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Sample records for plasmatica na superficie

  1. Transcriptional Expression of Voltage-gated Na+ and Voltage-independent K+ Channels in the Developing Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Meredith L.; Coyle, Dennis E.; Baccei, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons within the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the rodent spinal cord exhibit distinct firing properties during early life. While this may reflect a unique combination of voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) and voltage-independent (i.e. “leak”) K+ channels which strongly influence neuronal excitability across the CNS, surprisingly little is known about which genes encoding for Nav and leak K+ channels are expressed within developing spinal pain circuits. The goal of the present study was therefore to characterize the transcriptional expression of these channels within the rat SDH at postnatal days (P)3, 10, 21 or adulthood using quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results demonstrate that Nav isoforms are developmentally regulated at the mRNA level in a subtype-specific manner, as Nav1.2 and Nav1.3 decreased significantly from P3 to adulthood, while Nav1.1 was up-regulated during this period. The data also indicate selective, age-dependent changes in the mRNA expression of two-pore domain (K2P) K+ channels, as TASK-1 (KCNK3) and TASK-3 (KCNK9) were down-regulated during postnatal development in the absence of any changes in the TWIK isoforms examined (KCNK1 and KCNK6). In addition, a developmental shift occurred within the TREK subfamily due to decreased TREK-2 (KCNK10) mRNA within the mature SDH. Meanwhile, G-protein-coupled inward rectifying K+ channels (Kir3.1 and Kir3.2) were expressed in the SDH at mature levels from birth. Overall, the results suggest that the transcription of ion channel genes occurs in a highly age-dependent manner within the SDH, raising the possibility that manipulating the expression or function of ion channels which are preferentially expressed within immature nociceptive networks could yield novel approaches to relieving pain in infants and children. PMID:23219908

  2. [Superficial angiomyxoma].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, María; García-Arpa, Mónica; Delgado, Margarita; Cortina, Pilar; Vera, Elena; Romero, Guillermo

    2005-06-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas are clinically variable, infrequent, benign skin lesions. They are usually located on the trunk, but can also appear on the lower limbs, head and neck. They are diagnosed histologically, and are characterized by the fact that they are poorly delimited, multinodular tumors, and by the presence of interstitial myxoid material with scanty cellularity. Treatment is through surgery, and local recurrence is possible. An associated Carney's complex must always be ruled out with superficial angiomyxoma. We present the case of a woman with a solitary, fast-growing superficial angiomyxoma.

  3. Superficial chemical peels.

    PubMed

    Zakopoulou, N; Kontochristopoulos, G

    2006-09-01

    Superficial chemical peeling (SCP) involves the application of a peeling agent to the skin, resulting in destruction of part or all of the epidermis. SCP is mainly recommended for facial rejuvenation, photoaging and superficial rhytides, pigmentary dyschromias and acne. It can be used on all Fitzpatrick skin types, no sedation is needed, and the desquamation is usually well accepted. Overpeel and complications are very rare. The most commonly used SCP agents are glycolic acid 20-70%, trichloroacetic acid 10-35%, Jessner's solution, salicylic acid, pyruvic acid, resorcinol 30-50% preparations, and solid carbon dioxide. The careful selection of patients is critical for the outcome of a SCP and contraindications must be seriously considered. The peel procedure is generally common for all SCP agents but a good knowledge of the specific characters of each agent is of great importance in order to decide which to use for each individual patient.

  4. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  5. Superficial veterinary mycoses.

    PubMed

    Bond, Ross

    2010-03-04

    Dermatophytes are significant pathogens in animal health due to their zoonotic potential, the economic consequences of infection in farm animal and fur production systems, and the distressing lesions they cause in small domestic pets. Malassezia spp are normal commensal and occasional pathogens of the skin of many veterinary species. Malassezia pachydermatis is a very common cause of otitis and pruritic dermatitis in dogs but is of less importance in other veterinary species. Dermatophytosis, and Malassezia otitis and dermatitis, represent the superficial mycoses of greatest significance in companion and farm animal health. Although the dermatophytes and Malassezia spp both exist in the stratum corneum of mammalian skin, there are important differences in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of infection. Dermatophytes are significant due to their zoonotic potential, the economic consequences of infection in farm animal and fur production systems, and the concern for owners of pets with inflammatory skin disease that is sometimes severe. Malassezia spp are normal commensals and occasional pathogens of the skin for many veterinary species, and M pachydermatis is a very common cause of otitis and pruritic dermatitis in dogs. This chapter will focus on the epidemiologic, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis in veterinary species. There are generally only sporadic reports of other superficial mycoses, such as candidiasis, piedra, and Rhodotorula dermatitis in veterinary medicine, and these are not included here.

  6. Superficial fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  7. Management of superficial vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis: status and expert opinion document.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Agus, G; Georgiev, M; Errichi, B M; Marinucci, R; Errichi, S; Filippini, A; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Cipollone, G; Lania, M; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Bavera, P; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Adovasio, R; Gallione, L; Del Boccio, G; Cornelli, U; Steigerwalt, R; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M; Di Ciano, L; Simeone, E; Collevecchio, G; Grossi, M G; Di Giambattista, F; Carestia, F; Zukowski, A

    2007-01-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis is characterized by clotting of superficial veins (ie, following direct trauma) with minimal inflammatory components. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a minimally thrombotic process of superficial veins associated with inflammatory changes and/or infection. Treatments generally include analgesics, elastic compression, anti-inflammatory agents, exercise and ambulation, and, in some cases, local or systemic anticoagulants. It is better to avoid bed rest and reduced mobility. Topical analgesia with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory creams applied locally to the superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis area controls symptoms. Hirudoid cream (heparinoid) shortens the duration of signs/symptoms. Locally acting anticoagulants/antithrombotics (Viatromb, Lipohep, spray Na-heparin) have positive effects on pain and on the reduction in thrombus size. Intravenous catheters should be changed every 24 to 48 hours (depending on venous flow and clinical parameters) to prevent superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis and removed in case of events. Low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis and nitroglycerin patches distal to peripheral lines may reduce the incidence of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis in patients with vein catheters. In case of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis, vein lines should be removed. In neoplastic diseases and hematological disorders, anticoagulants may be necessary. Exercise reduces pain and the possibility of deep vein thrombosis. Only in cases in which pain is very severe is bed rest necessary. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be established in patients with reduced mobility. Antibiotics usually do not have a place in superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis unless there are documented infections. Prevention of superficial vein thrombosis should be considered on the basis of patient's history and clinical evaluation.

  8. Superficial carcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Machado, G; Davies, J D; Tudway, A J; Salmon, P R; Read, A E

    1976-01-01

    Nine cases of superficial gastric carcinoma have been detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Bristol in the past two years. This contrasted with only six cases found from postoperative gastrectomy specimens examined in the previous eight years. It is often difficult to distinguish a superficial carcinoma from a benign ulcer, and endoscopic diagnosis is effective only if multiple biopsy specimens are taken. Endoscopy should also be repeated and multiple specimens taken until the lesion has healed; even malignant ulcers may heal, and any healed area that is depressed with interrupted mucosal folds should be suspected of malignancy. The endoscopic and histological appearances, the age of the patients, and the clinical behaviour of the disease resembled descriptions of the disease, principally from Japan. Superficial gastric carcinoma is probably under-diagnosed in Britain. PMID:1276819

  9. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.

  10. Superficial acral fibromyxoma: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ashby-Richardson, Harty; Rogers, Gary S; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2011-08-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma is a rare, slow-growing soft tissue tumor, which is commonly located in the periungual and subungual regions of the fingers and toes in adults. To date, fewer than 50 cases have been reported worldwide. Microscopic examination reveals a moderately circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumor situated in the dermis, which may also extend into the subcutis. The neoplasm consists of a moderately cellular proliferation of stellate and spindle-shaped fibroblast-like cells embedded in a myxocollagenous stroma. Mast cells are easily identified throughout this lesion. Multinucleated stromal cells may also be present, but nuclear atypia and mitotic figures are rare. The tumor shows immunoreactivity for CD34, epithelial membrane antigen, CD99, and less frequently, CD10. Superficial acral fibromyxoma has a benign behavior but may persist or recur if inadequately excised. Therefore, complete excision and close follow-up are advised.

  11. Helical tomotherapy superficial dose measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Chester R.; Seibert, Rebecca M.; Robison, Benjamin; Mitchell, Martha

    2007-08-15

    Helical tomotherapy is a treatment technique that is delivered from a 6 MV fan beam that traces a helical path while the couch moves linearly into the bore. In order to increase the treatment delivery dose rate, helical tomotherapy systems do not have a flattening filter. As such, the dose distributions near the surface of the patient may be considerably different from other forms of intensity-modulated delivery. The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions near the surface for helical tomotherapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom. A hypothetical planning target volume (PTV) was defined on an anthropomorphic head phantom to simulate a 2.0 Gy per fraction IMRT parotid-sparing head and neck treatment of the upper neck nodes. A total of six target volumes were created with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm of separation between the surface of the phantom and the outer edge of the PTV. Superficial doses were measured for each of the treatment deliveries using film placed in the head phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed on the phantom's surface underneath an immobilization mask. In the 0 mm test case where the PTV extends to the phantom surface, the mean TLD dose was 1.73{+-}0.10 Gy (or 86.6{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose). The measured superficial dose decreases to 1.23{+-}0.10 Gy (61.5{+-}5.1% of the prescribed dose) for a PTV-surface separation of 5 mm. The doses measured by the TLDs indicated that the tomotherapy treatment planning system overestimates superficial doses by 8.9{+-}3.2%. The radiographic film dose for the 0 mm test case was 1.73{+-}0.07 Gy, as compared to the calculated dose of 1.78{+-}0.05 Gy. Given the results of the TLD and film measurements, the superficial calculated doses are overestimated between 3% and 13%. Without the use of bolus, tumor volumes that extend to the surface may be underdosed. As such, it is recommended that bolus be added for these

  12. Superficial angiomyxoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Lallas, Aimillios; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SA) of the skin are rare benign cutaneous tumors of soft tissue composed of prominent myxoid matrix and numerous blood vessels. SA are more common in males [1] and they are usually located on the trunk but can also appear on the lower limbs, head, neck and genitalia [2,3]. Treatment is surgical, the total excision is curative, but local recurrence is possible [4]. Herein we present a 72-year-old patient with a history of melanoma in situ, with a new lesion on the lower back. PMID:27648383

  13. Pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery.

    PubMed

    Nemade, S S; Eiman, M; Blondet, R; Beber, C; Nanes, M; Kirton, O C; Trainor, L D; Silverman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Ours is the first report of pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal in a 90-year-old woman. Although falls with associated head and scalp injuries in the geriatric population are common, pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery is rarely reported, probably due to the generally protected course of the superficial temporal artery across the skull. Clinicians' familiarity with this entity is important for early diagnosis and intervention.

  14. Superficial versus deep dry needling.

    PubMed

    Baldry, Peter

    2002-08-01

    Ninety percent of my patients with myofascial trigger point (MTrP) pain have this alone and are treated with superficial dry needling. Approximately 10% have concomitant MTrP pain and nerve root compression pain. These are treated with deep dry needling. SUPERFICIAL DRY NEEDLING (SDN): The activated and sensitised nociceptors of a MTrP cause it to be so exquisitely tender that firm pressure applied to it gives rise to a flexion withdrawal reflex (jump sign) and in some cases the utterance of an expletive (shout sign). The optimum strength of SDN at a MTrP site is the minimum necessary to abolish these two reactions. With respect to this patients are divided into strong, average and weak responders. The responsiveness of each individual is determined by trial and error. It is my practice to insert a needle (0.3mm x 30mm) into the tissues immediately overlying the MTrP to a depth of 5-10 mm and to leave it in situ long enough for the two reactions to be abolished. For an average reactor this is about 30secs. For a weak reactor it is several minutes. And for a strong reactor the insertion of the needle and its immediate withdrawal is all that is required. Following treatment muscle stretching exercises should be carried out, and any steps taken to eliminate factors that might lead to the reactivation of the MTrPs. DEEP DRY NEEDLING (DDN): This in my practice is only used either when primary MTrP activity causes shortening of muscle sufficient enough to bring about compression of nerve roots. Or when there is nerve compression pain usually from spondylosis or disc prolapse and the secondary development of MTrP activity. Unlike SDN, DDN is a painful procedure and one which gives rise to much post-treatment soreness.

  15. Cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Sun; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Young Ho; Koo, Ja-Won

    2006-08-01

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.

  16. Sclerotherapy of Intraoral Superficial Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Perjuci, Feriall; Gashi, Ali; Agani, Zana; Ahmedi, Jehona

    2016-01-01

    Hemangioma is the clinical term for a benign vascular neoplasm due to proliferation of the endothelial lining of blood vessels. Their most frequent location is the body skin and oral mucosa. One of the treatment modalities for hemangiomas is intralesional injection of sclerosing agents which cause the damage of blood vessels followed by their obliteration. The objective of the study was to describe the facility of application and evaluate the efficiency of sclerotherapy with aethoxysklerol 1%. Method. The case presented with intraoral submucosal hemangioma of the cheek was treated by intralesional injection of aethoxysklerol 3% diluted in water for injections at a 4 : 1 ratio (0.75%) at the first appointment and 3 : 1 (1%) at the second appointment. The effect of sclerotherapy was evaluated on the following visits in time intervals of two weeks. Results. The hemangioma disappeared without complications after the second injection of aethoxysklerol 1%. The successful results of the study were comparable to the data of literature with variations according to the used sclerosant agent, its concentration, the number of injections, and the intervals between each session. Conclusion. Since sclerotherapy is a very effective, inexpensive, and easy-to-apply treatment, it should be the treatment of choice, especially for intraoral superficial hemangiomas. PMID:27994889

  17. Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217

  18. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  19. The superficial white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Joshi, Shantanu H; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Iorio, Mariangela; Narr, Katherine L; Shattuck, David W; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in the large deep fibers of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the late myelinating superficial white matter comprised of intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received much attention. To investigate this area, we extracted a surface corresponding to the superficial white matter beneath the cortex and then applied a cortical pattern-matching approach which allowed us to register and subsequently sample diffusivity along thousands of points at the interface between the gray matter and white matter in 44 patients with Alzheimer's disease (Age: 71.02 ± 5.84, 16M/28F) and 47 healthy controls (Age 69.23 ± 4.45, 19M/28F). In patients we found an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across most of the superficial white matter (P < 0.001) with increases in diffusivity of more than 20% in the bilateral parahippocampal regions and the temporal and frontal lobes. Furthermore, diffusivity correlated with the cognitive deficits measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). The superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and is critical for the integration of multimodal information during brain maturation and aging. Here we show that there are major abnormalities in patients and the deterioration of these fibers relates to clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  1. Superficial urothelial cancer in the prostatic urethra.

    PubMed

    Kirkali, Ziya; Canda, A Erdem

    2006-02-28

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU). The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12-40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  2. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  3. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  4. Superficial siderosis: A rare occurrence in children

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Trupti M.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system results from deposition of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. Patients usually present after 40 years of age with progressive ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. We present the case of a twelve-year-old boy who had a surgery of the posterior fossa at the age of two years and then developed recurrent headaches, instability of gait, and hearing deficit at around ten years of age. Clinical examination revealed progressive ataxia and mild sensorineural hearing loss. He also had infrequent seizures with mild electroencephalographic abnormality. His serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) showed a progressive deposition of hemosiderin in the cerebellar folia and around the brainstem, confirming a diagnosis of superficial siderosis. This case report draws attention to this rare condition, usually seen in adults, even though rarely it can be seen in children as a chronic sequela of surgery of the posterior fossa. PMID:23560013

  5. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    PubMed Central

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management. PMID:26420069

  6. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  7. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node.

  8. Pedal Presentation of Superficial Acral FibromyxomaA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Robin; Kafka, Rene; Jules, Kevin; Bakotic, Bradley W

    2017-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma is a benign and slow-growing solitary soft-tissue neoplasm. Since being described in 2001, more than 100 cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma on the foot have been reported worldwide, none of which have been reported in the podiatric medical literature. Only nine cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma have been reported with presentation on the plantar heel. We report an unusual case of a 47-year-old Jamaican woman with a painful, erythematous nodule on her right heel that was diagnosed as superficial acral fibromyxoma.

  9. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  10. Superficial Fibromatosis Mimicking Glomus Tumor of the Second Toe

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyang Jeong; Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa; Park, Jae In

    2015-01-01

    Various types of tumor can occur in the subungual space, including glomus tumors, subungual exostosis, hemangioma, epidermal cysts, and malignant tumors. While fibromatosis can occur at various sites throughout the body, it is very rarely seen in the toe. Here, we are the first to report a case of superficial fibromatosis mimicking a glomus tumor in the subungual space of the second toe. The presentation of this condition shows the possibility of encountering uncommon superficial fibromatosis in the distal phalanx of the toe, and suggests that superficial fibromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a glomus tumor in the toe. PMID:26330970

  11. Improved wound healing in blue LED treated superficial abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; Alfieri, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    A blue-LED photocoagulator device was designed in order to induce a selective photocoagulation effect in superficial bleeding. An in vivo study in rat back skin evidenced an improved healing process in the LED treated abrasions.

  12. Altered Superficial White Matter on Tractography MRI in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reginold, William; Luedke, Angela C.; Itorralba, Justine; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Islam, Omar; Garcia, Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Superficial white matter provides extensive cortico-cortical connections. This tractography study aimed to assess the diffusion characteristics of superficial white matter tracts in Alzheimer's disease. Methods Diffusion tensor 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 24 controls and 16 participants with Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychological test scores were available in some participants. Tractography was performed by the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) method. The superficial white matter was manually segmented and divided into frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AxD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of these tracts were compared between controls and participants with Alzheimer's disease and correlated with available cognitive tests while adjusting for age and white matter hyperintensity volume. Results Alzheimer's disease was associated with increased MD (p = 0.0011), increased RD (p = 0.0019) and increased AxD (p = 0.0017) in temporal superficial white matter. In controls, superficial white matter was associated with the performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Stroop and Trail Making Test B tests, whereas in Alzheimer's disease patients, it was not associated with the performance on cognitive tests. Conclusion Temporal lobe superficial white matter appears to be disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27489557

  13. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  14. Superficial cooling inhibits force loss in damaged muscle.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, R; Kuchiki, K; Tono, T; Horii, A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of muscle damage with and without superficial cooling on force and neural activation of the triceps surae muscles. Seven men performed maximal plantarflexion contractions with and without superficial cooling over the medial gastrocnemius, before, immediate after, and 2 days after transcutaneous electrical stimulation for the medial gastrocnemius, respectively. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was used to induce muscle damage. The normalized value, which was expressed as percentages of the corresponding relative values obtained before transcutaneous electrical stimulation to after transcutaneous electrical stimulation, of peak torque and integrated electromyogram for the soleus were significantly greater with than without superficial cooling. There was a significant correlation in normalized integrated electromyogram between the medial gastrocnemius and soleus. We conclude that superficial cooling appears to have reduced the magnitude of force loss during maximal voluntary contraction following damage to one of the muscles and the synergistic muscle activation may have contributed to the better force maintenance. The implications of this study are that TES enables more selective damage of muscle than standard protocols, and that superficial cooling over a damaged muscle may have an important role in the acute treatment of muscle injuries.

  15. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  16. Engineering superficial zone features in tissue engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tony; Hilton, Matthew J; Brown, Edward B; Zuscik, Michael J; Awad, Hani A

    2013-05-01

    A major challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is the need to recreate the native tissue's anisotropic extracellular matrix structure. This anisotropy has important mechanical and biological consequences and could be crucial for integrative repair. Here, we report that hydrodynamic conditions that mimic the motion-induced flow fields in between the articular surfaces in the synovial joint induce the formation of a distinct superficial layer in tissue engineered cartilage hydrogels, with enhanced production of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and Type II collagen. Moreover, the flow stimulation at the surface induces the production of the surface zone protein Proteoglycan 4 (aka PRG4 or lubricin). Analysis of second harmonic generation signature of collagen in this superficial layer reveals a highly aligned fibrillar matrix that resembles the alignment pattern in native tissue's surface zone, suggesting that mimicking synovial fluid flow at the cartilage surface in hydrodynamic bioreactors could be key to creating engineered cartilage with superficial zone features.

  17. Rationale of subdermal superficial liposuction related to the anatomy of subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1995-01-01

    The liposuction technique has changed greatly over the years. In 1989, the authors presented subdermal superficial liposuction which treats the superficial fat layer and yields better skin retraction. With this technique the surgeon can treat thin adipose layers to obtain better results in more cases than the traditional liposuction technique. The technique can be used in cases with difficult skin adjustment and in secondary cases when "deep only" liposuction has been performed and there were residual adiposities. Subdermal superficial liposuction evolved so that one could obtain good skin retraction by performing massive liposuction of all the fat layers. The authors named this technique MALL (Massive All Layer Liposuction). The technique is applied in body areas where the fat layer is very thick and stretches the skin because of its volume and weight such as in the abdomen, posterior arms, and internal surface of the upper third of the thighs. MALL liposuction drastically reduces the indications for abdominoplasty and inner thigh and arm dermolipectomies. Knowledge of the anatomy of the subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system allows one to explain the subdermal superficial liposuction from an anatomical point of view, to perform a more rational and effective procedure, and to differentiate the technique depending on the area of the body.

  18. Nitinol Self-Expanding Stents for the Superficial Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Ashwin; Kobayashi, Taisei; Giri, Jay

    2017-04-01

    The superficial femoral artery is a complex artery subject to a unique set of biomechanical loading conditions in its course through the leg. Plain balloon angioplasty and balloon-expandable stents had unacceptably high rates of restenosis, necessitating target vessel revascularization. Nitinol alloy is well suited to provide the strength and flexibility needed of stents to withstand the external forces posed by the environment of the superficial femoral artery. Advances in stent technology with the addition of a slow-releasing antiproliferative agent and changes in scaffold design have shown promise in reducing the rates of stent fracture and in-stent restenosis.

  19. Update on therapy for superficial mycoses: review article part I*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24173183

  20. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  1. Aquarius: Tour de la salinidad superficial del mar

    NASA Video Gallery

    Recorrido narrado de la información sobre la salinidad superficial de los océanos recogida por el instrumento Aquarius de la NASA durante su primer año de funcionamiento. Algunas de las caracte...

  2. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Treatment Planning for Superficial Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Zacarias, Albert S.; Brown, Mellonie F.; Mills, Michael D.

    2010-10-01

    The physician's planning objective is often a uniform dose distribution throughout the planning target volume (PTV), including superficial PTVs on or near the surface of a patient's body. Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system uses a progressive resolution optimizer (PRO), version 8.2.23, for RapidArc dynamic multileaf collimator volumetric modulated arc therapy planning. Because the PRO is a fast optimizer, optimization convergence errors (OCEs) produce dose nonuniformity in the superficial area of the PTV. We present a postsurgical cranial case demonstrating the recursive method our clinic uses to produce RapidArc treatment plans. The initial RapidArc treatment plan generated using one 360{sup o} arc resulted in substantial dose nonuniformity in the superficial section of the PTV. We demonstrate the use of multiple arcs to produce improved dose uniformity in this region. We also compare the results of this superficial dose compensation method to the results of a recursive method of dose correction that we developed in-house to correct optimization convergence errors in static intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. The results show that up to 4 arcs may be necessary to provide uniform dose to the surface of the PTV with the current version of the PRO.

  3. Variation in Formation of Superficial Palmar Arches with Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalaswamy, P.; Bahetee, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the variations in the arterial supply of hand has reached a point of practical importance with the advent of microvascular surgery for revascularization, replantation and composite tissue transfers. Arterial supply of hand is derived from two anastomotic arches, formed between two main arteries of forearm i.e. radial, ulnar and their branches, in the palm. Objective: The superficial palmar arch shows variation in formation at the radial side. In the present study we have recorded its data which would help in its clinical and surgical implications. Material and Methods: In the present study we have studied the formation of superficial palmar arches and their variations in 100 cadaveric hands at Dr. D . Y. Patil Medical College, Pune and B.J. Government Medical College, Pune, India. Result and Conclusion: According to Adachi’s classification the most predominant pattern obseved was of Ulnar type arch (66%). According to Coleman and Anson classification 82% showed complete (Group I) superficial palmar arches and a very low incidence (18%) of incomplete arches (Group II). This suggests that collateral circulation is present in majority of cases. This would result in least number of complications considering radial artery harvesting for coronary bypass. Sub-classification of arches according to Coleman and Anson 1961 indicates that the predominant type in the present study was of Group I (Type B) which is formed entirely by Ulnar Artery (56%). Median artery and ulnar artery forming an incomplete superficial arch under Group II (Type C) having an incidence of 4% was recorded. Thus in such cases radial artery harvesting for coronary artery bypass may prove to be less fatal. This study is an effort to provide data about the formation of superficial palmar arches which has been a centre of attraction for most of the surgical procedures and injuries of the hand. PMID:24959427

  4. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  5. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  6. A vapour-permeable film dressing used on superficial wounds.

    PubMed

    Meuleneire, Frans

    2014-08-12

    Films are an extremely versatile dressing type that can be effectively used in the treatment of many superficial wounds, such as skin grafts, surgical wounds and superficial burns; they provide an optimal moist environment to promote healing, act as a barrier to bacteria, and afford protection from urine and faecal contamination. Unfortunately, many film dressings are difficult to handle and use traditional adhesives, which can cause trauma to the wound and surrounding skin, as well as increased wound pain at dressing removal. Mepitel® Film is a new, easy-to-use wound dressing designed with Safetac® technology that helps to minimise dressing-related trauma and pain and assist undisturbed wound healing. This article presents case studies that examine Mepitel Film's use on a variety of wounds, and reviews the findings of research that was undertaken to evaluate the benefits of using this recently developed dressing.

  7. Intimal sarcoma of the superficial femoral artery with osteosarcomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ebaugh, James L; Yuan, Minsheng; Hu, Jeffery; Chen, Ahchean; Raffetto, Joseph D

    2011-05-01

    Sarcomas of the large vessels usually present centrally in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. Peripheral arterial sarcomas are exceptionally rare. They have been reported in the iliac and common or profunda femoral arteries, and are frequently undifferentiated. In this study, we describe a differentiated intimal sarcoma of the superficial femoral artery with abundant osteosarcoma within the specimen. Before knowing the diagnosis, treatment was for a presumed pseudoaneurysm using excision and bypass. Postoperatively, the patient received palliative radiation therapy. The tumor's location and histopathology are unique. A differentiated intimal sarcoma has never been reported in the superficial femoral artery, and it represents the second peripheral arterial intimal sarcoma reported with osteosarcomatous differentiation.

  8. Hyperthermic treatment of superficial tumors in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Grier, R L; Brewer, W G; Theilen, G H

    1980-08-01

    Local current field radiofrequency hyperthermia was applied to 33 superficial tumors in 11 cats and 5 dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the cat was the most frequent tumor treated. Of 19 SCC in cats, 13 (68%) were reduced completely, combining complete and partial tumor reduction, there was an 89% favorable response to hyperthermia for SCC. A small number of other tumors such as fibrosarcoma in the cat and perianal tumors in the dog were favorably responsive. Local current field hyperthermia (50 C for 30 sec) resulted in destruction of tumor tissue as well as normal tissue. However, tissue destruction did not extend more than 2 or 3 mm from the electrodes. Ulcerative superficial tumors exposed to air rapidly reduced in size, and a dry eschar that developed fell off at 17 to 25 days.

  9. Embedding of Cortical Representations by the Superficial Patch System

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Nuno M. A.; Girardin, Cyrille C.; Naaman, Shmuel; Omer, David B.; Ruesch, Elisha; Grinvald, Amiram; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    Pyramidal cells in layers 2 and 3 of the neocortex of many species collectively form a clustered system of lateral axonal projections (the superficial patch system—Lund JS, Angelucci A, Bressloff PC. 2003. Anatomical substrates for functional columns in macaque monkey primary visual cortex. Cereb Cortex. 13:15–24. or daisy architecture—Douglas RJ, Martin KAC. 2004. Neuronal circuits of the neocortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 27:419–451.), but the function performed by this general feature of the cortical architecture remains obscure. By comparing the spatial configuration of labeled patches with the configuration of responses to drifting grating stimuli, we found the spatial organizations both of the patch system and of the cortical response to be highly conserved between cat and monkey primary visual cortex. More importantly, the configuration of the superficial patch system is directly reflected in the arrangement of function across monkey primary visual cortex. Our results indicate a close relationship between the structure of the superficial patch system and cortical responses encoding a single value across the surface of visual cortex (self-consistent states). This relationship is consistent with the spontaneous emergence of orientation response–like activity patterns during ongoing cortical activity (Kenet T, Bibitchkov D, Tsodyks M, Grinvald A, Arieli A. 2003. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes. Nature. 425:954–956.). We conclude that the superficial patch system is the physical encoding of self-consistent cortical states, and that a set of concurrently labeled patches participate in a network of mutually consistent representations of cortical input. PMID:21383233

  10. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  11. Cervical Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma Presenting as Intracranial Superficial Siderosis

    PubMed Central

    Srirama Jayamma, Savitha; Sud, Seema; Buxi, TBS; Madan, VS; Goyal, Ashish; Dhawan, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare pigmented tumor of the leptomeningeal melanocytes. This rare entity results in diagnostic difficulty in imaging unless clinical and histopathology correlation is performed. In this case report, we describe a case of meningeal melanocytoma of the cervical region presenting with superficial siderosis. Extensive neuroradiological examination is necessary to locate the source of the bleeding in such patients. Usually, the patient will be cured by the complete surgical excision of the lesion. PMID:26770862

  12. Effect of Scanning Beam for Superficial Dose in Proton Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moskvin, Vadim P; Estabrook, Neil C; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2015-10-01

    Proton beam delivery technology is under development to minimize the scanning spot size for uniform dose to target, but it is also known that the superficial dose could be as high as the dose at Bragg peak for narrow and small proton beams. The objective of this study is to explore the characteristics of dose distribution at shallow depths using Monte Carlo simulation with the FLUKA code for uniform scanning (US) and discrete spot scanning (DSS) proton beams. The results show that the superficial dose for DSS is relatively high compared to US. Additionally, DSS delivers a highly heterogeneous dose to the irradiated surface for comparable doses at Bragg peak. Our simulation shows that the superficial dose can become as high as the Bragg peak when the diameter of the proton beam is reduced. This may compromise the advantage of proton beam therapy for sparing normal tissue, making skin dose a limiting factor for the clinical use of DSS. Finally, the clinical advantage of DSS may not be essential for treating uniform dose across a large target, as in craniospinal irradiation (CSI).

  13. Management of superficial basal cell carcinoma: focus on imiquimod

    PubMed Central

    Raasch, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma comprise up to 25% of all histological sub-types. They are more likely to occur on younger persons and females and although generally more common on the trunk, also occur frequently on the exposed areas of the head and neck especially in areas of high sun exposure. In the last decade, new treatment options such as topical applications that modify the immune response have been trialed for effectiveness in treating these lesions. Imiquimod 5% cream has been shown to stimulate the innate and cell mediated immune system. The short-term success of imiquimod 5% cream in randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment regimes and dosing as a treatment for small superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) not on the face or neck is in the range of 82% for 5 times per week application. A high proportion of participants with good response rates to topical treatment (58%–92%) experience local side effects such as itching and burning, less commonly erosion and ulceration, but the proportion of participants ceasing treatment has not been high. To date one long-term study indicates a treatment success rate of 78%–81% and that initial response is a predictor of long-term outcome. Recurrences tend to occur within the first year after treatment. Future research will compare this preparation to the gold standard treatment for superficial BCC – surgical excision. PMID:21436969

  14. Glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengchao; Song, Ninghong; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Cheng, Gong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the safety and feasibility of glans-preserving surgery for superficial penile squamous cell carcinoma. Young patients with penile primary tumors exhibiting favorable histologic features were best suited for organ-sparing procedures, enabling them to avoid sexual disturbances. The study included 12 patients, 38-53 years of age (median age 46 years), with superficial lesions involving the glans penis, coronary sulcus, or shaft skin. After clinical staging and grading, those patients were offered a glans-preserving procedure to preserve the normal appearance and functional integrity of the glans penis. Of the 12 patients referred, the tumors were TaG1 in 4 patients, TaG2 in 3, TisG1 in 1, TisG2 in 1, T1G1 in 2, and T1G2 in 1. All patients returned to normal sexual activity 1 month postoperatively. Sexual function and sexual satisfaction were well maintained after surgery. The cosmetic results were considered satisfying/very satisfying by 83% (10 of 12 patients). Follow-up data were available on 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 62.5 months. Only 1 patient had recurrence 6 months after surgery, which was managed by a second glans-preserving surgery without recurrence. With careful patient selection and vigilant follow-up, anatomically suitable superficial penile cancer can be offered this glans-preserving surgery, while preserving function of the penis wherever possible.

  15. The Effect of Ferric Chloride on Superficial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Sahba, Sare

    2015-01-01

    Background: Controlling superficial bleeding, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still a challenge in some settings. Objectives: This study assesses the hemostatic effects of ferric chloride and compares it with the standard method (suturing technique) to control superficial bleeding. Materials and Methods: In this animal model study, 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision, 2 cm long and 0.5 cm deep was made on rat skin and the hemostasis time was recorded using ferric chloride at different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) and then using a control (i.e. control of bleeding by suturing). The skin tissue was examined for pathological changes. Finally, the obtained data were entered into SPSS (ver. 16) and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: The hemostasis time for the ferric chloride concentration group was significantly less than for the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Ferric chloride may be an effective hemostatic agent to control superficial bleeding in rats. PMID:25825694

  16. Dose assessment of 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuo; Terada, Yuri; Okuaki, Mio; Nagata, Masahiko

    2011-10-01

    The dose of 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan(®) Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA, USA) for canine superficial pyoderma was evaluated. The first trial compared three doses (group 1, 57 mL/m(2) body surface area; group 2, 29 mL/m(2) body surface area; and group 3, 19 mL/m(2) body surface area) in a randomized, double-blind, controlled fashion. Twenty-seven dogs with superficial pyoderma were treated with 2CA at the allocated doses every 2 days for 1 week. The owners and investigators subjectively evaluated the dogs, and investigators scored skin lesions, including erythema, papules/pustules, alopecia and scales, on a 0-4 scale. There were no significant differences in response between the treatment groups. The second trial established a practical dose-measuring method for 2CA. Sixty-eight owners were asked to apply 2CA on their palm in an amount corresponding to a Japanese ¥500 coin, 26.5 mm in diameter. This yielded an average dose of 0.90±0.40 mL. Mathematically, the doses used in groups 1, 2 and 3 can be represented as one coin per approximately one-, two- and three-hand-sized lesions, respectively. The results therefore suggest that owners instructed to apply one coin of the product per two-hand-sized areas of superficial pyoderma would use the range of doses evaluated in this trial.

  17. Variations in the superficial palmar arch of the hand.

    PubMed

    Bataineh, Ziad M; Habbal, Omar; Moqattash, Satei T

    2009-01-01

    Variations in the pattern of the hand blood supply are frequently encountered. Awareness and identification of such variations is crucial during hand surgery. Thirty formaline fixed hands of male and female cadavers were dissected. All arteries contributing to the superficial palmar arch (SPA) of the hand were verified. In addition to the frequently encountered types of SPA, three very rare cases were described. In the first case, the superficial branch of the radial artery passed superficial to the thenar muscles with a diameter larger than that of the ulnar artery. In addition to the common palmar digital artery to the second web space, it gave the princeps pollicis and radialis indicis arteries. In the second case, the SPA was formed by the ulnar artery and was completed by a small branch from the deep branch of the radial artery. The palmar digital artery to the ulnar side of the fifth finger and the common palmar digital artery to the fourth web space arose from a common trunk. In the third case, incomplete SPA was formed by the median artery which only gave the princeps pollicis and radialis indicis arteries, while the ulnar artery supplied the rest of the hand except the ulnar side of the third finger and the second web space which were supplied by the deep palmar arch. Therefore, sound knowledge of the pattern of the blood supply of the hand by various techniques is crucial to avoid possible complications during hand surgery.

  18. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1994-01-01

    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms.

  19. Nucleic acid separations using superficially porous silica particles.

    PubMed

    Close, Elizabeth D; Nwokeoji, Alison O; Milton, Dafydd; Cook, Ken; Hindocha, Darsha M; Hook, Elliot C; Wood, Helen; Dickman, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    Ion pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography has been widely employed for nucleic acid separations. A wide range of alternative stationary phases have been utilised in conjunction with ion pair reverse-phase chromatography, including totally porous particles, non-porous particles, macroporous particles and monolithic stationary phases. In this study we have utilised superficially porous silica particles in conjunction with ion pair reverse-phase liquid chromatography for the analysis of nucleic acids. We have investigated a range of different pore-sizes and phases for the analysis of a diverse range of nucleic acids including oligonucleotides, oligoribonucleotides, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and high molecular weight dsDNA and RNA. The pore size of the superficially porous silica particles was shown to significantly affect the resolution of the nucleic acids. Optimum separations of small oligonucleotides such as those generated in RNase mapping experiments were obtained with 80Å pore sizes and can readily be interfaced with mass spectrometry analysis. Improved resolution of larger oligonucleotides (>19mers) was observed with pore sizes of 150Å. The optimum resolution for larger dsDNA/RNA molecules was achieved using superficially porous silica particles with pore sizes of 400Å. Furthermore, we have utilised 150Å pore size solid-core particles to separate typical impurities of a fully phosphorothioated oligonucleotide, which are often generated in the synthesis of this important class of therapeutic oligonucleotide.

  20. Calcium transport in the rabbit superficial proximal convoluted tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, R.C.; Rouse, D.; Suki, W.N.

    1984-09-01

    Calcium transport was studied in isolated S2 segments of rabbit superficial proximal convoluted tubules. 45Ca was added to the perfusate for measurement of lumen-to-bath flux (JlbCa), to the bath for bath-to-lumen flux (JblCa), and to both perfusate and bath for net flux (JnetCa). In these studies, the perfusate consisted of an equilibrium solution that was designed to minimize water flux or electrochemical potential differences (PD). Under these conditions, JlbCa (9.1 +/- 1.0 peq/mm X min) was not different from JblCa (7.3 +/- 1.3 peq/mm X min), and JnetCa was not different from zero, which suggests that calcium transport in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule is due primarily to passive transport. The efflux coefficient was 9.5 +/- 1.2 X 10(-5) cm/s, which was not significantly different from the influx coefficient, 7.0 +/- 1.3 X 10(-5) cm/s. When the PD was made positive or negative with use of different perfusates, net calcium absorption or secretion was demonstrated, respectively, which supports a major role for passive transport. These results indicate that in the superficial proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit, passive driving forces are the major determinants of calcium transport.

  1. Clinical superficial Raman probe aimed for epithelial tumor detection: Phantom model results

    PubMed Central

    Agenant, Michelle; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Draga, Ronald; Marple, Eric; Bosch, Ruud; van Swol, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A novel clinical Raman probe for sampling superficial tissue to improve in vivo detection of epithelial malignancies is compared to a non-superficial probe regarding depth response function and signal-to-noise ratio. Depth response measurements were performed in a phantom tissue model consisting of a polyethylene terephthalate disc in an 20%-Intralipid® solution. Sampling ranges of 0-200 and 0-300 μm were obtained for the superficial and non-superficial probe, respectively. The mean signal-to-noise ratio of the superficial probe increased by a factor of 2 compared with the non-superficial probe. This newly developed superficial Raman probe is expected to improve epithelial cancer detection in vivo. PMID:24761301

  2. Functional Compartmentalization of the Human Superficial Masseter Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A.; Biotti Picand, Jorge L.; de la Rosa, Francisco J. Berral

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle’s motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs) at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm) were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes) located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001).The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001). The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001). The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20–60% MVBF). PMID:25692977

  3. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A; Biotti Picand, Jorge L; de la Rosa, Francisco J Berral

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs) at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm) were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes) located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001).The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001). The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001). The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF).

  4. Endoscopic mucosectomy: an alternative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent trends in the management of superficial esophageal cancer consist of improved detection, pretherapeutic staging and reliable criteria for curative endoscopic therapy. The endoscopic treatment is legitimate when the cancer is at an early stage, intra-epithelial or microinvasive (m1 or m2) and N0. Submucosal cancer should not be treated with a curative intent by endotherapy. Concerning squamous cell cancer, the oriental and occidental pathologists include high-grade dysplasia in the same group as intramucosal cancer. The distinction is however maintained for adenocarcinoma in the Barrett's esophagus. Indications of endoscopic rather than surgical treatment rely on: (1) the small size of the tumor (not more than 2 cm in diameter); (2) the endoscopic morphology in the type 0 of the Japanese classification with the flat subtypes IIa and IIb rather than type IIc--there is high risk of submucosal invasion for the polypoid (type I) or ulcerated superficial cancer (type III); and (3) the endoscopic ultrasound staging, with confirmed integrity of the hyperechoic submucosal layer. The high-frequency (20 MHz) miniprobe is preferred to the standard (7.5 MHz) instrument. The elective procedure for tumor eradication is endoscopic mucosectomy. The technique is associated with a 6.8% risk of severe complications (hemorrhage or perforation) and a recurrence rate of 3%-7%. The 5-year survival rate is similar to that of surgery (over 80%). In the small group of patients with superficial esophageal cancer (less than 10% of the disease) endoscopic treatment may now be proposed in about 30% of cases, surgery is preferred for submucosal cancer and for neoplasia with a large surface. Areas of high-grade dysplasia in the Barrett's esophagus offer a new and increasing sector of indications. The concurrent endoscopic procedure of destruction--photodynamic therapy--is preferred for the destruction of lesions with poorly delineated limits.

