloud began to move due to interactions with the solar wind, a region of compressed plasma was encountered on the upstream side of the diamagnetic cavity. The peak electron density in the compression region was about 1.5 x 10 to the 4th per cu cm. Later, a very intense (140 mVolt/m) broadband burst of electrostatic noise was encountered on the sunward side of the compression region. This noise has characteristics very similar to noise observed in the earth's bow shock, and is believed to be a shocklike interaction produced by an ion beam-plasma instability between the nearly stationary barium ions and the streaming solar wind protons.

  2. Modulational instability of fast magnetosonic waves in a solar plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, J.-I.

    1983-04-01

    A set of coupled equations describing the modulational instability, including gravity, is derived from the MHD. It is noted that the results obtained here may figure prominently in processes of magnetic field line reconnection caused by nonlinear MHD waves (Sakai et al., 1982), as well as in explanations of the slow motions recently observed in the X-ray pictures during Skylab (Rust and Svestka, 1979). The modulational instability is discussed, and an estimate is made of the growth rate. Attention is also given to the applications of the modulational instability of fast modes to a solar plasma.

  3. Electrotastic Solitary Waves (ESW) in the magnetotail: BEN wave forms observed by GEOTAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.; Miyatake, T.; Omura, Y.; Okada, M.; Nagano, I.; Tsutsui, M.

    1994-01-01

    Wave forms of BEN (Broadband Electrostatic Noise) in the geomagnetic tail were first detected by the Wave Form Capture reciever on the GEOTAIL spacecraft. The results show that most of the BEN in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) are not continuous broadband noise but are composed of a series of solitary pulses having a special form which we term 'Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESW)'. A nonlinear BGK potential model is proposed as the generation mechanism for the ESW based upon a simple particle simulation which considers the highly nonlinear evolution of the electron beam instability. The wave forms produced by this simulation are very similar to those observed by GEOTAIL and suggest that the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam play an essential role in the generation of ESW.

  4. Propagation of dust acoustic solitary waves in inhomogeneous plasma with dust charge fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, L. B.; Deka, P. N.

    2017-03-01

    Propagations of dust acoustic solitary waves are theoretically investigated in a collisionless, unmagnetized weakly inhomogeneous plasma. The plasma that is considered here consists of negatively charged dust grains and Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions in the presence of dust charge fluctuations. The fluid equations that we use for description of such plasmas are reduced to a modified Korteweg-de-Vries equation by employing a reductive perturbation method. In this investigation, we have used space-time stretched coordinates appropriate for the inhomogeneous plasmas. From the numerical results, we have observed a significant influence of inhomogeneity parameters on the propagation of dust acoustic solitary waves.

  5. Plasma wave system measurements of the Martian bow shock from the Phobos 2 spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Trotignon, J.G. ); Grard, R. ); Savin, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The high-resolution data of the electric field observations performed by the plasma wave system (PWS) during some of the Martian bow shock intersections by Phobos 2 were analyzed. Plasma and wave detectors are very useful instruments for locating the shock transition region and studying structures in the upstream region, such as the foot or the electron foreshock. The electron plasma oscillations that develop in the latter give access to the plasma density of the solar wind. Shock surface models derived from the PWS data are compared to those obtained by other authors, and attention is paid to similarities and differences between the electric field measurements obtained for Mars, Venus, and Earth

  6. Wave particle duality, the observer and retrocausality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Ashok; Kafatos, Menas C.

    2017-05-01

    We approach wave particle duality, the role of the observer and implications on Retrocausality, by starting with the results of a well verified quantum experiment. We analyze how some current theoretical approaches interpret these results. We then provide an alternative theoretical framework that is consistent with the observations and in many ways simpler than usual attempts to account for retrocausality, involving a non-local conscious Observer.

  7. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  8. Exchange interaction effects on waves in magnetized quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Trukhanova, Mariya Iv. Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-02-15

    We have applied the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics that includes the Coulomb exchange interaction to magnetized quantum plasmas. We considered a number of wave phenomena that are affected by the Coulomb exchange interaction. Since the Coulomb exchange interaction affects the longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal waves, we focused our attention on the Langmuir waves, the Trivelpiece-Gould waves, the ion-acoustic waves in non-isothermal magnetized plasmas, the dispersion of the longitudinal low-frequency ion-acoustic waves, and low-frequency electromagnetic waves at T{sub e} ≫ T{sub i}. We have studied the dispersion of these waves and present the numeric simulation of their dispersion properties.

  9. Trapped electron acceleration by a laser-driven relativistic plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Gordon, D.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.

    1994-04-01

    THE aim of new approaches for high-energy particle acceleration1 is to push the acceleration rate beyond the limit (~100 MeV m-1) imposed by radio-frequency breakdown in conventional accelerators. Relativistic plasma waves, having phase velocities very close to the speed of light, have been proposed2-6 as a means of accelerating charged particles, and this has recently been demonstrated7,8. Here we show that the charged particles can be trapped by relativistic plasma waves-a necessary condition for obtaining the maximum amount of energy theoretically possible for such schemes. In our experiments, plasma waves are excited in a hydrogen plasma by beats induced by two collinear laser beams, the difference in whose frequencies matches the plasma frequency. Electrons with an energy of 2 MeV are injected into the excited plasma, and the energy spectrum of the exiting electrons is analysed. We detect electrons with velocities exceeding that of the plasma wave, demonstrating that some electrons are 'trapped' by the wave potential and therefore move synchronously with the plasma wave. We observe a maximum energy gain of 28 MeV, corresponding to an acceleration rate of about 2.8 GeV m-1.

