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Sample records for plasmaspheric hiss interactions

  1. Guided Plasmaspheric Hiss Interactions with Superthermal Electrons. Part 1; Resonance Curves and Timescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.; Kozyra, J. U.

    1997-01-01

    Under the proper conditions, guided plasmaspheric hiss is shown to be more efficient than Coulomb collisions at scattering electrons in the superthermal energy range of 50 to 500 eV. Broadband, whistler mode hiss becomes guided by plasma density gradients, intensifying the wave energy densities and focusing the wave normal angles. These waves are shown to interact through Cherenkov (Landau) resonance with electrons below 500 eV, and the presented equatorial plane timescales for pitch angle, energy, and mixed diffusion are shown to be faster than Coulomb collision timescales for typical values at the inner edge of the plasmapause and in detached plasma regions. In the latter case, energy diffusion timescales of less than 100 s for small pitch angle electrons between 250 and 500 eV indicate that these waves have the potential to dramatically change the distribution function.

  2. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  3. Hiss Energy Flow in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletzing, C.; Christopher, I.; Santolik, O.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bounds, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    The measured wave properties of plasmaspheric hiss are important to constrain models of the generation of hiss as well as its propagation and amplification. Local generation or amplification of plasmaspheric hiss within the plasmasphere should produce a signature of waves propagating away from the source region. Additionally, the scattering of energetic particles into the loss cone transfers energy from the particles to the waves. By examining the statistical characteristics of the Poynting flux of plasmaspheric hiss, we can determine the properties of wave energy flow in the plasmasphere. We report on the statistics of observations from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) Waves instrument on the Van Allen Probes for periods when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. We find that near the plasmapause, the energy carried by the waves Poynting flux typically does, indeed, flow away from the equator, and, the energy flow steadily increases with a scale height (as measured from the equatorial plane) that is frequency dependent: 1.25 RE for 70-700 Hz and dropping to 0.6 RE for higher frequencies of 700-2000 Hz. However, deeper within the plasmasphere and often at radial distances less than 3.5 RE, the energy carried by the waves reverses direction and the energy flow is towards the equator with a scale height of 0.6-1.3 RE. In this region, the energy deposition rate can exceed 0.1 eV per particle per hour for the cold population, suggesting that whistler-mode plasmaspheric hiss may be a significant source of energy for heating the inner plasmasphere.

  4. Characteristic energy range of electron scattering due to plasmaspheric hiss

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we investigate the characteristic energy range of electron flux decay due to the interaction with plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The Van Allen Probes have measured the energetic electron flux decay profiles in the Earth's outer radiation belt during a quiet period following the geomagnetic storm that occurred on 7 November 2015. The observed energy of significant electron decay increases with decreasing L shell and is well correlated with the energy band corresponding to the first adiabatic invariant μ = 4–200 MeV/G. The electron diffusion coefficients due to hiss scattering are calculated at L =more » 2–6, and the modeled energy band of effective pitch angle scattering is also well correlated with the constant μ lines and is consistent with the observed energy range of electron decay. Using the previously developed statistical plasmaspheric hiss model during modestly disturbed periods, we perform a 2-D Fokker-Planck simulation of the electron phase space density evolution at L = 3.5 and demonstrate that plasmaspheric hiss causes the significant decay of 100 keV–1 MeV electrons with the largest decay rate occurring at around 340 keV, forming anisotropic pitch angle distributions at lower energies and more flattened distributions at higher energies. Finally, our study provides reasonable estimates of the electron populations that can be most significantly affected by plasmaspheric hiss and the consequent electron decay profiles.« less

  5. Parameterizing Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power by Plasmapause Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Boule, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thaller, S. A.; Ergun, R.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is a superposition of electromagnetic whistler-mode waves largely confined within the plasmasphere, the cold plasma torus surrounding Earth. Hiss plays an important role in radiation belt dynamics by pitch angle scattering electrons for a wide range of electron energies (10's of keV to > 1 MeV) which can result in their loss to the atmosphere. This interaction is often included in predictive models of radiation belt dynamics using statistical hiss wave power distributions derived from observations. However, the traditional approach to creating these distributions parameterizes hiss power by L-parameter (e.g. MacIlwain L, dipole L, or L*) and a geomagnetic index (e.g. DST or AE). Such parameterization introduces spatial averaging of dissimilar wave power radial profiles, resulting in heavily smoothed wave power distributions. This work instead parameterizes hiss wave power distributions using plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause. Using Van Allen Probes data and these new parameterizations, previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution become apparent. These features include: (1) The highest amplitude hiss wave power is concentrated over a narrower range of L than previous studies have indicated, and (2) the location of the peak in hiss wave power is determined by the plasmapause location, occurring at a consistent standoff distance Earthward of the plasmapause. Based on these features, parameterizing hiss using the plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause may shed new light on hiss generation and propagation physics, as well as serve to improve the parameterization of hiss in predictive models of the radiation belts.

  6. Plasmaspheric hiss intensity variations during magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Frandsen, A. M. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Thorne, R. M.; Chan, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    The storm time intensity variations of ELF electromagnetic emissions have been studied by using the Ogo 6 search coil magnetometer. Low-latitude signals exhibit a sharp low-frequency cutoff and are identified as plasmaspheric hiss. Such waves show pronounced intensification during the recovery phase of magnetic storms but remain close to background levels during the storm main phase. This behavior is consistent with cyclotron resonant generation within the plasmasphere as the latter expands into the intensified belt of outer zone electrons during the storm recovery.

  7. Reduction in plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes during a substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yuan, Z.; Yu, X.; Deng, X.; Tang, R.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is an important plasma wave in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons, so the distribution and generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss waves is worthy of study. Previous studies have found that the amplitude of plasmaspheric hiss waves tends to increase as substorm activity increases. In this study, through analysis of a hiss event observed by the Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), it is found that the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves at magnetic local time (MLT) > 1300 (L≈5) is reduced or even disappears during a substorm. After calculating energetic electron trajectories, we suggest that this is because electrons are prevented from entering the plasmasphere at MLT > 1300 (L≈5) by the stronger convection electric field during the substorm. The calculations are consistent with direct observations from the RBSP satellites. The results highlight the significant and complex variability of plasmaspheric hiss waves. The amplitude of these waves on the dayside is not necessarily positively correlated with substorm activity, as negative correlations may be observed on the afternoon side during a substorm.

  8. Evolution of plasmaspheric hiss into the low altitude hiss in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Santolik, O.; Hajos, M.; Zhima, Z.; Horne, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the propagation properties of low altitude hiss emission in the ionosphere observed by DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions). There exist two types of low altitude hiss; type I emission at high latitude is characterized by vertically downward propagation and broadband spectra while type II emission at low latitude is featured with equatorward propagation and a narrower frequency band above proton cyclotron frequency. Our ray tracing simulation demonstrates that both types of the low altitude hiss at different latitude are connected and they originate from plasmaspheric hiss and in part chorus emission. Type I emission represents magnetospheric whistler emission that accesses the ionosphere. Equatorward propagation associated with type II emission is a consequence of wave trapping mechanisms in the ionosphere. Two different wave trapping mechanisms are identified to explain the equatorial propagation of Type II emission; one is associated with the proximity of wave frequency and proton cyclotron frequency while the other occurs near the ionospheric density peak. Finally, the application of such low altitude hiss in the magnetospheric wave-particle interaction process will also be discussed.

  9. Pitch Angle Scattering of Energetic Electrons by Plasmaspheric Hiss Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, M.; Omura, Y.; Summers, D.

    2017-12-01

    We study scattering of energetic electrons in pitch angles and kinetic energies through their resonance with plasmaspheric hiss emissions consisting of many coherent discrete whistler-mode wave packets with rising and falling frequencies [1,2,3]. Using test particle simulations, we evaluate the efficiency of scattering, which depends on the inhomogeneity ratio S of whistler mode wave-particle interaction [4]. The value of S is determined by the wave amplitude, frequency sweep rate, and the gradient of the background magnetic field. We first modulate those parameters and observe variations of pitch angles and kinetic energies of electrons with a single wave under various S values so as to obtain basic understanding. We then include many waves into the system to simulate plasmaspheric hiss emissions. As the wave packets propagate away from the magnetic equator, the nonlinear trapping potential at the resonance velocity is deformed, making a channel of gyrophase for untrapped electrons to cross the resonance velocity, and causing modulations in their pitch angles and kinetic energies. We find efficient scattering of pitch angles and kinetic energies because of coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction, resulting in electron precipitations into the polar atmosphere. We compare the results with the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient based on quasi-linear theory, and show that the nonlinear wave model with many coherent packets can cause scattering of resonant electrons much faster than the quasi-linear diffusion process. [1] Summers, D., Omura, Y., Nakamura, S., and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 9134-9149. [2] Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562. [3] Nakamura, S., Y

  10. Observational evidence of the nonlinear wave growth theory of plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Summers, D.; Kletzing, C.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, it has been revealed by measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument on the Van Allen Probes mission that plasmaspheric hiss is a coherent emission containing discrete rising tone and falling tone elements [1]. Here, we test the recently developed nonlinear wave growth theory of plasmaspheric hiss [2] against EMFISIS observations of hiss. Wave forms of the hiss emissions at different frequencies are extracted from the EMFISIS burst-mode data by means of band-pass filters. From the phase variation of the waveforms we calculate the instantaneous frequencies and wave amplitudes. We obtain parameters of the energetic electrons by fitting the theoretical optimum wave amplitude as a function of frequency at the equator where hiss elements are generated. Through the propagation process from the equator to the observation point, the wave packet of the hiss element undergoes convective wave growth due to the nonlinear interaction with energetic electrons. The frequency sweep rate of the hiss element at a higher latitude is modified by the variation of the group velocity as a function of the frequency. We obtain the theoretical relation between the wave amplitude and frequency sweep rates at the observation point by applying the convective growth rates and dispersion factors to the known relation at the equator. By plotting the theoretical relation over scatter plots of the wave amplitudes and the frequency sweep rates for rising-tone elements, we find good agreement between the hiss observations and the nonlinear theory. We also find that the duration periods of the hiss elements are in good agreement with the nonlinear transition time necessary for the formation of a resonant current through coherent nonlinear wave-particle interactions. [1] Summers, D., Y. Omura, S. Nakamura, and C. A. Kletzing (2014), Fine structure of plasmaspheric hiss, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 9134-9149, doi:10

  11. Statistical Properties of Plasmaspheric Hiss from Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, D.; Kletzing, C.; Santolik, O.; Bounds, S. R.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss wave properties are investigated using Van Allen Probes observations of both electric and magnetic wave field power spectra. The analysis reveals that at L-shells greater than 3.5, the wave normal vector is predominantly field aligned. However, at L-shells less than 3.5 the wave normal angle may be significantly more oblique, particularly at frequencies greater than 1 kHz. Analysis of this region (L < 3.5) reveals two populations of the plasmaspheric hiss wave mode; i) a population with wave normal angles less than approximately 50° containing power in both the electric and magnetic field (electromagnetic) and, ii) a population at very oblique wave normal angles (θk > 70°) with a weak magnetic component and strong electric component (more electrostatic). The distribution of these two populations are presented both as a function of magnetic local time and geomagnetic activity, with their distinguishing features identified and discussed.

  12. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; He, Yihua; Wygant, J. R.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. Here we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ˜300-1500 Hz with the peak wave power density about 10-5 nT2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. The current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.

  13. Evolution of chorus emissions into plasmaspheric hiss observed by Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Qinghua; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; ...

    2016-05-09

    The two classes of whistler mode waves (chorus and hiss) play different roles in the dynamics of radiation belt energetic electrons. Chorus can efficiently accelerate energetic electrons, and hiss is responsible for the loss of energetic electrons. Previous studies have proposed that chorus is the source of plasmaspheric hiss, but this still requires an observational confirmation because the previously observed chorus and hiss emissions were not in the same frequency range in the same time. In this paper, we report simultaneous observations form Van Allen Probes that chorus and hiss emissions occurred in the same range ~300–1500 Hz with themore » peak wave power density about 10 -5 nT 2/Hz during a weak storm on 3 July 2014. Chorus emissions propagate in a broad region outside the plasmapause. Meanwhile, hiss emissions are confined inside the plasmasphere, with a higher intensity and a broader area at a lower frequency. A sum of bi-Maxwellian distribution is used to model the observed anisotropic electron distributions and to evaluate the instability of waves. A three-dimensional ray tracing simulation shows that a portion of chorus emission outside the plasmasphere can propagate into the plasmasphere and evolve into plasmaspheric hiss. Moreover, hiss waves below 1 kHz are more intense and propagate over a broader area than those above 1 kHz, consistent with the observation. Finally, the current results can explain distributions of the observed hiss emission and provide a further support for the mechanism of evolution of chorus into hiss emissions.« less

  14. Precipitation loss of Van Allen radiation belt electrons by hiss waves outside the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhaoguo; Yan, Qi; Ma, Yonghui; Cao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss waves have been frequently invoked to explain the slow loss of the radiation belt electrons. However, the effect of hiss waves outside the plasmasphere on the radiation belt electrons remains unclear. Here, on the basis of Van Allen Probes observations and quasilinear simulations, we show that the hiss waves outside the plasmasphere are able to cause the significant precipitation loss of energetic electrons on a timescale of 1 day. In the event of interest, the hiss wave power spectra density reached up to 10^{-6} nT2/Hz, and the obtained pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be 102-104 times larger than the momentum and cross diffusion coefficients. During a period of 1 day, the modeled hiss waves caused the depletion of 300-500 keV electrons by up to 10 times. These results suggest that the hiss waves outside the plasmasphere should be taken into account in the future radiation belt modeling.

  15. CIMI simulations with recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David; Kang, Suk-bin; Balikhin, Michael; Fok, Mei-ching

    2017-04-01

    Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are very useful in understanding the acceleration and loss of energetic particles. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. CIMI was formed by merging the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model to solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including radiation belt enhancements and dropouts. It incorporates chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. Usually the chorus and plasmaspheric hiss models used in CIMI are based on single-parameter geomagnetic index (AE). Here we integrate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for different storms and compare the results with data from the Van Allen Probes and the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We find that the CIMI simulations with multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models are more comparable to data than the single-parameter wave models.

  16. Characteristics of Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Spectrum and Their Effects on Energetic Electron Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss emissions are known to play a fundamental role in scattering energetic electrons, and thus create the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts. Using newly available Van Allen Probes wave data, which provide extensive coverage in the entire inner magnetosphere, we evaluate the global distribution of hiss wave frequency spectrum and wave intensity categorized by various levels of geomagnetic activity. Our statistical results show that observed hiss peak wave frequencies are generally significantly lower than the previously adopted value (~550 Hz) and hiss wave intensity frequently extends below 100 Hz, which is the previously adopted lower-cutoff frequency, particularly at larger L-shells (> 4) on the dayside. We also evaluate the electron lifetime caused by hiss-driven pitch angle scattering based on the new hiss frequency spectrum observed by Van Allen Probes and the previously adopted hiss wave model, and find that the difference in electron lifetime is energy dependent and could be up to a factor of ~5. Finally, we discuss the importance of incorporating a realistic hiss wave spectrum into quantification of hiss-driven electron precipitation loss.

  17. Simultaneous disappearances of plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus waves triggered by a sudden decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Nigang; Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei

    2016-12-29

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves are of great importance in the radiation belt electron dynamics. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event with the simultaneous disappearances of whistler mode plasmaspheric hiss, exohiss, and chorus triggered by a sudden decrease in the solar wind dynamic pressure, we provide evidences for the following physical scenarios: (1) nonlinear generation of chorus controlled by the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, (2) origination of plasmaspheric hiss from chorus, and (3) leakage of plasmaspheric hiss into exohiss. Finally, following the reduction of the solar wind dynamic pressure, the dayside geomagnetic field configuration withmore » the enhanced inhomogeneity became unfavorable for the generation of chorus, and the quenching of chorus directly caused the disappearances of plasmaspheric hiss and then exohiss.« less

  18. CIMI simulations with newly developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David G.; Kang, Suk-Bin; Balikhin, Michael A.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin M.; Kanekal, Shrikanth G.; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    2017-09-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently, these wave distribution models are based only on a single-parameter, geomagnetic index (AE) and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multiparameter wave models resemble the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  19. Resonant scattering and resultant pitch angle evolution of relativistic electrons by plasmaspheric hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, B.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Ma, Q.; Chen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Adopting several realistic models for the wave distribution and ambient plasmaspheric density, we perform a comprehensive analysis to evaluate hiss-induced scattering coefficients, the relative role of each resonant harmonic, and the overall effect of hiss scattering on the pitch angle evolution and associated decay (loss) processes of relativistic electrons. The results show that scattering by the equatorial, highly oblique component of the hiss emission is negligible. A quasi-parallel propagating wave model of hiss emissions provides a good approximation for evaluation of scattering rates of ≤ 2 MeV electrons. However, realistic wave propagation angles as a function of latitude along the field line must be taken into account to accurately quantify the rates of hiss scattering above 2 MeV. Ambient plasma density is also a critical parameter that can influence hiss scattering rates and resultant pitch angle evolution of electron flux. While the first order cyclotron and the Landau resonances are dominant for hiss-induced scattering of less than 2 MeV electrons, higher order resonances become important and even dominant at intermediate equatorial pitch angles for ultra-relativistic (≥ 3 MeV) electrons. Hiss induced electron pitch angle evolution consistently shows a relatively rapid initial transport of electrons from high to lower pitch angles, with a gradual approach towards an equilibrium shape, and a final state where the entire distribution decays exponentially with time. Although hiss scattering rates near the loss cone control the pitch angle evolution and the ultimate loss of ultra-relativistic electrons, the presence of a scattering bottleneck (a pronounced drop in diffusion rate at intermediate pitch angles) significantly affects the loss rate and leads to characteristic top hat shaped pitch angle distributions at energies below ~1 MeV. Decay timescales are determined to be on the order of a few days, tens of days, and > 100 days for 500 keV, 2 Me

  20. Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  1. Long-term Average Spectral and Spatial Distributions of Plasmaspheric Hiss Observed by the Akebono and IMAGE Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Y.; Fung, S. F.; Kasahara, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The radiation belt slot region is known to result from losses of energetic electrons by enhanced pitch-angle scattering by whislter mode waves associated with plasmaspheric hiss emission. The distributions of whistler mode waves in the slot L range are therefore important for understanding the electron radiation belt. The sources and distributions of the waves are, however, still controversial. In the present study, using the Akebono/MCA data [1989-2005] and the IMAGE/RPI data [2000-2005], we have constructed the average plasmaspheric hiss spectral distributions over a broad frequency range. In addition, we have investigated the spatial distributions of plasmaspheric hiss with the wave map technique [Green et al.(2005)]. Our study shows that the broadband plasmaspheric hiss are distributed in the frequency range of 100Hz to several kHz, and exhibit a broad intensive peak. The frequency of the intensity peak tends to increase with magnetic latitude. The frequencies of the most intense waves in the nominal slot L range (2-50nT) are found to be between 300Hz and 600Hz on average. During high storm activity (Dst <-150nT), however, the peak frequencies become slightly lower. The intensity of plasmaspheric hiss clearly depends on substorm activity as measured by the AE index, consistent with Meredith et al.(2004). The hiss wave intensity maps also show a strong local time asymmetry. The large amplitude waves are observed at 6:00-19:00 MLT. From our extensive analysis, we have also found an L dependence of hiss activity, with the larger amplitude waves being observed at lower L during substorm active conditions. The same tendency can be found for solar activity. The average intensities of the waves during 1989-1991 and 2000-2001 are a few dB larger than those during 1992-1997 and 2005. The most intense waves are observed at lower L during high solar activity. The statistical study on spectrum features of the plasmaspheric hiss together with the spatial distribution show

  2. The Distribution of Chorus and Plasmaspheric Hiss Waves in the Inner Magnetospahere as Functions of Geomagnetic Activity and Solar Wind Parameters as Observed by The Van Allen Probes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan, H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Balikhin, M. A.; Agapitov, O. V.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the radiation belts is dependent upon the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons that is largely determined by the interaction of georesonant wave particles with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. The distribution of these waves in the inner magnetosphere is commonly presented as a function of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices (Ae, Kp, and Dst). However, it has been shown that not all geomagnetic storms necessarily increase the flux of energetic electrons at the radiation belts. In fact, almost 20% of all geomagnetic storms cause a decrease in the flux of energetic electrons, while 30% has relatively no effect. Also, the geomagnetic indices are indirect, nonspecific parameters compiled from imperfectly covered ground based measurements that lack time history. This emphasises the need to present wave distributions as a function of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters, such as velocity (V), density (n), and interplanetary magnetic field component (Bz), that are known to be predominantly effective in the control of radiation belt energetic electron fluxes. This study presents the distribution of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves in the inner magnetosphere as functions of both geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters for different L-shell, magnetic local time, and magnetic latitude. This study uses almost three years of data measured by the EMFISIS on board the Van Allen Probes. Initial results indicate that the intensity of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss emissions are not only dependent on the geomagnetic activity but also dependent on solar wind parameters. The largest average wave intensities are observed with equatorial chorus in the region 4

  3. Three-dimensional electron radiation belt simulations using the BAS Radiation Belt Model with new diffusion models for chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, and lightning-generated whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glauert, Sarah A.; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    The flux of relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts is highly variable and can change by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours. Understanding the drivers for these changes is important as energetic electrons can damage satellites. We present results from a new code, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Radiation Belt model, which solves a 3-D Fokker-Planck equation, following a similar approach to the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, incorporating the effects of radial diffusion, wave-particle interactions, and collisions. Whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, and lightning-generated whistlers (LGW) are modeled using new diffusion coefficients, calculated by the Pitch Angle and Energy Diffusion of Ions and Electrons (PADIE) code, with new wave models based on satellite data that have been parameterized by both the AE and Kp indices. The model for plasmaspheric hiss and LGW includes variation in the wave-normal angle distribution of the waves with latitude. Simulations of 100 days from the CRRES mission demonstrate that the inclusion of chorus waves in the model is needed to reproduce the observed increase in MeV flux during disturbed conditions. The model reproduces the variation of the radiation belts best when AE, rather than Kp, is used to determine the diffusion rates. Losses due to plasmaspheric hiss depend critically on the the wave-normal angle distribution; a model where the peak of the wave-normal angle distribution depends on latitude best reproduces the observed decay rates. Higher frequency waves (˜1-2 kHz) only make a significant contribution to losses for L∗<3 and the highest frequencies (2-5 kHz), representing LGW, have a limited effect on MeV electrons for 2

  4. On the Origin of Ionospheric Hiss: A Conjugate Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhima, Zeren; Chen, Lunjin; Xiong, Ying; Cao, Jinbin; Fu, Huishan

    2017-11-01

    We present a conjugate observation on whistler mode electromagnetic hiss from the low Earth orbit satellite Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) and the high-altitude elliptical orbit spacecraft Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS). The conjugate observation was performed at 14:51:10 to 15:12:00 UT on 15 June 2010, when DEMETER was flying across the L shell region from 1.39 to 2.80 at an altitude of 660 km; meanwhile, THEMIS probes were passing through the L shell region from 1.64 to 1.91 at altitudes from 1.6 to 2.0 RE. The conjugated observations demonstrate similar time-frequency structures between the ionospheric hiss ( 350 to 800 Hz) captured by DEMETER and the plasmaspheric hiss ( 350 to 900 Hz) recorded by THEMIS probes, including similar peak frequencies ( 500 to 600 Hz), similar lower cutoff frequencies ( 350 to 400 Hz), and upper cutoff frequencies ( 730 to 800 Hz). The wave vector analyses show that the ionospheric hiss propagates obliquely downward to the Earth and slightly equatorward with right-handed polarization, suggesting that its source comes from higher altitudes. Ray tracing simulations with the constraint of observations verify that the connection between ionospheric and plasmaspheric hiss is physically possible through wave propagation. This study provides direct observational evidence to support the mechanism that high-altitude plasmaspheric hiss is responsible for the generation of low-altitude ionospheric hiss.

  5. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  6. On the Origin of Whistler Mode Radiation in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Boardsen, Scott; Garcia, Leonard; Taylor, W. W. L.; Fung, Shing F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of whistler mode radiation in the plasmasphere is examined from three years of plasma wave observations from the Dynamics Explorer and three years from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. These data are used to construct plasma wave intensity maps of whistler mode radiation in the plasmasphere. The highest average intensities of the radiation in the wave maps show source locations and/or sites of wave amplification. Each type of emission is classified based on its magnetic latitude and longitude rather than any spectral feature. Equatorial electromagnetic (EM) emissions (approx. 30-330 Hz), plasmaspheric hiss (approx. 330 Hz - 3.3 kHz), chorus (approx. 2 kHz - 6 kHz), and VLF transmitters (approx. 10-50 kHz) are the main types of waves that are clearly delineated in the plasma wave maps. Observations of the equatorial EM emissions show that the most intense region is on or near the magnetic equator in the afternoon sector and that during times of negative B(sub z) (interplanetary magnetic field),the maximum intensity moves from L values of 3 to less than 2. These observations are consistent with the origin of this emission being particle-wave interactions in or near the magnetic equator. Plasmaspheric hiss shows high intensity at high latitudes and low altitudes (L shells from 2 to 4) and in the magnetic equator over L values from 2 to 3 in the early afternoon sector. The longitudinal distribution of the hiss intensity (excluding the enhancement at the equator) is similar to the distribution of lightning: stronger over continents than over the ocean, stronger in the summer than winter, and stronger on the dayside than nightside. These observations strongly support lightning as the dominant source for plasmaspheric hiss, which through particle-wave interactions, maintains the slot region in the radiation belts. The enhancement of hiss at the magnetic equator is consistent with particle-wave interactions. The chorus

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Low-Frequency Hiss and Energetic Electron Injections

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Run; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli

    2017-10-05

    Here, the excitation of low-frequency (LF) plasmaspheric hiss, over the frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 Hz, is systematically investigated by comparing the hiss wave properties with electron injections at energies from tens of keV to several hundreds of keV. Both particle and wave data from the Van Allen Probes during the period from September 2012 to June 2016 are used in the present study. Our results demonstrate that the intensity of LF hiss has a clear day-night asymmetry, and increases with increasing geomagnetic activity, similar to the behavior of normal hiss (approximately hundred of hertz to several kilohertz).more » The occurrence rate of LF hiss in association with electron injections is up to 80% in the outer plasmasphere ( L > 4) on the dayside, and the strong correlation extends to lower L shells for more active times. In contrast, at lower L shells ( L < 3.5), LF hiss is seldom associated with electron injections. The LF hiss with Poynting flux directed away from the equator is dominant at higher magnetic latitudes and higher L shells, suggesting a local amplification of LF hiss in the outer plasmasphere. The averaged electron fluxes are larger at higher L shells, where significant LF hiss wave events are observed. Our study suggests the importance of electron injections and their drift trajectories toward the dayside plasmasphere in locally amplifying the LF hiss waves detected by the Van Allen Probes.« less

  8. HISS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented.

  9. Conjugate observations of hiss waves by DEMETER and THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhima, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We present a remarkable event on the extremely low frequency electromagnetic hiss waves which simultaneously captured both by the low earth orbit satellite DEMETER and the high altitude elliptical orbit spacecraft THEMIS in a conjugate position. DEMETER is located at L shell 1.1 to 3.0 at a low altitude of 660 km, and the three THEMIS probes are closely within the L shell from 1.6 to 2.0 at an altitude from 1.6 to 2.0 RE region. The detailed analysis shows that the low altitude hiss wave captured by DEMETER, which propagates obliquely downward and slightly equatorward, shares similar time-frequency structure with the plasmaspheric hiss observed by THEMIS probes at high altitude region. Ray tracing simulation indicates that the propagation from the location of the plasmaspheric hiss observed by THEMIS to the location where a similar emission captured by DEMETER at low altitude is feasible. This study firstly provides an observational support for the origin of low altitude hiss waves based on a rare conjugate observation between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere.

  10. Amplification of exo-hiss into low-frequency chorus following substorm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z.; Su, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus waves contribute significantly to the acceleration of radiation belt electrons. Chorus with frequency below 0.1 fce (fce is the equatorial electron gyro-frequency) has been identified as the low-frequency chorus. How such low-frequency chorus waves are generated remains an unanswered question. Here we propose a new candidate generation mechanism that exo-hiss waves can serve as the source of low-frequency chorus. Exo-hiss is usually believed to be the leaked plasmaspheric hiss from the high-density plasmasphere into the low-density plasmatrough. Both Van Allen Probes observations and linear instability analyses support that exo-hiss can be effectively amplified into low-frequency chorus by the substorm-injected anisotropic electrons at energies around 100 keV.

  11. Modeling of the Convection and Interaction of Ring Current, Plasmaspheric and Plasma Sheet Plasmas in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Buzulukova, Natalia; Glocer, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive sources of ions reside in the plasmasphere, plasmasheet, and ring current regions at discrete energies constitute the major plasma populations in the inner/middle magnetosphere. They contribute to the electrodynamics of the ionosphere-magnetosphere system as important carriers of the global current system, in triggering; geomagnetic storm and substorms, as well as critical components of plasma instabilities such as reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetospheric boundaries. Our preliminary analysis of in-situ measurements shoves the complexity of the plasmas pitch angle distributions at particularly the cold and warm plasmas, vary dramatically at different local times and radial distances from the Earth in response to changes in solar wind condition and Dst index. Using an MHD-ring current coupled code, we model the convection and interaction of cold, warm and energetic ions of plasmaspheric, plasmasheet, and ring current origins in the inner magnetosphere. We compare our simulation results with in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from recent instrumentation on Geotail, Cluster, THEMIS, and TWINS spacecraft.

  12. Numerical trials of HISSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C.; Kampe, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical description and implementation of the statistical estimation procedure known as the Houston integrated spatial/spectral estimator (HISSE) is discussed. HISSE is based on a normal mixture model and is designed to take advantage of spectral and spatial information of LANDSAT data pixels, utilizing the initial classification and clustering information provided by the AMOEBA algorithm. The HISSE calculates parametric estimates of class proportions which reduce the error inherent in estimates derived from typical classify and count procedures common to nonparametric clustering algorithms. It also singles out spatial groupings of pixels which are most suitable for labeling classes. These calculations are designed to aid the analyst/interpreter in labeling patches with a crop class label. Finally, HISSE's initial performance on an actual LANDSAT agricultural ground truth data set is reported.

  13. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  14. Simultaneous observation of chorus and hiss near the plasmapause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delport, B.; Collier, A. B.; Lichtenberger, J.; Rodger, C. J.; Parrot, M.; Clilverd, M. A.; Friedel, R. H. W.

    2012-12-01

    On 4 August 2010 a moderate geomagnetic storm occurred with minimum Dst of -65 nT and maximum Kp of 7-. Shortly after the onset of this storm, VLF chorus was observed at Marion Island (L= 2.6). Over time the spectral structure of the chorus transformed into a hiss band spanning the same frequency range. The observation of overlapping chorus and hiss suggests that Marion Island was close to the plasmapause at the time of this event, and provides ground-based observational confirmation of the generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss from chorus waves outside of the plasmasphere. Chorus observations at Marion Island were not common during this period of the solar cycle and so this event was investigated in detail. The geomagnetic conditions are discussed and geosynchronous particle data and broadband data from two other stations are presented. Empirical models are employed to predict the location of the plasmapause, and its location is inferred from a knee whistler recorded at Dunedin, New Zealand. These show that Marion Island is in the vicinity of the plasmapause during the event. The event is also compared to chorus observed at similarL after the Halloween storms of 2003. The rarity of the chorus observation is quantified using DEMETER VLF data. The DEMETER data, along with the various ground based VLF measurements, allows us to infer temporal and spatial variations in the chorus source region.

  15. Source of the low-altitude hiss in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lunjin; Santolík, Ondrej; Hajoš, Mychajlo; Zheng, Liheng; Zhima, Zeren; Heelis, Roderick; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Horne, Richard B.; Parrot, Michel

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the propagation properties of low-altitude hiss emission in the ionosphere observed by DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions). There exist two types of low-altitude hiss: type I emission at high latitude is characterized by vertically downward propagation and broadband spectra, while type II emission at low latitude is featured with equatorward propagation and a narrower frequency band above ˜fcH+. Our ray tracing simulation demonstrates that both types of the low-altitude hiss at different latitude are connected and they originate from plasmaspheric hiss and in part chorus emission. Type I emission represents magnetospheric whistler emission that accesses the ionosphere. Equatorward propagation associated with type II emission is a consequence of wave trapping mechanisms in the ionosphere. Two different wave trapping mechanisms are identified to explain the equatorial propagation of Type II emission; one is associated with the proximity of wave frequency and local proton cyclotron frequency, while the other occurs near the ionospheric density peak.

  16. Modeling of Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shigeto; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    begin{center} {bf Modeling of Plasmasphere} end{center} Electron density at altitudes below 10,000km is estimated from upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) emission observed by the plasma wave and sounder experiments (PWS) on Akebono satellite from February 22, 1989 to April 23, 2015. The electron density of plasmasphere is investigated statistically and compared with International Reference Ionosphere model. We have made an empirical model of electron density of plasmasphere at altitudes between 1000 km and 10000 km. The electron density distribution is also compared with a physical model (Plasmasphere Thermosphere model: PTM) developed in Japan. The electron densities by the Akebono satellite and the PTM show clearly density gradient change at altitude of 1500 km and plasmapause. The density gradient change at 1500 km altitude is corresponding to transition height from O+ to H+. The electron density distribution of plasmasphere shows clearly local time, latitude, season, solar activity and magnetic activity dependences.

  17. Plasmasphere Structure Associated Energy Deposition into the Atmosphere by Energetic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjeldvik, Walther; Pugacheva, Galina; Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inácio M.

    Results from the IMAGE and CLUSTER spacecraft missions have shown that the Earth's plasmasphere is a highly dynamic region of ionosphere-supplied thermal plasma with a lon-gitudinally asymmetric ion and electron distribution, and with both detached and plume-like structures in response to geomagnetic activity. In parallel the CORONAS mission has revealed that the Earth's upper atmosphere is glowing in X-ray emission at lower KeV photon energies. While it is likely that there are several causes of these X-ray emissions, we here investigate in a parameterized way to what extent electron pitch angle diffusion into the atmospheric bounce loss cone might energetically be the cause of patches of emission due to relativistic electron precipitation within the spatially overlapping radiation belt region and the structurally vari-able plasmasphere regions. From quasi-linear wave-particle interaction theory developed in the 1970s it is known that electron scattering by plasmaspheric hiss is limited to regions within the effective plasmapause location and likely also in extended or outlying higher density plasma regions within the inner magnetosphere. By a simple scaling we estimate the location and char-acteristics atmospheric regions where the electron precipitation energy deposition is most likely to take place during geophysical even periods. This gives rise to predicted moving patches of extra energy deposition and ionization of the upper atmosphere, and these are plausibly asso-ciated with KeV photon emissions from the upper atmosphere. Calculations have been carried out for an idealized parameterized geomagnetic storm period, and this illustrates both quali-tatively, and to some extent also quantitatively, the dynamic evolution of the electron energy deposition during geophysical event periods.

  18. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  19. The Storm-Time Plasmasphere by IMAGE/EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the availability of routine global images of the plasmasphere from the IMAGE Mission Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUV), we now have a growing body of observations that both characterize and quantify the dynamics of the plasmasphere. Direct interactions of the plasmasphere with the ring current and indirect interaction through localized electric fields appear to be the cause of a complex array of structures in the spatial distribution of thermal plasma. This presentation will show those features in detail and discuss possible mechanisms for their cause.

  20. Intensity variation of ELF hiss and chorus during isolated substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Fiske, K. F.; Church, S. R.; Smith, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic ELF emissions (100-1000 Hz) observed on the polar-orbiting OGO-6 satellite within three hours of the dawn-dusk meridian consistently exhibit a predictable response to isolated substorm activity. Near dawn, the emissions intensify during the substorm and then subside following the magnetic activity; the waves are most intense at L greater than 4, exhibit considerable structure and have been primarily identified as chorus. At dusk the response is entirely different; the wave intensity falls to background levels during substorm activity but subsequently intensifies, usually reaching levels well in excess of that before the disturbance. The emissions near dusk extend to low L, are relatively featureless, and have been identified as plasmaspheric hiss. These features are interpreted in terms of changes in the drift orbits of outer-zone electrons which cyclotron resonate with ELF waves.

  1. Landau damping of auroral hiss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Auroral hiss is observed to propagate over distances comparable to an Earth radius from its source in the auroral oval. The role of Landau damping is investigated for upward propagating auroral hiss. By using a ray tracing code and a simplified model of the distribution function, the effect of Landau damping is calculated for auroral hiss propagation through the environment around the auroral oval. Landau damping is found to be the likely mechanism for explaining some of the one-sided auroral hiss funnels observed by Dynamics Explorer 1. It is also found that Landau damping puts a lower limit on the wavelength of auroral hiss. Poleward of the auroral oval, Landau damping is found in a typical case to limit omega/k(sub parallel) to values of 3.4 x 10(exp 4) km/s or greater, corresponding to resonance energies of 3.2 keV or greater and wavelengths of 2 km or greater. For equatorward propagation, omega/k(sub parallel) is limited to values greater than 6.8 x 10(exp 4) km/s, corresponding to resonance energies greater than 13 keV and wavelengths greater than 3 km. Independent estimates based on measured ratios of the magnetic to electric field intensity also show that omega/k(sub parallel) corresponds to resonance energies greater than 1 keV and wavelengths greater than 1 km. These results lead to the difficulty that upgoing electron beams sufficiently energetic to directly generate auroral hiss of the inferred wavelength are not usually observed. A partial transmission mechanism utilizing density discontinuities oblique to the magnetic field is proposed for converting auroral hiss to wavelengths long enough to avoid damping of the wave over long distances. Numerous reflections of the wave in an upwardly flared density cavity could convert waves to significantly increased wavelengths and resonance velocities.

  2. Plasmaspheric storm time erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilverd, Mark A.; Jenkins, Barbara; Thomson, Neil R.

    2000-06-01

    Unusually low whistler mode group delay times are observed by VLF Doppler receivers at both Faraday, Antarctica, and Dunedin, New Zealand, following magnetic storms. These are typically caused by plasmaspheric electron concentration depletions near L=2.4 and not by changes in the VLF wave propagation path. Using a data set that is almost continuous since 1986, we find that depletions during storms in the solar minimum of 1995 are significantly deeper than in the minimum of 1986. Event studies at Faraday show that the electron concentration depletions caused by storms were about a factor of 2 in 1986 and a factor of 3-4 in 1995, independent of the time of year. However, the depletions observed by both sites are significantly deeper than those observed in 1958 and 1961 using natural whistlers (i.e., factors of 2-4 compared to 1.3). The Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) has been used to investigate possible causes of the plasmaspheric electron concentration depletions observed in the whistler mode data. Thermospheric parameters, including a reduction in the concentration of neutral hydrogen and oxygen at all altitudes, were perturbed by a factor of 10 from their normal levels. However, the plasmaspheric depletions produced were only of the order of 10% after 27 hours. It is unlikely therefore that thermospheric modifications alone are responsible for the depletions observed in the data. Additionally, a tube of plasma was moved to higher L shell under the influence of an equatorial meridional E×B drift velocity of 1000 m s-1and showed levels of depletion of about a factor of 2. Although it is possible to generate plasmaspheric concentration depletions using the drifting tube model, the depletions are smaller than those observed and the outward E×B drift velocity needed is a factor of 2 greater than those reported previously at L=2.4. It is therefore unlikely that the tube drifting mechanism

  3. Measurement and modeling of the refilling plasmasphere during 2001

    DOE PAGES

    Krall, J.; Huba, J. D.; Jordanova, V. K.; ...

    2016-03-18

    The Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) and the RAM-CPL (Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model-Cold PLasma) codes are used to model observed plasmasphere dynamics during 25 November 2001 to 1 December 2001 and 1–5 February 2001. Model results compare well to plasmasphere observations of electron and mass densities. Comparison of model results to refilling data and to each other shows good agreement, generally within a factor of 2. We find that SAMI3 plasmaspheric refilling rates and ion densities are sensitive to the composition and temperature of the thermosphere and exosphere, and to photoelectron heating.more » Furthermore, results also support our previous finding that the wind-driven dynamo significantly impacts both refilling rates and plasmasphere dynamics during quiet periods.« less

  4. 3D radiation belt diffusion model results using new empirical models of whistler chorus and hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, G.; Chen, Y.; Henderson, M. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Tu, W.

    2012-12-01

    3D diffusion codes model the energization, radial transport, and pitch angle scattering due to wave-particle interactions. Diffusion codes are powerful but are limited by the lack of knowledge of the spatial & temporal distribution of waves that drive the interactions for a specific event. We present results from the 3D DREAM model using diffusion coefficients driven by new, activity-dependent, statistical models of chorus and hiss waves. Most 3D codes parameterize the diffusion coefficients or wave amplitudes as functions of magnetic activity indices like Kp, AE, or Dst. These functional representations produce the average value of the wave intensities for a given level of magnetic activity; however, the variability of the wave population at a given activity level is lost with such a representation. Our 3D code makes use of the full sample distributions contained in a set of empirical wave databases (one database for each wave type, including plasmaspheric hiss, lower and upper hand chorus) that were recently produced by our team using CRRES and THEMIS observations. The wave databases store the full probability distribution of observed wave intensity binned by AE, MLT, MLAT and L*. In this presentation, we show results that make use of the wave intensity sample probability distributions for lower-band and upper-band chorus by sampling the distributions stochastically during a representative CRRES-era storm. The sampling of the wave intensity probability distributions produces a collection of possible evolutions of the phase space density, which quantifies the uncertainty in the model predictions caused by the uncertainty of the chorus wave amplitudes for a specific event. A significant issue is the determination of an appropriate model for the spatio-temporal correlations of the wave intensities, since the diffusion coefficients are computed as spatio-temporal averages of the waves over MLT, MLAT and L*. The spatiotemporal correlations cannot be inferred from the

  5. Variability of Plasmaspheric Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. A.; Moldwin, M. B.; Sandel, B. R.

    2008-05-01

    The plasmasphere has been observed to rotate at a rate different than that of the Earth itself. Previous studies such as Burch et al. [2003] have linked plasmaspheric sub-corotation to joule heating of the polar ionosphere during periods of high geomagnetic activity, and have supported it with an individual case study observation. We carry out a statistical survey of plasmaspheric rotation rates over several months of IMAGE EUV data in 2001, correlating the results with geomagnetic indices. An automated cross-correlation routine is used to track azimuthal features such as "notches" over a single pass of the IMAGE satellite, providing an estimate of the plasmasphere's rotation rate. Observed trends and possible causes of the variability of rotation rate are discussed.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of chorus and hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolik, O.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode electromagnetic waves, especially natural emissions of chorus and hiss, have been shown to influence the dynamics of the Van Allen radiation belts via quasi-linear or nonlinear wave particle interactions, transferring energy between different electron populations. Average intensities of chorus and hiss emissions have been found to increase with increasing levels of geomagnetic activity but their stochastic variations in individual spacecraft measurements are usually larger these large-scale temporal effects. To separate temporal and spatial variations of wave characteristics, measurements need to be simultaneously carried out in different locations by identical and/or well calibrated instrumentation. We use two-point survey measurements of the Waves instruments of the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard two Van Allen Probes to asses spatial and temporal variability of chorus and hiss. We take advantage of a systematic analysis of this large data set which has been collected during 2012-2017 over a range of separation vectors of the two spacecraft. We specifically address the question whether similar variations occur at different places at the same time. Our results indicate that power variations are dominated by separations in MLT at scales larger than 0.5h.

  7. Thermal Plasma Flow During Plasmaspheric Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    Our picture of plasmaspheric erosion is dominated by a simple model of corotational and enhanced convective motion and by many decades of plasmapause boundary measurement. Observational evidence for the plasma motion that lowers the outer plasmaspheric boundary has largely been unavailable. A new analysis technique for the IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EUV) instrument now offers to reveal motion in the plasmaspheric boundary layer as enhanced global and meso-scale convection penetrates the quite-time plasmasphere. IMAGE EUV provides good global coverage of the striking plasmaspheric erosion that took place on July 10,2000. During this erosion event divergent flows in the vicinity of the plasmapause and centered initially near 2 hours MLT have been found. Over a period of about 1 hour the center of divergent flow drifts dawnward to almost 4 hours MLT. Plasma flows during this storm and others imaged by IMAGE EUV will be discussed along with their implication for the process of plasmaspheric erosion.

  8. Whistlers observed outside the plasmasphere: Correlation to plasmaspheric/plasmapause features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Fung, S. F.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Whistlers observed outside the plasmasphere by Cluster have been correlated with the global plasmasphere using Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration-Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-EUV) observations. Of the 12 Cluster-observed whistler events reported, EUV is able to provide global imaging of the plasmasphere for every event and demonstrates a direct correlation between the detection of lightning-generated whistlers beyond the plasmapause and the presence of a global perturbation of the local plasmapause. Of these 12 correlated events, seven of the Cluster-observed whistlers (or 58%) are associated with the Cluster spacecraft lying radially outward from a plasmaspheric notch. Two of the Cluster-observed whistlers (17%) are associated with the low-density region between the late afternoon plasmapause and the western wall of a plasmaspheric drainage plume. The final three Cluster-observed whistler events (25%) are associated with a nonradial, nonazimuthal depletion in plasmaspheric He+ emission that are termed "notch-like" crenulations. In one of these cases, the notch-like crenulations appear to be manifestations entrained within the plasmasphere boundary layer of a standing wave on the surface of the plasmasphere. The correlated Cluster/IMAGE-EUV observations suggest that the depleted flux tubes that connect the ionosphere to the low-density regions of plasmaspheric trough and inner magnetosphere facilitate the escape of whistler waves from the plasmasphere.

  9. Plasmasphere Empirical Modeling with the IMAGE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fung, S. F.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Empirical models of plasmaspheric properties date from the pioneering work of Storey where he developed the analysis of ground whistler observations that lead to his estimate for the equatorial plasma density at L=3. The most recent in situ satellite study takes us to 1000 CRRES satellite passes and a statistical analysis of the plasmapause location at all local times and for varying geomagnetic conditions by Moldwin et al. These and many other studies over the intervening 49 years have given us a strong familiarity with the distribution of cold plasmaspheric ions throughout the magnetosphere. The major components of inner plasmasphere, nightside bulge, sunward convection tail, and plasmapause are all well established. Storm-time erosion and the resulting ionospheric refilling has been encompassed, even if not completely understood. Small-scale density variations near the plasmapause and extending at least to geosynchronous orbit have been characterized in a variety of ways, even though we do not yet understand their origin. This paper will present early empirical modeling results from the inversion of IMAGE/EW global intensity images to density distributions. Densities are obtained in this initial study through use of forward image modeling with a simple 3-parameter plasmaspheric and plasmapause mathematical model. Individual interior plasmaspheric density profiles and plasmapause locations are obtained every 10 degrees in magnetic local time for each E W image analyzed. Derived profile parameters are statistically characterized in the context of storm magnitude and evolution. Identified patterns in the appearance of plasmaspheric structures, plasmapause erosion, and refilling will be presented. Comparisons to existing empirical plasmaspheric models and the implications for new modeling will be presented. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Theoretical studies of the plasmasphere as a coupled subsystem in the inner magnetosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Fok, M. H.; Glocer, A.