  5. An improved MRI guided ultrasound system for superficial tumor hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengyuan; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Zhiqiang; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Among many methods in tumor treatment, ultrasound hyperthermia is characterized by non-invasiveness, and it has been proven very effective for clinical treatment. But the problem of monitoring temperature limits its development. MRI-based temperature mapping techniques are safe compared with invasive methods and have been applied to detect temperature changes for a variety of applications. Among these techniques, the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method is relatively advanced. With a temperature measuring experiment and experiment conducted on tumors inside rabbit legs, the effectiveness of PRF method has been proved. This paper is to introduce an MRI guided ultrasound superficial tumor hyperthermia instrument based on PRF method.

  6. An anatomical investigation of the superficial and deep palmar arches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhna; Lazarus, Lelika; De Gama, Brenda Zola; Satyapal, Kapil Sewsaran

    2016-09-26

    The superficial and deep palmar arches provide the dominant vascular supply to the hand. The superficial palmar arch (SPA) is considered to be highly variable and can be classified as either complete or incomplete. The simplest definition states that the anastomosis between the vessels contributing to the arch represent a complete arch while an incomplete arch is described as having an absence of anastomosis between the vessels contributing to it. This study aimed to describe the anatomical landmarks, formation and branching patterns of the SPA and DPA. In this study, the SPA and deep palmar arch (DPA) were dissected in 50 specimens (n=100 adult hands), respectively. A complete SPA was observed in 92% of specimens and classified into three types. In Type A (44%), the SPA was formed by the anastomosis of the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery with the ulnar artery. Type B (46%) was formed by the ulnar artery alone and Type C (2%) was formed by anastomosis of the ulnar artery with the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery and the persistent median artery. An incomplete SPA was observed in 8% of the specimens and divided into three types formed by the radial and ulnar arteries. The DPA was divided into five types viz. Type G (72%), where the DPA was formed by anastomosis of the deep palmar branch of the radial artery (DPBRA) with the deep branch of the ulnar artery (DBUA). Type H (12%), was formed by anastomosis of the DPBRA, the DBUA and the interosseous artery. Type I (8%), was formed by the anastomosis of the DPBRA with the superior and inferior deep branch of the ulnar artery. Type J (4%), the deep ulnar artery had two branches whereby either one branch anastomosed with the DPBRA to form the DPA. Type K (4%), the DBUA exhibited two deep branches with one branch anastomosing with the DPBRA to complete the DPA. The interosseous artery anastomosed with either the DPA or the additional deep branch of the ulnar artery. Knowledge of the variability

  7. Current concepts in systemic and topical therapy for superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Larry E

    2010-03-04

    There presently exists a wide selection of choices in the treatment of superficial mycoses. The main categories of broad-spectrum agents are the allylamines and imidazoles, which have been tried and proven over more than 2 decades of usage with good safety. Nystatin and griseofulvin have even longer experience of about 5 decades but have niche usage for yeasts and dermatophytes, respectively. Although no new therapeutic groups have appeared, extensive development of vehicles and delivery systems has enhanced therapeutic results and increased patient compliance.

  8. Intraneural Ganglion in Superficial Radial Nerve Mimics de Quervain Tenosynovitis

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Justin M.; Potter, Michael Q.; Sinclair, Micah; Hutchinson, Douglas T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraneural ganglions in peripheral nerves of the upper extremity are extremely rare and poorly understood. Case Description We report a patient with symptoms consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis who was found to have an intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. The ganglion did not communicate with the wrist joint. We removed the intraneural ganglion, and the patient's symptoms resolved. At her 6-month postoperative follow-up, she remained asymptomatic. Literature Review: There is only one case report of intraneural ganglion in the superficial radial nerve. In that case, the patient had symptoms consistent with nerve irritation, including radiating pain and paresthesias. In contrast to that previous report, the patient in the current case had only localized pain, no paresthesias, and a physical exam consistent with de Quervain tenosynovitis. Clinical Relevance This case demonstrates that an intraneural ganglion cyst can mimic the symptoms of de Quervain tenosynovitis without the more usual presentation of painful paresthesias. PMID:25364639

  9. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  10. Superficial vimentin mediates DENV-2 infection of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Zou, Lingyun; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Jizhen; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hui; Peng, Huagang; Shang, Weilong; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Damage to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) is a critical hallmark of hemorrhagic diseases caused by dengue virus (DENV). However, the precise molecular event involved in DENV binding and infection of VECs has yet to be clarified. In this study, vimentin (55 kDa) was identified to be involved in DENV-2 adsorption into VECs. This protein is located on the surface of VECs and interacts with DENV-2 envelope protein domain III (EDIII). The expression level of the superficial vimentin on VECs was not affected by viral infection or siRNA interference, indicating that the protein exists in a particular mode. Furthermore, the rod domain of the vimentin protein mainly functions in DENV-2 adsorption into VECs. Molecular docking results predicted several residues in vimentin rod and DENV EDIII; these residues may be responsible for cell–virus interactions. We propose that the superficial vimentin could be a novel molecule involved in DENV binding and infection of VECs. DENV EDIII directly interacts with the rod domain of vimentin on the VEC surface and thus mediates the infection. PMID:27910934

  11. Superficial vimentin mediates DENV-2 infection of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zou, Lingyun; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Jizhen; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hui; Peng, Huagang; Shang, Weilong; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-12-02

    Damage to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) is a critical hallmark of hemorrhagic diseases caused by dengue virus (DENV). However, the precise molecular event involved in DENV binding and infection of VECs has yet to be clarified. In this study, vimentin (55 kDa) was identified to be involved in DENV-2 adsorption into VECs. This protein is located on the surface of VECs and interacts with DENV-2 envelope protein domain III (EDIII). The expression level of the superficial vimentin on VECs was not affected by viral infection or siRNA interference, indicating that the protein exists in a particular mode. Furthermore, the rod domain of the vimentin protein mainly functions in DENV-2 adsorption into VECs. Molecular docking results predicted several residues in vimentin rod and DENV EDIII; these residues may be responsible for cell-virus interactions. We propose that the superficial vimentin could be a novel molecule involved in DENV binding and infection of VECs. DENV EDIII directly interacts with the rod domain of vimentin on the VEC surface and thus mediates the infection.

  12. The role of shielding in superficial X-ray therapy.

    PubMed

    Medvedevas, N; Adliene, D; Laurikaitiene, J; Andrejaitis, A

    2011-09-01

    Superficial X-ray therapy is applicable in the kilovoltage range for the treatment of the cancer. Pb shielding is used to protect radiation-sensitive organs since the doses are high, however the question about shielding efficiency is still open. The role of shielding was investigated in this work based on the results of dose measurements performed using a set of pencil dosemeters and thermoluminescent dosimetries. According to the measured angular dose distributions on the phantom surface during X-ray irradiation, the area near the applicator exposed to the waste irradiation was evaluated and Pb shielding of a corresponding size was chosen. It has been shown that the dose in the area of interest decreases non-linearly, however high shielding efficiency (~90 %) remains almost stable in the whole area. No significant contribution of secondary scattered photons from Pb has been observed. The role of Pb shielding in superficial X-ray therapy is discussed on the basis of the obtained results.

  13. Suction based mechanical characterization of superficial facial soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M; Mazza, E

    2015-12-16

    The present study is aimed at a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical response of superficial facial tissues. Suction based experiments provide the location, time, and history dependent behavior of skin and SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) by means of Cutometer and Aspiration measurements. The suction method is particularly suitable for in vivo, multi-axial testing of soft biological tissue including a high repeatability in subsequent tests. The campaign comprises three measurement sites in the face, i.e. jaw, parotid, and forehead, using two different loading profiles (instantaneous loading and a linearly increasing and decreasing loading curve), multiple loading magnitudes, and cyclic loading cases to quantify history dependent behavior. In an inverse finite element analysis based on anatomically detailed models an optimized set of material parameters for the implementation of an elastic-viscoplastic material model was determined, yielding an initial shear modulus of 2.32kPa for skin and 0.05kPa for SMAS, respectively. Apex displacements at maximum instantaneous and linear loading showed significant location specificity with variations of up to 18% with respect to the facial average response while observing variations in repeated measurements in the same location of less than 12%. In summary, the proposed parameter sets for skin and SMAS are shown to provide remarkable agreement between the experimentally observed and numerically predicted tissue response under all loading conditions considered in the present study, including cyclic tests.

  14. Mycological Considerations in the Topical Treatment of Superficial Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ted

    2016-02-01

    Trichophyton rubrum remains the most common pathogenic dermatophyte in the United States, Europe, and industrialized Asia, although other species are predminant elsewhere. Candida albicans is the most common pathogenic yeast, with other species occasionally encountered. Just a few of the 14 described species of Malassezia cause pityriasis versicolor worldwide. FDA approval does not always accurately reflect the potential utility of any given topical antifungal agent. Azole, hydroxypyridone, and allylamine agents are beneficial in the management of dermatophytosis; however, the allylamines may lead to faster symptom resolution and a higher degree of sustained response. Although in actual clinical use the allylamines have all shown some activity against superficial cutaneous candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor, the azole agents remain drugs of choice. Ciclopirox is an excellent broad-spectrum antifungal agent. Optimal topical therapy for superficial fungal infections cannot yet be reliably based upon in-vitro laboratory determination of sensitivity. Inherent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by some antifungal agents may be exploited for clinical purposes. Candida species may be azole-insensitive due to efflux pumps or an altered target enzyme. So-called "antifungal resistance" of dermatophyets is actually due to poor patient adherence (either in dosing or treatment duration), or to reinfection.

  15. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign.

    PubMed

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-09-16

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the "red planet" sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examination.

  16. The influence of steroids on noradrenaline-mediated contractile reactivity of the superficial nasal and facial veins in cycling gilts.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Wasowska, B; Jan, B; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2012-01-01

    The nasal venous blood may be directed through the facial vein into the systemic circulation or through the frontal vein into the venous cavernous sinus of the perihypophyseal vascular complex, where hormones and pheromones permeate from the venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to determine the effect of noradrenaline (NA) on the tension of the nasal, frontal and facial veins of cycling gilts, and influence of ovarian steroid hormones on NA-mediated contractile reactivity. Additionally, the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase catalysing the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline (DbetaH) was immunolocalized in these vessels. Among three studied veins, the frontal proximal vein, that fulfill a key role in the supply of the nasal venous blood into the venous cavernous sinus, reacted to NA most strongly (P < 0.001) and this reaction was weaker in the periestrous period than in luteal phase (P < 0.001). Inversely, the reaction to NA of the facial proximal vein, that carry blood to the peripheral circulation, was stronger in the periestrous period than in luteal phase (P < 0.05). P4, E2 and T significantly lowered NA-mediated tension of the frontal proximal vein during the periestrous period (P < 0.001), while in the luteal phase P4 might antagonize relaxing effect of E2 to this vessel. The result suggests that supply of the nasal venous blood into the venous cavernous sinus is greater during the periestrous period than during the luteal phase. DbetaH was clearly expressed in the muscular layer of the isolated superficial nasal and facial veins of gilts in both studied stages of the estrous cycle. We suggest that the reactivity of the superficial veins of the nose and face to NA combined with the previously demonstrated reactivity of these veins to steroid ovarian hormones and male steroid pheromones may regulate the access of priming pheromone androstenol (resorebed in the nasal cavity) to the brain of

  17. On the Superficial Gas Velocity in Deep Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Grace, John; Shadle, Lawrence; Guenther, Chris

    2011-11-15

    The superficial gas velocity is one of the key parameters used to determine the flow hydrodynamics in gas–solids fluidized beds. However, the superficial velocity varies with height in practice, and there is no consistent basis for its specification. Different approaches to determine the superficial gas velocity in a deep gas–solids system are shown to cause difficulties in developing models and in comparing predictions with experimental results. In addition, the reference conditions for superficial gas velocity are important in modeling of deep gas–solids systems where there is a considerable pressure drop.

  18. Superficial aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius is elongated during contraction: implications for modeling muscle-tendon unit.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Tadashi; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2002-02-01

    Two questions were addressed in this study: (1) how much strain of the superficial aponeurosis of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was obtained during voluntary isometric contractions in vivo, (2) whether there existed inhomogeneity of the strain along the superficial aponeurosis. Seven male subjects, whose knees were extended and ankles were flexed at right angle, performed isometric plantar flexion while elongation of superficial aponeurosis of MG was determined from the movements of the intersections made by the superficial aponeurosis and fascicles using ultrasonography. The strain of the superficial aponeurosis at the maximum voluntary contraction, estimated from the elongation and length data, was 5.6+/-1.2%. There was no significant difference in strain between the proximal and distal parts of the superficial aponeurosis. Based on the present result and that of our previous study for the same subjects (J. Appl. Physiol 90 (2001) 1671), a model was formulated for a contracting uni-pennate muscle-tendon unit. This model, which could be applied to isometric contractions at other angles and therefore of wide use, showed that similar strain between superficial and deep aponeuroses of MG contributed to homogeneous fascicle length change within MG during contractions. These findings would contribute to clarifying the functions of the superficial aponeurosis and the effects of the superficial aponeurosis elongation on the whole muscle behavior.

  19. What factors control the superficial lava dome explosivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoit; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style; lava domes result from intermittent, slow extrusion of viscous lava. Most dome-forming eruptions produce highly microcrystallized and highly- to almost totally-degassed magmas which have a low explosive potential. During lava dome growth, recurrent collapses of unstable parts are the main destructive process of the lava dome, generating concentrated pyroclastic density currents (C-PDC) channelized in valleys. These C-PDC have a high, but localized, damage potential that largely depends on the collapsed volume. Sometimes, a dilute ash cloud surge develops at the top of the concentrated flow with an increased destructive effect because it may overflow ridges and affect larger areas. In some cases, large lava dome collapses can induce a depressurization of the magma within the conduit, leading to vulcanian explosions. By contrast, violent, laterally directed, explosions may occur at the base of a growing lava dome: this activity generates dilute and turbulent, highly-destructive, pyroclastic density currents (D-PDC), with a high velocity and propagation poorly dependent on the topography. Numerous studies on lava dome behaviors exist, but the triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood. Here, seven dome-forming eruptions are investigated: in the Lesser Antilles arc: Montagne Pelée, Martinique (1902-1905, 1929-1932 and 650 y. BP eruptions), Soufrière Hills, Montserrat; in Guatemala, Santiaguito (1929 eruption); in La Chaîne des Puys, France (Puy de Dome and Puy Chopine eruptions). We propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by these key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite

  20. Dermoscopy of Pigmented Bowen's Disease Mimicking Early Superficial Spreading Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuka; Tanaka, Masaru; Suzaki, Reiko; Mori, Nuiko; Konohana, Izumi

    2009-01-01

    A 89-year-old Japanese woman presented at our clinic because of a several months’ history of an asymptomatic gradually enlarging pigmented skin lesion on the dorsum of the left foot. Physical examination revealed a single hyperpigmented oval macule of 5 mm with a rough surface. The color of the lesion was dark brown to light brown. Dermoscopic examination demonstrated atypical pigment network with small dotted vessels. Irregular streaks were also partially noted at the periphery. We suspected superficial spreading melanoma and performed an excision. The histologic features were consistent with a diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease. We could not completely account for dermoscopic aspects from the pathological findings of hematoxylin and eosin-stained specimens; therefore, specimens were stained with Fontana-Masson stain. It clearly demonstrated the distribution of melanin in the epidermis. We concluded that atypical network was due to an uneven melanin deposition in the variably thickened epidermal rete ridges. PMID:20652107

  1. [Acute superficial thrombophlebitis--modern diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Marković, M D; Lotina, S I; Davidović, L B; Vojnović, B R; Kostić, D M; Cinara, I S; Svetković, S D

    1997-01-01

    Acute superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is one of the most common vascular diseases affecting the population. Although it is generally considered as a benign disease, it can be extended to the deep venous system and pulmonary embolism. We examined 50 patients (22 males and 28 females), mean age 52.5 years. These patients were surgically treated due to acute superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs that affected great saphenous vein above the knee. The diagnosis was made by palpable subcutaneous cords in the course of great saphenous vein or its tributaries in association with tenderness, erythema and oedema. Of these 50 patients, 26 were examined by duplex ultrasonography before the operation. In 20 patients duplex scanning confirmed that the process was greater than we supposed after clinical examination (77%) and in 6 patients there were no differences (23%) (Figures 1 and 2). The operation included crossectomy, ligation and resection of the proximal part of the great saphenous vein. Intraoperative findings in 38 patients showed that the level of the phlebitic process was higher than the clinical level (76%). There was no difference in 12 patients (24%). Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were noted in 14 patients (28%) (Tables 1 and 2). Both complications were found in two patients, and 12 had one of these complications. Generally, there were 12 patients with deep venous thrombosis and 4 patients with pulmonary embolism. Only in one patient deep venous thrombosis appeared postoperatively, while all other complications occurred before surgical intervention (Scheme 1 and Table 3). The most common risk factor was the presence of varicose veins (86%). Obesity, age over 60 years, cigarette smoking are listed in decreasing order of frequency. Patients under 60 years were more likely to have complications while older patients usually followed a benign clinical course (Tables 4 and 5). There was no intrahospital mortality. Average

  2. CD34 negative superficial acral fibromyxoma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Robati, Reza M.; Dadkhahfar, Sahar; Rakhshan, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Superficial acral fibromyxoma (SAF) is a slow growing soft tissue tumor that mainly appears in the acral areas. Here, we report a case of a SAF with distinctive immunophenotype charachteristics. An 18-year-old female was referred to our clinic with the complaint of painless subungual nodule of great toe for a few months. The diagnosis of SAF was made according to histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) study, however, the IHC assessment showed positive staining with vimentin, focal reaction with smooth muscle actin, negative reaction with CD34, and positive staining pattern with CD99. These IHC findings are unusual for SAF. This reported case of SAF supports the fact that, although CD34 expression is characteristic for SAF, it is not always present. PMID:28217473

  3. Transient Superficial Peroneal Nerve Palsy After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male subject was diagnosed with medial meniscal, lateral meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. The symptoms did not subside after 4 months of physical therapy, and he underwent arthroscopic partial medial and lateral meniscectomy and ACL reconstruction. Immediately after the patient woke up from general anesthesia, he started experience loss of sensation in the area of superficial peroneal nerve with inverted dorsiflexion of foot and ankle. Instantly, the bandage and knee brace was removed and a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was ruled out. After eight hours, post-operatively, the patient started receiving physiotherapy. He complained of numbness and tingling in the same area. After 24 h, post-operatively, the patient started to regain dorsiflexion and eversion gradually. Two days after the surgery, the patient exhibited complete recovery of neurological status. PMID:27478579

  4. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided.

  5. Characteristics of salt and water transport in superficial and juxtamedullary straight segments of proximal tubules.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, S; Imai, M; Seldin, D W; Kukko, J P

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to characterize the nature of salt and water transport out of the superficial (SF) and juxtamedullary (JM) straight segments of rabbit proximal tubules as examined by in vitro microperfusion techniques. When the perfusate consisted of a solution simulating ultrafiltrate of plasma, there were no differences between SF and JM straight tubules in either net reabsorption of fluid (SF=0.47 nl/mm per min; JM=0.56 nl/mm per min) or in transtubular potential difference (PD) (SF=-2.1 mV; JM=-1.8 mV). Removal of glucose and alanine from the perfusate had no effect on the magnitude of the PD in either straight segment. Ouabain decreased both the net reabsorptive rates and the PD. Isosmolal replacement of NaCL by Na-cyclamate (a presumed impermeant anion) in the perfusate and the bath caused an increase in luminal negativity in both segments wheras similar substitution of NaCL by choline-CL (nontransported cation) changed the PD TO NEAR ZERO. These studies, therefore, suggest that sodium is transported out of the proximal straight tubules by an active noncoupled process that generates a PD (electrogenic process). When the perfusate consisted of a solution with a high chloride concentration (resulting from greater HCO3 than CI reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule), different PDs in SF and JM tubules were generated: SF=+1.6 plus or minus 0.2 mV; JM=-1.3 plus or minus 0.3 mV. This difference in PD was attributed to relative differences in Na and CI permeabilities in these two segments. Electrophysiological and isotopic estimates of the chloride to sodium permeability revealed that the SF tubule is about twice as permeant to chloride than to sodium whereas the JM tubules are approximately twice as permeant to sodium than to chloride. It is concluded that the mechanism of active sodium transport in the straight segment of proximal tubule differs from that of the convoluted segment and that both the SF and JM straight segments differ

  6. Trifurcation of superficial brachial artery: a rare case with its clinico-embryological implications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Anshu, A; Dada, R

    2014-01-01

    Literatures on vasculature of upper limbs are crammed with reports of distinctly deviant version of normally prevalent vessels having modified origins, altered branching and odd courses. A unique anatomical variation in vascular pattern was observed during routine dissection of right upper limb in gross anatomy laboratory, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The brachial artery was placed superficial to median nerve in the arm and therefore it was called superficial brachial artery. In the cubital fossa, 2.8 cm distal to intercondylar line of elbow joint, this superficial brachial artery terminated by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and ulnar branches. Strikingly the ulnar branch, after its origin ran superficially over the median nerve and epitrochlear superficial flexor group of muscles of forearm in succession for the initial third of its course in the forearm, consequently it was addressed as superficial ulnar artery. The existence of superficial brachial artery in place of normal brachial artery, its termination by trifurcation into radial, common interosseous and superficial ulnar arteries with remarkably different courses, leads to confusing disposition of structures in the arm, cubital fossa and in the forearm and collectively makes this myriad of anatomical variations even rarer. The clinico-embryological revelations for combination of these unconventional observations, apprises and guides the specialized medical personnel attempting blind and invasive procedures in brachium and ante-brachium. This case report depicts the anatomical perspective and clinical implications on confronting a rare variant vasculature architecture pattern of upper limb.

  7. Importance of colonoscopy in patients undergoing endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Kei; Doyama, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takeda, Yasuhito; Ota, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Matsunaga, Kazuhiro; Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to clarify the frequency of colorectal neoplasm (CRN) complicating superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the need for colonoscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 101 patients who had undergone initial endoscopic resection (ER) for superficial ESCC. Control group participants were age- and sex-matched asymptomatic subjects screened at our hospital over the same period of time. Advanced adenoma was defined as an adenoma ≥10 mm, with villous features, or high-grade dysplasia. Advanced CRN referred to advanced adenoma or cancer. We measured the incidence of advanced CRN in superficial ESCC and controls, and we compared the characteristics of superficial ESCC patients with and without advanced CRN. Results In the superficial ESCC group, advanced CRNs were found in 17 patients (16.8%). A history of smoking alone was found to be a significant risk factor of advanced CRN [odds ratio 6.02 (95% CI 1.30-27.8), P=0.005]. Conclusion The frequency of synchronous advanced CRN is high in superficial ESCC patients subjected to ER. Colonoscopy should be highly considered for most patients who undergo ER for superficial ESCC with a history of smoking, and is recommended even in superficial ESCC patients. PMID:27366032

  8. Lack of functional and morphological susceptibility of the greater superficial petrosal nerve to developmental dietary sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Sollars, S I; Hill, D L

    2000-12-01

    Restriction of dietary sodium during gestation has major effects on taste function and anatomy in the offspring. The chorda tympani nerve of offspring that are maintained on sodium-reduced chow throughout life (NaDep) has reduced neurophysiological responses to sodium and altered morphology of its terminal field in the nucleus of the solitary tract. There are many anatomical and physiological similarities between the chorda tympani nerve that innervates taste buds on the anterior tongue and the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP) that innervates taste buds on the palate. To determine if the GSP is similarly susceptible to the effects of dietary sodium restriction, the present study examined neurophysiological responses and the terminal field of the GSP in NaDep and control rats. Neurophysiological responses of the GSP to a variety of sodium and non-sodium stimuli did not differ between NaDep and control rats. Furthermore, the volume and shape of the GSP terminal field in the nucleus of the solitary tract did not differ between the groups. Therefore, despite the high degree of functional and anatomical correspondence between the chorda tympani nerve and the GSP, the GSP does not appear to be susceptible to the effects of lifelong dietary sodium restriction.

  9. Surface and superficial dose dosimetric verification for postmastectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, An-Cheng; Chiu, Min-Chi; Chen, Tung-Ho; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Chen, Shang-Wen; Chen, Wei-Li; Kuan, Wei-Peng

    2012-01-01

    In patients given postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), the chest wall is a very thin layer of soft tissue with a low-density lung tissue behind. Chest wall treated in this situation with a high-energy photon beam presents a high dosimetric uncertainty region for both calculation and measurement. The purpose of this study was to measure and to evaluate the surface and superficial doses for patients requiring PMRT with different treatment techniques. An elliptic cylinder cork and superflab boluses were used to simulate the lung and the chest wall, respectively. Sets of computed tomography (CT) images with different chest wall thicknesses were acquired for the study phantom. Hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) were outlined and modified to fit a margin of 1-3 mm, depending on the chest wall thickness, away from the surface for the sets of CT images. The planning target volume (PTV) was initially created by expanding an isotropic 3-mm margin from the CTV, and then a margin of 3 mm was shrunk from the phantom surface to avoid artifact-driven results in the beam-let intensity. Treatment techniques using a pair of tangential wedged fields (TWFs) and 4-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were designed with a prescribed fraction dose (D{sub p}) of 180 cGy. Superficial dose profiles around the phantom circumference at depths of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm were obtained for each treatment technique using radiochromic external beam therapy (EBT) films. EBT film exhibits good characteristics for dose measurements in the buildup region. Underdoses at the median and lateral regions of the TWF plans were shown. The dose profiles at shallow depths for the TWF plans show a dose buildup about 3 mm at the median and lateral tangential incident regions with a surface dose of about 52% of D{sub p}. The dose was gradually increased toward the most obliquely tangential angle with a maximum dose of about 118% of D{sub p.} Dose profiles were more uniform in the PTV region for

  10. High-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with superficial fascial system suspension.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, T

    1995-09-01

    Modern abdominoplasty techniques were developed in the 1960s. The advent of liposuction has reduced the need for classic abdominoplasty and allowed more aesthetic sculpting of the entire trunk. However, the combination of significant truncal liposuction and classic abdominoplasty is not recommended due to the increased risk of complications. Although the surgical principles of classic abdominoplasty certainly have stood the test of time, they are based on two theoretical assumptions that may be proved to be inaccurate. The first assumption is that wide direct undermining to costal margins is essential for abdominal flap advancement. In fact, discontinuous undermining allows effective loosening of the abdominal flap while preserving vascular perforators. The second inaccurate assumption is that with aging and weight fluctuations (including pregnancy), abdominal skin relaxation occurs primarily in the vertical direction from the xiphoid to the pubis. This is true in the lower abdomen, but in most patients a strong superficial fascial system adherence to the linea alba in the epigastrium limits vertical descent. Epigastric laxity frequently results from a progressive horizontal loosening due to relaxation of the tissue along the lateral trunk. Experience with the lower-body lift procedure has shown that significant lateral truncal skin resection results in epigastric tightening. In these patients, the ideal abdominoplasty pattern would resect as much or more laterally than centrally, leading to more natural abdominal contours. Fifty patients who underwent high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with and without significant truncal liposuction and other aesthetic procedures were followed for 4 to 16 months. The primary indication for surgery was moderate to severe laxity of abdominal skin and muscle with or without truncal fat deposits. Complication rates were equal to or less than those of historical controls and did not increase with significant adjunctive liposuction

  11. Effect of the coordination of the superficial site in the ZGB model for the COO 2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Joaquín; Valencia, Eliana

    1997-02-01

    Using Monte Carlo experiments of the catalytic oxidation of CO (COO 2 reaction) a study is made of the increase in the coordination number of the superficial sites if diagonal actions are allowed on the superficial sites lattice.

  12. Combined radiation and hyperthermia in superficial human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Marmor, J.B.; Hahn, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    Hyperthermia (42-43 C) appears to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy in experimental tumor models. In addition, some studies indicate that tumors may be sensitized to a greater extent than normal tissue. This study was designed to test whether the effectiveness of irradiating human tumors was enhanced significantly by concomitant heating. We also examined skin to see if heating enhanced the response to radiation of normal tissues. Nineteen patients with multiple metastatic superficial tumor masses of various histologies were studied. Two or more masses in the same patient were matched for size and location, so that one of the patient's own tumors was a control to monitor the effect of irradiation alone. One of the matched nodules was given hyperthermia (43 C) for 15 minutes before and 30 minutes after each radiation fraction. In seven of 15 evaluable patients the tumor that received heat in addition to radiation had a greater objective response than the tumor receiving radiation alone. Two patients had increased cutaneous reaction to radiation in the heated area; one of these was a severe desquamative reaction, which conformed to the size and shape of the ultrasound field. These results suggest that hyperthermia improves the objective response to radiation in some human tumors; in two cases it appeared to sensitize skin as well.

  13. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  14. [Surgery of superficial skin injuries (I of III). Nursing approach].

    PubMed

    Yegler Velasco, M C; Asenio Esteve, A; Cabra Lluva, R; López Gómez, Y; Rico Blázquez, M

    2003-09-01

    Among the procedures in minor surgery, to suture wounds is a technique which nursing professional frequently perform as part of their normal work load, especially those nurses who work in Primary Health Care Centers and Emergency Wards. This article in the first in a series of three articles which enables the reader to review his/her knowledge about how to repair superficial skin lesions. After citing the legal aspects, the authors shall review each step in this procedure. We will check to see if the indication for suture is correct, evaluating a wound adequately. Afterwards, we review the procedure to clean the wound and to apply an anti-tetanus prophylaxis. We will mention how to adequately select the technique, the suture material and the instrument to be used. We will show the manner to use to avoid complications derived from an inadequate technique and we will continue with the follow up procedure for cicatrisation after first treatment, which includes informing the patient and a precocious treatment of complications, assuring the patient's welfare and the defense of his/her rights at all times; all of which will make possible an intervention which guarantees quality and is satisfactory to both the patient and the nursing professional who employs it.

  15. Superficial vessel reconstruction with a multiview camera system

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Filipe M. M.; Rossitti, Sandro; Karlsson, Per M.; Wang, Chunliang; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Carleberg, Per; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We aim at reconstructing superficial vessels of the brain. Ultimately, they will serve to guide the deformation methods to compensate for the brain shift. A pipeline for three-dimensional (3-D) vessel reconstruction using three mono-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor cameras has been developed. Vessel centerlines are manually selected in the images. Using the properties of the Hessian matrix, the centerline points are assigned direction information. For correspondence matching, a combination of methods was used. The process starts with epipolar and spatial coherence constraints (geometrical constraints), followed by relaxation labeling and an iterative filtering where the 3-D points are compared to surfaces obtained using the thin-plate spline with decreasing relaxation parameter. Finally, the points are shifted to their local centroid position. Evaluation in virtual, phantom, and experimental images, including intraoperative data from patient experiments, shows that, with appropriate camera positions, the error estimates (root-mean square error and mean error) are ∼1  mm. PMID:26759814

  16. Effects of clinical infrared laser on superficial radial nerve conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Greathouse, D.G.; Currier, D.P.; Gilmore, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effects of infrared laser radiation on the sensory nerve conduction of a specified peripheral nerve in man and determine temperature changes in the tissue surrounding the treated nerve. Twenty healthy adults were divided into three groups: control (n = 5); experimental (n = 10), infrared laser radiation at 20 sec/cm2; and experimental (n = 5), infrared laser radiation treatment at 120 sec/cm2. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies were performed on the superficial radial nerve of each subject's right forearm. The infrared laser radiation was applied at a fixed intensity for five 1-cm2 segments. Latency, amplitude, and temperature measurements were recorded pretest; posttest; and posttest intervals of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine the data. No significant change was noted in the distal sensory latency or amplitude of the evoked sensory potential in either experimental or control groups as a result of the applications of the infrared laser radiation treatment. This study demonstrates that infrared laser used at clinically applied intensities does not alter conduction of sensory nerves nor does it elevate the subcutaneous temperature.

  17. Superficial topography of wound: a determinant of underlying biological events?

    PubMed

    Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Kloth, Luther C

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional configuration of wounds varies considerably according to the etiology. Wounding of skin is proceeded by release of dermal pretension. Subsequent disruption of physical equilibrium with resulting development of force vectors alters the primary shape of wound to maintain a new dynamic physical equilibrium. This leads to the development of stress-relaxation and stress-concentration areas throughout the wound milieu. Mechanical strain produces piezoelectric current which is maximal in stress-relaxation regions due to lower tissue stiffness and higher mobility. Early surge in the tissue level of TGF-beta would be exaggerated through synergistic interaction with piezoelectric current in stress-relaxation areas. Subsequently, fibroblasts migrate to these areas due to galvanotaxis. The gradual dissipation of tissue tension, due to irreversible loss of viscous strain, reduces the synergistic action of TGF-beta and piezoelectricity. However, a similar pattern of activity of TGF-beta due to the polarized migration of fibroblasts, which are the main source of TGF-beta during secondary surge, may be continued. It seems that a biological-mechanical continuum exists for wounds so that even the superficial topography of wounds may affect the underlying biological activity and final healing outcome during healing of dermal wounds.

  18. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JI-GUO; ZHOU, CHUN-KUI; LIU, JING-YAO

    2015-01-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCNS) is a rare syndrome resulting from hemosiderin deposits in neuronal tissues close to the cerebrospinal fluid. SSCNS is characterized by sensorineural deafness, cerebellar ataxia and signs of pyramidal tract dysfunction. The present study describes a patient with SSCNS that did not suffer from hearing loss, which is the most common symptom of SSCNS. The patient was a 48-year-old male, presenting with dizziness, ataxia and slurred speech. The patient’s ataxia was characterized by dizziness, nystagmus, dysarthria, abnormal finger-nose pointing and heel-knee-shin tests and a positive Chaddock sign. The patient had suffered from a pontine hemorrhage two years prior to the study. Audiometric tests showed normal hearing during the hospital stay and at the two-month follow-up examination. The diagnosis of SSCNS was made based on magnetic resonance images, which showed areas of linear hypointensity on the surface of the pons with mild cerebellar atrophy. However, a long-term follow-up is required to monitor the hearing of the patient. Improved understanding of SSCNS is important for clinicians to identify SSCNS patients who present without typical clinical symptoms. PMID:25780438

  19. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure.

  20. Histological and biochemical study of the superficial abdominal fascia and its implication in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Aithal, Srinivas Kodavoor; Kotian, Sushma R.; Thittamaranahalli, Honnegowda; Bangera, Hemalatha; Prasad, Keerthana; Souza, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of liposculpturing and fascial flaps in reconstructive surgery has renewed interest in the superficial fascia of abdomen. Its histological and biochemical composition may play a vital role in maintaining strength and elasticity of the fascia. Hence, study of abdominal fascia for the elastic, collagen, and hydroxyproline contents is desirable to understand asymmetrical bulges and skin folds and in improving surgical treatment of obesity. Samples of superficial fascia were collected from of upper and lower abdomen from 21 fresh cadavers (15 males and 6 females). Samples were stained using Verhoeff–Van Gieson stain. Digital images of superficial fascia were analyzed using TissueQuant software. The samples were also subjected to hydroxyproline estimation. The superficial fascia was formed by loosely packed collagen fibers mixed with abundant elastic fibers and adipose tissue. Elastic contents and collagen contents of superficial fascia were significantly more in the upper abdomen than that in the lower abdomen in males. Hydroxyproline content of superficial fascia of upper abdomen was significantly more than that of lower abdomen in both males and females. The elastic, collagen and hydroxyproline contents of superficial fascia of upper abdomen were higher compared to the lower abdomen. This may be a reason for asymmetric bulging over abdomen and more sagging fold of skin in the lower abdomen than in the upper abdomen. This study may therefore be helpful in finding new ways to manage obesity and other body contour deformities. PMID:27722011

  1. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    PubMed

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  2. Microwave array applicator for radiometry-controlled superficial hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Neuman, Daniel

    2001-06-01

    Hyperthermia therapy has been shown clinically effective for a variety of skin diseases but current heating equipment is inadequate for most patients. This effort describes the design and performance of a flexible microstrip array applicator intended for heating large regions of tissue over contoured anatomy while at the same time monitoring temperature of the underlying tissue by non-invasive radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the heated volume. For this dual purpose applicator, an array of broadband Archimedean spiral receive antennas is integrated into an array of Dual Concentric Conductor heating apertures. Applicator heating uniformity is assessed with electric field scans in homogenous muscle phantoms and with measured temperature distributions in clinical treatments of chestwall recurrence of breast carcinoma. The data demonstrate precisely controlled heating out to the perimeter of large (40 x 13 cm2) multiaperture conformal array applicators. Capabilities of the radiometry system are assessed by correlation of brightness temperatures measured in phantom loads of known temperature distribution as seen through an intervening 5 mm thick water bolus at constant 40°C. The radiometer demonstrates excellent sensitivity and an accuracy of +0.1-0.45°C for temperature measurements up to 5 cm deep in phantom when using a one dimensional weighting function analysis and up to 6 independent 500 MHz bandwidths within the 1-4 GHz range. The data clearly indicate that both heating and radiometric thermometry are possible using the same thin and flexible printed circuit board microstrip array applicator. Once development is complete, this dual mode conformal array applicator with multiplexed radiometric display system should provide significantly improved uniformity and ease of heating large area superficial tissue disease.

  3. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  4. Maturational differences in superficial and deep zone articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Chisa; Cheng, Christina; Alexandre, Deborah; Bhargava, Madhu; Torzilli, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether differences in chondrocytes from skeletally immature versus adult individuals are important in cartilage healing, repair, or tissue engineering, superficial zone chondrocytes (SZC, from within 100 microm of the articular surface) and deep zone chondrocytes (DZC, from 30%-45% of the deepest un-mineralized part of articular cartilage) were harvested from immature (1-4 months) and young adult (18-36 months) steers and compared. Cell size, matrix gene expression and protein levels, integrin levels, and chemotactic ability were measured in cells maintained in micromass culture for up to 7 days. Regardless of age, SZC were smaller, had a lower type II to type I collagen gene expression ratio, and higher gene expression of SZ proteins than their DZC counterparts. Regardless of zone, chondrocytes from immature steers had higher levels of Sox 9 and type II collagen gene expression. Over 7 days in culture, the SZC of immature steers had the highest rate of proliferation. Phenotypically, the SZC of immature and adult steers were more stable than their respective DZC. Cell surface alpha5 and alpha2 integrin subunit levels were higher in the SZC of immature than of adult steers, whereas beta1 integrin subunit levels were similar. Both immature and adult SZC were capable of chemotaxis in response to fetal bovine serum or basic fibroblast growth factor. Our data indicate that articular chondrocytes vary in the different zones of cartilage and with the age of the donor. These differences may be important for cartilage growth, tissue engineering, and/or repair.

  5. Superficial White Matter: Effects of Age, Sex, and Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Clark, Kristi A.; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Mazziotta, John C.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18–74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

  6. Quality control of superficial hyperthermia by treatment evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Bruijne, Maarten; Van der Zee, Jacoba; Ameziane, Ali; Van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2011-01-01

    Steering of multi-element heating arrays for superficial hyperthermia (SHT) can be a challenge in the clinic. This is because the technician has to deal with a multiple-input multiple-output system, varying tissue dynamics, and often sparse tissue temperature data. In addition, patient feedback needs to be taken into account. Effective management of the steering task determines the quality of heating. Systematic evaluation is an effective tool to control the quality of treatments. The purpose of this manuscript is to report on a treatment evaluation flow developed for SHT at the Erasmus MC. This flow is used to secure the quality of steering as well as to stimulate general quality awareness in the hyperthermia team. All treatments are evaluated in a multidisciplinary discussion. Tools and methods were developed to enable effective and efficient evaluations. The treatment evaluation sheet is a compact and intuitive representation of power and temperature data. Trend lines and a temperature-depth plot allow a quick analysis of the steering parameters and the heating profile within the target volume. In addition, the principal statistics of applicator power, water bolus and tissue temperature values are given. Power steering data includes the number of switch-off events, interruption time and the number of steering actions. A list of basic checks and reference values for clinical data support further the treatment evaluation. These tools and the systematic treatment evaluations they facilitate, ultimately lead to consistent performance and fine tuning of the set-up and steering strategy for each individual patient.

  7. Prevalence of cortical superficial siderosis in patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Buerger, Katharina; Mueller, Claudia; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Linn, Jennifer; Opherk, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) is a magnetic resonance imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and can be its sole imaging sign. cSS has further been identified as a risk marker for future intracranial hemorrhage. Although uncommon in the general population, cSS may be much more prevalent in high risk populations for amyloid pathology. We aimed to determine the frequency of cSS in patients with cognitive impairment presenting to a memory clinic. We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients presenting to our memory clinic between April 2011 and April 2013. Subjects received neuropsychological testing using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease battery (CERAD-NP). Two hundred and twelve patients with documented cognitive impairment further underwent a standardized 3T-MR-imaging protocol with T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequences for detection of cSS. Thirteen of 212 patients (6.1 %) displayed cSS. In seven of them (54 %) cSS was the only imaging sign of CAA. Patients with cSS did not differ from patients without cSS with regard to medical history, age or cardiovascular risk profile. Subjects with cSS performed worse in the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.001), showed more white matter hyperintensities (p = 0.005) and more often had microbleeds (p = 0.001) compared to those without cSS. cSS is common in patients with cognitive impairment. It is associated with lower cognitive scores, white matter hyperintensities and microbleeds and can be the only imaging sign for CAA in this patient group.

  8. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24h and 14days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis.

  9. Partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple.

    PubMed

    Brincat, S; Mantell, B S

    1986-07-01

    A patient who developed a partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple is reported. Nerves injured by Bell's palsy may be more susceptible to radiation induced damage.