  10. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-12-15

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  11. Nonextensivity effect on radio-wave transmission in plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, A.; Esfandiari-Kalejahi, A.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, new theoretical findings on the application of magnetic field in effective transmission of electromagnetic (EM) waves through a plasma sheath around a hypersonic vehicle are reported. The results are obtained by assuming the plasma sheath to consist of nonextensive electrons and thermal ions. The expressions for the electric field and effective collision frequency are derived analytically in the framework of nonextensive statistics. Examination of the reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients regarding the strength of the ambient magnetic field shows the significance of q-nonextensive parameter effect on these entities. For small values of the magnetic field, the transmission coefficient increases to unity only in the range of - 1 < q < 1 . It is also found that the EM wave transmission through the nonextensive plasma sheath can take place using lower magnetic field strengths in the presence of superthermal electrons compared with that of Maxwellian ones. It is observed that superthermal electrons, with nonextensive parameter, q < 1, play a dominant role in overcoming the radio blackout for hypersonic flights.

  12. Radio and Plasma Waves Synergistic Science Opportunities with EJSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; André, Nicolas; Bougeret, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    The radio and plasma wave (RPW) diagnostics provide a unique access to critical parameters of space plasma, in particular in planetary and satellite environments. Concerning giant planets, this has been demonstrated by major results obtained by the radio investigation on the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft, but also during the Ulysses, Voyager, and Pioneer flybys of Jupiter. Several other missions, past or in flight, demonstrate the uniqueness and relevance of RPW diagnostics to basic problems of astrophysics. The EJSM mission consists of two platforms operating in the Jupiter environment: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The EJSM mission architecture hence offers unique opportunities for synergistic and complementary observations that significantly enhance the overall science return of the mission. In this paper, we will first review new and unique science aspects of the Jupiter system that may benefit from different capabilities of RPW investigations onboard JGO and/or JEO: spectral and polarization information, mapping of radio sources, measurements of in situ plasma waves, currents, thermal noise, dust and nano-particle detection and characterization. We will then illustrate unique synergistic and complementary science opportunities offered by RPW investigations onboard JGO and/or JEO, both in terms of Satellite science and in terms of Magnetospheric Science.

  13. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interval reported on, from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1991, has been one of continued processing and archiving of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and transition from analysis of ISEE 3 and ICE cometary data to ICE data taken along its cruise trajectory, where coronal mass ejections are the focus of attention. We have continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations was the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data was revisited. While pursuing detailed, second-order scientific inquiries still pending from the late ISEE 3 recordings, we have also sought to position ourselves for study of CME's by instituting a data processing format new to the ISEE 3/ICE pw detector. Processed detector output has always been summarized and archived in 24-hour segments, with all pw channels individually plotted and stacked one above the next down in frequency, with each channel calibrated separately to keep all data patterns equally visible in the plots, regardless of gross differences in energy content at the various frequencies. Since CME's, with their preceding and following solar wind plasmas, can take more than one day to pass by the spacecraft, a more condensed synoptic view of the pw data is required to identify, let alone assess, CME characteristics than has been afforded by the traditional routines. This requirement is addressed in a major new processing initiative in the past two years. Besides our own ongoing and fresh investigations, we have cooperated, within our resources, with studies conducted extramurally by distant colleagues irrespective of the phase of the ISEE 3/ICE mission under scrutiny. The remainder of this report summarizes our processing activities, our

  14. Cross-Frequency Coupling of Plasma Waves in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are crucial elements of magnetosphere and ionosphere plasma dynamics. Such interactions provide a channel of energy redistribution between different plasma populations, and lead to connections between physical processes developing on different spatial and temporal scales. The lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are particularly interesting for plasma dynamics, because they couple well with both electrons and ions. The excitation of LHWs is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven and/or EMIC waves, in particular those associated with lower frequency (LF) turbulence, may generate LHWs in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases this serves as the Alfven and/or EMIC waves saturation mechanism. We believe that this described scenario, as well as some other cross-frequency coupling of plasma waves processes that will be discussed in this presentation, can play a vital role in various parts of the magnetospheric plasma, especially in the places under investigation by the NASA THEMIS and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)) missions.

  15. Electromagnetic rogue waves in beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldes, G. P.; Borhanian, J.; McKerr, M.; Saxena, V.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kourakis, I.

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of rogue waves (freak waves) associated with electromagnetic pulse propagation interacting with a plasma is investigated, from first principles. A multiscale technique is employed to solve the fluid Maxwell equations describing weakly nonlinear circularly polarized electromagnetic pulses in magnetized plasmas. A nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equation is shown to govern the amplitude of the vector potential. A set of non-stationary envelope solutions of the NLS equation are considered as potential candidates for the modeling of rogue waves (freak waves) in beam-plasma interactions, namely in the form of the Peregrine soliton, the Akhmediev breather and the Kuznetsov-Ma breather. The variation of the structural properties of the latter structures with relevant plasma parameters is investigated, in particular focusing on the ratio between the (magnetic field dependent) cyclotron (gyro-)frequency and the plasma frequency.

  16. Wave enhancement of electron runaway rate in a collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    An, Z.; Liu, C.; Lee, Y.; Boyd, D.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of plasma waves on the electron runaway production rate is studied. For a wave packet with a one-dimensional spectrum directed along the electric field and with a phase velocity range containing the critical velocity v/sub c/ for runaway, the runaway production rate is found to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. For an isotropic wave spectrum, however, the runaway production rate is reduced because of the wave-enhanced pitch angle scattering.