    2013-12-01

    The inner magnetospheric plasma is a very unique composition of different kinds of plasmas and electromagnetic fields. It covers a huge plasma energy range with spatial and time variations of many orders of magnitude. Treating the vastly different but interconnected populations requires a kinetic approach to provide proper description of the complex inner magnetospheric plasma phenomena. The plasmasphere (together with the ionosphere) is the coldest of the inner magnetospheric populations with a velocity distribution function that is close to Maxwellian. The ionosphere is the major source of particles to this region, and interactions with superthermal electrons and the ring current control its energy balance. Colliding with the radiation belt and ring current particles, the plasmasphere serves as a vital catalyst for plasma wave excitation in the inner magnetosphere and energy redistribution throughout the entire ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The combination of the different plasmaspheric energy sources, as well as the anisotropy of the energy transport along and across the magnetic field lines, lead to anisotropies in the plasmaspheric electron and ion temperatures. These anisotropies, in turn, produce the plasma density and temperature redistributions along and across magnetic field lines. In this presentation we will consider the experimental background of theoretical studies of the plasmasphere as a coupled subsystem of the inner magnetospheric plasma.

  11. Plasmasphere Modeling with Ring Current Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiter, S. M.; Fok, M.-C.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    Coulomb collisions between ring current ions and the thermal plasma in the plasmasphere will heat the plasmaspheric electrons and ions. During a storm such heating would lead to significant changes in the temperature and density of the thermal plasma. This was modeled using a time- dependent, one-stream hydrodynamic model for plasmaspheric flows, in which the model flux tube is connected to the ionosphere. The model simultaneously solves the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations of a two-ion (H(+) and O(+) quasineutral, currentless plasma. Heating rates due to collisions with ring current ions were calculated along the field line using a kinetic ring current model. First, diurnally reproducible results were found assuming only photoelectron heating of the thermal electrons. Then results were found with heating of the H(+) ions by the ring current during the recovery phase of a magnetic storm.

  12. Refilling the plasmasphere through the exospheric sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to compute plasmasphere densities is critical to many space weather concerns. The sensitivity of refilling to the solar cycle is compelling because, paradoxically, refilling rates are generally lowest when the ionosphere is strongest. In the past, this has been attributed to a dearth of exosphere H at solar maximum. While H is needed to supply H + O+ -> H+ + O charge exchange, recent work demonstrates a significant sensitivity to O [1]. Results will be based on preliminary model-data comparisons using in situ Van Allen Probe EMFISIS data and the SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code. We will assess the impact of atmospheric composition (i.e., O and H) and solar activity (e.g., F10.7) on plasmasphere refilling rates and density following magnetic storms. SAMI3 (Sami3 is Also a Model of the Ionosphere) is a first-principles ionosphere/plasmasphere model. SAMI3 includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e- [2]. SAMI3 uses the empirical MSIS thermosphere/exosphere model to specify O and H densities. SAMI3 includes scaling factors that can be used to tune MSIS densities to bring them in line with measurements of satellite drag. Key inputs for this data-driven modeling are the thermosphere oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) densities, and the F10.7 proxy for solar ultraviolet irradiance. [1 ]Krall, J., J. T. Emmert, F. Sassi, S. E. McDonald, and J. D. Huba (2016), Day-to-day variability in the thermosphere and its impact on plasmasphere refilling, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA022328. [2] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  13. Image RPI Reawakens Plasmaspheric Refilling Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Smith, Z. B.

    2007-01-01

    The plasmasphere is a toroidal region of cold plasma surrounding the Earth that results from ionospheric outflow and accumulation. The physics of refilling and the dynamics of this region have been studied for nearly 50-years. During that time many models have been proposed, but little has been done to test these models due to a lack of observational information. With the launch of the IMAGE Mission in March 2000 the Radio Plasma Imager has provided true field aligned density measurements that uniquely enable the testing of these models and a final determination of the physical processes important for the plasmasphere's recovery from storm-time conditions.

  14. Global Plasmaspheric Imaging: A New "Light" Focusing on Familiar Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Until recently plasmaspheric physics, for that matter, magnetospheric physics as a whole, has relied primarily on single point in-situ measurement, theory, modeling, and a considerable amount of extrapolation in order to envision the global structure of the plasmasphere. This condition changed with the launch of the IMAGE satellite in March 2000. Using the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) imager on WAGE, we can now view the global structure of the plasmasphere bathed in the glow of resonantly scattered 30.4 nm radiation allowing the space physics community to view the dynamics of this global structure as never before. This talk will: (1) define the plasmasphere from the perspective of plasmaspheric physics prior to March 2000; (2) present a review of EUV imaging optics and the IMAGE mission; and focus on efforts to understand an old and familiar feature of plasmaspheric physics, embedded plasmaspheric density troughs, in this new global light with the assistance of forward modeling.

  15. The Plasmasphere as "Seen" by the IMAGE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Sandel, B. R.; Carpenter, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) is the first mission designed exclusively to remotely measure the magnetosphere. As such, it will reveal the ring current, plasmasphere, polar cusp, and magnetopause as whole extended, interacting systems. For the first time, our impressions of the global magnetosphere, synthesized through many years of whistler and in situ measurement, will be replaced by images. The overall morphology of each system of plasma and the correspondence of changes between them in response to the sun and solar wind will become available. The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUV) and the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) are the two IMAGE instruments which will remotely measure and image the plasmasphere. What we expect to "see" from these instruments and how it may be interpreted is the subject of this presentation. The EUV instrument includes three optical cameras, with an almost 90 degree field of view, transverse to the spin axis. EUV is designed to see He+ ions in resonantly scatter solar light at 30.4rim. The IMAGE spacecraft will spin with a period of about 2 minutes, with its spin axis parallel to the orbit normal. The IMAGE orbit will be highly inclined, with a high latitude apogee at a geocentric distance of 8RE and perigee of about 1.2RE. The normal observing integration time of 10 minutes will easily see to the outer edge of the plasmasphere. The RPI instrument makes use of three orthoganal dipole antennas: two in the spin plane with a tip-to-tip length of 500m and one along the spin axis with a length of 20 meters. Using coded pulse transmissions, the RPI instrument will broadcast from 3kHz to 3MHz. With one minute resolution, plasma densities from about 0.1 cm(exp -3) to 100,000 cm(exp -3), along with line-of-sight bulk velocities and locations, will be obtained from all returned radio wave signals. When transmitting from the high latitude magnetospheric cavity, RPI will measure density profiles for the major plasma

  16. Plasmaspheric Structures Observed by the CLUSTER and IMAGE Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, S. F.; Adrian, M. L.; Benson, R. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Goldstein, M. L.; Sandel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Global EUV imaging observations by the IMAGE satellite have revealed spectacularly complex changes in plasmaspheric structures as the plasmaspheric plasmas respond to geomagnetic activity while remaining under varying degrees of influence by co-rotation, depending on the radial distance. This complex plasmaspheric plasma dynamics, with its numerous scales of variability, is clearly far from being well understood. There is now renewed interest in studying the plasmasphere due to its apparent connections with the development of the ring current and radiation belt and loss of ionospheric plasmas. Earlier in the mission, the Cluster spacecraft only crossed the plasmapause (L - 4) occasionally and made measurements of the cold plasma in the plasmasphere and plasmaspheric drainage plumes. The study by Darrouzet et al. [2006], for example, provided detailed analyses of in situ Cluster observations and IMAGE EUV imaging observations of three plasmaspheric plumes detected in April-June, 2002. Within the next couple of years, Cluster orbit will change, causing perigee to migrate to lower altitudes, and thus providing excellent opportunities to obtain more detailed measurements of the plasmasphere. In this paper, we report our analyses of the earlier Cluster-IMAGE events by incorporating the different perspectives provided by the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) observations through the plasmasphere. We will describe our new understanding of the Cluster-IMAGE events and their implications on plasmaspheric dynamics.

  17. Erosion and refilling of the plasmasphere studied by neural network based three-dimensional plasmaspheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Angelopoulos, V.; Thorne, R. M.; Denton, R. E.; Menietti, J. D.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a time-dependent global plasma density model of the inner magnetosphere which uses a feedforward neural network schema with two hidden layers. As the model output, we used the electron density inferred from spacecraft potential from three THEMIS probes. As the model inputs, we took the spacecraft location (L, magnetic local time and latitude), and time series of the SYM-H, AL and F10.7 indices. The equatorial electron density is shown to be accurately reconstructed with a correlation of r 0.953 between model output and observations. The model succeeded in reconstructing the distribution and dynamics of the density, including the quiet time plasmasphere, erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere, as well as the plume formation during a storm on February 04, 2011. The model also reproduced the contraction and recovery of the plasmapause for the same event. The neural network based plasmaspheric model is then expanded to three dimensions by including more observations from both equatorial satellites and polar orbiting satellites (RBSP, CRRES, ISEE, CLUSTER, POLAR, IMAGE). We maintain the same architecture of the neural network model (two hidden layers) and the model inputs (location and time series of SYM-H, AL and F10.7 indices). The three-dimensional plasmaspheric model can reproduce almost 90% of the variation in the plasma density with a correlation of r 0.943. Using the three-dimensional plasmaspheric model, we reconstruct a time-dependent three-dimensional plasmasphere. The latitudinal profile of the plasma density is compared with those profiles from previous study. In addition, we show the evolution (erosion and refilling and plume formation) of the plasmasphere during geomagnetic storms in a three-dimensional perspective.

  18. Web-based Tool Suite for Plasmasphere Information Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, T. S.; Wang, C.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    A suite of tools that enable discovery of terrestrial plasmasphere characteristics from NASA IMAGE Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) images is described. The tool suite is web-accessible, allowing easy remote access without the need for any software installation on the user's computer. The features supported by the tool include reconstruction of the plasmasphere plasma density distribution from a short sequence of EUV images, semi-automated selection of the plasmapause boundary in an EUV image, and mapping of the selected boundary to the geomagnetic equatorial plane. EUV image upload and result download is also supported. The tool suite's plasmapause mapping feature is achieved via the Roelof and Skinner (2000) Edge Algorithm. The plasma density reconstruction is achieved through a tomographic technique that exploits physical constraints to allow for a moderate resolution result. The tool suite's software architecture uses Java Server Pages (JSP) and Java Applets on the front side for user-software interaction and Java Servlets on the server side for task execution. The compute-intensive components of the tool suite are implemented in C++ and invoked by the server via Java Native Interface (JNI).

  19. Image-Based Empirical Modeling of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    A new suite of empirical models of plasmaspheric plasma based on remote, global images from the IMAGE EUV instrument is proposed for development. The purpose of these empirical models is to establish the statistical properties of the plasmasphere as a function of conditions. This suite of models will mark the first time the plasmaspheric plume is included in an empirical model. Development of these empirical plasmaspheric models will support synoptic studies (such as for wave propagation and growth, energetic particle loss through collisions and dust transport as influenced by charging) and serves as a benchmark against which physical models can be tested. The ability to know that a specific global density distribution occurs in response to specific magnetospheric and solar wind factors is a huge advantage over all previous in-situ based empirical models. The consequence of creating these new plasmaspheric models will be to provide much higher fidelity and much richer quantitative descriptions of the statistical properties of plasmaspheric plasma in the inner magnetosphere, whether that plasma is in the main body of the plasmasphere, nearby during recovery or in the plasmaspheric plume. Model products to be presented include statistical probabilities for being in the plasmasphere, near thermal He+ density boundaries and the complexity of its spatial structure.

  20. Modeling plasmaspheric dynamics with SAMI3 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J. D.; Krall, J.; Wu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code is used to study plasmaspheric dynamics under both quiet and stormtime conditions. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+ ,N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e. Winds in SAMI3 are provided by HWM07 or HWM93 and the wind-driven ionospheric dynamo potential is computed self-consistently, based on current conservation. For this study SAMI3 is driven by the Weimer empirical model as well as a modified Volland-Stern potential at high latitudes. A time-varying high-latitude potential in combination with losses imposed for `open' field lines (L > 7) produces a dynamic plasmapause. Modeling results will be compared with observational data (e.g., plume formation, refilling, TEC). Research supported by NRL Base Funds and NASA.

  1. Banded electron structures in the plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, W.J.; Rubin, A.G.; Hardy, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The low-energy plasma analyzer on CRRES has detected significant fluxes of 10-eV to 30-keV electrons trapped on plasmaspheric field lines. On energy versus time spectrograms these electrons appear as banded structures that can span the 2 < L < 6 range of magnetic shells. The authors present an example of banded electron structures, encountered in the nightside plasmasphere during the magnetically quiet January 30, 1991. Empirical analysis suggests that two clouds of low energy electrons were injected from the plasma sheet to L < 4 on January 26 and 27 while the convective electric field was elevated. The energies ofmore » electrons in the first cloud were greater than those in the second. DMSP F8 measurements show that after the second injection, the polar cap potential rapidly decreased from >50 to <20 kY. Subsequent encounters with the lower energy cloud on alternating CRRES orbits over the next 2 days showed a progressive, earthward movement of the electrons, inner boundary. Whistler and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions accompanied the most intense manifestations of cloud electrons. The simplest explanation of these measurements is that after initial injection, the AIfven boundary moved Outward, leaving the cloud electrons on closed drift paths. Subsequent fluctuations of the convective electric field penetrated the plasmasphere, transporting cloud elements inward. The magnetic shell distribution of electron temperatures in one of the banded structures suggests that radiative energy losses may be comparable in magnitude to gains due to adiabatic compression.« less

  2. Radiation Belt Simulation in the Tsyganenko Magnetic Field Including Magnetospheric Convection and Wave-Particles Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbotin, D.; Shprits, Y.; Orlova, K.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the radiation belt electrons can be described by the Fokker-Planck equation which consists of the diffusion due to wave-particles resonance interaction, sources from magnetospheric convection, and losses to the magnetopause and atmosphere. To better understand the global magnetospheric dynamics we present a simulation of the convection and diffusion processes with 4D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB 4D) code in the realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field. The simulation includes radial diffusion due to ULF waves, energy and pitch-angle scattering due to day- and night-side Chorus waves outside of the plasmasphere and hiss waves inside of the plasmasphere, losses to the atmosphere and magnetopause. Magnetospheric convection in the time-dependent Tsyganenko magnetic field provides electron seed population. Energy, pitch-angle, and mixed diffusion coefficients are bounce-averaged in Tsyganenko magnetic field. Outer radial boundary condition in the magnetotail is taken from satellite observations. The results of the 4D simulation allow, among other things, to distinguish between losses to magnetopause and atmosphere of outer radiation belt electrons during a geomagnetic storm.

  3. Analysis of Simultaneous Hiss and Chorus Ground & In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; Golkowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic evolution of the radiation belts is believed to be controlled in large part by two separate but related classes of naturally occurring plasma waves: ELF/VLF chorus and hiss emissions. These waves can be observed both in situ on spacecraft and at ground-based stations. Recent observational and theoretical works suggest that high resolution analysis of the spectral features of both hiss and chorus emissions can provide insight into generation processes and be used to validate existing theories. However, ground observation are limited to the portion of magnetospheric waves that are able to propagate to low altitudes and penetrate through the ionosphere. The whistler mode wave is intrinsically right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) in the magnetosphere, and becomes more linear with increased propagation distance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. We use wave polarization to differentiate magnetospheric and ionospheric effects in ground based observations. Observations are compared to simulations using the finite difference time domain method to track the effect of propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide on polarization. Ionospheric exit point of the emissions, have been further determined by calculating the angle of arrival, which shows a rotation of exit points along with transition of hiss to chorus emissions. Simultaneous THEMIS spacecraft data have been investigated and show agreement with the observed transitions in our ground based observations. The plasmapause is seen to erode and density structures develop, providing insight into the relationship of chorus and hiss and the plasmapause boundary.

  4. Global plasmaspheric TEC and its relative contribution to GPS TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Galvan, D.; Iijima, B. A.; Komjathy, A.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2008-08-01

    The plasmaspheric electron content is directly estimated from the global positioning system (GPS) data onboard JASON-1 Satellite for the first time. Similarly, the ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) is estimated using about 1000 GPS receivers distributed around the globe. The relative contribution of the plasmaspheric electron content to the ground-based GPS TEC is then estimated globally using these two independent simultaneous measurements; namely ground-based GPS TEC and JASON-1 GPS TEC. Results presented here include data from 3 months of different solar cycle conditions (October 2003, May 2005, and December 2006). The global comparison between the two independent measurements was performed by dividing the data into three different regions; equatorial, mid- and high-latitude regions. This division is essential as the GPS raypaths traverse different distances through the plasmasphere at different latitudes. The raypath length through the plasmasphere decreases as latitude increases. The relative contribution of the plasmaspheric electron content exhibits a diurnal variation that depends on latitude with minimum contribution (~10%) during daytime and maximum (up to 60%) at night. The contribution is also maximum at the equatorial region where the GPS raypath traverses a long distance through the plasmasphere compared to its length in mid- and high-latitude regions. Finally, the solar cycle variation of plasmaspheric contribution is also reported globally.

  5. Banded electron structures in the plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, W.J.; Rubin, A.G.; Hardy, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The low-energy plasma analyzer on CRRES has detected significant fluxes of 10-eV to 30-keV electrons trapped on plasmaspheric field lines. On energy-versus-time spectrograms these electrons appear as banded structures that can span the 250 to <20 kV. Subsequent encounters with the lower-energy cloud on alternating CRRES orbits over the next 2 days showed a progressive, earthward movement of the electrons` inner boundary. Whistler and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions accompanied the most intense manifestations of cloud electrons. The simplest explanation of these measurements is that after initial injection, the Alfven boundary moved outward, leaving the cloud electrons on closed drift paths.more » Subsequent fluctuations of the convective electric field penetrated the plasmasphere, transporting cloud elements inward. The magnetic shell distribution of electron temperatures in one of the banded structures suggests that radiative energy losses may be comparable in magnitude to gains due to adiabatic compression. 29 refs., 8 figs.« less

  6. A New Global Core Plasma Model of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) is the first empirical model for thermal inner magnetospheric plasma designed to integrate previous models and observations into a continuous in value and gradient representation of typical total densities. New information about the plasmasphere, in particular, makes possible significant improvement. The IMAGE Mission Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) has obtained the first observations of total plasma densities along magnetic field lines in the plasmasphere and polar cap. Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) has provided densities in temperatures in the plasmasphere for 5 ion species. These and other works enable a new more detailed empirical model of thermal in the inner magnetosphere that will be presented.

  7. The effects of plasmaspheric plumes on dayside reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, J. E.; Lyon, J. G.; Brambles, O. J.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize the results of a study on the impact of plasmaspheric plumes on dayside reconnection using a three-dimensional magnetospheric simulation code. We find that the mass loading of magnetospheric flux tubes slows local reconnection rates, though not as much as predicted by Borovsky et al. (2013) due to differences in how well the Cassak-Shay theory matches magnetospheric configurations with and without plasmaspheric plumes. Additionally, we find that in some circumstances reconnection activity is enhanced on either side of the plumes, which moderates its impact on the total dayside reconnection rate. These results provide evidence that plasmaspheric plumes have both local- and global-scale effects on dayside reconnection.

  8. Ionospheric signatures of a plasmaspheric plume over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke; Moldwin, Mark B.; Galvan, David A.

    2006-09-01

    Previously, ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric plumes were reported only at the North American longitude sector. This led to the hypothesis that the geomagnetic field configuration at those longitudes played a vital role in the observation of plasmaspheric plume signatures only over the American continent. Combining ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC), EISCAT incoherent scattering radar (ISR), and DMSP F15 ion drift meter observations we have observed greatly elevated density over the European continent during storm recovery phase on 12 September 2005. The TEC seen over Europe has a tongue of enhanced ionization extending to higher latitudes, which is identical to the plasmaspheric plume signatures that have been often observed over North America. Therefore, our observations clearly demonstrate that ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric plumes are not limited to the North American sector and suggest that they may be observed at any longitude as long as a dense array of instruments are available to identify these signatures.

  9. Rotation of the Earth's plasmasphere at different radial distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Xu, R. L.; Shen, C.; Zhao, H.

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the rotation of the plasmasphere using a large plasmaspheric notch observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) instrument onboard the IMAGE spacecraft on 2001/173. The time scale is more than 20 h. On the magnetic equatorial plane the notch extends over more than 1.5 Re in radial distance. By analyzing the brightness for four annuluses at different average values of L from 2.0 to 3.25 over time, we determine the rotation rate of the plasmasphere at different radial distances. The analysis reveals that, with the increase of L, the rotation rate of the plasmasphere tends to strongly decrease on the dusk side and slightly increase on the dawn side.

  10. A Parametric Study of the Cold Plasma Refilling Rate on the Plasmasphere and Inner Magnetosphere Dynamics during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemon, C.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Nikoukar, R.; Chen, M.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Payne, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is a complex process, and researchers must consider a number of factors: particle transport in the electric and magnetic fields drives plasma from the high latitude tail to the mid-latitude inner magnetosphere; particle precipitation into the ionosphere, which is frequently driven by wave-particle interactions, enhances the ionospheric conductivities; feedback of the ionospheric conductivities on the electric fields determines how well the convection electric field penetrates to the mid-latitude ionosphere; and the erosion and refilling of cold plasma in the plasmasphere substantially determines the mass of plasma on magnetospheric field lines and the subsequent wave environment that drives particle precipitation. While we model all of these processes, in this presentation we focus on the role of the plasmasphere and its role in M-I coupling. We present RCM-E simulations in which particle transport through self-consistent fields controls the drainage of the plasmasphere, an outflow model determines the plasmasphere refilling rate, and electron and ion precipitation influences the electric field by enhancing the ionospheric conductivity. The plasmasphere significantly affects the spatial structure of the wave environment and electron precipitation rates. This impacts the dynamics of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) in the pre-midnight region equatorward of the auroral boundary, which itself drives erosion of the plasmasphere through strong westward electric fields near the plasmapause. We present comparisons with Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model, and line-of-sight observations from Millstone Hill ISR and space-based GPS receivers, showing how our modeled plasmasphere compares with observational data during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 magnetic storms. To better understand refilling, we focus particular attention on densities in the recently-depleted flux tubes in the

  11. The Plasmaspheric Plume and Magnetopause Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, B. M.; Phan, T. D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present near-simultaneous measurements from two THEMIS spacecraft at the dayside magnetopause with a 1.5 h separation in local time. One spacecraft observes a high-density plasmaspheric plume while the other does not. Both spacecraft observe signatures of magnetic reconnection, providing a test for the changes to reconnection in local time along the magnetopause as well as the impact of high densities on the reconnection process. When the plume is present and the magnetospheric density exceeds that in the magnetosheath, the reconnection jet velocity decreases, the density within the jet increases, and the location of the faster jet is primarily on field lines with magnetosheath orientation. Slower jet velocities indicate that reconnection is occurring less efficiently. In the localized region where the plume contacts the magnetopause, the high-density plume may impede the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling by mass loading the reconnection site.

  12. On the causes of plasmaspheric rotation variability: IMAGE EUV observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, David A.; Moldwin, Mark B.; Sandel, Bill R.; Crowley, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    IMAGE EUV observations demonstrate that the plasmasphere usually does not corotate as assumed in simple convection models, even at low L shells. We carry out a statistical survey of plasmaspheric rotation rates over several months of IMAGE EUV data in 2001, using two different measurement techniques. We test the prevailing hypothesis, that subcorotation is due to enhanced auroral zone Joule heating driving equatorward thermospheric winds, by testing for correlation of rotation rates with several geomagnetic indices. Azimuthal features such as "notches" are tracked in local time over a single pass of the IMAGE satellite, both visually and using an automated cross-correlation routine. Each technique provides an estimate of the plasmasphere's rotation rate. We find a weak correlation between rotation rate and Dst, Kp, AE, the midnight boundary index (MBI), and Joule heating estimates from assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) at L = 2.5, but not at L = 3.5. In general, lower rotation rates correspond to higher auroral and geomagnetic activity. We also make the first direct observation of plasmaspheric superrotation. The plasmaspheric rotation rate is found to be highly variable on multiday timescales, but the typical state of the plasmasphere is subcorotation, with inferred mean values ranging from 88% to 95% of corotation, depending on L shell. In addition, a statistical analysis shows that rotation rates near dusk are generally lower than those at dawn, suggesting that local time and magnetospheric convection contribute to the variation in rotation rate as well. We conclude that the cause of variability in plasmaspheric rotation rate is a combination of storm phase, local-time-dependent convection, and westward ionospheric drift.

  13. The Sound and the Fury—Bees Hiss when Expecting Danger

    PubMed Central

    Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees’ sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We therefore conditioned honey bees aversively to odours in a walking arena and recorded both their sound production and their movement. Bees were presented with two odours, one of which was paired with an electric shock. Initially, the bees did not produce any sound upon odour presentation, but responded to the electric shock with a strong hissing response. After learning, many bees hissed at the presentation of the learned odour, while fewer bees hissed upon presentation of another odour. We also found that hissing and movement away from the conditioned odour are independent behaviours that can co-occur but do not necessarily do so. Our data suggest that hissing can be used as a readout for learning after olfactory conditioning, but that there are large individual differences between bees concerning their hissing reaction. The basis for this variability and the possible ecological relevance of the bees’ hissing remain to be investigated. PMID:25747702

  14. The sound and the fury--bees hiss when expecting danger.

    PubMed

    Wehmann, Henja-Niniane; Gustav, David; Kirkerud, Nicholas H; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees' sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We therefore conditioned honey bees aversively to odours in a walking arena and recorded both their sound production and their movement. Bees were presented with two odours, one of which was paired with an electric shock. Initially, the bees did not produce any sound upon odour presentation, but responded to the electric shock with a strong hissing response. After learning, many bees hissed at the presentation of the learned odour, while fewer bees hissed upon presentation of another odour. We also found that hissing and movement away from the conditioned odour are independent behaviours that can co-occur but do not necessarily do so. Our data suggest that hissing can be used as a readout for learning after olfactory conditioning, but that there are large individual differences between bees concerning their hissing reaction. The basis for this variability and the possible ecological relevance of the bees' hissing remain to be investigated.

  15. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  16. The Effect of Strong (Dst < -100) Disturbances on Plasmasphere Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the ISES program (Integrating the Earth-Sun System) at NRL is to model the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-plasmasphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In this investigation, the NRL SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere code[1], coupled to the solar wind via the Weimer05 magnetospheric potential, is used to simulate H+ and He+ populations in the plasmasphere during strongly-disturbed (Dst < -100), moderate (-100 < Dst < -9) and quiet (-9 < Dst <-3) geomagnetic conditions. The SAMI3 ionosphere code includes 7 ion species (H+, He+, O+, N+, O2+, N2+, NO+), each treated as a separate fluid, with temperature equations being solved for H+, He+, O+ and e-. Model results from two different time periods in 2001 are compared to statistical results for number density and mass density versus L shell, based on measurements during 1999-2001[2]. Preliminary results suggest that the heavy ion torus, a configuration where the average ion mass increases with L, may be largely a dayside phenomenon. We will discuss ISES, the SAMI3 results, and the comparison to data. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall, 2013, ``Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3,'' Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 6--10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 [2] Berube, D., M. B. Moldwin, S. F. Fung and J. L. Green, 2005, ``A plasmaspheric mass density model and its constraints on heavy ion concentration,'' J. Geophys. Res., 110, A04212, doi:10.1029/2004JA010684 Research supported by NRL base funds and NASA.

  17. A storm-time plasmasphere evolution study using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoukar, R.; Bust, G. S.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Lemon, C.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we study the evolution of the Earth's plasmasphere during geomagnetic active periods using the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model. The total electron content (TEC) measurements from an extensive network of global ground-based GPS receivers as well as GPS receivers on-board Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites and Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are ingested into the model. Global Core Plasma model, which is an empirical plasmasphere model, is utilized as the background model. Based on the 3D-VAR optimization, the PDA assimilative model benefits from incorporation of regularization techniques to prevent non-physical altitudinal variation in density estimates due to the limited-angle observational geometry. This work focuses on the plasmapause location, plasmasphere erosion time scales and refilling rates during the main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storms as estimated from the PDA 3-dimensional global maps of electron density in the ionosphere/plasmasphere. The comparison between the PDA results with in-situ density measurements from THEMIS and Van Allen Probes, and the RCM-E first-principle model will be also presented.

  18. Evolution of Plasmaspheric Refilling: A Comparison of Measurements with an Interhemispheric Plasmasphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Richards, Phil G.; Liao, Jin-Hua; Craven, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of plasmasphere is closely coupled to processes governing flux tube refilling and transport. In this study we follow this evolution through a series of sequential ion observations made by RIMS on the DE 1 satellite and with the intervening time intervals filled by simulations made with the FLIP model. The FLIP model solves the continuity and momentum equations for the major ion species as well as the energy equations for ions and electrons along entire flux tubes rom 100 k altitude in both hemispheres. Convection has recently been included, driven a dawn-dusk electric field model. Since the observations are necessarily restricted to two local time passes through the plasmasphere per orbit, the FLIP code will follow the observed flux tubes as they corotate and convect through the other local times. The period of DE 1 is such that nearly the same flux tubes are observed every second day or every sixth orbit. The composite of observations and simulations allows assessment of the degree to which the degree to which the FLIP simulations accurately describe the processes which govern flux tube refilling over the two-day period between observations of the same flux tubes.

  19. Global Evolution of Plasmaspheric Plasma: Spacecraft-Model Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, B.; Welling, D. T.; Morley, S.

    2017-12-01

    During times of geomagnetic disturbance, material from the plasmasphere will move radially outward into the magnetosphere. Once introduced to the outer magnetosphere, this material has been shown to impact a variety of plasma populations as well as the coupling of energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The magnitude of any of these effects is inherently linked to the density and evolution of the plasmaspheric plasma. Much of our idea of how this population behaves in the outer-magnetosphere is however based on statistical pictures and model results. Here, in-situ measurements from 10 spacecraft are used to constrain a coupled, global numerical modeling in order to identify true spatial extents, time histories, and densities of the plasmasphere and plumes in the outer magnetosphere.

  20. Strange VLF bursts in northern Scandinavia: case study of the afternoon "mushroom-like" hiss on 8 December 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozlovsky, A.; Kornilov, I. A.; Gromova, L. I.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Turunen, T.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate a non-typical very low frequency (VLF) 1-4 kHz hiss representing a sequence of separated noise bursts with a strange "mushroom-like" shape in the frequency-time domain, each one lasting several minutes. These strange afternoon VLF emissions were recorded at Kannuslehto (KAN, ϕ = 67.74° N, λ = 26.27° E; L ∼ 5.5) in northern Finland during the late recovery phase of the small magnetic storm on 8 December 2013. The left-hand (LH) polarized 2-3 kHz "mushroom caps" were clearly separated from the right-hand (RH) polarized "mushroom stems" at the frequency of about 1.8-1.9 kHz, which could match the lower ionosphere waveguide cutoff (the first transverse resonance of the Earth-ionosphere cavity). We hypothesize that this VLF burst sequence could be a result of the modulation of the VLF hiss electron-cyclotron instability from the strong Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations observed simultaneously at ground-based stations as well as in the inner magnetosphere by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission probe (THEMIS-E; ThE). This assumption is confirmed by a similar modulation of the intensity of the energetic (1-10 keV) electrons simultaneously observed by the same ThE spacecraft. In addition, the data of the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) radar at Tromsø show a similar quasi-periodicity in the ratio of the Hall-to-Pedersen conductance, which may be used as a proxy for the energetic particle precipitation enhancement. Our findings suggest that this strange mushroom-like shape of the considered VLF hiss could be a combined mutual effect of the magnetospheric ULF-VLF (ultra low frequency-very low frequency) wave interaction and the ionosphere waveguide propagation.

  1. Analysis of the IMAGE RPI electron density data and CHAMP plasmasphere electron density reconstructions with focus on plasmasphere modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, T.; Feltens, J.; Jakowski, N.; Galkin, I.; Reinisch, B.; Zandbergen, R.

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contributes essentially to the overall Total Electron Content (TEC) budget affecting Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. The plasmasphere can cause half or even more of the GNSS range error budget due to ionospheric propagation errors. This paper presents a comparative study of different plasmasphere and topside ionosphere data aiming at establishing an appropriate database for plasmasphere modelling. We analyze electron density profiles along the geomagnetic field lines derived from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite/Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) records of remote plasma sounding with radio waves. We compare these RPI profiles with 2D reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density derived from GNSS based TEC measurements onboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite. Most of the coincidences between IMAGE profiles and CHAMP reconstructions are detected in the region with L-shell between 2 and 5. In general the CHAMP reconstructed electron densities are below the IMAGE profile densities, with median of the CHAMP minus IMAGE residuals around -588 cm-3. Additionally, a comparison is made with electron densities derived from passive radio wave RPI measurements onboard the IMAGE satellite. Over the available 2001-2005 period of IMAGE measurements, the considered combined data from the active and passive RPI operations cover the region within a latitude range of ±60°N, all longitudes, and an L-shell ranging from 1.2 to 15. In the coincidence regions (mainly 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 4), we check the agreement between available active and passive RPI data. The comparison shows that the measurements are well correlated, with a median residual of ∼52 cm-3. The RMS and STD values of the relative residuals are around 22% and 21% respectively. In summary, the results encourage the application of IMAGE RPI data for

  2. Plasmaspheric Depletion and Refilling after Geomagnetic Storms in the Dynamic Model of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschou, S. P.; Pierrard, V.; Lemaire, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The three-dimensional physical dynamic kinetic model of the plasmasphere is a physics-based model partially constrained by empirical observations and available for running on the space weather portal. The position of the plasmapause is determined by the interchange instability mechanism. The level of geomagnetic activity driven by the Kp index determines the convection electric field which dominates at large radial distances. During storm and substorm events, the convection rate increases, especially in the postmidnight MLT sector. This leads to an inward motion of the plasmapause in this MLT sector during the storms and a depletion of the outer flux tubes. The combination with the corotation electric field leads later to the formation of a plume in the afternoon sector which then rotates with the Earth. After geomagnetic storms, progressive refilling process takes several days to increase the density in the depleted flux tubes located in regions between the vestigial plasmapause and the new plasmapause situated at larger radial distance. The model is coupled with an empirical model of the ionosphere which determines the boundary conditions at low altitudes. Like in other kinetic models of planetary and stellar atmospheres, the density, flux, velocity and temperatures of the particles are obtained by solving the kinetic evolution equation to determine the velocity distribution function of the particles. Additional new results are related to the consideration of the plasmaspheric wind appearing during low activity periods. Comparisons with IMAGE and CLUSTER observations show good agreement with the results of the model, including during periods when a plume is visible during several successive days.

  3. The dynamics of the plasmasphere boundary layer as determined by ground magnetometers, satellite observations, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zesta, E.; Boudouridis, A.; Yizengaw, E.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Carranza-fulmer, T. L.; Moldwin, M.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL) separates the cold and dense plasmaspheric plasma from the more tenuous and hot plasma sheet plasma and organizes the spatial distribution of ULF and VLF waves that can contribute to acceleration or loss processes of radiation belt particles through wave-particle interactions. The PBL has been traditionally determined by in situ observations and can be given by empirical models. Recent work has shown that a mid-latitude chain of well-spaced ground magnetometers can also determine the PBL location. Spectral properties, like the cross-phase reversal in the standard field-line resonance (FLR) determination between two stations closely aligned in latitude, have been shown to indicate the presence of a sharp PBL. We merge data from many ground magnetometer pairs from the SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array), McMAC (Mid continent Magnetoseismic Chain), and CARISMA (Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity) chains to provide the best available spatial coverage in L values spanning the plasmasphere and PBL, for a range of dynamic states (L=1.6 to greater than 5). The PBL location is identified as the L value of the station pair for which a reverse phase difference is observed in the standard FLR determination. We compare the FLR determined PBL with the trough boundary determined by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) analysis and with model PBL. Initial results demonstrate that the PBL as identified by the reverse phase differences is in general agreement with TEC identifications and reasonable agreement with models. Reverse Phase Differences are regularly observed at the L range of 2.7 to 3.7 and are highly correlated with Dst and Kp, as determined by daily correlations. We further examine the more detailed time sequence of the PBL dynamics by focusing on key periods around storms preceded by quiet periods, and by using the full L range of the ground magnetometer pairs.

  4. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  5. A New Global Core Plasma Model of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) is the first empirical model for thermal inner magnetospheric plasma designed to integrate previous models and observations into a continuous in value and gradient representation of typical total densities. New information about the plasmasphere, in particular, make possible significant improvement. The IMAGE Mission Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) has obtained the first observations of total plasma densities along magnetic field lines in the plasmasphere and polar cap. Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) has provided densities in temperatures in the plasmasphere for 5 ion species. These and other works enable a new more detailed empirical model of thermal in the inner magnetosphere that will be presented. Specifically shown here are the inner-plasmasphere RIMS measurements, radial fits to densities and temperatures for H(+), He(+), He(++), O(+), and O(+) and the error associated with these initial simple fits. Also shown are more subtle dependencies on the f10.7 P-value (see Richards et al. [1994]).

  6. CRRES observations of density cavities inside the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Anderson, R. R.; Calvert, W.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2000-10-01

    Deep density troughs inside the plasmasphere in which electron density was a factor of from ~2 to 10 below nearby plasmasphere levels were found in ~13% of 1764 near-equatorial electron density profiles derived from the sweep frequency receiver data acquired in 1990-1991 by the CRRES satellite. These ``inner troughs'' appeared in the aftermath of plasmasphere erosion episodes and are interpreted as the near-equatorial manifestations of geomagnetic-field-aligned cavities. Inner troughs were found at all local times but were most common in the 1800-2400 magnetic local time (MLT) sector and least common between 0600 and 1200 MLT. Their inner boundaries, plasmapause-like in form, were mostly at L<3.5 but in ~30% of the cases were at L<2.5 under geomagnetic conditions that traditionally have been associated with plasmapause radii in the L=3-3.5 range or beyond. The trough outer walls were exceptionally steep, in several cases exhibiting a factor of 4 or more density change within less than 100 km along the near-equatorial satellite orbit. The extent of the troughs in L ranged from ΔL~0.5 to 2, and various forms of evidence, including earlier studies, suggest an extent of more than 20° in longitude. Such evidence includes plasma waves propagating in a free space mode within the inner trough while extending in frequency well above the upper limit of trapped continuum radiation detected beyond the plasmasphere. We suggest, as have previous authors, that the troughs are translated vestiges of plasma configurations established during preceding periods of plasmasphere erosion. In some such cases, dense plasma features lying beyond the troughs were probably connected to the main plasmasphere in a local time sector to the east of the observing longitude. However, in some of the cases of troughs with steep outer walls the dense plasma feature beyond that wall may have been shaped by a mechanism for detaching plasma from an originally larger outer plasmasphere, such as by shear

  7. Understanding the density structures of the ionosphere and plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    : Plasmaspheric plumes have ionospheric signatures and are observed as storm enhanced density (SED) in GPS TEC. These ionospheric signatures have been primarily observed over the American sector and in a few limited examples over the European sector. In this study we examined the longitudinal occurrence frequency of plasmaspheric plumes by combining the space-based (IMAGE EUV) and ground-based (GPS TEC) observations. During the first half of 2001 we identified a total of 31 distinct plume intervals and found the occurrence probability of an ionospheric SED plume is 100% in the American sector, 50% in the European sector, and 20% in the Asian sector. This could be due to the fact that the plumes may be either positioned beyond the limit of the ground-based GPS field of view, which happens mainly when there is less plasmaspheric erosion, or are too weak to be detected by the sparse number of GPS receivers over Asian. The combination of data from GPS receiver on JASON and ground-based GPS network also provides an excellent opportunity to experimentally estimate the plasmaspheric density contribution to the ground-based GPS TEC and thus to the degradation of navigation and communication accuracy. We found that the contribution is maximum at the equatorial region where the GPS raypath traverses a long distance through the plasmasphere compared to its length in midand high-latitude regions. We also examined the accuracy of the TOPEX and JASON altimeter TEC as a function of latitude, and found significant altimeter TEC errors, more than 10 TECU at low latitudes. This causes upto 6-8 cm errors on sea surface height estimates. Such latitudinal dependent errors on satellite's range measurements will considerably reduce the precision of sea surface height estimation which needs to achieve millimeter accuracies for some studies.

  8. A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling. I - Effects of Coulomb collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; Horwitz, J. L.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    A collisionless, time-dependent, kinetic plasma model is applied to the problem of baseline plasmasphere refilling of an initially depleted flux tube, without regard for the effects of wave-particle interactions. Refilling calculations for various flux tubes and for different ionospheric plasma fluxes and temperatures are performed. In each case considered, the same set of events occurs. Initially, two polar wind outflows develop from each hemisphere and set up counterstreaming beams. With time the vacant phase space region between these beams fills, primarily because of collision-induced particle diffusion but also because of lowering ambipolar potential drops from the increasing density in the plasmasphere. In contrast to all previous hydrodynamic approaches, no formation of shocks was found. The plasma first evolves an isotropic, nearly Maxwellian velocity distribution in a region that starts near the ionosphere and moves outward toward the equator. For reasonable topside ionospheric temperatures and fluxes, the thermal plasma all along an L shell is found to become nearly isotropic in 6 to 30 hr, consistent with the observations of Horwitz et al. (1984).

  9. Distribution of electron densities in the Earth's plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhogin, Pavel

    A new empirical model of the plasma density in the plasmasphere is presented and validated in this dissertation, along with several case studies of asymmetrical plasmasphere and two-dimensional density distributions. This empirical model is based on more than 700 density profiles along field lines derived from active sounding measurements made by the radio plasma imager (RPI) onboard the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite between June 2000 and July 2005. The measurements cover all magnetic local times and vary from L = 1.6 to L = 4 spatially, with every case manually confirmed to be within the plasmasphere by examination of the corresponding dynamic spectrogram. The resulting model depends not only on L-shell but also on magnetic latitude and can be applied to specifying the electron densities in the plasmasphere between 2000-km altitude and the plasmapause. It consists of two parts: the equatorial density, which falls off exponentially as a function of L-shell; and the field-aligned dependence on magnetic latitude and L-shell (in the form of invariant magnetic latitude). The fluctuations of the density in a given location in space appear to be greater than what could be explained by a possible dependence on magnetic local time or season, and the dependence on geomagnetic activity is weak and cannot be discerned. The performance of the model is evaluated by comparison to four previously developed empirical plasmaspheric models and a theoretical diffusive equilibrium model. The performance is further tested against the in situ passive IMAGE RPI measurements of the upper hybrid resonance frequency. While the equatorial densities of different empirical models are mostly within the statistical uncertainties, the clear latitudinal dependence of the RPI model presents an improvement over previous empirical models. This electron density model combined with a given model of the ion composition can be used to estimate the time for an

  10. SAMI3 Simulations of the Persistent May 1994 Plasmasphere Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, J.; Huba, J.; Borovsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    We use the Naval Research Laboratory SAMI3 ionosphere/plasmasphere model[1] to explore the physics of a long-lived plasmasphere plume. A plasmasphere plume is a storm feature that extends the cold plasma that is normally trapped by the geomagnetic field (the plasmasphere) outward towards the bow shock. In the case of the May 1994 storm, the storm and the plume continued for 12 days. For the model storm, we imposed a Kp-driven Volland/Stern-Maynard/Chen potential [2-4]. Results are compared to measurements of the cold ion density from the 1989-046 spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit [5]. We find that many details of the observed plume are reproduced by SAMI3, but only if a background magnetosphere density is included as a boundary condition. We also find that high-speed, field aligned plasma flows contribute significantly to the observed plume density. [1] Huba, J. and J. Krall (2013), Modeling the plasmasphere with SAMI3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6-10, doi:10.1029/2012GL054300 [2] Volland, H. (1973), A semiempirical model of large-scale magnetospheric electric fields, Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 171-180, doi:10.1029/JA078i001p00171 [3] Stern, D.P. (1975), The motion of a proton in the equatorial magnetosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 595-599, doi:10.1029/JA080i004p00595 [4] Maynard, N.C., and A.J. Chen (1975), Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 1009-1013, doi:10.1029/JA080i007p01009 [5] Borovsky, J.E., D.T. Welling, M.F. Thomsen, and M.H. Denton (2014), Long-lived plasmaspheric drainage plumes: Where does the plasma come from?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 119, 6496-6520, doi:10.1002/2014JA020228 Research supported by NRL base funds.

  11. Hiss and snort call types of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis: acoustic structure and context.

    PubMed

    Volodina, Elena V; Volodin, Ilya A; Chelysheva, Elena V; Frey, Roland

    2018-01-09

    Vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. Calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. This study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. The hiss and snort calls were emitted during five recording sessions produced by nine individual giraffes (8 adults and 1 subadult) in their natural environment in Namibia (3 individuals) and Kenya (6 individuals). These calls attended vigilance behaviour toward humans in hides or in vehicles and cheetahs as natural predators of giraffe young. This study provides spectrographic analyses of 22 hiss and 20 snort calls. The giraffe hisses were broadband vocalizations of an average duration of 0.72 s (from 0.24 to 1.04 s) and a peak frequency of 0.69 kHz. The giraffe snorts were broadband pulsed calls of an average duration of 0.28 s (from 0.13 to 0.55 s), a peak frequency at 0.20 kHz and comprised a prominent low-frequency pulsation of 23.7 pulses/s. The acoustic structure of giraffe hisses is reminiscent of vigilance-related hisses of musk deer Moschus moschiferus. Giraffe snorts differ from snorts of other ruminants by their prominent pulsed pattern.

  12. Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang'e 3.

    PubMed

    He, Han; Shen, Chao; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Chen, Bo; Yan, Jun; Zou, Yongliao; Jorgensen, Anders M; He, Fei; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Ya; Xu, Ronglan

    2016-08-31

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) of the Chang'e 3 mission provides a global and instantaneous meridian view (side view) of the Earth's plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is one inner component of the whole magnetosphere, and the configuration of the plasmasphere is sensitive to magnetospheric activity (storms and substorms). However, the response of the plasmaspheric configuration to substorms is only partially understood, and the EUVC observations provide a good opportunity to investigate this issue. By reconstructing the global plasmaspheric configuration based on the EUVC images observed during 20-22 April 2014, we show that in the observing period, the plasmasphere had three bulges which were located at different geomagnetic longitudes. The inferred midnight transit times of the three bulges, using the rotation rate of the Earth, coincide with the expansion phase of three substorms, which implies a causal relationship between the substorms and the formation of the three bulges on the plasmasphere. Instead of leading to plasmaspheric erosion as geomagnetic storms do, substorms initiated on the nightside of the Earth cause local inflation of the plasmasphere in the midnight region.