  10. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to chronic hemorrhage from a giant invasive prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jacob; Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Fraifeld, Shifra; Moscovici, Samuel; Rosenthal, Guy; Shoshan, Yigal; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-07-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder caused by deposition of hemosiderin in neuronal tissue in the subpial layer of the CNS due to slow subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage. The most common neurologic manifestations include progressive gait ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and corticospinal tract signs. We present a case of superficial siderosis in a 43-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset bilateral visual deterioration and a loss of consciousness. A hemorrhagic giant prolactinoma was diagnosed based on brain CT scan, T1-weighted MRI, and an endocrine blood examination. Susceptibility-weighted non-contrast MRI showed pathognomonic signs of superficial siderosis in the form of a hypointensity rim surrounding the brainstem, cerebellar fissures, and cranial nerves VII and VIII. This report demonstrates that superficial siderosis can be caused by pituitary apoplexy.

  11. Biomass torrefaction characteristics in inert and oxidative atmospheres at various superficial velocities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lu, Ke-Miao; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Tsai, Chi-Ming; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Ta-Chang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction characteristics of four biomass materials (i.e. oil palm fiber, coconut fiber, eucalyptus, and Cryptomeria japonica) with non-oxidative and oxidative torrefaction at various superficial velocities are investigated where nitrogen and air are used as carrier gases. Three torrefaction temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 °C are considered. At a given temperature, the solid yield of biomass is not affected by N2 superficial velocity, revealing that the thermal degradation is controlled by heat and mass transfer in biomass. Increasing air superficial velocity decreases the solid yield, especially in oil palm fiber and coconut fiber, implying that the torrefaction reaction of biomass is dominated by surface oxidation. There exists an upper limit of air superficial velocity in the decrement of solid yield, suggesting that beyond this limit the thermal degradation of biomass is no longer governed by surface oxidation, but rather is controlled by internal mass transport.

  12. Effect of Superficially Applied Y2O3 Coating on High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Gitanjaly; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Surindra; Prakash, Satya

    2011-11-01

    Inhibitors and oxide additives have been investigated with varying success to control high-temperature corrosion. Effect of Y2O3 on high-temperature corrosion of Superni 718 and Superni 601 superalloys was investigated in the Na2SO4-60 pct V2O5 environment at 1173 K (900 °C) for 50 cycles. Y2O3 was applied as a coating on the surfaces of the specimens. Superni 601 was found to have better corrosion resistance in comparison with Superni 718 in the Na2SO4-60 pct V2O5 environment. The Y2O3 superficial coating was successful in decreasing the reaction rate for both the superalloys. In the oxide scale of the alloy Superni 601, Y and V were observed to coexist, thereby indicating the formation of a protective YVO4 phase. There was a distinct presence of a protective Cr2O3-rich layer just above the substrate/scale interface in the alloy. Whereas Cr2O3 was present with Fe and Ni in the scale of Superni 718. Y2O3 seemed to be contributing to better adhesion of the scale, as comparatively lesser spalling was noticed in the presence of Y2O3.

  13. Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins at legs.

    PubMed

    Jerkic, Zoran; Karic, Alen; Karic, Amela

    2009-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis is a common disorder until recently it was considered as benign disorder. Also it is associated with varicose vein at legs and it was treated effectively with conservative methods, walking and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Aims of our investigation were: determine frequency of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis at legs in patient with and without superficial thrombophlebitis, determine correlation between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis regardless of localization of superficial thrombophlebitis in superficial veins of legs and determine adequacy and safety vein phlebography in early diagnosis clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. Using flebography in prospective study was evaluated incidence of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in 92 patients with varicose veins at legs. By phlebograpy in patients with varicose veins at legs and superficial thrombophlebitis at legs and without clinical signs of DVT at legs of the 49 patients we detected DVT in 12 patients (24, 48%), in three male and nine female. We detected localization of DVT in ilijacofemoral junction in 4,08% patients, although localization of DVT in femoropopliteal region was observed in 6, 12% patients and localization in crural region was in 14.28% patients. Localization of DVT at legs was detected in iliac vein in 16.66% patients, in femoral vein in 25% patients, popliteal vein 8.33% patients, anterior tibial vein 16.66%, posterior tibial vein in 25% and crural veins 8.33% patients. Also we deduced significant difference between two group of patients (chi2 = 10, 76). Such result proves thesis that in most patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins is possibility of developing of DVT.

  14. [Superficial angiomyxoma of the parotid region and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rosado Rodríguez, Pablo; de Vicente, Juan C; de Villalaín, Lucas; Blanco, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxoma (SA) is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm first described by Allen et al in 1988. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of superficial angiomyxoma located in the parotid region. We also stress the importance of distinguishing this entity from other lesions that may be involved in this location such as cutaneous neoplasms, parotid tumours or cysts. We emphasise the need to rule out the Carney complex, which has been associated with these tumours.

  15. Clinical inquiries. How does tissue adhesive compare with suturing for superficial lacerations?

    PubMed

    Aukerman, Douglas F; Sebastianelli, Wayne J; Nashelsky, Joan

    2005-04-01

    Tissue adhesives are effective and yield results comparable to those with conventional suturing of superficial, linear, and low-tension lacerations. The cosmetic outcome is similar; wound complications, such as infection and dehiscence, may be lower with tissue adhesives. Wound closure of superficial lacerations by tissue adhesives is quicker and less painful compared with conventional suturing (strength of recommendation: A, systematic reviews of randomized trials).

  16. "The Superficial Quad Technique" for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: The Surgical Video Technique.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Deepak

    2015-10-01

    With the introduction of the superficial quad technique, there has been a recent revival of interest in the quadriceps tendon as a graft choice for medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. The superficial quad technique has many anatomic advantages because the length, breadth, and thickness of the graft are similar to those of the native MPFL; moreover, the graft provides a continuous patellar attachment at the superior half of the medial border of the patella. The technique requires neither a patellar bony procedure nor patellar hardware. Biomechanically, the mean strength and stiffness of the graft are very similar to those of the native MPFL. The anatomic and biomechanical advantages depend on correct identification of the anatomic superficial lamina of the quadriceps tendon; hence the correct harvesting technique for the superficial lamina is crucial. Various sub-techniques for harvesting the quadriceps graft have emerged recently, such as superficial strip, pedicled, or partial graft harvesting; these can create confusion for surgeons. Additional confusion related to the preparation and fixation of the graft should also be addressed to avoid any potential complications. A step-by-step video of the superficial quad technique is presented, covering the exact dissection of the graft material and its preparation, delivery, and fixation.

  17. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    PubMed Central

    Kachlik, David; Konarik, Marek; Baca, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis), which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part) terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries) passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment. PMID:21342134

  18. Tension characteristics of the iliotibial tract and role of its superficial layer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Seedhom, B

    1995-04-01

    Change in tension along the iliotibial tract by sectioning its superficial layer was analyzed using 5 fresh whole cadavers, and the role of the superficial layer was investigated. Tibial attachment of the iliotibial tract (Gerdy's tubercle) was detached and pulled gradually in a distal direction with respect to the femur. Tension along the iliotibial tract by the distal movement of Gerdy's tubercle (stretching the iliotibial tract) was measured first when the whole iliotibial tract was intact, and then when the superficial layer was sectioned at different levels. When the superficial layer was sectioned above the greater trochanter, no significant change in tension was observed from that observed when the whole iliotibial tract was intact. When the superficial layer was sectioned at the middle of the thigh, the tension at Gerdy's tubercle was significantly reduced. It was concluded that not only Kaplan's fibers, those attached to the distal end of the femur and Gerdy's tubercle, but also the superficial layer of the iliotibial tract had an important role in producing tension at Gerdy's tubercle.

  19. Interaction of mobile phones with superficial passive metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, H; Huttunen, J; Toropainen, A; Lappalainen, R

    2005-06-07

    The dosimetry of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields of mobile phones is generally based on the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg(-1)), which is the electromagnetic energy absorbed in the tissues per unit mass and time. In this study, numerical methods and modelling were used to estimate the effect of a passive, metallic (conducting) superficial implant on a mobile phone EM field and especially its absorption in tissues in the near field. Two basic implant models were studied: metallic pins and rings in the surface layers of the human body near the mobile phone. The aim was to find out 'the worst case scenario' with respect to energy absorption by varying different parameters such as implant location, orientation, size and adjacent tissues. Modelling and electromagnetic field calculations were carried out using commercial SEMCAD software based on the FDTD (finite difference time domain) method. The mobile phone was a 900 MHz or 1800 MHz generic phone with a quarter wave monopole antenna. A cylindrical tissue phantom models different curved sections of the human body such as limbs or a head. All the parameters studied (implant size, orientation, location, adjacent tissues and signal frequency) had a major effect on the SAR distribution and in certain cases high local EM fields arose near the implant. The SAR values increased most when the implant was on the skin and had a resonance length or diameter, i.e. about a third of the wavelength in tissues. The local peak SAR values increased even by a factor of 400-700 due to a pin or a ring. These highest values were reached in a limited volume close to the implant surface in almost all the studied cases. In contrast, without the implant the highest SAR values were generally reached on the skin surface. Mass averaged SAR(1 g) and SAR(10 g) values increased due to the implant even by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. However, at typical power levels of mobile phones the enhancement is unlikely to

  20. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Rijal, Basista

    2016-01-01

    Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25%) was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5%) and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6%) was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis. PMID:28003819

  1. Effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser energies on superficial and deep dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of superficial and deep dentin irradiated with different erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser energies. Seventy-two molars were bisected and randomly assigned to two groups (superficial dentin or deep dentin) and into six subgroups (160 mJ, 200 mJ, 260 mJ, 300 mJ, 360 mJ, and control). After irradiation, the cavities were longitudinally bisected. Microhardness was measured at six points (20 microm, 40 microm, 60 microm, 80 microm, 100 microm, and 200 microm) under the cavity floor. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's tests (alpha = 0.05). Superficial dentin presented higher microhardness than deep dentin; energy of 160 mJ resulted in the highest microhardness and 360 mJ the lowest one. Values at all points were different, exhibiting increasing microhardness throughout; superficial dentin microhardness was the highest at 20 microm with 160 mJ energy; for deep dentin, microhardness after irradiation at 160 mJ and 200 mJ was similar to that of the control. The lowest energy increased superficial dentin microhardness at the closest extent under the cavity; deep dentin microhardness was not altered by energies of 160 mJ and 200 mJ.

  2. Anterior Approach Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Branches at Risk.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Jeffrey E; DeMill, Shyler L; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    In ankle arthroplasty, little attention has been given to intraoperative nerve injury and its postoperative sequelae. The aim of the present anatomic study was to determine the relationship of the superficial peroneal nerve to the standard anterior approach for total ankle arthroplasty. The superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 10 below-the-knee cadaver specimens. The medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were identified. A needle was placed at the ankle joint. The following measurements were recorded: bifurcation into the medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches, reference needle to the branches of the medial and intermediate superficial peroneal nerve, and the crossing branches of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. Two specimens (20%) had a medial dorsal cutaneous branch cross from medially to laterally. Eight specimens (80%) had a crossing branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous branch within 5 cm of the incision. No intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were within the incision. The results from the present cadaver study suggest that during an anterior ankle approach, aberrant branches of the superficial peroneal nerve could require transection in 20% of patients at the joint level and ≤80% of patients with distal extension >35 mm from the ankle joint. The risk of injury to branches of the superficial peroneal nerve is substantial. The risk of nerve injury can be decreased with meticulous operative technique, smaller incisions, and the avoidance of aggressive retraction.

  3. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Aithal, K. S.; Dsouza, Antony Sylvan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs) area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female) of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits) area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules. PMID:24459344

  4. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Sundar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Dinesh Binod; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dhital, Subhash; Rijal, Basista

    2016-01-01

    Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25%) was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5%) and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6%) was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis.

  5. Two Crosslinking Technologies for Superficial Reticular Dermis Injection: A Comparative Ultrasound and Histologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few hyaluronic acid fillers have been developed for superficial injection. Objective: To compare the diffusion and integration properties of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® technology hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine following injection into the superficial reticular dermis. Methods and materials: Two subjects received two injections each of cohesive polydensified matrix and Vycross® hyaluronic acid (0.2mL/site) in the superficial reticular dermis of the buttock under ultrasound control. Biopsies were obtained at Days 0, 15, and/or 90. Ultrasound and histologic analyses were performed, plus a series of simple rheological tests. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneous with the surrounding dermis. Vycross® hyaluronic acid showed more heterogeneity and some leakage into the hypodermis. Day 15 and Day 90 images were similar to Day 0. Histologic examination of biopsy tissue showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid homogeneously distributed among collagen fibrils with no visible particles. Vycross® hyaluronic acid appeared as variable-sized pools with a particulate appearance. Neither gel was associated with an inflammatory reaction. Laboratory tests showed cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross®. Conclusion: cohesive polydensified matrix gel with lidocaine is homogeneously distributed following injection in the superficial reticular dermis and may be particularly suited for aesthetic indications requiring superficial injection. PMID:28210379

  6. Roles of the Fibrous Superficial Zone in the Mechanical Behavior of TMJ Condylar Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Leonardo; Zimmerman, Brandon K; Park, Miri; Han, Lin; Wang, Liyun; Burris, David L; Lu, X Lucas

    2015-11-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the cartilage on the condylar head displays a unique ultrastructure with a dense layer of type I collagen in the superficial zone, different from hyaline cartilage in other joints. This study aims to elucidate the roles of this fibrous zone in the mechanical behaviors, particularly lubrication, of TMJ under physiological loading regimes. Mechanical tests on porcine condylar cartilage demonstrated that the superficial and middle-deep zones exhibit tension-compression nonlinearity. The tensile and compressive moduli of the superficial zone are 30.73 ± 12.97 and 0.028 ± 0.016 MPa, respectively, while those for the middle-deep zone are 2.43 ± 1.75 and 0.14 ± 0.09 MPa. A nonlinear finite element model of condylar cartilage was built to simulate sliding of a spherical probe over the articular surface. The presence of the superficial zone significantly promoted interstitial fluid pressurization (IFP) inside the loaded cartilage and reduced the friction force on the surface, compared to the case without the superficial zone. Finite element simulations showed that IFP depends on sliding speed but not normal load, which matches the experimental results. This study revealed the presence of the fibrous zone can significantly reduce the deformation of condylar cartilage under compression and the friction force on its surface during sliding.

  7. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma-Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kah, Tan Aik; Yong, Ku Chui; Annuar, Faridah Hanom

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate) and epidermal cyst (chin). The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma. PMID:24765328

  8. Neurothekeoma palpebrae in association with multiple superficial angiomyxomas: Tegumental Angiomyxoma-Neurothekeoma syndrome (TAN syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kah, Tan Aik; Yong, Ku Chui; Annuar, Faridah Hanom

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of 10-year-old Indian girl with history of multiple superficial angiomyxoma, presented with three months history of painless right upper lid swelling. There were no visual dysfunctions. Previously, the patient had multiple superficial angiomyxoma (left pinna, left upper cheek, left upper limb, chest, right axilla, hard palate) and epidermal cyst (chin). The histopathological specimens were negative to S-100 protein antibody. Systemic review and family history was unremarkable. Excision biopsy and upper lid reconstruction were performed. Intraoperatively the tumor was multilobulated, firm, well encapsulated and did not invade the underlying tarsal plate. Histopathological features of the upperlid tumor were consistent with nerves sheath myxoma (neurothekeoma). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of neurothekeoma in association with multiple superficial angiomyxoma.

  9. Effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on the bubbling fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Jehng; Chen, Suming; Lei, Perng-Kwei; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2007-12-01

    Since performance and operational conditions, such as superficial velocity, pressure drop, particles viodage, and terminal velocity, are difficult to measure on an incinerator, this study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine numerical solutions. The effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator (BFBI) were evaluated. Analytical results indicated that simulation models were able to effectively predict the relationship between superficial velocity and pressure drop over bed height in the BFBI. Second, the models in BFBI were simplified to simulate scale-up beds without excessive computation time. Moreover, simulation and experimental results showed that minimum fluidization velocity of the BFBI must be controlled in at 0.188-3.684 m/s and pressure drop was mainly caused by bed particles.

  10. Dual-mode antenna array for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Rossetto, Francesca; Diederich, Chris J.; Neuman, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    Hyperthermia therapy of superficial skin disease has proven clinically useful, but current heating equipment is clumsy and technically inadequate for many patients. The present effort describes a dual purpose multielement conformal array microwave applicator that is fabricated from flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material to facilitate heating of large surface areas overlying contoured anatomy. Preliminary studies document the feasibility of combining concentric spiral microstrip antennas within multilayer PCB material in order to achieve tissue heating simultaneously with non-invasive thermometry by radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the target tissue under the applicator. Results demonstrate that superficial tissue regions may be heated uniformly above 50% of SARmax out to the periphery of 915 MHz conformal array applicators made from arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor apertures. Finally the data clearly demonstrate that separate complimentary antenna structures may be combined together in thin and lightweight conformal arrays to provide heating simultaneously with microwave radiometry based temperature monitoring of superficial tissue.

  11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system secondary to spinal ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Vargas, Andres A; Gomori, J Moshe; Harnof, Sagi; Itshayek, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a syndrome caused by deposition of hemosiderin in the subpial layers of the central nervous system, occurring as a result of recurrent asymptomatic or symptomatic bleeding into the subarachnoid space. We report a rare case of superficial siderosis in a 33-year-old man who presented with sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis of superficial siderosis on MRI brain studies led to further investigations with detection of a spinal ependymoma at L1-L2, compressing the cauda equina. Gross total resection of the tumor arrested the progression of the neurological deterioration. Our report underlies the importance of early diagnosis and surgical management, with imaging examination of the full neuroaxis to identify the source of bleeding, to halt disease progression and improve prognosis.

  12. Development of a new superficial punch for Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty donor tissue preparation.

    PubMed

    Ruzza, Alessandro; Parekh, Mohit; Salvalaio, Gianni; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial Keratoplasty (EK) is a corneal surgical procedure that allows a selective transplantation of the posterior layer of the cornea. Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) is one of the EK procedures in which the diseased Descemet's Membrane and the endothelium are replaced with a healthy donor tissue. To achieve this, the donor cornea is cut superficially from the endothelial side and the tissue can be separated using specific instruments like Pierse Notched, Acute or Fogla forceps. However, the pressure required to punch the superficial layer has always been a challenge and therefore a calibrated device to punch and excise the required superficial layer has been designed. This new model of punch will help to identify the peripheral edge of the DMEK lenticule which in turn helps to excise the tissue exclusively, further reducing the donor tissue wastage, as seen with the current tissue preparation methods.

  13. [A Case of Holmium: YAG Laser Resection of Superficial Bladder Tumor (HoLRBT)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoshiko; Shitara, Toshiya; Hirayama, Takahiro; Fujita, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kubo, Seiichi; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of holmium : YAG laser resection of superficial bladder tumor (HoLRBT). A 73-year-old male was referred to our hospital with elevated prostatic specific antigen. Due to difficulty of urination, holmium : YAG laser enucleation of the prostate was performed under the diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. During the surgery, superficial bladder tumor was incidentally identified, and HoLRBT was performed. After the operation, histopathological examination revealed urothelial carcinoma, G2 > G1, pTa. The patient has been subsequently followed up for 9 months, and there areno evidence of recurrence. Changing the holmium : YAG laser energy setting can potentially be effective and safe to approach a superficial bladder tumor.

  14. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-04-15

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.

  15. Bilateral Pedicled Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap in the Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Don; Saber, Sepideh; Patel, Ketan; Carey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a new technique in surgically treating hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), a debilitating skin condition. In HS, surgical treatment is often the best option because of the high recurrence rates despite extensive medical treatment. A commonly successful surgical method is using skin flaps after excision of the affected area. A superficial inferior epigastric artery flap is demonstrated here as a new alternative approach to treating a case of extensive HS of the groin. By using the pedicled superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for groin reconstruction, inguinal HS can be widely excised and reconstructed with minimal donor-site morbidity and a good aesthetic outcome. PMID:27622101

  16. Total lower eyelid reconstruction with superficial temporal fascia flap and porous polyethylene implant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ismail; Aykan, Andac; Acikel, Cengiz; Alhan, Dogan; Isik, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    Total reconstruction of the eyelid after serious periorbital injury is a challenging procedure for plastic and reconstructive surgery. Although several methods have been used for reconstructing the eyelids, such as advancement flap with fascia lata sling, island mucochrondrocutaneous flap, prefabricated temporal island flap, porous polyethylene and superficial temporal fascia flap, creating a supportive eyelid for housing an artificial eye without complication is still an ongoing problem. In the case presented, superficial temporal fascia flap with porous polyethylene was used for the reconstruction of total lower eyelid.

  17. Dural arteriovenous fistula at the anterior clinoid process draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein.

    PubMed

    Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Honma, Toshimi; Uchida, Kazuki; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Ajiki, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Selective angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the right anterior clinoid process, draining into the superficial middle cerebral vein in a retrograde fashion. Two internal carotid artery aneurysms were also demonstrated at the origin of the posterior communicating artery and the anterior choroidal artery on the same side. The patient underwent craniotomy, and all lesions were treated simultaneously. Rupture of the anterior choroidal artery aneurysm was confirmed. DAVF draining directly into the superficial middle cerebral vein is extremely rare. The precise location of the shunt, the anatomical features, and venous drainage must be evaluated to consider treatment.

  18. A variant of the classical superficial brachioulnoradial artery: morphology and clinical significances.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, Olutayo; Fenderson, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    We report a superficial brachioulnoradial artery (SBURA) presenting as a variant of the normal, originating from the proximal third of the right brachial artery of a 75-year-old female cadaver which bifurcated yielding a brachiointerosseous artery laterally and a SBURA medially, and the latter bifurcating 5 cm proximal to the elbow yielding a brachioradial artery laterally and the superficial brachioulnar artery medially, resulting in the formation of three instead of two brachial arteries as in the classical SBURA said to bifurcate at the elbow into the radial and ulnar arteries. Clinical implications of this variant are discussed.

  19. Separation of superficial and cerebral hemodynamics using a single distance time-domain NIRS measurement

    PubMed Central

    Jelzow, Alexander; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Brühl, Rüdiger; Macdonald, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) superficial hemodynamics can mask optical signals related to brain activity. We present a method to separate superficial and cerebral absorption changes based on the analysis of changes in moments of time-of-flight distributions and a two-layered model. The related sensitivity factors were calculated from individual optical properties. The method was validated on a two-layer liquid phantom. Absorption changes in the lower layer were retrieved with an accuracy better than 20%. The method was successfully applied to in vivo data and compared to the reconstruction of homogeneous absorption changes. PMID:24877009

  20. Superficial composition in binary solid solutions A(B): Drastic effect of pure element surface tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, A.; Aufray, B.

    1985-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study of surface segragation of Pb and Ni respectively from Ag(Pb)(111) and Ag(Ni)(111) solid solutions. A high level of segregation of the solute is observed for both systems characterized by very low solute solubility. However, the superficial composition strongly depends on the relative surface tensions of the pure elements: the solute atoms are strictly on superficial sites when γ solute is smaller than γ solvent; in contrast uppermost layer consists purely of solvent when γ solute is greater than γ solvent. Two schematic distributions in close proximity to the surface are proposed in the last case.

  1. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  2. Utility of ultrasonography for diagnosis of superficial swellings in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    ABOUELNASR, Khaled; EL-SHAFAEY, El-Sayed; MOSBAH, Esam; EL-KHODERY, Sabry

    2016-01-01

    We studied 72 buffalo with superficial swellings in the head (n=4), neck (n=5), chest wall (n=4), abdominal wall (n=28), limbs (n=16), gluteal region (n=8), perineal region (n=6) and udder (n=1). Ultrasonographically, the swellings varied according to type, duration, content and location. The clinical use of ultrasound to assess these superficial swellings allowed diagnosis of abscesses (n=21), hematomas (n=11), hernias (n=17), bursitis (n=13), urethral diverticula (n=6) and tumors (n=4). Ultrasonography could precisely discriminate each lesion type (sensitivity, 71–100%; specificity, 75–100%; odds ratio, 1.0–8.4; Confidence Interval, 74.2–20; and P value 0.001). The specificity for ultrasonographic evaluation of superficial swellings was 100% for hernias, urethral diverticula and tumors, whilst the lowest specificity was recorded for hematomas (75%) and abscesses (92%). In conclusion, ultrasonography provides a precise, non-invasive and fast technique for the evaluation, classification and subsequent treatment of a variety of superficial swellings in buffalo. PMID:27181085

  3. Honey compared with silver sulphadiazine in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Malik, Kamran Ishaque; Malik, M A Nasir; Aslam, Azhar

    2010-10-01

    Burn injury is associated with a high incidence of death and disability; yet, its management remains problematic and costly. We conducted this clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of honey in the treatment of superficial and partial-thickness burns covering less than 40% of body surface area and compared its results with those of silver sulphadiazine (SSD). In this randomised comparative clinical trial, carried out Burn Center of POF Hospital, Wah Cantt, Pakistan, from May 2007 to February 2008, 150 patients of all ages having similar types of superficial and partial-thickness burns at two sites on different parts of body were included. Each patient had one burn site treated with honey and one treated with topical SSD, randomly. The rate of re-epithelialization and healing of superficial and partial-thickness burns was significantly faster in the sites treated with honey than in the sites treated with SSD (13·47 ± 4·06 versus 15·62 ± 4·40 days, respectively: P < 0·0001). The site treated with honey healed completely in less than 21 days versus 24 days for the site treated with SSD. Six patients had positive culture for Pseudomonas aeroginsa in honey-treated site, whereas 27 patients had positive culture in SSD-treated site. The results clearly showed greater efficacy of honey over SSD cream for treating superficial and partial-thickness burns.

  4. Rapid differentiation of superficial urothelial cells after chitosan-induced desquamation.

    PubMed

    Veranic, Peter; Erman, Andreja; Kerec-Kos, Mojca; Bogataj, Marija; Mrhar, Ales; Jezernik, Kristijan

    2009-01-01

    Superficial cell desquamation followed by differentiation of newly exposed superficial cells induces regeneration of the urinary bladder epithelium, urothelium. In the present work, chitosan was evaluated as a new inducer of urothelial cell desquamation, in order to study the regeneration of mouse urothelial cells in vivo. Intravesical application of chitosan dispersion caused complete removal of only the superficial layer of cells within 20 min of treatment. Differentiation of the new superficial layer was followed by the appearance and distribution of three urothelial differentiation markers, tight junction protein ZO1, cytokeratin 20 and the maturation of the apical plasma membrane. The arrangement of ZO1 into continuous lines in individual cells of the intermediate layer was already found after 10 min of chitosan application, when desquamation had just started. The appearance of the apical membrane changed from microvillar to typically scalloped within 20 min of regeneration, while complete arrangement of the cytokeratin 20 network took 60 min. These findings provide a new perspective on the rate of the differentiation process in the urothelium and make chitosan a new and a very controllable tool for studies on urothelial regeneration.

  5. Persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel and anastomosis with superficial palmar arch

    PubMed Central

    Bijannejad, Dariush; Azandeh, Saeed; Javadnia, Fatemeh; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; zhaleh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent median artery (PMA) in present cadaver originated from the brachial artery and anastomosed with the superficial palmar arch (SPA). As the PMA may be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome and SPA is the main source of arterial supply, knowledge of which are important for the hand surgical interventions. PMID:27583265

  6. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  7. Healing process study in murine skin superficial wounds treated with the blue LED photocoagulator EMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Cicchi, Riccardo; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; Alfieri, Domenico; De Siena, Gaetano; Pavone, Francesco S.; Pini, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. In this work we present the results of an in vivo study, in a murine model. Two superficial wounds were produced on the back of 12 mice: one area was left untreated, the other one was treated with EMOLED. Healthy skin was used as a control. The animals were sacrificed 3 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 6 day after treatment. The treatment effects on back skin was monitored by visual observations, histopathological analysis, immuno-histochemical analysis, and nonlinear microscopic imaging performed at each follow up time, finding no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. In addition, a faster healing process, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a better-recovered skin morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. These morphological features were characterized by means of immuno-histochemical analysis, aimed at imaging fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and by SHG microscopy, aimed at characterizing collagen organization, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  8. Improved superficial brain hemorrhage visualization in susceptibility weighted images by constrained minimum intensity projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John

    2016-03-01

    Minimum intensity projection is a technique commonly used to display magnetic resonance susceptibility weighted images, allowing the observer to better visualize hemorrhages and vasculature. The technique displays the minimum intensity in a given projection within a thick slab, allowing different connectivity patterns to be easily revealed. Unfortunately, the low signal intensity of the skull within the thick slab can mask superficial tissues near the skull base and other regions. Because superficial microhemorrhages are a common feature of traumatic brain injury, this effect limits the ability to proper diagnose and follow up patients. In order to overcome this limitation, we developed a method to allow minimum intensity projection to properly display superficial tissues adjacent to the skull. Our approach is based on two brain masks, the largest of which includes extracerebral voxels. The analysis of the rind within both masks containing the actual brain boundary allows reclassification of those voxels initially missed in the smaller mask. Morphological operations are applied to guarantee accuracy and topological correctness, and the mean intensity within the mask is assigned to all outer voxels. This prevents bone from dominating superficial regions in the projection, enabling superior visualization of cortical hemorrhages and vessels.

  9. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  10. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  11. A Prodrug Approach to the Use of Coumarins as Potential Therapeutics for Superficial Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Derry K.; Robertson, Jennifer; Wright, Kristine; Miller, Lorna; Smith, Shane; Stewart, Colin S.; O′Neil, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20–25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide), inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l) and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones. PMID:24260474

  12. Oxidized cellulose dressings for persistent bleeding from a superficial malignant tumor.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan; Day, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Persistent bleeding from superficial malignant tumors, although uncommon, can be a major and distressing problem. Management includes frequent skilled dressing changes, correction of clotting abnormalities, and maintaining blood volume by repeated transfusions. We report a case where application of oxidized regenerated cellulose surgical dressing appeared to contribute to successful hemostasis.

  13. [Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. causing superficial mycosis. Coro, Falcon state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Saúl-García, Yotsabeth; Humbría-García, Leyla; Hernández-Valles, Rosaura

    2015-09-01

    Candida species other than C. albicans are often described as causative agents of superficial mycosis and are more resistant to treatment with azoles. In order to determine the distribution of species and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp., one ambispective study, which analyzed 18 yeast isolates obtained from samples from patients diagnosed with superficial mycosis, was performed. Taxonomic identification was performed by macroscopic visualization of the growth characteristics in chromogenic agar and by conventional methods. The susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Most of the isolates (88.8%), came from nail samples. C. parapsilosis was the most common species, followed by C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. krusei, which confirmed the prevalence of non-albicans species as a cause of superficial mycoses. The pattern of susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole was similar: all isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans were susceptible, while 83.3% of C. tropicalis showed sensitivity to both antifungals. C. krusei, fluconazole-resistant species showed intermediate susceptibility io voriconazole. The use of chromogenic agar allowed to detect mixed infections in nail samples, involving Candida spp. and C. tropicalis in one case, the latter with resistance to both fluconazole and voriconazole. The results demonstrate the importance of species identification and susceptibility testing to avoid therapeutic failures in superficial mycoses.

  14. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  15. The analogy between dreams and the ancient art of memory is tempting but superficial.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2013-12-01

    Although the analogy between dreams and ancient mnemotechniques is tempting because they share several phenomenological characteristics, this analogy is superficial at a closer look. Unlike mneomotechnically encoded material, rapid eye movement (REM) dreams are inherently difficult to remember, do not usually allow conscious subsequent retrieval of all interconnected elements, and have been found to support subsequent episodic memory in only rare cases.

  16. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias

    2009-05-01

    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  17. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  18. Cryopreservation Effect on Proliferative and Chondrogenic Potential of Human Chondrocytes Isolated from Superficial and Deep Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Muiños-López, Emma; Rendal-Vázquez, Mª Esther; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; Díaz-Prado, Silvia; Blanco, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of fresh and frozen chondrocytes isolated from superficial and deep articular cartilage biopsies. Materials and Methodology: The study included 12 samples of fresh and frozen healthy human knee articular cartilage. Cell proliferation was tested at 3, 6 and 9 days. Studies of mRNA quantification, protein expression and immunofluorescence for proliferation and chondrogenic markers were performed. Results: Stimulation of fresh and frozen chondrocytes from both superficial and deep cartilage with fetal bovine serum produced an increase in the proliferative capacity compared to the non-stimulated control group. In the stimulated fresh cells group, the proliferative capacity of cells from the deep biopsy was greater than that from cells from the superficial biopsy (0.046 vs 0.028, respectively, p<0.05). There was also a significant difference between the proliferative capacity of superficial zone fresh (0.028) and frozen (0.051) chondrocytes (p<0.05). CCND1 mRNA and protein expression levels, and immunopositivity for Ki67 revealed a higher proliferative capacity for fresh articular chondrocytes from deep cartilage. Regarding the chondrogenic potential, stimulated fresh cells showed higher SOX9 and Col II expression in chondrocytes from deep than from superficial zone (p<0.05, T student test). Conclusions: The highest rate of cell proliferation and chondrogenic potential of fresh chondrocytes was found in cells obtained from deep cartilage biopsies, whereas there were no statistically significant differences in proliferative and chondrogenic capacity between biopsy origins with frozen chondrocytes. These results indicate that both origin and cryopreservation affect the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of chondrocytes. PMID:22523526

  19. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Newer Bonding Systems on Superficial and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, R Veena; Siddaraju, Kishore; Nagaraj, Hema; Poluri, Ramya Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to superficial dentin and deep dentin using two different dentin bonding systems. Materials and Methods: All teeth were sectioned at various levels (superficial dentin: Dentin within 0.5-1 mm of dentinoenamel junction; deep dentin: Dentin within 0.5 mm of the highest pulp horn) using a Carborundum Disc and embedded in acrylic block of specific size. Selected specimens (60 premolar teeth) were grouped randomly into three groups, the groups were differentiated into superficial dentin, deep dentin, and control group which were further divided into sub Group A and Subgroup B containing 10 teeth each, depending on the bonding agents used. In Subgroup A, Tetric N Bond, and in Subgroup B Single Bond Universal were used. In the control group no bonding agent was used. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5°C and 55°C water bath for 40 s. Finally, the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength study under INSTRON machine (Universal Testing Machine). The maximum shear bond strengths were noted at the time of fracture (de-bonding) of the restorative material. Results were analyzed using ANOVA test, Bonferroni test, and paired t-test. Results: Bond strength values of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) showed higher mean shear bond strength compared to seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). There was a significant fall in bond strength values as one reaches deeper levels of dentin from superficial to deep dentin. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the bond strength of fifth generation bonding system (Tetric N Bond) and seventh generation bonding system (Single Bond Universal). Decrease in the bond strength values is seen for the deeper level of dentin as compared to superficial dentin. PMID:26435613

  20. Detection of superficial zone protein in human and animal body fluids by cross-species monoclonal antibodies specific to superficial zone protein.

    PubMed

    Su, J L; Schumacher, B L; Lindley, K M; Soloveychik, V; Burkhart, W; Triantafillou, J A; Kuettner, K; Schmid, T

    2001-06-01

    In this report we describe the purification of human superficial zone protein (SZP), the generation of cross-species monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the detection of this protein in human and animal body fluids. Human SZPs, used as immunizing antigens, were purified either from culture media of human cartilage organ cultures or from human synovial fluids. The immunizing antigens were mixed with RIBI adjuvant in one of three forms: nonmodified SZP, superficial zone protein-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate (SZP-KLH), or a mixture of superficial zone protein and hyaluronic acid (SZP-HA). A panel of MAbs including GW4.23, S6.79, S13.52, S13.233, and S17.109 were generated and characterized. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) S6.79, an IgG2b with K(D) 3.14 x 10(-9) M from SZP-KLH immunization, is of particular interest. It reacts strongly to a large molecular weight form of SZP in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. It stains the most superficial layer of articular cartilage in immunohistochemistry, whereas the middle and deep zones of cartilage are not stained. When MAb S6.79 was applied to Western blots of human body fluids, a strong 345-kDa band was detected in samples of synovial fluid and weaker bands of similar size were detected in samples of plasma and serum. MAb S6.79 also showed cross-species immunoreactivity with SZP in samples of synovial fluids harvested from bovine, dog, guinea pig, and rabbit, as demonstrated by Western blotting and antibody absorption experiments. This cross-species MAb will be a useful tool in human and animal model studies for monitoring SZP levels and tissue distribution. It may help define the roles of SZP in normal articular joints and may be of diagnostic or prognostic value for the measurement of SZP in pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis.

  1. Superficial dorsal horn neurons identified by intracutaneous histamine: chemonociceptive responses and modulation by morphine.

    PubMed

    Jinks, S L; Carstens, E

    2000-08-01

    We have investigated whether neurons in superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn respond to intracutaneous (ic) delivery of histamine and other irritant chemicals, and thus might be involved in signaling sensations of itch or chemogenic pain. Single-unit recordings were made from superficial lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats. Chemoresponsive units were identified using ic microinjection of histamine (3%, 1 microl) into the hindpaw as a search stimulus. All superficial units so identified [9 nociceptive-specific (NS), 26 wide-dynamic-range (WDR)] responded to subsequent ic histamine. A comparison group of histamine-responsive deep dorsal horn neurons (n = 16) was similarly identified. The mean histamine-evoked discharge decayed to 50% of the maximal rate significantly more slowly for the superficial (92.2 s +/- 65.5, mean +/- SD) compared with deep dorsal horn neurons (28. 2 s +/- 11.6). In addition to responding to histamine, most superficial dorsal horn neurons were also excited by ic nicotine (22/25 units), capsaicin (21/22), topical mustard oil (5/6), noxious heat (26/30), and noxious and/or innocuous mechanical stimuli (except for 1 unit that did not have a mechanosensitive receptive field). Application of a brief noxious heat stimulus during the response to ic histamine evoked an additive response in all but two cases, followed by transient depression of firing in 11/20 units. Intrathecal (IT) administration of morphine had mixed effects on superficial dorsal horn neuronal responses to ic histamine and noxious heat. Low morphine concentrations (100 nM to 1 microM) facilitated histamine-evoked responses (to >130% of control) in 9/24 units, depressed the responses (by >70%) in 11/24, and had no effect in 4. Naloxone reversed morphine-induced effects in some but not all cases. A higher morphine concentration (10 microM) had a largely depressant, naloxone-reversible effect on histamine responses. Responses of the same

  2. Vulnerability of the Superficial Zone of Immature Articular Cartilage to Compressive Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rolauffs, R.; Muehleman, C; Li, J; Kurz, B; Kuettner, K; Frank, E; Grodzinsky, A

    2010-01-01

    The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive moduli as well as collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of the depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, this study was undertaken to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical, and matrix-associated changes caused by compressive injury. Disks from the superficial and deeper zones of bovine calves were biomechanically characterized. Injury to the disks was achieved by applying a final strain of 50% compression at 100%/second, followed by biomechanical recharacterization. Tissue compaction upon injury as well as sGAG density, sGAG loss, and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen fiber orientation and matrix damage were assessed using histology, diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging, and texture analysis. Injured superficial zone disks showed surface disruption, tissue compaction by 20.3 {+-} 4.3% (mean {+-} SEM), and immediate biomechanical impairment that was revealed by a mean {+-} SEM decrease in dynamic stiffness to 7.1 {+-} 3.3% of the value before injury and equilibrium moduli that were below the level of detection. Tissue areas that appeared intact on histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zone disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose sGAG immediately after injury, but lost 17.8 {+-} 1.4% of sGAG after 48 hours; deeper zone disks lost only 2.8 {+-} 0.3% of sGAG content. Biomechanical impairment was associated primarily with structural damage. The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury, causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, which results

  3. A study of the superficial palmar arteries using the Doppler Ultrasonic Flowmeter.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turk, M; Metcalf, W K

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of the superficial arteries of the hand has been studied utilising the Doppler Flowmeter technique. The superficial arteries of the hand formed several diversified patterns that permitted classification into well defined categories. The arcus palmaris superficialis was complete in 84% of the hands and incomplete in 16%. The arteria digitalis palmaris communis primus took origin from the arch in 94% and from the arterial radialis indicis in 6% of the hands. The arteria princeps pollicis and radialis indicis were quite variable in their origin and frequently differed from the normal textbook description. In 52% of the subjects, the arterial patterns in the right and left hand were different with respect to one or more arteries, while they were identical in 48% of the subjects. It would be unwise to base anything more than tentative conclusions on the data so far accumulated, because of the small population used in this project and the absence of similar studies in the literature. PMID:6706837

  4. [Esaprazole vs sulglicotide in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with chronic superficial gastritis of the antrum].

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, F; Minieri, M; Castiglione, F; Di Lanno, E; Mazzacca, G

    1991-04-30

    Fifty dyspeptic patients with histologically proven chronic superficial antral gastritis were treated for 6 weeks, in a randomized single-blind study, with esaprazole (450 mg bid) or sulglicotide (200 mg tid). Both drugs significantly improved the symptomatic score after 3 and 6 weeks (p less than 0.01), and the percentual rate of improvement was similar in the two groups studied. Similarly, both treatments significantly reduced the inflammation of gastric mucosa. Drugs were ineffective in clearing Helicobacter pylori from the antral mucosa (as assessed by the urease test, performed at entry and after 6 weeks). No side effects occurred after esaprazole or sulglicotide administration. The results of the present study suggest that esaprazole, a new gastroprotective drug, may have a role in the therapy of dyspeptic patients with chronic superficial gastritis.