  17. Nonlinear equation for Farley–Buneman waves in multispecies plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, S. K.; Smolyakov, A. I. Bains, A. S.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.

    2016-05-15

    The nonlinear equation describing the Farley–Buneman (FB) waves in multispecies collisional plasmas is derived by employing the multiple-scale reduction analysis. It is shown that the presence of several ion species with different collisionalities and different ion masses removes the degeneracy of the nonlinear equation and generates the nonlinear terms resulting in wave steepening and wave breaking. This effect may be responsible for formation of one-dimensional coherent FB waves of a finite amplitude.

  18. Low Frequency Waves and Reflected Ions in the Lunar Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Fruehauff, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations show that a significant fraction of incoming solar wind protons are reflected by localized crustal magnetic fields on the lunar surface. These reflected ions can generate plasma waves in the lunar plasma environment through several mechanisms, including resonant interactions that drive waves with frequencies that lie near the ion cyclotron frequency in the reference frame of the ions. On 31 January 2014 one of the ARTEMIS probes detected plasma waves right before it crossed into the lunar wake; these waves were not detected by the second ARTEMIS probe upstream of the Moon in the undisturbed solar wind. The power and polarization spectra of these waves reveal that they are right hand polarized in the Moon frame, with a frequency below the ion cyclotron frequency. We analyze the ARTEMIS observations to determine that ions reflected from the lunar surface are the most likely cause of these. Using minimum variance analysis of the magnetic field data we determine the propagation direction of the waves (with a 180 degree uncertainty). We solve the Doppler shift and the cyclotron resonance equations to determine the conditions needed for reflected ions to excite the observed waves. We use model results obtained from a simulated tracing of ions reflected from the lunar surface to reproduce the ARTEMIS ion observations, supporting the hypothesis that reflected ions are the primary driver of the waves. We then use the simulated trajectories to determine if ions with the requisite parameters for the possible scenarios exist in the right location to generate the observed waves.

  19. Waves In Space Plasmas (WISP): A space plasma lab active experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredricks, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) series of Spacelab Space Plasma Labs devoted to active experimentation, are introduced. Space Plasma Lab-1 is keyed to active probing of the ionosphere and magnetosphere using controlled wave injections by the WISP VLF and HF transmitters, supported by a free-flying plasma diagnostics package instrumented with wave receivers and particle probe diagnostics, designed to measure radiation and propagation of plasma waves, precipitated particle fluxes due to wave/particle interactions, and similar phenomena resulting from wave injectons. The VLF transmitter delivers up to 1 kW of RF power into the antenna terminals over the range from 0.3 to 30 kHz. The HF transmitter delivers up to 500 W to the antenna over the range from 1 to 30 MHz. A dipole antenna commandable to any extension up to 300 m tip-to-tip is available.

  20. PLASMA NEAR THE HELIOSHEATH: OBSERVATIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J. D.; Wang, C. E-mail: cw@spaceweather.ac.cn

    2010-03-01

    Voyager 2 (V2) has observed heliosheath plasma since 2007 August. The plasma flux decreases by 25% before the termination shock (TS), then, as V2 moved into the heliosheath, the plasma density, temperature, and flux all decreased by an additional factor of 2. We suggest three effects combine to cause these decreases. (1) V2 moved into the lower-flux transition region between the low- and high-speed solar wind. This hypothesis is consistent with Ulysses observations of the transition location, explains the 25% decrease in solar wind flux observed before the TS crossing, and can reconcile discrepancies between the V2 and Voyager 1 heliosheath speeds and between the V2 speeds and model results. (2) The weaker source at the Sun. (3) The heliosheath plasma turning and flowing toward the heliotail.

  1. Transition of electromagnetic wave by suddenly created magneto plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with a suddenly created magneto plasma is presented. It is shown that a linearly polarized wave propagating along the magnetic field is converted into a frequency upshifted two forward and two backward propagating waves; in each propagation direction, one is right hand circular polarization and the other one is left hand circular polarization. A static wiggler magnetic field is also produced. The combined forward and backward waves are amplitude modulated with rotating polarizations. The extent of the frequency upshift increases with the increases of the plasma density and the background magnetic field intensity. By increasing the background magnetic field, the required plasma density for the frequency upshift is reduced; consequently, the drop rate of the conversion efficiency with the increase in the frequency upshift of the combined forward wave can be reduced considerably; the conversion efficiency of the combined backward wave also increases.

  2. High Power HF Excitation of Low Frequency Stimulated Electrostatic Waves in the Ionospheric Plasma over HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul; Selcher, Craig A.

    High Power electromagnetic (EM) waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low frequency electrostatic waves by several processes including (1) direct magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) and (2) parametric decay of high frequency electrostatic waves into electron and ion Bernstein waves. Either an ion acoustic (IA) wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (fCI) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above fCI can be produced by MSBS. The coupled equations describing the MSBS instabil-ity show that the production of both IA and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation direction relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska have confirmed the theoretical predictions that only IA waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The electron temperature in the heated plasma is obtained from the IA spectrum offsets from the pump frequency. The ion composition can be determined from the measured EIC frequency. Near the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency, the EM pump wave is converted into an electron Bernstein (EB) wave that decays into another EB wave and an ion Bernstein (IB) wave. Strong cyclotron resonance with the EB wave leads to acceleration of the electrons. Ground based SEE observations are related to the theory of low-frequency electrostatic wave generation.