  13. Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang’e 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Han; Shen, Chao; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Chen, Bo; Yan, Jun; Zou, Yongliao; Jorgensen, Anders M.; He, Fei; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Ya; Xu, Ronglan

    2016-01-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) of the Chang’e 3 mission provides a global and instantaneous meridian view (side view) of the Earth’s plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is one inner component of the whole magnetosphere, and the configuration of the plasmasphere is sensitive to magnetospheric activity (storms and substorms). However, the response of the plasmaspheric configuration to substorms is only partially understood, and the EUVC observations provide a good opportunity to investigate this issue. By reconstructing the global plasmaspheric configuration based on the EUVC images observed during 20–22 April 2014, we show that in the observing period, the plasmasphere had three bulges which were located at different geomagnetic longitudes. The inferred midnight transit times of the three bulges, using the rotation rate of the Earth, coincide with the expansion phase of three substorms, which implies a causal relationship between the substorms and the formation of the three bulges on the plasmasphere. Instead of leading to plasmaspheric erosion as geomagnetic storms do, substorms initiated on the nightside of the Earth cause local inflation of the plasmasphere in the midnight region. PMID:27576944

  14. SAMI3: The Evolution of an Ionosphere/Plasmasphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, J.

    2017-12-01

    The development of the Naval Research Laboratory ionosphere/plasmasphere model SAMI3 is described. The emphasis is on the challenges of building such a model and the decision making process in choosing the appropriate numerical algorithms to solve the underlying first-principles physics equations. Some of the numerical issues discussed are the numerical grid, semi-implicit and finite volume transport schemes, and flux corrected transport. These will be juxtaposed with the attendant scientific inquiries and results. Some of the physics issues highlighted are the prediction of an electron density `hole' in the topside (1500 km) equatorial ionosphere, the regional and global modeling of equatorial spread F, metal ions in the E region, and plasmaspheric plumes.

  15. A new approach to plasmasphere refilling: Anomalous plasma effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.

    1991-01-01

    During the last 10 months of the grant, both laminar and anomalous plasma processes occurring during the refilling of the outer plasmasphere after magnetic storms are investigated. Theoretical investigations were based on two types of models: (1) two-stream hydrodynamic model in which plasma flows from the conjugate ionospheres are treated as separate fluids and the ion temperature anisotropies are treated self-consistently; and (2) large-scale particle-in-cell code.

  16. Pitch-angle diffusion of radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Thorne, R. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the formation of the quiet-time electron slot, which divides the radiation belt electrons into an inner and an outer zone. The pitch-angle diffusion of radiation belt electrons resulting from resonant interactions with the observed plasmaspheric whistler-mode wave band is quantitatively investigated. The effects of wave propagation obliquely to the geomagnetic field direction with the resulting diffusion at all cyclotron-harmonic resonances and the Landau resonance are evaluated along with the effects of interactions occuring at all geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained account for the long-term stability of the inner radiation zone, the location of its outer edge as a function of electron energy, and the removal of electrons to levels near zero throughout the slot. Computed pitch-angle distributions and precipitation decay rates are in good agreement with slot-region observations.

  17. Modeling of Field-Aligned Guided Echoes in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Green, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The conditions under which high frequency (f>>f(sub uh)) long-range extraordinary-mode discrete field-aligned echoes observed by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite in the plasmasphere are investigated by ray tracing modeling. Field-aligned discrete echoes are most commonly observed by RPI in the plasmasphere although they are also observed over the polar cap region. The plasmasphere field-aligned echoes appearing as multiple echo traces at different virtual ranges are attributed to signals reflected successively between conjugate hemispheres that propagate along or nearly along closed geomagnetic field lines. The ray tracing simulations show that field-aligned ducts with as little as 1% density perturbations (depletions) and less than 10 wavelengths wide can guide nearly field-aligned propagating high frequency X mode waves. Effective guidance of wave at a given frequency and wave normal angle (Psi) depends on the cross-field density scale of the duct, such that ducts with stronger density depletions need to be wider in order to maintain the same gradient of refractive index across the magnetic field. While signal guidance by field aligned density gradient without ducting is possible only over the polar region, conjugate field-aligned echoes that have traversed through the equatorial region are most likely guided by ducting.

  18. 2-D Drift Velocities from the IMAGE EUV Plasmaspheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D.; Adrian, M.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EUY) observes He+ plasmaspheric ions throughout the inner magnetosphere. Limited by ionizing radiation and viewing close to the Sun, images of the He+ distribution are available every 10 minutes for many hours as the spacecraft passes through apogee in its highly elliptical orbit. As a consistent constituent at about 15%, He+ is an excellent surrogate for monitoring all of the processes that control the dynamics of plasmaspheric plasma. In particular, the motion ofHe+ transverse to the ambient magnetic field is a direct indication of convective electric fields. The analysis of boundary motions has already achieved new insights into the electrodynamic coupling processes taking place between energetic magnetospheric plasmas and the ionosphere. Yet to be fulfilled, however, is the original promise that global EUY images of the plasmasphere might yield two-dimensional pictures of meso-scale to macro-scale electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. This work details the technique and initial application of an IMAGE EUY analysis that appears capable of following thermal plasma motion on a global basis.

  19. Ulysses observations of auroral hiss at high Jovian latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Macdowall, R. J.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Stone, R. G.; Kellogg, P. J.; Lin, N.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Canu, P.; Bame, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    During the Ulysses flyby of Jupiter, a whistler-mode emission was periodically detected by the unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment during intervals when the spacecraft extended to high magnetic latitudes. The signal was detected between the local electron plasma frequency and lower hybrid resonance and appears as a funnel-shaped structure on frequency-versus-time spectrograms; these characteristics are very reminiscent of whistler-mode auroral hiss observed at high latitudes at Earth. Ray tracing of the emission occurrences suggests the emission source is on magnetic field lines extending out to at least 65 R(sub J). This location associates the emission with the boundary between open and closed field lines -- not the Io torus. The emission radiates about 10(exp 7) W of power. Consequently, the auroral input power derived from the solar wind to drive the emission is believed to be 10(exp 10-12) W (or about 1% of the energy associated with Io torus electrical processes).

  20. Unique concurrent observations of whistler mode hiss, chorus, and triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Poorya; Gołkowski, Mark; Turner, Drew L.

    2017-06-01

    We present a unique 2 h ground-based observation of concurrent magnetospheric hiss, chorus, VLF triggered emissions as well as ELF/VLF signals generated locally by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Eccentricity of observed wave polarization is used as a criteria to identify magnetospheric emissions and estimate their ionospheric exit points. The observations of hiss and chorus in the unique background of coherent HAARP ELF/VLF waves and triggered emissions allow for more accurate characterization of hiss and chorus properties than in typical ground-based observations. Eccentricity and azimuth results suggest a moving ionospheric exit point associated with a single ducted path at L 5. The emissions exhibit dynamics in time suggesting an evolution of a magnetospheric source from hiss generation to chorus generation or a moving plasmapause location. We introduce a frequency band-limited autocorrelation method to quantify the relative coherency of the emissions. A range of coherency was observed from high order of coherency in local HAARP transmissions and their echoes to lower coherency in natural chorus and hiss emissions.

  1. Modeling the plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale height ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Pencho; Kutiev, Ivan; Belehaki, Anna; Tsagouri, Ioanna

    2015-08-01

    A new model of plasmasphere to topside ionosphere scale heights ratio is developed, based on topside electron density (Ne) profiles deduced from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS)-1 satellite measurements. The model is able to improve operational algorithms for space weather predictions. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric scale heights are determined by the lowest and largest gradients of measured profiles, respectively, converted in dh/dlnNe units. The new model depends on four parameters: the month of the year (M), the local time (LT), the geomagnetic latitude (glat), and the ln(O+) density (zO) at the O+-H+ ion transition height. It is designed to replace the old one-dimensional model of the ratio in the TaD (TSM-assisted Digisonde) profiler. The parameters M, LT, and glat are approximated by trigonometric basis functions, while zO is described by a polynomial. A series of models were produced with different number of coefficients (number of terms) of the basis functions. Comparison between models revealed that those with larger number of coefficients can produce unrealistic extremes of the model curves due to the non-uniform sampling of data along the axes. Further considered is the simplest model approximating M, LT, and glat by simple 24 sinusoidal functions and linearly depending on zO. The model description and its 54 coefficients are given in Appendix 1 and can be used by other users for reconstruction of plasmasphere density profiles. The main variation of the ratio along geomagnetic latitude at fixed values of the other model parameters is illustrated in a series of plots.

  2. Occurrence of EMIC waves and plasmaspheric plasmas derived from THEMIS observations in the outer magnetosphere: Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, G. J.; Lee, D. H.; Kwon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    We have statistically studied the relationship between electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and cold plasmaspheric plasma (Nsp) in the L range of 6-12 using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data for 2008-2011. The important observational results are as follows: (1) Under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp = 0-1), the maximum occurrence rate of the hydrogen (H) band EMIC waves appears in the early morning sector (0600-0900 MLT) at the outermost region (L = 10-12). (2) Under moderate and disturbed conditions (Kp > 2), the H-band occurrence rate is higher in the morning-to-early afternoon sector for L > 10. (3) The high occurrence region of helium (He) band waves for Kp = 0-1 varies from L = 7 to 12 in radial distances along the local time (i.e., at L 7 near noon and at L = 8-12 near late afternoon). (4) The He-band waves for Kp > 2 are mainly localized between 1200 and 1800 MLT with a peak around 1500-1600 MLT at L = 8-10. (5) Nsp is much higher for the He-band intervals than for the H-band intervals by a factor of 10 or more. The He-band high occurrence appears at a steep Nsp gradient region. (6) The morning-afternoon asymmetry of the normalized frequency seen both in H and He bands is similar to the asymmetric distribution of Nsp along the local time. These observations indicate that the cold plasma density plays a significant role in determining the spectral properties of EMIC waves. We discuss whether a morning-afternoon asymmetry of the EMIC wave properties can be explained by the spatial distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma.

  3. Occurrence of EMIC waves and plasmaspheric plasmas derived from THEMIS observations in the outer magnetosphere: Revisit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Jeong; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Park, Jong-Sun

    2016-10-01

    We have statistically studied the relationship between electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and cold plasmaspheric plasma (Nsp) in the L range of 6-12 using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data for 2008-2011. The important observational results are as follows: (1) Under quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≤ 1), the maximum occurrence rate of the hydrogen (H) band EMIC waves appears in the early morning sector (0600-0900 MLT) at the outermost region (L= 10-12). (2) Under moderate and disturbed conditions (Kp ≥ 2), the H-band occurrence rate is higher in the morning-to-early-afternoon sector for L > 10. (3) The high-occurrence region of helium (He) band waves for Kp ≤ 1 varies from L = 7 to 12 in radial distances along the local time (i.e., at L ˜ 7 near noon and at L= 8-12 near late afternoon). (4) The He-band waves for Kp ≥ 2 are mainly localized between 1200 and 1800 MLT with a peak around 1500-1600 MLT at L= 8-10. (5) Nsp is much higher for the He-band intervals than for the H-band intervals by a factor of 10 or more. The He-band high occurrence appears at a steep Nsp gradient region. (6) The morning-afternoon asymmetry of the normalized frequency seen both in H-band and He-band is similar to the asymmetric distribution of Nsp along the local time. These observations indicate that the cold plasma density plays a significant role in determining the spectral properties of EMIC waves. We discuss whether a morning-afternoon asymmetry of the EMIC wave properties can be explained by the spatial distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma.

  4. Empirical Modeling of the Plasmasphere Dynamics Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, I. S.; Shprits, Y.; Spasojevic, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new empirical model for reconstructing the global dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution based only on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices. Utilizing the density database obtained using the NURD (Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination) algorithm for the period of October 1, 2012 - July 1, 2016, in conjunction with solar wind data and geomagnetic indices, we develop a neural network model that is capable of globally reconstructing the dynamics of the cold plasma density distribution for 2 ≤ L ≤ 6 and all local times. We validate and test the model by measuring its performance on independent datasets withheld from the training set and by comparing the model predicted global evolution with global images of He+ distribution in the Earth's plasmasphere from the IMAGE Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) instrument. We identify the parameters that best quantify the plasmasphere dynamics by training and comparing multiple neural networks with different combinations of input parameters (geomagnetic indices, solar wind data, and different durations of their time history). We demonstrate results of both local and global plasma density reconstruction. This study illustrates how global dynamics can be reconstructed from local in-situ observations by using machine learning techniques.

  5. Studies on equatorial shock formation during plasmaspheric refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    During the grant period starting August 1, 1992, our major effort has been on examining the presence of equatorially trapped hot plasma on plasmaspheric refilling. We performed one-dimensional PIC simulations of cold plasmas expanding into a hot plasma, consisting of hot anisotropic ions and warm isotropic electrons, trapped in a region of minimum magnetic field. Simulations showed that the electric potential barrier built up by the anisotropy of the hot ion population facilitates in the formation of electrostatic shocks when the cold ion beams begin to come into contact with the hot plasma. The shock formation occurs even when the cold ion beams are highly supersonic with respect to the ion-acoustic speed. This finding is interesting because equatorial shock formation during the early stage of plasmaspheric refilling has been debated over about two decades. In the past ion-ion instability has been invoked as the main mechanism for the coupling between the cold ion beams approaching the equator from the conjugate ionspheres. This coupling occurs when the beams are sufficiently slow; the beam velocity being less than three times the ion-acoustic speed. In the presence of hot plasma, the beams slow down by the potential barrier. The slowing down and the reflection process lead to the formation of the electrostatic shock even for highly supersonic ion beams. The mixing of hot and cold plasma was also studied.

  6. Studies on Equatorial Shock Formation During Plasmaspheric Refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period from August 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995 we have continued to investigate the effects of plasma wave instabilities on the early stage plasmaspheric refilling. Since ion beams are the primary feature of the interhemispheric plasma flows during the early stage refilling, ion-beam driven instabilities and associated waves are of primary interest. The major findings of this research are briefly summarized here. After a systematic examination of the relevant plasma instabilities, we realized that when the interhemispheric plasma flows begin to interpenetrate at the equator, the most relevant plasma instability is the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave instability. Only at later stages the ion-acoustic instability may be affecting the plasma flow. An interesting property of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave is that it heats ions perpendicular to the magnetic field. When the ions in the field-aligned flows are transversely heated, they are trapped in the magnetic flux tube, thus affecting the refilling process. The eic wave instability is a microprocess with scale length of the order of ion Larmor radius and the corresponding time scale is the ion cyclotron period. We have attempted to tackle the problem for the plasmaspheric refilling by incorporating the effects of eic wave instability on the mesoscale plasma flow when the properties of the latter exceeds the critical conditions for the former. We have compared the results on refilling from the model with and without the eic instability effects.

  7. Plasmaspheric H+, He+, He++, O+, and O++ Densities and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, G. L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior difference between low and higher L-values. The density ratio He++/H+ is the best behaved with values of about 0.2% that slightly increase with increasing L. Unlike the He+/H+ density ratio that on average decreases with increasing Lvalue, the O+/H+ and O++/H+ density ratios have decreasing values below about L=2 and increasing average ratios at higher L-values. Hydrogen ion temperatures range from about 0.2 eV to several 10s of eV for a few measurements, although the bulk of the observations are of temperatures below 3 eV, again increasing with L-value. The temperature ratios of He+/H+ are tightly ordered around 1.0 except for the middle plasmasphere between L=3.5 and 4.5 where He+ temperatures can be significantly higher. The temperatures of He++, O+, and O++ are consistently higher than H+.

  8. Plasmaspheric H+, He+, O+, He++, and O++ Densities and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort H.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior difference between low and higher L-values. The density ratio He++/H+ is the best behaved with values of about 0.2% that slightly increase with increasing L. Unlike the He+/H+ density ratio that on average decreases with increasing Lvalue, the O+/H+ and O++/H+ density ratios have decreasing values below about L=2 and increasing average ratios at higher L-values. Hydrogen ion temperatures range from about 0.2 eV to several 10s of eV for a few measurements, although the bulk of the observations are of temperatures below 3 eV, again increasing with L-value. The temperature ratios of He+/H+ are tightly ordered around 1.0 except for the middle plasmasphere between L=3.5 and 4.5 where He+ temperatures can be significantly higher. The temperatures of He++, O+, and O++ are consistently higher than H+.

  9. The Alger Hiss Perjury Trials: A Dramatic Perspective on Legal Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kurt W.

    The two Alger Hiss perjury trials of 1949 provide an opportunity to compare two different aspects of trial drama: courtroom drama and crime drama. Much recent scholarship on legal rhetoric has acknowledged the dramatic quality of courtroom communication, which results in part from the physical appearance of the courtroom and the style of language…

  10. Home Sweet Home: How to Build a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Habitat out of Recycled Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…

  11. Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the plasmasphere observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Yihua

    2015-09-11

    During the small storm on 14–15 April 2014, Van Allen Probe A measured a continuously distinct proton ring distribution and enhanced magnetosonic (MS) waves along its orbit outside the plasmapause. Inside the plasmasphere, strong MS waves were still present but the distinct proton ring distribution was falling steeply with distance. We adopt a sum of subtracted bi-Maxwellian components to model the observed proton ring distribution and simulate the wave trajectory and growth. MS waves at first propagate toward lower L shells outside the plasmasphere, with rapidly increasing path gains related to the continuous proton ring distribution. The waves then graduallymore » cross the plasmapause into the deep plasmasphere, with almost unchanged path gains due to the falling proton ring distribution and higher ambient density. These results present the first report on how MS waves penetrate into the plasmasphere with the aid of the continuous proton ring distributions during weak geomagnetic activities.« less

  12. Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations and numerical simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darouzet, Fabien; DeKeyser, Johan; Decreau, Pierrette; Gallagher, Dennis; Pierrard, Viviane; Lemaire, Joseph; Dandouras, Iannis; Matsui, Hiroshi; Dunlop, Malcolm; Andre, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Plasmaspheric plumes have been routinely observed by CLUSTER and IMAGE. The CLUSTER mission provides high time resolution four-point measurements of the plasmasphere near perigee. Total electron density profiles can be derived from the plasma frequency and/or from the spacecraft potential (note that the electron spectrometer is usually not operating inside the plasmasphere); ion velocity is also measured onboard these satellites (but ion density is not reliable because of instrumental limitations). The EUV imager onboard the IMAGE spacecraft provides global images of the plasmasphere with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE every 10 minutes; such images acquired near apogee from high above the pole show the geometry of plasmaspheric plumes, their evolution and motion. We present coordinated observations for 3 plume events and compare CLUSTER in-situ data (panel A) with global images of the plasmasphere obtained from IMAGE (panel B), and with numerical simulations for the formation of plumes based on a model that includes the interchange instability mechanism (panel C). In particular, we study the geometry and the orientation of plasmaspheric plumes by using a four-point analysis method, the spatial gradient. We also compare several aspects of their motion as determined by different methods: (i) inner and outer plume boundary velocity calculated from time delays of this boundary observed by the wave experiment WHISPER on the four spacecraft, (ii) ion velocity derived from the ion spectrometer CIS onboard CLUSTER, (iii) drift velocity measured by the electron drift instrument ED1 onboard CLUSTER and (iv) global velocity determined from successive EUV images. These different techniques consistently indicate that plasmaspheric plumes rotate around the Earth, with their foot fully co-rotating, but with their tip rotating slower and moving farther out.

  13. Where does the plasmasphere begin? Revisit to topside ionospheric profiles in comparison with plasmaspheric TEC from Jason-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han-Byul; Kim, Yong Ha; Kim, Eunsol; Hong, Junseok; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-10-01

    Topside ionospheric profiles have been measured by Alouette 1 and ISIS 1/2 in the periods of 1962-1972 and 1972-1979, respectively. The profiles cover from the orbital altitude of 1000 km to the F2 peak and show large variations over local time, latitude, and seasons. We here analyze these variations in comparison with plasmaspheric total electron contents (pTECs) that were measured by Jason-1 satellite from the altitude of 1336 km to 20,200 km (GPS orbit). The scale heights of the profiles are generally smaller in the daytime than nighttime but show large day-to-day variations, implying that the ionospheric profiles at 1000 km are changing dynamically, rather than being in diffusive equilibrium. We also derived transition heights between O+ and H+, which show a clear minimum at dawn for low-latitude profiles due to decreasing O+ density at night. To compare with pTEC, we compute topside ionospheric total electron content (tiTEC) by integrating over 800-1336 km using the slope of the profiles. The tiTEC varies in a clear diurnal pattern from 0.3 to 1 and 3 total electron content unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) for low and high solar activity, respectively, whereas Jason-1 pTEC values are distributed over 2-6 TECU and 4-8 TECU for low and high solar activity, respectively, with no apparent diurnal modulation. Latitudinal variations of tiTEC show distinctive hemispheric asymmetry while that of Jason-1 pTEC is closely symmetric about the magnetic equator. The local time and latitudinal variations of tiTEC basically resemble those of the ionosphere but are characteristically different from those of Jason-1 pTEC. Based on the difference between tiTEC and pTEC variations, we propose that the region above 1300 km should be considered as the plasmasphere. Lower altitudes for the base of "plasmaspheric TEC," as used in some studies, would cause contamination of ionospheric influence.

  14. Smooth transition of plasmasphere to plasma trough as observed by IMAGE RPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.; Reinisch, B.

    Upper hybrid resonance noise and continuum emissions are routinely detected by the radio plasma imager RPI onboard the IMAGE satellite when IMAGE transits the plasmasphere and plasma trough regions The lower frequency cutoffs of those narrow emission bands provide an estimate of the electron plasma frequency along the satellite orbit A steep density gradient which defines the plasmapause location is commonly seen when IMAGE transits from the plasmasphere to the plasma trough It appears however that at many occasions the transition from plasmaspheric densities to the plasma trough is smooth without a signature of the plasmapause Such smooth transitions occur at various magnetic local times and they can be observed during periods of both disturbed and quiet geomagnetic activities While this smooth transition may be associated with a plasmaspheric plum during disturbed times it is not well understood why it happens during magnetically quiet periods when there are no plasmaspheric plums We report the IMAGE RPI observations of smooth transitions of the plasmasphere to the plasma trough and discuss the implications to plasma dynamics related to the plasmapause formation mechanisms

  15. Comparison of Two IRI Plasmasphere Extensions with GPS-TEC Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulyacva, Tamara; Gallagher, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Two plasmasphere extensions of the International Reference Ionosphere are made available for the users. It is aimed to estimate the effect of charged particles on technical devices in the Earth's environment and to define the ionosphere-plasmasphere operational conditions compatible with existing and future systems of radio communication, radio navigation and other relevant radio technologies in the ranges of medium and higher frequencies. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM-2000) of Gallagher et al. (2000) is an empirical description of thermal plasma densities in the plasmasphere, plasmapause, magnetospheric trough, and polar cap. GCPM-2000 uses the Kp index and is coupled to IRI in the transition region 500-600 km. The IZMIRAN plasmasphere model (Chasovitin et al., 1998; Gulyaeva et al., 2002) is an empirical model based on whistler and satellite observations. It presents global vertical analytical profiles of electron density smoothly fitted to IRI electron density profile at 1000 km altitude and extended towards the plasmapause (up to 36,000 km). For the smooth fitting of the two models, the shape of the IRI topside electron density profile is improved using ISIS 1, ISIS 2, and IK19 satellite inputs (Gulyaeva, 2003). The plasmasphere model depends on solar activity and magnetic activity (kp-index). The two IRI plasmasphere extensions are compared in the present study with the total electron content derived from records of Global Positioning Satellites (GPS-TEC) observations for different latitudinal, solar activity, magnetic activity, diurnal and seasonal conditions. The differences of model TEC with observed TEC in the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere are discussed.

  16. Harmonic H sup + gyrofrequency structures in auroral hiss observed by high-altitude auroral sounding rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner, P.M.; Vago, J.; Scales, W.

    1991-06-01

    Two recent sounding rocket experiments have yielded VLF wave data with spectral structures ordered by the hydrogen gyrofrequency. The spectral structures occur near and above the lower hybrid frequency in association with auroral hiss. These structures are observed within and near regions of auroral electron precipitation and transverse ion acceleration. They are accompanied by auroral hiss but are anticorrelated with spectral peaks at the lower hybrid frequency. They are typically found above 500 km altitude, have no measureable magnetic component, and are at least occasionally short wavelength (k{rho}{sub i}{ge}1). Because the spectral structures appear to be electrostatic, are ordered bymore » the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and are short wavelength, the authors interpret the structures as modes which connect the lower hybrid mode with the hydrogen Bernstein modes. A study of the plasma wave mode structure in the vicinity of the lower hybrid frequency is presented to substantiate this interpretation. The results imply that these waves are a common feature of the auroral zone ionosphere above 500 km altitude and exist any time that auroral hiss exists. The absence of previous satellite abservations of this phenomenon can be explained by Doppler broadening.« less

  17. Plasmasphere dynamics in the duskside bulge region: A new look at old topic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Giles, B. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Decreau, P. M. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Persoon, A. M.; Smith, A. J.; Corcuff, Y.; Canu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Data acquired during several multiday periods in 1982 at ground stations Siple, Halley, and Kerguelen and on satellites Dynamics Explorer 1, International Sun Earth Explorer 1, and GEOS 2 have been used to investigate thermal plasma structure and dynamics in the duskside plasmasphere bulge region of the Earth. The distribution of thermal plasma in the dusk bulge sector is difficult to describe realistically, in part because of the time integral manner in which the thermal plasma distribution depends upon on the effects of bulk cross-B flow and interchange plasma flows along B. While relatively simple MHD models can be useful for qualitatively predicting certain effects of enhanced convection on a quiet plasmasphere, such as an initial sunward entrainment of the outer regions, they are of limited value in predicting the duskside thermal plasma structures that are observed. Furthermore, use of such models can be misleading if one fails to realize that they do not address the question of the formation of the steep plasmapause profile or provide for a possible role of instabilities or other irreversible processes in plasmapause formation. Our specific findings, which are based both upon the present case studies and upon earlier work, include the following: (1) during active periods the plasmasphere appears to become divided into two entities, a main plasmasphere and a duskside bulge region. (2) in the aftermath of an increase in convection activity, the main plasmasphere tends (from a statistical point of view) to become roughly circular in equatorial cross section, with only a slight bulge at dusk; (3) the abrupt westward edge of the duskside bulge observed from whistlers represents a state in the evolution of sunward extending streamers; (4) in the aftermath of a weak magnetic storm, 10 to 30% of the plasma 'removed' from the outer plasmasphere appears to remain in the afternoon-dusk sector beyond the main plasmasphere. (5) outlying dense plasma structures may

  18. Cold Ion Heating by Magnetosonic Waves in a Density Cavity of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Yu, Xiongdong; Huang, Shiyong; Qiao, Zheng; Yao, Fei; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2018-02-01

    Fast magnetosonic (MS) waves play an important role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Theoretical prediction and simulation have demonstrated that MS waves can heat cold ions. However, direct observational evidence of cold ion heating by MS waves has so far remained elusive. In this paper, we show a typical event of cold ion heating by magnetosonic waves in a density cavity of the plasmasphere with observations of the Van Allen Probe mission on 22 August 2013. During enhancements of the MS wave intensity in the density cavity, the fluxes of trapped H+ and He+ ions with energies of 10-100 eV were observed to increase, implying that cold plasmaspheric ions were heated through high-order resonances with the MS waves. Based on simultaneous observations of ring current protons, we have calculated local linear growth rates, which demonstrate that magnetosonic waves can be locally generated in the density cavity. Our results provide a direct observational proof of the energy coupling process between the ring current and plasmasphere; that is, through exciting MS waves, the free energy stored in the ring current protons with ring distributions is released. In the density cavity of the plasmasphere, both cold H+ and He+ ions are heated by MS waves. As a result, the energy of the ring current can be transferred into the plasmasphere.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Whole Atmosphere Coupling on Storm Time Response in the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, N.; Millward, G. H.; Oehmke, R.; DeLuca, C.; Montuoro, R.; Fang, T. W.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Fedrizzi, M.; Schoonover, J. A.; Akmaev, R. A.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.; Yudin, V.; Yang, W.; Iredell, M.; Trahan, S.; Coster, A. J.; Obana, Y.; Denton, M.; Henderson, M. G.; Middlecoff, J.; Govett, M.; Viereck, R. A.; Richards, P. G.; Kubaryk, A.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of whole atmospheric coupling on storm time response in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The influence of coupling to terrestrial weather during storm time has drawn little attention. There are some unresolved questions: Whether or not the geo-effectiveness of magnetic storms could be changed when the upper atmosphere has been pre-conditioned by the lower atmospheric forcing; How does the lower atmospheric forcing modulate the recovery to a quiet level from a disturbed level? Recently, we have coupled the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere-Electrodynamics (IPE) model with the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) to investigate the connection between terrestrial and space weather. This presentation focuses on how some typical storm time phenomena in the ionosphere and plasmasphere are affected by the inclusion of forcing from below during geomagnetically active periods in simulations performed using the coupled WAM-IPE model. The presentation focuses on such phenomena as (1) temporal and spatial evolution of the Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes/Tongue of Ionizations (TOIs); (2) hemispheric asymmetry in SED plumes/TOIs; (3) coupling between the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere via plumes and refilling, for the two St. Patricks' day storms in 2013 and 2015. The impact of lower atmospheric forcing is evaluated by comparing results with and without including forcing from below. Furthermore, the presentation discusses how the lower atmospheric forcing can influence the differences in storm time response in the ionosphere and plasmasphere.

  20. Simultaneous Ground- and Space-Based Observations of the Plasmaspheric Plume and Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, B. M.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the primary process through which energy couples from the solar wind into Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. Conditions both in the incident solar wind and in the magnetosphere are important in determining the efficiency of this energy transfer. In particular, the cold, dense plasmaspheric plume can substantially impact the coupling in the dayside reconnection region. Using ground-based total electron content (TEC) maps and measurements from the THEMIS spacecraft, we investigated simultaneous ionosphere and magnetosphere observations of the plasmaspheric plume and its involvement in an unsteady magnetic reconnection process. The observations show the full circulation pattern of the plasmaspheric plume and validate the connection between signatures of variability in the dense plume and reconnection at the magnetopause as measured in situ and through TEC measurements in the ionosphere.

  1. Causes of variability in plasmasphere rotation rate: IMAGE EUV observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. A.; Moldwin, M.; Sandel, B. R.; Crowley, G.

    2010-12-01

    IMAGE EUV observations demonstrate that the plasmasphere usually does not corotate as assumed in simple convection models, even at low L shells. The prevailing hypothesis states that plasmaspheric subcorotation is due to enhanced auroral zone Joule heating which drives equatorward thermospheric winds. As the neutral thermospheric material moves to lower latitudes, it grows farther from the Earth’s spin axis and turns westward to conserve angular momentum. This induces a westward motion in the ionosphere (a subcorotation), which produces a change in the corotation electric field that maps out to the plasmasphere, causing a subcorotation there as well. We test this hypothesis by searching for a correlation between plasmaspheric rotation rates and several geomagnetic indices (used as proxies for enhanced Joule heating in the auroral zone). We carry out a statistical survey of plasmaspheric rotation rates over several months of IMAGE EUV data in 2001, using two different measurement techniques. Azimuthal features such as “notches” are tracked in local time over a single pass of the IMAGE satellite, both visually and using an automated cross-correlation routine. Each technique provides an estimate of the plasmasphere’s rotation rate. We find a weak correlation between rotation rate and Dst, Kp, AE, the midnight boundary index (MBI), and Joule heating estimates from assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) at L = 2.5, but not at L = 3.5. In general, lower rotation rates correspond to higher auroral and geomagnetic activity. We also make the first direct observation of plasmaspheric superrotation. The rotation rate is found to be highly variable on multi-day timescales, but the typical state of the plasmasphere is subcorotation, with inferred mean values ranging from 88% to 95% of corotation, depending on L shell. In addition, a statistical analysis shows that rotation rates near dusk are generally lower than those at dawn, suggesting that local

  2. A Plasmaspheric Mass Density Model and Constraints on its Heavy Ion Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berube, D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Green, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The first empirical model of the equatorial mass density of the plasmasphere is constructed using ground-based ULF wave diagnostics. Plasmaspheric mass density between L=l.7 and L=3.2 has been determined using over 5200 hours of data from pairs of stations in the MEASURE array of ground magnetometers. The least-squares fit to the data as a function of L shows that mass density falls logarithmically with L. Average ion mass as a function of L is also estimated by combining the mass density model with plasmaspheric electron density profiles determined from the IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI). Additionally, we use the RPI electron density database to examine how the average ion mass changes under different levels of geomagnetic activity. We find that average ion mass is greatest under the most disturbed conditions. This result indicates that heavy ion concentrations are enhanced during large geomagnetic disturbances, and therefore play an important role in storm-time plasmaspheric dynamics. The average ion mass is also used to constrain the concentrations of He(+) and O(+). Estimates of the He(+) concentration determined this way can be useful for interpreting IMAGE Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUV) images.

  3. Plasmasphere thermal structure as measured by ISEE-1 and DE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of plasmaspheric ion thermal structure are presented from a statistical survey of low-energy of ion measurements made by the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on the DE-1 satellite. Morning and evening results are compared to illustrate diurnal trends. Typical day side temperature range from about 4000 K in the inner plasmasphere to over 10,000 K in the outer plasmasphere, while corresponding evening side temperatures range from near 2000 K to over 10,000 K. Magnetic activity is found to affect the morning and evening sides somewhat differently. Temperatures are found to remain constant or increase with altitude along magnetic field lines, depending on local time and L shell. Thermal equilibrium between H(+) and He(+) prevails to a high degree throughout the plasmasphere. Ion temperatures from the Plasma Composition Experiment (PCE) on ISEE-1 are generally consistent with those from DE-1/RIMS, but are lower and tend to indicate more large scale structure on the day side.

  4. Chang'e-3 Extreme Ultraviolet Camera Observations of the Dynamics of the Earth's Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, M. C. H.; Zhang, X.; He, F.; Chen, B.; Wang, H. N.; Shen, C.; Ping, J.; Nakano, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Moon-based Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC) aboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lunar lander has successfully imaged the global plasmasphere on the Moon for the first time through detecting the resonantly scattered sunlight by plasmaspheric He+ at 30.4 nm with a spatial resolution of 0.1 RE and a time resolution of 10 min. The characteristics and the analyzing methods of the EUVC images are introduced in detail in this report. The plasmapause locations on the magnetic equator are reconstructed with the Minimum L Algorithm and are quantitatively compared with those extracted from in-situ observations by DMSP, THEMIS, and RBSP satellites. Then the plasmapause evolutions during substorms on February 21 2014 and April 21 2014 are investigated. It is found that the evolutions of plasmapause correlate well in both universal time and magnetic local time with the equatorial boundaries of auroral oval during substorms. During these two cases, the solar-wind-driven convection and the geomagnetic activity are relatively weak and steady, and the plasmapause motions can reliably be attributed to the substorms. It is proposed that correlations between the auroral signatures and the plasmapause motions may be due to the generation and Earthward-propagation of dipolarization front and resultant pitch angle scattering. In future work, we will search more in-situ and remote sensing data in both the plasmasphere and the magnetotail regions to investigate the correlations between the plasmaspheric erosions, the dipolarization fronts, and the energetic ions injections.

  5. The role of the plasmasphere in the dynamics of ionospheric density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    Coordinated ground-based and satellite observations are of great importance for understanding the electrodynamics of inner-magnetospheric density structures. Examples of these structures are storm enhanced density (SED) and plasmasphere drainage plumes resulting from the erosion of the plasmasphere boundary layer by sub-auroral disturbance electric fields. SED or localized enhancement of TEC results from a poleward redistribution of dusk-sector plasma from the low-latitude region during the early stage of a strong geomagnetic disturbance. While ground-based observations with GPS TEC and ISR combined with low-altitude satellite observations such as DMSP, TOPEX, and JASON see enhanced density structure, IMAGE EUV magnetospheric imagery from space detect this enhanced density as a pronounced bright region in the inner plasmapshere. In this paper, we present coordinated ground-based and satellite observations results showing the role of the plasmasphere and plasmapause in the dynamics of ionospheric density structures. This includes the simultaneous global observations of ground-based GPS TEC and ionospheric TEC observed by the JASON and TOPEX satellites to experimentally determine the percentage contribution of the plasmapshere to the ground- based GPS TEC and thus to the degradation of navigation and communication systems. We find the plasmasphere can contribute significantly to round-based GPS TEC.

  6. Comparison of EUV Brightness With Line-of-Sight Total Electron Content in the Earth's Plasmasphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Hajj, G.; Mannucci, T.; Sandel, B.

    2007-05-01

    Total electron content (TEC) data, obtained from radio signals sent between the Jason-1 satellite in low-Earth- orbit (LEO) and global positioning system (GPS) satellites, are inverted using tomography to infer electron density in Jason-1's orbital plane. We then construct column density traces along the lines of sight of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) image of the He+ population of the plasmasphere, taken by NASA's IMAGE spacecraft. In this way, we produce column integrated electron density (TEC) values aligned with IMAGE's lines of sight. Since singly-ionized helium in the plasmasphere is optically thin, the radiance of an EUV image pixel is proportional to the column-integrated density of He+ ions along the line of sight. Hence, a TEC measurement gives us a column-integrated electron density, while an EUV image brightness value is proportional to a column-integrated He+ density. By comparing the radial brightness profile from an EUV image to the line-of-sight TEC in Jason's orbital plane, we can gain insight into the behavior of He+ and electron density in the plasmasphere. Future comparisons between TEC and EUV data could lead to an improved, three-dimensional, empirical model of plasmaspheric electron density, and a better understanding of IMAGE EUV images themselves.

  7. Comparison of Two IRI plasmasphere Extensions with GPS-TEC Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons of two model results with Global Positioning System GPS-TEC measurements have been carried out for different latitudinal, solar activity, magnetic activity, diurnal and seasonal conditions. The models evaluated are the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM-2000) and the IRI extension with Russian plasmasphere model (IRI*).Data of 23 observatories providing GPS-TEC and ionosonde data have been used. It is shown that IRI* plasmasphere electron density is greater than GCPM results by an order of magnitude at 6370 km altitude (one Earth's radius) with this excess growing to 2-3 orders of magnitude towards the GPS satellite altitude of 20000 km. Another source of model and GPS-TEC differences is a way of selection of the F2 layer peak parameters driving the models either with ITU-R (former CCIR) maps or ionosonde observations. Plasmasphere amendment to IRI improves accuracy of TEC model predictions because the plasmasphere contribution to the total TEC varies from 10% by daytime under quiet magnetic conditions to more than 50% by night under stormy conditions.

  8. A new electron density model of the plasmasphere for operational applications and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mohammed Mainul

    2018-03-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere contributes essentially to total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground or satellite platforms. Furthermore, as an integral part of space weather, associated plasmaspheric phenomena must be addressed in conjunction with ionosphere weather monitoring by operational space weather services. For supporting space weather services and mitigation of propagation errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications we have developed the empirical Neustrelitz plasmasphere model (NPSM). The model consists of an upper L shell dependent part and a lower altitude dependent part, both described by specific exponential decays. Here the McIllwain parameter L defines the geomagnetic field lines in a centered dipole model for the geomagnetic field. The coefficients of the developed approaches are successfully fitted to numerous electron density data derived from dual frequency GPS measurements on-board the CHAMP satellite mission from 2000 to 2005. The data are utilized for fitting up to the L shell L = 3 because a previous validation has shown a good agreement with IMAGE/RPI measurements up to this value. Using the solar radio flux index F10.7 as the only external parameter, the operation of the model is robust, with 40 coefficients fast and sufficiently accurate to be used as a background model for estimating TEC or electron density profiles in near real time GNSS applications and services. In addition to this, the model approach is sensitive to ionospheric coupling resulting in anomalies such as the Nighttime Winter Anomaly and the related Mid-Summer Nighttime Anomaly and even shows a slight plasmasphere compression of the dayside plasmasphere due to solar wind pressure. Modelled electron density and TEC values agree with estimates reported in the literature in similar cases.

  9. A Statistical Study of Plasmaspheric Plumes and Ionospheric Outflows Observed at the Dayside Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q. G.; Otto, A.; Rème, H.; Liebert, E.

    2015-12-01

    The low-energy and dense plasma originated from the ionosphere has often been observed in the dayside magnetosphere and may play an important role in the dynamics of the dayside magnetopause. We present a statistical study of the plasmaspheric plumes and the ionospheric outflows observed by the Cluster spacecraft near the dayside magnetopause from 2007 to 2009. The plasmaspheric plumes were identified by the low-energy ions (< 1 keV) which have 90° pitch angle distributions from the CIS/HIA instrument onboard Cluster in the magnetosphere. The ionospheric outflows were characterized by uni- or bi-directional field-aligned pitch angle distributions with low-energy ions observed in the dayside magnetosphere. 43 (10%) plasmaspheric plume events and 32 (7%) ionospheric outflow events were detected during 442 dayside magnetopause crossings. The occurrence rate of the plume at the duskside is significantly higher than that at the dawnside, indicating that the plasmaspheric plumes may lead to a dawn-dusk asymmetry of the dayside reconnection. The occurrence rate of the outflow shows a weak dawn-dusk asymmetry. We investigated how the plasmaspheric plume and ionospheric outflow's occurrence rates depend on geomagnetic activity and solar wind/IMF conditions. It is found that the plume events prefer to occur during moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp = 3, -30 ≤ Dst < -10 nT), while the ionospheric outflow events do not occur when Kp = 0 and their occurrence rate does not have a clear Dst dependence. It is also found that the plume events tend to occur during southward IMF (duskward solar wind electric field). In contrast, the ionospheric outflows prefer to occur during northward IMF (dawnward solar wind electric field). Finally, the occurrence rates of both plumes and outflows increase with increasing solar wind dynamic pressure.

  10. Potential of computer-aided diagnosis of high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI in the classification of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Bhooshan, Neha; Giger, Maryellen; Medved, Milica; Li, Hui; Wood, Abbie; Yuan, Yading; Lan, Li; Marquez, Angelica; Karczmar, Greg; Newstead, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) analysis of precontrast high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI to that of clinical dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in the diagnostic classification of breast lesions. Thirty-four malignant and seven benign lesions were scanned using two-dimensional (2D) HiSS and clinical 4D DCE-MRI protocols. Lesions were automatically segmented. Morphological features were calculated for HiSS, whereas both morphological and kinetic features were calculated for DCE-MRI. After stepwise feature selection, Bayesian artificial neural networks merged selected features, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis evaluated the performance with leave-one-lesion-out validation. AUC (area under the ROC curve) values of 0.92 ± 0.06 and 0.90 ± 0.05 were obtained using CADx on HiSS and DCE-MRI, respectively, in the task of classifying benign and malignant lesions. While we failed to show that the higher HiSS performance was significantly better than DCE-MRI, noninferiority testing confirmed that HiSS was not worse than DCE-MRI. CADx of HiSS (without contrast) performed similarly to CADx on clinical DCE-MRI; thus, computerized analysis of HiSS may provide sufficient information for diagnostic classification. The results are clinically important for patients in whom contrast agent is contra-indicated. Even in the limited acquisition mode of 2D single slice HiSS, by using quantitative image analysis to extract characteristics from the HiSS images, similar performance levels were obtained as compared with those from current clinical 4D DCE-MRI. As HiSS acquisitions become possible in 3D, CADx methods can also be applied. Because HiSS and DCE-MRI are based on different contrast mechanisms, the use of the two protocols in combination may increase diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Determinations of ionosphere and plasmasphere electron content for an African chain of GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzella, Andrew J., Jr.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2017-05-01

    The confluence of recent instrumentation deployments in Africa with developments for the determination of plasmasphere electron content using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has provided new opportunities for investigations in that region. This investigation, using a selected chain of GPS stations, extends the method (SCORPION) previously applied to a chain of GPS stations in North America in order to separate the ionosphere and plasmasphere contributions to the total electron content (TEC) during a day (24 July) in 2011. The results span latitudes from the southern tip of Africa, across the Equator, to the southern Arabian Peninsula, providing a continuous latitudinal profile for both the ionosphere and plasmasphere during this day.The peak diurnal vertical ionosphere electron content (IEC) increases from about 14 TEC units (1 TEC unit = 1016 electrons m-2) at the southernmost station to about 32 TEC units near the geographic equator, then decreases to about 28 TEC units at the Arabian Peninsula. The peak diurnal slant plasmasphere electron content (PEC) varies between about 4 and 7 TEC units among the stations, with a local latitudinal profile that is significantly influenced by the viewing geometry at the station location, relative to the magnetic field configuration. In contrast, the peak vertical PEC varies between about 1 and 6 TEC units among the stations, with a more uniform latitudinal variation.Comparisons to other GPS data analyses are also presented for TEC, indicating the influence of the PEC on the determination of latitudinal TEC variations and also on the absolute TEC levels, by inducing an overestimate of the receiver bias. The derived TEC latitudinal profiles, in comparison to global map profiles, tend to differ from the map results only about as much as the map results differ among themselves. A combination of ionosonde IEC and alternative GPS TEC measurements, which in principle permits a PEC determination through their difference, was

  12. IMAGE EUV Observations and Modeling of the Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated with the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M.L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. At EUV wavelengths, this density trough appeared as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1800 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images. Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) [Gallagher et al., 20001 and the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.

  13. Quasilinear Relaxation as a Mechanism for Electron Temperature Saturation in the Earth's Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    A mechanism is presented according to which quasi-linear relaxation can cause electron temperature saturation at the observed level when the plasmasphere is heated by magnetohydrodynamic waves. An algorithm for calculating saturation temperatures is proposed, and they are numerically estimated. At low wave frequencies, saturation occurs at temperatures of 3-5 eV, and in the vicinity of cyclotron frequencies, it occurs at 2-4 eV.

  14. The occurrence of ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric plumes over different longitudinal sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Dewar, J.; MacNeil, J.; Moldwin, M. B.; Galvan, D.; Sanny, J.; Berube, D.; Sandel, B.

    2008-08-01

    Plasmaspheric plumes have ionospheric signatures and are observed as storm-enhanced density (SED) in global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). These ionospheric signatures have been primarily observed over the American sector and in a few limited examples over the European sector. This study examines the longitudinal occurrence frequency of plasmaspheric plumes. We analyzed all images from the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUV) databases for the first half of 2001 and identified a total of 31 distinct plume intervals observed during different storm events. Out of the total IMAGE EUV plumes that we identified, 12 were projected over North America, 10 over Asia, and the remaining 9 were over Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. Using ground-based GPS TEC from MIT's Madrigal database, we searched for corresponding SED/TEC plumes at different longitudinal sector and found 12 ionospheric SED plume signatures over North America, 4 over Europe, and 2 over Asia. This indicates that the observation probability of an ionospheric SED plume when a plasmaspheric plume is seen is 100% in the American sector, 50% in the European sector, and 20% in the Asian sector. This could be due to the fact that the plumes may be either positioned beyond the limit of the ground-based GPS field of view, which happens mainly when there is less plasmaspheric erosion, or are too weak to be detected by the sparse number of GPS receivers over Asia. The in situ plasma densities from the available coincident defense metrological satellite program (DMSP) satellites were also used to study the characteristics of SED/TEC plume at DMSP orbiting altitude (i.e., ˜870 km). The TOPographic EXplorer (TOPEX) altimeter TEC also is used to identify the conjugate SED/plume signature over the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Multi-instrument observations of the ionospheric and plasmaspheric density structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2008-05-01

    : The density within the ionosphere and plasmasphere can be monitored using a combination of techniques that use both ground- and space-based instruments. We are combining diagnostic observations of everything, but the kitchen sink. These include observations of GPS TEC, TOPEX and JASON TEC, IMAGE EUV and FUV, GUVI composition data, ULF resonances, and many other multi-satellite data sets such as DMSP in situ observations. The dramatically growing number of GPS receivers on the ground and onboard Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) satellites offers an excellent opportunity for remote sensing and monitoring of the ionospheric and plasmaspheric density structure using GPS TEC tomographic reconstruction technique. This allows us to clearly quantify magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling dynamics, as well as confirm the long-standing conjecture that the mid-latitude trough and plasmapause are on the same field line. This has been demonstrated globally, for the first time, using a combination of data from IMAGE EUV and ground- and space-based GPS receivers. The two dimensional tomographic image of the ionosphere and plasmasphere, using data from the GPS receiver onboard LEO satellites, such as FedSat, CHAMP, COSMIC, etc, also provides a new ability to image the flux tube structure of ionospheric ion outflows, tracking flux tube structure up to 3.17Re (20,200 km) altitude for the first time. The combination of data from the altimeter on JASON and ground-based GPS network also provides an excellent opportunity to experimentally estimate the plasmaspheric density contribution to the ground-based GPS TEC and thus to the degradation of navigation and communication accuracy.