  5. The inspiratory maneuver: a simple method to assess the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sulica, Lucian; Behrman, Alison; Roark, Rick

    2005-09-01

    We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas of diminished mobility, the relationship of mucosal lesions to deeper tissues of the vocal folds, and subtle submucosal lesions. This is possible because of the unique geometry of the glottis that renders the vector forces of airflow different at inspiration and expiration. Because the integrity of the superficial lamina propria is essential to healthy phonation, we have found the inspiratory maneuver useful across a wide variety of mucosal pathologic conditions.

  6. [Percutaneous treatment of a superficial femoral artery aneurysm using an intravascular stent-prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Laffy, P Y; Leblanc, G; Riou, J Y; Chaloum, S; Maklouf, M; Le Guen, O

    1999-05-01

    One case of superficial femoral aneurysm treated percutaneously by endovascular stent graft (Passager Boston) is reported. The initial radiographic evaluation included arteriography and color doppler sonography which enable analysis of the flow path, the extent of the wall thrombus, the choice of stended graft size. The procedure of implantation was technically trouble free. The post-procedure 3D CT and arteriography demonstrated occlusion of the aneurysm and resaturation of normal flow path. The six and twelve month check confirmed the stability of the results locally and the integrity of run off vessels. In weakened and specially elderly patient percutaneous treatment of superficial femoral artery aneurysm can be carried out easily. The contribution of 3D CT is essential in follow up to ensure an optimal result and to detect any complication.

  7. Challenge and threat motivation: effects on superficial and elaborative information processing

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Blascovich, James; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993). Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques and Mackie, 2007), we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence) of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993), is high. The implications of these results for the biopsychosocial model model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed. PMID:25352823

  8. On the optimization of the solid core radius of superficially porous particles for finite adsorption rate.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof

    2011-02-18

    Packed chromatographic columns with the superficially porous particles (porous shell particles) guarantee higher efficiency. The theoretical equation of the Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP), for columns packed with spherical superficially porous particles, was used for the analysis of the column efficiency for finite rate of adsorption-desorption process. The HETP equation was calculated by the application of the moment analysis to elution peaks evaluated with the General Rate (GR) model. The optimal solid core radius for maximum column efficiency was estimated for a wide spectrum of internal and external mass transfer resistances, adsorption kinetic rate and axial dispersion. The separation power of the shell adsorbent for two component mixture, in analytical and preparative chromatography, was discussed. The conditions of the equivalence between the solutions of the General Rate model with slow adsorption kinetic and the Lumped Kinetic Model (LKM) or the Equilibrium Dispersive (ED) model were formulated.

  9. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  10. Superficial dose distribution in breast for tangential radiation treatment of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Gustafsson, Magnus; Baeck, Anna; Drugge, Ninni; Palm, Asa; Lindberg, Andreas; Berglund, Mattias

    2011-03-01

    The superficial (0-2 cm) dose distribution in a cylindrical phantom is examined theoretically and experimentally when irradiated by tangential photon beams. The lateral superficial part of the phantom is shown to receive full dose beyond 2 mm whereas the build-up region is up to 7 mm where the beams enter. Eclipse AAA calculations agree well with the experimental and Monte Carlo data while Eclipse PBC underestimates the entrance dose the first 3-4 mm and fails to give a correct lateral dose close to the surface up to 10 mm depth. The performance of the Eclipse algorithms is evaluated in a number of clinical cases with Monte Carlo results. Examples are given to illustrate how differences in geometrical presentation of the body structure in the treatment planning system and the Monte Carlo simulation as well as the patient voxelization may affect the evaluation results.

  11. Superficial siderosis associated with abundant τ and α-synuclein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Masaki; Murayama, Shigeo; Yoshida, Youji; Mihara, Ban

    2011-01-01

    A Japanese male developed deafness, pyramidal signs and ataxia at age 50. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed elevated levels of iron, transferrin and ferritin. Brain MRI showed atrophy of the cerebellum and pons as well as potential iron deposits on the surface of the brain. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1090 g and showed severe atrophy and necrosis of the cerebellum. No vascular malformation was observed. Extensive deposits of hemosiderin that were well stained with Berlin blue and ferritin immunohistochemistry were present at the surface and in the superficial layers of the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. In these regions, numerous AT8 (p-τ)-immunopositive deposits were present in neurons and glia. In addition, phosphorylated α-synuclein-immunopositive Lewy bodies and neurites were observed in the brainstem nuclei. In the present report, the authors derive the novel insight that superficial siderosis is a distinctive entity associated with tauopathy and synucleinopathy. PMID:22674955

  12. Determination and Finite Element Validation of the WYPIWYG Strain Energy of Superficial Fascia from Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Marcos; Peña, Estefanía; Montáns, Francisco J

    2017-03-01

    What-You-Prescribe-Is-What-You-Get (WYPIWYG) procedures are a novel and general phenomenological approach to modelling the behavior of soft materials, applicable to biological tissues in particular. For the hyperelastic case, these procedures solve numerically the nonlinear elastic material determination problem. In this paper we show that they can be applied to determine the stored energy density of superficial fascia. In contrast to the usual approach, in such determination no user-prescribed material parameters and no optimization algorithms are employed. The strain energy densities are computed solving the equilibrium equations of the set of experiments. For the case of superficial fascia it is shown that the mechanical behavior derived from such strain energies is capable of reproducing simultaneously the measured load-displacement curves of three experiments to a high accuracy.

  13. Superficial necrolytic dermatitis in a dog with an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Lloret, A; Bardagí, M; Ferrer, L; Martínez, J

    2014-07-01

    A 10-year-old dog presented with convulsive crisis and symmetrical hyperkeratotic cutaneous lesions affecting the abdomen, inguinal area, eyelids, muzzles, both pinnae, and all the paw pads. Hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were the main biochemical findings. A mass 2 cm in diameter was detected within the left pancreatic lobe by ultrasonography. It was surgically removed and histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. The animal was eventually euthanized due to lack of clinical improvement. At necropsy, metastatic nodules were observed in the pancreatic lymph nodes and liver. Histopathological findings of cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of superficial necrolytic dermatitis and were interpreted as a paraneoplastic syndrome derived from the islet cell carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of superficial necrolytic dermatitis associated with an insulin-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in dogs.

  14. Superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from diffuse neurofibroma in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Kuwashiro, Maki; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are regarded as sarcomas that arise from peripheral nerves or that display differentiation along the lines of the various elements of the nerve sheath. These tumors occur in deep soft tissues, but superficial primary MPNST with a cutaneous or subcutaneous origin have rarely been reported. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 3-4-year history of a slowly enlarging soft nodule on the left side of her neck. The histopathological diagnosis of the nodule was low-grade MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma. There was increased cellularity, but no necrosis or mitotic activity. These histopathological findings pose difficulties in differential diagnosis from a neurofibroma with atypical histological features. We report a rare case of superficial MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma associated with underlying occipital bone dysplasia in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

  15. Kinesio tape management for superficial radial nerve entrapment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2013-04-01

    This case report describes a 41-year-old female who presented with complaints of pain in the lower lateral one-third of the right radius extending into the first web space. Tinel's sign reproducing the patient's symptoms was elicited 8.2 cm above the radial styloid process. Physical diagnosis for superficial radial nerve entrapment was made based on a positive upper limb neural tension test 2a along with symptom reproduction during resisted isometrics to brachioradialis and wrist extensors. A potential first time successful conservative Kinesio tape (KT) management for entrapment of the superficial radial nerve is described in this report. An immediate improvement in grip strength and functional activities along with a reduction in pain and swelling was noted in this patient after the first treatment session, which was maintained at a 6 month follow-up. A model is proposed describing the mechanism by which KT application could be used to intervene for nerve entrapment interfaces.

  16. Wetting ability of an acetone/based etch&rinse adhesive after NaOCl-treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Fátima S.; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Moura, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treatment on surface dentin roughness (Ra) and contact angle (CA) when using Prime&Bond NT adhesive (PB NT). Study Design: Extracted human third molars were sectioned to expose flat, superficial and deep dentin surfaces. CA and Ra were measured (1) before and (2) after 35% H3PO4 etching, and (3) H3PO4 etching + 5% NaOCl treated for 2 minutes before the application of PB NT. CA was measured by the Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis Technique using distilled and deionized water and PB NT. Roughness was evaluated with a profilometer, twelve radial measurements were performed in each treatment surface. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test procedures. Results: CA values decreased after acid etching and even more after NaOCl treatment on deep dentin when water was tested. With resin, there were not differences on CA results after H3PO4 neither after NaOCl treatment, in both dentin surfaces. Etching and NaOCl treatment resulted in surface roughness increase. Conclusions: In spite of the higher roughness after NaOCl treatment on superficial and deep dentin, the use of 5% NaOCl for 2 min after dentin demineralization when PB NT was employed did not improved the wettability of dentin, probably due to nanofiller content and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions with residues of the organic matrix on collagen-depleted dentin. Key words:Sodium hypochlorite, contact angle, roughness, Prime&Bond NT, superficial dentin, deep dentin. PMID:22322490

  17. Facelift incision and superficial musculoaponeurotic system advancement in parotidectomy: case reports.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Hyun-Young; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Park, Seung-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Surgical procedures for parotidectomy had been developed to gain adequate approach, prevent morbidity of nerve, and give esthetic satisfaction. We performed two cases of parotidectomy through facelift incision. One case was reconstructed with superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) flap and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle rotated flap at the parotid bed. In second case, same procedures were performed, but collagen membrane was additionally implanted for prevention of Frey's syndrome. After surgery, two cases showed esthetic results without neck scar and hollow defect on parotid bed area.

  18. Histological and genetic evidence for a variant of superficial spreading melanoma composed predominantly of large nests.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Heinz; Metzler, Gisela; Argenyi, Zsolt; Requena, Luis; Palmedo, Gabriele; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Hantschke, Markus; Paredes, Bruno E; Schärer, Leo; Hesse, Benedikt; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Shabrawi-Caelen, Leila El; Fried, Isabella; Kerl, Helmut; Lorenzo, Cerroni; Murali, Rajmohan; Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are characterized by a range of histological appearances, and several morphological variants have been described. In this study, we report a variant of superficial spreading melanoma that is characterized by large, irregular junctional melanocytic nests. The junctional nests varied in shape and size, showed focal tendency to confluence, and were often surrounded by a cuff of epidermal keratinocytes. The melanocytes comprising the nests showed variable cytological atypia. In most of the cases, scant intraepidermal or junctional single melanocytes were seen, and other well-documented diagnostic criteria for melanoma were lacking, and as a result, histological recognition of these tumors as melanoma was difficult. Some cases were associated with an invasive dermal component or showed evidence of sun damage. To provide supporting evidence for malignancy, we analyzed these tumors for genomic aberrations. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified multiple genomic aberrations in all analyzed cases. A similar pattern of genomic aberrations was seen in a control group of bona fide superficial spreading melanomas, suggesting that these 'melanomas composed exclusively or predominantly of large nests' are indeed variants of superficial spreading melanoma. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was positive in 40% of the cases. However, using aCGH, the FISH-negative cases showed multiple genomic aberrations in regions that are not covered by FISH. The low sensitivity of the FISH test can be explained by the fact that FISH only evaluates four genomic loci for aberrations, whereas aCGH surveys the entire genome. In summary, we present histological and molecular genetic evidence for a morphological variant of superficial spreading melanoma. Awareness of the histological features will aid in their correct diagnosis as melanoma, and in difficult cases, judicious application of ancillary tests such as aCGH (rather than FISH) will

  19. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  20. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Originating from the Thoracic Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sung Mo; Kim, Seung-Kook; Lee, Sun-Ho; Eoh, Whan

    2016-01-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system(SSCNS) is a rare disease characterized by hemosiderin deposition on the surface of the central nervous system. We report a case of SSCNS originating from the thoracic spine, presenting with neurological deficits including, sensorineuronal hearing loss, ataxia, and corticospinal and dorsal column tract signs. The patient underwent dural repair with an artificial dural patch. Clinical findings were elicited by neurological examination, imaging studies, and intraoperative findings, and these were addressed through literature review. PMID:27437021

  1. Eradication of superficial fungal infections by conventional and novel approaches: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades, the occurrence of fungal infections either superficial or systemic has been increasing. Moreover, fungal infections become more difficult to treat when they show coupling with immunogenic diseases like AIDS. Superficial fungal infections are associated with skin, nail and eye and are less prominent to systemic infection. However, it may be dangerous if not treated properly. It is usually observed that conventional formulations including cream, powder, gels etc. are used to treat skin fungal infections even for the deep seated fungal infections. However, these formulations show various side-effects on the application site like burning, redness and swelling. Further, due to the immediate release of drug from these formulations they can stimulate the immune system of body generating high impact allergic reactions. Deep seated fungal infections like invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis may be more difficult to treat because the drug released from conventional topical formulation can not reach at the target site due to the low penetration capacity. Similarly, in case of fungal infection of nail and eye, conventional formulations show problem of less bioavailability. Thus, to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy a lot of research works have been carried out to develop novel formulations of antifungal drugs to deliver them superficially. Novel formulations explored for the skin delivery of antifungal drugs include liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, microemulsions, nanoparticles, microspheres and micelles. These formulations show extended or sustained release of drug, minimizing the side effect on application site, enhancing bioavailability and reducing the dosing frequency. Further, these formulations also show penetration into the deep skin to treat invasive fungal infections. Novel formulations explored in treatment of fungal infections of eye are liposomes and nanoparticles and whether for nail fungal infections

  2. Superficial photoluminescence and PV conversion of nanoscale Si-layered systems at 400 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznicki, Zbigniew T.; Meyrueis, Patrick; Sarrabayrouse, Gérard; Rousset, Bernard

    2006-04-01

    A surprising photovoltaic (PV) conversion at 400 nm has been observed in nanoscale Si-layered systems (ns-Si-ls) during spectral response measurements. In conventional solar cells the UV and blue PV conversion may be poor because of the surface recombination within a thin superficial layer. In multi-interface novel devices (MIND) containing ns-Si-ls this conversion is always negligible within an even thicker surface dead zone from which practically no free-carriers can be collected. So the measured 400 nm band PV conversion in MIND cells is totally inconsistent with usually observed effects. Another CE paradox concerns its inversely proportional variation versus incident flux intensity, lower the intensity higher the CE, which value can even exceed unity. This new effect is also localized at the superficial nanostratum and originates from postimplantation defects and nanostructures formed during the implantation process. A similar low energy free-carrier generation has been observed recently in MIND cells with buried ns-Si-ls having a relatively very thin superficial stratum because of an excellent electronic passivation. No available publication mentions such an effect despite extensive investigations on the subject of structural and optical properties of Si nanoparticles, Si nanolayers, new Si-based materials such as semiconductor silicides and the luminescence-center doped Si materials. In this work, the carrier collection properties of the superficial Si nanostratum are reported and discussed in detail in relation to incident flux intensity. An additional low energy generation was observed experimentally. The effect could have capital importance for a breakthrough in the PV conversion efficiency in Si solar cells with nanotransformations.

  3. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    PubMed Central

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant. PMID:27504194

  4. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Keith S.; Hartman, Brett C.; Sood, Rajiv; Socas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments. PMID:27689054

  5. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu Nakata, Waka; Isoda, Norio Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  6. Effect of Different Bonding Strategies on Adhesion to Deep and Superficial Permanent Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Pegado, Rafael Eduardo Fernandes; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different bonding strategies on the microtensile bond strength to deep and superficial permanent dentin. Methods: Forty-eight teeth were randomly flattened according to the dentin depth: superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Subsequently, three adhesive systems were applied (n=8): an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 - SB), a “mild” two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond - SE) and a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Futurabond – FB). Each specimen was restored with a composite resin and sectioned into 1.0-mm2 thick slabs. After 24 hours, resin-dentin sticks were submitted to tensile stress in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test at a level of 0.05%. Results: Superficial dentin showed the highest microtensile bond strength values, which differed statistically from those obtained in the deep dentin, irrespective of the adhesive system used. FB yielded the highest bond strength values, which were statistically similar to the bond strength values of SE, but statistically different from those obtained when the SB adhesive was used. Conclusions: Bond strength obtained in superficial dentin was significantly higher than in deep dentin, for all adhesive systems tested. Adhesion was affected by the different bonding strategies: the one-step, low pH, acetone-based self-etching adhesive promoted the higher bond strength values, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the two-step, water-based self-etching adhesive. PMID:20396440

  7. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen1, G. F.; Chen, Y. Z.; Ren, G. X.

    2006-10-01

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  8. Superficial dosimetry imaging of Čerenkov emission in electron beam radiotherapy of phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Fox, Colleen J.; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-08-01

    Čerenkov emission is generated from ionizing radiation in tissue above 264 keV energy. This study presents the first examination of this optical emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose. Čerenkov emission was imaged from the surface of flat tissue phantoms irradiated with electrons, using a range of field sizes from 6 cm × 6 cm to 20 cm × 20 cm, incident angles from 0° to 50°, and energies from 6 to 18 MeV. The Čerenkov images were compared with the estimated superficial dose in phantoms from direct diode measurements, as well as calculations by Monte Carlo and the treatment planning system. Intensity images showed outstanding linear agreement (R2 = 0.97) with reference data of the known dose for energies from 6 to 18 MeV. When orthogonal delivery was carried out, the in-plane and cross-plane dose distribution comparisons indicated very little difference (±2-4% differences) between the different methods of estimation as compared to Čerenkov light imaging. For an incident angle 50°, the Čerenkov images and Monte Carlo simulation show excellent agreement with the diode data, but the treatment planning system had a larger error (OPT = ±1˜2%, diode = ±2˜3%, TPS = ±6-8% differences) as would be expected. The sampling depth of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation has been simulated in a layered skin model, showing the potential of sampling depth tuning by spectral filtering. Taken together, these measurements and simulations indicate that Čerenkov emission imaging might provide a valuable method of superficial dosimetry imaging from incident radiotherapy beams of electrons.

  9. Use of Superficial Temporal Fascia Flap for Treatment of Postradiation Trismus: An Innovation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Roy, Indranil Deb; Deshmukh, Tushar S; Bhandari, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Post radiation trismus severely reduces the quality of life. Radiation causes fibrosis of muscles of mastication resulting in severe restriction of mouth opening. Treatment options are limited as most of the local flaps are in the radiation zone. The present case is the first case in existing literature where, following the release of fibrosis secondary to radiation, superficial temporal fascia (STF) was used to cover the defect with excellent results and no recurrence after a year of follow up.

  10. Orbital venous pattern in relation to extraorbital venous drainage and superficial lymphatic vessels in rats.

    PubMed

    Maloveska, Marcela; Kresakova, Lenka; Vdoviakova, Katarina; Petrovova, Eva; Elias, Mario; Panagiotis, Artemiou; Andrejcakova, Zuzana; Supuka, Peter; Purzyc, Halina; Kissova, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the normal and variant anatomy of extraorbital and intraorbital venous drainage together with retroorbital communication, and determine the lymphatic drainage from the superficial orbital region with a potential outlet of lymphatic vessel into the venous bloodstream. The study of the venous system was carried out on 32 Wistar rats by using corrosion casts methods and radiography, while the lymphatic system was studied in 12 Wistar rats following ink injection. Superficially, orbital veins are connected with extraorbital veins running through angular vein of the eye and the superficial temporal vein, and via the pterygoid plexus with the maxillary vein, which provide readily accessible communication routes in the spread of infection. The extent of intraorbital and periorbital venous drainage was ensured by the dorsal and ventral external ophthalmic vein through the infraorbital vein, which together formed the principal part of the ophthalmic plexus. Venous drainage of the eyeball was carried out mainly by the vortex veins, ciliary veins and internal ophthalmic vein. The highest variability, first presented by differences in structural arrangement and formation of anastomoses, was observed within the ventral external ophthalmic vein (22 cases) and the medial vortex vein (10 cases). Four vortex veins, one vein in each quadrant of the eye, were observed in rats. The vortex vein located on the ventral side of the eyeball was occasionally found as two veins (in four cases) in the present study. The lymphatic vessel from the lower eyelid entered into the mandibular lymph centre, and from the upper eyelid entered into the superficial cervical lymph centre, but both drained into the deep cranial cervical lymph node. The direct entry of lymph entering the veins without passing through lymph nodes was not observed.

  11. Keratin-based products for effective wound care management in superficial and partial thickness burns injuries.

    PubMed

    Loan, Fiona; Cassidy, Sharon; Marsh, Clive; Simcock, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This n=40 cohort study on superficial and partial thickness burns compares novel keratin-based products with the standard products used at our facility. The keratin products are found to facilitate healing with minimal scarring, be well tolerated with minimal pain and itch, be easy to use for the health professional and be cost effective for the health care provider. For these reasons they are being adopted into use at our facility.

  12. Acidophilic actinobacteria synthesised silver nanoparticles showed remarkable activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses in humans.

    PubMed

    Anasane, N; Golińska, P; Wypij, M; Rathod, D; Dahm, H; Rai, M

    2016-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are limited to the most external part of the skin and hair and caused by Malassezia sp., Trichophyton sp. and Candida sp. We report extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by acidophilic actinobacteria (SF23, C9) and its in vitro antifungal activity against fungi-causing superficial mycoses. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains SF23 and C9 showed that they are most closely related to Pilimelia columellifera subsp. pallida GU269552(T). The detection of AgNPs was confirmed by visual observation of colour changes from colourless to brown, and UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis, which showed peaks at 432 and 427 nm, respectively. These AgNPs were further characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Zeta potential, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR analysis exhibited the presence of proteins as capping agents. The TEM analysis revealed the formation of spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles in the size range of 4-36 nm and 8-60 nm, respectively. The biosynthesised AgNPs were screened against fungi-causing superficial mycoses viz., Malassezia furfur, Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. The highest antifungal activity of AgNPs from SF23 and C9 against T. rubrum and the least against M. furfur and C. albicans was observed as compared to other tested fungi. The biosynthesised AgNPs were found to be potential anti-antifungal agent against fungi-causing superficial mycoses.

  13. Dye penetrant indications caused by superficial surface defects in 2014 aluminum alloy welds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocker, R. G.; Wilson, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that dye penetrant indications on the heat-affected zone of 2014-T6 aluminum GMA weldments are frequently caused by superficial surface conditions and are less than 0.007 in. deep. The following methods are suggested for minimization of these surface defects: stabilization of the arc, application of dc ?GTA' welding procedures, reduction of the caustic etch time, and use of fine grain materials.

  14. Perineural fibrosis of superficial peroneal nerve complicating ankle sprain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acus, R W; Flanagan, J P

    1991-02-01

    The peroneal nerve is susceptible to traction injury during inversion ankle sprains. Previously, these traction lesions have been identified only at the fibular neck and popliteal fossa level. This report illustrates a previously unreported condition of perineural fibrosis of the superficial peroneal nerve at the level of the ankle following an inversion ankle sprain. Perineural fibrosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent pain after ankle sprain.

  15. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, E. Z.; Laufer, J. G.; Pedley, R. B.; Beard, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  16. Determinants of different deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cell dynamics during sharp-wave ripples

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Viney, Tim J; Gomez-Dominguez, Daniel; Bellistri, Elisa; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2016-01-01

    Sharp-wave ripples represent a prominent synchronous activity pattern in the mammalian hippocampus during sleep and immobility. GABAergic interneuronal types are silenced or fire during these events, but the mechanism of pyramidal cell (PC) participation remains elusive. We found opposite membrane polarization of deep (closer to stratum oriens) and superficial (closer to stratum radiatum) rat CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. Using sharp and multi-site recordings in combination with neurochemical profiling, we observed a predominant inhibitory drive of deep calbindin (CB)-immunonegative PCs that contrasts with a prominent depolarization of superficial CB-immunopositive PCs. Biased contribution of perisomatic GABAergic inputs, together with suppression of CA2 PCs, may explain the selection of CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. A deep-superficial gradient interacted with behavioral and spatial effects to determine cell participation during sleep and awake sharp-wave ripples in freely moving rats. Thus, the firing dynamics of hippocampal PCs are exquisitely controlled at subcellular and microcircuit levels in a cell type–selective manner. PMID:26214372

  17. Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with superficial dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J; Huijding, Jorg; Laan, Ellen; ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2009-08-01

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further aggravate the dyspareunia-related complaints. To assess whether automatic negative associations are involved in this sexual pain disorder, women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 35) and a control group (n = 35) completed a modified pictorial Affective Simon Task (AST). Questioning the role of dysfunctional automatic associations in superficial dyspareunia, the AST indicated that symptomatic women displayed relatively positive rather than negative automatic associations with sexual stimuli. At the self-report level, however, affective associations with sex cues were significantly more negative for women with dyspareunia than for controls. This discrepancy between "reflective" and "reflexive" affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with dyspareunia points to the relevance of conscious appraisal and deliberate rather than automatic processes in the onset and maintenance of dyspareunia.

  18. Superficial brachial artery: A possible cause for idiopathic median nerve entrapment neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nkomozepi, Pilani; Xhakaza, Nkosi; Swanepoel, Elaine

    2017-02-15

    Nerve entrapment syndromes occur because of anatomic constraints at specific locations in both upper and lower limbs. Anatomical locations prone to nerve entrapment syndromes include sites where a nerve courses through fibro-osseous or fibromuscular tunnels or penetrates a muscle. The median nerve (MN) can be entrapped by the ligament of Struthers; thickened biceps aponeurosis; between the superficial and deep heads of the pronator teres muscle and by a thickened proximal edge of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. A few cases of MN neuropathies encountered are reported to be idiopathic. The superficial branchial artery (SBA) is defined as the artery running superficial to MN or its roots. This divergence from normal anatomy may be the possible explanation for idiopathic median nerve entrapment neuropathy. This study presents three cases with unilateral presence of the SBA encountered during routine undergraduate dissection at the University of Johannesburg. Case 1: SBA divided into radial and ulnar arteries. Brachial artery (BA) terminated as deep brachial artery. Case 2: SBA continued as radial artery (RA). BA terminated as ulnar artery (UA), anterior and posterior interosseous arteries. Case 3: SBA continued as UA. BA divided into radial and common interosseous arteries. Arteries that take an unusual course are more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures and may disturb the evaluation of angiographic images during diagnosis. In particular, the presence of SBA may be a course of idiopathic neuropathies.

  19. Superficial leiomyomas of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Janevska, Vesna; Qerimi, Adelina; Basheska, Neli; Stojkova, Elena; Janevski, Vlado; Jovanovic, Rubens; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Spasevska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Some authors suggest common origin of gastrointestinal stromal tumors from stem cells, which may show diverse differentiation. There are reports in which cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal are found in deep leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to demonstrate CD117 positive cells in superficial gastrointestinal (GI) leiomyomas and to find other cells that would suggest diverse differentiation in histologically typical leiomyoma. Materials and methods: We analyzed 8 cases of superficial leiomyomas and one deep leiomyoma, received in our institutions as endoscopically or surgically obtained material. The tumor sections were immunohistochemicaly stained with CD117, CD34, NF, S100, αSMA, desmin, caldesmon and mast cell antigen. Results: All leiomyomas showed diffuse positivity for αSMA, caldesmon and desmin. All of them had CD117 and CD34 positive cells morphologically identical to the interstitial cells of Cajal between smooth muscle fibers, 5 had S-100 and NF positive cells and 2 showed positivity for GFAP. The cells were found in different quantity; they were usually diffusely scattered through the tumors without predilection site, forming small groups in some areas. Conclusion: CD177, CD34, S-100 and NF positive cells are present in superficial leiomyomas and they may suggest common origin of GI stromal tumors. PMID:26884872

  20. Design of a Water Coupling Bolus with Improved Flow Distribution for Multielement Superficial Hyperthermia Applicators

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Schlorff, Jaime L.; Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    A water bolus used in superficial hyperthermia couples the electromagnetic (EM) or acoustic energy into the target tissue and cools the tissue surface to minimize thermal hotspots and patient discomfort during treatment. Parametric analyses of the fluid pressure inside the bolus computed using 3D fluid dynamics simulations are used in this study to determine a bolus design with improved flow and surface temperature distributions for large area superficial heat applicators. The simulation results are used in the design and fabrication of a 19×32 cm prototype bolus with dual input-dual output (DIDO) flow channels. Sequential thermal images of the bolus surface temperature recorded for a step change in the circulating water temperature are used to assess steady state flow and surface temperature distributions across the bolus. Modeling and measurement data indicate substantial improvement in bolus flow and surface temperature distributions when changing from the previous single input-single output (SISO) to DIDO configuration. Temperature variation across the bolus at steady state was measured to be less than 0.8°C for the DIDO bolus compared to 1.5°C for the SISO waterbolus. The new DIDO bolus configuration maintains a nearly uniform flow distribution and low variation in surface temperature over a large area typically treated in superficial hyperthermia. PMID:19848618

  1. Comparison of gait before and after superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwanhee; Shim, Jemyung; Baek, Minho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of superficial trunk muscle and deep trunk muscle exercise on gait. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 young adults who voluntarily consented to participate. The subjects were divided into a control group, a superficial muscle exercise group, and a deep muscle exercise group with 15 participants in each group. [Methods] Each group performed the exercises 5 times a week for 4 weeks. A Gait Analyzer was used to measure the subjects’ gait. A one-way ANOVA was conducted for analysis between each group. [Results] After 4 weeks, the values from right heel contact to foot flat, left foot flat to heel off, right foot flat to heel off, and left heel off to toe off significantly differed among the groups. [Conclusion] The superficial trunk muscle exercise improved stability, such as the period of mid stance during gait. The deep trunk muscle exercise improved mobility, such as heel contact to foot flat and heel off to toe off during gait. PMID:26696717

  2. Amputation risk factors in concomitant superficial femoral artery and vein injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Phifer, T J; Gerlock, A J; Vekovius, W A; Rich, N M; McDonald, J C

    1984-01-01

    Only a small subset of patients with combined superficial femoral artery and vein injuries results in amputation. The importance of the venous component as a risk factor for amputation is uncertain. Ligation vs. reconstruction of venous injuries is controversial. For clarification of these issues, we analyzed retrospectively multiple risk factors for amputation in combined superficial femoral artery and vein injuries in a civilian population. There were 25 patients treated in a 20-year period. Sixteen injuries were caused by small caliber missiles, six by shotgun blasts, and three by knife wounds. Three patients (12%) ultimately underwent amputation. The major risk factor for amputation was method of vascular reconstruction. All three amputations underwent ligation of the superficial femoral vein with arterial reconstruction by placement of a reversed interposition saphenous vein graft (p = 0.0009). None of the remaining 22 patients with salvaged limbs underwent reconstruction by this combination of techniques. Consequently, the authors emphasize the importance of venous reconstruction, particularly in combined injuries with major arterial involvement requiring interposed grafts. PMID:6696539

  3. [Diffuse superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: four case reports and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; de Miguel, Cristina; Pinel, Ana; Ortega, José M; Aladro, Yolanda

    2014-10-16

    Introduccion. La siderosis superficial difusa del sistema nervioso central (SNC) es una rara condicion debida a depositos de hemosiderina en las capas subpiales del cerebro y la medula espinal. La fuente de sangrado cronico o recurrente en el espacio subaracnoideo se detecta solo en un 50% de los casos. Los sintomas mas caracteristicos son ataxia cerebelosa e hipoacusia neurosensorial. Las secuencias eco de gradiente potenciadas en T2 de resonancia magnetica constituyen el metodo diagnostico de eleccion. Casos clinicos. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con siderosis superficial difusa del SNC relacionada con angiopatia amiloide, anticoagulacion oral, schwannoma del VIII par craneal y sin fuente de sangrado conocida en un caso. Dos pacientes desarrollaron ataxia cerebelosa; tres de ellos, episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica; uno, demencia; y el cuarto es un hallazgo radiologico. No se objetivo progresion clinica durante el seguimiento (2-11 años) en tres de ellos. El paciente con angiopatia amiloide evoluciono a demencia. Conclusiones. Los episodios recurrentes de alteracion focal neurologica son los sintomas mas frecuentes en nuestros casos de siderosis superficial difusa del SNC. La evolucion natural de esta condicion no se conoce bien y puede constituir un hallazgo radiologico.

  4. Emerging causes of superficial and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue bacterial infections following aquatic animal bites, stings, and minor injuries occur commonly and usually on the extremities in fishermen and beachgoers worldwide after freshwater and saltwater exposures. Louisiana has more tidal, saltwater, and brackish water shorelines (more than 7,000 miles) than any other state, including Alaska and Hawaii. As a result, Louisiana residents are often exposed to marine pathogens when fishing or working offshore or when enjoying Louisiana's miles of shorelines. Although many species of bacteria have been isolated from marine wounds, superficial soft tissue and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures are most commonly caused by a small number of bacterial species, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycobacterium marinum, and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to these species, several other aquatic bacteria have recently been identified as emerging causes of superficial and invasive infections following marine injuries and exposures, including marine mammal (dolphins and seals) Brucella species, Chromobacterium violaceum, Comamonas species, Shewanella algae, and Streptococcus iniae. The objectives of this review are to describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and outcomes of both the superficial and the deeper invasive infections caused by the newly emerging marine bacterial pathogens.

  5. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Results Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Conclusion Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. PMID:25548650

  6. Urodeles remove mesoderm from the superficial layer by subduction through a bilateral primitive streak.

    PubMed

    Shook, David R; Majer, Christina; Keller, Ray

    2002-08-15

    Urodeles begin gastrulation with much of their presumptive mesoderm in the superficial cell layer, all of which must move into the deep layers during development. We studied the morphogenesis of superficial mesoderm in the urodeles Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma mexicanum, and Taricha granulosa. In all three species, somitic, lateral, and ventral mesoderm move into the deep layer during gastrulation, ingressing through a "bilateral primitive streak" just inside the blastopore. The mesodermal epithelium appears to slide under the endodermal epithelium by a mechanism we term "subduction." Subduction removes the large expanse of superficial presumptive somitic and lateral-ventral mesoderm that initially separates the sub-blastoporal endoderm from the notochord, leaving the endoderm bounding the still epithelial notochord along the gastrocoel roof. Subduction may be a common feature of urodele gastrulation, differing in this regard from anurans. Subducting cells constrict their apices and become bottle-shaped as they approach the junction of the mesodermal and endodermal epithelia. Subducting bottle cells endocytose apical membrane and withdraw the tight junctional component cingulin from the contracting circumferential tight junctions. Either in conjunction with or immediately after subducting, the mesodermal cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The mechanism by which epithelial cells release their apical junctions to become mesenchymal, without disrupting the integrity of the epithelium, remains mysterious, but this system should prove useful in understanding this process in a developmental context.

  7. Determinants of different deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cell dynamics during sharp-wave ripples.

    PubMed

    Valero, Manuel; Cid, Elena; Averkin, Robert G; Aguilar, Juan; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Viney, Tim J; Gomez-Dominguez, Daniel; Bellistri, Elisa; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-09-01

    Sharp-wave ripples represent a prominent synchronous activity pattern in the mammalian hippocampus during sleep and immobility. GABAergic interneuronal types are silenced or fire during these events, but the mechanism of pyramidal cell (PC) participation remains elusive. We found opposite membrane polarization of deep (closer to stratum oriens) and superficial (closer to stratum radiatum) rat CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. Using sharp and multi-site recordings in combination with neurochemical profiling, we observed a predominant inhibitory drive of deep calbindin (CB)-immunonegative PCs that contrasts with a prominent depolarization of superficial CB-immunopositive PCs. Biased contribution of perisomatic GABAergic inputs, together with suppression of CA2 PCs, may explain the selection of CA1 PCs during sharp-wave ripples. A deep-superficial gradient interacted with behavioral and spatial effects to determine cell participation during sleep and awake sharp-wave ripples in freely moving rats. Thus, the firing dynamics of hippocampal PCs are exquisitely controlled at subcellular and microcircuit levels in a cell type-selective manner.

  8. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    PubMed Central

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs. PMID:23097633

  9. Automated detection of malignant features in confocal microscopy on superficial spreading melanoma versus nevi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Dan; Hennessy, Ricky; Wan, Eric; Pellacani, Giovanni; Jacques, Steven L.

    2010-11-01

    In-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) shows promise for the early detection of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). RCM of SSM shows pagetoid melanocytes (PMs) in the epidermis and disarray at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), which are automatically quantified with a computer algorithm that locates depth of the most superficial pigmented surface [DSPS(x,y)] containing PMs in the epidermis and pigmented basal cells near the DEJ. The algorithm uses 200 noninvasive confocal optical sections that image the superficial 200 μm of ten skin sites: five unequivocal SSMs and five nevi. The pattern recognition algorithm automatically identifies PMs in all five SSMs and finds none in the nevi. A large mean gradient ψ (roughness) between laterally adjacent points on DSPS(x,y) identifies DEJ disruption in SSM ψ = 11.7 +/- 3.7 [-] for n = 5 SSMs versus a small ψ = 5.5 +/- 1.0 [-] for n = 5 nevi (significance, p = 0.0035). Quantitative endpoint metrics for malignant characteristics make digital RCM data an attractive diagnostic asset for pathologists, augmenting studies thus far, which have relied largely on visual assessment.

  10. COALESCENCE OF DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL EPILEPTIC FOCI INTO LARGER DISCHARGE UNITS IN ADULT RAT NEOCORTEX

    PubMed Central

    SERAFINI, RUGGERO; ANDRADE, RODRIGO; LOEB, JEFFREY A.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone. PMID:25701714

  11. Irradiation with EMOLED improves the healing process in superficial skin wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-03-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. The illumination is provided by a high power blue LED. Blue light is selectively absorbed by haemoglobin and converted into heat through a photothermal effect. In this study, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were used as a control and the other two were treated with EMOLED. The photothermal effect was monitored by an infrared thermocamera in order to avoid accidental thermal damage. Visual observations, histopathological analysis and non-linear microscopic imaging performed after 8 days from the treatment showed no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. Moreover, a faster healing process and a better-recovered morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. Compared to the control regions, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a skin morphology more similar to normal skin were observed in the treated regions. Collagen organization in the two regions was characterized using image pattern analysis algorithms on SHG images, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  12. Improvement of the healing process in superficial skin wounds after treatment with EMOLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Alfieri, Domenico; Pini, Roberto; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2014-05-01

    A faster healing process was observed in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with the EMOLED photocoagulator. The instrument consists of a compact handheld photocoagulation device, useful for inducing coagulation in superficial abrasions. The illumination is provided by a high power blue LED. Blue light is selectively absorbed by haemoglobin and converted into heat through a photothermal effect. In this study, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were mechanically abraded in four regions of their back: two regions were used as a control and the other two were treated with EMOLED. The photothermal effect was monitored by an infrared thermocamera in order to avoid accidental thermal damage. Visual observations, histopathological analysis and non-linear microscopic imaging performed after 8 days from the treatment showed no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in both treated areas and surrounding tissues. Moreover, a faster healing process and a better-recovered morphology was evidenced in the treated tissue with respect to the untreated tissue. Compared to the control regions, a reduced inflammatory response, a higher collagen content, and a skin morphology more similar to normal skin were observed in the treated regions. Collagen organization in the two regions was characterized using image pattern analysis algorithms on SHG images, demonstrating a fully recovered aspect of dermis as well as a faster neocollagenesis in the treated regions. This study demonstrates that the selective photothermal effect we used for inducing immediate coagulation in superficial wounds is associated to a minimal inflammatory response, which provides reduced recovery times and improved healing process.

  13. Superficial thrombophlebitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risks for thrombophlebitis include: Cancer or liver disease Deep vein thrombosis Disorders that involve increased blood clotting ( ... Possible problems may include the following: Infections ( cellulitis ) Deep vein thrombosis When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  14. Muscle deoxygenation in the quadriceps during ramp incremental cycling: Deep vs. superficial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Rossiter, Harry B; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-12-01

    Muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxy[Hb + Mb]) during exercise assesses the matching of oxygen delivery (Q̇O2) to oxygen utilization (V̇O2). Until now limitations in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology did not permit discrimination of deoxy[Hb + Mb] between superficial and deep muscles. In humans, the deep quadriceps is more highly vascularized and oxidative than the superficial quadriceps. Using high-power time-resolved NIRS, we tested the hypothesis that deoxygenation of the deep quadriceps would be less than in superficial muscle during incremental cycling exercise in eight males. Pulmonary V̇O2 was measured and muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] was determined in the superficial vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF-s) and the deep rectus femoris (RF-d). deoxy[Hb + Mb] in RF-d was significantly less than VL at 70% (67.2 ± 7.0 vs. 75.5 ± 10.7 μM) and 80% (71.4 ± 11.0 vs. 79.0 ± 15.4 μM) of peak work rate (WR(peak)), but greater than VL and VM at WR(peak) (87.7 ± 32.5 vs. 76.6 ± 17.5 and 75.1 ± 19.9 μM). RF-s was intermediate at WR(peak) (82.6 ± 18.7 μM). Total hemoglobin and myoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation were significantly greater in RF-d than RF-s throughout exercise. The slope of deoxy[Hb + Mb] increase (proportional to Q̇O2/V̇O2) in VL and VM slowed markedly above 70% WR(peak), whereas it became greater in RF-d. This divergent deoxygenation pattern may be due to a greater population of slow-twitch muscle fibers in the RF-d muscle and the differential recruitment profiles and vascular and metabolic control properties of specific fiber populations within superficial and deeper muscle regions.