  3. A region of intense plasma wave turbulence on auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a detailed study of the plasma wave turbulence observed by HAWKEYE-1 and IMP-6 on high latitude auroral field lines and investigates the relationship of this turbulence to magnetic field and plasma measurements obtained in the same region.

  4. Low-frequency electromagnetic plasma waves at comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup: Analysis and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Fritz M.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The propagation and polarization characteristic of low-frequency electromagnetic wave fields near comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup (P/GS) are analyzed using magnetic field and plasma observations obtained by the Giotto magnetometer experiment and the Johnstone plasma analyzer during the encounter at the comet on July 10, 1992. The results have been physically interpreted.

  5. Observing gravitational waves with a single detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, T. A.; Kanner, J. B.; Massinger, T. J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Weinstein, A. J.

    2017-08-01

    A major challenge of any search for gravitational waves is to distinguish true astrophysical signals from those of terrestrial origin. Gravitational-wave experiments therefore make use of multiple detectors, considering only those signals which appear in coincidence in two or more instruments. It is unclear, however, how to interpret loud gravitational-wave candidates observed when only one detector is operational. In this paper, we demonstrate that the observed rate of binary black hole mergers can be leveraged in order to make confident detections of gravitational-wave signals with one detector alone. We quantify detection confidences in terms of the probability P(S) that a signal candidate is of astrophysical origin. We find that, at current levels of instrumental sensitivity, loud binary black hole candidates observed with a single Advanced LIGO detector can be assigned P(S)≳0.4 . In the future, Advanced LIGO may be able to observe binary black hole mergers with single-detector confidences exceeding P(S)∼90% .

  6. Theory of ground surface plasma wave associated with pre-earthquake electrical charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    is shown theoretically that if mobile electrical charge exists on the surface of the ground, a ground surface plasma wave is induced by radio waves. If the electrical charges are generated by tectonic stresses acting on crustal rocks prior to major earthquakes, the detection of a ground surface plasma wave could be used as a pre-earthquake electromagnetic phenomenon. The ground surface plasma wave has a dispersion relation, i.e., the relation between frequency and wavelength, similar to that of the free-space plane wave in the atmosphere over the radio broadcast frequency range. It allows for a strong coupling between these two types of waves. This is a mode of electromagnetic wave propagation that has not been previously reported. Numerical analysis demonstrates (1) the propagation of the ground surface plasma wave along a curved surface beyond the line of sight, (2) anomalous scattering by ground surface roughness, and (3) the generation of cross-polarized waves due to the scattering. These results all agree well with radio wave anomalies observed before large earthquakes.

  7. Geotail MCA plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-2346 supports the data analysis effort at The University of Iowa for the GEOTAIL Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) which is a part of the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI). At the beginning of this reporting period we had just begun to receive our GEOTAIL Sirius data on CD-ROMs. Much programming effort went into adapting and refining the data analysis programs to include the CD-ROM inputs. Programs were also developed to display the high-frequency-resolution PWI Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA) data and to include in all the various plot products the electron cyclotron frequency derived from the magnitude of the magnetic field extracted from the GEOTAIL Magnetic Field (MGF) data included in the GEOTAIL Sirius data. We also developed programs to use the MGF data residing in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) GEOTAIL Scientific Data Base (SDB). Our programmers also developed programs and provided technical support for the GEOTAIL data analysis efforts of Co-lnvestigator William W. L. Taylor at Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). At the end of this report we have included brief summaries of the NRC effort and the progress being made.

  8. Assimilating coastal wave buoy observations and global wave model predictions in regional wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, S. C.; Cornuelle, B. D.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Guza, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    Nearshore tracer transport and mixing are strongly driven by wave processes, and require accurate, high-resolution, coastal wave predictions. Although global wind-wave models (e.g., NOAA WW3) driven by satellite observations of surface wind stress, continue to improve, biases and errors remain. These wave models do not assimilate regional wave observations. Long-term directional buoy records could improve nearshore predictions, especially in highly sheltered regions with complex bathymetry that are sensitive to directional details offshore, e.g. the Southern California Bight (SCB). Assimilation of wave spectrum observations in modern wave models is difficult due to nonlinear physical processes on varying timescales, however, at spatial scales of a few 100km, and swell-band frequencies where dissipation and generation is negligible, wave propagation is linear. Here, we present techniques for combining global wave model predictions (NOAA WW3) with a large (6-8) directional wave buoy network to estimate high resolution offshore wave spectra in the swell energy band offshore of the SCB. Backwards ray tracing is used to determine regional refraction, depth-limited shoaling, and travel time lags. Though directional wave buoy observations yield only non-unique estimates of the frequency-directional spectra, the combination of WW3 predictions and a large buoy network with varying offshore exposure provides many constraints, ultimately yielding very high-resolution offshore directional wave spectra estimates. In comparison to adjoint-based 4DVAR methods for regional wave models (e.g., SWAN), our approach is computationally faster, and can be used in non-stationary conditions, i.e. regions where energy travel time lags are significant. Preliminary case studies with buoy observations in the SCB show improved swell energy prediction at non-assimilated buoy validation sites, indicating a region-wide prediction improvement. Additionally, alongshore radiation stress predictions

  9. Plasma wave turbulence in the strong coupling region at comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bame, S. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Hynds, R.; Wenzel, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    Within 100,000 km of comet Giacobini-Zinner's nucleus, strong plasma wave turbulence was detected by the ICE electric and magnetic field wave instruments. The spatial profiles of the wave amplitudes are compared with measurements of the heavy ion fluxes of cometary origin, the plasma electron density, and the magnetic field strength. The general similarity of the wave and heavy ion profiles suggest that the waves might be generated by free energy in the pick-up ion distribution function. However, the expected parallel streaming instability of electrostatic modes generates waves with frequencies that are too low to explain the observations. The observed low frequency magnetic turbulence is plausibly explained by the lower hybrid loss-cone instability of heavy ions.