  16. Remote Sensing of the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere from Space Using Radiowaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Topics include the scientific context, trans-ionospheric and sounding, small-scale structure, plasmasphere, fast and slow tomography, and pseudo-imaging. Individual slides focus on where geospace science stands today, variability in inner magnetosphere electric fields, Appleton-Hartree formula, phase and range ionospheric observables, examples of leveling, large ionization changes during storms, new mid-latitude phenomena, ionospheric sounding, COSMIC CERTO/Tri-band beacon, LEO-ground radio tomography, irregularity measurements, COSMIC, critical sensor data from COSMIC GPS limb sounding, occultation geometry, comparison of calibrated slant TEC measurements for 26 June 2006, historic examples of Abel electron density profiles, comparison of UCAR and JPL Able profiles of 26 June 2006, validating UCAR and JPL Abel profiles using Arecibo ISR measurements for 26 June 2006, E-region from GPS/MET 1995, Abel versus gradient assisted retrieval, 3000 profiles/day, plasmasphere, JASON TEC above satellite, GPS equatorial plasmasphere measurements, April 2002 geomagnetic storm, and space-based GPS tomography.

  17. IRI the ISO Standard for Earth's Ionosphere with Extension to the Plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Gulyaeva, Tamara

    A good knowledge and specification of the conditions in the ionosphere and plasmasphere are a key element for spacefaring nations and industry. Information about the density, temperature and composition is critical for the design and operation of space vehicles in this region. It is also required for any technology that uses radio waves travelling through the ionosphere and plasmasphere, be it Earth observations from space or radioastronomy from the ground. Responding to the need for an international standard for the ionosphere and plasmasphere the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) initiated the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project in 1969. IRI is a data-based model that was continuously improved as new data became available. The model has been evaluated with a wide range of data from ground and space techniques and did consistently very well in community-wide inter-comparisons of different models. Recognizing the maturity of the IRI model the International Standardization Organization (ISO) recently voted to make the International Reference Ionosphere the ISO standard for Earth’s ionosphere. The paper will discuss the current status of the IRI project, measures of its success, recent progress, and plans for the future.

  18. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  19. Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

    DOE PAGES

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Katus, Roxanne M.; ...

    2015-03-06

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1-10 eV and contains approximately 5% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities over this energy range show H + is depleted the most in the post-midnight sector (1-4 MLT),more » followed by O + and then He +. The relative depletion of each species across the post-midnight sector is not ordered by mass, which reveals ionospheric influence. We compare our results with keV energy electron data from HOPE and the Van Allen Probes Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument spacecraft potential to rule out spacecraft charging. Our conclusion is that the post-midnight ion disappearance is due to diurnal ionospheric temperature variation and charge exchange processes« less

  20. Climatology of plasmaspheric total electron content obtained from Jason 1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Ja Soon; Jee, Geonhwa; Scherliess, Ludger

    2017-02-01

    We used more than 40 million total electron content (TEC) measurements obtained from the GPS TurboRogue Space Receiver receiver on board the Jason 1 satellite in order to investigate the global morphology of the plasmaspheric TEC (pTEC) including the variations with local time, latitude, longitude, season, solar cycle, and geomagnetic activity. The pTEC corresponds to the total electron content between Jason 1 (1336 km) and GPS (20,200 km) satellite altitudes. The pTEC data were collected during the 7 year period from January 2002 to December 2008. It was found that pTEC increases by about 10-30% from low to high solar flux conditions with the largest variations occurring at low latitudes for equinox. During low solar flux condition, pTEC is largely independent of geomagnetic activity. However, it slightly decreases with increasing geomagnetic activity at low latitudes during high solar flux. The seasonal variations such as the annual and semiannual anomalies in the ionosphere also exist in the low-latitude plasmasphere. In particular, the American sector (around 300°E) shows strong annual asymmetry in the plasmaspheric density, being larger in December than in June solstice.

  1. Evaluation methods used on health information systems (HISs) in Iran and the effects of HISs on Iranian healthcare: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Leila; Nejad, Simin Salehi; Khajouei, Reza

    2015-06-01

    The most important goal of a health information system (HIS) is improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of health services. To achieve this goal, health care systems should be evaluated continuously. The aim of this paper was to study the impacts of HISs in Iran and the methods used for their evaluation. We systematically searched all English and Persian papers evaluating health information systems in Iran that were indexed in SID, Magiran, Iran medex, PubMed and Embase databases until June 2013. A data collection form was designed to extract required data such as types of systems evaluated, evaluation methods and tools. In this study, 53 out of 1103 retrieved articles were selected as relevant and reviewed by the authors. This study indicated that 28 studies used questionnaires to evaluate the system and in 27 studies the study instruments were distributed within a research population. In 26 papers the researchers collected the information by means of interviews, observations, heuristic evaluation and the review of documents and records. The main effects of the evaluated systems in health care settings were improving quality of services, reducing time, increasing accessibility to information, reducing costs and decreasing medical errors. Evaluation of health information systems is central to their development and enhancement, and to understanding their effect on health and health services. Despite numerous evaluation methods available, the reviewed studies used a limited number of methods to evaluate HIS. Additionally, the studies mainly discussed the positive effects of HIS on health care services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of very-low-frequency auroral hiss with precipitating low-energy electrons by the use of simultaneous data from two Ogo 4 experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. A.; Laaspere, T.

    1972-01-01

    Determination of the origin of auroral hiss by comparing the records of a vlf experiment (0.3 to 18 kHz) with simultaneous data obtained by an auroral-particle experiment having detectors for precipitating electrons at 0.7, 2.3, and 7.3 keV. It is found that, on the dayside of the earth, the occurrence of vlf hiss correlates well with precipitation events at 0.7 keV, but in general very poorly with activity in the higher-energy channels. Exact correlation between variations in vlf hiss intensity and in electron fluxes is rare even at 0.7 keV. In addition, vlf hiss tends to be observed over a somewhat larger spatial region than precipitating 0.7-keV electrons. It is concluded that, on the dayside, auroral hiss is generated by soft (E less than 1 keV) 'cusp region' electrons and that the lack of detailed correlation between the two phenomena is caused by propagation effects as the hiss travels downward and spreads from the generation region.

  3. Interaction of antioxidants and exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Kawshik K; Legare, Dallas J; Lautt, W Wayne

    2013-07-01

    Meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS) describes the augmented postprandial response to insulin through action of the hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS). HISS-action is impaired in insulin resistance associated with aging and type 2 diabetes, but could be preserved by the antioxidant cocktail SAMEC, along with voluntary exercise. In this study, we tested whether antioxidant supplementation during voluntary training would interact with the effects of exercise on HISS-mediated glucose uptake in healthy and prediabetic rats. The 7-day voluntary running-wheel training was used as an exercise intervention. SAMEC supplementation was provided only during the 7-day training session. The rapid insulin sensitivity test (RIST) was conducted to determine insulin- and HISS-dependent glucose uptake in 14-week-old healthy rats, and sucrose-induced insulin-resistant rats, with or without exercise in the presence or absence of SAMEC supplementation. The postprandial insulin sensitivity was increased by exercise, primarily through enhancement of the HISS-dependent glucose uptake, which remained unaffected by SAMEC. SAMEC supplementation did not either harm or add benefit to the positive effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity in healthy or prediabetic rats. While SAMEC alone was a demonstrated preventive against the progressive loss of HISS action in previous studies, short-term supplementation in this study did not reverse the established disease state.

  4. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Results Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was <10 colony-forming units (cfu) for all three species. In comparison, the LD50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B

  5. Comparison of plasmaspheric electron content over sea and land using Jason-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    The Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, may suffer from model assumptions, in particular, over the oceans where relatively few measurements are available due to a scarcity of ground-based GPS receivers network only on seashores and islands which involve more assumptions or interpolations imposed on GIM mapping techniques. The GPS-derived TEC represents the total electron content integrated through the ionosphere, iTEC, and the plasmasphere, pTEC. The sea/land differences in the F2 layer peak electron density, NmF2, and the peak height, hmF2, gathered with topside sounding data exhibit tilted ionosphere along the seashores with denser electron population at greater peak heights over the sea. Derivation of a sea/land proportion of total electron content from the new source of the satellite-based measurements would allow improve the mapping GIM-TEC products and their assimilation by the ionosphere-plasmasphere IRI-Plas model. In this context the data of Jason-2 mission provided through the NOAA CLASS Website (http://www.nsof.class.noaa.gov/saa/products/catSearch) present a unique database of pTEC measured through the plasmasphere over the Jason-2 orbit (1335 km) to GPS orbit (20,200 km) which become possible from GPS receivers placed onboard of Jason-2 with a zenith looking antenna that can be used not only for precise orbit determination (POD), but can also provide new data on the plasma density distribution in the plasmasphere. Special interest represents possibility of the potential increase of the data volume in two times due to the successful launch of the Jason-3 mission on 17 January 2016. The present study is focused on a comparison of plasmasphere electron content, pTEC, over the sea and land with a unique data base of the plasmasphere electron content, pTEC, using measurements onboard Jason-2 satellite during the solar minimum (2009) and solar maximum (2014). Slant TEC values were scaled to estimate vertical pTEC using a geometric

  6. Foot Morphology and Substrate Adhesion in the Madagascan Hissing Cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    PubMed Central

    van Casteren, Adam; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Insects are successful terrestrial organisms able to locomote over a wide range of obstacles and substrates. This study investigated how foot morphology (tarsal structure) correlates with substrate adhesion and ecological niche in the Madagascan hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa Schaum (Blattaria: Blaberidae). Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of the different structures of the tarsus of G. portentosa was analysed. Using an Instron® universal testing machine, a series of peak force experiments were then conducted to record the force required to lift the cockroaches off different substrates. G. portentosa was pulled off 10 different substrates, which consisted of smooth Perspex; Perspex scored at 1cm intervals; Perspex hatched at 1 cm, 0.5 cm, and 1 mm intervals; Perspex abraded with fine grade sandpaper; Perspex abraded with coarse grade sandpaper; wood; glass; and Teflon. A clear relationship was seen where an increase in scoring on the Perspex caused a decrease in adhesive ability of G. portentosa. This may be due to there being adequate contact area for the attachment of the pads and to allow the claws to engage. The results obtained suggest that to achieve the greatest adhesion to substrates, G. portentosa uses a combined effect of both adhesive pads and pretarsal claws. Adhesion to a wide range of substrates appears to be an adaptation to life as a wingless forest floor dweller. PMID:20575737

  7. Correlation of auroral hiss and upward electron beams near the polar cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.; Burch, J. L.; Shawhan, S. D.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Data were obtained from the DE-1 high-altitude plasma instrument (HAPI) and plasma wave instrument (PWI) during outbound passes through the polar cusp near local noon. The observed distribution functions of electron beams are fitted by drifting Maxwellian functions and the observed distribution functions of hot background electrons by isotropic Maxwellian functions. In addition, the cold plasma density is inferred from knowledge of the electron plasma frequency and the measured density of the warm plasma, including the electron beam distribution. The empirically fitted plasma parameters, including density, temperature and drifting energy, are used to solve the linear dispersion equation for the resulting whistler mode emissions. Because the whistler mode becomes quasi-electrostatic for wave-normal angles near the resonance cone, the electrostatic approximation is used for the whistler mode dispersion relation. The results of wave instability analyses are then compared with the wave observations. A ray tracing of cusp hiss emission is conducted to locate the wave source region (at about one earth-radius).

  8. Effects of plasmaspheric ion heating due to ionospheric and magnetospheric sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, Richard H.

    1996-01-01

    In an initial study, the He(+) observations from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer 1 (RIMS/DE 1) was examined for more than 120 transits of the plasmasphere in the fall of 1981. The He(+) to H(+) ratio was determined as it varied spatially over portions of the DE 1 orbit, and its variation with solar and magnetic activities and with local time, focusing specifically on the inner plasmasphere. These variations were compared along the L = 2 field line with calculations made by the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) code. In a recently submitted paper, the He(+) to H(+) density ratio was examined for all the available data from 1981 to 1984 from the RIMS on DE 1. There are two basic characteristics of the ratio: one is that the ratio decreases with radial distance in the plasmasphere, and the other is the strong dependence of the density ratio on solar activity. In addition to the He(+)/H(+) ratio research, a phenomenon has been studied in the topside ionosphere which relates to the thermal coupling of the ionosphere to the plasmasphere. There is little or no correlation with magnetic and solar activity here. Another study has been directed toward the relation of plasma properties to the density gradients forming the plasmapause. The study has followed a two-pronged approach. First, the observations have been analyzed to determine what happens to the plasma properties across these boundary layers (density gradients). Second, comparisons were made with FLIP model calculations to determine how well the model is able to treat these conditions. Among the significant lessons learned in these studies are two that bear directly on the direction of future investigations in this area. First, composition cannot be viewed independently of thermal structure. Second, solar and magnetic activity effects are real; but the causal relationship between activity and effects is frequently quite complicated because several different processes appear to be

  9. Mountain waves in space: The influence of lee waves on the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmboldt, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the early 1990s, a previously undiscovered class of plasmaspheric disturbances was found using an unconventional remote sensing device, the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico. Primarily used as a radio telescope array, the VLA is extremely sensitive to horizontal gradients in the total electron content (TEC) when observing bright cosmic sources at frequencies <500 MHz. Such observations can be used to quantify the TEC gradient to a precision as good as 10-4 TECU km-1 (1 TECU = 1016 e- m-2). It is this superb capability that led to the discovery of field aligned irregularities (FAIs) within the plasmasphere. These manifest as magnetic eastward-propagating waves due to the co-rotating nature of the plasmasphere and were established to primarily be located at 1.5 < L < 3. A new technique has been developed that uses spectral decomposition of VLA TEC gradient measurements for these FAIs to map their radial distribution as a function of time/longitude. Thus, a two-dimensional map is formed similar to what is achieved with tomographic methods, and the procedure is therefore referred to at quasi-tomographic spectral decomposition (QTSD). This has led to the establishment of a likely origin for the majority of these FAIs. To explore the possibility that these originate from changes in ion pressure within the ionosphere below, the locations of density fluctuations within QTSD maps were used to identify the locations within the ionospheric F-region that were on the same magnetic field lines. These were found to be heavily concentrated on or to the lee side of the Rocky Mountains. This was true for a single six-hour VLA observation of a bright source (see Figure 1) and for a large sample of VLA observations spanning nearly a year. The latter also imply that these FAIs are seen far less frequently in summer months when wind patterns make it much more difficult for tropospheric gravity waves to escape to higher altitudes. Preliminary simulations using a standing gravity

  10. 3D Reconfigurable NoC Multiprocessor Portable Sounder for Plasmaspheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the development of a prototype imaging sounder for studying the irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. Cutting edge three-dimensional reconfigurable logic has been implemented allowing highly-intensive scientific calculations to be performed in hardware. The new parallel processing algorithms implemented offer a significant amount of performance improvement in the range of 80% compared to existing digital sounder implementations. The current system configuration is taking into consideration the modern scientific needs for portability during scientific campaigns. The prototype acts as a digital signal processing experimentation platform for future larger-scale digital sounder instrumentations for measuring complex planetary plasmaspheric environments.

  11. Major questions on the interchange of thermal plasmas between the ionosphere and plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It is for the plasmaspheric flux tube regions of the magnetospheric flux tubes that the greatest likelihood exists for a near-term, complete description of the plasma, since the magnetic field geometry is relatively well behaved and the plasma source and boundary conditions are specifiable with reasonable accuracy. It may be speculated that this emerging understanding may be useful in the study of the more complex dynamical behavior of plasma couplings within such other 'closed flux tube' geometries as the plasma sheet flux tubes, where ionospheric ions flow up to populate the flux tubes and precipitating particles from them produce the diffuse aurora.

  12. Ionospheric Signatures of Plasmaspheric Plumes over Different Longitudinal Sectors: A Comprehensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, J.; MacNeil, J.; Yizengaw, E.; Galvan, D.; Berube, D.; Moldwin, M. B.; Sanny, J.

    2006-12-01

    Twenty-six different plasmaspheric plumes were identified during 2001 from the IMAGE EUV database. Simultaneously the two-dimensional structure of global GPS TEC (total electron content) data has been imaged using several sources: JPL's interpolated Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) and MIT's Madrigal GPS TEC data. IONEX 2-hour averaged TEC maps were also examined, but they were not helpful in verifying the transient plumes' signatures. Both model and measurement data have observed plumes of greatly elevated GPS TEC, which is associated with the erosion of the outer plasmasphere by strong sub-auroral polarization (SAP) electric fields, even in regions other than North America. We mapped the plasmapause and plume position, extracted from IMAGE EUV data, to the equatorial plane and compared it with GPS TEC maps. GIM data were able to show sharp changes in TEC gradient, but did not have enough resolution to agree with plumes anywhere other than above North America. Generally, we found reasonably good agreements between these independent observations; In particular the comparison with Madrigal GPS TEC was excellent at different longitudinal sectors.

  13. A Flux-Corrected Transport Based Hydrodynamic Model for the Plasmasphere Refilling Problem following Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, K.; Schunk, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The refilling of the plasmasphere following a geomagnetic storm remains one of the longstanding problems in the area of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. Both diffusion and hydrodynamic approximations have been adopted for the modeling and solution of this problem. The diffusion approximation neglects the nonlinear inertial term in the momentum equation and so this approximation is not rigorously valid immediately after the storm. Over the last few years, we have developed a hydrodynamic refilling model using the flux-corrected transport method, a numerical method that is extremely well suited to handling nonlinear problems with shocks and discontinuities. The plasma transport equations are solved along 1D closed magnetic field lines that connect conjugate ionospheres and the model currently includes three ion (H+, O+, He+) and two neutral (O, H) species. In this work, each ion species under consideration has been modeled as two separate streams emanating from the conjugate hemispheres and the model correctly predicts supersonic ion speeds and the presence of high levels of Helium during the early hours of refilling. The ultimate objective of this research is the development of a 3D model for the plasmasphere refilling problem and with additional development, the same methodology can potentially be applied to the study of other complex space plasma coupling problems in closed flux tube geometries. Index Terms: 2447 Modeling and forecasting [IONOSPHERE] 2753 Numerical modeling [MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS] 7959 Models [SPACE WEATHER

  14. The Inversion of Ionospheric/plasmaspheric Electron Density From GPS Beacon Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y. H.; Xu, J. S.; Ma, S. Y.

    It is a space-time 4-D tomography to reconstruct ionospheric/ plasmaspheric elec- tron density, Ne, from ground-based GPS beacon measurements. The mathematical foundation of such inversion is studied in this paper and some simulation results of reconstruction for GPS network observation are presented. Assuming reasonably a power law dependence of NE on time with an index number of 1-3 during one ob- servational time of GPS (60-90min.), 4-D inversion in consideration is reduced to a 3-D cone-beam tomography with incomplete projections. To see clearly the effects of the incompleteness on the quality of reconstruction for 3-D condition, we deduced theoretically the formulae of 3-D parallel-beam tomography. After establishing the mathematical basis, we adopt linear temporal dependence of NE and voxel elemental functions to perform simulation of NE reconstruction with the help of IRI90 model. Reasonable time-dependent 3-D images of ionosphere/ plasmasphere electron density distributions are obtained when taking proper layout of the GPS network and allowing variable resolutions in vertical.

  15. Studies on equatorial shock formation during plasmaspheric refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations based on small-scale simulations of microprocesses occurring when a magnetic flux tube refills with a cold plasma are summarized. Results of these investigations are reported in the following attached papers: (1) 'Numerical Simulation of Filling a Magnetic Flux Tube with a Cold Plasma: The Role of Ion Beam-Driven Instabilities'; and (2) 'Numerical Simulation of Filling a Magnetic Flux Tube with a Cold Plasma: Effects of Magnetically Trapped Hot Plasma'. Other papers included are: 'Interaction of Field-Aligned Cold Plasma Flows with an Equatorially-Trapped Hot Plasma: Electrostatic Shock Formation'; and 'Comparison of Hydrodynamic and Semikinetic Treatments for a Plasma Flow along Closed Field Lines'. A proposal for further research is included.

  16. Van Allen Probes based investigation of storm time plasmasphere erosion and earthward penetration of the convection electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Dai, L.; Breneman, A. W.; Kersten, K.; Kletzing, C.; Kurth, W. S.; Bonnell, J. W.; De Pascuale, S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bounds, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes we investigate the erosion of the plasmasphere as well as the evolution in location of the plasmapause during large storms (Dst < -100 nT). In addition, we also examine the penetration of the large scale storm-time convection electric field to low L ( < 3 RE) and its role in erosion of the plasmasphere. The enhanced convection electric field penetrates to low L during large storms, and a tangible effect on plasmasphere erosion is observed at low L. The plasmaspause is identified through the UHR line in EMFISIS high frequency spectral data and plasma densities determined from calibration fits to the spacecraft potential from the EFW instrument; such fits are also presented herein. During large storms the plasmapause can move to within L~1.9 RE of the earth. The erosion of the plasmasphere and consequent inward movement of the plasmapause to low L from quite time locations (4-5 RE) occurs within less than one orbit period (~9hr).

  17. COSMIC TEC tomographic vertical density reconstructions of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere: Differences between the American and African sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibanda, P.; Moldwin, M.; Zou, S.; Yizengaw, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation measurements have become useful in observing the ionospheric spatial electron density distribution TEC from ground-based receivers are biased by the high density around the F2 peak and therefore it is difficult to extract information about the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. GPS measurements onboard Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites provide more detailed observations of the ionospheric electron density distribution from the orbit height of the LEO satellite to GPS orbit heights. We use GPS TEC measurements onboard COSMIC satellites to reconstruct the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density distribution for both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions during over-flights of the American and African mid-latitude regions by the COSMIC spacecraft using algebraic tomographic reconstruction technique (ART). The reconstructions provide more detailed information of the longitudinal and vertical spatial structure of topside ionosphere and plasmasphere during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions, and indicate the great potential of evaluating ionospheric models in the topside ionosphere/plasmasphere altitude range.

  18. Non-contrast enhanced MRI for evaluation of breast lesions: comparison of non-contrast enhanced high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images vs. contrast enhanced fat-suppressed images

    PubMed Central

    Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Wood, Abbie M.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Kulkarni, Kirti; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer without injection of contrast media: to compare the performance of pre-contrast HiSS images to conventional contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, based on image quality and in the task of classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten benign and 44 malignant lesions were imaged at 1.5T with HiSS (pre-contrast administration) and conventional fat-suppressed imaging (3–10 min post-contrast). This set of 108 images, after randomization, was evaluated by three experienced radiologists blinded to the imaging technique. BIRADS morphologic criteria (lesion shape; lesion margin; internal signal intensity pattern) and final assessment were used to measure reader performance. Image quality was evaluated based on boundary delineation and quality of fat suppression. An overall probability of malignancy was assigned to each lesion for HiSS and conventional images separately. RESULTS On boundary delineation and quality of fat-suppression, pre-contrast HiSS scored similarly to conventional post-contrast MRI. On benign vs. malignant lesion separation, there was no statistically significant difference in ROC performance between HiSS and conventional MRI, and HiSS met a reasonable non-inferiority condition. CONCLUSION Pre-contrast HiSS imaging is a promising approach for showing lesion morphology without blooming and other artifacts caused by contrast agents. HiSS images could be used to guide subsequent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans, to maximize spatial and temporal resolution in suspicious regions. HiSS MRI without contrast agent injection may be particularly important for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, or allergic reactions. PMID:21962476

  19. Imaging Ionospheric/Plasmaspheric Disturbances Triggered by the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse with the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmboldt, Joseph; Schinzel, Frank K.; VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    2018-01-01

    Along with many Americans and several other observatories, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) was observing the Sun before, during, and after the total solar eclipse on 21 August 2017. However, the VLA also simultaneously conducted a unique set of observations aimed at characterizing the effects of the eclipse on Earth’s ionosphere/plasmasphere. While most of the VLA antennas were pointed at the Sun, 12 were looking at the bright radio galaxy M87. These 12 antennas are part of the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; http://vlite.nrao.edu), a dedicated backend that continuously captures, correlates, and analyzes data in the 320-384 MHz frequency range. In addition to traditional synthesis imaging, VLITE also characterizes fluctuations in ionospheric/plasmaspheric density via measured variations in visibility phases. When observing a bright cosmic source, this can be done with unmatched precision, the equivalent of ~1-10 ppm. To look for ionospheric/plasmaspheric disturbances tied to the eclipse, a specialized spectral decomposition was applied to the M87 VLITE data. This method exploits the fact that disturbed flux tubes within the plasmasphere appear as magnetic eastward-directed waves to the VLA because the plasmasphere is dynamically dominated by co-rotation. The phase speeds of these waves are proportional to distance, allowing for a reconstruction of the electron density gradient as a function of (slant) range and time. The time ranges spanned by the large-scale ionospheric depletion seen within concurrent Global Positioning System (GPS) data as a function of longitude were mapped to the flux tubes imaged with this method using the M87 observations. With the exception of some solar flare-induced fluctuations, the observed disturbances appear confined to this part of the range/time image. This strongly implies the disturbances resulted from the rapid depletion and slower recovery of the ionosphere/plasmasphere system brought on by

  20. Oxygen Ion Upflow/Outflow Fluxes of Ionospheric Origin in the Stormtime Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, P. J.; Zhang, S.; Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    During geomagnetic storm intervals, Earth's ionosphere is a source of heavy, cold O+ rich plasma to the inner magnetosphere, providing mass flux enhancement with strong dynamic geospace influence. Advancing understanding of the relative strength of ionospheric O+ sources is important for refining modeling of global ionosphere-thermosphere-plasmasphere response, and ultimately for quantitative understanding of the dynamics of energy inputs from solar wind to the magnetosphere. An important but often overlooked source of inner magnetospheric O+ can occur within the plasmasphere boundary layer, well equatorward of higher latitude processes. In particular, at the outer edge of the plasmasphere, O+ dynamics capable of accelerating heavy ions most probably occurs in two steps: (1) ion upflow with thermal velocities above the F2 electron density peak, and (2) ion outflow with suprathermal velocities at higher altitudes. Below approximately 500 km altitude in the near topside ionosphere, ion and electron precipitation in the 10s of eV to 10s of keV range can cause `backsplash' effects, providing sources of upwelling ions. Alternately, strong frictional ion heating from intense horizontal cross-field sub auroral polarization stream (SAPS) flows also provide significant ion temperature enhancements that lead to upwards velocities. Although these vertical flows are challenging to observe due to their short temporal nature and confined spatial extent, direct quantification of the upwelling O+ ion flux is available during several historical storm events using the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, including the recent March 2015 storm interval. DMSP overflights and GPS based large scale TEC maps place these ionospheric radar measurements in correct geophysical context. Results show heavy ion upwelling fluxes lasting for at least 30 minutes to 1 hour (upper bound limited by observational restrictions), at rates exceeding 1E13 ions/m2/sec. We will present a summary of these

  1. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 2: Engineered-facility sites (HISS data base)

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discussesmore » the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 refs.« less

  2. Experimental Study of the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer Using MAGION 5 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, G.; Verigin, M.; Lemaire, J.; Pierrard, V.; Bezrukikh, V.; Smilauer, J.

    2018-02-01

    The in situ cold plasma measurements onboard MAGION 5 were carried out with very good time resolution, and this permitted to analyze thin plasmasphere boundary layer (PBL) near the plasmapause. In this layer the plasma density N is decreasing exponentially with L: N exp((LPP - L)/WB), where WB corresponds to the characteristic width of the PBL, the distance in L within which the density varies by a factor of e, and LPP is the position of the plasmapause. The density in the boundary layer is inversely proportional to the volume of the unit magnetic flux tube, whereas its width is proportional to the volume of magnetic flux tube. The characteristic width of the PBL linearly depends on the time elapsed since the most recent maximum value of KP. Empirical relation for the dependence of the PBL width on most recent maximum value of KP and on the lapse time between this maximum and the plasmapause observations is proposed.

  3. IMAGE-EUV Observation of Large Scale Standing Wave Pattern in the Nightside Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor); Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Sandel, B. R.

    2002-01-01

    We present analyses of a nightside plasmaspheric pattern of bifurcated, filamentary He(+) 30.4-nm emission enhancements observed by IMAGE EUV between approximately 19:40-22:13 UT on 28 June 2000 that indicate the presence of a large-scale, global ULF standing wave pattern. Analysis of coincident IMAGE magnetometer chain data reveals that these ULF waves extend across the magnetic latitude-longitude range of the chain and possess multiple spectral features between 0.6-5-mHz (3-30 minute period). Additionally, analysis of ACE SWE data reveals similarly structured spectral components in the solar wind. Collectively, these analyses lead to the conclusion that the observed large-scale ULF wave pattern is the result of solar wind pressure pulses 'ringing' the inner-magnetosphere.

  4. Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

  5. The Large-Scale Plasmaspheric Density Trough Associated With the 24 May 2000 Geomagnetic Storm: IMAGE EUV Observations and Global Core Plasma Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The IMAGE EUV imager observed a plasmaspheric density, trough in association with a geomagnetically active period on 24 May 2000. In EUV, this density, trough appears as an Archimedes spiral extending from Earth's shadow to approximately 1900 MLT. We present an analysis of this density trough using simulated EUV images, Observational EUV images are subjected to edge analysis to establish the plasmapause L-shell and the location of the density trough in terms of L-shell, MLT extent, and radial width. The plasmaspheric density distribution is modeled using both static and dynamic models for the plasmasphere. The background plasmasphere is then numerically simulated using the 4-parameter plasmaspheric density model contained within the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) and the Dynamic Global Core Plasma Model (DGCPM). Simulated EUV images of the model plasmasphere are produced once an artificial density, depletion, matching the observed MLT extent and width, has been removed. Once the azimuthal extent and width of the trough have been simulated, the depth of the artificial density depletion is iteratively adjusted to produce simulated EUV images that approximate observation. The results of this analysis and discussion of possible origins for this density trough will be presented.

  6. The Study of the plasmaspheric refilling using the data from the ERG, the VAPs, the ground-based magnetometers and the IPE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Y.; Maruyama, N.; Masahito, N.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's inner magnetosphere is a complex dynamical region of geo space comprising plasma populations with wide energy ranges, the plasmasphere, ring current, and radiation belts. They form a closely coupled system, thus, the plasmasphere is the lowest energy population in the inner magnetosphere, but the accurate prediction of the evolution of the plasmasphere is critical in understanding the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, which include even the highest energy population, the radiation belts. In this study, we study plasmaspheric refilling following geomagnetic storms using data from ERG-MGF, ERG-PWE, RBSP-EMFISIS and Ground-based magneto­meters. DC magnetic field data measured by ERG-MGF, RBSP-EMFISIS and ground-based magnetometers provides the frequency of the toroidal mode field line resonances. From this information, the equatorial plasma mass density is estimated by solving the MHD wave equation for suitable models of the magnetic field and the field line density distribution. ERG-PWE and RBSP-EMFISIS provide measurements of wave electric and magnetic field, thus we can estimate the local electron density from the plasma wave spectrograms by identifying narrow-band emission at the upper-hybrid resonance frequency. Furthermore, using Ionosphere Plasmasphere Electrodynamics Model (IPE), we calculate the plasmaspheric refilling rates and evaluate the relative contribution of various mechanisms (heating, neutral particle density, composition and wings, etc.) to the refilling rate.

  7. Plasmaspheric Mass Loss and Refilling as a Result of a Magnetic Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X.; Song, P.; Green, J. L.; Fung, S. F.; Vasyliunas, V. M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Using the sounding measurements from the radio plasma imager on IMAGE, and a plasma density inversion algorithm, we derive the plasma density profiles along the magnetic field in a few L-shells every 14 hours at magnetic local noon before, during, and after the March 31,2001 magnetic storm. An empirical model of the plasmaspheric plasma density distribution is derived as a reference using the measurements before the storm. During the storm, the equatorial plasma was substantially depleted in a range of L-shells. The flux tubes were refilled after the storm. The filling ratio, the equatorial plasma density normalized by its quiet-time value before the storm, is introduced to assess the time evolution of the depletion and refilling processes. The depletion, more than two thirds of the quiet time content, appeared to occur rather quickly after the storm onset, as determined by the limited temporal resolution of the measurements. The refilling proceeded, although more slowly than the depletion process, significantly faster than the theoretical prediction of a 3-day time scale. Dynamic structures are observed in situ and confirmed by the extreme ultraviolet imager (EUV) measurements.

  8. Thermal ion observations of depletion and refilling in the plasmaspheric trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Whalen, B. A.; Yau, A. W.

    1992-02-01

    Temperatures, densities, composition, and drift velocities of the local major thermal ion population during a 22-d period in February 1990 are estimated on the basis of thermal ion observations in the altitude range 5000-10,000 km and at invariant latitudes greater than about 60 deg. Equatorward of a high-latitude boundary, higher-density cold ions are found to corotate with the earth, and field-aligned drift velocities are low (less than 1 km/s). These observations are consistent with a plasmaspheric origin for these ions, but the densities measured near the boundary suggest that this boundary lies in or near the trough region. Poleward of this boundary, convection patterns deviate from corotation, and large upward directed field-aligned flows of ionospheric plasma, consistent with a 'polar-windlike' source mechanism, are detected. The implications of these results with regard to ionospheric plasma dynamics associated with the depletion and replenishment of high-latitude flux tubes are discussed.

  9. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument. PMID:26157626

  10. Computational Modeling of the Spatial Distribution and Temporal Decay of Geomagnetically Trapped Debris of a High Altitude Nuclear Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    James Luscombe, Chairman, Department of Physics Approved by... whistler waves. The whistler waves are known to be caused by lightening strikes80, VLF transmissions81, and plasmaspheric hiss82, and other possible...Events,” J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 93, 1988: 9841. 82 Draganov et al., “Magnetosperically Reflected Whistlers as a Source of Plasmaspheric Hiss

  11. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William A., E-mail: willw00@uchicago.edu; Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HiSS MRI) yields information on the local environment of suspicious lesions. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of HiSS (complete fat-suppression, improved image contrast, no required contrast agent, etc.), leading to initial investigations of water resonance lineshape for the purpose of breast lesion classification. The purpose of this study is to investigate a quantitative imaging biomarker, which characterizes non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance in HiSS MRI datasets, for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: The inhomogeneous broadening and non-Lorentzian or “off-peak” components seen in the water resonance of proton spectra of breastmore » HiSS images are analyzed by subtracting a Lorentzian fit from the water peak spectra and evaluating the difference spectrum or “residual.” The maxima of these residuals (referred to hereafter as “off-peak components”) tend to be larger in magnitude in malignant lesions, indicating increased broadening in malignant lesions. The authors considered only those voxels with the highest magnitude off-peak components in each lesion, with the number of selected voxels dependent on lesion size. Our voxel-based method compared the magnitudes and frequencies of off-peak components of all voxels from all lesions in a database that included 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions (yielding ∼3900 voxels) based on the lesions’ biopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Lesion classification was accomplished by comparing the average off-peak component magnitudes and frequencies in malignant and benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for both the voxel-based and lesion-based methods. Results: In the voxel-based task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, off-peak magnitude yielded an AUC of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the lesion-based task of distinguishing

  12. Comparison of the measured and modeled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during the period 25-29 June 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Abe, T.; Oyama, K.-I.

    2001-04-01

    We present a comparison of the electron density and temperature behavior measured in the ionosphere by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar during the period 25-29 June 1990, and in the plasmasphere within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite in the Northern Hemisphere between 02:07:56 UT and 02:11:08 UT on 28 June 1990 with numerical model calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere. We have evaluated the value of the nighttime additional heating rate that should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation in the plasmasphere region above 5000 km along the magnetic field line to explain the high electron temperature measured by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite. The additional heating brings the measured and modeled electron temperatures into agreement with the plasmasphere and into very large disagreement with the ionosphere if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field line is used in the model. The approach of Pavlov et al. (Annales Geophysicae 18 (2000) 1257-1272) based on an effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line, is used to explain the measured electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical Spitzer-Harm theory. The evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere and the decrease of the thermal conductivity in the topside ionosphere and the greater part of the plasmasphere allow the model to accurately reproduce the electron temperatures observed by the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite in the plasmasphere and the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar in the ionosphere. The resulting effect of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated daytime NmF2 up to a factor of 2. The modeled electron

  13. An entropy regularization method applied to the identification of wave distribution function for an ELF hiss event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prot, Olivier; SantolíK, OndřEj; Trotignon, Jean-Gabriel; Deferaudy, Hervé

    2006-06-01

    An entropy regularization algorithm (ERA) has been developed to compute the wave-energy density from electromagnetic field measurements. It is based on the wave distribution function (WDF) concept. To assess its suitability and efficiency, the algorithm is applied to experimental data that has already been analyzed using other inversion techniques. The FREJA satellite data that is used consists of six spectral matrices corresponding to six time-frequency points of an ELF hiss-event spectrogram. The WDF analysis is performed on these six points and the results are compared with those obtained previously. A statistical stability analysis confirms the stability of the solutions. The WDF computation is fast and without any prespecified parameters. The regularization parameter has been chosen in accordance with the Morozov's discrepancy principle. The Generalized Cross Validation and L-curve criterions are then tentatively used to provide a fully data-driven method. However, these criterions fail to determine a suitable value of the regularization parameter. Although the entropy regularization leads to solutions that agree fairly well with those already published, some differences are observed, and these are discussed in detail. The main advantage of the ERA is to return the WDF that exhibits the largest entropy and to avoid the use of a priori models, which sometimes seem to be more accurate but without any justification.

  14. A simulation study of mode conversion process from Upper-Hybrid waves to LO-mode waves in plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaee, M. J.; Ono, T.; Kumamoto, A.; Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.

    2009-04-01

    In order to clarify the role of the mode conversion process in the generation mechanism of LO-mode waves in the plasmasphere such as kilometric continuum, we have investigated the mode conversion process among UHR-mode, Z-mode and LO-mode waves by a numerical simulation solving Maxwell's equations and the motion equation of a cold electron fluid. The characteristics of the wave coupling process occurring in the cold magnetized plasma are examined in detail. In order to improve the model to actual one, we used the plasma wave data obtained by the Akebono satellite in the plasmasphere. Density gradient was estimated based on resonance frequency of UHR_ waves, the indicate wave normal angle was estimated by comparing observed Ex/Ey with Ex/Ey derived from dispersion relation. Numerical simulation of mode conversion was, then, performed based on estimated density gradient and incident wave normal angle. The results are similar with observation. Simulation results show the radio window, beaming angle of generated LO mode waves, is less than the prediction of previous theory, which agree to observations of kilometric continuum.

  15. Observations of the coupling efficiency of VLF lightning-generated whistlers into the low-latitude plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The C/NOFS satellite [de La Beaujardiere, 2004] has provided a vast archive of multi-sensor data on the low-latitude ionosphere/plasmasphere since 2008. As part of the project, the VEFI payload [Pfaff et al., 2010] has recorded the 3-D electric field from DC through 16 kHz with high fidelity. The relative calibrations track between the three E-field antennas with sufficient accuracy and stability to allow retrieval of the wave polarization for a wide range of lightning-generated whistler waves [Jacobson et al., 2014]. The wave polarization in turn allows retrieval of the wavevector (within a sign ambiguity), which in turn allows an inverse-raytrace of the whistler raypath from the satellite to the ionospheric entry point. We will compare the raytrace predictions with ground-truth from the WWLLN global lightning-monitoring system [Lay et al., 2004; Rodger et al., 2005; Rodger et al., 2004]. In addition to providing location and time of lightning strokes, WWLLN provides an estimate of the radiated radio energy in the whistler passband [Hutchins et al., 2012]. Finally, the CINDI payload [Heelis et al., 2009] on C/NOFS provides ion composition at the satellite, permitting the index of refraction to be inferred. We will compare these estimates to the Poynting fluence density observed by VEFI, thereby providing a direct test of the coupling of lightning radio energy into plasmaspheric whistlers.

  16. 27-day forecast of recurrent magnetic activity applied to predictions of total electron content with standard plasmasphere-ionosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T.

    A mathematical filter has been proposed for calculating the recurrent geomagnetic storms with high accuracy based on the index values for five days (two preceding calendar days and three days in two preceding Bartels rotations). The proposed filter is extended to 27-day forecast of 3-hour magnetic indices. Four levels of magnetic activity are specified by occurrence frequency of the disturbances in 1868-2001: 0, quiet conditions; 1, weak disturbances; 2, moderate disturbances; and 3, intense storms. The threshold index values in each group differ for the instantaneous three- hourly indices, daily initial indices, 27-day predicted indices, and mean indices for a Bartels rotation. The standard plasmasphere-ionosphere model (SPIM) driven by input files allows ingestion of routine magnetic indices including above 27-day forecast of magnetic activity. This allows forecasting of the total electron content, TEC, through the ionosphere and plasmasphere. Results of above modeling and forecasting are compared with routine ionosonde and GPS_TEC observations available via Internet.

  17. Development of a methodology for deriving Plasmaspheric Total Electron Content from In-Situ electron density measurements in highly eccentric equatorial orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhique, Aliyuthuman; Buckley, Andrew; Gough, Paul; Sussex Space Science Centre Team

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the Upper Plasmasphere (defined as the altitudes above semi-synchronous orbit height to the Plasmapause height) to the TEC has been and continues to be un-quantified. The PEACE instrument in the Chinese - ESA Double Star TC1 satellite, the mission's orbit's high eccentricity, low perigee, high apogee and the resulting smaller incident angle while in the above altitude range provide the ideal geometric opportunity to build a methodology and to utilize its empirical in-situ electron density measurements to determine the Upper Plasmaspheric TEC component. Furthermore, the variation of the Inclination Angle of TC1 makes it a suitable equatorial mission confined to the Near-Equatorial region, ie 200 - 250 on either sides of the magnetic equator. As the most pronounced absolute TEC values and variations are within this region, it offers an excellent opportunity to build a Upper Plasmaspheric TEC database. This research generates such, first-ever database along its orbital path, using a methodology of approximation equating arcs of the orbits to straight-line TEC Bars, utilizing complex mathematics, also enabling the determination of the whole Plasmaspheric TEC from any eccentric orbital probe. Presented the paper in 15th International Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST radar (MST15/iMST2)'' and ``18th EISCAT Symposium (EISCAT18)'' in Tokyo, Japan and The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting 2017.

  18. Modeling and observations of ULF waves trapped in a plasmaspheric density plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeling, A. W.; Zhang, S.; Foster, J. C.; Shi, Q.; Zong, Q. G.; Rankin, R.

    2017-12-01

    In order for ULF waves to effectively energise radiation belt electrons by drift-resonance, wave power must be significant in regions within the magnetosphere where the ULF wave phase propagation and electron drift directions are roughly aligned. For waves launched along the dayside magnetopause, such a region would be located in the afternoon - dusk sector of the inner magnetosphere. During periods of storm activity and enhanced convection, the plasma density in this region is highly dynamic due to the development of plasmaspheric drainage plume (PDP) structure. This significantly affects the local Alfvén speed, and alters the propagation of ULF waves launched from the magnetopause. It can therefore be expected that the accessibility of ULF wave power for radiation belt energisation is sensitively dependent on the recent history of magnetospheric convection, and the stage of development of the PDP. This is investigated using a 3D model for ULF waves within the magnetosphere in which the plasma density distribution is evolved using an advection model for cold plasma, driven by a (Volland - Stern) convection electrostatic field (resulting in PDP structure). The wave model includes magnetic-field day/night asymmetry, and extends to a paraboloid dayside magnetopause, from which ULF waves are launched at various stages during the PDP development. We find that the plume structure significantly alters the field line resonance (FLR) location, and the turning point for MHD fast waves, introducing strong asymmetry in the ULF wave distribution across the noon meridian. Moreover, the density enhancement within the PDP creates a waveguide or local cavity for MHD fast waves, such that eigenmodes formed allow the penetration of ULF wave power to much lower L within the plume than outside. This may explain satellite observations of the appearance of ULF wave activity within localized density enhancements associated with a PDP. Such an example, made by THEMIS following a

  19. Endogenous and environmental factors influence the dietary fractionation of 13C and 15N in hissing cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-01-01

    Since DeNiro and Epstein's discovery that the (13)C and (15)N isotopic signatures of animals approximate those of their respective diets, the measurement of stable isotope signatures has become an important tool for ecologists studying the diets of wild animals. This study used Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) to examine several preexisting hypotheses about the relationship between the isotopic composition of an animal and its diet. Contrary to my predictions, the results revealed that the tissues of adult cockroaches raised for two generations on a diet of known isotopic composition did not demonstrate enrichment of heavy stable isotopes. Moreover, the (15)N signatures of cockroaches were neither influenced by periods of rapid growth (i.e., 300-fold increase in dry body mass over 120 d) nor by imposed periods of starvation lasting up to 80 d. The offspring born to mothers raised on known diets were enriched in (15)N. Diet-switching experiments showed that turnover times of (13)C were highly correlated with age and ranged from 9 to 10 d to 60 to 75 d in subadults and adults, respectively. Adults subjected to diet switches differed from the subadults in that the adults achieved equilibrated isotopic signatures that were shifted approximately 1.0 per thousand toward their respective original diets. Lipid fractions of adult cockroaches averaged 2.9 per thousand more depleted in (13)C than in lipid-free fractions, but no changes in (13)C were observed in aging adults. Exposure to reduced ambient temperature from 33 degrees C to 23 degrees C over 120 d did not influence isotopic signatures of tissues. Overall, the results of this study reveal that different endogenous and exogenous factors can influence the isotopic signatures of cockroaches. These findings reinforce the need to conduct controlled studies to further examine environmental factors that influence the relationships between the isotopic signatures of animals and their diets.

  20. Initial report of the High Frequency Analyzer (HFA) onboard the ARASE (ERG) Satellite: Observations of the plasmasphere evolution and auroral kilometric radiation from the both hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Kojima, H.; Yagitani, S.; Ishisaka, K.; Imachi, T.; Ozaki, M.; Matsuda, S.; Shoji, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Katoh, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Obara, T.