  15. Superficial scald and bitter pit development in cold-stored transgenic apples suppressed for ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pesis, Edna; Ibáñez, Ana M; Phu, My Lin; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2009-04-08

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates climacteric fruit ripening and plays a major role in the development of superficial scald in apple fruits during cold storage. The effect of cold storage at 0 degrees C on development of superficial scald and bitter pit (BP) in transgenic Greensleeves (GS) apples suppressed for ethylene biosynthesis was investigated. Four apple lines were used: untransformed GS; line 68G, suppressed for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO); and lines 103Yand 130Y, suppressed for ACC synthase (ACS). Fruits from the transformed lines 68G, 103Y, and 130Y produced very little ethylene during 3 months of cold storage at 0 degrees C and after subsequent transfer to 20 degrees C, whereas untransformed fruits produced significant ethylene during cold storage, which increased dramatically at 20 degrees C. Respiration, expressed as CO(2) production, was similar in all four apple lines. After 2 months at 0 degrees C, all apple lines showed some BP symptoms, but lines 68G and 103Y were more affected than untransformed GS or line 130Y. Both transformed and untransformed apples produced alpha-farnesene, but concentrations were lower in yellow fruit than in green fruit in all lines but 68G. Line 68G produced the most alpha-farnesene after 2 months at 0 degrees C, including both (E,E) alpha-farnesene and (Z,E) alpha-farnesene. Concentrations of (E,E) alpha-farnesene were 100 times greater than those of (Z,E) alpha-farnesene in all lines. After 4 months at 0 degrees C plus 1 week at 20 degrees C, untransformed GS apples exhibited the most superficial scald, whereas fruits from lines 68G and 103Y were less affected and line 130Y had no scald. Superficial scald severity was higher in green fruit than in yellow fruit in all affected lines. These lines also exhibited significant production of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (MHO), a major oxidation product of (E,E) alpha-farnesene. Line 130Y neither exhibited superficial scald nor produced MHO. It is

  16. A case of donor-site lymphoedema after lymph node-superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Pons, Gemma; Masia, Jaume; Loschi, Pietro; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Duch, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Vascularised lymph node transfer is a promising technique to treat limb lymphoedema, especially when caused by lymph node dissection. The most common approach is the transfer of superficial inguinal lymph nodes using groin flaps or superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flaps. Lower-limb lymphatic sequelae are unexpected as these lymph nodes should drain lymph from the lower abdominal wall. Recently, Vignes et al. described two cases out of 26 cases of chronic lymphoedema after superficial inguinal lymph node harvest. From a series of 42 vascularised lymph node transfers performed at our centre, only one patient developed swelling in the donor thigh. The features of this patient who underwent a lymph node-containing superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap are reported herein. We recommend maximal accuracy in selecting the appropriate lymph nodes for transfer and provide some tips from our experience.

  17. Antifungal agents commonly used in the superficial and mucosal candidiasis treatment: mode of action and resistance development

    PubMed Central

    Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Kurzątkowski, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in medical sciences and therapy resulted in an increased number of immunocompromised individuals. Candida albicans is the leading opportunistic fungal pathogen causing infections in humans, ranging from superficial mucosal lesions to disseminated or bloodstream candidiasis. Superficial candidiasis not always presents a risk to the life of the infected host, however it significantly lowers the quality of life. Superficial Candida infections are difficult to treat and their frequency of occurrence is currently rising. To implement successful treatment doctors should be up to date with better understanding of C. albicans resistance mechanisms. Despite high frequency of Candida infections there is a limited number of antimycotics available for therapy. This review focuses on current understanding of the mode of action and resistance mechanisms to conventional and emerging antifungal agents for treatment of superficial and mucosal candidiasis. PMID:24353489

  18. Comparison of superficially porous and fully porous silica supports used for a cyclofructan 6 hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Dolzan, Maressa D; Spudeit, Daniel A; Breitbach, Zachary S; Barber, William E; Micke, Gustavo A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-10-24

    A new HILIC stationary phase comprised of native cyclofructan-6 (CF6) bonded to superficially porous silica particles (2.7μm) was developed. Its performance was evaluated and compared to fully porous silica particles with 5μm (commercially available as FRULIC-N) and 3μm diameters. Faster and more efficient chromatography was achieved with the superficially porous particles (SPPs). The columns were also evaluated in the normal phase mode. The peak efficiency, analysis time, resolution, and overall separation capabilities in both HILIC and normal phase modes were compared. The analysis times using the superficially porous based column in HILIC mode were shorter and the theoretical plates/min were higher over the entire range of flow rates studied. The column containing the superficially porous particles demonstrated higher optimum flow rates than the fully porous particle packed columns. At higher flow rates, the advantages of the superficially porous particles was more pronounced in normal phase separations than in HILIC, clearly demonstrating the influence that the mode of chromatography has on band broadening. However, the minimum reduced plate heights (hmin) were typically lower in HILIC than in the normal phase mode. Overall, the superficially porous particle based CF6 column showed clear advantages over the fully porous particle columns, in terms of high throughput and efficient separations of polar compounds in the HILIC mode.

  19. Cyclic testing of porcelain laminiate veneers on superficial enamel and dentin: Pressed vs. conventional layered porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawde, Shweta

    Statement of Problem: Clinicians are inclined towards more aggressive teeth preparations to accommodate the thickness of the veneering material. The principle of conservative tooth preparation is compromised. Purpose: By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective patients. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary and mandibular canines were selected. The teeth were divided into one of two groups (pressable and stackable) and further subdivided according to tooth substrate (all-enamel or mixed enamel-dentin exposure). Twenty canine teeth were allotted to the pressable veneer group and 20 were allotted to the stackable veneer group. Of the 20 teeth in the pressable group, all were pressed with a lithium disilicate ceramic system (IPS e.max Press), 10 with labial tooth reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (PEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (PDN). Of the 20 teeth in the stackable group, all were stacked/ layered with conventional feldspathic porcelain (Fortune; Williams/ Ivoclar); with labial veneer reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (SEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (SDN). Silicon putty matrix was fabricated prior to teeth preparation to estimate the teeth reduction. The prepared facial reduction was limited to the incisal edge. No incisal or palatal/lingual reduction was performed. Impressions of the prepared teeth were taken in medium/light-bodied PVS. Master casts were made in Resin Rock. The stackable group specimens were made with fabricating refractory dies and after following the recommended steps of laboratory procedure, stackable veneers were processed. The pressable group

  20. The membranous layer of superficial fascia: evidence for its widespread distribution in the body.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hijleh, M F; Roshier, A L; Al-Shboul, Q; Dharap, A S; Harris, P F

    2006-12-01

    A discrete membranous layer, "stratum membranosum", in human subcutaneous tissue is classically described as confined to the lower anterior abdominal wall and perineum and referred to as Scarpa's and Colles' fasciae, respectively. Evidence for its existence elsewhere in the body is scanty and therefore the present study was undertaken. Dissection of six embalmed adult cadavers, along with ultrasound imaging on four living subjects, were carried out to determine the existence, topography, and thickness of the membranous layer of superficial fascia in different regions of the body. In all six cadavers, a continuous layer of fibrous membrane in the superficial fascia was found consistently in all the dissected regions of the body and was also confirmed by ultrasonography. The arrangement and thickness of this membranous layer varied according to body region, body surface, and gender. It was thicker in the lower than in the upper extremity, on the posterior than anterior aspect of the body, and in females than in males. The mean thickness of the membranous layer ranged from 39 to 189 mum, being thickest in the leg and thinnest over the dorsum of the hand. The membranous layer was observed to have two or even three components in regions such as the breast, back, thigh, and arm and was seen to split, forming special compartments around subcutaneous major veins of upper and lower extremities, with fibrous septa extending to attach to the vessel wall. Functionally, the membranous superficial fascia may play a role in the integrity of the skin and support for subcutaneous structures particularly veins, by ensuring their patency. Understanding the topographic anatomy of this fascial layer may help explain body-contour deformities and provide the anatomic basis for surgical correction.

  1. New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo.

    PubMed

    Then, C; Stassen, B; Depta, K; Silber, G

    2017-02-21

    Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse. Employing an experimental-numerical approach, a procedure is presented to evaluate multidirectional tensile properties of superficial tissue layers of the face in vivo. Specifically, in addition to stress relaxation, displacement-controlled multi-step ramp-and-hold protocols were performed to separate elastic from inelastic properties. For numerical representation, an anisotropic hyperelastic material model in conjunction with a time domain linear viscoelasticity formulation with Prony series was employed. Model parameters were inversely derived, employing finite element models, using multi-criteria optimization. The methodology provides insight into mechanical superficial facial tissue properties. Experimental data shows pronounced anisotropy, especially with large strain. The stress relaxation rate does not depend on the loading direction, but is strain-dependent. Preconditioning eliminates equilibrium hysteresis effects and leads to stress-strain repeatability. In the preconditioned state tissue stiffness and hysteresis insensitivity to strain rate in the applied range is evident. The employed material model fits the nonlinear anisotropic elastic results and the viscoelasticity model reasonably reproduces time-dependent results. Inversely deduced maximum anisotropic long-term shear modulus of linear elasticity is G∞,max(aniso)=2.43kPa and instantaneous initial shear modulus at an

  2. Deep and superficial skin scrapings from a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Neel, Jennifer A; Tarigo, Jaime; Tater, Kathy C; Grindem, Carol B

    2007-03-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat housed at the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory Animal Research facility as part of a research colony was examined because of mulifocal skin lesions. The lesions consisted of patchy alopecia with mild crusting of the periauricular region, neck, and dorsum; periauricular excoriations; marked dorsal seborrhea and scaling; and generalized erythematous papules. A moderate amount of ceruminous exudate was present in both ear canals. Results of testing for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were positive. An ear swab specimen and superficial and deep skin scrapings were obtained, mounted with oil on glass slides, and coverslipped for microscopic examination. Two populations of mites were observed: a large population of slender, long (approximately 200 microm), adult mites with long, tapering abdomens that comprised two-thirds of the total body length; and a smaller population of more translucent and shorter mites (approximately 100 microm) with wide, blunt abdomens that had prominent transverse ridges. The interpretation was demodicosis, with Demodex cati and D gatoi co-infection. Histologic sections of biopsies from skin lesions on the neck, dorsum, and periauricular area contained a mild perivascular and perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Diffusely within the follicular lumina and occasionally within the superficial keratin, a myriad of Demodex organisms were observed. Intrafollicular mites were compatible in appearance with D cati whereas those in the corneal layer were suggestive of D gatoi. Demodicosis is an uncommon disease of cats, and rare cases of dual infection have been documented, occasionally in FIV-infected cats. The dual infection emphasizes the importance of doing both superficial and deep skin scrapings and of recognizing the unique microscopic features of different Demodex mites.

  3. Morphology of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid on pig fetuses.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

    2007-12-01

    The morphological and histological examinations of the third eyelid and superficial gland of the third eyelid were conducted in pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out by applying the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to make anatomical elements more visible, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation, only the superficial gland with the third eyelid was collected. Staining with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th and 30th day of gestation, the primordia of the glandular epithelium were not found in the examined material. The process of the third eyelid and superficial gland formation starts on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, the gland surrounding the cartilage of the third eyelid is composed of the high amount of loose connective tissue and gland cells which give rise to excretory segments. On the 94th day of gestation, the gland lobes become visible, the efferent ducts form. On the 112th day, the cartilage of the third eyelid assumes the appearance of the mature hyaline cartilage. The excretory segments are composed of simple cuboid epithelium with a large, round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. Their number increases 2- or even 3-fold at the end of gestation.

  4. Polymorphic expression of a human superficial bladder tumor antigen defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Y; Islam, N; Boucher, L; Parent-Vaugeois, C; Tardif, M

    1987-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which define a highly restricted antigen, were obtained by simultaneous immunizations with superficial papillary bladder tumor cells and mouse polyclonal serum against normal urothelium. The antigen was detected by the avidin/biotin/peroxidase method in 30/44 superficial bladder tumors (68%) but in only 4/27 infiltrating urothelial cancers (with much less intensity). No normal adult or fetal tissues tested expressed the antigen, including normal urothelium from 40 individuals, 13 of whom had a bladder tumor positive for the antigen. Only 1 of 45 nonbladder tumors showed some reactivity with one of the three mAbs. Serological tests on a large panel of human cancer cell lines and normal cultured cells were negative. The antigen is highly stable and well preserved on paraffin-embedded tissues. Electrophoretic transfer blot experiments with fresh tumor extracts showed that all three mAbs react with a determinant on a component of 300,000 Mr (pI 9.5) and 62,000 Mr (pI 6.5). The antigen shows polymorphic expression at the cellular level on tissue sections and also at a molecular level on immunoblots where the two bands are differentially detected on extracts of a series of tumors but are not visualized on normal urothelium extracts. The characteristics of this antigenic system suggest that it may provide some insights about the biology of bladder cancer. Specific detection of the antigen on 70% of superficial bladder tumors with normal cytology may be useful for their diagnosis and follow-up. Images PMID:3313389

  5. Efficacy and safety of electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Llanas, Olga; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Celada-Alvarez, Francisco Javier; de Unamuno-Bustos, Blanca; Llavador-Ros, Margarita; Ballesta-Cuñat, Antonio; Barker, Christopher A.; Tormo-Mico, Alejandro; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surface electronic brachytherapy (EBT) is an alternative radiotherapy solution to external beam electron radiotherapy and high-dose-rate radionuclide-based brachytherapy. In fact, it is also an alternative solution to surgery for a subgroup of patients. The objective of this work is to confirm the clinical efficacy, toxicity and cosmesis of a new EBT system, namely Esteya® in the treatment of nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Material and methods This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of EBT in nodular and superficial BCC using the Esteya® system. The study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. The follow up time was 6 months for all cases. Results Twenty patients with 23 lesions were included. A complete response was documented in all lesions (100%). A low level of toxicity was observed after the 4th fraction in all cases. Erythema was the most frequent adverse event. Cosmesis was excellent, with more than 60% of cases without skin alteration and with subtle changes in the rest. Conclusions Electronic brachytherapy with Esteya® appears to be an effective, simple, safe, and comfortable treatment for nodular and superficial BCC associated with excellent cosmesis. It could be a good choice for elderly patients, patients with contraindications for surgery (due to comorbidities or anticoagulant drugs) or patients where surgery would result in a more disfiguring outcome. A longer follow-up and more studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:26207112

  6. Efficiency in supercritical fluid chromatography with different superficially porous and fully porous particles ODS bonded phases.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E

    2012-03-09

    The chromatographic efficiency, in terms of plate number per second, was dramatically improved by the introduction of sub-two microns particles with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). On the other hand, the recent development of superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core particles, appears to allow the achievement of the same efficiency performances at higher speed without high pressure drops. CO₂-based mobile phases exhibiting much lower viscosities than aqueous based mobile phases allow better theoretical efficiencies, even with 3-5 μm particles, but with relative low pressure drops. They also allow much higher flow rates or much longer columns while using conventional instruments capable to operate below 400 bar. Moreover, the use of superficially porous particles in SFC could enhance the chromatographic performances even more. The kinetic behavior of ODS phases bonded on these particles was studied, with varied flow rates, outlet (and obviously inlet) pressures, temperatures, by using a homologous series (alkylbenzenes) with 10% modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. Results were also compared with classical fully porous particles, having different sizes, from 2.5 to 5 μm. Superior efficiency (N) and reduced h were obtained with these new ODS-bonded particles in regards to classical ones, showing their great interest for use in SFC. However, surprising behavior were noticed, i.e. the increase of the theoretical plate number vs. the increase of the chain length of the compounds. This behavior, opposite to the one classically reported vs. the retention factor, was not depending on the outlet pressure, but on the flow rate and the temperature changes. The lower radial trans-column diffusion on this particle types could explain these results. This diffusion reduction with these ODS-bonded superficially porous particles seems to decrease with the increase of the residence time of compounds.

  7. Cyanoacrylate adhesive with conjunctival resection and superficial keratectomy in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, V; Kumar, A; Sangwan, V; Rao, G N

    1996-03-01

    Seventeen eyes of thirteen patients with Mooren's ulcer were treated with a combination therapy of local and systemic steroids, conjunctival resection, superficial keratectomy and application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. The pathology was classified as acute, subacute and chronic. Ulcers were graded based on the extent of corneal thinning, degree and extent of ulceration, and amount of inflammation. Fourteen eyes (82.4%) healed completely with formation of a vascularised scars, while three eyes (17.6%) failed to respond to treatment and either went into phthisis bulbi or healed with gross tissue distortion. Our study suggests an early intervention of this therapy with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive application for effective control of Mooren's ulceration.

  8. Aortoiliac Artery Reconstruction Using Bilateral Reversed Superficial Femoral Veins for an Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hanako; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Hatori, Kyohei; Miki, Takao; Obayashi, Tamiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is difficult and the ideal graft material is a subject of debate. A 60-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus was referred to our hospital presenting with fever and left lower abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an IAAA by blood culture and computed tomography. We treated the patient surgically for the IAAA using bilateral reversed superficial femoral veins which were shaped into a bifurcated graft. No signs of recurrent infection or aneurysmal dilation were observed for 3 years after the procedure. PMID:27087879

  9. Aortoiliac Artery Reconstruction Using Bilateral Reversed Superficial Femoral Veins for an Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Satoshi; Hirai, Hanako; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Hatori, Kyohei; Miki, Takao; Obayashi, Tamiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is difficult and the ideal graft material is a subject of debate. A 60-year-old man with untreated diabetes mellitus was referred to our hospital presenting with fever and left lower abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an IAAA by blood culture and computed tomography. We treated the patient surgically for the IAAA using bilateral reversed superficial femoral veins which were shaped into a bifurcated graft. No signs of recurrent infection or aneurysmal dilation were observed for 3 years after the procedure.

  10. Successful Angioplasty of a Superficial Femoral Artery Stenosis Caused by a Suture-Mediated Closure Device

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmete, Joseph J. Dasika, Narasimham; Forauer, Andrew R.; Cho, Kyung; Williams, David M.

    2003-08-15

    We report the successful angioplasty of an acute arterial narrowing after suture-mediated closure (SMC) of a femoral arterial puncture. A 75-year-old woman underwent a cerebral arteriogramvia a right common femoral artery puncture. The arteriotomy site was closed with a SMC device. Four days after placement the patient complained of pain in her right calf after walking. An arteriogram 7 days after SMC showed a severe focal stenosis at the origin of the superficial femoral artery involving the presumed puncture site. The lesion was successfully treated with balloon angioplasty. The patient at 6 months was asymptomatic.

  11. [Use of autologous superficial femoral artery in surgery for aortic prosthesis infection].

    PubMed

    da Gama, A Dinis; Rosa, António; Soares, Mário; Moura, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The surgical management of the aortic prosthesis infection still remains an enormous challenge for the vascular surgeon and a critical issue for the patient's integrity and life. Several techniques for its management have been devised and employed, along the years, but none of them revealed itself as totally satisfactory. This stimulates the creation of new alternatives. We present the clinical case of an infected aortic prosthesis in a 41 year old man, complicated by duodenal and ureteral erosion, in whom the autologous superficial femoral artery was employed successfully in the treatment of this most demanding situation.

  12. Estimation of heritability for superficial digital flexor tendon injury by Gibbs sampling in the Thoroughbred racehorse.

    PubMed

    Oki, H; Miyake, T; Kasashima, Y; Sasaki, Y

    2008-12-01

    The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury causes considerable wastage of racing Thoroughbreds. In this study, the heritability of SDFT injury of the forelimbs was estimated in the Thoroughbred racehorses based on the Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling using threshold animal models. New horse patients of SDFT injury at the age of 2-5 years accommodated in the training centers in 2005 were used for the analyses. Based on clinical data of 8198 horses, heritability of SDFT was estimated to be the order of 0.17 (posterior mode) to 0.19 +/- 0.05 (posterior mean +/- posterior SD).

  13. Treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. A comparative trial between placebo, Hirudoid cream and piroxicam gel.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Brunkwall, J; Jensen, N; Persson, N H

    1990-01-01

    A prospective randomized trial on the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis has been performed in 68 patients randomized to either Hirudoid cream, piroxicam gel or placebo. Both spontaneous and infusion thrombophlebitis were included. Treatment effect was evaluated using the status of thrombophlebitis, the thrombophlebitic area, pain intensity with a visual analogue scale, and side effects were registered. Both in the treatment groups and the placebo group there was a significant decrease of signs and symptoms during the treatment period. There was no statistical difference between the treatment groups and no difference between spontaneous and infusion thrombophlebitis.

  14. Superficial mycoses in Paraíba: a comparative analysis and bibliographical revision.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Guilherme de Medeiros Lins de; Araújo, Nilberto Dias de; Farias, Rodrigo Pessoa de; Cavalcanti, Francinete Carla Nunes; Lima, Maria do Livramento Ferreira; Braz, Ricardo Antonio Faustino da Silva

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of clinically diagnosed cases of superficial mycosis was carried out using individual report cards in four Family Health units in Patos-PB, in 2007. We had a sample of 197 positive records with Pityriasis and Tinea as the most incident mycoses. There was a higher prevalence among female patients who were between 11 - 20 years of age. A high number of non-identified infections was found: 46,19%. The identification of the agents of such non-identified infections is not possible as they are not infections of compulsory notification.

  15. Subintimal Double-Barrel Restenting of an Occluded Primary Stented Superficial Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lohle, Paul N.M.; Lampmann, Leo E.H.

    2007-01-01

    In-stent re-stenosis is a frequent complication of endovascular stents, especially in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Endovascular re-intervention of in- or peri-stent occlusive disease consists of recanilization through the occluded stent. In our case report, we describe the endovascular treatment of a previously placed stent in the SFA. We unintentionally passed the affected stent subintimally, in a double barrel fashion next to the first stent. The procedure was without any complications and with a successfull angiographic result. At one year follow-up the patient still has no complaints and the stent is still patent. PMID:17410397

  16. Analysis of superficial fluorescence patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer during photodynamic therapy by a dosimetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the superficial fluorescence patterns in different nonmelanoma skin cancers and their photodynamic treatment response are analysed by a fluorescence based dosimetric model. Results show differences of even more than 50% in the fluorescence patterns as photodynamic therapy progresses depending on the malignant tissue type. They demonstrate the great relevance of the biological media as an additional dosimetric factor and contribute to the development of a future customized therapy with the assistance of dosimetric tools to interpret the fluorescence images obtained during the treatment monitoring and the differential photodiagnosis.

  17. Pseudoaneurysm of the Superficial Femoral Artery in Behcet's Disease with Spontaneous Thrombosis Followed by CT Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Satoru; Akiba, Hidenari; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Takeda, Miki; Yama, Naoya; Hareyama, Masato; Morita, Kazuo; Masuda, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    1998-07-15

    A 25-year-old man developed sudden pain and a pulsating mass in the left thigh. A diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made because of four major symptoms. Laboratory data indicated active inflammation. Emergency spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aneurysm of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA). Under steroid therapy, follow-up spiral CTA showed spontaneous occlusion of the aneurysm. In the active phase of arteritis, spiral CTA is useful for the diagnosis of arterial lesions to avoid the arterial puncture of conventional arteriography.

  18. Acupuncture treatment of chronic superficial gastritis by the eight methods of intelligent turtle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caijiao; Xie, Gangong; Weng, Tailai; Lu, Xianqun; Lu, Meifen

    2003-12-01

    With the clinical manifestations and the point electric conduction volume as the indexes, the authors observed the immediate effects of the acupuncture treatment on chronic superficial gastritis with the points selected according to the date and time set by Ling Gui Ba Fa ([symbol: see text] Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), which was compared with the effects in the control group treated with the points selected according to syndrome-differentiation. A higher symptom improvement rate (P < 0.01) and a higher channel's balance-inverting rate were noticed in the former (P < 0.01), indicating that Ling Gui Ba Fa can give a better therapeutic results.

  19. X-ray photoemission studies of superficially oxidized cesium antimonide photoemitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.; Wertheim, G. K.; Buchanan, D. N. E.; Clements, K. E.; Van Atekum, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Superficially oxidized cesium antimonide photoemitting surfaces prepared in ultrahigh vacuum were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation of Cs3Sb to produce a surface with enhanced photosensitivity converts part of the antimony to elemental antimony and part of the cesium to cesium suboxide. The latter is identified on the basis of an O1 s peak at 531.3 eV, characteristic of Cs11O3. The production of Cs2O is not ruled out in this process since its signature at 527.5 eV is masked by an antimony shake-up peak at 527 eV.

  20. Superficial peroneal nerve paresis in a dancer caused by a midfoot ganglion: case report.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darrell; Dowling, Jamie; Rowan, Fiachra; Casey, Mary; O'Grady, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Ganglion cysts are common benign masses, usually occurring in the hands and feet. This report describes the case of a young female Irish dancer who presented with paresthesia of her foot due to a ganglion in near proximity to the superficial peroneal nerve. Midfoot ganglia in young girls engaged in Irish dance can limit their ability to participate. This pathology requires further epidemiological studies to investigate its prevalence. In the event of failed conservative management, surgical intervention to excise the cyst and decompress the nerve is an effective treatment to facilitate return to dancing.

  1. A Technique of Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using an Adjustable-Loop Suspensory Fixation Device.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shaneel; Getgood, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This report describes superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction of the knee using a novel method of graft fixation with the ACL Tightrope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL). After tibial fixation with either a standard interference screw or staple, femoral fixation of the semitendinosus tendon is performed with the adjustable-loop suspensory fixation device, which allows for both initial graft tensioning and re-tensioning after cyclical knee range of motion. This provides the ability for the graft to accommodate for resultant soft-tissue creep and stress relaxation, thereby allowing for optimal soft-tissue tension and reduction in laxity at the end of the procedure.

  2. Tension neuropathy of the superficial peroneal nerve: associated conditions and results of release.

    PubMed

    Johnston, E C; Howell, S J

    1999-09-01

    We reviewed eight patients who sustained superficial peroneal nerve neuralgia after an inversion ankle sprain. Surgical exploration found anatomic abnormalities that tethered the nerve from movement during plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle. Most patients' pain improved dramatically after release and anterior transposition of the nerve. Seven joints also underwent arthroscopy, which showed intra-articular disease that was consistent with the original trauma. Five patients had reflex sympathetic dystrophy, three of which resolved after nerve release. Nerve conduction studies were not helpful. Careful physical examination and local nerve blocks were most important in making the diagnosis and prescribing treatment. All conservative measures should be exhausted before surgery is considered.

  3. Effects of sodium-hyaluronate and glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate on remodeling stage of tenotomized superficial digital flexor tendon in rabbits: a clinical, histopathological, ultrastructural, and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Meimandiparizi, Abdul-Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sodium-hyaluronate (NaH) combined with glucosamine HCl-chondroitin sulfate (GlcN-CS) on the post-surgical repair of tendon rupture on day 84 post injury. Twenty white New Zealand female rabbits were divided randomly into two equal groups of injured treated and injured untreated. After tenotomy and surgical repair, using the modified Kessler technique and running pattern, the injured legs were casted for 14 days. NaH was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on days 3, 7, and 10 and was followed by daily oral administration of GlcN-CS on days 3 to 23 post injury. The control animals received normal saline injection and oral placebo similarly. The weight of the animals, tendon diameter, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were conducted for 12 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized 84 days post injury and the tendons were evaluated at macroscopic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural level and were assessed for biomechanical and percentage dry-weight parameters. Treatment significantly reduced the tendon diameter and ultimate and yield strain, and increased the echogenicity, dry-weight content, ultimate and yield strength, and stress and stiffness of the injured tendons compared to those of the untreated ones. Treatment also significantly enhanced the maturation rate of the tenoblasts, fibrillogenesis, the diameters of the collagen fibrils, and fibrillar density. These findings suggest that a combined treatment of NaH and GlcN-CS could be effective in restoring the morphological and biomechanical properties of injured superficial digital flexor tendon of rabbits and might be helpful for future clinical trial studies in tendon ruptures.

  4. Analgesic efficacy of bilateral superficial and deep cervical plexus block in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglan; Zhang, Qiuli; Zhang, Yaoxian; Liu, Zhanli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) develops in patients with chronic renal failure. This study aimed to compare analgesic efficacy in SHPT patients who undergo subtotal parathyroidectomy after superficial versus deep cervical plexus block. Methods Sixty chronic renal failure patients with SPHT scheduled for subtotal parathyroidectomy were randomized to receive general anesthesia (group GA), general anesthesia plus bilateral superficial and deep cervical plexus block (group BD), or general anesthesia plus bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (group BS) (n = 20). Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block or combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine was administered. Postoperative pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS). Results VAS score at 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours after operation was 3.71 ± 0.60, 2.72 ± 0.54, 2.17 ± 0.75 in BS group; 4.00 ± 0.28, 2.89 ± 0.21, and 2.46 ± 1.01 in BD group, significantly lower than in GA group (6.50 ± 0.50, 5.02 ± 0.54, and 4.86 ± 0.51, respectively). The dosage of tramadol was 109.0 ± 35.2 mg in BS group and 93.0 ± 24.52 mg in BD group, significantly lower than in GA group (300.0 ± 27.13 mg). The incidence of complications in GA group (90%) was significantly higher than in BS group (30%) and BD group (15%). Serum glucose and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher at 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours after operation, but returned to baseline levels at 24 hours after operation. Conclusion Superficial cervical plexus block or combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block effectively reduces postoperative pain, stress response, and complications in SHPT patients who undergo subtotal parathyroidectomy. PMID:26665128

  5. Blue Laser Imaging-Bright Improves Endoscopic Recognition of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomie, Akira; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kitae, Hiroaki; Majima, Atsushi; Horii, Yusuke; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Onozawa, Yuriko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic recognition of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using four different methods (Olympus white light imaging (O-WLI), Fujifilm white light imaging (F-WLI), narrow band imaging (NBI), and blue laser imaging- (BLI-) bright). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 25 superficial ESCCs that had been examined using the four different methods. Subjective evaluation was provided by three endoscopists as a ranking score (RS) of each image based on the ease of detection of the cancerous area. For the objective evaluation we calculated the color difference scores (CDS) between the cancerous and noncancerous areas with each of the four methods. Results. There was no difference between the mean RS of O-WLI and F-WLI. The mean RS of NBI was significantly higher than that of O-WLI and that of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of F-WLI. Moreover, the mean RS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of NBI. Furthermore, in the objective evaluation, the mean CDS of BLI-bright was significantly higher than that of O-WLI, F-WLI, and NBI. Conclusion. The recognition of superficial ESCC using BLI-bright was more efficacious than the other methods tested both subjectively and objectively. PMID:27738428

  6. The Distribution of Phosphatidylcholine Species in Superficial-Type Pharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Shinriki, Satoru; Masaki, Noritaka; Hirano, Shigeru; Kitamura, Morimasa; Muto, Manabu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Juichi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Superficial-type pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (STPSCC) is defined as carcinoma in situ or microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma without invasion to the muscular layer. An exploration of the biological characteristics of STPSCC could uncover the invasion mechanism of this carcinoma. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) in combination with fatty acids is considered to play an important role in cell motility. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is especially suitable for phospholipid analysis because this technique can distinguish even fatty acid compositions. Study Design. IMS analysis of frozen human specimens. Methods. IMS analysis was conducted to elucidate the distribution of PC species in STPSCC tissues. STPSCC tissue sections from five patients were analyzed, and we identified the signals that showed significant increases in the subepithelial invasive region relative to the superficial region. Results. Three kinds of PC species containing arachidonic acid, that is, PC (16:0/20:4), PC (18:1/20:4), and PC (18:0/20:4), were increased in the subepithelial invasive region. Conclusion. These results may be associated with the invasion mechanism of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:28373982

  7. Improved Efficacy of Liposomal Doxorubicin Treatment of Superficial Tumors by Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiong; Angang, Ding; Xia, Gong; Yinzhu, Zhao; Jia, Li; Guofeng, Shen; Yazhu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic thermotherapy on the targeted delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to superficial tumors, local drug concentrations in tumor tissue, and the curative effect of chemotherapy. Twenty rabbits with VX2 tumors transplanted into the superficial muscle of the hind limb were randomly assigned to the following 4 treatment groups: (1) free doxorubicin, (2) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, (3) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 41 °C thermotherapy, and (4) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 43 °C thermotherapy. Ultrasonic thermotherapy was delivered at 41 °C to 43 °C. Plasma, tumor, and organ/tissue homogenates were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography to determine doxorubicin concentrations. The drug concentration in plasma and tumor tissue was significantly higher in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus thermotherapy group than in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride and free doxorubicin groups, but there were no significant differences among the 4 groups in the concentration in heart or kidney tissue. Combining thermotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride chemotherapy significantly increased the concentration of the drug in tumor tissue. The doxorubicin concentration was significantly higher in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 41 °C thermotherapy group.

  8. Damage and Recovery of Hair Cells in Fish Canal (But Not Superficial) Neuromasts after Gentamicin Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Jiakun; Yan, Hong Young; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrating the presence of two types of sensory hair cells in the ear of a telcost fish (Astronotus ocellatus, the oscar) indicates that hair cell heterogeneity may exist not only in amniotic vertebrates but also in anamniotes. Here we report that a similar heterogeneity between hair cell types may also occur in the other mechanosensory organ of the oscar, the lateral line. We exposed oscars to the aminoglycoside (ototoxic) antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and found damaged sensory hair cells in one class of the lateral line receptors, the canal neuromasts, but not in the other class, the superficial neuromasts. This effect was not due to the canal environment. Moreover, new ciliary bundles on hair cells of the canal neuromasts were found after, and during, gentamicin exposure. The pattern of hair cell destruction and recovery in canal neuromasts is similar to that of type 1-like hair cells found in the striolar region of the utricle and lagena of the oscar after gentamicin treatment. These results suggest that the hair cells in the canal and superficial neuromasts may be similar to type 1-like and type 2 hair cells, respectively, in the fish ear.

  9. Fotometría superficial de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.; Forte, J. C.

    Se presenta fotometría superficial multicolor de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A. Esta galaxia, un miembro del Cúmulo de Fornax que no ha sido estudiado previamente, muestra una morfología muy particular: una distribución estelar subyacente de bajo brillo superficial (LSB) con varias manchas brillantes dispuestas en una estructura anular deformada. Por sus colores muy azules se infiere que estas son zonas de formación estelar reciente. Al norte del cuerpo principal de la galaxia, y conectado con éste mediante filamentos LSB, hay un objeto de isofotas aproximadamente circulares. Este objeto tiene en sí mismo algunas zonas brillantes, pero su población estelar subyacente es significativamente más azul que la del cuerpo principal de la galaxia. Esto indica que ambos objetos han tenido distintas historias evolutivas. Estructuralmente, el objeto del norte es muy similar a algunas de las galaxias elípticas enanas más débiles que pueblan el Cúmulo de Fornax. Se discute la posible relación entre este objeto y la galaxia en si.

  10. Imaging Features of Superficial and Deep Fibromatoses in the Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Eric A.; Petscavage, Jonelle M.; Brian, Pamela L.; Logie, Chika Iloanusi; Montini, Kenneth M.; Murphey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The fibromatoses are a group of benign fibroblastic proliferations that vary from benign to intermediate in biological behavior. This article will discuss imaging characteristics and patient demographics of the adult type superficial (fascial) and deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatoses. The imaging appearance of these lesions can be characteristic (particularly when using magnetic resonance imaging). Palmar fibromatosis demonstrates multiple nodular or band-like soft tissue masses arising from the proximal palmar aponeurosis and extending along the subcutaneous tissues of the finger in parallel to the flexor tendons. T1 and T2-weighted signal intensity can vary from low (higher collagen) to intermediate (higher cellularity), similar to the other fibromatoses. Plantar fibromatosis manifests as superficial lesions along the deep plantar aponeurosis, which typically blend with the adjacent plantar musculature. Linear tails of extension (“fascial tail sign”) along the aponeurosis are frequent. Extraabdominal and abdominal wall fibromatosis often appear as a heterogeneous lesion with low signal intensity bands on all pulse sequences and linear fascial extensions (“fascial tail” sign) with MR imaging. Mesenteric fibromatosis usually demonstrates a soft tissue density on CT with radiating strands projecting into the adjacent mesenteric fat. When imaging is combined with patient demographics, a diagnosis can frequently be obtained. PMID:22966216

  11. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  12. Cold atmospheric plasma: a new tool for the treatment of superficial driveline infections.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Lutz; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter; Wollert, Hans-Georg

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous driveline infections (DI) are leading factors for morbidity and mortality in ventricular assist device (VAD) patients. In recent years, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been safely and effectively used in clinical settings to treat topical infections. We describe the first use of CAP to treat a superficial DI. CAP was applied with the kinPen® MED plasma jet device (neoplas tools GmbH, Greifswald, Germany), in the treatment of a DI in a 66-year-old VAD patient in Klinikum Karlsburg, Germany. The patient received a daily application of CAP of 1 min for 12 days. One CAP application was administered each week for 4 weeks in our outpatient clinic after patient discharge. Laboratory tests were conducted and photographs of the driveline exit site were taken. After CAP treatment, the local infection was completely regressed without any signs of exudation or recurrence of the infection. There were no adverse side effects observed, and the HVAD logfile data did not show any abnormalities during treatment. Here, we demonstrate a successful resolution of a VAD DI with the kinPen plasma jet device. We believe that CAP has the potential to be a simple and effective tool in the treatment of superficial DIs.

  13. Imaging features of superficial and deep fibromatoses in the adult population.

    PubMed

    Walker, Eric A; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Brian, Pamela L; Logie, Chika Iloanusi; Montini, Kenneth M; Murphey, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    The fibromatoses are a group of benign fibroblastic proliferations that vary from benign to intermediate in biological behavior. This article will discuss imaging characteristics and patient demographics of the adult type superficial (fascial) and deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatoses. The imaging appearance of these lesions can be characteristic (particularly when using magnetic resonance imaging). Palmar fibromatosis demonstrates multiple nodular or band-like soft tissue masses arising from the proximal palmar aponeurosis and extending along the subcutaneous tissues of the finger in parallel to the flexor tendons. T1 and T2-weighted signal intensity can vary from low (higher collagen) to intermediate (higher cellularity), similar to the other fibromatoses. Plantar fibromatosis manifests as superficial lesions along the deep plantar aponeurosis, which typically blend with the adjacent plantar musculature. Linear tails of extension ("fascial tail sign") along the aponeurosis are frequent. Extraabdominal and abdominal wall fibromatosis often appear as a heterogeneous lesion with low signal intensity bands on all pulse sequences and linear fascial extensions ("fascial tail" sign) with MR imaging. Mesenteric fibromatosis usually demonstrates a soft tissue density on CT with radiating strands projecting into the adjacent mesenteric fat. When imaging is combined with patient demographics, a diagnosis can frequently be obtained.

  14. Responses to superficial heating and cooling differ in men and women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Denegar, Craig R; Schimizzi, Maureen E; Dougherty, Devon R; Friedman, Jacob E; Clark, James E; Comstock, Brett A; Kraemer, William J

    2012-04-01

    This investigation assessed differences between the response of men and women with knee osteoarthritis to superficial heat, cold, or contrast therapy applied with a water-circulating system or a standard heating pad, and rest. We further analyzed data from a previous study to better understand the influence of gender on the response to treatment based on Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales and a visual analog pain scale (VAS). Using a within-subject, randomized order design, 34 patients received each treatment in 1-week blocks. A KOOS questionnaire and VAS were completed at baseline and twice each week. Women were more likely to report clinically meaningful improvement in pain and symptoms on the KOOS with the use of heat, cold, and a heating pad. There were no significant differences in response to treatment between men and women for the function-daily living and quality of life subscales or percent pain reduction on the VAS. Men and women reported improved quality of life with intervention. Women are more likely to report clinically meaningful improvement in pain and symptoms associated with knee OA following the use of superficial heat, cold, or a heating pad than men.

  15. Spotlight on retapamulin in impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Keam, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    Topical retapamulin (Altabax, Altargo) is the first pleuromutilin antibacterial approved for the treatment of uncomplicated superficial skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (excluding methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) and Streptococcus pyogenes in patients aged > or = 9 months. In the EU, retapamulin is indicated for use in patients with impetigo or with infected small lacerations, abrasions, or sutured wounds (without abscesses); in the US, it is indicated for use in patients with impetigo. Retapamulin has a novel site of action on bacterial ribosomes. In clinical trials in patients with impetigo, topical retapamulin 1% ointment twice daily for 5 days (the approved regimen) was superior to placebo; treatment with retapamulin was noninferior to that with topical fusidic acid. In patients with secondarily infected traumatic lesions, treatment with retapamulin was noninferior to that with oral cephalexin, although the efficacy of retapamulin was reduced in patients with MRSA infections or superficial abscesses. Retapamulin was well tolerated in both pediatric and adult patients, and the majority of adverse events were of mild to moderate severity. Thus, the introduction of topical retapamulin 1% ointment extends the treatment options available in the management of impetigo and uncomplicated secondarily infected traumatic lesions.

  16. Communication between paired chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Simon S; Rattner, Jerome B; Matyas, John R

    2004-01-01

    The regeneration and repair of cartilage damaged by injury or disease, a major goal of orthopaedic science, depends on understanding the structure and function of both the extracellular matrix and the chondrocytes. In this study, we explored the in situ organization and potential interactions between chondrocytes in the superficial zone of adult rabbit articular cartilage. Some chondrocytes in this zone were observed close together and appeared to be paired whereas others were solitary. The shared surfaces of a chondrocyte pair were separated by a narrow plate of extracellular matrix, into which extended small cytoplasmic projections from both cells. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of major cellular landmarks, such as the nucleus and centrosome as well as some intracellular proteins such as connexin-43, tended to be mirrored about this matrix plate. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed the fluorescent dye calcein–AM dye can pass between paired cells, and that the passage of this dye can be inhibited by the gap junction blocker octanol. These results illustrate that rapid cellular communication is possible between cells in the superficial layer of adult articular cartilage, which challenges the current thinking that these chondrocytes function in isolation. PMID:15575885

  17. Microsatellite-based genotyping of Candida albicans isolated from patients with superficial candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazue; Hattori, Hisao; Adachi, Hidesada; Oshima, Ryosuke; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanaka, Reiko; Yaguchi, Takashi; Tomita, Yasushi; Akiyama, Masashi; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the genotype distribution of Candida albicans and the major genotypes involved in superficial candidiasis. The genotypes of C. albicans isolated from the infection sites of patients with superficial candidiasis (referred to as infection isolates) were analyzed by fragment analysis using 4 microsatellite markers (HIS3, CDC3, CAI and CAIII). Genotypes of the infection isolates were compared with those of C. albicans isolated from oral mucosa of non-candidiasis patients (referred to as oral isolates). Isolates of C. albicans showed 4 major genotypes for HIS3/CAI (" a " for 148 : 148 / 23 : 23," b " for 148 : 160 / 33 : 41," c " for 148 : 164 / 32 : 41 and " d " for 152 : 152 / 18 : 27). The genotypes " a "," b " and " d " were commonly found in oral (4.7, 8.8 and 7.6%, respectively) and infection (6.6, 9.2 and 15.4%, respectively) isolates. No isolates of genotype " c " were isolated from infection sites. The genotype " a " was found in the isolates from patients with genitalia candidiasis. Genotyping of multiple isolates from an individual patient showed that C. albicans from infection sites was genetically homogenous as compared with that of oral isolates, even in the same patient with candidiasis.