  10. Cluster Observation Of Ion And Electron Cyclotron Waves Near Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, I.; Panov, E. V.

    2012-12-01

    We examine observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and electron cyclotron waves by Cluster spacecraft during a magnetopause transition near polar cusp region. The waves appear to be generated locally, on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause current layer, due to large particle temperature anisotropy (T⊥}/T{∥ >3 for all ions and T⊥}/T{∥ ˜ 1.3 for electrons) and large plasma beta (0.5 < β < 10). The compact configuration of Cluster spacecraft and high-resolution electromagnetic field data allowed us to measure the wave vectors k by two independent methods: the wave-telescope and the polarization methods. Such measurements are essential for estimation of minimum energies of particles scattered by EMIC waves via cyclotron resonance. The results show good agreement with linear dispersion theory. The EMIC waves propagate along the magnetic field with frequencies near 1 Hz, wavelength of 260 km at speeds of ˜ 500 km/s. We discuss the implications of these results for the particle diffusion coefficients and minimum resonant scattering energies.

  11. Effect of wave localization on plasma instabilities. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levedahl, William Kirk

    1987-01-01

    The Anderson model of wave localization in random media is involved to study the effect of solar wind density turbulence on plasma processes associated with the solar type III radio burst. ISEE-3 satellite data indicate that a possible model for the type III process is the parametric decay of Langmuir waves excited by solar flare electron streams into daughter electromagnetic and ion acoustic waves. The threshold for this instability, however, is much higher than observed Langmuir wave levels because of rapid wave convection of the transverse electromagnetic daughter wave in the case where the solar wind is assumed homogeneous. Langmuir and transverse waves near critical density satisfy the Ioffe-Reigel criteria for wave localization in the solar wind with observed density fluctuations -1 percent. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in random media confirm the localization length predictions of Escande and Souillard for stationary density fluctations. For mobile density fluctuations localized wave packets spread at the propagation velocity of the density fluctuations rather than the group velocity of the waves. Computer simulations using a linearized hybrid code show that an electron beam will excite localized Langmuir waves in a plasma with density turbulence. An action principle approach is used to develop a theory of non-linear wave processes when waves are localized. A theory of resonant particles diffusion by localized waves is developed to explain the saturation of the beam-plasma instability. It is argued that localization of electromagnetic waves will allow the instability threshold to be exceeded for the parametric decay discussed above.

  12. Altimeter Observations of Baroclinic Oceanic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, R. E.; Cheng, B.

    1996-01-01

    For a wide range of nonlinear wave processes - from capillary to planetary waves - theory predicts the existence of Kolmogorov-type spectral cascades of energy and other conserved quantities occuring via nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions. So far, observations of wave turbulence (WT) have been limited to small-scale processes such as surface gravity and capillary-gravity waves.

  13. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  14. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  15. Hybrid simulation of wave propagation in the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, B. H.; Delamere, P. A.; Damiano, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The transmission of waves between Jupiter and Io is an excellent case study of magnetosphere/ionosphere (MI) coupling because the power generated by the interaction at Io and the auroral power emitted at Jupiter can be reasonably estimated. Wave formation begins with mass loading as Io passes through the plasma torus. A ring beam distribution of pickup ions and perturbation of the local flow by the conducting satellite generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and Alfven waves. We investigate wave propagation through the torus and to higher latitudes using a hybrid plasma simulation with a physically realistic density gradient, assessing the transmission of Poynting flux and wave dispersion. We also analyze the propagation of kinetic Alfven waves through a density gradient in two dimensions.

  16. On the generation of plasma waves in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1993-06-01

    Voyager 1 plasma wave measurements of Saturn's inner magnetosphere are reviewed with regard to interpretative aspects of the wave spectrum. A comparison of the wave emission profile with the electron plasma frequency obtained from in situ measurements of the thermal ion density shows good agreement with various features in the wave data identified as electrostatic modes and electromagnetic radio waves. Theoretical calculations of the critical flux of superthermal electrons able to generate whistler-mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves through a loss-cone instability are presented. The comparison of model results with electron measurements shows excellent agreement, thereby lending support to the conclusion that a moderate perpendicular anisotropy in the hot electron distribution is present in the equatorial region of L = 5-8.

  17. Freak waves in negative-ion plasmas: an experiment revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakis, Ioannis; Elkamash, Ibrahem; Reville, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Extreme events in the form of rogue waves (freak waves) occur widely in the open sea. These are space- and time-localised excitations, which appear unexpectedly and are characterised by a significant amplitude. Beyond ocean dynamics, the mechanisms underlying rogue wave formation are now being investigated in various physical contexts, including materials science, nonlinear optics and plasma physics, to mention but a few. We have undertaken an investigation, from first principles, of the occurrence of rogue waves associated with the propagation of electrostatic wavepackets in plasmas. Motivated by recent experimental considerations involving freak waves in negative-ion plasmas (NIP), we have addresed the occurrence of freak waves in NIP from first principles. An extended range of plasma parameter values was identified, where freak wave formation is possible, in terms of relevant plasma parameters. Our results extend -and partly contradict- the underlying assumptions in the interpretation of the aforementioned experiment, where a critical plasma configuration was considered and a Gardner equation approach was adopted. This work was supported from CPP/QUB funding. One of us (I. Elkamash) acknowledges financial support by an Egyptian Government fellowship.