    2017-12-01

    High Frequency Analyzer (HFA) is a subsystem of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) onboard the ARASE (ERG, Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace) spacecraft for observation of radio and plasma waves in a frequency range from 0.01 to 10 MHz. In ARASE mission, HFA is expected to perform the following observations: (1) Upper hybrid resonance (UHR) waves in order to determine the electron number density around the spacecraft. (2) Magnetic field component of the chorus waves in a frequency range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz. (3) Radio and plasma waves excited via wave particle interactions and mode conversion processes in storm-time magnetosphere.HFA is operated in the following three observation modes: EE-mode, EB-mode, and PP-mode. In far-Earth region, HFA is operated in EE-mode. Spectrogram of two orthogonal or right and left-handed components of electric field in perpendicular directions to the spin axis of the spacecraft are obtained. In the near-Earth region, HFA is operated in EB-mode. Spectrogram of one components of electric field in perpendicular direction to the spin plane, and one component of the magnetic field in parallel direction to the spin axis are obtained. In EE and EB-modes, the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 MHz are covered with 480 frequency steps. The time resolution is 8 sec. We also prepared PP mode to measure the locations and structures of the plasmapause at higher resolution. In PP-mode, spectrogram of one electric field component in a frequency range from 0.01-0.4 MHz (PP1) or 0.1-1 MHz (PP2) can be obtained at time resolution of 1 sec.After the successful deployment of the wire antenna and search coils mast and initial checks, we could start routine observations and detect various radio and plasma wave phenomena such as upper hybrid resonance (UHR) waves, electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ESCH) waves, auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), kilometric continuum (KC) and Type-III solar radio bursts. In the presentation, we

  1. The CuSPED Mission: CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Jason N.; Keesee, Amy M.; Christian, John A.; Gu, Yu; Scime, Earl; Komjathy, Attila; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density (CuSPED) is a 3U CubeSat mission concept that has been developed in response to the NASA Heliophysics program's decadal science goal of the determining of the dynamics and coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs. The mission was formulated through a collaboration between West Virginia University, Georgia Tech, NASA GSFC and NASA JPL, and features a 3U CubeSat that hosts both a miniaturized space capable Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver for topside atmospheric sounding, along with a Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS) for the purpose of in situ electron precipitation measurements. These two complimentary measurement techniques will provide data for the purpose of constraining ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling models and will also enable studies of the local plasma environment and spacecraft charging; a phenomenon which is known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of low-energy, charged species from instruments aboard spacecraft traversing the ionosphere. This paper will provide an overview of the concept including its science motivation and implementation.

  2. Equatorial Ionospheric Response to Different Estimated Disturbed Electric Fields as Investigated Using Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model at INPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Souza, J. R.; Foppiano, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Good ionospheric modeling is important to understand anomalous effects, mainly during geomagnetic storm events. Ionospheric electric fields, thermospheric winds, and neutral composition are affected at different degrees, depending on the intensity of the magnetic disturbance which, in turns, affects the electron density distribution at all latitudes. The most important disturbed parameter for the equatorial ionosphere is the electric field, which is responsible for the equatorial ionization anomaly. Here various electric field measurements and models are analyzed: (1) measured by the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR), (2) from Jicamarca Unattended Long-Term studies of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar, (3) deduced from magnetometers, (4) calculated from the time variations of the F layer height (dh'F/dt), and (5) deduced from interplanetary electric field determinations. The response of ionospheric parameters foF2 and hmF2 to the electric fields simulated using the Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model version available at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais is compared with observations for two locations, during the geomagnetic storm events of 17-18 April 2002 and 7-10 November 2004. Results are found to be consistent with the observations in such a way that a hierarchy among the different types of drifts used can be established. When no ISR measurements are available, the drifts deduced from magnetometers or measured by the JULIA are best when including the contribution derived from dh'F/dt for the 18-24 LT time interval. However, when none of these drifts are available, drifts inferred from the interplanetary electric field seem to be a good alternative for some purposes.

  3. Comparison of the measured and modeled electron densities and temperatures in the ionosphere and plasmasphere during 14-16 May 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The electron density and temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere measured by the Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radar and the instruments on board of the EXOS-D satellite are compared with calculations from a time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere during 14-16 May 1991. Use of [O]/[N2] correction factors with the NRLMSISE-00 model of the neutral atmosphere was found to bring the modeled and measured F-region main peak electron densities into agreement. It was found that the nighttime additional heating rate should be added to the normal photoelectron heating in the electron energy equation, in the nighttime plasmasphere region, in order for the model to reproduce the observed high plasmaspheric electron temperature within the Millstone Hill magnetic field flux tube in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional heating brings the measured and modeled electron temperatures into agreement in the plasmasphere and into a very large disagreement in the ionosphere, if the classical electron heat flux along magnetic field lines is used. An approach of Pavlov et al. (2000, 2001) based on a new effective electron thermal conductivity coefficient along the magnetic field line and the evaluated additional heating of electrons in the plasmasphere is used to explain the observed electron temperature in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. This approach leads to a heat flux which is less than that given by the classical theory. The effects of the additional plasmaspheric heating of electrons on the electron temperature and density are small at the F-region altitudes if the modified electron heat flux is used. We found that the resulting effect of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 on NmF2 is the decrease of the calculated NmF2 by up to a factor of about 2.7 by day and up to a factor of about 2.5 by night. The modeled electron temperature is very sensitive to the electron density, and this decrease in electron density results in an increase of

  4. Multi-scale observations of whistler, hiss and other magnetospheric plasma waves during a series of conjunctions between ARASE (ERG) and Van Allen Probes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kletzing, C.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kasahara, Y.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Hikishima, M.; Matsuda, S.; Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The recently launched JAXA satellite ARASE (formerly known as ERG) probes the Earth's inner magnetosphere, particularly the Van Allen radiation belts. This new addition to the constellation of inner magnetospheric satellites complements the other missions therein, including Van Allen Probes, and provides the opportunity to investigate magnetospheric processes on a variety of scales. We have identified several magnetic and geographic conjunctions between ARASE and one or both of the Van Allen Probes satellites. With the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument we are collecting continuous burst mode waveform data during and around these conjunctions, and the ARASE and Van Allen Probes EMFISIS instruments are collecting burst mode data as well. The first several collections have been received on the ground, and initial studies reveal both correlated and uncorrelated whistler and hiss waves on the two satellites. Several additional conjunction events are planned in the coming weeks. We plan to analyze the waves observed on the two satellites during the conjunctions, including performing correlation and polarization analysis to investigate the spatial scale of the various magnetospheric wave modes and how the different waves present over different scales. This data will be complemented by data from other satellites in the inner magnetosphere as well as ground data including magnetometers and the World Wide Lightning Location Network. This study will add significantly to our understanding of magnetospheric processes and scales.

  5. Properties of large scale plasma flow during the early stage of the plasmaspheric refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Craven, P.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to better characterize the macroscopic properties of the interhemisphere plasma flow by solving a more complete set of hydrodynamic equations than that solved previously. Specifically, the ion continuity, momentum and energy equations were solved for the plasma flow along the closed magnetic field lines. During the initial stage of the supersonic outflow in the equatorial region, the ions cool substantially. Using the hydrodynamic model for the large-scale plasma flow, the dynamics of shocks was examined which form in the geomagnetic flux tubes during the early stages of refilling. These shocks are more like those forming in neutral gases than the electrostatic shocks driven by microinstabilities involving ion-ion interaction. Therefore, the shocks seen in the hydrodynamic model are termed as hydrodynamic shocks. Such shocks are generally unsteady and therefore the usual shock jump conditions given by Rankine-Hugoniot relations are not strictly applicable to them. The density, flow velocity and temperature structures associated with the shocks are examined for both asymmetrical and symmetrical flows. In the asymmetrical flow the outflow from one of two conjugate ionospheres is dominant. On the other hand, in the symmetrical case outflows from the two ionospheric sources are identical. Both cases are treated by a two-stream model. In the late type of flow, the early-time refilling shows a relaxation type of oscillation, which is driven by the large-scale interactions between the two identical streams. After this early stage, the resulting temperature structure shows some interesting features. In the equatorial region the streams are isothermal, but in the off-equatorial regions the streams have quite different temperatures, and also densities and flow velocities. The dense and slow stream is found to be warmer than the low-density fast stream. In the late stage of refilling, the temperature is found to steadily increase from the conjugate

  6. First protein and peptide characterization of the tarsal adhesive secretions in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Betz, O; Maurer, A; Verheyden, A N; Schmitt, C; Kowalik, T; Braun, J; Grunwald, I; Hartwig, A; Neuenfeldt, M

    2016-10-01

    Peptides and proteins have been largely neglected in the analysis of insect tarsal adhesives. After extraction of the protein fraction of the tarsal secretion of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, we combined Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses for protein mass detection. In both these insects, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed several protein bands ranging from 8-190 kDa in both the tarsal secretion and the tibia control sample. Two (S. gregaria) and one (G. portentosa) protein bands exclusively occurred in the tarsal secretion and can be considered to belong to peptides and proteins specific to this secretion. MALDI-TOF analyses revealed 83 different proteins/peptides of 1-7 kDa in S. gregaria, and 48 of 1-11 kDa in G. portentosa. 59 (S. gregaria) and 27 (G. portentosa) proteins exclusively occurred in the tarsal secretion. In G. portentosa, a characteristic series of signal peaks occurred in the range of c. 10-12 kDa, each peak being approximately 160 Da apart. Such a pattern is indicative of proteins modified by glycosylation. Our approach demonstrates that extensive sampling involving considerable time and manpower to sample the adhesive fluid directly from the tarsi opens up a perspective for extracting peptides and proteins in sufficient quantities. This makes them accessible to the field of proteomics and thus to elucidate their possible function in the adhesive process. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Reply to [“Comment on “There is no magnestosphere...nor is there a plasmasphere!’”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    Despite the thorough introduction to four-letter words being given to our children at an early age by the television and recording industries, it is difficult to avoid the impression that accuracy in the use of words is declining in our society. Indeed, Orwellian doublespeak has become the norm at the leadership level: we all know what tax reform really means, for example. With this background, it is a pleasure to see Behannon and Anderson consulting their dictionaries and taking me to task for my literal interpretation of the “sphere” in magnetosphere and plasmasphere. However, I had earlier rejected the “sphere of influence,” or “place or range of action or existence” connotation, and I continue to do so, for the following reasons.

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of the Geoeffective Solar Event of 21 June 2015: Effects on the Magnetosphere, Plasmasphere, and Ionosphere Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, Mirko; Alberti, Tommaso; Bemporad, Alessandro; Berrilli, Francesco; Bruno, Roberto; Capparelli, Vincenzo; Carbone, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio; Consolini, Giuseppe; Cristaldi, Alice; Del Corpo, Alfredo; Del Moro, Dario; Di Matteo, Simone; Ermolli, Ilaria; Fineschi, Silvano; Giannattasio, Fabio; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Giovannelli, Luca; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Laurenza, Monica; Lepreti, Fabio; Marcucci, Maria Federica; Martucci, Matteo; Mergè, Matteo; Pezzopane, Michael; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Romano, Paolo; Sparvoli, Roberta; Spogli, Luca; Stangalini, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio; Vellante, Massimo; Villante, Umberto; Zuccarello, Francesca; Heilig, Balázs; Reda, Jan; Lichtenberger, János

    2017-11-01

    , to investigate the influence of the disturbed electric field on the low-latitude ionosphere induced by geomagnetic storms, we focused on the morphology of the crests of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly by the simultaneous use of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, ionosondes, and Langmuir probes onboard the Swarm constellation satellites. Moreover, we investigated the dynamics of the plasmasphere during the different phases of the geomagnetic storm by examining the time evolution of the radial profiles of the equatorial plasma mass density derived from field line resonances detected at the EMMA network (1.5 < L < 6.5). Finally, we present the general features of the geomagnetic response to the CME by applying innovative data analysis tools that allow us to investigate the time variation of ground-based observations of the Earth's magnetic field during the associated geomagnetic storm.

  9. Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jie; Zong, Q. G.; Miyoshi, Y.

    2017-08-30

    Here, we report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions thatmore » plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations suggest ULF waves in the event were strongest on the dusk-side magnetosphere. Measurements from MMS 1 contain no evidence of an external wave source during the period when ULF waves and injected energetic protons with a bump-on-tail distribution were detected by Van Allen Probe B. This suggests that the observed ULF waves were probably excited by a localized drift-bounce resonant instability, with the free energy supplied by substorm-injected energetic protons. The observations by Van Allen Probe B suggest that energy transfer between particle species in different energy ranges can take place through the action of ULF waves, demonstrating the important role of these waves in the dynamical processes of the inner magnetosphere.« less

  10. Ray-tracing studies and path-integrated gains of ELF unducted whistler mode waves in the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Gyroresonance and Landau resonance interactions between unducted low-frequency whistler waves and trapped electrons in the earth's plasmasphere have been studied. Ray paths for waves launched near the plasmapause have been traced. In agreement with recent findings by Thorne et al. (1979), waves have been found which return through the equatorial zone with field-aligned wave normal angles. However, when the growth along the ray path is calculated for such waves, assuming an electron distribution function of the form E exp -n sin exp m alpha, it is found that for all the waves considered, the local growth rate becomes negative before plasmapause reflection, limiting the total gain to small values. Most waves reach zero gain before reflection. This is the result of Landau damping at oblique propagation angles, which necessarily occurs before reflection can take place. It is concluded that the concept of cyclic ray paths does not provide an explanation for the generation of unguided plasmaspheric hiss.

  11. The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, J.; An, X.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at dawn, while plasmaspheric hiss wave power predominantly decreases near the dayside but intensifies near the nightside. We conclude that chorus wave intensification outside the plasmasphere is probably associated with the suprathermal electron flux enhancement caused by the IP shock. On the other hand, the solar wind dynamic pressure increase changes the magnetic field configuration to favor ray penetration into the nightside and promote ray refraction away from the dayside, explaining the magnetic local time (MLT) dependent responses of plasmaspheric hiss waves following IP shock arrivals.

  12. Systematics of isotopic production cross sections from interactions of relativistic 40Ca in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-X.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; McMahon, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1997-09-01

    The isotopic production cross sections for 40Ca projectiles at 357, 565, and 763 MeV/nucleon interacting in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured by the Transport Collaboration at the LBL HISS facility. The systematics of these cross sections are studied, and the results indicate that nuclear structure effects are present in the isotope production process during the relativistic collisions. The newly measured cross sections are also compared with those predicted by semiempirical and parametric formulas, but the predictions do not fully describe the systematics such as the energy dependence. The consequences of the cross section systematics in galactic cosmic ray studies are also discussed.

  13. Comparison of the observed topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content derived from the COSMIC podTEC measurements with the IRI_Plas model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Lian; Liu, Libo; Wan, Weixing; Ning, Baiqi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, variations of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron contents (TPEC) in the altitude range of ∼800 to 20,200 km are compared with the IRI_Plas model results for the low (2008) and high (2012) solar activity years using TEC data (podTEC) derived from the upward-looking precise orbit determination antenna on board COSMIC low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites tracking the GPS signals. For each year, the dataset were divided into groups according to four seasons: M-Equinox (March, April), J-Solstice (May June, July and August), S-Equinox (September, October) and D-Solstice (January, February, November, and December). Our study showed that the IRI_Plas model is able to reproduce reasonably well the main features of the observational TPEC's latitudinal, diurnal as well as seasonal variation tendency when no longitudinal difference is taken into account. However, there exist discrepancies between the observational TPEC and the model results. Except for the daytime hours in the Equinoctial seasons of the high solar activity year 2012 when the IRI_Plas model results showed an overestimation, in general, the IRI_Plas model results underestimate the observational ones, in particular at nighttime hours in the low-latitude region. When the longitudinal difference is taken into account, the comparison study showed that the longitudinal dependence effect shown in the observational TPEC's seasonal variations was not captured by the IRI_Plas model result. Moreover, the IRI_Plas model results tend to show a double-peak structure in the low-latitude region, a feature not appearing in the observational results.

  14. Characterizing MHD Fast Mode Wave Properties Relevant for Radiation Belt Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast mode waves (FMW) can interact with radiation belt electrons directly or by coupling to standing Alfven waves via field line resonance (FLR). Statistical analysis of FMW amplitudes, frequencies, and spatial distributions is needed to constrain the role of FMW in wave-particle interactions and FLR. However, observations of FMW outside the plasmasphere are complicated by the presence of other Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave modes with large amplitudes and similar magnetic signatures to FMW. We use Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite measurements of the thermal pressure, magnetic field, and electric field near the magnetic equator to identify FMW events and discriminate them from other ULF wave modes. We present preliminary results for the spatial distribution and typical amplitudes of FMW with frequencies appropriate for radiation belt interactions.

  15. Global empirical models of ionospheric electron temperature in the upper F-region and plasmasphere based on in situ measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer-C, ISIS-1 and ISIS-2 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, L. H.; Theis, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Langmuir probe measurements of electron temperature, T sub e, in the vicinity of 300, 400, 1400 and 3000 km from the Atmosphere Explorer-C and the ISIS satellites have been employed to construct empirical models of the global distribution of T sub e at each of these altitudes. Legendre polynomials are employed to describe the observations at solstice and equinox in terms of dip latitude and local time. Sources of T sub e variations, such as solar activity, magnetic activity and longitude are found to be of second order importance, although they are resolvable in some cases by comparisons of the data with the model. The behavior of T sub e at the altitudes of these models is discussed in terms of its implications for our understanding of the energy exchange between the F-region and the plasmasphere.

  16. The Upgraded European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server: new DIAS products for the high latitude ionosphere, the topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, Anna; Kutiev, Ivan; Zolesi, Bruno; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Dialetis, Dimitris; Marinov, Pencho; Fidanova, Stefka; Cander, Lili; Pietrella, Marco; Tziotziou, Kostas; Lykiardopoulos, Angelos

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and in particular its ionized part, is very important in several applications affected by space weather, especially the communications and navigation systems that rely on radio transmission. To better classify the ionosphere and forecast its disturbances over Europe, a data and model infrastructure platform called the European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS) has been established in the National Observatory of Athens by a European consortium formed around eight ionospheric stations, and funded by the European Commission. The DIAS system operates since 2006 and the basic products that are delivered are real-time and historical ionograms, frequency plots and maps of the ionosphere on the foF2, M(3000)F2, MUF and bottomside electron density, as well as long term and short term forecasting up to 24 hour ahead. The DIAS system supports more than 500 subscribed users, including telecommunication companies, satellite operators, space agencies, radio amateurs, research organizations and the space weather scientific community. In 2012 the system has been upgraded, in close collaboration between the National Observatory of Athens, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, with funding from the ESA/SSA Programme. The first group of new products results from the implementation of the TaD model (Topside Sounder Model assisted by Digisonde) that makes possible the generation of maps of the electron density at heights up to GNSS orbits, and of TEC and partial TEC maps (topside and plasmaspheric) over Europe. The TaD is based on the simple empirical functions for the transition height, the topside electron density scale height and their ratio, based on the Alouette/ISIS database, and models separately the oxygen, hydrogen and helium ions density profiles. The model takes as input the plasma characteristics at the height of maximum electron concentration that are provided in real

  17. Contact solid-phase microextraction with uncoated glass and polydimethylsiloxane-coated fibers versus solvent sampling for the determination of hydrocarbons in adhesion secretions of Madagascar hissing cockroaches Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Blattodea) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-04-03

    Molecular profiles of adhesion secretions of Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach, Blattodea) were investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with particular focus on a comprehensive analysis of linear and branched hydrocarbons. For this purpose, secretions from the tarsi (feet), possibly contributing to adhesion on smooth surfaces, and control samples taken from the tibiae (lower legs), which contain general cuticular hydrocarbons that are supposed to be not involved in the biological adhesion function, were analyzed and their molecular fingerprints compared. A major analytical difficulty in such a study constitutes the representative, spatially controlled, precise and reproducible sampling from a living insect as well as the minute quantities of insect secretions on both tarsi and tibiae. Thus, three different in vivo sampling methods were compared in terms of sampling reproducibility and extraction efficiency by replicate measurement of samples from tarsi and tibiae. While contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber showed higher peak intensities, a self-made uncoated glass fiber had the best repeatability in contact-SPME sampling. Chromatographic profiles of these two contact-SPME sampling methods were statistically not significantly different. Inter-individual variances were larger than potentially existing minor differences in molecular patterns of distinct sampling methods. Sampling by solvent extraction was time consuming, showed lower sensitivities and was less reproducible. In general, sampling by contact-SPME with a cheap glass fiber turned out to be a viable alternative to PDMS-SPME sampling. Hydrocarbon patterns of the tarsal adhesion secretions were qualitatively similar to those of epicuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the tibiae. However, hydrocarbons were in general less abundant in tarsal secretions than secretions from tibiae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A program to measure new energetic particle nuclear interaction cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Albergo, S.; Chen, C. X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Jones, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transport Collaboration, consisting of researchers from institutions in France, Germany, Italy, and the USA, has established a program to make new measurements of nuclear interaction cross sections for heavy projectiles (Z greater than or equal to 2) in targets of liquid H2, He and heavier materials. Such cross sections directly affect calculations of galactic and solar cosmic ray transport through matter and are needed for accurate radiation hazard assessment. To date, the collaboration has obtained data using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac HISS facility with 20 projectiles from He-4 to Ni-58 in the energy range 393-910 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results from the analysis of these data are presented here and compared to other measurements and to cross section prediction formulae.

  19. A program to measure new energetic particle nuclear interaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Albergo, S.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Jones, F. C.; Knott, C. N.; Ko, S.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mazotta, J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Romanski, J.; Potenza, R.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuve, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.; Zhang, X.

    1994-10-01

    The Transport Collaboration, consisting of researchers from institutions in France, Germany, Italy, and the USA, has established a program to make new measurements of nuclear interaction cross sections for heavy projectiles (Z greater than or equal to 2) in targets of liquid H2, He and heavier materials. Such cross sections directly affect calculations of galactic and solar cosmic ray transport through matter and are needed for accurate radiation hazard assessment. To date, the collaboration has obtained data using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac HISS facility with 20 projectiles from He-4 to Ni-58 in the energy range 393-910 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results from the analysis of these data are presented here and compared to other measurements and to cross section prediction formulae.

  20. Interactions in hydrogen of relativistic neon to nickel projectiles: Total charge-changing cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-X.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Jones, F. C.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.; Zhang, X.

    1994-06-01

    A liquid hydrogen target was used to study the nuclear fragmentation of beams of relativistic heavy ions, 22Ne to 58Ni, over an energy range 400 to 900 MeV/nucleon. The experiments were carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac HISS facility, using the charge-velocity-rigidity method to identify the charged fragments. Here we describe the general concept of the experiment and present total charge-changing cross sections obtained from 17 separate runs. These new measured cross sections display an energy dependence which follows semiempirical model predictions. The mass dependence of the cross sections behaves as predicted by optical models, but within the experimental energy range, the optical model parameters display a clear energy dependence. The isospin of the projectile nuclei also appears to be an important factor in the interaction process.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  2. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.; Henderson, M. G.; Camporeale, E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-10-01

    a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) "Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge," a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15 October 1990 and 1 February to 31 July 1991. The 3D diffusion model, developed as part of the Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) project, includes radial, pitch angle, and momentum diffusion and mixed pitch angle-momentum diffusion, which are driven by dynamic wave databases from the statistical CRRES wave data, including plasmaspheric hiss, lower-band, and upper-band chorus. By comparing the DREAM3D model outputs to the CRRES electron phase space density (PSD) data, we find that, with a data-driven boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, the electron enhancements can generally be explained by radial diffusion, though additional local heating from chorus waves is required. Because the PSD reductions are included in the boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, our model captures the fast electron dropouts over a large L range, producing better model performance compared to previous published results. Plasmaspheric hiss produces electron losses inside the plasmasphere, but the model still sometimes overestimates the PSD there. Test simulations using reduced radial diffusion coefficients or increased pitch angle diffusion coefficients inside the plasmasphere suggest that better wave models and more realistic radial diffusion coefficients, both inside and outside the plasmasphere, are needed to improve the model performance. Statistically, the results show that, with the data-driven outer boundary condition, including radial diffusion and plasmaspheric hiss is sufficient to model the electrons during geomagnetically quiet times, but to best capture the radiation belt variations during active times, pitch angle and momentum diffusion from chorus waves are required.

  3. Relativistic Interaction of 22Ne and 26Mg in Hydrogen and the Cosmic-Ray Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-X.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; McMahon, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1997-04-01

    The isotopic production cross sections for 22Ne projectiles at 377,581, and 894 MeV nucleon-1 and 26Mg projectiles at 371 and 576 MeV nucleon-1 interacting in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured by the Transport Collaboration at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Heavy-Ion Spectrometer System (LBL HISS) facility. These cross sections are compared with those predicted by semi-empirical formulae. The systematics are studied to develop suitable inputs for calculations of galactic cosmic-ray interstellar transport. These calculations are used to unfold the transport effects from available observations of cosmic-ray CNO isotopes to extract the underlying source composition. With these new cross section measurements, the previously reported enhancement of 18O at the cosmic-ray source, which is sensitive to the cross sections for production from 22Ne and 26Mg and the uncertainties in cross section prediction formulae, may be explained. There is no evidence for an enhancement of 18O when these new cross sections are used in a weighted slab propagation calculation.

  4. Nonlinear Interaction of Naturally and Artificially Excited VLF and ELF Waves in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir; Caplinger, James; Kim, Tony; Mishin, Euvgeny

    2017-10-01

    We report on analysis of nonlinear parametric coupling between quasi-electrostatic whistler waves (also known as Lower Oblique Resonance (LOR) waves) and of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fast magnetosonic waves to generate electromagnetic whistler waves. Natural and artificial VLF and ELF sources are analyzed. In the case of naturally excited VLF/ELF waves we show that nonlinear parametric coupling between the LOR and ELF waves suffices to explain the observed electromagnetic whistler waves in the plasmasphere boundary layer. In the case of artificial sources such as a loop antenna a great deal of the source power is radiated not as an electromagnetic whistler wave, but as a quasi-electrostatic LOR mode. Only a small percentage of the power is radiated as the electromagnetic whistler wave. We present new results on parametric interaction of LOR waves with ELF waves to demonstrate the possibility to overcome this difficulty. It will be shown that interaction of LOR waves gives rise to excitation of electromagnetic whistler waves. Additionally, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which demonstrate the excitation and spatial structure of VLF waves excited by conventional and parametric sources will be presented. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Interactive numerals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although Arabic numerals (like ‘2016’ and ‘3.14’) are ubiquitous, we show that in interactive computer applications they are often misleading and surprisingly unreliable. We introduce interactive numerals as a new concept and show, like Roman numerals and Arabic numerals, interactive numerals introduce another way of using and thinking about numbers. Properly understanding interactive numerals is essential for all computer applications that involve numerical data entered by users, including finance, medicine, aviation and science. PMID:28484609

  6. Interactive lecturing.

    PubMed

    White, Geoff

    2011-12-01

    Lectures can vary from being entirely teacher-centred through to those that value learner-teacher and learner-learner interaction. Advocates of the exclusively didactic (teacher-centred) lecture aim to maximise the amount of lecture time available to their delivery of content, and regard other activities as 'lost' lecture time. Educational research has, however, identified the potential benefit of interactivity that promotes mentally active learning and improved learning outcomes. This article reviews the notion of 'active learning', outlines how active learning is promoted by interactivity and concludes with strategies for including interactivity within lectures. Narrative review and discussion. The article begins with a summary of the purposes of lecturing, and the distinctions between mentally active and passive learning. The associations between interactivity, cognitively active learning and improved learning outcomes are considered, and strategies for promoting interactivity and active learning are explored. Three student-student interaction strategies are discussed, and an exemplar of each of these strategies in action is provided. The exemplar addresses the 'lost time' concern of some advocates of the exclusively didactic lecture. Interactivity can be readily introduced to lectures without a significant reduction in the amount of time available for didactic lecturing. This paper challenges the view that the inclusion of interactivity equates to a loss of learning time, by showing that students' achievement of learning outcomes is enhanced by planned and structured engagement with others. The paper concludes with an example of how interactivity can be incorporated within the traditional lecture format. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  7. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  8. Imagined Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeycutt, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Social scientists have been studying imagined interactions since the mid-1980s and have measured numerous physiological correlates (Honeycutt, 2010). In this commentary I assess the research reported in Crisp and Turner (May-June 2009) and highlight the underlying mechanisms of imagined interactions that have empirically been laid out across…

  9. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  10. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  11. Interactive Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  12. Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Carol

    1992-01-01

    A workshop on interactive video was designed for fourth and fifth grade students, with the goals of familiarizing students with laser disc technology, developing a cadre of trained students to train other students and staff, and challenging able learners to utilize higher level thinking skills while conducting a research project. (JDD)

  13. Interacting Compasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riveros, Hector G.; Betancourt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The use of multiple compasses to map and visualize magnetic fields is well-known. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the compasses aligning them along the lines of force. Some science museums show the field of a magnet using a table with many compasses in a closely packed arrangement. However, the very interesting interactions that occur…

  14. Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin

    This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e < 0.02. The saturated magnetic field energy of whistler waves roughly scales with the square of the electron beta beta∥e. 2, as shown in bothsatellite observations and particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a

  15. Putting Interaction into Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Thomas E.

    Current technology provides many new ideas and alternatives to traditional education and training practices. From the experience of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Academic Instructor School (AIS) and current research in the field, teaching via interactive television (teleseminar/video teletraining) requires new teaching skills and new ways of thinking…

  16. Interactive Macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  17. Statistical analysis of plasmatrough exohiss waves on Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmatrough exohiss waves have attracted much attention due to their potential important role in dynamics of radiation belt. We investigated three-year Van Allen Probe data and built up an event list of exohiss. The statistical analysis shows exohiss preferentially occurred in dayside at quite time and most wave power focuses on afternoon side of low L region. Consistent with plasmaspheric hiss, the peak frequency is around 200 Hz and wave amplitude decreases with L increasing. Furthermore, the ratios of equatorward Poynting fluxes to poleward Poynting fluxes significantly increase up to 10 times as magnetic latitude increasing up to 20 deg. Those results strong support that the formation of exohiss wave results from hiss leakage, particularly at quite time.

  18. Diffusive transport of several hundred keV electrons in the Earth's slot region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the gradual diffusion of energetic electrons from the inner edge of the outer radiation belt into the slot region. The Van Allen Probes observed slow inward diffusion and decay of 200-600 keV electrons following the intense geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 March 2013. During the 10-day non-disturbed period following the storm, the peak of electron fluxes gradually moved from L 2.7 to L 2.4, and the flux levels decreased by a factor of 2-4 depending on the electron energy. We simulated the radial intrusion and decay of electrons using a 3-dimentional diffusion code, which reproduced the energy-dependent transport of electrons from 100 keV to 1 MeV in the slot region. At energies of 100-200 keV, the electrons experience fast transport across the slot region due to the dominance of radial diffusion; at energies of 200-600 keV, the electrons gradually diffuse and decay in the slot region due to the comparable radial diffusion rate and pitch angle scattering rate by plasmaspheric hiss; at energies of E > 700 keV, the electrons stopped diffusing near the inner edge of outer radiation belt due to the dominant pitch angle scattering loss. In addition to plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves and VLF waves can cause the loss of high pitch angle electrons, relaxing the sharp `top-hat' shaped pitch angle distributions created by plasmaspheric hiss. Our simulation indicates the importance of radial diffusion and pitch angle scattering in forming the diffusive intrusion of energetic electrons across the slot region.

  19. Sibling interaction.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2013-01-01

    Sibling interactions traditionally were conceived psychoanalytically in "vertical" and parentified oedipal terms and overlooked in their own right, for complicated reasons (Colonna and Newman 1983). Important work has been done to right this, from the 1980s and onward, with conferences and writings. Juliet Mitchell's 2000 and, in particular, her 2003 books, for example, have brought "lateral" sibling relations forcefully to the forefront of insights, especially about sex and violence, with the added interdisciplinary impact of illuminating upheaval in global community interactions as well as having implications for clinicians. A clinical example from the analysis of an adult woman with a ten-years-younger sister will show here how we need both concepts to help us understand complex individual psychic life. The newer "lateral" sibling emphasis, including Mitchell's "Law of the Mother" and "seriality," can be used to inform the older "vertical" take, to enrich the full dimensions of intersubjective oedipal and preoedipal reciprocities that have been foundational in shaping that particular analysand's inner landscape. Some technical recommendations for heightening sensitivity to the import of these dynamics will be offered along the way here, by invoking Hans Loewald's useful metaphor of the analytic situation as theater.

  20. Radio sky mapping from satellites at very low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.

    1991-01-01

    Wave Distribution Function (WDF) analysis is a procedure for making sky maps of the sources of natural electromagnetic waves in space plasmas, given local measurements of some or all of the three magnetic and three electric field components. The work that still needs to be done on this subject includes solving basic methodological problems, translating the solution into efficient algorithms, and embodying the algorithms in computer software. One important scientific use of WDF analysis is to identify the mode of origin of plasmaspheric hiss. Some of the data from the Japanese satellite Akebono (EXOS D) are likely to be suitable for this purpose.

  1. Plasmaspheric, Faraday and Total Electron Contents, 1977 and 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    in) ’r cnj ON 0l ’N - ’ in U"- - ko -O r- j rn cc C) t i if LO nt U- - U)w r-- r-- 0 co j-’ w0’In’.ko D IfV) r- w cr w = Fl. r. o vino Co N r-f cj...Ito 10 mi O’O)C i )c)nf V, LONC IA koi o.2 L 101,vc c N- CIN-v O’-’CWi0)tW ONNC CDIN JCOS vInO ’.N O0%O J) *CD CD ~~~ ~ ~ (, N-f 44..-44- . 1 I- k

  2. The hidden ion population - Revisited. [in outer plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Chappell, C. R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In an investigation conducted by Olsen (1982) on the basis of particle data taken with an electrostatic analyzer, it was found that a cold plasma population with a density between 10 and 100 per cu cm appeared suddenly when the satellite was eclipsed, but was hidden in sunlight. The present paper has the objective to show further measurements of ordinarily 'hidden' ion populations, in order to resolve some of the questions raised in connection with the Scatha satellite data reported by Olsen. It is found that the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) detector is capable of measuring the core of the plasma distribution in sunlight and eclipse, though the task is more easily done in eclipse. There are, however, limitations concerning the ability of the detector to measure all the plasma, all the time. It is, therefore, pointed out that continuous effective measurements of the 'hidden' ion population of the magnetosphere still awaits satellites with effective means of potential control.

  3. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  4. Extremely intense ELF magnetosonic waves: a survey of Polar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Falkowski, Barbara; Pickett, Jolene; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Santolik, Ondrej; Lakhina, Gurbax

    2014-05-01

    be a new source for the low frequency component of plasmaspheric hiss, adding to other sources, previously discussed in the literature. As a final comment, we argue that modelers should use dynamic particle tracing codes and the maximum (rather than average) wave amplitudes to simulate wave-particle interactions.

  5. Multi-Spacecraft Data Assimilation and Reanalysis During the THEMIS and Van Allen Probes Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Podladchikova, T.; Drozdov, A.; Subbotin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's radiation belts are a dynamic system, controlled by competition between source, acceleration, loss and transport of particles. Solar wind pressure enhancements and outward transport are responsible for loss of electrons to the magnetopause, while wave-particle interactions inside the magnetosphere, driven by solar wind pressure and velocity variations, may lead to acceleration and radial diffusion of 10's of keV to MeV energy electrons, and pitch-angle scattering loss to the atmosphere. An understanding of the mechanisms behind the observed dynamics is critical to accurate modeling and hence forecasting of radiation belt conditions, important for design, and protection of our space-borne assets. The Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) model solves the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation in three dimensional invariant coordinates, which allows one to more effectively separate adiabatic and non-adiabatic changes in the radiation belt electron population. The model includes geomagnetic storm intensity dependent parameterizations of the following dominant magnetospheric waves: day- and night-side chorus, plasmaspheric hiss (in the inner magnetosphere and inside the plume region), lightning and anthropogenic generated waves, and electro-magnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, also inside of plasmaspheric plumes. The model is used to forecast the future state of the radiation belt electron population, while real-time data may be used to update the current state of the belts through assimilation with the model. The Kalman filter provides a computationally inexpensive method to assimilate data with a model, while taking into account the errors associated with each. System identification is performed to determine the model and observational bias and errors. The Kalman filter outputs an optimal estimate of the actual system state and the Kalman-gain weighted corrections (innovation) may be used to identify systematic differences between data and the model. Careful

  6. Storm-Time VLF Emissions Caused by The Solar Wind Disturbances: A Case Study on 8 December 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Turunen, T.; Gromova, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    This study is made of temporal variations of the daytime VLF emissions (1-6 kHz) occurred during the moderate magnetic storm (Kp = 6) on 8 December 2013. The storm was associated with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). VLF emissions were recorded in the frequency band of 0.2-39 kHz during the dark winter at Kannuslehto (KAN, L 5.5) in Northern Finland. The results were compared with simultaneous variations in the solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). It was found that intense VLF chorus started after the pressure jump in solar wind (from 7 to 12 nPa) under the positive IMF Bz. The VLF emissions occurred in two separate frequency bands. The lower frequency (below 2 kHz) band represents the intense long lasting hiss with right-hand polarization, and in the upper frequency band (above 2 kHz) the left-hand polarized hiss bursts occurred during about 1 hour. The plasmasphere was strongly compressed, and due to that KAN was mapped outside of the plasmapause. We suppose that VLF chorus exited in the magnetosphere by the cyclotron instability of the radiation belt electrons. The low frequency chorus was generated outside of the plasmapause and arrived to KAN along the direction of N-S meridian. The high-frequency band was generated inside of the plasmasphere arrived to KAN almost along the meridian.

  7. Drug-Food Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedicinesInsulin Therapy Home Your Health Resources Drugs, Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Drug-Food Interactions Drug-Food Interactions Share Print A drug-food interaction occurs when your ...

  8. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  9. Relativistic electron precipitation as seen by NOAA POES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahnin, A. G.; Yahnina, T. A.; Semenova, N. V.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.; Pashin, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    We performed a survey of relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events revealed by the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector instrument on board NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites during a 38 day interval. We have divided the observed REP events into three groups with respect to the simultaneous observations of energetic (>30 keV) electron and proton precipitation. The first group consists of REP enhancements forming the isotropy zone at the poleward edge of trapped relativistic electron fluxes. These REP events are observed on the nightside, and they are, apparently, produced by isotropization process related to nonadiabatic motion of particles in the stretched magnetic field. The second group are the REP events related to simultaneous enhancements of energetic >30-300 keV electrons. These events have a wider magnetic local time range of occurrence with a maximum in the premidnight sector. They can be related to the interaction of electrons with waves whose possible nature is briefly discussed on the basis of comparison with the cold plasma density in the conjugated region of the equatorial plane. The third group consists of the REP events correlated with the burst-like precipitation of >30-keV protons within an anisotropy zone, where the trapped flux dominates. These events are found in the dusk sector in association with enhanced cold plasma density in the conjugate equatorial magnetosphere. As is known, proton bursts within the anisotropy zone indicate the location of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave source. Such REP events can be due to scattering of the relativistic electrons by EMIC waves. However, we noted that some of these REP events are associated with precipitation of energetic electrons with low-energy cutoff below 100 keV. We suggest that in such cases the electrons within a wide energy range are precipitated by other waves (probably, by plasmaspheric hiss).

  10. A unified approach to inner magnetospheric state prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnik, J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-03-01

    This brief technique paper presents a method of reconstructing the global, time-varying distribution of some physical quantity Q that has been sparsely sampled at various locations within the magnetosphere and at different times. The quantity Q can be essentially any measurement taken on the satellite including a variety of waves (chorus, hiss, magnetosonic, and ion cyclotron), electrons of various energies ranging from cold to relativistic, and ions of various species and energies. As an illustrative example, we chose Q to be the electron number density (inferred from spacecraft potential) measured by three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes between 2008 and 2014 and use the SYM-H index, taken at a 5 min cadence for the 5 h preceding each observed data point as the main regressor, although the predictor can also be any suitable geomagnetic index or solar wind parameter. Results show that the equatorial electron number density can be accurately reconstructed throughout the whole of the inner magnetosphere as a function of space and time, even capturing the dynamics of elementary plasmaspheric plume formation and corotation, suggesting that the dynamics of various other physical quantities could be similarly captured. For our main model, we use a simple, fully connected feedforward neural network with two hidden layers having sigmoidal activation functions and an output layer with a linear activation function to perform the reconstruction. The training is performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and gives typical RMS errors of ~1.7 and regression of >0.93, which is considered excellent. We also present a discussion on the different applications and future extensions of the present model, for modeling various physical quantities.

  11. Investigating the source of near-relativistic and relativistic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Drew Lawson; O'Brien, T. P.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-01-30

    Using observations from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we study the role of sudden particle enhancements at low L shells (SPELLS) as a source of inner radiation belt electrons. SPELLS events are characterized by electron intensity enhancements of approximately an order of magnitude or more in less than 1 day at L < 3. During quiet and average geomagnetic conditions, the phase space density radial distributions for fixed first and second adiabatic invariants are peaked at 2 < L < 3 for electrons ranging in energy from ~50 keV to ~1 MeV, indicating that slow inward radial diffusion is not themore » dominant source of inner belt electrons under quiet/average conditions. During SPELLS events, the evolution of electron distributions reveals an enhancement of phase space density that can exceed 3 orders of magnitude in the slot region and continues into the inner radiation belt, which is evidence that these events are an important—and potentially dominant—source of inner belt electrons. Electron fluxes from September 2012 through February 2016 reveal that SPELLS occur frequently (~2.5/month at 200 keV), but the number of observed events decreases exponentially with increasing electron energy for ≥100 keV. After SPELLS events, the slot region reforms due to slow energy-dependent decay over several day time scales, consistent with losses due to interactions with plasmaspheric hiss. Altogether, these results indicate that the peaked phase space density distributions in the inner electron radiation belt result from an “on/off,” geomagnetic-activity-dependent source from higher radial distances.« less

  12. Food and Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Ko, Chang Mann

    2017-01-01

    Natural foods and vegetal supplements have recently become increasingly popular for their roles in medicine and as staple foods. This has, however, led to the increased risk of interaction between prescribed drugs and the bioactive ingredients contained in these foods. These interactions range from pharmacokinetic interactions (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion influencing blood levels of drugs) to pharmacodynamic interactions (drug effects). In a quantitative respect, these interactions occur mainly during metabolism. In addition to the systemic metabolism that occurs mainly in the liver, recent studies have focused on the metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract endothelium before absorption. Inhibition of metabolism causes an increase in the blood levels of drugs and could have adverse reactions. The food-drug interactions causing increased blood levels of drugs may have beneficial or detrimental therapeutic effects depending on the intensity and predictability of these interactions. It is therefore important to understand the potential interactions between foods and drugs should and the specific outcomes of such interactions.

  13. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPolmore » experiment.« less

  14. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  15. Dynamic Interactive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabry, Khaled; Barker, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the notions of interactivity and dynamicity of learning systems in relation to information technologies and design principles that can contribute to interactive and dynamic learning. It explores the concept of dynamic interactive learning systems based on the emerging generation of information as part of a…

  16. Budgeted Interactive Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-15

    3) protocols that allow extracting useful representations during interactive learning. Aligned with the three sub- areas, they have designed...interactive learning with other sources of information, and (3) protocols that allow extracting useful representations during interactive learning. Aligned...which extracts sophisticated features and learns to bid automatically based on raw card data. The model includes an upper-confidence-bound

  17. Global Interaction in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Audrey Grace

    2010-01-01

    Based on a virtual conference, Glide'08 (Global Interaction in Design Education), that brought international design scholars together online, this special issue expands on the topics of cross-cultural communication and design and the technological affordances that support such interaction. The author discusses the need for global interaction in…

  18. Evolving synergetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Du, Jinming; Zhou, Da; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Cooperators forgo their own interests to benefit others. This reduces their fitness and thus cooperators are not likely to spread based on natural selection. Nonetheless, cooperation is widespread on every level of biological organization ranging from bacterial communities to human society. Mathematical models can help to explain under which circumstances cooperation evolves. Evolutionary game theory is a powerful mathematical tool to depict the interactions between cooperators and defectors. Classical models typically involve either pairwise interactions between individuals or a linear superposition of these interactions. For interactions within groups, however, synergetic effects may arise: their outcome is not just the sum of its parts. This is because the payoffs via a single group interaction can be different from the sum of any collection of two-player interactions. Assuming that all interactions start from pairs, how can such synergetic multiplayer games emerge from simpler pairwise interactions? Here, we present a mathematical model that captures the transition from pairwise interactions to synergetic multiplayer ones. We assume that different social groups have different breaking rates. We show that non-uniform breaking rates do foster the emergence of synergy, even though individuals always interact in pairs. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms underlying such synergetic interactions. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. The interactive brain hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel; De Jaegher, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development and current function of social brain mechanisms, even in cases where social understanding happens in the absence of immediate interaction. We examine the plausibility of this hypothesis against developmental and neurobiological evidence and contrast it with the widespread assumption that mindreading is crucial to all social cognition. We describe the elements of social interaction that bear most directly on this hypothesis and discuss the empirical possibilities open to social neuroscience. We propose that the link between coordination dynamics and social understanding can be best grasped by studying transitions between states of coordination. These transitions form part of the self-organization of interaction processes that characterize the dynamics of social engagement. The patterns and synergies of this self-organization help explain how individuals understand each other. Various possibilities for role-taking emerge during interaction, determining a spectrum of participation. This view contrasts sharply with the observational stance that has guided research in social neuroscience until recently. We also introduce the concept of readiness to interact to describe the practices and dispositions that are summoned in situations of social significance (even if not interactive). This latter idea links interactive factors to more classical observational scenarios.

  20. Drug interactions with sunitinib.

    PubMed

    Bilbao-Meseguer, Idoia; Jose, Begoña San; Lopez-Gimenez, Leocadio R; Gil, Maria A; Serrano, Laura; Castaño, Mikel; Sautua, Saioa; Basagoiti, Amaya De; Belaustegui, Ainhoa; Baza, Beatriz; Baskaran, Zuriñe; Bustinza, Alazne

    2015-02-01

    Sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, advanced renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this article is to describe the pharmacological interactions between sunitinib and commonly prescribed drugs. We reviewed available information on pharmacological interactions between sunitinib and concomitantly prescribed drugs. Drugs were grouped into different therapeutic groups according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Sunitinib interacts with CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors and with P-glycoprotein and ABCG2 substrates. Pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs have also been found. Current information on drug interactions between sunitinib and other drugs is scarce and most of the times it is difficult to apply to clinical practice. Even so, this difficulty in managing drug interactions should not be a reason to ignore them as they can help to explain intolerances and treatment failures. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  2. Interactive Presentation of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…

  3. University-industry interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    It is posited that university industry interaction is highly desirable from the viewpoint of the long term economic development of the country as well as being desirable for the Space Grant Programs. The present and future possible interactions are reviewed for the three university levels namely, undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research.