  18. Intraspinal hemorrhage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: link to superficial siderosis? Report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Wasserstein, Philip; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a spinal CSF leak has become a well-recognized cause of headaches, but such spinal CSF leaks also are found in approximately half of patients with superficial siderosis of the CNS. It has been hypothesized that friable vessels at the site of the spinal CSF leak are the likely source of chronic bleeding in these patients, but such an intraspinal hemorrhage has never been visualized. The authors report on 2 patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension and intraspinal hemorrhage, offering support for this hypothesis. A 33-year-old man and a 62-year-old woman with spontaneous intracranial hypotension were found to have a hemorrhage within the ventral spinal CSF collection and within the thecal sac, respectively. Treatment consisted of microsurgical repair of a ventral dural tear in the first patient and epidural blood patching in the second patient. The authors suggest that spontaneous intracranial hypotension should be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous intraspinal hemorrhage, and that the intraspinal hemorrhage can account for the finding of superficial siderosis when the CSF leak remains untreated.

  19. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures.

  20. Emotional words can be embodied or disembodied: the role of superficial vs. deep types of processing

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Ensie; Blanchette, Isabelle; Ansaldo, Ana I.; Ghassemzadeh, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Emotional words are processed rapidly and automatically in the left hemisphere (LH) and slowly, with the involvement of attention, in the right hemisphere (RH). This review aims to find the reason for this difference and suggests that emotional words can be processed superficially or deeply due to the involvement of the linguistic and imagery systems, respectively. During superficial processing, emotional words likely make connections only with semantically associated words in the LH. This part of the process is automatic and may be sufficient for the purpose of language processing. Deep processing, in contrast, seems to involve conceptual information and imagery of a word’s perceptual and emotional properties using autobiographical memory contents. Imagery and the involvement of autobiographical memory likely differentiate between emotional and neutral word processing and explain the salient role of the RH in emotional word processing. It is concluded that the level of emotional word processing in the RH should be deeper than in the LH and, thus, it is conceivable that the slow mode of processing adds certain qualities to the output. PMID:26217288

  1. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  2. Monitoring blood volume and saturation using superficial fibre optic reflectance spectroscopy during PDT of actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Middelburg, Tom A; Kanick, Stephen C; de Haas, Ellen R M; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M; Amelink, Arjen; Neumann, Martino H A M; Robinson, Dominic J

    2011-10-01

    Optically monitoring the vascular physiology during photodynamic therapy (PDT) may help understand patient-specific treatment outcome. However, diffuse optical techniques have failed to observe changes herein, probably by optically sampling too deep. Therefore, we investigated using differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) to obtain superficial measurements of vascular physiology in actinic keratosis (AK) skin. The AK-specific DPS interrogation depth was chosen up to 400 microns in depth, based on the thickness of AK histology samples. During light fractionated aminolevulinic acid-PDT, reflectance spectra were analyzed to yield quantitative estimates of blood volume and saturation. Blood volume showed significant lesion-specific changes during PDT without a general trend for all lesions and saturation remained high during PDT. This study shows that DPS allows optically monitoring the superficial blood volume and saturation during skin PDT. The patient-specific variability supports the need for dosimetric measurements. In DPS, the lesion-specific optimal interrogation depth can be varied based on lesion thickness.

  3. Efficacy and safety of superficial cryotherapy for alopecia areata: A retrospective, comprehensive review of 353 cases over 22 years.

    PubMed

    Jun, Myungsoo; Lee, Noo Ri; Lee, Won-Soo

    2016-10-06

    Alopecia areata (AA) affects anagen hair follicles, resulting in non-scarring hair loss. Since introduced by Huang et al., superficial cryotherapy has been accepted as a considerable primary therapeutic modality for AA. The aim of this study was to objectively clarify the therapeutic efficacy and safety of superficial hypothermic cryotherapy for treatment of AA. Medical records of 353 patients from 1993 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the response to the superficial cryotherapy, patients were categorized into four groups: "marked", "partial", "poor" and "no recovery". The marked and partial recovery groups were considered as responders. The proportions of the responders among patient subgroups which were defined by various patients, disease, and treatment factors were compared. Of the patients, 60.9% were classified as responders after 3 months of superficial hypothermic cryotherapy. The proportion of the responders were higher when the treatment interval was 2 weeks or less and in the incipient disease stage, with statistical significance. No severe side-effects other than mild pain and pruritus were reported. In conclusion, superficial cryotherapy is an effective and safe therapeutic modality for AA. Especially when the treatment interval is 2 weeks or less and in the first occurrence of the disease, the therapeutic outcome is superior.

  4. An investigation of the topography of the lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). 1. The superficial lymphatic system.

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, P R

    1988-01-01

    The superficial lymphatic system of the grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus is described. The description is based on dissections of 130 eastern grey kangaroos. The most significant difference found between the superficial lymphatic drainage pattern of kangaroos and that of the domestic species was the existence of large inguino-axillary lymphatic trunks in the kangaroo. Thus in the kangaroo, instead of lymph passing from the inguinal lymphocentre to the lumbar lymphatic trunks as is the situation in the domestic animals, lymph passes from the inguinal lymphocentre to the axillary lymphocentre. Apart from the lymph draining from the head and ventral neck (which passes to the superficial cervical lymphocentre) and lymph which may pass from the superficial lymphatic vessels to deeper lymphatic vessels, all the superficial lymphatic drainage of the kangaroo passes through the axillary lymphocentre. From the viewpoint of the meat inspection of the carcasses of kangaroos taken as game meat animals, pathology of the axillary lymphocentre may reflect disease in a much wider range of body regions than it would in a domestic animal. PMID:3198478

  5. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, Amy Keil; Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  6. Acute discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns in a preclinical model with laser speckle imaging.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Christian; Nguyen, John Quan; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Bernal, Nicole P; Durkin, Anthony J; Choi, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    A critical need exists for a robust method that enables early discrimination between superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burn wounds. In this study, we report on the use of laser speckle imaging (LSI), a simple, non-invasive, optical imaging modality, to measure acute blood flow dynamics in a preclinical burn model. We used a heated brass comb to induce burns of varying severity to nine rats and collected raw speckle reflectance images over the course of three hours after burn. We induced a total of 12 superficial-partial and 18 deep-partial thickness burn wounds. At 3h after burn we observed a 28% and 44% decrease in measured blood flow for superficial-partial and deep-partial thickness burns, respectively, and that these reductions were significantly different (p=0.00007). This preliminary data suggests the potential role of LSI in the clinical management of burn wounds.

  7. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  8. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  9. Branched oxytocinergic innervations from the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei to superficial layers in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Condés-Lara, Miguel; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier

    2007-07-30

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an interesting structure with diverse functions due to its different neuronal populations, neurotransmitters, and projections to other central nervous system structures. The PVN is a primary source of oxytocin (OT) in the central nervous system. In fact, a direct PVN projection to the spinal cord has been demonstrated by retrograde and anterograde tracers, and more than the 50% of this projection is oxytocinergic. This OT descending projection is proposed to be an endogenous system that controls the nociceptive information arriving at the spinal cord. However, we have no information about the specific organization of the OT descending innervations to the different spinal cord segments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the projecting PVN neurons arrive at cervical regions and then continue to lumbar regions. That is, we sought to establish if the OT projecting cells have a topic or a diffuse projection in order to obtain histological data to support the endogenous OT diffuse mechanism of analgesia described elsewhere. With this purpose in mind we combined the OT immunohistochemistry technique with retrograde neuronal tracers in the spinal cord. We applied Diamidino Yellow (DY) for the superficial dorsal horn cervical segments and True Blue (TB) for the lumbar segments. Data were collected from eight rats with well-placed injections. We only used the animals in which the tracer deposits were confined to superficial layers I and II of the dorsal horn. A mainly ipsilateral projection was observed, but stained neurons were also observed in the contralateral PVN. A large fraction of the stained PVN cells was doubled labeled but some were single labeled. Combining the retrograde tracer techniques and the OT detection procedure, we observed triple-labeled neurons. The present results demonstrate that PVN neurons send collaterals at least to the superficial cervical and lumbar segments of the

  10. SU-E-T-297: Small Field Dosimetry for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, J; Casto, B; Wang, S; Talyor, T; Wichman, A; Ku, L; Taylor, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Kilo-voltage (kV) photons and low megavoltage (MeV) electrons are the most common options for treating small superficial lesions, but they present complex dosimetry. Using a tertiary lead shield may protect the surrounding critical structures. Our goal was to quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact resulting from applying tertiary shields on superficial lesions. Method: We directly compared the beam characteristics of 80 kV (0.8 mm Al) photon setup abutting the water phantom surface and 6 MeV electron setup at 100 cm SSD. Profiles and depth doses were acquired using a 3D scanning water tank and an ion chamber (active volume 0.01 cm{sup 3}). Beam profiles were scanned at Dmax. Three lead sheets (2 mm thickness) with 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6, cm diameter circular cutouts were fabricated and placed at the water surface for both photon and electron fields. Results: The penumbra (80% – 20%) of the open 4×4 cm{sup 2} electron insert was 10.7 mm, compared to an average of 7.2 mm with the tertiary cutouts. The penumbra of the open kV photon beam was 2.8 mm compared to an average of 1.8 mm with the tertiary cutouts. For field widths 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6 cm, the flatness of the electron beams was 16%, 17.3%, and 21%, respectively, and for the kV photon beams was 1.4%, 2.3%, 3.3%, respectively. The electron depth dose (PDD) shifted shallower and the photon PDD shifted deeper as the field size became smaller. Conclusion: The penumbra of small electron fields can be improved by adding tertiary lead shields. Both modalities are clinically feasible; however, kV photons still offer sharper penumbra and better flatness than that of 6 MeV electrons with tertiary shielding. Thus, kV photons may still be a superior option for small superficial lesions.

  11. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Gastric Neoplasms in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Chieh; Hou, Ming-Chih; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Hsin, I-Fang; Chen, Liang-Kung; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2015-11-01

    The number of elderly people with superficial gastric neoplasms is increasing, but the clinical outcome of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for treating elderly people with superficial gastric neoplasms remains unclear. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of ESD for patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and precancerous lesions in elderly (≥75 years of age) and nonelderly (<75 years of age) patients.From October 2005 to December 2014, 83 consecutive patients with EGC and precancerous lesions (86 lesions) who were treated using ESD in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. There were 44 lesions in 42 elderly patients who were at least 75-years old. The following parameters were compared between the 2 groups: preexisting comorbidities, performance status (PS), lesion inclusion criteria, lesion characteristics, treatment outcomes, surgery time, duration of hospitalization, complications, and intraoperative hemodynamic changes.Elderly patients had significantly higher preexisting comorbidity rates (90.9% vs 59.5%, P = 0.001), expanded lesion criteria rates (43.2% vs 19.0%, P = 0.016), and lower best PS rates (38.6% vs 81.0%, P < 0.001) than nonelderly patients. Lesion characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The elderly had higher intraoperative hypotension rates (47.7% vs 21.4%, P = 0.011) and oxygen desaturation rates (9.1% vs 0.0%, P = 0.045) than nonelderly patients. In addition, the elderly also had a longer surgery time (107.0 ± 51.4 vs 91.5 ± 66.2 minutes, P = 0.049) and duration of hospitalization (7.5 ± 3.8 vs 5.9 ± 2.0 days, P = 0.016) than nonelderly patients. There were no differences in the prevalence rates of en-bloc resection, complete resection, bleeding, perforation, pneumonia, or intraabdominal free air between the 2 groups.Although elderly patients who underwent ESD for superficial gastric neoplasms had an increasing risk of intraoperative hypotension and oxygen

  12. [The pre- and intraoperative localization of superficially situated metallic objects in the head and neck area using a metal detector].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, S; Schmelzeisen, R

    1992-01-01

    For prevention of infections and with regard to forensic implications foreign bodies lost in the soft tissues should be taken out. A good alternative for the localization of metallic objects superficially situated in the soft tissues of the oral facial region, other than the use of radiographic means and stereotactic localization, is the use of a metal detector. This method can be used without complication before or during each operation demonstrated by two clinical cases. Its use avoids a large-scale tissue removal and exposure in the search of foreign bodies in superficial soft tissues. It is a non invasive simple method for localization of metallic foreign bodies.

  13. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder tumors in patients presenting with hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Dahanis, Stefanos; Zafiropoulos, Grigoris; Polizois, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been proposed as the initial test for detection of bladder carcinomas in patients presenting with hematuria, but the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder carcinoma has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated 173 patients presenting to the outpatient department with painless hematuria by transabdominal ultrasound and cystoscopy. The tolerability of cystoscopy was also assessed. Of 148 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 39 with bladder carcinoma were identified by cystoscopy as having bladder carcinoma, while 34 were identified by ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the sensitivity (87.1%), specificity (98.1%), positive predictive value (94.4%) and negative predictive value (95.4%) were good but not as good as cystoscopy. While the tolerability of cystoscopy is relatively low, it is still superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the bladder as a possible source of hematuria. PMID:19318748

  14. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder tumors in patients presenting with hematuria.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Dahanis, Stefano; Zafiropoulos, Grigoris; Polizois, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been proposed as the initial test for detection of bladder carcinomas in patients presenting with hematuria, but the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder carcinoma has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated 173 patients presenting to the outpatient department with painless hematuria by transabdominal ultrasound and cystoscopy. The tolerability of cystoscopy was also assessed. Of 148 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 39 with bladder carcinoma were identified by cystoscopy as having bladder carcinoma, while 34 were identified by ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the sensitivity (87.1%), specificity (98.1%), positive predictive value (94.4%) and negative predictive value (95.4%) were good but not as good as cystoscopy. While the tolerability of cystoscopy is relatively low, it is still superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the bladder as a possible source of hematuria.

  15. Late Complication after Superficial Femoral Artery (SFA) Aneurysm: Stent-graft Expulsion Outside the Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, Felice Sabatino, Ermanno R.; Dinoto, Ettore; Rosa, Giuliana La; Corte, Giuseppe; Bajardi, Guido

    2015-10-15

    A 78-year-old man presented with a 7-cm aneurysm in the left superficial femoral artery, which was considered unfit and anatomically unsuitable for conventional open surgery for multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with stent-graft [Viabhan stent-graft (WL Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ)]. Two years from stent-graft implantation, the patient presented a purulent secretion and a spontaneous external expulsion through a fistulous channel. No claudication symptoms or hemorrhagic signs were present. The pus and device cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Patient management consisted of fistula drainage, systemic antibiotic therapy, and daily wound dressing. At 1-month follow-up, the wound was closed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of stent-graft complication presenting with external expulsion.

  16. Narrow superficial injury to rabbit aortic endothelium. The healing process as observed by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, M M; Walker, L N; Bowyer, D E

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the healing of aortic endothelium in rabbits following the production of a defined superficial injury. This was induced using a fine nylon filament which removed the endothelial cells without producing significant damage to underlying structures. The morphology of the injury and subsequent repair was observed using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two forms of injury were produced (a) a longitudinal injury along the full length of the aorta which was 50-80 microns wide (about 5-8 cell widths), (b) a circumferential injury approximately 80 microns wide (about 2 cell lengths). Thirty minutes after injury the exposed tissue was almost devoid of adherent cells, but after 4 h became covered by a sparse monolayer of platelets. Occasional leukocytes were also present from 7 h after injury. Injury tracks were found to repair very quickly; re-endothelialisation being complete by 48 h and there being no sign of injury by 7 days.

  17. Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

    2014-10-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role.

  18. De quervain disease: Ibri technique to avoid superficial radial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Saraswathivilasam S; Zaki, Hosam

    2009-06-01

    Tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, commonly known as de Quervain disease, is most of the time amenable to conservative treatment in form of splinting and injection of steroids into the compartment. Resistant cases need surgical release of the compartment but with high incidence of incomplete release owing to tendon anomalies and damage to the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN). Many techniques evolved for a period of years, techniques using longitudinal, transverse, and oblique incisions, but damage to SBRN still remains unsolved. The authors describe a technique they have been using since 2004 and, so far, operated on 17 wrists without a single incidence of damage to the SBRN.

  19. Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology Drug Delivery Technologies in the Superficial Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects over 8 million people in the United States alone. Although great strides have been made in reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease the prevalence of PAD is expected to rise with the age of global population. PAD characterized by narrowing of arterial blood can be asymptomatic or cause limb threatening claudication. It has been classically treated with bypass, but these techniques have been supplanted by endovascular therapy. Plain old balloon angioplasty has been successful in helping revascularize lesions, but its effect has not been durable because of restenosis. This prompted the creation of several technologies aimed at reducing restenosis. These advances slowly improved outcomes and the durability of endovascular management. Among the main tools used in current endovascular practice are drug-delivery devices aimed at inhibiting the inflammatory and proliferative pathways that lead to restenosis. This article examines the current drug-delivery technologies used in the superficial femoral artery.

  20. Place cells are more strongly tied to landmarks in deep than in superficial CA1

    PubMed Central

    Geiller, Tristan; Fattahi, Mohammad; Choi, June-Seek; Royer, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental cues affect place cells responses, but whether this information is integrated versus segregated in distinct hippocampal cell populations is unclear. Here, we show that, in mice running on a treadmill enriched with visual-tactile landmarks, place cells are more strongly controlled by landmark-associated sensory inputs in deeper regions of CA1 pyramidal layer (CA1d). Many cells in CA1d display several firing fields correlated with landmarks, mapping positions slightly before or within the landmarks. Supporting direct involvement of sensory inputs, their firing fields show instantaneous responses to landmark manipulations, persist through change of context, and encode landmark identity and saliency. In contrast, cells located superficially in the pyramidal layer have single firing fields, are context specific and respond with slow dynamics to landmark manipulations. These findings suggest parallel and anatomically segregated circuits within CA1 pyramidal layer, with variable ties to landmarks, allowing flexible representation of spatial and non-spatial information. PMID:28218283

  1. Italy-Japan agreement and discrepancies in diagnosis of superficial gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Carla; Marini, Mario; Cevenini, Gabriele; Raffaella Ambrosio, Maria; Onorati, Monica; Frosini, Giorgio; Gotoda, Takuji; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tosi, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists on endoscopic and histopathological diagnoses of superficial gastric lesions is verified with the use of Paris and Vienna classifications. The correlations between Paris endoscopic types and Vienna histopathological categories is high in both the independent Italian and Japanese evaluations. However, the agreement between Italian and Japanese endoscopists is moderate due to the difficult evaluation of the height of the lesions, in particular when they are mixed. The agreement on the size of the lesions is fairly good. The probability of the same allocation to the Vienna categories of a single case is 87 per cent, disagreements remaining in dysplasia grading, between dysplasia, not only high-grade but also low-grade, and in situ carcinoma, and on cancer invasion of the lamina propria. The results indicate that use of the Paris and Vienna classifications has reduced the discrepancies between Western and Japanese endoscopists and pathologists in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  2. Laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery is a safe and effective treatment for superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Ohno, Keisuke; Katsuki, Shinichi; Fujita, Tomoki; Konno, Ai; Murakami, Takeshi; Waga, Eriko; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Kitaoka, Keisuke; Komatsu, Yuya; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for duodenal neoplasms has increased in recent years, but delayed perforation and bleeding are also known to frequently occur. We present two cases in which duodenal adenoma was successfully treated with laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. ESD was combined with laparoscopic seromuscular sutures. The lesions in both cases were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The patients requested resection of the lesion, and we performed laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the laparoscopic surgeon mobilized the duodenum, the endoscopic surgeon performed ESD for the duodenal tumor without perforation. The laparoscopic surgeon sutured the duodenal wall in the seromuscular layer to strengthen the ulcer bed after ESD. Histopathological studies confirmed that the surgical margins were tumor-free in both cases. The patients were discharged with no complications. This unique laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative procedure is a safe and effective method for resecting superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors.

  3. Aneurysmal wall imaging in a case of cortical superficial siderosis and multiple unruptured aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yalo, Bertrand; Pop, Raoul; Zinchenko, Ielyzaveta; Diaconu, Mihaela; Chibbaro, Salvatore; Manisor, Monica; Wolff, Valerie; Beaujeux, Remy

    2016-11-09

    We report a case of interhemispheric and bifrontal cortical superficial siderosis in association with two intracranial aneurysms. The patient had no clinical history suggestive of aneurysm rupture, no feature of amyloid angiopathy or other apparent etiology for cortical siderosis. We performed high resolution brain MRI with dark blood T1 sequences before and after IV contrast injection. An anterior communicating aneurysm showed partial wall enhancement on the posterior wall whereas a left posterior communicating aneurysm did not. In the light of recent reports of the association of wall enhancement with unstable aneurysms, we considered wall enhancement to be a marker of inflammation and remodeling of the aneurysm wall, resulting in chronic hemorrhagic suffusion in the subarachnoid spaces. To our knowledge, this is the first report offering proof for a possible link between apparently unruptured aneurysms and cortical siderosis.

  4. Unexpected motor axons in the distal superficial radial and posterior interosseous nerves: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Okwueze, Martina I; Cardwell, Nancy L; Wolfort, Sean L; Nanney, Lillian B

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of motor variations in the nerves supplying muscles of the first web space was evaluated by a visual dissection and immunohistochemical analysis from 56 cadaver hands. By microscopic visualization, 30% of the superficial radial nerves (SRNs) sent branches into muscles of the first web space. Since these unexpected penetrating branches were expected to be sensory or proprioceptive, markers of sensory and motor axons were used for confirmation. Positive identifications of motor axons (as identified by positive immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase) were made in 30% of SRNs and in 28.5% of posterior interosseous nerves. Classical teachings that the SRNs and PINs are exclusively sensory have been brought into question. Our data are in agreement with the rare clinical finding that motor function occasionally persists following devastating injury to both the ulnar and median nerves. Anatomic prevalence for this variation appears much higher than previous descriptions have indicated.

  5. A review of the current management and treatment options for superficial venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Henry T; Bush, Ruth L

    2014-10-01

    The recognition of lower extremity venous disease as a significant cause of morbidity and lower quality of life, afflicting up to 25 % of Western populations, has led to rapid and drastic improvements in treatment options as well as an increasing awareness of the disease. Superficial venous disease, a frequent medical problem encountered in clinical practices, is now a common reason for referral to providers offering a spectrum of interventions. Venous guidelines have been set forth by the American Venous Forum and Society for Vascular Surgery covering simple spider veins to chronic venous ulcerations. (Gloviczki et al. J Vas Surg 53:2S-48S, 2011) This review provides an overview of the modern management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

  6. Photodynamic therapy by topical meso-tetraphenylporphinesulfonate tetrasodium salt administration in superficial basal cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, O.; Bandieramonte, G.; Melloni, E.; Marchesini, R.; Zunino, F.; Lepera, P.; De Palo, G. )

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy of an originally developed photodynamic approach, using topical administration of tetraphenylporphinesulfonate as the photosensitizer, was evaluated in a series of 292 basal cell carcinoma lesions (less than 2-mm thick) in 50 treated patients. The lack of indication for conventional therapies was the main selection criterion. The photosensitizing agent (2% solution) was topically applied at 0.1 ml/cm2, followed by light irradiation with a dye laser emitting at 645 nm (120 or 150 J/cm2). After initial treatment, all lesions responded, with 273 (93.5%) complete responses. Recurrences were observed in 29 (10.6%). A second application of photoradiation was performed in 15 persistent lesions and 11 relapsed lesions, producing 19/26 complete responses. Our results suggest that this technique can be considered a promising alternative treatment modality in selected cases of superficial basal cell carcinomas.

  7. Improving superficial target delineation in radiation therapy with endoscopic tracking and registration

    SciTech Connect

    Weersink, R. A.; Qiu, J.; Hope, A. J.; Daly, M. J.; Cho, B. C. J.; DaCosta, R. S.; Sharpe, M. B.; Breen, S. L.; Chan, H.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Target delineation within volumetric imaging is a critical step in the planning process of intensity modulated radiation therapy. In endoluminal cancers, endoscopy often reveals superficial areas of visible disease beyond what is seen on volumetric imaging. Quantitatively relating these findings to the volumetric imaging is prone to human error during the recall and contouring of the target. We have developed a method to improve target delineation in the radiation therapy planning process by quantitatively registering endoscopic findings contours traced on endoscopic images to volumetric imaging. Methods: Using electromagnetic sensors embedded in an endoscope, 2D endoscopic images were registered to computed tomography (CT) volumetric images by tracking the position and orientation of the endoscope relative to a CT image set. Regions-of-interest (ROI) in the 2D endoscopic view were delineated. A mesh created within the boundary of the ROI was projected onto the 3D image data, registering the ROI with the volumetric image. This 3D ROI was exported to clinical radiation treatment planning software. The precision and accuracy of the procedure was tested on two solid phantoms with superficial markings visible on both endoscopy and CT images. The first phantom was T-shaped tube with X-marks etched on the interior. The second phantom was an anatomically correct skull phantom with a phantom superficial lesion placed on the pharyngeal surface. Markings were contoured on the endoscope images and compared with contours delineated in the treatment planning system based on the CT images. Clinical feasibility was tested on three patients with early stage glottic cancer. Image-based rendering using manually identified landmarks was used to improve the registration. Results: Using the T-shaped phantom with X-markings, the 2D to 3D registration accuracy was 1.5-3.5 mm, depending on the endoscope position relative to the markings. Intraobserver standard variation was 0

  8. Favorable effects of superficially deacetylated chitin nanofibrils on the wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Ryotaro; Komada, Shuntaro; Ochi, Kosuke; Karasawa, Lisa; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Itoh, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-06-05

    Previous reports indicate that the beneficial effect of chitin nanofibrils (CNFs), and chitosan nanofibrils (CSNFs) for wound healing. In this study, the wound healing effects of superficially deacetylated chitin nanofibrils (SDACNFs) were evaluated using an experimental model. In the experiments using circular excision wound model, SDACNFs induced re-epithelium and proliferation of the fibroblasts and collagen tissue. In the chitin, CNFs, and CSNFs, on the other hand, the e-epithelium and proliferation of the fibroblasts and collagen tissue were not induced perfectly compared with the SDACNFs group. In particular, re-epithelization was observed on day 4 in the only SDACNF group. Moreover, SDACNFs did not induce severe systemic inflammation in the linear incision wound model. The data indicated that SDACNFs effectively induced the proliferation and re-modeling phases compared with chitin, CNFs, and CSNFs in the wound. These data indicate that SDACNFs can be beneficial as a new biomaterial for wound healing.

  9. Superficial radial neuropathy and brachioradial motor nerve palsy associated with proximal radius osteochondroma.

    PubMed

    Oz, Oğuzhan; Yücel, Mehmet; Ulaş, Umit; Eroğlu, Erdal; Odabaşi, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The cutaneous branch of the radial nerve (superficial radial nerve, SRN) might be compressed or injured at various anatomical sites along its course in the forearm. Compression of the SRN occurring at the proximal third of the forearm is unusual. A 22-year-old man was admitted with pain and paraesthesia over the lateral aspect of his right wrist and thumb and pain at the elbow for six months. In electrodiagnostic testing, a sensory nerve action potential from the right SRN could not be recorded, while it was normal on the left. In a needle electromyography study, denervation potentials have been seen in the right brachioradial muscle and a decrease in interference pattern signals was also found. An exophytic lesion of the proximal radius was observed in radiographs. Computed tomography evaluation revealed an osteochondroma of the proximal radius. Neuropathies of the SRN and the brachioradial motor branch of the radial nerve are thought to be associated with proximal radial osteochondroma.

  10. Partial breast reconstruction with mini superficial inferior epigastric artery and mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Aldona J; Eldor, Liron

    2010-08-01

    In this study, partial breast reconstruction was undertaken after breast conservation therapy using mini abdominal free flaps on both an immediate and delayed basis.Patient demographics, oncologic status, reconstructive data, and complications were collected from medical records.Twelve patients (age range 39-60) were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. Ten mini superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps and 2 mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps were used (7 immediate and 5 delayed reconstructions). No flap lost, 1 minor abdominal wound dehiscence, and no local or distant recurrences were noted. Good to excellent results were reported by 91% of the women.In properly selected patients with high motivation toward breast conservation, tailored abdominal mini-free flaps can safely and satisfactorily be implemented for the reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects. Patients should be comprehensively educated on the potential future implications of using the abdominal donor site for partial breast reconstruction.

  11. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  12. Three-dimensional Superficial Liposculpture of the Hips, Flank, and Thighs

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Silvestri, Alessandro; Trisliana Perdanasari, Aurelia; Han, Sheng; Torresetti, Matteo; di Benedetto, Giovanni; Castello, Manuel Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the last 3 decades, liposuction has become a mainstay of the plastic surgeon’s armamentarium, and the technique has evolved considerably. We retrospectively review all of the liposuction procedures that we performed over the past 20 years. Methods: The principles of superficial 3-dimensional liposuction with respect to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of patients scheduled to undergo liposuction of the hips, flanks, and thighs were described. Results: A total of 4000 patient charts were reviewed. The results indicated that 50 patients experienced a postsurgical seroma that was resolved after syringe aspirations. One patient developed a major mycobacterial infection that was resolved after antibiotic therapy. Twenty patients complained of minor asymmetries that were corrected 6 months later under local anesthesia; 18 patients suffered from minor skin irregularities, which improved after lipofilling. In 6 cases, transient hyperpigmentation (6–12 months) of the skin before the use of suction drainages in the removal of large adiposities in patients with light skin was experienced, and in 2 cases, transient paresthesia (8 and 10 months) was experienced. No skin necrosis, deep vein thrombosis, or death occurred. Conclusions: If performed correctly, 3-dimensional superficial liposuction of the trunk, hips, and thighs can yield very satisfying outcomes because of the excellent contour and the enhanced skin retraction provided by the thin cutaneous adipose flap. Three-dimensional liposuction is a reliable method with proven results. A careful application of the technique combined with accurate surgical planning, a thorough preoperative explanation of real expectations, and postoperative care is crucial. PMID:25674372

  13. Evaluating the Efficacy of a Sternocleidomastoid Flap via Galvanic Skin Responses in Superficial Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Basut, Oguz; Noyan, Behzat; Demirci, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of flaps via measurement of galvanic skin responses (GSR) in patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy either with or without sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle flaps. Retrospective study design was used. The setting included University of Uludag School of Medicine Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients who had undergone superficial parotidectomy for benign diseases in our clinic between June 2003 and August 2006 were included in the study. SCM muscle flaps were used in four patients. The GSR of the patients were measured using a MP 30 System. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the analysis of data. There were complaints that resembled Frey's syndrome in three patients in whom flaps had not been performed. Patients with flaps had no complaints. In patients with flaps, no significant GSR changes were observed between the control and operated sides (P > 0.05). In patients without flaps, the GSR levels were significantly higher on the operated side compared to the control side (P < 0.05). GSR values on the control side did not show any differences between patients with and without a flap. However, there were significantly higher GSR values for the operated side in patients without flaps compared to patients with flaps (P < 0.05). Application of a SCM flap is an efficient method by which to prevent Frey's syndrome, and the GSR test is beneficial both in diagnosiing and determining the severity of the disease as well as evaluating the efficacy of surgical techniques used to prevent Frey's syndrome.

  14. 21-year retrospective study of the prevalence of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in patients suspected of superficial mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Anna B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the genus Scopulariopsis, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is the most common aetiological agent of infections in humans. It usually affects nails and is one of the commonest moulds associated with onychomycoses. Other forms of infections (skin, subcutaneous, deep tissues, and disseminated infections) have also been described. Aim To examine the prevalence of S. brevicaulis in clinical materials obtained from patients suspected of keratinized tissues mycoses. Material and methods The analysis of the prevalence of S. brevicaulis in clinical specimens was based on mycological test's results carried out for patients who were referred with a suspicion of superficial mycoses to the Department of Mycology, Chair of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College from 1992 till 2012. Results In the years 1992–2012 16,815 clinical samples (nail scrapings, nail swabs, skin scrapings, skin swabs, hair) were collected. Pathogenic fungi were detected in 7193 samples and S. brevicaulis was present in 255 (3.5%). The prevalence of S. brevicaulis in males and females was comparable. The species was most often isolated from toenails (80%), both from males and females. In the analysed period we observed a decrease in the prevalence of S. brevicaulis. In most cases (60%) S. brevicaulis occurred alone in 40% of S. brevicaulis positive cultures, other fungi were also isolated. The fungi most frequently isolated with S. brevicaulis were Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Penicillium sp., Candida sp., and Aspergillus sp. Conclusions Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is not a common cause of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, but is a typical mould associated with toenail onychomycosis. A proper identification of this species in onychomycoses is essential for the implementation of effective antifungal therapy. PMID:26161060

  15. SU-E-I-87: Calibrating Cherenkov Emission to Match Superficial Dose in Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R; Pogue, B; Glaser, A; Gladstone, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Through Monte Carlo simulations and phantom studies, the dominant factors affecting the calibration of superficial Cherenkov intensity to absolute surface dose was investigated, including tissue optical properties, curvatures, beam properties and imaging angle. Methods: The phasespace files for the TrueBeam system from Varian were used in GAMOS (a GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulation toolkit) to simulate surface emission Cherenkov signals and the correlated deposited dose. The parameters examined were: i) different tissue optical properties (skin color from light to dark), ii) beam types (X-ray and electron beam), iii) beam energies, iv) thickness of tissues (2.5 cm to 20 cm), v) SSD (80 cm to 120 cm), vi) field sizes (0.5×0.5 cm2 to 20×20 cm2), vii) entrance/exit sides, viii) curvatures (cylinders with diameters from 2.5 cm to 20cm) and ix) imaging angles (0 to 90 degrees). In a specific case, for any Cherenkov photon emitted from the surface, the original position and direction, final position and direction and energy were recorded. Similar experimental measurements were taken in a range of the most pertinent parameters using tissue phantoms. Results: Combining the dose distribution and sampling sensitivity of Cherenkov emission, quantitatively accurate calibration factors (the amount of radiation dose represented by a single Cherenkov photon) were calculated. The data showed relatively large dependence upon different optical properties, curvature, entrance/exit and beam types. For a diffusive surface, the calibration factor was insensitive to imaging angles smaller than 60 degrees. Normalization with the reflectance image was experimentally validated as a simple and accurate method for calibrations of different optical properties. Conclusion: This study sheds light on how and to what extent different conditions affect the calibration from Cherenkov intensity to absolute superficial dose and provides practical solutions to allow quantitative Cherenkov

  16. An autopsy case of cortical superficial siderosis with persistent abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Torii, Youta; Iritani, Shuji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Habuchi, Chikako; Umeda, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Mimuro, Maya; Ozaki, Norio; Yoshida, Mari; Fujita, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, MRI has revealed cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), which exhibits hemosiderin deposition in only the cortical surface. However, the associations between the histological findings and clinical symptoms of cSS remain unclear. We herein report an autopsy case of a 75-year-old Japanese man with cSS with persistent abnormal behavior according to cognitive impairment, hallucination and delusion. At 73 years of age, the patient presented with unusual behavior that indicated auditory hallucination and delusion. One year later, he was admitted to the hospital for malignant lymphoma. On admission, cognitive impairment was detected by a screening test. Soon after hospitalization, he presented with active delirium including visual hallucination and delusion. The patient's excited behavior was improved by the administration of a major tranquilizer. However, the abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment persisted. At 75 years of age, he died of heart failure. A neuropathological investigation revealed hemosiderin depositions in the superficial layer of the cortex in the medial and lateral frontal lobe, the lateral temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, and the medial and lateral occipital lobe. Neuritic plaques and diffuse plaques were extensively observed, which corresponded to Braak stage C and CERAD B, although NFTs were observed that corresponded to Braak stage II. Cortical amyloid angiopathy was not observed in any regions. Ischemic change of brain was also mild. Our report suggests that localized deposition of hemosiderin in the cortex might affect the manifestation of cognitive impairments and hallucination. Further clinicopathological studies are needed to clarify the clinical manifestations of patients with cSS.

  17. Examination of the restoration of epithelial barrier function following superficial keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Audrey E K; Sippel, Kimberly C; Zieske, James D

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 h to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was applied to all eyes, experimental and control, for 15 min at the time of sacrifice. This compound does not penetrate through intact tight junctions. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed with anti-laminin, a marker of basement membrane; fluorescein-conjugated streptavidin to detect the biotinylated marker; and anti-occludin and anti-ZO-1, markers of tight junctions. Epithelial wound closure was observed at 36-42 h after wounding. LC-Biotin did not penetrate the intact epithelium. Upon wounding, LC-Biotin penetrated into the stroma subjacent and slightly peripheral to the wound area. This pattern was present from 4-48 h post-wounding. The area of LC-Biotin localization decreased with time and the functional barrier was restored by 72 h. Occludin and ZO-1 were present at all time points. The number of cell layers expressing these proteins appeared to increase at 48 and 72 h. Continuous laminin localization was not observed until at least 7 days after wounding. Barrier function is restored within 1-1.5 days after epithelial wound closure. The loss of barrier function does not extend beyond the edge of the original wound. The restoration of barrier function does not appear to correlate with reassembly of the basement membrane in this model.

  18. [Superficial mycoses in patients from Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, period 2002-2012].

    PubMed

    Lemus-Espinoza, Druvic; Teresa Maniscalchi, María; Villarroel, Oskarina; Bónoli, Stefano B; Wahab, Fadi; García, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. These diseases are distributed in Venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. The aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of Anzoátegui state, Venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. A total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. The overall prevalence was 30.9%. The most frequent were dermatophytosis (44.7%). M. canis produced 148 cases of tinea capitis. Three dermatophytic agents represented 95% of all cases, with a significant predominance of T. mentagrophytes with 50%. Candidosis occurred in 28.4%. C. albicans, and the C. parapsilosis complex, were responsible for 80% of the cases. The other species identified were C. tropicalis (n = 41, 11.0%), C. glabrata (n = 10, 2.7%), C. guilliermondii (n = 6, 1.6%), C. krusei (n = 4, 1.1%). Pityriasis versicolor occurred in 22.4% of the cases studied, and less frequently were present onychomycosis produced by a non dermatophytic mold: Fusarium oxysporum (n = 34, 65.4%), Aspergillus terreus (n=16, 30.8%) and Scytalidium dimidiatum (n=2; 3.8%). Rare cases of Trichosporon onychomycosis (0.5%) and one case of black tinea were also found. Health education in the population is recommended to promote measures to prevent transmission of these fungi and prevent the spread of this silent public health problem.

  19. Measurement and modelling of protoporphyrin IX photo-oxidation during superficial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dominic J.; Stringer, Mark R.; Crum, William R.; Collins, P.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT) has important implications for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. The reduction in sensitizer concentration during illumination progressively reduces the effectiveness of therapy and, ultimately, limits the destruction of the host tissue. In the course of our studies of the effects of PDT upon superficial skin disorders, following topical application of 5- aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), we routinely record the surface fluorescence emission of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) before, during, and after therapy, in order to monitor the sensitizer photo-oxidation. It is important, therefore, to establish that measurements made in this way are representative of the variation in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. We have developed a time- dependent Monte-Carlo model to simulate PpIX photo-oxidation during either low intensity laser (488 nm) or white light irradiation of plaque psoriasis. We have assessed the effect of differences in the optical properties of tissue at sites on different patients prior to treatment, and the effect of these variations on the surface fluorescence signal detected during treatment, at sites within the same plaque. The results show that the PpIX fluorescence intensity recorded from plaque psoriasis is an accurate indicator of the relative concentration of the sensitizer and can be used as a direct comparison between different sites and different patients. Also, the reduction in fluorescence emission during PDT is an effective measure of the depletion in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. These results illustrate that the light dose required to achieve significant PpIX photo-oxidation is significantly lower than that often adopted for the treatment of superficial skin conditions.