  18. MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es

    2013-11-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.

  19. Surface Waves and Landau Resonant Heating in Unmagnetized Bounded Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Kevin

    2001-10-01

    Owing to the large areas and high plasma densities found in some recently developed devices [1], electrostatic theories of plasma resonances and surface wave [2-3] propagation in such devices are suspect as the size of the device is much larger than the free space wavelength associated with the peak plasma frequency. Accordingly, an electromagnetic model of surface wave propagation has been developed appropriate for large area plasmas. The predicted wave dispersion of the two models differs for extremely long wavelengths but is degenerate in devices small compared with wavelength. First principles particle-in-cell simulations using new techniques developed for the demanding simulation regime have been conducted which support these results. Given the slow wave character and boundary localized fields of surface waves, a periodic electrode may be used to resonantly excite a strong wave-particle interaction between surface waves and electrons. At saturation, the electron velocity distribution is enhanced above the phase velocity of the applied wave and suppressed below. The use of this technique (``Landau resonant heating'') to selectively heat the electron high energy tail to enhance electron-impact ionization is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. [1] Matsumoto (Sumitomo Metal Industries). Private Communication. July 1999. [2] Nickel, Parker, Gould. Phys. Fluids. 7:1489. 1964. [3] Cooperberg. Phys. Plasmas. Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1998.

  20. Wave mode identification of electrostatic noise observed with ISEE 3 in the deep tail boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsutsui, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Strangeway, R. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Phillips, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the VLF electrostatic noise observed with ISEE 3 in the low-latitude boundary layer of distant geomagnetic tail are examined using a display format for the wave dynamic spectra different from that used by Scarf et al. (1984). It is shown that the observed noise is composed of impulsive bursts. The results of the detailed analysis of the noise parameters are used to develop a model of plasma wave behavior in the plasma rest frame. A hypothesis is proposed that the wide frequency extent of the noise spectra is composed of Doppler effects of waves propagating nearly omnidirectionally within the plasma rest frame, which is moving with the electron bulk speed. On the basis of this hypothesis, the wavelength of the observed waves were determined from the width of the frequency extent and the measured electron bulk speed. It is shown that the wavelength ranges from 2 to 8 times the plasma Debye length.

  1. Cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth in magnetic loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Petrosian, Vahe

    1990-01-01

    Cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth which results from electrons accelerated in magnetic loops are studied. The evolution of the accelerated electron distribution is determined by solving the kinetic equation including Coulomb collisions and magnetic convergence. It is found that for modest values of the column depth of the loop the growth rates of instabilities are significantly reduced and that the reduction is much larger for the cyclotron modes than for the plasma wave modes. The large decrease in the growth rate with column depth suggests that solar coronal densities must be much lower than commonly accepted in order for the cyclotron maser to operate. The density depletion has to be similar to that which occurs during auroral kilometric radiation events in the magnetosphere. The resulting distributions are much more complicated than the idealized distributions used in many theoretical studies, but the fastest growing mode can still simply be determined by the ratio of electron plasma to gyrofrequency, U=omega(sub p)/Omega(sub e). However, the dominant modes are different than for the idealized situations with growth of the z-mode largest for U approximately less than 0.5, and second harmonic x-mode (s=2) or fundamental o-mode (s=1) the dominant modes for 0.5 approximately less than U approximately less than 1. The electron distributions typically contain more than one inverted feature which could give rise to wave growth. It is shown that this can result in simultaneous amplification of more than one mode with each mode driven by a different feature and can be observed, for example, by differences in the rise times of the right and left circularly polarized components of the associated spike bursts.

  2. On the high frequency perpendicular propagating waves in ultra-relativistic fully degenerate electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noureen, S.; Abbas, G.; Farooq, H.

    2017-09-01

    Using Vlasov-Maxwell's equations, the spectra of the perpendicular propagating Bernstein wave and Extraordinary wave in ultra-relativistic fully degenerate electron plasma are studied. The equilibrium particle distribution function is assumed to be isotropic Fermian. The analysis of high frequency spectra of the waves is carried out in the weak propagation limit Ω≫k .v and in the weak magnetic field limit |ω-k .v | ≫Ω and graphically observed.

  3. Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves with superthermal electrons in warm plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Eslami, Parvin; Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we consider an unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, superthermal electrons, and thermal positrons. Nonlinear cylindrical and spherical modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations are derived for ion acoustic waves by using reductive perturbation technique. It is observed that an increasing positron concentration decreases the amplitude of the waves. Furthermore, the effects of the superthermal parameter (k) on the ion acoustic waves are found.

  4. Internal Wave Observations in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firing, Y. L.; Chereskin, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Internal wave energy in Drake Passage is investigated using an ongoing time series (>8 years) of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (SADCP) data collected on transits of the U.S. Antarctic supply vessel as well as 287 full-depth lowered ADCP and CTD profiles made on five process cruises that were part of the cDrake experiment (cdrake.org). The lateral and vertical distributions of upward- and downward-propgating internal wave energy are examined in the context of local bathymetry and background currents. Downward-propagating energy predominates in the surface layer, but over steep topography in some parts of Drake Passage upward-propagating energy is elevated even 1000 m above topography. The generation of internal wave energy by geostrophic flow over topography in the area is estimated and compared to the total observed internal wave energy during the cruises, while the time variability of this contribution to the internal wave energy is investigated using a 4-year time series of bottom currents from the cDrake project. Shear spectra and the shear-strain relationship are compared with the Garrett and Munk model (Garrett and Munk, 1975) and with the spectral shapes and variance ratios found in other regions by other authors.