  4. Interactive Visualization of Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Camilo Arango; Bischof, Walter F.; Hoover, H. James

    2012-01-01

    We present an interactive tool for browsing course requisites as a case study of dependency visualization. This tool uses multiple interactive visualizations to allow the user to explore the dependencies between courses. A usability study revealed that the proposed browser provides significant advantages over traditional methods, in terms of…

  5. Grapefruit-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Seden, Kay; Dickinson, Laura; Khoo, Saye; Back, David

    2010-12-24

    Grapefruit juice and grapefruit product consumption have potential health benefits; however, their intake is also associated with interactions with certain drugs, including calcium channel blockers, immunosuppressants and antihistamines. The primary mechanism through which interactions are mediated is mechanism-based intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by furanocoumarins resulting in increased bioavailability of administered medications that are substrates. Grapefruit products have also been associated with interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and uptake transporters (e.g. organic anion-transporting polypeptides [OATPs]). Polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids have been proposed as the causative agents of the P-gp and OATP interactions. The mechanisms and magnitudes of the interactions can be influenced by the concentrations of furanocoumarins and flavonoids in the grapefruit product, the volume of juice consumed, and the inherent variability of specific enzymes and transporter components in humans. It is therefore challenging to predict the extent of grapefruit product-drug interactions and to compare available in vitro and in vivo data. The clinical significance of such interactions also depends on the disposition and toxicity profile of the drug being administered. The aim of this review is to outline the mechanisms of grapefruit-drug interactions and present a comprehensive summary of those agents affected and whether they are likely to be of clinical relevance.

  6. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  7. Interaction Analysis and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Edmund

    This paper describes a model that uses interaction analysis as a tool to provide feedback to a teacher in a microteaching situation. The author explains how interaction analysis can be used for teacher improvement, describes the category system used in the model, the data collection methods used, and the feedback techniques found in the model. (JF)

  8. Analyzing Verbal Classroom Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryspin, William J.; Feldhusen, John F.

    This textbook on verbal classroom interaction is designed to be used as one unit in an educational psychology course at the postsecondary level. The book is divided into three sections which discuss the Flanders' Interaction Analysis System (FIAS), the categories in the system, and the use of the system. The first section gives the underlying…

  9. The Madagascar Hissing Cockroach: A New Model for Learning Insect Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyborne, William H.; Fast, Maggie; Goodding, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning animal anatomy has a long history in the biology classroom. As in many fields of biology, decades of experience teaching anatomy have led to the unofficial selection of model species. However, in some cases the model may not be the best choice for our students. Our struggle to find an appropriate model for teaching and…

  10. Combustion of hydrogen injected into a supersonic airstream (a guide to the HISS computer program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D. F.; Maples, G.; Spalding, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program based on a finite-difference, implicit numerical integration scheme is described for the prediction of hydrogen injected into a supersonic airstream at an angle ranging from normal to parallel to the airstream main flow direction. Results of calculations for flow and thermal property distributions were compared with 'cold flow data' taken by NASA/Langley and show excellent correlation. Typical results for equilibrium combustion are presented and exhibit qualitatively plausible behavior. Computer time required for a given case is approximately one minute on a CDC 7600. A discussion of the assumption of parabolic flow in the injection region is given which demonstrates that improvement in calculation in this region could be obtained by a partially-parabolic procedure which has been developed. It is concluded that the technique described provides an efficient and reliable means for analyzing hydrogen injection into supersonic airstreams and the subsequent combustion.

  11. Interacting with virtual worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeltzer, David

    1991-01-01

    What tools should we provide the user for defining and interacting with objects and agents in virtual environments at varying levels of complexity? Understanding the appropriate simplifications to make is critical for modeling nontrivial environments and agents with varying levels of autonomy. I describe a set of abstraction mechanisms appropriate for constructing and interacting with virtual worlds, and I discuss how programming, and direct manipulation of guiding techniques, can be used to afford users interactive access to graphical simulations at appropriate levels of abstraction.

  12. Adverse drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    The potential for interactions with current medications should always be considered when administering or prescribing any drug. Considering the staggering number of drugs patients may be taking, this task can be daunting. Fortunately, drug classes employed in dental practice are relatively few in number and therapy is generally brief in duration. While this reduces the volume of potential interactions, there are still a significant number to be considered. This article will review basic principles of drug interactions and highlight those of greatest concern in dental practice.

  13. Interactive WSN-Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiun-Shian; Hsu, Su-Chu; Chen, Ying-Chung

    Based on the concept of ambient intelligence, we utilized wireless sensor network (WSN) and vision-based tracking technologies to create an interactive WSN-Bar. WSN-Bar is an interactive and innovative creation which has two modules: Garden of Light and Vivacious Bushes. It refers the variety of natural environmental factors and focuses on the relationship between human and nature. WSN-Bar can also detect the changes of brightness, temperature, CO2 density outdoors and the movement of people inside the building. Besides, WSN-Bar is an interactive installation art which creates the opportunity to reduce the estranged gape among the participants.

  14. Interactive Video in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashiter, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to new educational technology. Describes interactive video as a means to enhance learning not to improve teaching. Outlines some of the fears, apprehensions, and antipathies associated with this technology and suggests ways to alleviate them. (CW)

  15. Chasing Ecological Interactions.

    PubMed

    Jordano, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.

  16. Unexpected weak interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Stéphane Coen and Miro Erkintalo from the University of Auckland in New Zealand talk to Nature Photonics about their surprising findings regarding a weak long-range interaction they serendipitously stumbled upon while researching temporal cavity solitons.

  17. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  18. Interactive Science on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. R.; Landis, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    Swarms of small citizen-driven rovers can conduct Mars surface science missions. Transportation and communication technology needed for human exploration can enable this new interactive science mission architecture.

  19. Interactive DIF Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, Larry E.; Amy, Laraine; Young, Jimmie D.

    1993-01-01

    Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) computer program serves as utility to generate and manipulate directory interchange format (DIF) files. Creates and updates DIF files, sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as International Global Change Directory at Goddard Space Flight Center. Many government and university data systems use Master Directory to advertise availability of research data. IDG is interactive software tool and requires mouse or trackball to operate. Written in C language.

  20. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  1. Towards interactive narrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Cavazza, Marc; Charles, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Interactive Storytelling technologies have attracted significant interest in the field of simulation and serious gaming for their potential to provide a principled approach to improve user engagement in training scenarios. In this paper, we explore the use of Interactive Storytelling to support Narrative Medicine as a reflective practice. We describe a workflow for the generation of virtual narratives from high-level descriptions of patients' experiences as perceived by physicians, which can help to objectivize such perceptions and support various forms of analysis.

  2. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

  3. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  4. Alcoholism and family interaction.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, R; Wilks, J; Callan, V J

    1992-01-01

    In 16 families, half of which had an alcoholic parent, both parents and an adolescent were videotaped interacting with each other. Mothers, fathers and the adolescent in each family viewed the videotaped interaction and completed ratings of themselves and the other two family members on levels of anxiety, involvement, dominance and friendliness. In families with an alcoholic parent, adolescents and their mothers rated family members as less anxious than did adolescents and mothers in families without a drinking problem. Also mothers in the alcoholic families rated family members as being more involved, and their ratings were higher than mothers in other families. Alcoholic families rated parent-adolescent interactions as more dominant and friendlier. At least in these videotaped interactions where alcohol was not being consumed, mothers in alcoholic families adopted a more positive view of family members than mothers in other families. In addition, possibly due to the efforts of fathers not to drink and memories of interactions when he was drunk, alcoholic families perceived their family interactions as more dominant and friendlier than families without an alcohol-related problem.

  5. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  6. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    PubMed

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  7. Interaction intimacy organizes networks of antagonistic interactions in different ways.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mathias M; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2013-01-06

    Interaction intimacy, the degree of biological integration between interacting individuals, shapes the ecology and evolution of species interactions. A major question in ecology is whether interaction intimacy also shapes the way interactions are organized within communities. We combined analyses of network structure and food web models to test the role of interaction intimacy in determining patterns of antagonistic interactions, such as host-parasite, predator-prey and plant-herbivore interactions. Networks describing interactions with low intimacy were more connected, more nested and less modular than high-intimacy networks. Moreover, the performance of the models differed across networks with different levels of intimacy. All models reproduced well low-intimacy networks, whereas the more elaborate models were also capable of reproducing networks depicting interactions with higher levels of intimacy. Our results indicate the key role of interaction intimacy in organizing antagonisms, suggesting that greater interaction intimacy might be associated with greater complexity in the assembly rules shaping ecological networks.

  8. Interaction intimacy organizes networks of antagonistic interactions in different ways

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Mathias M.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    Interaction intimacy, the degree of biological integration between interacting individuals, shapes the ecology and evolution of species interactions. A major question in ecology is whether interaction intimacy also shapes the way interactions are organized within communities. We combined analyses of network structure and food web models to test the role of interaction intimacy in determining patterns of antagonistic interactions, such as host–parasite, predator–prey and plant–herbivore interactions. Networks describing interactions with low intimacy were more connected, more nested and less modular than high-intimacy networks. Moreover, the performance of the models differed across networks with different levels of intimacy. All models reproduced well low-intimacy networks, whereas the more elaborate models were also capable of reproducing networks depicting interactions with higher levels of intimacy. Our results indicate the key role of interaction intimacy in organizing antagonisms, suggesting that greater interaction intimacy might be associated with greater complexity in the assembly rules shaping ecological networks. PMID:23015523

  9. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Making an Interactive Calculus Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of the design and production of "Interactive Calculus," an interactive multimedia textbook. Discusses reasons for using multimedia textbooks; what an interactive textbook is; content, organization, graphic design, authoring and composition; and work flow. (AEF)

  11. Exchange interaction in lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibotaru, Liviu; Iwahara, Naoya; Vieru, Veaceslav; Theory of Nanomaterials Group, KU Leuven Team

    2014-03-01

    Anderson's superexchange model is applied for analytical derivation of exchange interaction between total magnetic moments J1 and J2 corresponding to ground atomic multiplets of two exchange-coupled lanthanide ions. Despite the common belief that the exchange interaction is of ~J1 .J2 form, we find it corresponding to convolution of tensors Okq(J1) and Ok'q'(J2) of ranks k ,k' <= 7 . All contributions are of the same order as the term ~J1 .J2 and cannot be neglected. In the case of exchange-coupled lanthanide ion (J) and isotropic magnetic center (S) the exchange interaction is described by convolutions of tensors Okq(J) , k = 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 with the spin S. Among these contributions ~ J . S is not the dominant term, as was commonly assumed, hence all tensorial components should be taken into account.

  12. History of Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  13. Interactive collision detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Brad

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of Space Station Freedom will require operations where large bodies are manipulated in close proximity to one other. A fast and reliable method for performing collision detection would greatly benefit the development and verification of such operations. The Interactive Graphics and Operations Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL) has developed an algorithm for performing collision detection which provides accurate results at interactive speeds. This algorithm uses a highly-optimized ray tracer for performing the analysis. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities.

  14. Solar-terrestrial interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on man's environment are discussed. It is solar radiation that is the basic energy source driving the circulations of the earth's atmosphere and oceans. Solar radiation is responsible for the ionization of the earth's upper atmosphere to form the ionosphere, which is important to our understanding of the magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. The solar wind, which is the continuous (but not steady) flow of the sun's coronal plasma and magnetic field into interplanetary space, plays both an active and passive role in its interaction with the earth's environment.

  15. Solitary water wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, W.; Guyenne, P.; Hammack, J.; Henderson, D.; Sulem, C.

    2006-05-01

    This article concerns the pairwise nonlinear interaction of solitary waves in the free surface of a body of water lying over a horizontal bottom. Unlike solitary waves in many completely integrable model systems, solitary waves for the full Euler equations do not collide elastically; after interactions, there is a nonzero residual wave that trails the post-collision solitary waves. In this report on new numerical and experimental studies of such solitary wave interactions, we verify that this is the case, both in head-on collisions (the counterpropagating case) and overtaking collisions (the copropagating case), quantifying the degree to which interactions are inelastic. In the situation in which two identical solitary waves undergo a head-on collision, we compare the asymptotic predictions of Su and Mirie [J. Fluid Mech. 98, 509 (1980)] and Byatt-Smith [J. Fluid Mech. 49, 625 (1971)], the wavetank experiments of Maxworthy [J. Fluid Mech. 76, 177 (1976)], and the numerical results of Cooker, Weidman, and Bale [J. Fluid Mech. 342, 141 (1997)] with independent numerical simulations, in which we quantify the phase change, the run-up, and the form of the residual wave and its Fourier signature in both small- and large-amplitude interactions. This updates the prior numerical observations of inelastic interactions in Fenton and Rienecker [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 411 (1982)]. In the case of two nonidentical solitary waves, our precision wavetank experiments are compared with numerical simulations, again observing the run-up, phase lag, and generation of a residual from the interaction. Considering overtaking solitary wave interactions, we compare our experimental observations, numerical simulations, and the asymptotic predictions of Zou and Su [Phys. Fluids 29, 2113 (1986)], and again we quantify the inelastic residual after collisions in the simulations. Geometrically, our numerical simulations of overtaking interactions fit into the three categories of Korteweg-deVries two

  16. ISDB: Interaction Sentence Database.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael A; Belford, Robert E; Ding, Jing; Berleant, Daniel

    2010-05-03

    Rapid growth in the scientific literature available on-line continues to motivate shifting data analysis from humans to computers. For example, greater knowledge of sentence characteristics indicative of interaction between two biological entities is needed to aid in the creation of better-performing information extraction tools for effectively using this rich body of information. The Interaction Sentence Database (ISDB) allows users to retrieve sets of sentences fitting specified characteristics. To support this, a database of sentences from abstracts in MEDLINE was created. The sentences in the database all contain at least two biomolecule terms and one interaction-indicating term. A web interface to the database allows the user to query for sentences containing an interaction-indicating term, a single biomolecule name, or two biomolecule names, as well as for a list of biomolecules co-occurring with a given biomolecule in at least one sentence. The system supports researchers needing conveniently available sets of sample sentences for corpus-based research on sentence properties. It also illustrates a model architecture for a sentence-based retrieval system which would be useful to people seeking information and knowledge on-line. ISDB can be freely accessed over the Web at http://bioinformatics.ualr.edu/cgi-bin/services/ISDB/isdb.cgi, and the processed database will be provided upon request.

  17. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  18. Interactive Digital Signal Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.

  19. GENIE final state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-15

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  20. Interactive Tabletops in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Evans, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Interactive tabletops are gaining increased attention from CSCL researchers. This paper analyses the relation between this technology and teaching and learning processes. At a global level, one could argue that tabletops convey a socio-constructivist flavor: they support small teams that solve problems by exploring multiple solutions. The…

  1. Interacting Chaplygin gas revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subhajit; Ghosh, Saumya; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the implications of considering interaction between Chaplygin gas and a barotropic fluid with constant equation of state have been explored. The unique feature of this work is that assuming an interaction Q ∝ Hρd, analytic expressions for the energy density and pressure have been derived in terms of the hypergeometric 2F1 function. It is worthwhile to mention that an interacting Chaplygin gas model was considered in 2006 by Zhang and Zhu, nevertheless, analytic solutions for the continuity equations could not be determined assuming an interaction proportional to H times the sum of the energy densities of Chaplygin gas and dust. Our model can successfully explain the transition from the early decelerating phase to the present phase of cosmic acceleration. Arbitrary choice of the free parameters of our model through trial and error shows that recent observational data strongly favors wm = 0 and wm = -1 3 over the wm = 1 3 case. Interestingly, the present model also incorporates the transition of dark energy into the phantom domain, however, future deceleration is forbidden.

  2. Magnetospheres: Jupiter, Satellite Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Most of the satellites of Jupiter, notably the large Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (see JUPITER: SATELLITES), orbit deep inside the magnetosphere of Jupiter (see JUPITER: MAGNETOSPHERE) and are therefore immersed in the flow of magnetospheric plasma (made of a mixture of electrons and ions) and subjected to an interaction with the strong Jovian magnetic field. These intera...

  3. Electron interaction in matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dance, W. E.; Rainwater, W. J.; Rester, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Data on the scattering of 1-MeV electrons in aluminum for the case of non-normal incidence, electron-bremsstrahlung cross-sections in thin targets, and the production of bremstrahlung by electron interaction in thick targets, are presented both in tabular and graphic form. These results may interest physicists and radiologists.

  4. GENIE final state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  5. Interactive Mold House Tour

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  6. Interaction with William Carnall

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Brian R.

    2005-02-15

    A personal account is given of interaction with William T. Carnall during the period 1977-1988, when I made regular visits to the Argonne National Laboratory to discuss the theoretical background to the spectroscopic work he was carrying out on the lanthanides and actinides.

  7. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  8. Hydrokinetic Debris Interaction Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Kasper, J.; Duvoy, P. X.

    2017-12-01

    Villages in rural areas of Alaska are often located off-the-grid and often not accessible by roads while located along rivers. Thus, hydrokinetic power generation could significantly reduce the electricity cost in the villages if used instead of diesel generators that rely on fuel delivery. However, the rivers have numerous logs and other woody debris that makes the work of the generators impossible without a protection. The Alaska Hydorkinetic Energy Research Center developed and performed a series of tests on a research debris diversion platform (RDDP), which was designed to protect hydorkinetic energy infrastructure on rivers. Hydrokinetic Debris Interaction Simulator (HDIS) was developed to address the need of modeling the debris and RDDP interaction to help RDDP development and to simulate different debris and RDDP interaction scenarios. The HDIS is based on combining discrete element method (DEM) model to accurately simulate collisions between the debris and RDDP parts. The HDIS also includes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model internally coupled with DEM to create two-way coupling of the debris dynamics and interaction and the river stream. The model includes the drag and buoyancy physics to predict the behavior of the debris in the river. A series of numerical tests with debris created in HDIS were run. The forces measured at RDDP during field measurements were compared with the forces received in the HDIS model. The trajectory of the logs received in HDIS simulations were compared with an episode captured on video when a large log collided with RDDP and then swung behind the RDDP. The HDIS well matches the observations and can be used to simulate large debris behavior during its interaction with the hydrokinetic infrastructure.

  9. Ogo 5 observations of LHR noise, emissions, and whistlers near the plasmapause at several earth radii during a large magnetic storm.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Smith, E. J.; Frandsen, A. M. A.; Serbu, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    On May 15, 1969, Ogo 5 crossed the plasmapause during a major storm that produced severe geomagnetic disturbances (Kp up to 8-), large and rapid variations in ring-current intensity (as measured by Dst), intense low-latitude aurora, and persistent SAR arcs. Near the highly structured plasmasphere boundary, the electric- and magnetic-field sensors on Ogo 5 detected lower-hybrid-resonance noise bursts, whistlers, ELF hiss, and other discrete signals or emissions. Some LHR noise bursts were associated with whistlers, and these high-altitude phenomena resembled the corresponding ionospheric ones. This report contains a description of the VLF observations. We also show that intense ULF magnetic signals were present near the plasmapause, and we attempt to relate these observations to the predictions of various theories of proton ring-current decay and SAR-arc formation.

  10. Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

    DOE PAGES

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances ( L > 4.5), energies (~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0° ≤ α e ≤ 180°). STEERB simulations show that the relativistic electron loss in the region L = 4.5–6.0 was primarilymore » caused by the pitch angle scattering of observed plasmaspheric hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. Furthermore, our results emphasize the complexity of radiation belt dynamics and the importance of wave-driven precipitation loss even during nonstorm times.« less

  11. Bayesian Analysis of Whistler Mode Waves in the Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    We show how Bayesian techniques provide a general data analysis methodology that is better suited to investigate phenomenon that require a nonlinear theory for explanation. In general, the approach allows for a systematic methodology for introducing increasingly complex theoretical inputs into the data processing pipeline. We will apply these techniques to investigate whistler mode chorus, lightning generated whistlers, and plasmaspheric hiss in the Earth's radiation belts. We will demonstrate how Bayesian techniques allow for the direct competition of different physical theories with data acting as the necessary arbitrator. In particular, we use our recently developed self-consistent Hamiltonian model for whistler mode sub-packet formation to develop parametrized model functions that we use to investigate the sub-packet structure of chorus found in burst-mode data from the Van Allen Probe mission.

  12. Interactive digital signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.; Wenger, R. M.; Behannon, K. W.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor (IDSP) is examined. It consists of a set of time series analysis Operators each of which operates on an input file to produce an output file. The operators can be executed in any order that makes sense and recursively, if desired. The operators are the various algorithms used in digital time series analysis work. User written operators can be easily interfaced to the sysatem. The system can be operated both interactively and in batch mode. In IDSP a file can consist of up to n (currently n=8) simultaneous time series. IDSP currently includes over thirty standard operators that range from Fourier transform operations, design and application of digital filters, eigenvalue analysis, to operators that provide graphical output, allow batch operation, editing and display information.

  13. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  14. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  15. Diabetes Interactive Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Nilka R.; Geiss, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Diabetes Interactive Atlas is a recently released Web-based collection of maps that allows users to view geographic patterns and examine trends in diabetes and its risk factors over time across the United States and within states. The atlas provides maps, tables, graphs, and motion charts that depict national, state, and county data. Large amounts of data can be viewed in various ways simultaneously. In this article, we describe the design and technical issues for developing the atlas and provide an overview of the atlas’ maps and graphs. The Diabetes Interactive Atlas improves visualization of geographic patterns, highlights observation of trends, and demonstrates the concomitant geographic and temporal growth of diabetes and obesity. PMID:24503340

  16. Volcanism-Climate Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Louis S. (Editor); Desilva, Shanaka (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The range of disciplines in the study of volcanism-climate interactions includes paleoclimate, volcanology, petrology, tectonics, cloud physics and chemistry, and climate and radiation modeling. Questions encountered in understanding the interactions include: the source and evolution of sulfur and sulfur-gaseous species in magmas; their entrainment in volcanic plumes and injection into the stratosphere; their dissipation rates; and their radiative effects. Other issues include modeling and measuring regional and global effects of such large, dense clouds. A broad-range plan of research designed to answer these questions was defined. The plan includes observations of volcanoes, rocks, trees, and ice cores, as well as satellite and aircraft observations of erupting volcanoes and resulting lumes and clouds.

  17. Acousto-Optic Interactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The document reports the results of the experimental and theoretical investigation of acousto - optic interactions in guided wave structure for optical...waves and acoustic surface waves and experimental results of isotropic and anisotropic diffraction in LiNbO3 and quartz. A simple acousto - optic plate...CVD ZnO films on sapphire, which may be needed for the acousto - optic devices in thin films are also included. (Author)

  18. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  19. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  20. Gyrofluid vortex interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendl, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Low-frequency turbulence in magnetised plasmas is intrinsically influenced by gyroscale effects across ion Larmor orbits. Here we show that fundamental vortex interactions like merging and co-advection in gyrofluid plasmas are essentially modified under the influence of gyroinduced vortex spiraling. For identical initial vorticity, the fate of co-rotating eddies is decided between accelerated merging or explosion by the asymmetry of initial density distributions. Structures in warm gyrofluid turbulence are characterised by gyrospinning enhanced filamentation into thin vorticity sheets.

  1. Asynchronous interactive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, M. I.; Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A class of interactive control systems is derived by generalizing interactive manipulator control systems. The general structural properties of such systems are discussed and an appropriate general software implementation is proposed. This is based on the fact that tasks of interactive control systems can be represented as a network of a finite set of actions which have specific operational characteristics and specific resource requirements, and which are of limited duration. This has enabled the decomposition of the overall control algorithm into a set of subalgorithms, called subcontrollers, which can operate simultaneously and asynchronously. Coordinate transformations of sensor feedback data and actuator set-points have enabled the further simplification of the subcontrollers and have reduced their conflicting resource requirements. The modules of the decomposed control system are implemented as parallel processes with disjoint memory space communicating only by I/O. The synchronization mechanisms for dynamic resource allocation among subcontrollers and other synchronization mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. Such a software organization is suitable for the general form of multiprocessing using computer networks with distributed storage.

  2. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  3. Transactional interactive multimedia banner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Wang, Xiping; von Kaenel, Juerg

    2000-05-01

    Advertising in TV broadcasting has shown that multimedia is a very effective means to present merchandise and attract shoppers. This has been applied to the Web by including animated multimedia banner ads on web pages. However, the issues of coupling interactive browsing, shopping, and secure transactions e.g. from inside a multimedia banner, have only recently started to being explored. Currently there is an explosively growing amount of back-end services available (e.g., business to business commerce (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) commerce, and infomercial services) in the Internet. These services are mostly accessible through static HTML web pages at a few specific web portals. In this paper, we will investigate the feasibility of using interactive multimedia banners as pervasive access point for the B2C, B2B, and infomercial services. We present a system architecture that involves a layer of middleware agents functioning as the bridge between the interactive multimedia banners and back-end services.

  4. Interactive Learning and "Clickers"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander

    2006-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that student understanding and retention of key concepts in science can be dramatically improved by using “Interactive Learning” techniques. Interactive learning is a way to get students more actively involved in their own learning than by simple lecture alone. I will focus on one type of interactive learning activity, known as “Think-Pair-Share”. After a brief (10-20 minute) lecture on a topic, students are asked a conceptually challenging multiple-choice question. After they answer, if there is sufficient disagreement, the students discuss the question in small groups after which they answer the same question again. Frequently, the percentage of correct answers goes up, indicating that the active role of speaking and listening, together with peer instruction, has helped students better grasp the concept being tested. If disagreement persists, or if students continue to have questions, a short, class-wide discussion can be held. Clickers provide an excellent means to collect students’ answers to “Think-Pair-Share” questions in real time. Although clickers are not essential, they do provide some advantages over alternatives such as flash cards: answers are completely anonymous (though you as instructor can record individual responses); you can display a histogram of results immediately, either before or after group discussion, providing immediate feedback; by recording the results, you can give students credit for their participation in class. In this talk, I will model “Think-Pair-Share” with the audience using clickers, show results from my classes before and after group discussions, share results of a student survey on “Think-Pair-Share” and clickers, describe other uses of clickers (e.g., taking attendance, surveys, test administration) and highlight some of the pros and cons of clickers v. flashcards.

  5. Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    2000-01-01

    The investigators upgraded a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the more effective use of the technologies in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project were: 1) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate a wider range of meaning; 2) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded; and 3) the development of an interpreter for SL that would handle representations of some basic cognitive acts and perspectives.

  6. Detection of molecular interactions

    DOEpatents

    Groves, John T [Berkeley, CA; Baksh, Michael M [Fremont, CA; Jaros, Michal [Brno, CH

    2012-02-14

    A method and assay are described for measuring the interaction between a ligand and an analyte. The assay can include a suspension of colloidal particles that are associated with a ligand of interest. The colloidal particles are maintained in the suspension at or near a phase transition state from a condensed phase to a dispersed phase. An analyte to be tested is then added to the suspension. If the analyte binds to the ligand, a phase change occurs to indicate that the binding was successful.

  7. Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2014-11-24

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  8. Interactive virtual optical laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory experiences are essential for optics education. However, college students have limited access to advanced optical equipment that is generally expensive and complicated. Hence there is a need for innovative solutions to expose students to advanced optics laboratories. Here we describe a novel approach, interactive virtual optical laboratory (IVOL) that allows unlimited number of students to participate the lab session remotely through internet, to improve laboratory education in photonics. Although students are not physically conducting the experiment, IVOL is designed to engage students, by actively involving students in the decision making process throughout the experiment.

  9. Twisting Plasma Interactions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-19

    Several short stalks of cooler, darker plasma spun and twisted as they interacted with each other at the sun's edge (June 14-15, 2017). The row of strands, which together form a prominence, were being pulled back and forth by magnetic forces. The dynamic action was observed for just over one day. Also noteworthy is the rapid development of a bright active region in the upper right about halfway through the clip. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21761

  10. Visuo-Vestibular Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.

  11. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  12. A Collective Interaction Klystron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    a rotating relativistic electron beam. Equation (9) has its counterpart in the conventional klystron theory in which -r 2 is replaced by wp2 WP being...Sf*ult Cla,8010c. -, 61153N-11 RRO11-09- 47-0899-04 A COLLECTIVE INTERACTION KLYSTRON 4 12. PERSONAL AUTH4OR S) 13a. TVPE OF REPORT 130. TIME...COSATI CODES it .JJECT TERMS XtnIueon l ewWit ftceUnrYW an~d 1I by block numbers FIELD GRU suE. GO Klystron Microwave devices I GRO ~Microwave

  13. Particle interactions during sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios; Xu, Zu-Jia

    2002-11-01

    The confined sedimentation process of two-dimensional particles with several initial configurations is numerically investigated at very low to moderate particle Reynolds numbers. The Lattice Boltzmann Method is used to simulate the hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and particles. We have found that, during the sedimentation process the displacement dispersion of particles in the horizontal direction fluctuates around zero, while the dispersion in the vertical direction increases monotonically and almost linearly. We also found that the increasing dispersion rate heavily depends on the initial layout and any symmetry of the suspension. The simulations for non-cohesive particles show that the process of sedimentation encompasses three stages: In the first stage, the initial particle configuration plays a major role on the average velocity of the particles. A V-shape or W-shape front may be formed by the particles close to that front. During the second stage, the concentration is lower, strong particle interactions dominate and the formation and destruction of particle clusters play a major role in the process. The sedimentation velocity depends to a large extend on the number of clusters formed and the velocity field developed. During the third stage, the suspension stretches, concentration becomes lower and particle clusters appear to be more stable. The wakes generated by individual particles and clusters, especially the wake of the leading cluster becomes very important in the process. Simulations were also performed with cohesive particles and we found out that the sedimentation process is essentially governed by the formation and size of flocs.

  14. Dynamics of Interacting Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Joaquín; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2014-10-01

    Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. However, most epidemic models assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a metapopulation system, or a network of contacts). In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can be addressed only if we go beyond the scheme-one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows us to describe the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dynamics. Results show that there are regions of the parameter space in which the onset of a disease's outbreak is conditioned to the prevalence levels of the other disease. Moreover, we show, for the susceptible-infected-susceptible scheme, that under certain circumstances, finite and not vanishing epidemic thresholds are found even at the limit for scale-free networks. For the susceptible-infected-removed scenario, the phenomenology is richer and additional interdependencies show up. We also find that the secondary thresholds for the susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed models are different, which results directly from the interaction between both diseases. Our work thus solves an important problem and paves the way toward a more comprehensive description of the dynamics of interacting diseases.

  15. Interactive Computer Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenwright, David

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace data analysis tools that significantly reduce the time and effort needed to analyze large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations have emerged this year. The current approach for most postprocessing and visualization work is to explore the 3D flow simulations with one of a dozen or so interactive tools. While effective for analyzing small data sets, this approach becomes extremely time consuming when working with data sets larger than one gigabyte. An active area of research this year has been the development of data mining tools that automatically search through gigabyte data sets and extract the salient features with little or no human intervention. With these so-called feature extraction tools, engineers are spared the tedious task of manually exploring huge amounts of data to find the important flow phenomena. The software tools identify features such as vortex cores, shocks, separation and attachment lines, recirculation bubbles, and boundary layers. Some of these features can be extracted in a few seconds; others take minutes to hours on extremely large data sets. The analysis can be performed off-line in a batch process, either during or following the supercomputer simulations. These computations have to be performed only once, because the feature extraction programs search the entire data set and find every occurrence of the phenomena being sought. Because the important questions about the data are being answered automatically, interactivity is less critical than it is with traditional approaches.

  16. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    SciTech Connect

    Volkas, R. R.; Foot, R.; He, X.

    1989-07-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3)/sub 1//direct product/SU(3)/sub 2//direct product/SU(3)/sub 3/ gauge theory, where quarks of the /ital i/th generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub /ital i// and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamentalmore » issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements.« less

  17. Cardiolipin Interactions with Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Dwarakanath, Himal; Mohammadyani, Dariush; Yanamala, Naveena; Kagan, Valerian E.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipins (CL) represent unique phospholipids of bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria with four acyl chains and two phosphate groups that have been implicated in numerous functions from energy metabolism to apoptosis. Many proteins are known to interact with CL, and several cocrystal structures of protein-CL complexes exist. In this work, we describe the collection of the first systematic and, to the best of our knowledge, the comprehensive gold standard data set of all known CL-binding proteins. There are 62 proteins in this data set, 21 of which have nonredundant crystal structures with bound CL molecules available. Using binding patch analysis of amino acid frequencies, secondary structures and loop supersecondary structures considering phosphate and acyl chain binding regions together and separately, we gained a detailed understanding of the general structural and dynamic features involved in CL binding to proteins. Exhaustive docking of CL to all known structures of proteins experimentally shown to interact with CL demonstrated the validity of the docking approach, and provides a rich source of information for experimentalists who may wish to validate predictions. PMID:26300339

  18. [Drug interactions with grapefruit].

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Zoran Z; Bojanić, Novica Z; Bojanić, Vladmila V

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of many orally given medications may be affected by grapefruit or grapefruit juice consumption. It may result in numerous harmful effects. Taking only one cup of juice may induce interactions with different drugs even during the period of a few days. The effect is induced by suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall. The Latin name of grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, is quite opposite to the effects which could be induced by taking grapefruit and some medications at the same time. It is necessary to avoid taking grapefruit with the drugs whose pharmacokinetics could be altered by the active principles found in that fruit. The coloured grapefruit contains less furanocoumarins, but there is no difference in induction and intensity of pharmacokinetic interaction with drugs related to its colour. Other citrus fruits (orange, lemon) do not have such effects, but some other fruits (pomegranate, stella fruit, banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan and kinkan) exert inhibitory effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme.

  19. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  20. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, itmore » may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.« less

  1. Challenging the fundamental interactions in nature: Can 1/r-interactions, like the gravitational and Coulomb interactions, be induced interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-03-01

    Two of the fundamental interactions in nature, the Coulomb interaction and the gravitational interaction, vary with distance as 1/r. Here we address the question if an induced, as apposed to fundamental, interaction could have this distance dependence. We show that in theory it is possible to obtain a Casimir interaction potential that varies with distance as 1/r. We achieve this by invoking hypothetical particles having a harmonic oscillator interaction potential. These particles generate fields that are different from the ordinary electromagnetic fields. The derivation parallels the derivation of the Casimir-Polder interaction between atoms in electromagnetism. The derivation relies on the harmonic oscillator interaction between the particles and Einstein's two postulates in special relativity.

  2. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  3. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This…

  4. Grapefruit-drug interactions: can interactions with drugs be avoided?

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, S U; Zadezensky, I; De Castro, W V; Derendorf, H; Butterweck, V

    2006-12-01

    Grapefruit is rich in flavonoids, which have been demonstrated to have a preventive influence on many chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, since the early 1990s, the potential health benefits of grapefruit have been overshadowed by the possible risk of interactions between drugs and grapefruit and grapefruit juice. Several drugs interacting with grapefruit are known in different drug classes, such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and immunosuppressives. Currently known mechanisms of interaction include the inhibition of cytochrome P450 as a major mechanism, but potential interactions with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporters have also been reported. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive summary of underlying mechanisms of interaction and human clinical trials performed in the area of grapefruit drug interactions and to point out possible replacements for drugs with a high potential for interactions.

  5. IDG - INTERACTIVE DIF GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preheim, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive DIF Generator (IDG) utility is a tool used to generate and manipulate Directory Interchange Format files (DIF). Its purpose as a specialized text editor is to create and update DIF files which can be sent to NASA's Master Directory, also referred to as the International Global Change Directory at Goddard. Many government and university data systems use the Master Directory to advertise the availability of research data. The IDG interface consists of a set of four windows: (1) the IDG main window; (2) a text editing window; (3) a text formatting and validation window; and (4) a file viewing window. The IDG main window starts up the other windows and contains a list of valid keywords. The keywords are loaded from a user-designated file and selected keywords can be copied into any active editing window. Once activated, the editing window designates the file to be edited. Upon switching from the editing window to the formatting and validation window, the user has options for making simple changes to one or more files such as inserting tabs, aligning fields, and indenting groups. The viewing window is a scrollable read-only window that allows fast viewing of any text file. IDG is an interactive tool and requires a mouse or a trackball to operate. IDG uses the X Window System to build and manage its interactive forms, and also uses the Motif widget set and runs under Sun UNIX. IDG is written in C-language for Sun computers running SunOS. This package requires the X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4, with OSF/Motif 1.1. IDG requires 1.8Mb of hard disk space. The standard distribution medium for IDG is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The program was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. X Window System is a trademark of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OSF/Motif is a

  6. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  7. Ionosphere-magnetosphere studies using ground based VLF radio propagation technique: an Indian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    Since IGY period (1957-58), natural and artificially produced Very Low Frequency (VLF) elec-tromagnetic radiations are being recorded at large number of ground stations all over the world and on-board satellites to study various radio wave-thermal/energetic plasma interactive pro-cesses related to earth's ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere environment. The terrestrial propagation of these VLF radio waves are primarily enabled through the earth ionosphere wave guide (EIWG) mode to long horizontal distances around the globe and ducted along the ge-omagnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere through the plasmasphere-magnetosphere regions. The time frequency spectra of the received signals indicate presence of dispersion (wave/group velocities changing with frequency) and various cut-off frequencies based on the width of the EIWG, electron gyro and plasma frequencies etc., providing several types of received signals like whistlers, chorus, tweeks, hiss and hisslers which can be heard on loud-speakers/earphones with distinguishing audio structures. While the VLF technique has been a very effective tool for studying middle and high latitude phenomena, the importance of the similar and anomalous observations over the Indian low latitude stations provide potentially new challenges for their scientific interpretation and modelling. The ducted and non-ducted magnetospheric propagation, pro-longitudinal (PL) mode, low latitude TRIMPI/TLE (Tran-sient Luminous Emissions) or other effects of wave-particle/wave-wave interactions, effects due to ionospheric irregularities and electric fields, full wave solutions to D-region ionisation per-turbations due to solar and stellar energetic X-and γ ray emissions during normal and flaring conditions are a few problems which have been addressed in these low latitude studies over India. Since the conjugate points of Indian stations lie over the Indian oceanic region, the VLF propagation effects would be relatively free from

  8. Interactive surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a surface grid generation tool called S3D. It is the result of integrating a robust and widely applicable interpolation technique with the latest in workstation technology. Employing the use of a highly efficient and user-friendly graphical interface, S3D permits real-time interactive analyses of surface geometry data and facilitates the construction of surface grids for a wide range of applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The design objectives are for S3D to be stand-alone and easy to use so that CFD analysts can take a hands-on approach toward most if not all of their surface grid generation needs. Representative examples of S3D applications are presented in describing the various elements involved in the process.

  9. Interactive molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Daniel V.

    2015-03-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  10. Interactive Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A

    2017-01-01

    Interactive data visualization leverages human visual perception and cognition to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of data analysis. When combined with automated data analytics, data visualization systems orchestrate the strengths of humans with the computational power of machines to solve problems neither approach can manage in isolation. In the intelligent transportation system domain, such systems are necessary to support decision making in large and complex data streams. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to several key topics related to the design of data visualization systems. In addition to an overview of key techniques and strategies, we will describe practicalmore » design principles. The chapter is concluded with a detailed case study involving the design of a multivariate visualization tool.« less

  11. Fluid structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.

    A few nonflow field problems are considered, taking into account mainly fluid-shell dynamic interaction and fluid-solid impact. Fluid-shell systems are used as models for sloshing and POGO (structure-propulsion coupling oscillation) in liquid rockets, floating lids of oil tanks, large tanks containing fluid, nuclear containment vessels, and head injury studies in biomechanics. The study of structure-water impact finds applications in the problems associated with water landings of reentry vehicles, water entry of torpedoes, and slamming of ships in heavy seas. At least three different methods can be used in handling wet structures. Attention is given to the method which treats fluid by boundary elements and structure by finite elements.

  12. Nekton Interaction Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    2017-03-15

    The software provides a real-time processing system for sonar to detect and track animals, and to extract water column biomass statistics in order to facilitate continuous monitoring of an underwater environment. The Nekton Interaction Monitoring System (NIMS) extracts and archives tracking and backscatter statistics data from a real-time stream of data from a sonar device. NIMS also sends real-time tracking messages over the network that can be used by other systems to generate other metrics or to trigger instruments such as an optical video camera. A web-based user interface provides remote monitoring and control. NIMS currently supports three popular sonarmore » devices: M3 multi-beam sonar (Kongsberg), EK60 split-beam echo-sounder (Simrad) and BlueView acoustic camera (Teledyne).« less

  13. Strongly interacting Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevy, F.; Rem, B. S.; Grier, A. T.; Ferrier-Barbut, I.; Eismann, U.; Werner, F.; Navon, N.; Salomon, C.; Petrov, D. S.; Langen, T.; Khaykovich, L.

    2013-05-01

    Contrary to Fermi systems, the quantitative experimental study of Bose gases have been limited to the weakly interacting regime, due to a strong increase of three-body recombination near Feshbach resonances. In this talk, we will present a quantitative study of the three-body recombination rate at unitarity and show that a unitary Bose gas can be stabilized at high temperature. We will demonstrate that, contrary to Arrhenius's law, the rate of molecule formation follows a 1 /T2 law dictated by the coupling to the attractive universal Efimow channel. Finally, we will discuss the influence of losses on the thermodynamical properties of the system. We acknowledge support from Région Ile de France (IFRAF), EU (ERC advanced grant Ferlodim), Institut Universitaire de France, and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research.

  14. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  15. Hydrogen-antihydrogen interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, E. A. G.; Carr, J. M.

    1998-08-01

    A small number of antihydrogen (AH) atoms have recently been prepared at CERN and at Fermilab. However, these atoms were travelling at speeds close to that of light. It is intended to carry out experiments on AH by trapping it at very low temperature (<1 K) in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The main cause of loss of AH is due to collisions with H 2 and He with energies up to room temperature. However, these reactions are not easy to treat theoretically. In this paper we consider the interaction between AH and H. This has already received some attention. Initially, in a collision between AH and H the electron is bound to the proton and the positron is bound to the antiproton. Clearly, if the proton and antiproton coincide they cannot bind the two light particles. There exists a critical value, Rc, of the internuclear distance, probably not very much below a0, below which the electron and the positron can attain a lower energy by separating from the nuclei and forming positronium. As a first stage in our work on the H-AH interaction, we are carrying out variational calculations of the energy of the H-AH system for internuclear separations a short distance above Rc. The aim is to determine Rc as accurately as possible. The basis set used is similar to that of a previous calculation by W. Kołos, D.L. Morgan, D.M. Schrader, L. Wolniewiez, Phys. Rev. A 11 (1975) 1792. However, it also contains a function to represent weakly bound positronium. Initial results suggest that Rc < 0.8 a0.

  16. [Encouraging experiences of interactive lectures].

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Linden, Anni-Maija; Ojala, Päivi M; Polvi, Anne; Sallinen, Ville; Viranta, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lectures typically represent unidirectional transfer of information from teacher to students whilst interactive lectures involve student activity. We analyzed the experiences of students and teachers of interactive lectures by observation and questionnaires during a course organized by Helsinki Biomedical Graduate School. Teachers and the majority of students found interactive lectures highly motivating although we observed that only a fraction of students participated in discussions. Students were of the opinion that interactivity improved their learning. Supplementing lectures with interactive elements encourages students to adopt active learning techniques.

  17. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

    SciTech Connect

    Ripoll, J. -F.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2016-06-11

    Here, we present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt “slot region” and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2–6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies andmore » (c) an “S-shaped” energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in ~15 days, although the “S shape” can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. The highest-energy electrons (E > 300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L ~ 4–5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.« less

  18. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  19. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.

    The antiproton-nucleus physics is reviewed. On the experimental side, the recent results obtained at the LEAR, BNL and KEK facilities are analyzed. A brief summary of the main pp and pn experimental data is also given. The antiproton-nucleus interaction can lead to elasic, inelastic and charge exchange scattering and to annihilation. The latter is very dominant. The scattering cross-sections are usually analyzed in terms of complex potential models. The relationship between potentials, charge conjugation and Dirac phenomenology is discussed. Much emphasis is put on the dynamics of the antiproton annihilation on nuclei. The energy transfer, pion absorption and target response are analyzed within the intranuclear cascade model. Special interest is devoted to strangeness production, hypernucleus formation and possible annihilation on two nucleons. Signatures for this new process are searched in experimental data. Finally, the highly debated question of quark-gluon formation is analyzed. Cet article constitue une revue de la physique antiproton-noyau. Du point de vue expérimental, cette revue porte particulièrement sur les récents résultats obtenus à LEAR, BNL et KEK. On y a aussi inclus une mise à jour des faits expérimentaux principaux pour pp et pn. L'interaction antiproton-noyau conduit à la diffusion élastique, inélastique et d'xA9change de charge et à des processus d'annihilation. Habituellement, les expériences de diffusion sont analysées en termes de potentiels complexes. La relation entre ces potentiels, la conjugaison de charge et la phénoménologie de Dirac est discutée. On s'est particulièrement intéressé à la dynamique de l'annihilation d'antiprotons sur des noyaux. Le transfert d'énergie, l'absorption de pions et la réponse de la cible sont analysés dans le cadre du modèle de cascade intranucléaire. Certains autres points sont discutés plus en détail: la production d'étrangeté, la formation d'hypernoyaux et l'annihilation sur

  20. Protein-protein interaction networks: from interactions to networks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sayeon; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Do Hee; Park, Byoung Chul

    2004-01-31

    The goal of interaction proteomics that studies the protein-protein interactions of all expressed proteins is to understand biological processes that are strictly regulated by these interactions. The availability of entire genome sequences of many organisms and high-throughput analysis tools has led scientists to study the entire proteome (Pandey and Mann, 2000). There are various high-throughput methods for detecting protein interactions such as yeast two-hybrid approach and mass spectrometry to produce vast amounts of data that can be utilized to decipher protein functions in complicated biological networks. In this review, we discuss recent developments in analytical methods for large-scale protein interactions and the future direction of interaction proteomics.

  1. Interacting With Robots to Investigate the Bases of Social Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Sandini, Giulio

    2017-12-01

    Humans show a great natural ability at interacting with each other. Such efficiency in joint actions depends on a synergy between planned collaboration and emergent coordination, a subconscious mechanism based on a tight link between action execution and perception. This link supports phenomena as mutual adaptation, synchronization, and anticipation, which cut drastically the delays in the interaction and the need of complex verbal instructions and result in the establishment of joint intentions, the backbone of social interaction. From a neurophysiological perspective, this is possible, because the same neural system supporting action execution is responsible of the understanding and the anticipation of the observed action of others. Defining which human motion features allow for such emergent coordination with another agent would be crucial to establish more natural and efficient interaction paradigms with artificial devices, ranging from assistive and rehabilitative technology to companion robots. However, investigating the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting natural interaction poses substantial problems. In particular, the unconscious processes at the basis of emergent coordination (e.g., unintentional movements or gazing) are very difficult-if not impossible-to restrain or control in a quantitative way for a human agent. Moreover, during an interaction, participants influence each other continuously in a complex way, resulting in behaviors that go beyond experimental control. In this paper, we propose robotics technology as a potential solution to this methodological problem. Robots indeed can establish an interaction with a human partner, contingently reacting to his actions without losing the controllability of the experiment or the naturalness of the interactive scenario. A robot could represent an "interactive probe" to assess the sensory and motor mechanisms underlying human-human interaction. We discuss this proposal with examples from our

  2. Interacting galaxies resolved by IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Surace, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss procedures, limitations and results of high resolution processing of interacting galaxies observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). Among 56 potentially resolvable interacting groups selected from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, 22 systems have been resolved yielding fluxes for a total of 51 galaxies. In about 2/3 of the resolved pairs, both galaxies were detected in the far-infrared. A set of isolated non-interacting galaxies was chosen from the Bright Galaxy Sample for comparison with the interacting galaxies. For the current sample, which naturally excludes close pairs and ultraluminous merging systems, the primary conclusions are: (1) It is not possible to distinguish individual interacting galaxies from isolated galaxies of similar luminosity on the basis of infrared properties alone. (2) No direct correlation was found between measures of interaction strength and indicators of enhanced star formation within the resolved systems. (3) Comparison of the interacting and isolated samples indicates statistically significant differences between their distributions of far-infrared color ratios, luminosities, and surface brightnesses. Even during the early stages of interaction spanned by these systems, in a statistical sense, tidal perturbations substantially boost far-infrared indicators of star formation compared to non-interacting systems. We also briefly discuss future prospects for pushing the IRAS data to its limits for additional interacting systems.