  20. Argon plasma coagulation for superficial esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in high-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Kumiko; Tanabe, Satoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Sasaki, Tohru; Katada, Chikatoshi; Azuma, Mizutomo; Nakatani, Kento; Naruke, Akira; Kim, Myungchul; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness and safety of argon plasma coagulation (APC) for superficial esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (SESC) in high-risk patients. METHODS: We studied 17 patients (15 men and 2 women, 21 lesions) with SESC in whom endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and open surgery were contraindicated from March 1999 through February 2009. None of the patients could tolerate prolonged EMR/ESD or open surgery because of severe concomitant disease (e.g., liver cirrhosis, cerebral infarction, or ischemic heart disease) or scar formation after EMR/ESD and chemoradiotherapy. After conventional endoscopy, an iodine stain was sprayed on the esophageal mucosa to determine the lesion margins. The lesion was then ablated by APC. We retrospectively studied the treatment time, number of APC sessions per site, complications, presence or absence of recurrence, and time to recurrence. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 36 mo (range: 6-120 mo). All of the tumors were macroscopically classified as superficial and slightly depressed type (0-IIc). The preoperative depth of invasion was clinical T1a (mucosal cancer) for 19 lesions and clinical T1b (submucosal cancer) for 2. The median treatment time was 15 min (range: 10-36 min). The median number of treatment sessions per site was 2 (range: 1-4). The median hospital stay was 14 d (range: 5-68 d). Among the 17 patients (21 lesions), 2 (9.5%) had recurrence and underwent additional APC with no subsequent evidence of recurrence. There were no treatment-related complications, such as bleeding or perforation. CONCLUSION: APC is considered to be safe and effective for the management of SESC that cannot be resected endoscopically because of underlying disease, as well as for the control of recurrence after EMR and local recurrence after chemoradiotherapy. PMID:23082058

  1. Bifurcated Superficial Temporal Artery Island Flap for the Reconstruction of a Periorbital Burn: An Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Elbatawy, Amr; Aly, Gaber M.; Ayad, Wael; Helmy, Yasser; Helmy, Emad; Sholkamy, Khallad; Dahshan, Hazem; Al-Hady, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Facial burns represent between one-fourth and one-third of all burns. The long-term sequelae of periorbital burns include significant ectropion and lagophthalmos as a result of secondary burn contractures in the lower and upper eyelids, in addition to complete or incomplete alopecia of the eyebrows. Methods: A retrospective study of 14 reconstructive procedures for 12 postburn faces was conducted with all procedures performed since 2010 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Al-Hussein University Hospital, and at the Craniofacial Unit, Nasser Institute Hospital. Four patients experienced chemical burns, and 8 patients experienced thermal burns. All patients underwent periorbital reconstruction using a bifurcated superficial temporal artery island flap to reconstruct the eyebrows, correct the lagophthalmos, and release the ectropion in both the upper and the lower eyelids. Two patients underwent bilateral periorbital flap reconstruction. The mean age of patients was 29 years, and the study was conducted on 8 males and 4 females. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire completed by all patients postoperatively. Results: The complete release of both the upper and the lower eyelids was achieved in all cases, together with ideal replacement of brow hair; no complications were noted, apart from one case in which a loss of hair density in the new eyebrow was observed, combined with the partial loss of the flap in the lower eyelid. Patient satisfaction results were collected and assembled in a table. Conclusion: A bifurcated superficial temporal artery island flap is an innovative flap for reconstructing both burned eyebrows and eyelids. PMID:27482487

  2. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples.

  3. Superficially porous particles vs. fully porous particles for bonded high performance liquid chromatographic chiral stationary phases: isopropyl cyclofructan 6.

    PubMed

    Spudeit, Daniel A; Dolzan, Maressa D; Breitbach, Zachary S; Barber, William E; Micke, Gustavo A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-10-10

    This work reports a comparison of HPLC separations of enantiomers with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) prepared by chemically bonding cyclofructan-6, functionalized with isopropyl carbamate groups on fully and superficially porous particles (SPPs). The chromatographic performance of the superficially porous CSP based column was compared with columns packed with 5 μm and 3 μm fully porous particles (FPPs). At a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min the number of plates on column afforded by the SPP column was ∼7× greater than the number of plates on column (same length) obtained when using the 5 μm FPP based column. The flow rate providing the highest efficiency separation was ∼1.0 mL/min for the SPP column while it was ∼0.5 mL/min for both FPP columns. It was found that the selectivity and resolution of the separations were comparable between fully porous and superficially porous based columns (under constant mobile phase conditions), even though the SPP column contained lower absolute amounts of chiral selector. When tested under constant retention conditions, the SPP based CSP greatly improved resolution compared to the FPP based columns. At high flow rates the efficiency gained by using superficially porous CSP was accentuated. The advantages of columns based on SPPs become more obvious from the viewpoint of plate numbers and resolution per analysis time.

  4. Topical antifungal-corticosteroid combination therapy for the treatment of superficial mycoses: conclusions of an expert panel meeting.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Martin; Friedrich, Markus; Papini, Manuela; Pujol, Ramon M; Veraldi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections affect 20-25% of people worldwide and can cause considerable morbidity, particularly if an inflammatory component is present. As superficial fungal infections can be diverse, the treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient and several factors should be taken into account when deciding on the most appropriate treatment option. These include the type, location and surface area of the infection, patient age, degree of inflammation and underlying comorbidities. Although several meta-analyses have shown that there are no significant differences between the numerous available topical antifungal agents with regard to mycological cure, agents differ in their specific intrinsic properties, which can affect their clinical use. The addition of a corticosteroid to an antifungal agent at the initiation of treatment can attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of the infection and is thought to increase patient compliance, reduce the risk of bacterial superinfection and enhance the efficacy of the antifungal agent. However, incorrect use of antifungal-corticosteroid therapy may be associated with treatment failure and adverse effects. This review summarises available treatment options for superficial fungal infections and provides general treatment recommendations based on the consensus outcomes of an Expert Panel meeting on the topical treatment of superficial mycoses.

  5. The Superficial Stromal Scar Formation Mechanism in Keratoconus: A Study Using Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Zhang, Peicheng; Sui, Wenjie; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ting; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of superficial stromal scarring in advanced keratoconus using confocal microscopy, the keratocyte density, distribution, micromorphology of corneal stroma, and SNP in three groups were observed. Eight corneal buttons of advanced keratoconus were examined by immunohistochemistry. The keratocyte densities in the sub-Bowman's stroma, anterior stroma, and posterior stroma and the mean SNP density were significantly different among the three groups. In the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group, activated keratocyte nuclei and comparatively highly reflective ECM were seen in the sub-Bowman's stroma, while fibrotic structures with comparatively high reflection were visible in the anterior stroma in advanced keratoconus. The alternating dark and light bands in the anterior stroma of the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group showed great variability in width and direction. The wide bands were localized mostly in the posterior stroma that corresponded to the Vogt striae in keratoconus and involved the anterior stroma only in advanced keratoconus. Histopathologically, high immunogenicity of α-SMA, vimentin, and FAP was expressed in the region of superficial stromal scarring. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed microstructural changes in the keratoconic cone. The activation of superficial keratocytes and abnormal remodeling of ECM may both play a key role in the superficial stromal scar formation in advanced keratoconus.

  6. Treatment of Superficial Cutaneous Vascular Lesions: Experience with the Long-Pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, Kemal; Colgecen, Emine; Baykan, Halit; Ozturk, Perihan; Ozkose, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Recent published studies evaluating the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for superficial cutaneous vascular lesions have limited subjects and optimal treatment parameters have not been established. To determine the efficacy and safety of the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser on superficial cutaneus vascular lesions and analyse retrospectively our experience of a 3-year period are the aims of this study. Over the 3-year period, 255 patients were treated [189 female and 66 male; median age 35 (range 7–65) years; Fitzpatrick skin types II-V]. Twenty-six patients with spider angioma, 130 with facial telangiectasia, and 99 with leg telangiectasia were treated. A long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser was used. A test dose was performed at the initial consultation and thereafter patients were reviewed and treated at 4-week intervals for 5 months. Of those patients who completed treatment and followup, 26/26 (100%) of spider angiomas, 125/130 (97%) of facial telangiectasia, and 80/99 (80,8%) of leg telangiectasia markedly improved or cleared. We suggest that the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective treatment for common superficial cutaneous vascular lesions. However, it is not the first choise to use to treat superficial vessels on the face where depth is not the concern. PMID:23028248

  7. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  8. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  9. A Flaw in Gerontological Assessment: The Weak Relationship of Elderly Superficial Life Satisfaction to Deep Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Bryan L.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed degree of relationship between superficial and deep psychological adjustment among elderly individuals (n=86). Found only moderate correlation between shallow and deep psychological adjustment as measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale for life satisfaction (shallow) and Eriksonian-based Measures of Psychosocial Development (deep).…

  10. Assessing superficial scald risk in Granny Smith apples during controlled atmosphere storage using biomarker-based technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing and monitoring superficial scald risk at the beginning of and during storage will help fruit producers better manage inventory. Current techniques and tools do not provide an accurate assessment of whether apples will develop this costly disorder. By screening 30,000 potential metabolite ...

  11. Development of the Platysma Muscle and the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (Human Specimens at 8–17 Weeks of Development)

    PubMed Central

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C.; Peces-Peña, M. D.; Carvallo-de Moraes, L. O.; Herrera-Lara, M. E.; Mérida-Velasco, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8–17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region. PMID:24396304

  12. Development of the platysma muscle and the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (human specimens at 8-17 weeks of development).

    PubMed

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C; Peces-Peña, M D; Carvallo-de Moraes, L O; Herrera-Lara, M E; Mérida-Velasco, J R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8-17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region.

  13. Candidate biomarker discovery and selection for ‘Granny Smith' superficial scald risk management and diagnosis, poster board

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of candidate biomarkers for superficial scald, a peel disorder that develops during storage of susceptible apple cultivars, is part of a larger project aimed at developing biomarker-based risk-management and diagnostic tools for multiple apple postharvest disorders (http://www.tfrec.wsu.ed...

  14. A 7-year survey of superficial and cutaneous mycoses in a public hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; Diniz, Mariana Guimarães; Fernandes, Ana Cristina Santos; Cardoso, Fernando José Ramos; Zaror, Luiz Conrado; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the frequency of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and their etiologic agents during a 7-year period (2002–2008) in Natal, Brazil. A total of 1,717 specimens of skin, nail, and hair were collected from 1,382 patients with suspected mycoses lesions and were then subjected to direct microscopy and culture. PMID:24031755

  15. Urinary interleukin-1 alpha levels are increased by intravesical instillation with keyhole limpet hemocyanin in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Jurincic-Winkler, C D; Gallati, H; Alvarez-Mon, M; Sippel, J; Carballido, J; Klippel, K F

    1995-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a possible treatment for decreasing tumor recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR) in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (stages pTa-pT1, grades 1-3). Our study confirms the theory that instillation of KLH stimulates production of cytokines, resulting in their secretion in urine. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulates the immune cascade through a domino effect and is produced mainly by activated macrophages. The instillation program was started 5-7 days after TUR of primary superficial cell carcinoma. 20 mg KLH in 20 ml of 0.9% NaCl was instilled into the bladder each week for 6 consecutive weeks and then monthly for 1 year. When KLH is instilled into the bladder, IL-1 alpha is secreted in the urine. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. The ELISA for IL-1 alpha was established in our laboratory and showed a detection limit of 5 pg/ml. This IL-1 alpha ELISA deviation amounts to 3-7% within a series of measurements, and 5-15% from series to series. In the therapy group the IL-1 alpha secretion ranged from 0 to 30,905 pg/24 h and in the control group from 0 (collection period) to 2,472 pg/4 h. IL-1 alpha production increased significantly after KLH instillation in bladder cancer patients; however, the level varied considerably from patient to patient. Maximum production was achieved within a period of 4-8 h, decreasing within 24 h. There was a striking difference between the amount of IL-1 alpha produced over the 24-hour period in the control group and that of the KLH group. 8 of 14 patients (57%) who responded to KLH therapy had higher urine IL-1 alpha levels after 6 weeks of KLH treatment than those who failed to respond within 12 months, but the levels were not of statistical significance. The secretion of IL-1 alpha in urine is the biological response of the bladder to the antigen stimulus of KLH. No IL-2 was detected in the urine

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a superficially porous particle with unique, elongated pore channels normal to the surface.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ta-Chen; Mack, Anne; Chen, Wu; Liu, Jia; Dittmann, Monika; Wang, Xiaoli; Barber, William E

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, superficially porous particles (SPPs) have drawn great interest because of their special particle characteristics and improvement in separation efficiency. Superficially porous particles are currently manufactured by adding silica nanoparticles onto solid cores using either a multistep multilayer process or one-step coacervation process. The pore size is mainly controlled by the size of the silica nanoparticles and the tortuous pore channel geometry is determined by how those nanoparticles randomly aggregate. Such tortuous pore structure is also similar to that of all totally porous particles used in HPLC today. In this article, we report on the development of a next generation superficially porous particle with a unique pore structure that includes a thinner shell thickness and ordered pore channels oriented normal to the particle surface. The method of making the new superficially porous particles is a process called pseudomorphic transformation (PMT), which is a form of micelle templating. Porosity is no longer controlled by randomly aggregated nanoparticles but rather by micelles that have an ordered liquid crystal structure. The new particle possesses many advantages such as a narrower particle size distribution, thinner porous layer with high surface area and, most importantly, highly ordered, non-tortuous pore channels oriented normal to the particle surface. This PMT process has been applied to make 1.8-5.1μm SPPs with pore size controlled around 75Å and surface area around 100m(2)/g. All particles with different sizes show the same unique pore structure with tunable pore size and shell thickness. The impact of the novel pore structure on the performance of these particles is characterized by measuring van Deemter curves and constructing kinetic plots. Reduced plate heights as low as 1.0 have been achieved on conventional LC instruments. This indicates higher efficiency of such particles compared to conventional totally porous and

  17. Clinical system for simultaneous external superficial microwave hyperthermia and cobalt-60 radiation.

    PubMed

    Moros, E G; Straube, W L; Klein, E E; Maurath, J; Myerson, R J

    1995-01-01

    A system for simultaneous thermoradiotherapy was devised to investigate the possible benefits and/or complications of thermal radiosensitization in human superficial tumours. The system combines the well-known treatment modalities of external 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia and cobalt-60 teletherapy. Single waveguide applicators are utilized either attached to blocking trays, so that the gamma beam travels through a waveguide and into the patient (en face setup), or in a conventional way with the microwave propagation vector orthogonal to the gamma beam (orthogonal setup). With these setups a radiation fraction can be delivered in the middle of a 60-min, non-interrupted hyperthermia treatment. Temperatures and power level are remotely monitored and recorded outside the Cobalt room. Extensive measurements and testing showed that the operation of the hyperthermia system (generator, applicators, thermometry unit and temperature sensors) was not disrupted by irradiation and that the microwaves were confined to the treatment room and did not interfere with the operation of the Cobalt unit, of an adjacent linear accelerator or of an adjacent radiotherapy simulator. For the en face setup the dose distributions induced in solid water phantoms were uniform with the exception of a narrow (< 0.5 cm) region under the applicators' internal probes where 10-18% reduction exists. This dose defect is clinically smoothed using feathering techniques. The system has been successfully used without technical problems in 51 treatments in 15 patients (18 lesions) in a phase I/II clinical trial. An analysis of the thermal data showed that the temperature distributions achieved during simultaneous delivery have the same general characteristics of those achieved in conventional sequential hyperthermia with microwaves, and that the steady state distributions are maintained during the time of simultaneous irradiation. The tests performed in addition to the preliminary clinical experience

  18. Monte Carlo comparison of superficial dose between flattening filter free and flattened beams.

    PubMed

    Javedan, Khosrow; Feygelman, Vladimir; Zhang, Ray R; Moros, Eduardo G; Correa, Candace R; Trotti, Andy; Li, Weiqi; Zhang, Geoffrey G

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the superficial dose from FFF beams in comparison with the conventional flattened ones using a Monte Carlo (MC) method. Published phase-space files which incorporated real geometry of a TrueBeam accelerator were used for the dose calculation in phantom and clinical cases. The photon fluence on the central axis is 3 times that of a flattened beam for a 6 MV FFF beam and 5 times for a 10 MV beam. The mean energy across the field in air at the phantom surface is 0.92-0.95 MeV for the 6 MV FFF beam and 1.18-1.30 MeV for the corresponding flattened beam. At 10 MV, the values are 1.52-1.72 and 2.15-2.87 MeV for the FFF and flattened beams, respectively. The phantom dose at the depth of 1 mm in the 6 MV FFF beam is 6% ± 2.5% (of the maximum dose) higher compared to the flattened beam for a 25 × 25 cm(2) field and 14.6% ± 1.9% for the 2 × 2 cm(2) field. For the 10 MV beam, the corresponding differences are 3.4% ± 1.5% and 10.7% ± 0.6%. The skin dose difference at selected points on the patient's surface between the plans using FFF and flattened beams in the head-and-neck case was 6.5% ± 2.3% (1SD), and for the breast case it was 6.4% ± 2.3%. The Monte Carlo simulations showed that due to the lower mean energy in the FFF beam, the clinical superficial dose is higher without the flattening filter compared to the flattened beam.

  19. Serum antibody response to the superficial and released components of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Bazillou, M; Fendri, C; Castel, O; Ingrand, P; Fauchére, J L

    1994-01-01

    Superficial and released components were extracted from six selected Helicobacter pylori strains. The protein and antigenic profiles of these extracts were representative of the profiles found most frequently among the clinical strains and included major peptidic fractions at 19, 23.5, 57, 68, 76, 118, and 132 kDa and major antigens at 68, 57, and 23.5 kDa. Immuno-cross-reactions were seen with a hyperimmune rabbit serum to Campylobacter fetus but not with sera to Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella spp. An antigenic preparation was obtained by pooling equivalent quantities of each extract, and the antigenic preparation was used to study the antibody responses of sera from 65 French patients and 127 Tunisian patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed that the sera from French and Tunisian patients clustered into two populations, defined as antibody positive (72 patients) and antibody negative (120 patients). The antibody-positive patients were more frequently infected with H. pylori (P < 0.01) and were more frequently affected with gastritis (P = 0.05). However, no correlation between antibody levels and clinical signs of dyspepsia was noticed. The proportions of antibody-positive patients were similar in France and Tunisia. Antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera were studied by western blot (immunoblot) analysis. The antibody-positive sera revealed an average of 7.7 antigenic bands, whereas the antibody-negative sera revealed an average of 2.4 antigenic bands (P < 0.01). The antigens between 15 and 40 kDa and greater than 66 kDa were specifically recognized by the antibody-positive sera, although in this molecular size range the antibody profiles of these sera exhibited a fairly high degree of diversity. We conclude that the superficial and released components from H. pylori contain a variety of bacterial immunogens and may be useful in antigenic preparations for the serodiagnosis of H. pylori infections. Moreover, a group of antigens in

  20. Assessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Hupperts, C; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2017-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one "legal" zone of 1600cm(2) (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200cm(2)). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87log CFU/100cm(2) and 0.49 and 1.94log CFU/100cm(2), for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the "legal" swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the "legal" swabbing zone in "Halal" samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in "Halal" samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However

  1. Testing Na+ in blood

    PubMed Central

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ≥4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin concentration). There is a need for increased awareness of the poor performance of indirect potentiometry in some clinical settings.

  2. In vivo imaging of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stents for deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, A.; Schneider, A.; Keck, B.; Bennett, N. R.; Fahrig, R.

    2008-03-01

    A high-resolution (198 μm) C-arm CT imaging system (Axiom Artis dTA, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) was optimized for imaging superficial femoral artery (SFA) stents in humans. The SFA is susceptible to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. These are typically treated with angioplasty and stent deployment. However, these stents can have a fracture rate as high as 35%. Fracture is usually accompanied by restenosis and reocclusion. The exact cause of breakage is unknown and is hypothesized to result from deforming forces due to hip and knee flexion. Imaging was performed with the leg placed in both straight and bent positions. Projection images obtained during 20 s scans with ~200° of rotation of the C-arm were back-projected to obtain 3D volumes. Using a semi-automatic software algorithm developed in-house, the stent centerlines were found and ellipses were fitted to the slice normals. Image quality was adequate for calculations in 11/13 subjects. Bending the leg was found to shorten the stents in 10/11 cases with the maximum change being 9% (12 mm in a 133 mm stent), and extend the stent in one case by 1.6%. The maximum eccentricity change was 36% with a bend angle of 72° in a case where the stent extended behind the knee.

  3. Image-Processing Scheme to Detect Superficial Fungal Infections of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, Ulf; Quiskamp, Niko; Wildenhain, Sören; Schmidts, Thomas; Mayser, Peter; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of superficial fungal infections is assumed to be 20 to 25% of the global human population. Fluorescence microscopy of extracted skin samples is frequently used for a swift assessment of infections. To support the dermatologist, an image-analysis scheme has been developed that evaluates digital microscopic images to detect fungal hyphae. The aim of the study was to increase diagnostic quality and to shorten the time-to-diagnosis. The analysis, consisting of preprocessing, segmentation, parameterization, and classification of identified structures, was performed on digital microscopic images. A test dataset of hyphae and false-positive objects was created to evaluate the algorithm. Additionally, the performance for real clinical images was investigated using 415 images. The results show that the sensitivity for hyphae is 94% and 89% for singular and clustered hyphae, respectively. The mean exclusion rate is 91% for the false-positive objects. The sensitivity for clinical images was 83% and the specificity was 79%. Although the performance is lower for the clinical images than for the test dataset, a reliable and fast diagnosis can be achieved since it is not crucial to detect every hypha to conclude that a sample consisting of several images is infected. The proposed analysis therefore enables a high diagnostic quality and a fast sample assessment to be achieved. PMID:26649072

  4. Difference in the Electromyographic Onset of the Deep and Superficial Multifidus during Shoulder Movement while Standing

    PubMed Central

    Abiko, Teppei; Shimamura, Ryota; Ogawa, Daisuke; Abiko, Yoko; Hirosawa, Masaki; Momose, Natsumi; Tsuchihashi, Wataru; Suzuki, Takaharu; Takei, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current literature, it remains unclear whether electromyographic onset of the deep fibers of the multifidus (DM) is dependent on the direction of shoulder movement and the position of the center of foot pressure (CFP). In the present study, we re-examined the electromyographic onset of the DM during shoulder flexion and extension and investigated the influence of the CFP position before arm movement. Intramuscular and surface electrodes recorded the electromyographic onset of the DM, superficial fibers of the multifidus (SM), rectus abdominis, and anterior and posterior deltoid. Eleven healthy participants performed rapid, unilateral shoulder flexion and extension in response to audio stimuli at three CFP positions: quiet standing, extreme forward leaning, and extreme backward leaning. It was found that the electromyographic onset of the DM and SM relative to the deltoid was dependent on the direction of arm movement. Additionally, of all electromyographic onsets recorded, only that of the DM occurred earlier in the extreme forward leaning position than in the extreme backward leaning position during shoulder flexion. These results suggest that the electromyographic onset of DM was influenced by the biomechanical disturbance such as shoulder movement and CFP position. PMID:25850066

  5. Superficial Angiomyxoma of the Vulva in a Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Han, Myoungseok; Bae, Jong Woon; Park, Jung-Woo; Oh, So Ra; Kim, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SAMs) are rare benign cutaneous tumors that involve the subcutaneous layer. They are commonly located in the trunk, lower limbs and head or neck of women of reproductive age. SAMs in the vulva of postmenopausal women are especially rare case. Herein, we report a vulvar SAM in a postmenopausal 60-year-old woman. The patient presented with a palpable cutaneous mass in the right labium majora that had appeared 3 months earlier. The mass was slow growing and approximately 5 cm in size and resembled a soft tissue malignancy. It appeared as a well-defined multilocular cystic mass in magnetic resonance images. The preoperative diagnosis was a benign cystic lesion such as an epidermoid cyst. Grossly, the completely excised mass was 6 × 5 cm in size and well circumscribed with a multilocular outer surface, a yellowish-gray gelatinous cut surface, and a smooth rubbery inner surface. Histologic review revealed that the mass contained small to moderate amount of cellular angiomyxoid nodules and bland-looking spindle-shaped to ovoid cells without atypia. Neutrophil infiltration, which is a diagnostic feature of SAMs, was observed. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of CD34, but not of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or desmin in the SAM. The patient has been followed up for 12 months without recurrence. PMID:28119899

  6. Morphology of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in superficial laminae of the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, David J; Belle, Mino D; Cheunsuang, Ornsiri; Stewart, Anika; Morris, Richard

    2007-10-15

    If we are to stand any chance of understanding the circuitry of the superficial dorsal horn, it is imperative that we can identify which classes of interneuron are excitatory and which are inhibitory. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the morphology of an interneuron and its postsynaptic action. We used in vitro slice preparations of the rat spinal cord to characterize and label interneurons in laminae I-III with Neurobiotin. Labelled cells (n = 19) were reconstructed in 3D with Neurolucida and classified according to the scheme proposed by Grudt & Perl (2002). We determined if cells were inhibitory or excitatory by reacting their axon terminals with antibodies to reveal glutamate decrboxylase (for GABAergic cells) or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (for glutamatergic cells). All five islet cells retrieved were inhibitory. Of the six vertical (stalked) cells analysed, four were excitatory and, surprisingly, two were inhibitory. It was noted that these inhibitory cells had axonal projections confined to lamina II whereas excitatory vertical cells projected to lamina I and II. Of the remaining neurons, three were radial cells (2 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), two were antennae cells (1 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), one was an inhibitory central cell and the remaining two were unclassifiable excitatory cells. Our hypothesis appears to be correct only for islet cells. Other classes of cells have mixed actions, and in the case of vertical cells, the axonal projection appears to be a more important determinant of postsynaptic action.

  7. Evolution of a behavioral shift mediated by superficial neuromasts helps cavefish find food in darkness.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Goricki, Spela; Soares, Daphne; Jeffery, William R

    2010-09-28

    How cave animals adapt to life in darkness is a poorly understood aspect of evolutionary biology [1]. Here we identify a behavioral shift and its morphological basis in Astyanax mexicanus, a teleost with a sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and various blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish) [2-4]. Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the ability of fish to swim toward the source of a water disturbance in darkness. VAB was typically seen in cavefish, rarely in surface fish, and was advantageous for feeding success in the dark. The potential for showing VAB has a genetic component and is linked to the mechanosensory function of the lateral line. VAB was evoked by vibration stimuli peaking at 35 Hz, blocked by lateral line inhibitors, first detected after developmental increases in superficial neuromast (SN) number and size [5-7], and significantly reduced by bilateral ablation of SN. We conclude that VAB and SN enhancement coevolved to compensate for loss of vision and to help blind cavefish find food in darkness.

  8. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-07-07

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 x 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.

  9. Application of sonoelastography for evaluating the stiffness of equine superficial digital flexor tendon during healing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, N; Kuroda, T; Kotoyori, Y; Fukuda, K; Nukada, T; Kato, T; Kuwano, A; Kasashima, Y

    2017-02-04

    Sonoelastography can assess the inner stiffness of tissues. Sonoelastographic evaluation of injured equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is considered to be useful for assessing the stiffness of a lesion even during late-stage rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the sonoelastographic appearance of injured SDFTs over time from the onset of the injury. Eighteen horses were classified into three groups according to the length of time from injury onset: group A, within two weeks after injury; group B, approximately five months after injury; and group C, approximately nine months after injury. Longitudinal and transverse images of all injured SDFTs were obtained using grey-scale ultrasonography and sonoelastography. Grey-scale and sonoelastographic images were evaluated by two observers using echogenicity-grading and colour-grading systems, respectively. The authors evaluated the interobserver agreement and compared the grades among the three groups. The results indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement. Significant differences were found in the sonoelastography among the three groups, whereas no significant difference was found in the grey-scale ultrasonography between groups B and C. Sonoelastography is a feasible and useful modality to evaluate the equine injured SDFTs in vivo and to distinguish between them among the different phases even during the chronic phase.

  10. Single Superficial versus Dual Systems Venous Anastomoses in Radial Forearm Free Flap: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shuang; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Duan, Wei-Yi; Liu, Fa-Yu; Huang, Dong-Hui; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has been widely used with increasing frequency in head and neck reconstruction following extirpative surgery. The controversy of the venous anastomoses patterns still exists. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between the venous anastomoses patterns and venous compromise. Methods MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases were searched for studies reporting the different venous anastomoses patterns of the RFFF. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects models. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. Results 6 studies with 992 cases were included in this meta-analysis. The dual anastomosis group tended to have a lower incidence of venous compromise (RR = 1.39). However, the difference was not statistically significant (95%CI: 0.59, 3.24). Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that performing dual venous anatomoses consisting of superficial and deep systems conferred a tendency of the reduction with regard to venous compromise. PMID:26270854

  11. Progress on ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicator for Superficial Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Craciunescu, Oana I.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Schlorff, Jaime L.; Markowitz, Edward; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the ongoing development of a combination applicator for simultaneous heating of superficial tissue disease using a 915 MHz DCC (dual concentric conductor) array and High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivered via an integrated conformal catheter array. The progress includes engineering design changes in the waterbolus, DCC configurations and fabrication techniques of the conformal multilayer applicator. The dosimetric impact of the thin copper DCC array is also assessed. Steady state fluid dynamics of the new waterbolus bag indicates nearly uniform flow with less than 1°C variation across a large (19×32cm) bolus. Thermometry data of the torso phantom acquired with computer controlled movement of fiberoptic temperature probes inside thermal mapping catheters indicate feasibility of real time feedback control for the DCC array. MR (magnetic resonance) scans of a torso phantom indicate that the waterbolus thickness across the treatment area is controlled by the pressure applied by the surrounding inflatable airbladder and applicator securing straps. The attenuation coefficient of the DCC array was measured as 3± 0.001% and 2.95±0.03 % using an ion chamber and OneDose™ dosimeters respectively. The performance of the combination applicator on patient phantoms provides valuable feedback to optimize the applicator prior use in the patient clinic. PMID:24392196

  12. Radiation patterns of dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas for superficial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, P R; Rossetto, F; Leoncini, M; Gentilli, G B

    1998-05-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate electromagnetic radiation patterns from 915-MHz dual concentric conductor (DCC) microwave antennas that are constructed from thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) materials. Radiated field distributions are calculated in homogeneous lossy muscle tissue loads located under variable thickness coupling bolus layers. This effort extends the results of previous investigations to consider more realistic applicator configurations with smaller 2-cm-square apertures and different coupling bolus materials and thicknesses, as well as various spacings of multiple-element arrays. Results are given for practical applicator designs with microstrip feedlines etched on the backside of the PCB antenna array instead of previously tested bulky coaxial-cable feedline connections to each radiating aperture. The results demonstrate that for an optimum coupling bolus thickness of 2.5-5 mm, the thin, flexible, and lightweight DCC antennas produce effective heating to the periphery of each aperture to a depth of approximately 1 cm, and may be combined into arrays for uniform heating of large area superficial tissue regions with the 50% power deposition contour conforming closely to the outer perimeter of the array.

  13. Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid setup monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network. PMID:19494426

  14. Acoustic hemostasis of porcine superficial femoral artery: Simulation and in-vivo experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaozheng; Mitchell, Stuart; Miller, Matthew; Barnes, Stephen; Hopple, Jerry; Kook, John; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Hsu, Stephen; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Crum, Lawrence A.; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Sekins, K. Michael

    2012-10-01

    In-vivo focused ultrasound studies were computationally simulated and conducted experimentally with the aim of occluding porcine superficial femoral arteries (SFA) via thermal coagulation. A multi-array HIFU applicator was used which electronically scanned multiple beam foci around the target point. The spatio-temporally averaged acoustic and temperature fields were simulated in a fluid dynamics and acousto-thermal finite element model with representative tissue fields, including muscle, vessel and blood. Simulations showed that with an acoustic power of 200W and a dose time of 60s, perivascular tissue reached 91°C; and yet blood reached a maximum 59°C, below the coagulation objective for this dose regime (75°C). Per simulations, acoustic-streaming induced velocity in blood reached 6.1cm/s. In in-vivo experiments, several arteries were treated. As simulated, thermal lesions were observed in muscle surrounding SFA in all cases. In dosing limited to 30 to 60 seconds, it required 257W to provide occlusion (one complete and one partial occlusion). Angiography and histology showed evidence of thrombogenesis and collagen shrinkage-based vessel constriction at these doses.

  15. Uterine superficial serous carcinomas and extensive serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas: clinicopathological analysis of 6 patients.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kyoko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Rie; Maruyama, Yasuyo; Miyagi, Yohei; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    Uterine superficial serous carcinoma (SSC) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) are unique malignancies found primarily in postmenopausal women. SSC and SEIC lesions measuring 1 cm or less are categorized as minimal uterine serous carcinoma (MUSC). Less well understood, however, the clinical behavior of SSC and SEIC lesions measuring more than 1 cm. We investigated 6 postmenopausal patients, aged 69-83 years, with SSC or SEIC and without hyperestrogenism. All but 1 patient had tumors originating from the surface of polyps, including 3 patients who each had an enormous polyp occupying the entire uterine cavity. Two patients had extensive SEICs measuring more than 1 cm; the others had SSCs, including 1 MUSC. The mesenchymal cells of the cancer-bearing polyps lacked the morphologic characteristics of endometrial stroma, and the cancer glands often immunostained negatively for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Diffuse immunostaining for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was detected in 3 patients, and p53 was detected in all. Cyclin E, a downstream molecule of the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7), was detected in all patients. Microdissected cancer glands showed p53 mutations in 2 patients and a FBXW7 mutation in 1 patient. These findings suggest that mutations of FBXW7 and p53 may contribute to the carcinogenesis of less invasive tumor subtypes. Pathologists and physicians should carefully evaluate SSC and SEIC lesions involving large polyps but lacking myometrial invasion.

  16. Reliability of superficial male pelvic floor structural measurements using linear-array transperineal sonography.

    PubMed

    Roll, Shawn C; Rana, Manku; Sigward, Susan M; Yani, Moheb S; Kirages, Daniel J; Kutch, Jason J

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated reliability of measures for superficial structures of the male pelvic floor (PF) obtained via transperineal sonography. Two embalmed cadavers were dissected to identify positioning of muscles on and around the bulb of the penis and to confirm the PF protocol. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and linear thickness of the bulb of the penis, urethra, bulbospongiosus (BS) muscles, and ischiocavernosus (IC) muscles were measured on 38 transverse images from 20 male patients by three raters with varied study knowledge and sonographic experience. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were calculated with two-way, mixed effects intra-class correlation coefficients. Measures of the bulb of the penis had the best reliability. CSA of all muscles and sagittal thickness of the BS near the central tendon had good reliability. Reliability varied for rater-identified thickest muscle region and measures of the urethra. Our study suggests that structures of the male PF can be reliably evaluated using a transperineal sonographic approach.

  17. Mapping of superficial extremity veins: normal diameters and trends in a vascular patient-population.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Dan E; Kelly, Patrick; Gaughan, John P; van Bemmelen, Paul S

    2012-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of superficial extremity veins is a common procedure. To establish normal values for vein-size in a population of vascular patients and to assess if measurements remain unchanged over time, we analyzed a database with results of 28,130 measurements in 2420 separate saphenous and 3206 cephalic veins. Mean size of the great saphenous vein ranges from 2.3 mm to 4.4 mm but did not follow a tapering pattern as is often assumed. The distal calf segment is smaller than the ankle segment. The mean cephalic vein size in the upper arm (2.4 mm) was smaller than at the antecubital level (2.7 mm). A decrease in vein diameter over time was noted in many locations and this reached statistical significance (p < 0.005 for the thigh segment). The clinical significance of this is a need to repeat ultrasonic vein-mapping if more than a year elapses between ultrasound and surgical vein harvest.

  18. Subintimal Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusions Through the Retrograde Popliteal Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Saim; Sindel, Timur; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Lueleci, Ersin

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of the retrograde popliteal artery approach for the percutaneous intentional extraluminal recanalization (PIER) of long superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions.Methods: During a period of 17 months, PIER through ultrasound-guided retrograde popliteal artery puncture was performed for 39 long SFA occlusions in 37 patients. In six patients, six additional iliac artery stenoses were also treated via the popliteal approach.Results: The procedure was technically successful in 32 (82%) of 39 SFA occlusions; in 29, lesions were treated with balloon angioplasty alone, and in three, stents were also used. Cumulative patency rate was 66% at 6 months, 62% at 1 year, and 59% at 18 months. Additional iliac artery stenoses were successfully treated in the same session. Complications included two minor hematomas and two SFA ruptures, which required no treatment.Conclusion: PIER through retrograde popliteal puncture is a safe and effective method in the treatment of long femoropopliteal occlusions, with a high technical success, low complication rate and a reasonable short-term patency rate. The technique offers an alternative in cases where standard PIER is unsuccessful or contraindicated.

  19. Double-skin paddled superficial temporofascial flap for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defect.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Hidir; Geyik, Yilmaz; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    The most common causes of cheek defects include trauma, burn, and tumor resections. In the reconstruction of the defects in this region, it is essential to use similar or adjacent tissue considering the aesthetic and functional properties. For this purpose, numerous local, regional, or distant free flaps were described. The local flaps harvested from the head and neck region are the most frequent methods because of the similar skin color, texture, and compatibility with cheek.In this study, the reconstruction in a 29-year-old male patient who had a full-thickness cheek defect due to tumor resection on the left side was performed, wherein a hairless skin island was carried through the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery for oral mucosa, and a hairy skin island through the parietal branch of the same pedicle was carried for the bearded skin defect. No complication occurred postoperatively and both aesthetic and functional satisfactory results were obtained, providing the oral mucosal and natural beard integrity. Donor-site scarring and temporal alopecia were recorded as the disadvantages of this method.This technique is a useful method for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defects because of its advantages including compatibility of color and texture, reliable blood supply, requiring single-session procedure, and being able to carry 2 different skin islands on the same pedicle.

  20. Gone in seconds: praxis, performance, and peculiarities of ultrafast chiral liquid chromatography with superficially porous particles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan C; Breitbach, Zachary S; Wahab, M Farooq; Barhate, Chandan L; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-09-15

    A variety of brush-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were developed using superficially porous particles (SPPs). Given their high efficiencies and relatively low back pressures, columns containing these particles were particularly advantageous for ultrafast "chiral" separations in the 4-40 s range. Further, they were used in all mobile phase modes and with high flow rates and pressures to separate over 60 pairs of enantiomers. When operating under these conditions, both instrumentation and column packing must be modified or optimized so as not to limit separation performance and quality. Further, frictional heating results in axial thermal gradients of up to 16 °C and radial temperature gradients up to 8 °C, which can produce interesting secondary effects in enantiomeric separations. It is shown that the kinetic behavior of various CSPs can differ from one another as much as they differ from the well-studied C18 reversed phase media. Three additional interesting aspects of this work are (a) the first kinetic evidence of two different chiral recognition mechanisms, (b) a demonstration of increased efficiencies at higher flow rates for specific separations, and

  1. Laser scoop desobliteration: a method for minimally invasive remote recanalization of chronically occluded superficial femoral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneweer, Carola; Siggelkow, Markus; Helle, Michael; Petzina, Rainer; Wulff, Asmus; Schaefer, Joost P.; Berndt, Rouven; Rusch, Rene; Wedel, Thilo; Klaws, Guenther; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Röcken, Christoph; Jansen, Olav; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Joachim; Groß, Justus

    2015-02-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are most common in arterial occlusive disease. There are numerous interventional, surgical, and combined approaches to reconstitute maximum blood supply to the lower limb; however, despite intense clinical research, the long-term success rates are still poor. We present the first results with a catheter prototype for laser-based minimal invasive endarterectomy, called laser scoop desobliteration (LSD). The tip of a glass fiber containing a catheter was modified with a spatula head design and connected to an ultraviolet laser. It was tested in cadavers fixed with the Thiel embalming technique preserving tissue consistency, flexibility, and plasticity. After longitudinal arteriotomy of the SFA, a circular dissection between media and adventitia was performed. Then the LSD catheter was inserted and propagated with a progress of 1 mm/s. Afterward, the atheroma core, which showed a plain surface without substantial attaching tissue debris, was removed. Histological examination of the vessel wall showed that the dissection was performed at the media/adventitia interface. In summary, the constructed LSD catheter allowed a rapid and easy way to perform an endarterectomy, thereby offering an innovative approach in the treatment of chronic occluded SFA.

  2. Efficient construction of robust artificial neural networks for accurate determination of superficial sample optical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2015-03-01

    In general, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) systems work with photon diffusion models to determine the absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of turbid samples. However, in some DRS measurement scenarios, such as using short source-detector separations to investigate superficial tissues with comparable μa and μs', photon diffusion models might be invalid or might not have analytical solutions. In this study, a systematic workflow of constructing a rapid, accurate photon transport model that is valid at short source-detector separations (SDSs) and at a wide range of sample albedo is revealed. To create such a model, we first employed a GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) based Monte Carlo model to calculate the reflectance at various sample optical property combinations and established a database at high speed. The database was then utilized to train an artificial neural network (ANN) for determining the sample absorption and reduced scattering coefficients from the reflectance measured at several SDSs without applying spectral constraints. The robustness of the produced ANN model was rigorously validated. We evaluated the performance of a successfully trained ANN using tissue simulating phantoms. We also determined the 500-1000 nm absorption and reduced scattering spectra of in-vivo skin using our ANN model and found that the values agree well with those reported in several independent studies.

  3. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  4. The Reverse Superficial Sural Artery Flap Revisited for Complex Lower Extremity and Foot Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Schaub, Timothy A.; Concannon, Matthew J; Cederna, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue defects of the distal lower extremity and foot present significant challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. The reverse superficial sural artery flap (RSSAF) is a popular option for many of these difficult wounds. Our initial experience with this flap at multiple institutions resulted in a 50% failure rate, mostly because of critical venous congestion. To overcome this, we have modified our operative technique, which has produced a more reliable flap. Methods: All patients reconstructed with an RSSAF between May 2002 and September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. In response to a high rate of venous congestion in an early group of patients, we adopted a uniform change in operative technique for a late group of patients. A key modification was an increase in pedicle width to at least 4 cm. Outcomes of interest included postoperative complications and limb salvage rate. Results: Twenty-seven patients were reconstructed with an RSSAF (n = 12 for early group, n = 15 for late group). Salvage rate in the early group was 50% compared with 93% in the late group (P = 0.02). Postoperative complications (75% vs. 67%, P = 0.70) were similar between groups. Venous congestion that required leech therapy was 42% in the early group (n = 5) and 0% in the late group (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Venous congestion greatly impairs the survival of the RSSAF. A pedicle width of at least 4 cm is recommended to maintain venous drainage and preserve flap viability. PMID:26495232

  5. [Radiotherapy of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and superficial trunk].