  5. Observed ocean waves by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Oey, Leo

    2017-04-01

    Ocean waves produced by tropical cyclones (TC) modify air-sea fluxes which in turn are crucial to the storms' intensity and development, yet they are poorly understood. Here we use 24 years (1992-2015) of observed waves, winds and TC-track information to stratify storm-centered composite maps of waves and winds according to TC intensities and translation speeds (Uh). While the wind field is rightward-asymmetric independent of Uh, the wave field is rightward-symmetric in concert with the wind for slow-translating TCs (Uh ≤ 3 m s-1), but right-rear asymmetric with strongest waves in the 4th quadrant for medium to fast-translating TCs (3 < Uh ≤ 7 m s-1), especially for the very fast storms (Uh > 7 m s-1), all independent of TC-intensity. The dominance of the right-rear asymmetry for fast-translating TCs appears to be related to the development of cross swells as the storms move faster, but further research using models are needed to understand the physical mechanisms.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  7. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Bao, Weimin; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Donglin; Zhou, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB340205) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61301173)

  8. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of current-driven waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ali; Ali Shan, S.; Haque, Q.; Saleem, H.

    2012-09-15

    The linear and nonlinear dynamics of a recently proposed plasma mode of dusty plasma is studied using kappa distribution for electrons. This electrostatic wave can propagate in the plasma due to the sheared flow of electrons and ions parallel to the external magnetic field in the presence of stationary dust. The coupling of this wave with the usual drift wave and ion acoustic wave is investigated. D'Angelo's mode is also modified in the presence of superthermal electrons. In the nonlinear regime, the wave can give rise to dipolar vortex structures if the shear in flow is weaker and tripolar vortices if the flow has steeper gradient. The results have been applied to Saturn's magnetosphere corresponding to negatively charged dust grains. But the theoretical model is applicable for positively charged dust as well. This work will be useful for future observations and studies of dusty environments of planets and comets.

  9. Enhanced generation of a second-harmonic wave in a composite of metamaterial and microwave plasma with various permittivities.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Akinori; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    The generation of a second-harmonic wave, which is one typical nonlinear feature, is enhanced in a composite of plasma and metamaterial. When we generate plasma by an injection of microwaves, whose frequencies are fundamental, we observe intensified second-harmonic waves in the cases of negative-refractive-index states in which both metamaterial permeability and plasma permittivity are negative for the fundamental waves. We performed the measurements at multiple levels of microwave input power up to 300 W to regulate permittivity in the negative polarity for the fundamental wave and in the transient region, including the positive-zero-negative values, for the second-harmonic wave. We clarified that the observed enhancement results from high electron density in negative-permittivity plasma, the propagating fundamental frequency wave not being attenuated in the negative-refractive-index state, and partial phase matching between the fundamental and second-harmonic waves.

  10. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 mission is presented. The performance of work on the data analysis phase is summarized.

  11. Studies of classical radiation emission from plasma wave undulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Ronald L.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emitted by a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques and are then compared to numerical simulation results. The frequency spectrum and angular distribution of the spontaneous radiation emitted by a single electron and the stimulated radiation gain are obtained analytically, and are then compared to 3-D numerical simulations. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared to the ac FEL undulator and the conventional FEL.

  12. Inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED) - a magnetized linear plasma device for wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Sengupta, S.; Saxena, Y. C.; Pal, R.

    2015-04-01

    In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n <= 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10-4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.

  13. Plasma waves in a relativistic, strongly anisotropic plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The dispersion properties of plasma waves in a relativistic homogeneous plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field are studied. It is shown that the non-damping plasma waves exist in the frequency range omega sub p or = omega or = omega sub L. The values of omega sub p and omega sub L are calculated for an arbitrary homogeneous relativistic function of the particle distribution. In the case of a power ultrarelativistic distribution, it is shown that, if the ultrarelativistic tail of the distribution drops very rapidly, slightly damping plasma waves are possible with the phase velocity (omega/K)c.

  14. Langmuir rogue waves in electron-positron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moslem, W. M.

    2011-03-15

    Progress in understanding the nonlinear Langmuir rogue waves which accompany collisionless electron-positron (e-p) plasmas is presented. The nonlinearity of the system results from the nonlinear coupling between small, but finite, amplitude Langmuir waves and quasistationary density perturbations in an e-p plasma. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived for the Langmuir waves' electric field envelope, accounting for small, but finite, amplitude quasistationary plasma slow motion describing the Langmuir waves' ponderomotive force. Numerical calculations reveal that the rogue structures strongly depend on the electron/positron density and temperature, as well as the group velocity of the envelope wave. The present study might be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear rogue pulses in astrophysical environments, such as in active galactic nuclei, in pulsar magnetospheres, in neutron stars, etc.