  3. "Interactive Classification Technology"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1999-01-01

    The investigators are upgrading a knowledge representation language called SL (Symbolic Language) and an automated reasoning system called SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) to enable the technologies to be used in automated reasoning and interactive classification systems. The overall goals of the project are: a) the enhancement of the representation language SL to accommodate multiple perspectives and a wider range of meaning; b) the development of a sufficient set of operators to enable the interpreter of SL to handle representations of basic cognitive acts; and c) the development of a default inference scheme to operate over SL notation as it is encoded. As to particular goals the first-year work plan focused on inferencing and.representation issues, including: 1) the development of higher level cognitive/ classification functions and conceptual models for use in inferencing and decision making; 2) the specification of a more detailed scheme of defaults and the enrichment of SL notation to accommodate the scheme; and 3) the adoption of additional perspectives for inferencing.

  4. Influenza-Sediment Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, A.; Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Alimova, A.; Galarza, J.; Wei, H.; Steiner, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A typical water fowl can secrete 1012 influenza virions per day. Therefore it is not unexpected that influenza virions interact with sediments in the water column. The influence of sediments on avian influenza virions is not known. With the threat of avian influenza emerging into the human population, it is crucial to understand virus survivability and residence time in a body of water. Influenza and clay sediments are colloidal particles and thus aggregate as explained by DLVO (Derjaguin & Landau, Verwey & Overbeek) theory. Of great importance is an understanding of the types of particulate or macromolecular components that bind the virus particles, and whether the virus remains biologically active. We present results of hetero-aggregation and transmission electron microscopy experiments performed with influenza A/PR8/38. Influenza particles are suspended with sediment and minimal nutrients for several days, after which the components are evaluated to determine influenza concentration and survivability. Transmission electron microscopy results are reported on the influenza-sediment aggregates to elucidate structure and morphology of the components.

  5. Electron Interactions in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Electrons confined in two dimensions (2D) can exhibit strongly correlated states. Recent experimental discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene amplified interest in correlated 2D electronic systems, owning to presence of the unusual topological phase associated with zero effective mass of charge carriers. In this talk, we will discuss the role of the many-body effects due to the electron-electron interaction in graphene manifested in electron transport phenomena. In particular, we will discuss the nature unusual spontaneous symmetry breaking Landau levels graphene under the extreme quantum condition, the appearance of unique low density insulating states and fractional quantum Hall states. Employing extremely high quality samples obtained by suspending graphene and graphene on atomically flat defect free insulating substrate such as hexa-bron nitride, we now investigate various broken symmetry states under high magnetic field. The nature of these broken symmetry state can be explained generally considering underlying SU(4) symmetry in the single particle level of the Landau levels.

  6. Featured Image: Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    This beautiful image shows two galaxies, IC 2163 and NGC 2207, as they undergo a grazing collision 114 million light-years away. The image is composite, constructed from Hubble (blue), Spitzer (green), and ALMA (red) data. In a recent study, Debra Elmegreen (Vassar College) and collaborators used this ALMA data to trace the individual molecular clouds in the two interacting galaxies, identifying a total of over 200 clouds that each contain a mass of over a million solar masses. These clouds represent roughly half the molecular gas in the two galaxies total. Elmegreen and collaborators track the properties of these clouds and their relation to star-forming regions observed with Hubble. For more information about their observations, check out the paper linked below.A closer look at the ALMA observations for these galaxies, with the different emission regions labeled. Most of the molecular gas emission comes from the eyelids of IC 2163, and the nuclear ring and Feature i in NGC 2207. [Elmegreen et al. 2017]CitationDebra Meloy Elmegreen et al 2017 ApJ 841 43. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6ba5

  7. Hydrogen interactions with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Harkins, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Review of the literature on the nature and extent of hydrogen interactions with metals and the role of hydrogen in metal failure. The classification of hydrogen-containing systems is discussed, including such categories as covalent hydrides, volatile hydrides, polymeric hydrides, and transition metal hydride complexes. The use of electronegativity as a correlating parameter in determining hydride type is evaluated. A detailed study is made of the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems, touching upon such aspects as hydrogen solubility, the positions occupied by hydrogen atoms within the solvent metal lattice, the derivation of thermodynamic functions of solid solutions from solubility data, and the construction of statistical models for hydrogen-metal solutions. A number of theories of hydrogen-metal bonding are reviewed, including the rigid-band model, the screened-proton model, and an approach employing the augmented plane wave method to solve the one-electron energy band problem. Finally, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is investigated on the basis of literature data concerning stress effects and the kinetics of hydrogen transport to critical sites.

  8. Understanding the Physics Behind Ionospheric and Plasmaspheric Density Irregularities by Utilizing Multi-Instrument Observations Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Yizengaw , Endawoke 5d. P R O J E C T NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...Sterner et al., JGR, 2013], Publications Yizengaw , E ., E . E . Pacheco, and C. E . Valladares (2013b), Longitudinal and Seasonal Variation of Lunar tide...strength, to be submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. Yizengaw , E ., E . E . Pacheco, V. Paznukhov, E . Zesta, M . B. Moldwin, C. Valladares, B. Damtie,

  9. A Study of Artificial Modification of the VLF Propagation Characteristics of the Plasmasphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    B C F11 0 F., consider the follossing. The diffusion coefficient D, increases %ith altitude. The variable t" decreases with altitude. Con - F,, -C F...the gases of interest. Con - sequcntly, G is assumed to be a function of S at the beginning of each step in the solution. W ith this approxination, ( 10...1.0 0 A, 4,9 X [f0 He T Cn ,, 11, CON ~CENTRATION HI, CONCENTRATION4 LOG..(Numx,rr tier,,tyxcrn ’LOG..iNurber Dirnity cin 486 .. 429 3t,2) 300 TIME 1, 4

  10. ELF propagation in the plasmasphere based on satellite observations of discrete and continuous forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muzzio, J. L. R.

    1971-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a nonhomogeneous anisotropic medium is examined from the point of view of geometrical optics. In particular, the propagation of ELF waves in the magnetosphere is described in terms of the electron and ion densities and the intensity and inclination of the earth's magnetic field. The analysis of the variations of wave normal angle along the ray path is extended to include the effects of ions. A comparison of the relative importance of each of the above parameters in controlling the orientation of the wave normals is made in the region of the magnetosphere where most of the ion whistlers have been detected.

  11. Local time variations of high-energy plasmaspheric ion pitch angle distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Skoug, Ruth M.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument revealed a persistent depletion in the 1–10 eV ion population in the postmidnight sector during quiet times in the 2 < L < 3 region. This study explores the source of this ion depletion by developing an algorithm to classify 26 months of pitch angle distributions measured by the HOPE instrument. We correct the HOPE low energy fluxes for spacecraft potential using measurements from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument. A high percentage of low count pitch angle distributions is found in the postmidnight sector coupledmore » with a low percentage of ion distributions peaked perpendicular to the field line. A peak in loss cone distributions in the dusk sector is also observed. Here, these results characterize the nature of the dearth of the near 90° pitch angle 1–10 eV ion population in the near-Earth postmidnight sector. This study also shows, for the first time, low-energy HOPE differential number fluxes corrected for spacecraft potential and 1–10 eV H + fluxes at different levels of geomagnetic activity.« less

  12. RJSplot: Interactive Graphs with R.

    PubMed

    Barrios, David; Prieto, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Data visualization techniques provide new methods for the generation of interactive graphs. These graphs allow a better exploration and interpretation of data but their creation requires advanced knowledge of graphical libraries. Recent packages have enabled the integration of interactive graphs in R. However, R provides limited graphical packages that allow the generation of interactive graphs for computational biology applications. The present project has joined the analytical power of R with the interactive graphical features of JavaScript in a new R package (RJSplot). It enables the easy generation of interactive graphs in R, provides new visualization capabilities, and contributes to the advance of computational biology analytical methods. At present, 16 interactive graphics are available in RJSplot, such as the genome viewer, Manhattan plots, 3D plots, heatmaps, dendrograms, networks, and so on. The RJSplot package is freely available online at http://rjsplot.net. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nutrition and parasite interaction.

    PubMed

    Coop, R L; Holmes, P H

    1996-01-01

    This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein

  14. Cerebrorenal interaction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    -renal interaction. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Strongly interacting fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, J. W.

    Research has been concentrated primarily in three areas: aspects of high temperature superconductor systems, electronic structure, and other strongly interacting systems. In high-temperature superconductors the three major developments were: (1) a mean-field treatment of the very popular t-J model that provided the first uniform exhibition of four different possible ground states, whose diversity poses serious challenges for more exact approaches; (2) a variational wavefunction was constructed for the t(sup i)-J model (a cousin of the t-J model) which has lower ground state energies than more exotic proposed grounds states with broken time-reversal symmetry, thus diluting the interest of the high-energy theorists in high-temperature superconductivity; and (3) the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the so-called marginal Fermi liquid have been computed for the first time. In the electronic structure program we note first, the work of John Mintmire, on polymer systems, especially chiral polymers such as polyethylene. Second, the most striking features of a calculation of the linear polarizability of rare-gas atoms are that good agreement for the frequency-dependent polarization is achieved by adjusting the gap between the occupied and unoccupied states to get the correct static polarizability, and that adding a few basis functions to the basis set already optimized for the total energy improves the convergence of the polarizability by three orders of magnitude. We review the understanding of the recently observed Shapiro steps in Josephson junction arrays which was achieved by uniting the dynamics of the two subsystems -- the flux lattice and the junction array -- to provide a global explanation which has a topological interpretation, thus suggesting wider applicability.

  16. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  17. Relativistic radiation belt electron responses to GEM magnetic storms: Comparison of CRRES observations with 3-D VERB simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Ni, Binbin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration, loss, and transport in the Earth's radiation belt during magnetic storms is a challenging task. The U.S. National Science Foundation's Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) has identified five magnetic storms for in-depth study that occurred during the second half of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission in the year 1991. In this study, we show the responses of relativistic radiation belt electrons to the magnetic storms by comparing the time-dependent 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) simulations with the CRRES MEA 1 MeV electron observations in order to investigate the relative roles of the competing effects of previously proposed scattering mechanisms at different storm phases, as well as to examine the extent to which the simulations can reproduce observations. The major scattering processes in our model are radial transport due to Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic fluctuations, pitch angle and energy diffusion including mixed diffusion by whistler mode chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and pitch angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss inside the plasmasphere. The 3-D VERB simulations show that during the storm main phase and early recovery phase the estimated plasmapause is located deep in the inner region, indicating that pitch angle scattering by chorus waves can be a dominant loss process in the outer belt. We have also confirmed the important role played by mixed energy-pitch angle diffusion by chorus waves, which tends to reduce the fluxes enhanced by local acceleration, resulting in comparable levels of computed and measured fluxes. However, we cannot reproduce the more pronounced flux dropout near the boundary of our simulations during the main phase, which indicates that non-adiabatic losses may extend toL-shells lower than our simulation boundary. We also provide a detailed description of simulations for each of the GEM storm events.

  18. Plasma interactions with large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagalyn, Rita C.; Maynard, Nelson C.

    1986-01-01

    Space is playing a rapidly expanding role in the conduct of the Air Force mission. Larger, more complex, high-power space platforms are planned and military astronauts will provide a new capability in spacecraft servicing. Interactions of operational satellites with the environment have been shown to degrade space sensors and electronics and to constrain systems operations. The environmental interaction effects grow nonlinearly with increasing size and power. Quantification of the interactions and development of mitigation techniques for systems-limiting interactions is essential to the success of future Air Force space operations.

  19. Josef Alber's "Interaction of Color": From Print to Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Jerry; Roberts, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of interactive, multimedia courseware based on Josef Alber's book, "Interaction of Color." Alber's ideas and teachings on the perceptions of color are explained, and steps involving computer graphics, hardware, and software that resulted in the use of CD-ROM and videodisc with an Apple Macintosh II are detailed.…

  20. Interactions among the Imagination, Expertise Reversal, and Element Interactivity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Wayne; Sweller, John

    2005-01-01

    Interactions among the imagination, expertise reversal, and element interactivity effects were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, less knowledgeable primary school students learning to use a bus timetable produced better performance under study than imagination conditions, but an increase in their experience reversed the result,…

  1. Why Interactivity Works: Interactive Priming of Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Olkun, Sinan

    2005-01-01

    This study has important implications for microworlds such as Logo, HyperGami, and Newton's World, which use interaction to learn spatial mental models for science, math, geometry, etc. This study tested the hypothesis that interactively rotating (dragging) virtual shapes primes mental rotation. The independent variable was observation vs.…

  2. The n→π* Interaction.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Robert W; Raines, Ronald T

    2017-08-15

    The carbonyl group holds a prominent position in chemistry and biology not only because it allows diverse transformations but also because it supports key intermolecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding. More recently, carbonyl groups have been found to interact with a variety of nucleophiles, including other carbonyl groups, in what we have termed an n→π* interaction. In an n→π* interaction, a nucleophile donates lone-pair (n) electron density into the empty π* orbital of a nearby carbonyl group. Mixing of these orbitals releases energy, resulting in an attractive interaction. Hints of such interactions were evident in small-molecule crystal structures as early as the 1970s, but not until 2001 was the role of such interactions articulated clearly. These non-covalent interactions were first discovered during investigations into the thermostability of the proline-rich protein collagen, which achieves a robust structure despite a relatively low potential for hydrogen bonding. It was found that by modulating the distance between two carbonyl groups in the peptide backbone, one could alter the conformational preferences of a peptide bond to proline. Specifically, only the trans conformation of a peptide bond to proline allows for an attractive interaction with an adjacent carbonyl group, so when one increases the proximity of the two carbonyl groups, one enhances their interaction and promotes the trans conformation of the peptide bond, which increases the thermostability of collagen. More recently, attention has been paid to the nature of these interactions. Some have argued that rather than resulting from electron donation, carbonyl interactions are a particular example of dipolar interactions that are well-approximated by classical mechanics. However, experimental evidence has demonstrated otherwise. Numerous examples now exist where an increase in the dipole moment of a carbonyl group decreases the strength of its interactions with other carbonyl

  3. The n→π* Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus The carbonyl group holds a prominent position in chemistry and biology not only because it allows diverse transformations but also because it supports key intermolecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding. More recently, carbonyl groups have been found to interact with a variety of nucleophiles, including other carbonyl groups, in what we have termed an n→π* interaction. In an n→π* interaction, a nucleophile donates lone-pair (n) electron density into the empty π* orbital of a nearby carbonyl group. Mixing of these orbitals releases energy, resulting in an attractive interaction. Hints of such interactions were evident in small-molecule crystal structures as early as the 1970s, but not until 2001 was the role of such interactions articulated clearly. These non-covalent interactions were first discovered during investigations into the thermostability of the proline-rich protein collagen, which achieves a robust structure despite a relatively low potential for hydrogen bonding. It was found that by modulating the distance between two carbonyl groups in the peptide backbone, one could alter the conformational preferences of a peptide bond to proline. Specifically, only the trans conformation of a peptide bond to proline allows for an attractive interaction with an adjacent carbonyl group, so when one increases the proximity of the two carbonyl groups, one enhances their interaction and promotes the trans conformation of the peptide bond, which increases the thermostability of collagen. More recently, attention has been paid to the nature of these interactions. Some have argued that rather than resulting from electron donation, carbonyl interactions are a particular example of dipolar interactions that are well-approximated by classical mechanics. However, experimental evidence has demonstrated otherwise. Numerous examples now exist where an increase in the dipole moment of a carbonyl group decreases the strength of its interactions with other

  4. Global Magnetospheric Response to an Interplanetary Shock: THEMIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sibeck, David G.; Zong, Q.-G.; McFadden, James P.; Larson, Davin; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the global response of geospace plasma environment to an interplanetary shock at approx. 0224 UT on May 28, 2008 from multiple THEMIS spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath (THEMIS B and C) and the mid-afternoon (THEMIS A) and dusk magnetosphere (THEMIS D and E). The interaction of the transmitted interplanetary shock with the magnetosphere has global effects. Consequently, it can affect geospace plasma significantly. After interacting with the bow shock, the interplanetary shock transmitted a fast shock and a discontinuity which propagated through the magnetosheath toward the Earth at speeds of 300 km/s and 137 km/s respectively. THEMIS A observations indicate that the plasmaspheric plume changed significantly by the interplanetary shock impact. The plasmaspheric plume density increased rapidly from 10 to 100/ cubic cm in 4 min and the ion distribution changed from isotropic to strongly anisotropic distribution. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by THEMIS A are most likely excited by the anisotropic ion distributions caused by the interplanetary shock impact. To our best knowledge, this is the first direct observation of the plasmaspheric plume response to an interplanetary shock's impact. THEMIS A, but not D or E, observed a plasmaspheric plume in the dayside magnetosphere. Multiple spacecraft observations indicate that the dawn-side edge of the plasmaspheric plume was located between THEMIS A and D (or E).

  5. Educational interactive multimedia software: The impact of interactivity on learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reamon, Derek Trent

    This dissertation discusses the design, development, deployment and testing of two versions of educational interactive multimedia software. Both versions of the software are focused on teaching mechanical engineering undergraduates about the fundamentals of direct-current (DC) motor physics and selection. The two versions of Motor Workshop software cover the same basic materials on motors, but differ in the level of interactivity between the students and the software. Here, the level of interactivity refers to the particular role of the computer in the interaction between the user and the software. In one version, the students navigate through information that is organized by topic, reading text, and viewing embedded video clips; this is referred to as "low-level interactivity" software because the computer simply presents the content. In the other version, the students are given a task to accomplish---they must design a small motor-driven 'virtual' vehicle that competes against computer-generated opponents. The interaction is guided by the software which offers advice from 'experts' and provides contextual information; we refer to this as "high-level interactivity" software because the computer is actively participating in the interaction. The software was used in two sets of experiments, where students using the low-level interactivity software served as the 'control group,' and students using the highly interactive software were the 'treatment group.' Data, including pre- and post-performance tests, questionnaire responses, learning style characterizations, activity tracking logs and videotapes were collected for analysis. Statistical and observational research methods were applied to the various data to test the hypothesis that the level of interactivity effects the learning situation, with higher levels of interactivity being more effective for learning. The results show that both the low-level and high-level interactive versions of the software were effective

  6. Designing Interactive Online Nursing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Smita; Jain, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically tests the relation between the instructional design elements and the overall meaningful interactions among online students. Eighteen online graduate nursing courses are analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Findings suggest that the quantity of meaningful interaction among learners can be improved by…

  7. Interactive Visualisations and Statistical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Sinclair; Ridgway, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy involves engagement with the data one encounters. New forms of data and new ways to engage with data--notably via interactive data visualisations--are emerging. Some of the skills required to work effectively with these new visualisation tools are described. We argue that interactive data visualisations will have as profound…

  8. Results-Based Interaction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Interaction design is a user-centered approach to development in which users and their goals are the driving force behind a project's design. Interaction design principles are fundamental to the design and implementation of effective websites, but they are not sufficient. This article argues that, to reach its full potential, a website should also…

  9. Verbal Patterns in Dyadic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Joe; Ivie, Robert L.

    Selected aspects of Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic" model of symbolic interaction were operationalized to describe and compare verbal patterns in transactions between five pairs of friends and five pairs of strangers. Based on Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory, it was predicted that interactants would display verbal patterns unique to…

  10. Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddo, John; Kolodziej, James

    A Distributed Interactive Intelligent Tutoring Simulation (DIITS) has been developed to train Army Infantry squad and fire team leaders skills to perform military operations cooperatively in urban terrain. It integrates distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and thus capitalizes on the strengths of both:…

  11. The Wonders of Interactive Whiteboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of using interactive whiteboards in the classroom. Developed by Smart Technologies, the Smart Board is one of several interactive whiteboards on the market today. Through Smart Board, starters can write, erase, and perform mouse functions with their finger, a pen, or anything with a maneuverable, firm surface.…

  12. Polymer-water interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer water interactions were investigated. The following interactions were studied: (1) water absorption and desorption kinetics in EVA and PVB; (2) humidity dependence of electrical properties of EVA and PVB; (3) plasticizer effects in PVB; and (4) radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  13. Gaming Redefines Interactivity for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKanter, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The new definition of interactivity has as its focal point the skills of people, not the capabilities of the technology. The goal is to enhance the interaction between people and the learning that can only occur among curious and motivated individuals working together. The social nature of people, the increasing capabilities of technology and the…

  14. Social Interactions and Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesar, Margarida

    In the 1970s W. Doise, G. Mugny and A.-N. Perret-Clermont underlined for the first time the essential role played by social interactions in cognitive development. Since then, many authors have been studying social interactions and their mediating role in knowledge apprehension and in skills acquisition. Inspired by L. Vygotsky's theory, many…

  15. Interactive Flow in Exercise Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Rebecca; Smith, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A phenomenology of the bodily experience of interactive flow adds to Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory. Whereas Csikszentmihalyi attended to teachers' and students' experiences of flow separately, this inquiry explores flow through three water-inspired layers of physical interaction between fitness professionals and their clients. Teaching fitness is…

  16. Interactions between diatoms and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shady A; Parker, Micaela S; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2012-09-01

    Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding higher trophic levels. Here we present an overview of how diatoms and bacteria interact and the implications of these interactions. We emphasize that heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans that are consistently associated with diatoms are confined to two phyla. These consistent bacterial associations result from encounter mechanisms that occur within a microscale environment surrounding a diatom cell. We review signaling mechanisms that occur in this microenvironment to pave the way for specific interactions. Finally, we discuss known interactions between diatoms and bacteria and exciting new directions and research opportunities in this field. Throughout the review, we emphasize new technological advances that will help in the discovery of new interactions. Deciphering the languages of diatoms and bacteria and how they interact will inform our understanding of the role these organisms have in shaping the ocean and how these interactions may change in future oceans.

  17. Interactions between Diatoms and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shady A.; Parker, Micaela S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding higher trophic levels. Here we present an overview of how diatoms and bacteria interact and the implications of these interactions. We emphasize that heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans that are consistently associated with diatoms are confined to two phyla. These consistent bacterial associations result from encounter mechanisms that occur within a microscale environment surrounding a diatom cell. We review signaling mechanisms that occur in this microenvironment to pave the way for specific interactions. Finally, we discuss known interactions between diatoms and bacteria and exciting new directions and research opportunities in this field. Throughout the review, we emphasize new technological advances that will help in the discovery of new interactions. Deciphering the languages of diatoms and bacteria and how they interact will inform our understanding of the role these organisms have in shaping the ocean and how these interactions may change in future oceans. PMID:22933565

  18. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Transformations: Mobile Interaction & Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…

  20. Aromatic-Proline Interactions: Electronically Tunable CH/π Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zondlo, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Proline residues have unique roles in protein folding, structure, and function. Proline combined with the aromatic amino acids comprise the encoded cyclic protein residues. Aromatic protein side chains are defined by their negatively charged π faces, while the faces of the proline ring are partially positively charged. This polarity results from their two-point connection of the side chain to the electron-withdrawing protein backbone, and the lower electronegativity of hydrogen compared to carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogens adjacent to the carbonyl and amide nitrogen, Ha and Hδ, respectively, are the most partially positive. Proline’s side chain is also conformationally restricted, allowing for interaction with aromatic residues with minimal entropic or steric penalty. Proline and aromatic residues can interact favorably with each other, due to both the hydrophobic effect and the interaction between the π aromatic face and the polarized C-H bonds, called a CH/π interaction. Aromatic-proline interactions can occur locally, for example to stabilize cis-amide bonds, and over larger distances, in the tertiary structures of proteins, and intermolecularly in protein-protein interactions. In peptides and proteins, aromatic-proline sequences more readily adopt cis-prolyl amide bonds, where the aromatic ring interacts with the proline ring in the cis conformation. In aromatic-proline sequences, Trp and Tyr are more likely to induce cis-amide bonds than Phe, suggesting an aromatic electronic effect. This result would be expected for a CH/π interaction, in which a more electron-rich aromatic would have a stronger (more cis-stabilizing) interaction with partial positive charges on prolyl hydrogens. In this Account, we describe our investigations into the nature of local aromatic-proline interactions, using peptide models. We synthesized a series of 26 peptides, TXPN, varying X from electron-rich to electron poor aromatic amino acids, and found that

  1. Scattering calculations and confining interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the research work performed under this grant were concerned with strong interaction processes ranging from kaon-nucleon interaction to proton-nucleus scattering calculations. Research performed under this grant can be categorized into three groups: (1) parametrization of fundamental interactions, (2) development of formal theory, and (3) calculations based upon the first two. Parametrizations of certain fundamental interactions, such as kaon-nucleon interaction, for example, were necessary because kaon-nucleon scattering amplitude was needed to perform kaon-nucleus scattering calculations. It was possible to calculate kaon-nucleon amplitudes from the first principle, but it was unnecessary for the purpose of the project. Similar work was also done for example for anti-protons and anti-nuclei. Formal developments to some extent were also pursued so that consistent calculations can be done.

  2. Interaction Terms in Nonlinear Models

    PubMed Central

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Norton, Edward C; Dowd, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explain the use of interaction terms in nonlinear models. Study Design We discuss the motivation for including interaction terms in multivariate analyses. We then explain how the straightforward interpretation of interaction terms in linear models changes in nonlinear models, using graphs and equations. We extend the basic results from logit and probit to difference-in-differences models, models with higher powers of explanatory variables, other nonlinear models (including log transformation and ordered models), and panel data models. Empirical Application We show how to calculate and interpret interaction effects using a publicly available Stata data set with a binary outcome. Stata 11 has added several features which make those calculations easier. LIMDEP code also is provided. Conclusions It is important to understand why interaction terms are included in nonlinear models in order to be clear about their substantive interpretation. PMID:22091735

  3. Deep Interactive Learning with Sharkzor

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2017-10-16

    Sharkzor is a web application for machine-learning assisted image sort and summary. Deep learning algorithms are leveraged to infer, augment, and automate the user’s mental model. Initially, images uploaded by the user are spread out on a canvas. The user then interacts with the images to impute their mental model into the applications algorithmic underpinnings. Methods of interaction within Sharkzor’s user interface and user experience support three primary user tasks: triage, organize and automate. The user triages the large pile of overlapping images by moving images of interest into proximity. The user then organizes said images into meaningful groups. Aftermore » interacting with the images and groups, deep learning helps to automate the user’s interactions. The loop of interaction, automation, and response by the user allows the system to quickly make sense of large amounts of data.« less

  4. Electrostatic interactions in molecular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painelli, Anna; Terenziani, Francesca

    2004-03-01

    Non-additive collective behavior appears in molecular materials as a result of intermolecular interactions. We present a model for interacting polar and polarizable molecules that applies to different supramolecular architectures of donor-π-acceptor molecules. We follow a bottom-up modeling strategy: the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data of solvated molecules leads to the definition of a simple two-state model for the molecular units. Classical electrostatic interactions are then introduced to model molecular clusters. The molecular properties are strickingly affected by supramolecular interactions, as demonstrated by spectroscopic studies. Brand new phenomena, like phase transitions and multielectron transfer, with no counterpart at the molecular level are observed as direct consequences of electrostatic intermolecular interactions.

  5. Hyperfine interaction in hydrogenated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Noel; Melle, Manuel; Fernandez-Rossier, Joaquin

    We study the hyperfine interaction of Hydrogen chemisorbed in graphene nanostructures with a gap in their spectrum, such as islands and ribbons. Chemisorption of Hydrogen on graphene results in a bound in-gap state that hosts a single electron localized around the adatom. Using both density functional theory and a four-orbital tight-binding model we study the hyperfine interaction between the hydrogen nuclear spin and the conduction electrons in graphene. We find that the strength of the hyperfine interaction decreases for larger nanostructures for which the energy gap is smaller. We then compare the results of the hyperfine interaction for large nanostructures with those of graphene 2D crystal with a periodic arrangement of chemisorbed Hydrogen atoms, obtaining very similar results. The magnitude of the hyperfine interaction is about 150 MHz, in line with that of Si:P. We acknowledge financial support by Marie-Curie-ITN 607904-SPINOGRAPH.

  6. Endothelial cell-matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Iivanainen, Erika; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Heino, Jyrki; Elenius, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between endothelial cells and components of their surrounding extracellular matrix are necessary for the invasion, migration, and survival of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. These interactions are mediated by matrix receptors that initiate intracellular signaling cascades in response to binding to specific extracellular matrix molecules. The interactions between endothelial cells and their environment are also modulated by enzymes that degrade different matrix components and thus enable endothelial invasion. Recent reports on gene targeting in mice have confirmed the role of two classes of matrix receptors, integrins and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and a group of matrix degrading proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, in angiogenesis. The significance of endothelial cell-matrix interactions is further supported by several ongoing clinical trials that analyze the effects of drugs blocking this interaction on angiogenesis-dependent growth of human tumors. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Emotional intelligence and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo N; Brackett, Marc A; Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Sellin, Ina; Salovey, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Two studies found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals. Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.

  8. [Antihypertensive drug-drug interactions].

    PubMed

    Morales-Olivas, Francisco J; Estañ, Luis

    2005-05-28

    A drug interaction is the quantitative or qualitative modification of the effect of a drug by the simultaneous or successive administration of a different one. Hypertensive patients, mainly the more elderly ones, frequently present concomitant diseases that require the administration of several medicines which facilitates the appearance of interactions. The lack of effectiveness of the antihypertensive treatment is a relatively frequent fact that sometimes is due to interactions of antihypertensive drugs with other treatments. It is difficult to determine the incidence of interactions, but it is related to the number of drugs administered simultaneously. Between 37 and 60% of hospital-admissions are treated with potentially dangerous drug associations and up to a 6% of fatal events are due to this circumstance. Among antihypertensive drugs, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are less affected by drug-interactions. Lipophilic beta-blockers agents may present some clinical relevant interactions, whereas calcium channel blockers, especially the non-dihydropiridinic ones, are implied in clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions. Among the angiotensin receptor blockers there are differences that would have to be considered when they are used in patients who receive other drugs. Although it is impossible for the doctor to remember all the clinical relevant interactions, it is important to bear in mind their existence and the possible mechanisms of production which can help to identify them and to contribute to their prevention. The most frequent interactions related with clinical problems are the pharmacokinetic ones, mainly those related to the metabolism through the cytochrome P450 system or the presystemic clearance by means of the P-glycoprotein. Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 system may present polymorphisms that can explain the individual differences in the response to drugs or the appearance of drug-interactions.

  9. Interactive computations: toward risk management in interactive intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Andrzej; Jankowski, Andrzej

    Understanding the nature of interactions is regarded as one of the biggest challenges in projects related to complex adaptive systems. We discuss foundations for interactive computations in interactive intelligent systems (IIS), developed in the Wistech program and used for modeling complex systems. We emphasize the key role of risk management in problem solving by IIS. The considerations are based on experience gained in real-life projects concerning, e.g., medical diagnosis and therapy support, control of an unmanned helicopter, fraud detection algorithmic trading or fire commander decision support.

  10. [Drug interactions in pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Syhr, K M J; Oertel, B G; Geisslinger, G

    2015-12-01

    Pain is one of the most common reasons for consulting a physician. Chronic pain patients often suffer from a variety of comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety and they are therefore often simultaneously treated with more than one drug. The probability of drug interactions increases with every additional drug. A systematic internet and literature search up to February 2015 was carried out. Systematic lists were included. In addition, the drug prescription information sheets were used and an internet search via Pubmed and google.com was carried out for drugs alone and in combination in order to find substance-specific interactions. A differentiation is made between pharmaceutical, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Pharmaceutical interactions are caused by chemical, physical or physicochemical incompatibility of drugs or adjuvants used. These can even occur outside the body and during concomitant administration via the same route. A pharmacodynamic interaction in pain management is for example the additive sedative effect of opioids and benzodiazepines when taken together. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur during the absorption, distribution, metabolism and in the elimination phases. Many drug interactions can be avoided by careful and continuous evaluation of pharmacotherapy and if necessary its adaptation; however, a sound knowledge of the underlying pharmacological mechanisms and the properties of currently used analgesics is necessary.

  11. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri; Urvoy, Alban; Firstenberg, Ofer; Büchler, Hans Peter; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source.

  13. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  14. Evolutionary dynamics under interactive diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-10-01

    As evidenced by many cases in human societies, individuals often make different behavior decisions in different interactions, and adaptively adjust their behavior in changeable interactive scenarios. However, up to now, how such diverse interactive behavior affects cooperation dynamics has still remained unknown. Here we develop a general framework of interactive diversity, which models individuals’ separated behavior against distinct opponents and their adaptive adjustment in response to opponents’ strategies, to explore the evolution of cooperation. We find that interactive diversity enables individuals to reciprocate every single opponent, and thus sustains large-scale reciprocal interactions. Our work witnesses an impressive boost of cooperation for a notably extensive range of parameters and for all pairwise games. These results are robust against well-mixed and various networked populations, and against degree-normalized and cumulative payoff patterns. From the perspective of network dynamics, distinguished from individuals competing for nodes in most previous work, in this paper, the system evolves in the form of behavior disseminating along edges. We propose a theoretical method based on evolution of edges, which predicts well both the frequency of cooperation and the compact cooperation clusters. Our thorough investigation clarifies the positive role of interactive diversity in resolving social dilemmas and highlights the significance of understanding evolutionary dynamics from the viewpoint of edge dynamics.

  15. Interactive segmentation framework of the Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Maleike, D; Nolden, M; Meinzer, H-P; Wolf, I

    2009-10-01

    Interactive methods are indispensable for real world applications of segmentation in medicine, at least to allow for convenient and fast verification and correction of automated techniques. Besides traditional interactive tasks such as adding or removing parts of a segmentation, adjustment of contours or the placement of seed points, the relatively recent Graph Cut and Random Walker segmentation methods demonstrate an interest in advanced interactive strategies for segmentation. Though the value of toolkits and extensible applications is generally accepted for the development of new segmentation algorithms, the topic of interactive segmentation applications is rarely addressed by current toolkits and applications. In this paper, we present the extension of the Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) with a framework for the development of interactive applications for image segmentation. The framework provides a clear structure for the development of new applications and offers a plugin mechanism to easily extend existing applications with additional segmentation tools. In addition, the framework supports shape-based interpolation and multi-level undo/redo of modifications to binary images. To demonstrate the value of the framework, we also present a free, open-source application named InteractiveSegmentation for manual segmentation of medical images (including 3D+t), which is built based on the extended MITK framework. The application includes several features to effectively support manual segmentation, which are not found in comparable freely available applications. InteractiveSegmentation is fully developed and successfully and regularly used in several projects. Using the plugin mechanism, the application enables developers of new algorithms to begin algorithmic work more quickly.

  16. Hidden interaction in SBO galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galletta, G.; Bettoni, D.; Oosterloo, T.; Fasano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Galaxies, like plants, show a large variety of grafts: an individual of some type connects physically with a neighborhood of same or different type. The effects of these interactions between galaxies have a broad range of morphologies depending, among other quantities, on the distance of the closest approach between systems and the relative size of the two galaxies. A sketch of the possible situations is shown in tabular form. This botanical classification is just indicative, because the effects of interactions can be notable also at relatively large separations, when additional conditions are met, as for example low density of the interacting systems or the presence of intra-cluster gas. In spite of the large variety of encounters and effects, in the literature the same terms are often used to refer to different types of interactions. Analysis indicates that only few of the situations show evident signs of interaction. They appear to be most relevant when the size of the two galaxies is comparable. Bridges and tails, like the well known case of NGC 4038/39, the Antennae, are only observed for a very low percentage of all galaxies (approx. 0.38 percent, Arp and Madore 1977). In most cases of gravitational bond between two galaxies, the effects of interactions are not relevant or evident. For instance, the detection of stellar shells (Malin and Carter 1983), which have been attributed to the accretion of gas stripped from another galaxy or to the capture and disruption of a small stellar system (Quinn 1984), requires particular observing and reduction techniques. Besides these difficulties of detection, time plays an important role in erasing, within a massive galaxy, the effects of interactions with smaller objects. This can happen on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, so the number of systems now showing signs of interaction suggests lower limits to the true frequency of interactions in the life-time of a stellar system.

  17. NAOMInova: Interactive Geometric Analysis of Noncovalent Interactions in Macromolecular Structures.

    PubMed

    Inhester, Therese; Nittinger, Eva; Sommer, Kai; Schmidt, Pascal; Bietz, Stefan; Rarey, Matthias

    2017-09-25

    Noncovalent interactions play an important role in macromolecular complexes. The assessment of molecular interactions is often based on knowledge derived from statistics on structural data. Within the last years, the available data in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank has increased dramatically, quantitatively as well as qualitatively. This development allows the derivation of enhanced interaction models and motivates new ways of data analysis. Here, we present a method to facilitate the analysis of noncovalent interactions enabling detailed insights into the nature of molecular interactions. The method is integrated into a highly variable framework enabling the adaption to user-specific requirements. NAOMInova, the user interface for our method, allows the generation of specific statistics with respect to the chemical environment of substructures. The substructures as well as the analyzed set of protein structures can be chosen arbitrarily. Although NAOMInova was primarily made for data exploration in protein-ligand crystal structures, it can be used in combination with any structure collection, for example, analysis of a carbonyl in the neighborhood of an aromatic ring on a set of structures resulting from a MD simulation. Additionally, a filter for different atom attributes can be applied including the experimental support by electron density for single atoms. In this publication, we present the underlying algorithmic techniques of our method and show application examples that demonstrate NAOMInova's ability to support individual analysis of noncovalent interactions in protein structures. NAOMInova is available at http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/naominova .

  18. Interactive explorations of hierarchical segmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the implementation of an interactive tool, called HSEGEXP, to interactively explore the hierarchical segmentation produced by the iterative parallel region growing (IPRG) algorithm to select the best segmentation result. This combination of the HSEGEXP tool with the IPRG algorithm amounts to a computer-assisted image segmentation system guided by human interaction. The initial application of the HSEGEXP tool is in the refinement of ground reference data based on the IPRG/HSEGEXP segmentation of the corresponding remotely sensed image data. The HSEGEXP tool is being used to help evaluate the effectiveness of an automatic 'best' segmentation process under development.

  19. Research in interactive scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J. M.; Barrow, H. G.; Weyl, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Cooperative (man-machine) scene analysis techniques were developed whereby humans can provide a computer with guidance when completely automated processing is infeasible. An interactive approach promises significant near-term payoffs in analyzing various types of high volume satellite imagery, as well as vehicle-based imagery used in robot planetary exploration. This report summarizes the work accomplished over the duration of the project and describes in detail three major accomplishments: (1) the interactive design of texture classifiers; (2) a new approach for integrating the segmentation and interpretation phases of scene analysis; and (3) the application of interactive scene analysis techniques to cartography.

  20. Dynamics Explorer twin spacecraft under evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Dynamics Explorer A and B satellites designed to explore the interactive processes occuring between the magnetosphere and Earth's ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and plasmasphere are described. Effects of these interactions, satellite orbits, data collecting antennas, solar power systems, axes, configurations, and Earth based command, control and data display systems are mentioned.

  1. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  2. Antimicrobial peptides interact with peptidoglycan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelay, Om P.; Peterson, Christian A.; Snavely, Mary E.; Brown, Taylor C.; TecleMariam, Ariam F.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Blake, Allison M.; Schneider, Sydney C.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2017-10-01

    Traditional therapeutics are losing effectiveness as bacterial resistance increases, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can serve as an alternative source for antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is commonly hypothesized to involve pore formation in the lipid membrane, thereby leading to cell death. However, bacterial cell walls are much more complex than just the lipid membrane. A large portion of the wall is comprised of peptidoglycan, yet we did not find any report of AMP-peptidoglycan interactions. Consequently, this work evaluated AMP-peptidoglycan and AMP-phospholipid (multilamellar vesicles) interactions through tryptophan fluorescence. Given that peptidoglycan is insoluble and vesicles are large particles, we took advantage of the unique properties of Trp-fluorescence to use one technique for two very different systems. Interestingly, melittin and cecropin A interacted with peptidoglycan to a degree similar to vancomycin, a positive control. Whether these AMP-peptidoglycan interactions relate to a killing mode of action requires further study.

  3. Bioanalytical chemistry: Eavesdropping on interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, Enrique; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2015-10-01

    A method for directly probing binding interactions in free solution, without the need for chemical tagging, offers exciting opportunities for non-perturbative analyses of biomolecules in their native state.

  4. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  5. Photochemical consequences of interchromophoric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, H.

    1980-05-01

    This constitutes the final technical report on a project which has dealt with the photochemical and photophysical consequences of interaction between two or more nonconjugated functional groups in an organic molecule.

  6. Creep-Fatigue Interaction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue fives in metals are nominally time independent below 0.5 T(sub Melt). At higher temperatures, fatigue lives are altered due to time-dependent, thermally activated creep. Conversely, creep rates are altered by super. imposed fatigue loading. Creep and fatigue generally interact synergistically to reduce material lifetime. Their interaction, therefore, is of importance to structural durability of high-temperature structures such as nuclear reactors, reusable rocket engines, gas turbine engines, terrestrial steam turbines, pressure vessel and piping components, casting dies, molds for plastics, and pollution control devices. Safety and lifecycle costs force designers to quantify these interactions. Analytical and experimental approaches to creep-fatigue began in the era following World War II. In this article experimental and life prediction approaches are reviewed for assessing creep-fatigue interactions of metallic materials. Mechanistic models are also discussed briefly.

  7. Natural interaction for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Glenn; Purman, Ben; Schermerhorn, Paul; Garcia-Sampedro, Guillermo; Lanting, Matt; Quist, Michael; Kawatsu, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Military unmanned systems today are typically controlled by two methods: tele-operation or menu-based, search-andclick interfaces. Both approaches require the operator's constant vigilance: tele-operation requires constant input to drive the vehicle inch by inch; a menu-based interface requires eyes on the screen in order to search through alternatives and select the right menu item. In both cases, operators spend most of their time and attention driving and minding the unmanned systems rather than on being a warfighter. With these approaches, the platform and interface become more of a burden than a benefit. The availability of inexpensive sensor systems in products such as Microsoft Kinect™ or Nintendo Wii™ has resulted in new ways of interacting with computing systems, but new sensors alone are not enough. Developing useful and usable human-system interfaces requires understanding users and interaction in context: not just what new sensors afford in terms of interaction, but how users want to interact with these systems, for what purpose, and how sensors might enable those interactions. Additionally, the system needs to reliably make sense of the user's inputs in context, translate that interpretation into commands for the unmanned system, and give feedback to the user. In this paper, we describe an example natural interface for unmanned systems, called the Smart Interaction Device (SID), which enables natural two-way interaction with unmanned systems including the use of speech, sketch, and gestures. We present a few example applications SID to different types of unmanned systems and different kinds of interactions.

  8. Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning (IMDL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    practicing their occupational skills on-the-job or now require upgraded skills because of equipment modifications, job re-engineering, changes in duty...to allow interactive media control and presentation; and 4) means of providing for individual student interaction. An extensive technology evaluation... media , and 2. conduct studies that identity the advantages and disadvantages of IMDL. IMDL PROTOTYPE The LMIDL system is designed to provide smooth

  9. Magnetostatic interactions between magnetic nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escrig, J.; Allende, S.; Altbir, D.; Bahiana, M.

    2008-07-01

    The investigation of interactions between magnetic nanotubes is complex and often involves substantial simplifications. In this letter an analytical expression for the magnetostatic interaction, taking into account the geometry of the tubes, has been obtained. This expression allows for the definition of a critical vertical separation for relative magnetization between nanotubes and can be used for tailoring barcode-type nanostructures with prospective applications such as biological separation and transport.

  10. NP_PAH_interaction dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Concentrations of different polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water before and after interaction with nanomaterials. The results show the capacity of engineer nanomaterials for adsorbing different organic pollutants. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Sahle-Demessie, E., A. Zhao, C. Han, B. Hann, and H. Grecsek. Interaction of engineered nanomaterials with hydrophobic organic pollutants.. Journal of Nanotechnology. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 27(28): 284003, (2016).

  11. Dynamic interactions in neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arbib, M.A.; Amari, S.

    1989-01-01

    The study of neural networks is enjoying a great renaissance, both in computational neuroscience, the development of information processing models of living brains, and in neural computing, the use of neurally inspired concepts in the construction of intelligent machines. This volume presents models and data on the dynamic interactions occurring in the brain, and exhibits the dynamic interactions between research in computational neuroscience and in neural computing. The authors present current research, future trends and open problems.

  12. Calculating Viscous/Inviscid Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalsem, W. R.; Steger, J. L.; Rao, K. V.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes some experiences in numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows by finite-difference approximations of Navier-Stokes equations. Focuses upon viscous/inviscid-interaction approach, in which flow mathematically modeled with interacting zones, within each of which different model of viscous or inviscid flow applies. Reduces task of computation by taking advantage of simpler models and coarser grids in some of zones.

  13. Ion Pair-π Interactions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kaori; Humbert-Droz, Marie; Letrun, Romain; Vauthey, Eric; Wesolowski, Tomasz A; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2015-09-02

    We report that anion-π and cation-π interactions can occur on the same aromatic surface. Interactions of this type are referred to as ion pair-π interactions. Their existence, nature, and significance are elaborated in the context of spectral tuning, ion binding in solution, and activation of cell-penetrating peptides. The origin of spectral tuning by ion pair-π interactions is unraveled with energy-minimized excited-state structures: The solvent- and pH-independent red shift of absorption and emission of push-pull fluorophores originates from antiparallel ion pair-π attraction to their polarized excited state. In contrast, the complementary parallel ion pair-π repulsion is spectroscopically irrelevant, in part because of charge neutralization by intriguing proton and electron transfers on excited push-pull surfaces. With time-resolved fluorescence measurements, very important differences between antiparallel and parallel ion pair-π interactions are identified and quantitatively dissected from interference by aggregation and ion pair dissociation. Contributions from hydrogen bonding, proton transfer, π-π interactions, chromophore twisting, ion pairing, and self-assembly are systematically addressed and eliminated by concise structural modifications. Ion-exchange studies in solution, activation of cell-penetrating peptides in vesicles, and computational analysis all imply that the situation in the ground state is complementary to spectral tuning in the excited state; i.e., parallel rather than antiparallel ion pair-π interactions are preferred, despite repulsion from the push-pull dipole. The overall quite complete picture of ion pair-π interactions provided by these remarkably coherent yet complex results is expected to attract attention throughout the multiple disciplines of chemistry involved.