  15. Observation of mutual neutralization in detached plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Tonegawa; Isao, Shirota; Ken'ichi, Yoshida; Masataka, Ono; Kazutaka, Kawamura; Tuguhiro, Watanabe; Nobuyoshi, Ohyabu; Hajime, Suzuki; Kazuo, Takayama

    2001-10-01

    Mutual neutralization in collisions between negative ions and positive ions in molecular activated recombination (MAR) has been observed in a high density magnetized sheet plasma source TPDSHEET-IV(Test Plasma produced by Directed current for SHEET plasma) device. Measurements of the negative ion density of hydrogen atom, the electron density, electron temperature, and the heat load to the target plate were carried out in hydrogen high density plasma with hydrogen gas puff. A cylindrical probe made of tungsten ( 0.4 x 2 cm) was used to measure the spatial profiles of H- by a probe-assisted laser photodetachment The Balmer spectra of visible light emission from hydrogen or helium atoms were detected in front of the target plate. A small amount of secondary hydrogen gas puffing into a hydrogen plasma reduced strongly the heat flux to the target and increased rapidly the density of negative ions of hydrogen atom in the circumference of the plasma, while the conventional radiative and three-body recombination processes were disappeared. These results can be well explained by taking the charge exchange recombination of MAR in the detached plasma into account.

  16. Cassini plasma observations of Saturn's magnetospheric cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Arridge, Christopher S.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.; Sergis, Nick; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Krupp, Norbert; Waite, J. Hunter

    2016-12-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a funnel-shaped region where shocked solar wind plasma is able to enter the high-latitude magnetosphere via the process of magnetic reconnection. The plasma observations include various cusp signatures such as ion energy dispersions and diamagnetic effects. We present an overview analysis of cusp plasma observations at the Saturnian magnetosphere from the Cassini spacecraft era. A comparison of the observations is made as well as classification into groups due to varying characteristics. The locations of the reconnection site are calculated and shown to vary along the subsolar magnetopause. We show the first in situ evidence for lobe reconnection that occurred at nearly the same time as dayside reconnection for one of the cusp crossings. Evidence for "bursty" and more "continuous" reconnection signatures is observed at different cusp events. The events are compared to solar wind propagation models, and it is shown that magnetic reconnection and plasma injection into the cusp can occur for a variety of upstream conditions. These are important results because they show that Saturn's magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind and the resulting cusp signatures are dynamic and that plasma injection in the cusp occurs due to a variety of solar wind conditions. Furthermore, reconnection can proceed at a variety of locations along the magnetopause.

  17. Observational data needs for plasma phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, M. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Bright comets display a rich variety of interesting plasma phenomena which occur over an enormous range of spatial scales, and which require different observational techniques to be studied effectively. Wide-angle photography of high time resolution is probably the best method of studying the phenomenon of largest known scale: the plasma tail disconnection event (DE), which has been attributed to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary sector boundary crossings. These structures usually accelerate as they recede from the head region and observed velocities are typically in the range 50 V km/s. They are often visible for several days following the time of disconnection, and are sometimes seen out past 0.2 AU from the cometary head. The following areas pertaining to plasma phenomena in the ionoshere are addressed: the existence, size, and heliocentric distance variations of the contact surface, and the observational signatures of magnetic reconnection at sector boundary crossings.

  18. Parametric instabilities of parallel propagating incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2007-12-15

    Large amplitude, low-frequency Alfven waves constitute one of the most essential elements of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the fast solar wind. Due to small collisionless dissipation rates, the waves can propagate long distances and efficiently convey such macroscopic quantities as momentum, energy, and helicity. Since loading of such quantities is completed when the waves damp away, it is important to examine how the waves can dissipate in the solar wind. Among various possible dissipation processes of the Alfven waves, parametric instabilities have been believed to be important. In this paper, we numerically discuss the parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma using a one-dimensional hybrid (superparticle ions plus an electron massless fluid) simulation, in order to explain local production of sunward propagating Alfven waves, as suggested by Helios/Ulysses observation results. Parameter studies clarify the dependence of parametric instabilities of coherent/incoherent Alfven waves on the ion and electron beta ratio. Parametric instabilities of coherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma are vastly different from those in the cold ions (i.e., MHD and/or Hall-MHD systems), even if the collisionless damping of the Alfven waves are neglected. Further, ''nonlinearly driven'' modulational instability is important for the dissipation of incoherent Alfven waves in a finite ion beta plasma regardless of their polarization, since the ion kinetic effects let both the right-hand and left-hand polarized waves become unstable to the modulational instability. The present results suggest that, although the antisunward propagating dispersive Alfven waves are efficiently dissipated through the parametric instabilities in a finite ion beta plasma, these instabilities hardly produce the sunward propagating waves.

  19. Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent loops and their confined plasma are considered and, therefore, topics such as loop oscillations and flaring loops (except for non-solar ones, which provide information on stellar loops) are not specifically addressed here. The observational section discusses the classification, populations, and the morphology of coronal loops, its relationship with the magnetic field, and the loop stranded structure. The section continues with the thermal properties and diagnostics of the loop plasma, according to the classification into hot, warm, and cool loops. Then, temporal analyses of loops and the observations of plasma dynamics, hot and cool flows, and waves are illustrated. In the modeling section, some basics of loop physics are provided, supplying fundamental scaling laws and timescales, a useful tool for consultation. The concept of loop modeling is introduced and models are divided into those treating loops as monolithic and static, and those resolving loops into thin and dynamic strands. More specific discussions address modeling the loop fine structure and the plasma flowing along the loops. Special attention is devoted to the question of loop heating, with separate discussion of wave (AC) and impulsive (DC) heating. Large-scale models including atmosphere boxes and the magnetic field are also discussed. Finally, a brief discussion about stellar coronal loops is followed by highlights and open questions.

  20. Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma.

    PubMed