  14. Improving the Nightside Mid-latitude Ionospheric Density in the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere and plasmasphere interact with each other through upwelling of plasma into the plasmasphere during the day and downwelling of the plasma into the ionosphere during the night. The storage of ion density in the plasmasphere and subsequent downwelling maintains the ion density in the nighttime mid-latitude ionosphere. Global models of the upper atmosphere that do not contain a plasmasphere, but are limited in altitude, such as the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model(GITM) need a boundary condition that allows for some sort of downwelling to occur. In the TIEGCM, this has been set to a constant downward flux, while GITM has had no downwelling specification at all, which has caused the nighttime mid-latitude densities to be much too low. We present a new boundary condition in GITM, where there is downward ion flux from the upper boundary, allowing the ionosphere to be maintained during the night. This new boundary condition is dependent on the the Disturbance Storm Time (Dst), since, as the activity level increases (i.e., Dst decreases), the plasmasphere is eroded and will not serve to supply the ionosphere at night. Various quiet time and active time comparisons to ionosonde electron density and total electron content data will be presented that show that the ionospheric density in GITM is improved due to this new boundary condition.

  15. Interactions of amelogenin with phospholipids

    DOE PAGES

    Bekshe Lokappa, Sowmya; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Dutta, Kaushik; ...

    2014-11-22

    Amelogenin protein has the potential to interact with other enamel matrix proteins, mineral, and cell surfaces. In this paper, we investigated the interactions of recombinant amelogenin rP172 with small unilamellar vesicles as model membranes, toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms of amelogenin–cell interactions during amelogenesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used. In the presence of phospholipid vesicles, a blue shift in the Trp fluorescence emission maxima of rP172 was observed (~334 nm) and the Trp residues of rP172 were inaccessible to the aqueous quencher acrylamide. DLS studies indicated complexationmore » of rP172 and phospholipids, although the possibility of fusion of phospholipids following amelogenin addition cannot be ruled out. NMR and CD studies revealed a disorder–order transition of rP172 in a model membrane environment. Strong fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp in rP172 to DNS-bound-phospholipid was observed, and fluorescence polarization studies indicated that rP172 interacted with the hydrophobic core region of model membranes. Finally, our data suggest that amelogenin has ability to interact with phospholipids and that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities.« less

  16. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; ...

    2015-11-04

    In this paper, one of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by themore » STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton–antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton–proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.« less

  17. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons.

    PubMed

    2015-11-19

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton-antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton-proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.

  18. Measurement of interaction between antiprotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Star Collaboration; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-11-01

    One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force that has since been acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, little is known directly about the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data collected by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), where gold ions are collided with a centre-of-mass energy of 200 gigaelectronvolts per nucleon pair. Antiprotons are abundantly produced in such collisions, thus making it feasible to study details of the antiproton-antiproton interaction. By applying a technique similar to Hanbury Brown and Twiss intensity interferometry, we show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: the scattering length and the effective range of the interaction. Our measured parameters are consistent within errors with the corresponding values for proton-proton interactions. Our results provide direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, and so are fundamental to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties.

  19. Interactions of Amelogenin with Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Lokappa, Sowmya Bekshe; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Dutta, Kaushik; Perovic, Iva; Evans, John Spencer; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin protein has the potential to interact with other enamel matrix proteins, mineral and cell surfaces. We investigated the interactions of recombinant amelogenin rP172 with small unilamellar vesicles as model membranes, towards the goal of understanding the mechanisms of amelogenin-cell interactions during amelogenesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used. In the presence of phospholipid vesicles, a blue shift in the Trp fluorescence emission maxima of rP172 was observed (~334 nm) and the Trp residues of rP172 were inaccessible to the aqueous quencher acrylamide. Though in DLS studies we cannot exclude the possibility of fusion of liposomes as the result of amelogenin addition, NMR and CD studies revealed a disorder-order transition of rP172 in a model membrane environment. Strong FRET from Trp in rP172 to DNS–bound-phospholipid was observed, and fluorescence polarization studies indicated that rP172 interacted with the hydrophobic core region of model membranes. Our data suggest that amelogenin has ability to interact with phospholipids and that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities. PMID:25298002

  20. TSEMA: interactive prediction of protein pairings between interacting families

    PubMed Central

    Izarzugaza, José M. G.; Juan, David; Pons, Carles; Ranea, Juan A. G.; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2006-01-01

    An entire family of methodologies for predicting protein interactions is based on the observed fact that families of interacting proteins tend to have similar phylogenetic trees due to co-evolution. One application of this concept is the prediction of the mapping between the members of two interacting protein families (which protein within one family interacts with which protein within the other). The idea is that the real mapping would be the one maximizing the similarity between the trees. Since the exhaustive exploration of all possible mappings is not feasible for large families, current approaches use heuristic techniques which do not ensure the best solution to be found. This is why it is important to check the results proposed by heuristic techniques and to manually explore other solutions. Here we present TSEMA, the server for efficient mapping assessment. This system calculates an initial mapping between two families of proteins based on a Monte Carlo approach and allows the user to interactively modify it based on performance figures and/or specific biological knowledge. All the explored mappings are graphically shown over a representation of the phylogenetic trees. The system is freely available at . Standalone versions of the software behind the interface are available upon request from the authors. PMID:16845017

  1. Two experimental case studies of interacting swash events: a strong interaction and a weak interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujara, N.; Liu, P. L. F.

    2016-12-01

    The swash zone - the subregion of the nearshore that is periodically covered by flowing water due to waves - is an important, dynamic area for sediment transport and beach morphology. On natural beaches successive swash events and their mutual interactions are commonplace, which may lead to enhanced sediment transport and wave run-up. We present measurements of bed shear stress, bed pressure, and free-surface displacement from large-scale experiments to understand the dynamics of the boundary layer during swash interactions. We find that the dimensionless swash period, i.e., the ratio of the time period of swash to the time separation of successive wave crests, plays an important role in determining qualitative character of the swash-swash interaction. We also link this dimensionless swash period to the wave breaker type through the surf similarity parameter, providing a way to predict the qualitative behaviour of swash interactions from limited knowledge of incident waves.

  2. The challenges of emerging HISs in bridging the communication gaps among physicians and nurses in China: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Wan, Jie; Fu, Jing; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-06-12

    To explore the current situation, existing problems and possible causes of said problems with regards to physician-nurse communication under an environment of increasingly widespread usage of Hospital Information Systems and to seek out new potential strategies in information technology to improve physician-nurse communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 physicians and nurses in five leading tertiary grade A hospitals in Beijing, China (two physicians and two nurses in each hospital). The interviews primarily included three aspects comprising the current situation and problems of clinical physician-nurse communication, the application and problems of Hospital Information Systems, and assessments on the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. The inductive conventional content analysis approach was employed. (1) Physicians and nurses are generally quite satisfied with the current situation of communication. However, the information needs of nurses are prone to being overlooked, and the communication methods are primarily synchronous communication such as face-to-face and phone communication. (2) Hospital Information Systems are gradually being used for physician-nurse communication; in the meantime, physicians and nurses face challenges with regards to the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. Challenges differ based on the different stages of using the system and the different levels of understanding of physicians and nurses towards information technology. Their dissatisfaction mainly deals with system errors and the level of convenience in using the system. (3) In-depth interviews found that in general, physicians and nurses have a strong interest and trust in improving physician-nurse communication through appropriate information technology, e.g., communication methods such as information reminders for physicians and nurses through mobile devices and instant voice-to-text conversion methods. There are objective risks in physician-nurse communication in Chinese hospitals, and clinical information systems lack solutions to the relevant problems. Developing a dedicated, mobile, quick and convenient module for physician-nurse communication within existing hospital information system with automatic reminders for important information that segregates between synchronous and asynchronous communication according to the different types of information could help improve physician-nurse communication.

  3. Of hissing snakes and angry voices: human infants are differentially responsive to evolutionary fear-relevant sounds.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-11-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to, evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli. The current study provides novel data in support of this proposal, showing for the first time that human infants differentially process evolutionary threats presented in the auditory modality. Sixty-one 9-month-olds listened to evolutionary fear-relevant, modern fear-relevant, and pleasant sounds, while their heart rate, startle, and visual orienting behaviours were measured. Infants demonstrated significantly enhanced heart rate deceleration, larger eye-blinks, and more visual orienting when listening to evolutionary fear-relevant sounds compared to sounds from the other two categories. These results support the proposal that human infants possess evolved mechanisms for the differential processing of a range of ancient environmental threats. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Of Hissing Snakes and Angry Voices: Human Infants Are Differentially Responsive to Evolutionary Fear-Relevant Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to,…

  5. Mapping hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, J; Fishman, S E

    1979-01-01

    The structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase was localized to 53.8 min on the Escherichia coli genome. The gene order in this region was determined to be dapE-purC-upp-purG-(guaA, guaB)-hisS-glyA. PMID:374370

  6. Mapping hisS, the structural gene for histidyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Fishman, S E

    1979-04-01

    The structural gene for histidyl-tRNA synthetase was localized to 53.8 min on the Escherichia coli genome. The gene order in this region was determined to be dapE-purC-upp-purG-(guaA, guaB)-hisS-glyA.

  7. A Taxonomy of Interaction for Instructional Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwier, Richard A.

    This paper rejects the hardware-based "levels of interaction" made popular in interactive video literature to describe human-machine interaction in favor of a new taxonomy of learner-media interaction based on the type of cognitive engagement experienced by learners. Interaction can be described on three levels, based on the quality of…

  8. Hawking radiation and interacting fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Hawking radiation is generally derived using a non-interacting field theory. Some time ago, Leahy and Unruh showed that, in two dimensions with a Schwarzschild geometry, a scalar field theory with a quartic interaction gets the coupling switched off near the horizon of the black hole. This would imply that interaction has no effect on Hawking radiation and free theory for particles can be used. Recently, a set of exact classical solutions for the quartic scalar field theory has been obtained. These solutions display a massive dispersion relation even if the starting theory is massless. When one considers the corresponding quantum field theory, this mass gap becomes a tower of massive excitations and, at the leading order, the theory is trivial. We apply these results to Hawking radiation for a Kerr geometry and prove that the Leahy-Unruh effect is at work. Approaching the horizon the scalar field theory has the mass gap going to zero. We devise a technique to study the interacting scalar theory very near the horizon increasing the coupling. As these solutions are represented by a Fourier series of plane waves, Hawking radiation can be immediately obtained with well-known techniques. These results open a question about the behavior of the Standard Model of particles very near the horizon of a black hole where the interactions turn out to be switched off and the electroweak symmetry could be restored.

  9. ISIS - Gulf interactive interpretation system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.H.; Valuikas, P.S.; Platek, R.M.

    1984-04-01

    For 2 years, Gulf Exploration and Production Co. has successfully used a powerful computer system for interactive graphic interpretation of large and diverse volumes of exploration data. This proprietary system, developed by Gulf Research and Development Co., is called ISIS (Interactive Seismic Interpretation System). Some of the capabilities of ISIS are demonstrated using videotape recordings of 3 actual interpretation sessions. The first session comprises interactive log analysis--editing formation evaluation, and tying between wells. The second session involves regional mapping from a large data base of seismic lines and well logs. Numerous access and display features allow projects exceeding 20,000 line-mimore » (32,000 line-km) to be instantly available at the interactive station, replacing large volumes of paper records. Horizons can be carried around loops and tied, then posted and contoured automatically. The third session demonstrates detailed reservoir characterization at a mature field. Over 225 digitized well logs are gridded and then analyzed using interactive graphic software originally developed for 3D seismic surveys.« less

  10. Numerical models as interactive art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; van de Pas, B.; Joling, A.

    2017-12-01

    We capture our understanding of the environment in advanced computer models. We use these numerical models to simulate the growth of deltas, meandering rivers, dune erosion, river floodings, effects of interventions. If presented with care, models can help understand the complexity of our environment and show the beautiful patterns of nature. While the topics are relevant and appealing to the general public the use of numerical models has been limited to technical users. Not many people have appreciations for the pluriform of options, esoteric user interfaces, manual editing of configuration files and extensive jargon. The models are static, you can start them, but then you have to wait, usually hours or more, for the results to become available, not something that you could imagine resulting in an immersive, interactive experience for the general public. How can we go beyond just using results? How can we adapt existing numerical models so they can be used in an interactive environment? How can we touch them and feel them? Here we show how we adapted existing models (Delft3D, Lisflood, XBeach) and reused them in as the basis for interactive exhibitions in museums with an educative goal. We present our structured approach which consists of combining a story, inspiration, a canvas, colors, shapes and interactive elements. We show how the progression from simple presentation forms to interactive art installations.

  11. Interactive autonomy and robotic skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Maediger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Current concepts of robot-supported operations for space laboratories (payload servicing, inspection, repair, and ORU exchange) are mainly based on the concept of 'interactive autonomy' which implies autonomous behavior of the robot according to predefined timelines, predefined sequences of elementary robot operations and within predefined world models supplying geometrical and other information for parameter instantiation on the one hand, and the ability to override and change the predefined course of activities by human intervention on the other hand. Although in principle a very powerful and useful concept, in practice the confinement of the robot to the abstract world models and predefined activities appears to reduce the robot's stability within real world uncertainties and its applicability to non-predefined parts of the world, calling for frequent corrective interaction by the operator, which in itself may be tedious and time-consuming. Methods are presented to improve this situation by incorporating 'robotic skills' into the concept of interactive autonomy.

  12. Global forcing and regional interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, R. A.; Schimel, D.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Bretherton, F.

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale.The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regionalglobal interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  13. Causality, Measurement, and Elementary Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Edward J.

    2011-12-01

    Signal causality, the prohibition of superluminal information transmission, is the fundamental property shared by quantum measurement theory and relativity, and it is the key to understanding the connection between nonlocal measurement effects and elementary interactions. To prevent those effects from transmitting information between the generating and observing process, they must be induced by the kinds of entangling interactions that constitute measurements, as implied in the Projection Postulate. They must also be nondeterministic as reflected in the Born Probability Rule. The nondeterminism of entanglement-generating processes explains why the relevant types of information cannot be instantiated in elementary systems, and why the sequencing of nonlocal effects is, in principle, unobservable. This perspective suggests a simple hypothesis about nonlocal transfers of amplitude during entangling interactions, which yields straightforward experimental consequences.

  14. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    PubMed Central

    Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  15. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  16. Magnetic activity of interacting binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.

  17. Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R; Bernal, Ximena E

    2017-05-01

    Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of túngara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Interactive Television: The Influence of User Control and Interactive Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Diana

    A series of studies are underway at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Audience Research Facility to examine the impact of interactivity on informational and entertainment based television viewing. In order to examine the learning of spatial skills from videogames, the first study compared the learning of spatial content from interactive…

  19. An interactional approach to conceptualising small talk in medical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, Pamela L.; Maynard, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    In medical interactions, it may seem straightforward to identify ‘small talk’ as casual or social talk superfluous to the institutional work of dealing with patients’ medical concerns. Such a broad characterisation is, however, extremely difficult to apply to actual talk, and more specificity is necessary to pursue analyses of how small talk is produced and what it achieves for participants in medical interactions. We offer an approach to delineating a subgenre of small talk called topicalised small talk (TST), derived on the basis of conversation analytically-informed analyses of routine consultations involving orthopaedic surgeons and older patients. TST is a line of talk that is referentially independent from their institutional identities as patients or surgeons, oriented instead to an aspect of the personal biography of one (or both), or to some neutral topic available to interactants in any setting (e.g. weather). Importantly, TST is an achievement of both patient and surgeon in that generation and pursuit of topic is mutually accomplished. In an exploratory but systematic analysis, when this approach was applied to a purposive sample of surgeon-patient interactions, TST was much more prevalent in visits with White than African American patients. Accounts for possible ethnic differences in TST are suggested. PMID:21545445

  20. Interactional Feedback in Naturalistic Interaction between L2 English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranaweera, Mahishi

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical data support that the feedback given in small group activities promote second language acquisition. There are many studies that have examined the impact of interaction on second language acquisition in controlled language situations. This study examines the small group activity "conversation partner" in order to…

  1. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  2. Topology of molecular interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are often represented as network models which have become the common language of many areas of biology. Graphs serve as convenient mathematical representations of network models and have themselves become objects of study. Their topology has been intensively researched over the last decade after evidence was found that they share underlying design principles with many other types of networks. Initial studies suggested that molecular interaction network topology is related to biological function and evolution. However, further whole-network analyses did not lead to a unified view on what this relation may look like, with conclusions highly dependent on the type of molecular interactions considered and the metrics used to study them. It is unclear whether global network topology drives function, as suggested by some researchers, or whether it is simply a byproduct of evolution or even an artefact of representing complex molecular interaction networks as graphs. Nevertheless, network biology has progressed significantly over the last years. We review the literature, focusing on two major developments. First, realizing that molecular interaction networks can be naturally decomposed into subsystems (such as modules and pathways), topology is increasingly studied locally rather than globally. Second, there is a move from a descriptive approach to a predictive one: rather than correlating biological network topology to generic properties such as robustness, it is used to predict specific functions or phenotypes. Taken together, this change in focus from globally descriptive to locally predictive points to new avenues of research. In particular, multi-scale approaches are developments promising to drive the study of molecular interaction networks further. PMID:24041013

  3. Modeling of Radiation Belt Electron Loss due to EMIC Wave Induced Advection and Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Chen, L.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in dusk side plasmasphere and plasmaspheric plumes scatter MeV electrons into the loss cone, and consist a major loss mechanism for outer radiation belt electrons. Through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, strong EMIC waves cause not only a diffusion of electrons in phase space, but also an advection toward the loss cone that corresponds to an additional advection term to the Fokker-Planck equation. The electron loss effect due to strong EMIC waves is studied via comparisons of test particle simulations and numerical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation. Enhanced electron loss rate is expected as a result of the phase space advection.

  4. Long-Range Chromatin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Job; Misteli, Tom

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To accommodate genomes in the limited space of the cell nucleus and ensure the correct execution of gene expression programs, genomes are packaged in complex fashion in the three-dimensional cell nucleus. As a consequence of the extensive higher-order organization of chromosomes, distantly located genomic regions on the same or distinct chromosomes undergo long-range interactions. This article discusses the nature of long interactions, mechanisms of their formation, and their emerging functional roles in gene regulation and genome maintenance. PMID:26430217

  5. Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The report of an international meeting on the topic of Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions, which was held 9-11 Jul. 1991 at the Johns Hopkins University is presented. The meeting was attended by 22 researchers working on various aspects of orbital and rotational dynamics, paleoclimate data analysis and modeling, solid-Earth deformation studies, and paleomagnetic analyses. The primary objective of the workshop was to arrive at a better understanding of the interactions between the orbital, rotational, and climatic variations of the Earth. This report contains a brief introduction and 14 contributed papers which cover most of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  6. Long-Range (Casimir) Interactions

    PubMed

    Spruch

    1996-06-07

    Normally, nonrelativistic electromagnetic theory with two-particle Coulombic interactions adequately determines the interaction potential of systems A and B if the systems are composed of particles with characteristic velocities much less than the speed of light. If, however, the time it takes light to travel between A and B exceeds a characteristic oscillation period of A or B, the way in which the potential function depends on the separation of the systems can be altered. Called the Casimir effect, it has only recently been confirmed, and it arises in physics, chemistry, and biology. It is the clearest physical manifestation of the fact that, even in a vacuum, electromagnetic fields cannot all vanish.

  7. Multi-shell effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Naofumi; Takayanagi, Kazuo; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2014-02-01

    Background: Effective interactions, either derived from microscopic theories or based on fitting selected properties of nuclei in specific mass regions, are widely used inputs to shell-model studies of nuclei. The commonly used unperturbed basis functions are given by the harmonic oscillator. Until recently, most shell-model calculations have been confined to a single oscillator shell like the sd shell or the pf shell. Recent interest in nuclei away from the stability line requires, however, larger shell-model spaces. Because the derivation of microscopic effective interactions has been limited to degenerate models spaces, there are both conceptual and practical limits to present shell-model calculations that utilize such interactions. Purpose: The aim of this work is to present a novel microscopic method to calculate effective nucleon-nucleon interactions for the nuclear shell model. Its main difference from existing theories is that it can be applied not only to degenerate model spaces but also to nondegenerate model spaces. This has important consequences, in particular for intershell matrix elements of effective interactions. Methods: The formalism is presented in the form of a many-body perturbation theory based on the recently developed extended Kuo-Krenciglowa method. Our method enables us to microscopically construct effective interactions not only in one oscillator shell but also for several oscillator shells. Results: We present numerical results using effective interactions within (i) a single oscillator shell (a so-called degenerate model space) like the sd shell or the pf shell and (ii) two major shells (nondegenerate model space) like the sdf7p3 shell or the pfg9 shell. We also present energy levels of several nuclei that have two valence nucleons on top of a given closed-shell core. Conclusions: Our results show that the present method works excellently in shell-model spaces that comprise several oscillator shells, as well as in a single oscillator

  8. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  9. Elementary Particles and Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N.

    1957-01-01

    Some general patterns of interactions between various elementary particles are reviewed and some general questions concerning the symmetry properties of these particles are studied. Topics are included on the theta-tau puzzle, experimental limits on the validity of parity conservation, some general discussions on the consequences due to possible non-invariance under P, C, and T, various possible experimental tests on invariance under P, C, and T, a two-component theory of the neutrino, a possible law of conservation of leptons and the universal Fermi interactions, and time reversal invariance and Mach's principle. (M.H.R.)

  10. Climate Change and Disturbance Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Don; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-05-01

    Workshop on Climate Change and Disturbance Interactions in Western North America, Tucson, Ariz., 12-15 February 2007 Warming temperatures across western North America, coupled with increased drought, are expected to exacerbate disturbance regimes, particularly wildfires, insect outbreaks, and invasions of exotic species. Many ecologists and resource managers expect ecosystems to change more rapidly from disturbance effects than from the effects of a changing climate by itself. A particular challenge is to understand the interactions among disturbance regimes; for example, how will massive outbreaks of bark beetles, which kill drought-stressed trees by feeding on cambial tissues, increase the potential for large severe wildfires in a warming climate?

  11. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

  12. Interactions of neutrinos with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucci, F.

    2017-07-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles electrically neutral which belong to the family of leptons. As a consequence and in first approximation they only undergo weak processes. This gives them very special properties. They are ideal tools to study precisely the weak interactions, but there is a price to pay: neutrinos are characterized by extremely low probabilities of interactions, they easily penetrate large amount of matter without being stopped. Consequently, it is hard to perform neutrino physics measurements. In practice the difficulty is twofold: in order to accumulate enough statistics, experiments must rely on huge fluxes traversing huge detectors, the number of interactions being obviously proportional to these two factors. As a corollary, backgrounds are difficult to handle because they appear much more commonly than good events. Nevertheless, neutrino interactions have been detected from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural, from very low to very large energies. The aim of this review is to survey our current knowledge about interaction cross sections of neutrinos with matter across all pertinent energy scales. We will see that neutrino interactions cover a large range of processes: nuclear capture, inverse beta-decay, quasi-elastic scattering, resonant pion production, deep inelastic scattering and ultra-high energy interactions. All the gathered information will be used to study weak properties of matter but it will also allow to explore the properties of the neutrinos themselves. In particular, the known three different flavors of neutrinos have different behaviors inside matter and this will be relevant to give some precious understanding about their intrinsic parameters in particular their masses and mixings. As a second order process, neutrinos can undergo electromagnetic interactions. This will also be discussed. Although the corresponding phenomena are not yet experimentally proven by actual measurements, the theory is able to calculate

  13. Interaction Mindsets, Interactional Behaviors, and L2 Development: An Affective-Social-Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    This classroom-based study explored links among second language (L2) learners' interaction mindsets, interactional behaviors, and L2 development in the context of peer interaction. While peer interaction research has revealed that certain interactional behaviors (e.g., receiving corrective feedback and engaging in collaborative interaction) assist…

  14. AIP and its interacting partners.

    PubMed

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Korbonits, Márta

    2011-08-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene (AIP) predispose to young-onset pituitary tumours, most often to GH- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, and most of these patients belong to familial isolated pituitary adenoma families. The molecular pathway initiated by the loss-of-function AIP mutations leading to pituitary tumour formation is unknown. AIP, a co-chaperone of heat-shock protein 90 and various nuclear receptors, belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing proteins. It has three antiparallel α-helix motifs (TPR domains) that mediate the interaction of AIP with most of its partners. In this review, we summarise the known interactions of AIP described so far. The identification of AIP partners and the understanding of how AIP interacts with these proteins might help to explain the specific phenotype of the families with heterozygous AIP mutations, to gain deeper insight into the pathological process of pituitary tumour formation and to identify novel drug targets.

  15. Inelastic final-state interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Mahiko; Suzuki, Mahiko

    2007-10-29

    The final-state interaction in multichannel decay processes is systematically studied with application to B decay in mind. Since the final-state interaction is intrinsically interwoven with the decay interaction in this case, no simple phase theorem like"Watson's theorem" holds for experimentally observed final states. We first examine in detail the two-channel problem as a toy-model to clarify the issues and to remedy common mistakes made in earlier literature. Realistic multichannel problems are too challenging for quantitative analysis. To cope with mathematical complexity, we introduce a method of approximation that is applicable to the case where one prominent inelastic channel dominates overmore » all others. We illustrate this approximation method in the amplitude of the decay B to pi K fed by the intermediate states of a charmed meson pair. Even with our approximation we need more accurate information of strong interactions than we have now. Nonetheless we are able to obtain some insight in the issue and draw useful conclusions on general features on the strong phases.« less

  16. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  17. Affect Control in International Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.; Lerner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that national leaders generate international interactions in the process of maintaining sentiments about nations and international actions. The analysis deals with 1,934 international incidents in which one of 25 Middle Eastern nations responded twice within four weeks to an instigation by another of the 25…

  18. Social interaction distance and stratification.

    PubMed

    Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

    2003-06-01

    There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, the space is identified by mapping social interactions. Exploring the nature of social space involves mapping the network of social interaction--patterns of friendship, partnership and cultural similarity--which gives rise to relations of social closeness and distance. Differential association has long been seen as the basis of hierarchy, but the usual approach is first to define a structure composed of a set of groups and then to investigate social interaction between them. Social distance approaches reverse this, using patterns of interaction to determine the nature of the structure. Differential association can be seen as a way of defining proximity within a social space, from the distances between social groups, or between social groups and social objects (such as lifestyle items). The paper demonstrates how the very different starting point of social distance approaches also leads to strikingly different theoretical conclusions about the nature of stratification and inequality.

  19. Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

  20. Education, Interaction, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    This book examines the interaction of education and other elements in our culture. The social system of education is seen as similar to that of such other formal social institutions as business. Moreover, an understanding of the role and function of education can be achieved through an application of social science theory and research findings.…

  1. Interactive publications: creation and usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Chung, Michael; Vasudevan, Kirankumar; Antani, Sameer

    2006-02-01

    As envisioned here, an "interactive publication" has similarities to multimedia documents that have been in existence for a decade or more, but possesses specific differentiating characteristics. In common usage, the latter refers to online entities that, in addition to text, consist of files of images and video clips residing separately in databases, rarely providing immediate context to the document text. While an interactive publication has many media objects as does the "traditional" multimedia document, it is a self-contained document, either as a single file with media files embedded within it, or as a "folder" containing tightly linked media files. The main characteristic that differentiates an interactive publication from a traditional multimedia document is that the reader would be able to reuse the media content for analysis and presentation, and to check the underlying data and possibly derive alternative conclusions leading, for example, to more in-depth peer reviews. We have created prototype publications containing paginated text and several media types encountered in the biomedical literature: 3D animations of anatomic structures; graphs, charts and tabular data; cell development images (video sequences); and clinical images such as CT, MRI and ultrasound in the DICOM format. This paper presents developments to date including: a tool to convert static tables or graphs into interactive entities, authoring procedures followed to create prototypes, and advantages and drawbacks of each of these platforms. It also outlines future work including meeting the challenge of network distribution for these large files.

  2. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  3. Interactive Whiteboards in Japanese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversidge, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) is widespread in the United Kingdom, Australia, and to some extent in the United States and Canada. However, this potentially learning enhancing technology has been adopted very little in Japan at any level of education, apart from some international schools. Furthermore, one of the world's two leading IWB…

  4. Labeled Postings for Asynchronous Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Chen, Yong-Ting; Chan, Kung-Chi

    2009-01-01

    The Internet promotes computer-mediated communications, and so asynchronous learning network systems permit more flexibility in time, space, and interaction than synchronous mode of learning. The key point of asynchronous learning is the materials for web-aided teaching and the flow of knowledge. This research focuses on improving online…

  5. The Interactive Origin of Iconicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamariz, Mónica; Roberts, Seán G.; Martínez, J. Isidro; Santiago, Julio

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of iconicity, specifically a bouba-kiki effect in miniature artificial languages under different functional constraints: when the languages are reproduced and when they are used communicatively. We ran transmission chains of (a) participant dyads who played an interactive communicative game and (b) individual…

  6. Interaction of Nanoparticles with Biofilms

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work we have studied the interaction and adsorption of engineered nanoparticles such as TiO2, ZnO, CeO2 , and carbon nanotubes with biofilms. Biofilm is an extracellular polymeric substance coating comprised of living material and it is an aggregation of bacteria, algae, ...

  7. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  8. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  9. Individualizing Instruction through Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Elizabeth W.; Reeve, Robert H.

    The viability of interactive video as a method of individualizing instruction was studied using classroom management situations dealing with cheating as the program content. Students completing the program were to select the correct statement about the observed student behavior in brief video scenes, the teacher action appropriate to that…

  10. Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussel, G. G.; Sofia, H. M.; Tonina, A.

    1997-08-01

    The relation between Galilei invariance and the energy weighted sum rule for a mass dipole operator is discussed using a monopole pairing interaction. It is found that the energy weighted sum rule for the mass dipole operator changes as much as 18% in medium and heavy nuclei.

  11. Modeling Interactions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…

  12. Monopole-antimonopole interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, Ayush; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2017-11-01

    We numerically study the interactions of twisted monopole-antimonopole pairs in the 't Hooft-Polyakov model for a range of values of the scalar to vector mass ratio. We also recover the sphaleron solution at maximum twist discovered by Taubes [Commun. Math. Phys. 86, 257 (1982), 10.1007/BF01206014] and map out its energy and size as functions of parameters.

  13. Social Interactions in Online Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark; Hussain, Zaheer; Grüsser, Sabine M.; Thalemann, Ralf; Cole, Helena; Davies, Mark N. O.; Chappell, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly overviews five studies examining massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). The first study surveyed 540 gamers and showed that the social aspects of the game were the most important factor for many gamers. The second study explored the social interactions of 912 MMORPG players and showed they created strong…

  14. JSC interactive basic accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts for an interactive basic accounting system (IBAS) are considered in terms of selecting the design option which provides the best response at the lowest cost. Modeling the IBAS workload and applying this workload to a U1108 EXEC 8 based system using both a simulation model and the real system is discussed.

  15. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  16. INTERACTION ANALYSIS--RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMIDON, EDMUND

    MODIFICATION OF FLANDERS' INTERACTION ANALYSIS IS PROPOSED TO ENCOMPASS SOME FEATURES OF RELATED SYSTEMS AND TO PROVIDE A SPECIFIC FEEDBACK TOOL FOR ANALYZING ONE'S OWN TEACHING, FORMULATING QUESTIONS, OBSERVING TEACHING PATTERNS, DIAGNOSING TEACHING PROBLEMS, AND FOR ROLE-PLAYING IN THE COLLEGE CLASSROOM. FLANDERS' 10 CATEGORIES ARE DIVIDED INTO…

  17. Persistence and Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; And Others

    The effects of persistence on students' ability to interact and learn in cooperative learning groups was studied, and the effect of collaboration on students' attitudes toward their partners was assessed. Participants were 138 sixth graders in a midwestern public school. A computer-based lesson and posttest dealt with the advertising concepts of…

  18. Capstone Renaissance = Simulation + Interaction + DSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauch, Lawrence R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of integrated business policy and strategic management courses, or capstone courses, in business school curricula. A simulation game is described that incorporates the need for computer literacy, decision support systems (DSS), and interaction to effectively meet the needs for a capstone course. (14 references) (LRW)

  19. Interactional Feedback and Instructional Counterbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Mori, Hirohide

    2006-01-01

    This comparative analysis of teacher-student interaction in two different instructional settings at the elementary-school level (18.3 hr in French immersion and 14.8 hr Japanese immersion) investigates the immediate effects of explicit correction, recasts, and prompts on learner uptake and repair. The results clearly show a predominant provision…

  20. Seven Statements on Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastkemper, F.

    This paper is concerned with the educational significance of interactive video. To clarify this, seven basic educational concepts are reviewed: (1) education and training are organized forms of learning; (2) goals and objectives can be grouped into the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains of learning; (3) education refers to learning…

  1. Materials cohesion and interaction forces.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Gornov, Evgeny

    2008-09-01

    The most important methods to determine the cohesive interactions of materials and adhesive interactions between different substances are reviewed. The term cohesion is generalized as representing the unifying interaction forces of a single material and adhesion forces between different substances due to attraction. The aim is to interlink a number of frequently used interaction parameters in order to promote the understanding of materials research executed within different scientific (Material, Colloid, Sol-Gel and Nano) communities. The modern interdisciplinary research requires a removal of the historical obstacles represented by widely differing nomenclature used for the same material properties. The interaction parameters of different models are reviewed and representative numerical values computed from tabulated thermodynamic and spectroscopic material constants. The results are compared with published values. The models are grouped to represent single and two component systems, respectively. The latter group includes models for films on substrates and work of adhesion between liquids and solids. In most cases rather rough approximations have been employed, mostly relating to van der Waals substances for which the gas state is common reference state. In order to improve the predictability of the key Hamaker constant, a novel model for interpreting the dielectric spectrum is presented. The interrelation between thermodynamic, electronic, spectroscopic and dielectric parameters is illustrated by model calculations on typical inorganic materials of current interest as model compounds. The ionic solids are represented by NaCl and KCl, while ZnO, FeO, Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), TiO(2), ZrO(2), SnO, SnO(2) represent ceramic oxides and semiconductors. The model compounds thus illustrate the effect of bond type (covalent or ionic) and valence (charge number and sign) of the constituent elements. However, since the focus is placed on a phenomenological

  2. Introduction to distributed interactive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loper, Margaret L.

    1995-04-01

    During the past five years, Workshops on Standards for the Interoperability of Distributed Simulations have provided the forum for establishing standards for networking dissimilar simulations to create virtual worlds in which many subjects can interact. These virtual worlds can be used for training individuals, testing equipment, prototyping products, research and development or any application involving the interaction of groups of people in a common synthetic environment. The Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Vision document1 produced by the workshop describes the domain of interest as follows. "The primary mission of DIS is to define an infrastructure for linking simulations of various types at multiple locations to create realistic, complex, virtual "worlds" for the simulation of highly interactive activities. This infrastructure brings together system built for separate purposes, technologies from different eras, products from various vendors, and platforms from various services and permits them to interoperate. DIS exercises are intended to support a mixture of virtual entities (human-in-the-loop simulators), live entities (operational platforms and test and evaluation systems), and constructive entities (wargames and other automated simulations)." Not only must DIS achieve interoperabilty among different simulations and simulation domains, it must also attain interoperability among different physical and behavioral representations of the environment, establish a means to manage these virtual worlds, and use communication networks to link them together. As the power and potential to create robust Distributed Interactive Simulation environments gains recognition, the need for establishing standards for the implementation of these principles grows dramatically. The following paper will discuss the DIS standards development effort by describing the standards infrastructure and the process by which standards are created.

  3. Spectra, composition, and interactions of nuclei with magnet interaction chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parneil, T. A.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Roberts, F. E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J. W.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. C.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.

    1990-01-01

    Emulsion chambers will be flown in the Astromag Facility to measure the cosmic ray composition and spectra to 10 exp 15 eV total energy and to definitively study the characteristics of nucleus-nucleus interactions above 10 exp 12 eV/n. Two configurations of emulsion chambers will be flown in the SCIN/MAGIC experiment. One chamber has an emulsion target and a calorimeter similar to those recently flown on balloons for composition and spectra measurements. The other has an identical calorimeter and a low-density target section optimized for performing rigidity measurements on charged particles produced in interactions. The transverse momenta of charged and neutral mesons, direct hadronic pairs from resonance decays and interference effects, and possible charge clustering in high-density states of matter will be studied.

  4. Interactive Data Analysis. Development of an Interactive Data Manipulation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    data. The sources of data are either application programs in several areas such as language analysis, biology [Refs. 1 and 2], simulation, etc., or...34 Fig. 2 illustrates the comparison of three different concepts: a) an interactive and conversational system for data analysis applied to biology [Refs...Bioinformatique; realisation d’un sous-systeme interactif et conversationnel, son application dans l’exploitation des donnees experimentales en Biologie , These

  5. Interactive Environment Design in Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, DeXiang; Chen, LanSha; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    The interactive environment design of smart city is not just an interactive progress or interactive mode design, rather than generate an environment such as the “organic” life entity as human beings through interactive design, forming a smart environment with perception, memory, thinking, and reaction.

  6. Interactive displays in medical art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconathy, Deirdre Alla; Doyle, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Medical illustration is a field of visual communication with a long history. Traditional medical illustrations are static, 2-D, printed images; highly realistic depictions of the gross morphology of anatomical structures. Today medicine requires the visualization of structures and processes that have never before been seen. Complex 3-D spatial relationships require interpretation from 2-D diagnostic imagery. Pictures that move in real time have become clinical and research tools for physicians. Medical illustrators are involved with the development of interactive visual displays for three different, but not discrete, functions: as educational materials, as clinical and research tools, and as data bases of standard imagery used to produce visuals. The production of interactive displays in the medical arts is examined.

  7. Interactive Learning During Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and distribute e-educational material for space science during times of solar activity that emphasizes underlying basic science principles of solar disturbances and their effects on Earth. This includes materials such as simulations, animations, group projects and other on-line materials to be used by students either in high school or at the introductory college level. The on-line delivery tool originally intended to be used is known as Interactive Multimedia Education at a Distance (IMED), which is a web-based software system used at UCLA for interactive distance learning. IMED is a password controlled system that allows students to access text, images, bulletin boards, chat rooms, animation, simulations and individual student web sites to study science and to collaborate on group projects.

  8. Image reproduction with interactive graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Software application or development in optical image digital data processing requires a fast, good quality, yet inexpensive hard copy of processed images. To achieve this, a Cambo camera with an f 2.8/150-mm Xenotar lens in a Copal shutter having a Graflok back for 4 x 5 Polaroid type 57 pack-film has been interfaced to an existing Adage, AGT-30/Electro-Mechanical Research, EMR 6050 graphic computer system. Time-lapse photography in conjunction with a log to linear voltage transformation has resulted in an interactive system capable of producing a hard copy in 54 sec. The interactive aspect of the system lies in a Tektronix 4002 graphic computer terminal and its associated hard copy unit.

  9. Glaciers-Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V. M. Kotlyakov, A. Ushakov, and A. Glazovsky (Eds.), International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 208, Great Yarmouth, Great Britain, 1991.This volume consists of fifty-five papers presented at an international symposium held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in September 1990. The papers are divided into nine subsections covering ice cores, sea ice, modeling of ice sheets, glaciation and sea-level variation, mass and heat balances, paleoclimatic studies, and glacier-atmospheric interactions. The majority of authors are Russian, although Estonian, German, French, Chinese, American, English, Dutch, Polish, Norwegian, Uzbekian, and Japanese authors are represented. As stated in the preface, this symposium was convened by the International Commission on Snow and Ice “to consider fundamental questions of the interactions which are of great importance to global change processes.”

  10. Interaction theory of mammalian mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nakada, K; Inoue, K; Hayashi, J

    2001-11-09

    We generated mice with deletion mutant mtDNA by its introduction from somatic cells into mouse zygotes. Expressions of disease phenotypes are limited to tissues expressing mitochondrial dysfunction. Considering that all these mice share the same nuclear background, these observations suggest that accumulation of the mutant mtDNA and resultant expressions of mitochondrial dysfunction are responsible for expression of disease phenotypes. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction and expression of clinical abnormalities were not observed until the mutant mtDNA accumulated predominantly. This protection is due to the presence of extensive and continuous interaction between exogenous mitochondria from cybrids and recipient mitochondria from embryos. Thus, we would like to propose a new hypothesis on mitochondrial biogenesis, interaction theory of mitochondria: mammalian mitochondria exchange genetic contents, and thus lost the individuality and function as a single dynamic cellular unit. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  12. Tubulin-interacting agents. Epilogue.

    PubMed

    Fahy, J; Hill, B T

    2001-09-01

    Besides the many recognised compounds described and detailed in the present issue including the Vinca alkaloids, the taxanes, certain cryptophycines, epothilones and eleutherobines, several new products interacting with tubulin are identified regularly in the literature. These products may have been isolated from natural sources (plants, marine organisms, bacteria), but also more recently combinatorial, or at least automatised chemistry, has provided new families of "small" molecules, which on occasions have been found by High Throughput Screening directed against tubulin as a specific target. A recent review has listed more than one hundred of such derivatives. Certain of these are in an advanced stage of pharmaceutical development, as reviewed by Li et al. and von Angerer. From a mechanistic point of view, these newer products may be classified into one of three main families, although exceptions to this rule are now also being reported on: microtubule stabilising compounds, Vinca alkaloid site interacting agents, colchicine site binders.

  13. Obesity: genome and environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Bašić, Martina; Butorac, Ana; Landeka Jurčević, Irena; Bačun-Družina, Višnja

    2012-09-01

    Obesity has become one of the major threats for public health in industrialised world among adults, but also among adolescents and children. It is influenced by the interaction of genes, nutrition, environment, and lifestyle. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors include foetal and lifelong environment, nutrient quality, chemical and microbial exposure, and psychical stress, all of which are important contributing influences. Removing or limiting chemical and pharmaceutical obesogens from human environment could make a difference in the growing epidemic of obesity. Additionally, nutrigenomics describes how modifications in individual diets can improve health and prevent chronic diseases, as well as obesity, by understanding the effects of a genetic profile in the interaction between food and increase in body weight. Furthermore, individual genetic variations in genome represent an individual's predisposition for obesity. Therefore, the use of individual genetic information, avoiding obesogens, and a healthy lifestyle could help to improve the management of obesity and maintain a healthy weight.

  14. Improved productivity through interactive communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marino, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    New methods and approaches are being tried and evaluated with the goal of increasing productivity and quality. The underlying concept in all of these approaches, methods or processes is that people require interactive communication to maximize the organization's strengths and minimize impediments to productivity improvement. This paper examines Bendix Field Engineering Corporation's organizational structure and experiences with employee involvement programs. The paper focuses on methods Bendix developed and implemented to open lines of communication throughout the organization. The Bendix approach to productivity and quality enhancement shows that interactive communication is critical to the successful implementation of any productivity improvement program. The paper concludes with an examination of the Bendix methodologies which can be adopted by any corporation in any industry.

  15. An interactive online robotics course.

    SciTech Connect

    Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Steven B. H.

    2003-07-01

    Attempting to convey concepts and ideas in the subject area of robotic manipulators from within the confines of a static two-dimensional printed page can prove quite challenging to even the most gifted of authors. The inherently dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of the subject matter seems better suited to a medium of conveyance wherein a student is allowed to interactively explore topics in this multi-disciplinary field. This article describes the initial development of an online robotics course 'textbook' which seeks to leverage recent advances in Web-based technologies to enhance the learning experience in ways not possible with printed materials. The pedagogicalmore » approach employed herein is that of multi-modal reinforcement wherein key concepts are first described in words, conveyed visually, and finally reinforced by soliciting student interaction.« less

  16. The interactive surrogate travel system.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, I; Ichimura, A; Juzoji, H; Mugita, K

    1999-01-01

    The Interactive Surrogate Travel (IST) system is based on the super-miniaturized system of virtual technology, Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using bilateral virtual reality (VR-to-VR) communications, IST enables the testing of subjects via interactive communications. It appears that IST will find practical applications in the near future. We examined the utility of IST in medical treatment and psychiatric tests. Psychiatric symptoms reflect human pathos, which in turn are greatly influenced by culture. If these culture-bound symptoms can be adequately communicated between providers and clients of different cultures, we can develop effective telepsychiatric services across different societies and cultures. IST requires high-speed transmission and gigabyte circuits. A pilot project tested the utility of IST (through the use of optical fiber communications on earth) as a basis for experiments via the Gigabit satellite, to be launched in the year 2002.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide important insights into the molecular basis of plant defense and susceptibility to aphids. The recent demonstration that expression of dsRNA in Arabidopsis can be used to silence expression of genes in GPA has further expanded the utility of Arabidopsis for evaluating the contribution of the aphid genome-encoded proteins to this interaction. PMID:22666177

  18. Extraterrestrial Studies Using Nuclear Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were used to study the recent histories of the aubrite Norton County and the pallasite Brenham using calculated production rates. Calculations were done of the rates for making cosmogenic noble-gas isotopes in the Jovian satellite Europa by the interactions of galactic cosmic rays and especially trapped Jovian protons. Cross sections for the production of cosmogenic nuclides were reported and plans made to measure additional cross sections. A new code, MCNPX, was used to numerically simulate the interactions of cosmic rays with matter and the subsequent production of cosmogenic nuclides. A review was written about studies of extraterrestrial matter using cosmogenic radionuclides. Several other projects were done. Results are reviewed here with references to my recent publications for details.

  19. The Interaction-Activity Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the numerous studies that have been undertaken to investigate the likely interaction-activity connection among galaxies. Both observational evidence and theoretical supporting models are reviewed. Some specific examples of "interactive" galaxies from the author's own research are presented: (a) the collision-induced AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) activity in the radio jet source 3C278; and (b) the collision-induced starburst activity in the spectacular "Cartwheel" ring galaxy. Some comments are offered concerning some of the more promising theoretical investigations that are now taking place. A few words of warning are also offered about the possible misinterpretation of putative collision-induced morphologies among some galaxy samples.

  20. Volatile affairs in microbial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ruth; Cordovez, Viviane; de Boer, Wietse; Raaijmakers, Jos; Garbeva, Paolina

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are important factors in shaping our environment. One key characteristic that has been neglected for a long time is the ability of microorganisms to release chemically diverse volatile compounds. At present, it is clear that the blend of volatiles released by microorganisms can be very complex and often includes many unknown compounds for which the chemical structures remain to be elucidated. The biggest challenge now is to unravel the biological and ecological functions of these microbial volatiles. There is increasing evidence that microbial volatiles can act as infochemicals in interactions among microbes and between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts. Here, we review and discuss recent advances in understanding the natural roles of volatiles in microbe–microbe interactions. Specific emphasis will be given to the antimicrobial activities of microbial volatiles and their effects on bacterial quorum sensing, motility, gene expression and antibiotic resistance. PMID:26023873