    PubMed

    Ágoston, Péter; Kliton, Jorgo; Mátrai, Zoltán; Polgár, Csaba

    2014-03-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas represent a histopathologically and clinically heterogeneous group of tumors that make up around 1% of malignancies, in which soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and superficial trunk (STSET) are treated with more or less the same strategy. Over the past 30 years, there has been a migration away from amputation and radical ablative surgical procedures for localized STSET toward more conservative, function-preserving surgery combined with radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The latter complex treatment ensures equal local control to radical surgery. This multidisciplinary management includes organ sparing surgery as the main procedure but also radiotherapy of different types applied before, during or after the surgery, chemotherapy depending of the stadium of the tumor and plastic, reconstructive surgery, and last but not least rehabilitation of the patient after treatment. In this publication we overview the practical guidelines for the treatment of STSET based on the available literature from the last decades. Indication and timing of radiotherapy of STSET as well as available external beam and brachytherapy techniques are summarized. The prescribed radiation dose, the role of alternative fractionations, the combination of radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, hyperthermia or limb perfusion regards to STSET are also discussed. Practical considerations of radiotherapy, the target volumes and the role of newer radiotherapy technology in STSET treatment are overviewed.

  6. Divided and Sliding Superficial Temporal Artery Flap for Primary Donor-site Closure

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, Yuta; Seike, Shien; Hosokawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Superficial temporal artery (STA) flaps are often used for reconstruction of hair-bearing areas. However, primary closure of the donor site is not easy when the size of the necessary skin island is relatively large. In such cases, skin grafts are needed at the donor site, resulting in baldness. We have solved this issue by applying the divided and sliding flap technique, which was first reported for primary donor-site closure of a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. We applied this technique to the hair-bearing STA flap, where primary donor-site closure is extremely beneficial for preventing baldness consequent to skin grafting. The STA flap was divided into 3, and creation of large flap was possible. Therefore, we concluded that the divided and sliding STA flap could at least partially solve the donor-site problem. Although further investigation is necessary to validate the maximum possible flap size, this technique may be applicable to at least small defects that are common after skin cancer ablation or trauma. PMID:27975020

  7. Laser scoop desobliteration: a method for minimally invasive remote recanalization of chronically occluded superficial femoral arteries.

    PubMed

    Heneweer, Carola; Siggelkow, Markus; Helle, Michael; Petzina, Rainer; Wulff, Asmus; Schaefer, Joost P; Berndt, Rouven; Rusch, Rene; Wedel, Thilo; Klaws, Guenther; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Röcken, Christoph; Jansen, Olav; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Joachim; Groß, Justus

    2015-02-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are most common in arterial occlusive disease. There are numerous interventional, surgical, and combined approaches to reconstitute maximum blood supply to the lower limb; however, despite intense clinical research, the long-term success rates are still poor. We present the first results with a catheter prototype for laser-based minimal invasive endarterectomy, called laser scoop desobliteration (LSD). The tip of a glass fiber containing a catheter was modified with a spatula head design and connected to an ultraviolet laser. It was tested in cadavers fixed with the Thiel embalming technique preserving tissue consistency, flexibility, and plasticity. After longitudinal arteriotomy of the SFA, a circular dissection between media and adventitia was performed. Then the LSD catheter was inserted and propagated with a progress of 1 mm∕s. Afterward, the atheroma core, which showed a plain surface without substantial attaching tissue debris, was removed. Histological examination of the vessel wall showed that the dissection was performed at the media/adventitia interface. In summary, the constructed LSD catheter allowed a rapid and easy way to perform an endarterectomy, thereby offering an innovative approach in the treatment of chronic occluded SFA.

  8. A new HIFU probe for the treatment of the superficial venous insufficiency and varicose veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Milleret, René; Pichot, Olivier; Lacoste, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    A previous work showed the feasibility of inducing a localized partial shrinkage of venous tissues with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). A partial shrinkage of the vein wall is proposed to correct the valvular dysfunction on the saphenous vein that is responsible of the superficial venous insufficiency and varicose veins. In the present study, a new real-time imaging HIFU probe is presented which is suited for this type of treatment. The probe is composed of two HIFU elements that focus sound uniformly over a line of 7 mm-length. Geometry of the HIFU elements was calculated by numerical optimization and allows positioning of the focal line 15 mm in-depth from the skin. The probe is compatible with commercial imaging devices used currently in vascular medicine. Once coupled with an imaging probe, the imaging system shows the central perpendicular plan to the focal line. A validation of the compatibility with a commercial ultrasound imaging system was achieved using a precise model fabricated by stereo-lithography. Construction of the probe is underway.

  9. Improved impression cytology techniques for the immunopathological diagnosis of superficial viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, M; Bossart, W; Bernauer, W

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—For epidemiological and therapeutic reasons early diagnosis of superficial viral infections is crucial. Conventional microbiological techniques are expensive, time consuming, and not sufficiently sensitive. In this study impression cytology techniques were evaluated to analyse their diagnostic potential in viral infections of the ocular surface.
METHOD—A Biopore membrane device instead of the original impression cytology technique was used to allow better quality and handling of the specimens. The impressions were processed, using monoclonal antibodies and immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence techniques to assess the presence of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, or adenovirus antigens. Ocular surface specimens from healthy individuals (n=10) and from patients with suspected viral surface disease (n=19) were studied. Infected and non-infected cell cultures served as controls.
RESULTS—This modified technique of impression cytology allowed the collection of large conjunctival and corneal epithelial cell layers with excellent morphology. Immunocytological staining of these samples provided diagnostic results for all three viruses in patients with viral surface disease.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of Biopore membrane devices for the collection of ocular surface epithelia offers new diagnostic possibilities for external eye diseases. Immunopathological methods that are applied directly on these membrane devices can provide virological results within 1-4 hours. This contributes considerably to the clinical management of patients with infectious diseases of the ocular surface.

 PMID:9505824

  10. Drug-coated balloons are replacing the need for nitinol stents in the superficial femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Kitrou, Panagiotis; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    Amassed evidence from several randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses clearly support the primary use of paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) in the superficial femoral artery over traditional plain balloon angioplasty or primary bare nitinol stenting with significantly lower vascular restenosis, less need for repeat procedures, improved quality of life and potential cost savings for the healthcare system. Stents may be reserved for bail-out in case of a suboptimal dilatation result, and for selected more complex lesions, or in case of critical limb ischemia in order to eliminate vessel recoil and maximize immediate hemodynamic gain. Debulking atherectomy remains unproven, but holds a lot of promise in particular in combination with PCBs, in order to improve compliance of the vessel wall by plaque removal, allow for a better angioplasty result and optimize drug transfer and bioavailability. The present overview summarizes and discusses current evidence about femoropopliteal PCB angioplasty compared to the historical standard of plain old balloon angioplasty and bare nitinol stents. Available evidence is appraised in the context of clinically meaningful results, relevant unresolved issues are highlighted, and future trends are discussed.

  11. Reproducibility of superficial white matter tracts using diffusion-weighted imaging tractography.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Miguel; Román, Claudio; Houenou, Josselin; Duclap, Delphine; Poupon, Cyril; Mangin, Jean François; Guevara, Pamela

    2017-02-15

    Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of pathogenesis triggered by abnormal connectivity. In this work we automatically created a multi-subject atlas of SWM diffusion-based bundles of the whole brain. For each subject, the complete cortico-cortical tractogram is first split into sub-tractograms connecting pairs of gyri. Then intra-subject shape-based fiber clustering performs compression of each sub-tractogram into a set of bundles. Proceeding further with shape-based clustering provides a match of the bundles across subjects. Bundles found in most of the subjects are instantiated in the atlas. To increase robustness, this procedure was performed with two independent groups of subjects, in order to discard bundles without match across the two independent atlases. Finally, the resulting intersection atlas was projected on a third independent group of subjects in order to filter out bundles without reproducible and reliable projection. The final multi-subject diffusion-based U-fiber atlas is composed of 100 bundles in total, 50 per hemisphere, from which 35 are common to both hemispheres.

  12. Popliteal Retrograde Approach is Effective and Safe for Superficial Femoral Artery Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Takashi; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hatano, Yu; Sasaoka, Taro; Kurihara, Ken; Yoshikawa, Shunji; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endovascular treatment (EVT) using a popliteal approach is effective for superficial femoral artery (SFA) chronic total occlusion (CTO); however, its effectiveness, safety, and consequent complications are unclear. Materials and Methods: We studied 324 consecutive EVTs (in 187 patients) performed at three centers between April 2008 and March 2013, and selected all EVTs that included SFA CTO regions. A total of 91 EVTs (in 65 patients) were included and divided into two groups; “with popliteal approach” (WPA) and “without popliteal approach” (WOPA). Results: Despite higher rates of hypertension (WPA, 88.9% vs. WOPA, 69.1%; p = 0.04) and CTO length >200 mm (55.6% vs. 28.3%, respectively; p <0.01), the primary success rate was better in the WPA group (97.2% vs. 78.2%, respectively; p <0.01); however, both total complication rate and major complication rate were not significantly different. We compared popliteal puncture using a sheath and using a microcatheter alone. There were no significant differences between sheath and microcatheter use in terms of primary success rates (95.5% vs. 100%, respectively; p = 0.61) and puncture site complications (22.7% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.53). Conclusion: A popliteal approach improved the primary success rate of EVT for SFA CTO. PMID:26421071

  13. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in human gastric cancer and superficial gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; de la Peña, Sol; Ochoa-Lara, Mariana; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in gastric cancer, superficial gastritis and normal mucosa, and to measure metalloproteinase activity. METHODS: MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalization was carried out using three different factors. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative gelatin zymography (qGZ). RESULTS: 18S ribosomal RNA (18SRNA) was very highly expressed, while hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase-1 (HPRT-1) was moderately expressed. MMP2 was highly expressed, while MMP9 was not detected or lowly expressed in normal tissues, moderately or highly expressed in gastritis and highly expressed in cancer. Relative expression of 18SRNA and HPRT-1 showed no significant differences. Significant differences in MMP2 and MMP9 were found between cancer and normal tissue, but not between gastritis and normal tissue. Absolute quantification of MMP9 echoed this pattern, but differential expression of MMP2 proved conflictive. Analysis by qGZ indicated significant differences between cancer and normal tissue in MMP-2, total MMP-9, 250 and 110 kDa bands. CONCLUSION: MMP9 expression is enhanced in gastric cancer compared to normal mucosa; interpretation of differential expression of MMP2 is difficult to establish. PMID:20333791

  14. Canine superficial bacterial folliculitis: current understanding of its etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) is more common in the dog than other mammalian species. Until recently, a successful outcome in cases of canine SBF was possible by administering a potentiated amoxicillin, a first generation cephalosporin or a potentiated sulfonamide. Unfortunately, this predictable susceptibility has changed, because methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming more prevalent in canine SBF cases. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance complicates the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial agents that were once rarely used in cases of canine SBF, such as amikacin, rifampicin and chloramphenicol, are becoming the drugs of choice, based on bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Furthermore, changes in antimicrobial susceptibility have helped to re-emphasize the importance of a multimodal approach to treatment of the disease, including topical therapy. Due to the increasing frequency of identification of highly resistant Staphylococcus spp., topical antimicrobial therapy, including the use of diluted sodium hypochlorite (bleach), is becoming necessary to successfully treat some cases of canine SBF. Other important antiseptics that can be used include chlorhexidine, benzoyl peroxide, ethyl lactate, triclosan and boric acid/acetic acid. This review discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic management of canine SBF, with a special emphasis on treating methicillin resistant staphylococcal infections.

  15. Identification of superficial defects in reconstructed 3D objects using phase-shifting fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Branch, John W.

    2016-09-01

    3D reconstruction of small objects is used in applications of surface analysis, forensic analysis and tissue reconstruction in medicine. In this paper, we propose a strategy for the 3D reconstruction of small objects and the identification of some superficial defects. We applied a technique of projection of structured light patterns, specifically sinusoidal fringes and an algorithm of phase unwrapping. A CMOS camera was used to capture images and a DLP digital light projector for synchronous projection of the sinusoidal pattern onto the objects. We implemented a technique based on a 2D flat pattern as calibration process, so the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera and the DLP were defined. Experimental tests were performed in samples of artificial teeth, coal particles, welding defects and surfaces tested with Vickers indentation. Areas less than 5cm were studied. The objects were reconstructed in 3D with densities of about one million points per sample. In addition, the steps of 3D description, identification of primitive, training and classification were implemented to recognize defects, such as: holes, cracks, roughness textures and bumps. We found that pattern recognition strategies are useful, when quality supervision of surfaces has enough quantities of points to evaluate the defective region, because the identification of defects in small objects is a demanding activity of the visual inspection.

  16. Terbinafine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Balfour, J A; Faulds, D

    1992-02-01

    Terbinafine is an orally and topically active allylamine antifungal agent with a primarily fungicidal action in vitro. Its spectrum of in vitro activity includes a broad range of dermatophyte, filamentous, dimorphic and dematiaceous fungi, and some yeast species. In clinical trials, mycological and overall efficacy rates of around 90 and 80%, respectively, have been achieved in cutaneous dermatophyte infections (tinea corporis/cruris and tinea pedis) with terbinafine, administered either orally (250 or 500 mg/day) or topically (a 1% cream applied twice daily). Similar rates of cure have been obtained with oral terbinafine in dermatophyte nail infections after relatively short treatment periods ranging from 3 to 12 months. Topical terbinafine has been effective in approximately 80% of patients with cutaneous candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor. Few comparative data have been published, but generally oral terbinafine appeared to be at least as effective as oral griseofulvin or ketoconazole in tinea corporis/cruris and more effective than griseofulvin in tinea pedis. Both oral and topical terbinafine have been very well tolerated in clinical trials to date, with only minor adverse effects reported. Although further research is required to establish the efficacy of terbinafine in comparison with other available therapies, as well as to fully clarify its tolerability profile, the early results obtained with terbinafine in superficial fungal infections are very encouraging. Terbinafine appears likely to become a first-line therapy for dermatophyte infections, particularly those affecting the nails.

  17. Thin superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap and supermicrosurgery technique for face reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Goh, Terence; Cho, Jae Young; Hong, Joon Pio

    2014-11-01

    Distant free flaps have become a routine option for reconstruction of large, complicated facial soft tissue defects. The challenge is to find a flap that is pliable to provide good contour and function. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the use of superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flaps for facial defects. From November 2010 to June 2013, facial reconstruction was performed on 6 patients (age range, 15-79 years). The harvesting technique was modified to elevate above the deep fat, and the pedicles were taken above or just below the deep fascia. The mean size of the flap was 75.6 cm2, with a thickness of 7 mm; the mean pedicle length was 4.9 cm; and the mean artery caliber was 0.7 mm. The supermicrosurgery technique was used successfully in all 6 cases. Donor sites were all closed primarily. The mean follow-up was 16.7 months. All flaps survived without flap loss, and the donor sites healed without complications including lymphorrhea. The patients were satisfied with contour and function after reconstruction. The result of these 6 cases suggested that the SCIP flap can be a reliable flap for moderate-sized to large defects in the face. The use of new instrumentation and supermicrosurgical techniques allows use of the SCIP flap reliably while providing patients with a good contour, function, and minimal donor site morbidity.

  18. A spontaneous superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm possibly related to atherosclerosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yushin; Hasegawa, Shu; Nagamine, Michiko; Kasamo, Daiki; Matsumoto, Jun; Miura, Masaki; Kuratsu, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms are very rare; only four cases, including ours, have been reported to date. Therefore, the cause of them has not been studied. Case Description: A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a pulsatile mass in the left preauricular region. Her medical history included hypertension, dyslipidemia, and angina pectoris. She denied a history of head injury or minor head trauma. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography showed a well-enhanced saccular aneurysm on the main trunk of the STA. To prevent rupture it was removed surgically. The histological diagnosis was pseudoaneurysm with atherosclerosis. By the 2nd postoperative day, she had completely recovered and was discharged home. There has been no relapse. Conclusions: As all four documented patients were at high risk for atherosclerosis, we posit that a causal factor was weakening of the arterial wall due to atherosclerosis and chronic pressure on the STA from anatomical structures. Here, we present histological evidence to support this hypothesis. PMID:27127716

  19. Superficial Temporal Artery-Sparing Mini-Pterional Approach for Cerebral Aneurysm Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Sung-Tae; Yi, Ki-Chang; Lee, Won-Hee; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Jeong, Young-Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to introduce a superficial temporal artery (STA)-sparing mini-pterional approach for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and review the surgical results of this approach. Methods Between June 2010 and December 2015, we performed the STA-sparing mini-pterional approach for 117 patients with 141 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We analyzed demographic, radiologic, and clinical variables including age, sex, craniotomy size, aneurysm location, height of STA bifurcation, and postoperative complications. Results The mean age of patients was 58.4 years. The height of STA bifurcation from the superior border of the zygomatic arch was 20.5 mm±10.0 (standard deviation [SD]). The craniotomy size was 1051.6 mm2±206.5 (SD). Aneurysm neck clipping was possible in all cases. Intradural anterior clinoidectomy was performed in four cases. Contralateral approaches to aneurysms were adopted for four cases. Surgery-related complications occurred in two cases. Permanent morbidity occurred in one case. Conclusion Our STA-sparing mini-pterional approach for surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms is easy to learn and has the advantages of small incision, STA sparing, and a relatively wide surgical field. It may be a good alternative to the conventional pterional approach for treating cerebral aneurysms. PMID:28061486

  20. Isolated superficial sylvian vein thrombosis with long cord sign: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yohei; Hara, Koichi; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro

    2014-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) is extremely rare. Only single case or small series of ICVT have been reported; clinical details are still uncertain. We report a case of isolated superficial sylvian vein thrombosis with exceedingly long cord sign. A 14-year-old female with severe sudden onset headache visited our hospital. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery and echo-planar T2(*) susceptibility-weighted imaging (T2(*)SW) showed a long cord sign on the surface of the sylvian fissure. The patency of dural sinuses and deep cerebral veins were confirmed by magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and diagnosis of ICVT was made. She recovered completely without anticoagulant agents. To clarify the clinical characteristics of ICVT, we reviewed 51 ICVT cases in the literature. In many cases, T2(*)SW was the most useful examination to diagnose ICVT. In contrast with general cerebral venous thrombosis, MRV and conventional angiography were either supporting or useless. Anastomotic cortical veins were involved frequently; symptoms of gyri around the veins were common. It also suggested that ICVTs of the silent area might have been overlooked because of nonspecific symptoms, and more patients with ICVT may exist. In cases involving patients with nonspecific symptoms, the possibility of ICVT should be considered.

  1. Morphological study of the Golgi tendon organ in equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takafumi; Hosaka, Yoshinao; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2004-08-01

    The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) is an encapsulated fusiform mechanoreceptor siding in the musculo-tendinous junction of many animal species. Inhibitory function of afferent nerve fibers distributed from nearby motor units, the organ responds to active tension exerted onto the muscle. The morphological features of the equine GTO have not yet been elucidated. Additionally, there is some controversy regarding to the existence of the GTO in the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Therefore, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining and the silver-enhanced colloidal gold method were carried out to determine both the location and characteristics of the GTO at the musculo-tendinous junction of the SDFT. A GTO with a fusiform structure of approximately 3 mm in length was found in the tendinous part. The lumen of the GTO was divided into compartments by septal cells. Each compartment contained collagen fibrils, nerve fibers and Schwann cells. This is the first report of the equine GTO.

  2. Photodynamic therapy: development of a treatment and dosimetry system adapted to superficial tumors of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignon, Dominique; Jaboin, Y.; Wolf, D.; Meunier-Reynes, Anne; Guillemin, Francois H.

    1993-06-01

    Superficial tumors of the bladder or in situ carcinoma could be interesting indications of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), since a total mutilating cystectomy could be avoided. The plurifocality of the lesions requires a treatment of the whole mucose; the quantity of light energy must be homogenous and sufficient to induce a therapeutic effect, still non toxic for normal tissues. We therefore developed a system of treatment and intravesical dosimetry control so that the operator can have precise information on the light repartition in the bladder in real time to enable him to optimize the positioning of the irradiation source. This intravesical device consists of twelve light sensors with optical fiber distributed symmetrically against the walls of the bladder; the emitting source is constituted of a scattering isotropic sphere. The signals emitted by the sensors are converted into tension. The acquisition part of the system values consists of two parts : an analogic part, the values are multiplexed on a same oscilloscope track to see in real time their evolution according to the position of the emitting source. The other part is constituted by the numeric acquisition of values for further analysis. We developed, from a mathematical modelisation of the bladder, a centering program of the diffusor that indicates its position in the bladder, as well as a cartography program where the bladder is re-built by interpolation with the different lighting levels.

  3. Contact models of repaired articular surfaces: influence of loading conditions and the superficial tangential zone.

    PubMed

    Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2011-07-01

    The superficial tangential zone (STZ) plays a significant role in normal articular cartilage's ability to support loads and retain fluids. To date, tissue engineering efforts have not replicated normal STZ function in cartilage repairs. This finite element study examined the STZ's role in normal and repaired articular surfaces under different contact conditions. Contact area and pressure distributions were allowed to change with time, tension-compression nonlinearity modeled collagen behavior in the STZ, and nonlinear geometry was incorporated to accommodate finite deformation. Responses to loading via impermeable and permeable rigid surfaces were compared to loading via normal cartilage, a more physiologic condition, anticipating the two rigid loading surfaces would bracket that of normal. For models loaded by normal cartilage, an STZ placed over the inferior repair region reduced the short-term axial compression of the articular surface by 15%, when compared to a repair without an STZ. Covering the repair with a normal STZ shifted the flow patterns and strain levels back toward that of normal cartilage. Additionally, reductions in von Mises stress (21%) and an increase in fluid pressure (13%) occurred in repair tissue under the STZ. This continues to show that STZ properties of sufficient quality are likely critical for the survival of transplanted constructs in vivo. However, response to loading via normal cartilage did not always fall within ranges predicted by the rigid surfaces. Use of more physiologic contact models is recommended for more accurate investigations into properties critical to the success of repair tissues.

  4. Wound tension in rhytidectomy. Effects of skin-flap undermining and superficial musculoaponeurotic system suspension.

    PubMed

    Burgess, L P; Casler, J D; Kryzer, T C

    1993-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of skin-flap undermining and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension on wound-closing tension. Nine sides from five fresh-frozen cadavers were used, with closing tension measured at the two main anchor points, anteriorly (A) and posteriorly (P), with and without SMAS plication for minimal (MIN), intermediate (INT), and maximal (MAX) skin-flap undermining. Results indicated that closing tension was significantly decreased with SMAS plication, both A and P, for all three levels of skin undermining. The average decrease in closing tension with SMAS plication was: A-MIN 191 g, A-INT 95 g, A-MAX 83 g, P-MIN 235 g, P-INT 68 g, and P-MAX 70 g (P < .001 for all). Considering the effect of skin-flap undermining alone, closing tension decreased with wider skin-flap undermining, both with and without SMAS plication. The tension-reducing effect of SMAS plication was decreased with wider skin-flap undermining. Regression analysis determined a second-order exponential curve relating closing tension to skin excision.

  5. Surgical treatment of an exposed orbital implant with vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Basterzi, Yavuz; Sari, Ayca; Sari, Alper

    2009-03-01

    Orbital implants are often used for the correction of volume deficit after enucleation or evisceration. An orbital implant enhances aesthetics and improves mobility of the subsequent prosthetic eye. With advancements in technology and techniques, implant-related complication rates have been decreased. However, implant exposition as one of the most common complications of socket surgery is still a problem for the oculoplastic surgeon. Many factors are thought to cause orbital implant exposure: Large implants, tension on the wound, and textured surface of the implant may cause a breakdown of the covering layers over the implant. Inadequate fibrovascular ingrowth into the porous implant is the most important factor. Various surgical methods have been described to cover the defect, most offering the use of various tissues as a graft, which are not always satisfactory. We describe a case with silicone implant exposition that was managed with a vascularized superficial temporal fascia flap. According to our knowledge, this is the first article reporting the usage of a vascular tissue in the management of an orbital implant exposure.

  6. Volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in Antarctic superficial snow sampled during Italian ITASE expeditions.

    PubMed

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Cafaro, Claudia; Insogna, Susanna

    2007-05-01

    In order to detect the presence of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs) and to understand their transport and deposition mechanism, superficial snow was sampled during two Italian ITASE (International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition) expeditions: the first traverse was carried out in 1998/1999 from Terra Nova Bay to Dome Concordia; the second traverse was carried out in 2001/2002 through Adélie, George V, Oates and Northern Victoria Lands. Some VCHCs (chloroform; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; tetrachloromethane; 1,1,2-trichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene) were analysed using a highly sensitive and selective hyphenated technique composed of a purge-and-trap injector coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometric detector (PTI-GC-MS) operating in SIM mode. Investigated VCHCs were present in all analysed snow samples with concentration levels of several units, tens, or sometimes hundreds of ng kg(-1). VCHC snow concentration levels remained approximately constant with changing distance from the coast and the comparison between fresh and aged snow did not show any substantial differences; on the basis of this evidence marine aerosol and dry deposition may be rejected as principal VCHC transport and deposition mechanism hypotheses. VCHC concentration levels in Antarctic snow samples were comparable to or greater than those found in snow from temperate zones.

  7. The benefit of interleaved mathematics practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F; Burgess, Kaleena

    2014-10-01

    Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use that formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroom-based experiment reported here, grade 7 students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nine-week period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. The mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72 % vs. 38 %, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies had required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems, but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy.

  8. Changes in selected biochemical and sensory parameters as affected by the superficial inoculation of Penicillium camemberti on dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Bruna, José M; Hierro, Eva M; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Mottram, Donald S; Fernández, Manuela; Ordóñez, Juan A

    2003-08-15

    An atoxigenic strain of Penicillium camemberti was superficially inoculated on fermented sausages in an attempt to improve their sensory properties. The growth of this mould on the surface of the sausages resulted in an intense proteolysis and lipolysis, which caused an increase in the concentration of free amino acids, free fatty acids (FFA) and volatile compounds. Many of these were derived from amino acid catabolism and were responsible for the "ripened flavour", i.e. branched aldehydes and the corresponding alcohols, acids and esters. The development of the fungal mycelia on the surface of the sausages also protected lipids from oxidation, resulting in both lower 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) values and lipid oxidation-derived compounds, such as aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols. The sensory analysis of superficially inoculated sausages showed clear improvements in odour and flavour and, as a consequence, in the overall quality of the sausages. Therefore, this strain is proposed as a potential starter culture for dry fermented sausage production.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G G; García, J J; Feria-Velasco, A; Rosales-Corral, S A; Reiter, R J

    2004-06-01

    The presence of a cortex and medulla in the superficial pineal gland has been a controversial point in the morphology of this structure in mammals. The published reports indicate contradictory data especially in rodents. In this study the pineal gland of 15-day-old male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were studied, using scanning electron microscopy, in an attempt to determine whether or not a cortex and medulla are apparent in the pineal gland of young rats. The superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat exhibited both a cortex and a medulla; these areas exhibited different structural organizations. The cortex had a thickness of 40-80 microm and the cells did not show a particular arrangement. The center of the gland was composed of a medulla, which had a width of 1000-1200 microm, and consisted of cells arranged in cords; its morphology was distinctly different from that of the cortex.

  10. [Superficial mycoses: casuistry of the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel", Caracas, Venezuela (2001-2014)].

    PubMed

    Capote, Ana María; Ferrara, Giuseppe; Panizo, María Mercedes; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Reviakina, Vera; Dolande, Maribel

    2016-03-01

    The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" during 14 years (2001-2014). A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. only direct examination was performed. Of the 3 228 samples processed, 1 098 (34%) were positive and their distribution according to the etiological agent was: dermatophytes 79.5%; 10.9% yeasts; non-dermatophytes fungi 5.1% and 4.5% Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex (70.1%), followed by T mentagrophytes complex (15.1%), Microsporum canis (9.4%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (4%). The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium (66.8%), followed by Tineapedis (16.4%) and Tinea capitis (8.1%). Candida parapsilosis complex (37.5%) was the most frequently isolated yeast and Fusarium spp. (53.6%) was the most isolated among non-dermatophyte fungi, followed by Aspergillus spp. (19.6%) and Acremonium spp. (10.7%). The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment. This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country.

  11. Variant Superficial Branch of Radial Artery along with Supplementary Tendons on the Dorsum of the Hand and Their Surgical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha D.

    2016-01-01

    Variations of radial artery, in both its course and branching pattern in the anatomical snuffbox, are clinically significant for the plastic surgeons, cardiologists, and radiologists. Reports on its abnormal high origin and subsequent superficial course have been well documented. Herein, we report an unusual superficial branch of the radial artery given off before its entry into the palm by passing between the two heads of first dorsal interosseous. It eventually divided into princeps pollicis and radialis indicis arteries at the first web space of palm as a unique vascular variation. Apart from this, in the present case, the tendon of extensor digiti minimi and of extensor indicis divided into two parts. The split tendons of extensor digiti minimi were inserted to the dorsal digital expansion of the digitus minimus. However, lateral tendon of split extensor indicis was inserted along with the tendon of extensor digitorum to the index finger and the medial one was inserted along with the tendon of extensor digitorum to the middle finger. Unusual superficial branch of radial artery on the dorsum of the hand is vulnerable for an iatrogenic injury during surgical approaches in the region. Supplementary extensor tendons on the hand are one of the potential causes for the tenosynovitis. PMID:27818829

  12. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  13. [Epidemiological and clinical profile of superficial mycoses in the Monastir region (Tunisia). Retrospective study (1991-1994) of 3578 cases].

    PubMed

    Khorchani, H; Haouet, H; Amri, M; Zanned, I; Babba, H; Azaiz, R

    1996-01-01

    Despite of socio-economical improvement in our population and the efficacy of available antifungal treatment, superficial mycoses remain a common condition in dermatologic practice. To determine the epidemio-clinical pattern of superficial mycoses in our region, a retrospective study of 3578 cases have been carried out in the Department of Dermatology of the University Hospital of Monastir during a 4 year-period. The mean age of patients was 33 years (range: 6 months-91 years). The male to female sex-ratio was 0.82. Rural origin, history of previous mycoses, diabetes, topic or systemic corticosteroids and the presence of animals in surroundings were the most predisposing factors. The most frequent clinical patterns were: tinea corcoris and pedis (40.3%), Tinea versicolor (21.6%), Tinea capitis (9.7%) dermatophytosis of hairless skin (9.6%) and onychomycosis (8.6%). Dermatophyte was the most frequent (55.5%). The occurrence of superficial mycose especially if it affects diffuse area of the body, or if it is relapsing and resistant to treatment, requires looking for predisposing factors.

  14. Superficial mycotic infections of the foot in a native pediatric population: a pathogenic role for Trichosporon cutaneum?

    PubMed

    Archer-Dubon, Carla; Orozco-Topete, Rocío; Leyva-Santiago, Jaime; Arenas, Roberto; Carbajosa, Josefina; Ysunza, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Superficial mycotic infections of the feet are usually caused by Tricophyton rubrum, predominantly affecting adults and resulting from the use of occlusive footwear. We carried out a mycologic study of superficial foot infections in a rural school in Mexico where most people wear a leather, nonocclusive sandal. Forty students had clinical signs of 50 fungal infections of the foot: 39 athlete's foot and 11 onychomycosis. Thirty-one boys and 9 girls were studied. Hyphae were seen in 11 cases of athlete's foot and 5 of onychomycosis. Twenty-one cultures were positive (42%). The most frequently isolated fungi were the opportunistic Trichosporon cutaneum in 42.8%, Candida sp. (23.8%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (23.8%), and Candida glabrata (9.5%). Superficial mycotic infections of the feet and nails were most frequent in children and adolescents who usually wear nonocclusive shoes. The most frequent pathogens were Candida sp. and T. mentagrophytes. It is interesting to note the prevalence of T. cutaneum that has recently been implicated in mycoses of the feet and nails. We did not isolate T. rubrum in any patient.

  15. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  16. Dynamic phantom with two stage-driven absorbers for mimicking hemoglobin changes in superficial and deep tissues.

    PubMed

    Funane, Tsukasa; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Tanikawa, Yukari; Okada, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for monitoring brain activity and cerebral functional connectivity, the effect of superficial tissue on NIRS signals needs to be considered. Although some methods for determining the effect of scalp and brain have been proposed, direct validation of the methods has been difficult because the actual absorption changes cannot be known. In response to this problem, we developed a dynamic phantom that mimics hemoglobin changes in superficial and deep tissues, thus allowing us to experimentally validate the methods. Two absorber layers are independently driven with two one-axis automatic stages. We can use the phantom to design any type of waveform (e.g., brain activity or systemic fluctuation) of absorption change, which can then be reproducibly measured. To determine the effectiveness of the phantom, we used it for a multiple source-detector distance measurement. We also investigated the performance of a subtraction method with a short-distance regressor. The most accurate lower-layer change was obtained when a shortest-distance channel was used. Furthermore, when an independent component analysis was applied to the same data, the extracted components were in good agreement with the actual signals. These results demonstrate that the proposed phantom can be used for evaluating methods of discriminating the effects of superficial tissue.

  17. Stretching and deep and superficial massage do not influence blood lactate levels after heavy-intensity cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Maggioni, Martina A; Rampichini, Susanna; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the role of deep and superficial massage and passive stretching recovery on blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) kinetics after a fatiguing exercise compared to active and passive recovery. Nine participants (age 23 ± 1 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.02 m; body mass 74 ± 4 kg) performed on five occasions an 8-min fatiguing exercise at 90% of maximum oxygen uptake, followed by five different 10-min interventions in random order: passive and active recovery, deep and superficial massage and stretching. Interventions were followed by 1 hour of recovery. Throughout each session, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles, [La(-)], cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables were determined. Electromyographic signal (EMG) from the quadriceps muscles was also recorded. At the end of the fatiguing exercise, [La(-)], MVC, EMG amplitude, and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were similar among conditions. During intervention administration, [La(-)] was lower and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were higher in active recovery compared to the other modalities (P < 0.05). Stretching and deep and superficial massage did not alter [La(-)] kinetics compared to passive recovery. These findings indicate that the pressure exerted during massage administration and stretching manoeuvres did not play a significant role on post-exercise blood La(-) levels.

  18. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case-report and its embryological background.

    PubMed

    Konarik, M; Knize, J; Baca, V; Kachlik, D

    2009-08-01

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superficialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of the third segment of the axillary artery, followed a superficial course distally. It skipped the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm, crossed ventrally to the palm, and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of so-called "brachioradial artery" (inexactly called a "radial artery with a high origin"). The origin of the brachioradial artery directly from the axillary artery belongs to the rare variants of the arterial pattern of the upper limb. Its incidence is approximately 3%. Moreover, this vascular variant was associated with another one concerning the brachial plexus. The medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm joined the median nerve in the middle third of the arm and ran further distally as a common trunk, as the normal median nerve does. Anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is crucial for radiodiagnostic and surgical procedures, especially in cases of trauma. The superficially located artery brings an elevated risk of bleeding complications in unexpected situations.

  19. Effects of aging on neurons and glial cells from the superficial layers of the superior colliculus in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Moreno, Paloma; Villena, Alicia; Vidal, Lourdes; Pérez De Vargas, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on glial cells and neurons from the superficial layers of the superior colliculus in rats. We used stereological methods to estimate the volume of the superficial layers, neuron size, and the number of neurons and glial cells in Wistar male rats aged 3, 24, 26, and 28 months. A 32.6% volume increase was found in the stratum griseum superficiale between the ages of 3 and 26 months, while in the 28-month-old animals a 19% decrease was observed. The stratum opticum did not show any changes in volume with age. Also, our analysis revealed a process of somatic and nuclear atrophy in the neurons of the superficial layers in animals aged 26 and 28 months. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found in the numbers of neurons. The number of glial cells in the stratum griseum superficiale showed an increase between the 3rd and 26th month, while the stratum opticum suffered no change.

  20. The effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suzy; Shim, Jemyung; Kim, Sungjoong; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of superficial trunk muscle exercise and deep trunk muscle exercise on the foot pressure of healthy adults. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy females and males who agreed to participate in this study. There were two groups, a superficial trunk muscle exercise group and a deep trunk muscle exercise group, with 15 participants in each. [Methods] The exercises were conducted 5 times a week for 4 weeks for both groups. A gait analyzer was used to measure foot plantar pressure while walking on a plate. Participants were measured before starting the exercise and after 4 weeks. The paired t-test was used to analyze the pre-and post-test results. [Results] There were no significant differences in foot pressure in any region in the superficial trunk muscle exercise group. In the deep trunk muscle exercise group, there were statistically significant increase in F1, F4, F5, R1 and R3. In addition, there were significant decreases in R2 and R4. [Conclusion] After the 4-week deep trunk muscle exercise group decreases in foot pressure on the inner foot and increases on the outside of the feet indicate normal and overall even distribution of body weight on the feet. PMID:25931714

  1. Activation patterns in superficial layers of neocortex change between experiences independent of behavior, environment, or the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori; Insel, Nathan; Hoang, Lan T; Wagner, Zachary; Olson, Kathy; Chawla, Monica K; Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A

    2013-09-01

    Previous work suggests that activation patterns of neurons in superficial layers of the neocortex are more sensitive to spatial context than activation patterns in deep cortical layers. A possible source of this laminar difference is the distribution of contextual information to the superficial cortical layers carried by hippocampal efferents that travel through the entorhinal cortex and subiculum. To evaluate the role that the hippocampus plays in determining context sensitivity in superficial cortical layers, behavior-induced expression of the immediate early gene Arc was examined in hippocampus-lesioned and control rats after exposing them to 2 distinct contexts. Contrary to expectations, hippocampal lesions had no observable effect on Arc expression in any neocortical layer relative to controls. Furthermore, another group of intact animals was exposed to the same environment twice, to determine the reliability of Arc-expression patterns across identical contextual and behavioral episodes. Although this condition included no difference in external input between 2 epochs, the significant layer differences in Arc expression still remained. Thus, laminar differences in activation or plasticity patterns are not likely to arise from hippocampal sources or differences in external inputs, but are more likely to be an intrinsic property of the neocortex.

  2. Fractal dimension of apical dendritic arborization differs in the superficial and the deep pyramidal neurons of the rat cerebral neocortex.

    PubMed

    Puškaš, Nela; Zaletel, Ivan; Stefanović, Bratislav D; Ristanović, Dušan

    2015-03-04

    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex have specific structure and pattern of organization that involves the presence of apical dendrite. Morphology of the apical dendrite is well-known, but quantification of its complexity still remains open. Fractal analysis has proved to be a valuable method for analyzing the complexity of dendrite morphology. The aim of this study was to establish the fractal dimension of apical dendrite arborization of pyramidal neurons in distinct neocortical laminae by using the modified box-counting method. A total of thirty, Golgi impregnated neurons from the rat brain were analyzed: 15 superficial (cell bodies located within lamina II-III), and 15 deep pyramidal neurons (cell bodies situated within lamina V-VI). Analysis of topological parameters of apical dendrite arborization showed no statistical differences except in total dendritic length (p=0.02), indicating considerable homogeneity between the two groups of neurons. On the other hand, average fractal dimension of apical dendrite was 1.33±0.06 for the superficial and 1.24±0.04 for the deep cortical neurons, showing statistically significant difference between these two groups (p<0.001). In conclusion, according to the fractal dimension values, apical dendrites of the superficial pyramidal neurons tend to show higher structural complexity compared to the deep ones.

  3. Velocity field measurements of valvular blood flow in a human superficial vein using high-frequency ultrasound speckle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Yeom, Eunseop; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the blood flow around the perivalvular area in a human superficial vein using high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) speckle image velocimetry. HFUS B-mode images were captured from the superficial veins of human lower extremity with a 35-MHz transducer. To measure the instantaneous velocity fields of blood flow, a cross-correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) algorithm was applied to two B-mode images that were captured consecutively. The echo speckles of red blood cells (RBCs) were used as flow tracers. In the vicinity of the venous valve, the opening and closing motions of valve cusps were simultaneously visualized with the phasic variation of velocity fields. Large-scale vortices were observed behind the sinus pockets while the main bloodstream was directed proximally. This measurement technique combining PIV algorithm and HFUS B-mode imaging was found to be unique and useful for investigating the hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow in the perivalvular area and for diagnosing venous insufficiency and valve abnormality in superficial blood vessels.

  4. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural artery flap.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Suhas V; Kulkarni, Ananta; Agarwal, Naveen Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Ruptured tendoachilles along with skin defect is a complex problem to reconstruct. Both things require a priority. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural arterial flap allows us to perform both. This procedure gives excellent result, shortens the stay, thereby reducing the cost. This method is a simple solution to the complex problem like ruptured tendoachilles with skin defect. In this study, 6 patients with rupture of tendoachilles tendon due to penetrating injury, with skin defect are presented. The repair was done using aponeurotic part of tendoachilles tendon, taken from proximal part of tendoachilles in the midline measuring around 2 to 2.5 cm in width and 8 to 10 cm in length, with intact distal attachment. The tendon was turned upside down by 180 degrees and sutured to the distal stump of the tendoachilles tendon without tension. The skin defect was covered using distally based superficial sural artery flap in the same sitting. The follow-up period was 9 to 30 months. All patients showed good results. In one patient there was distal necrosis of 1.5 cm of the distally based superficial sural artery flap, which healed satisfactorily with conservative treatment. Single stage tendoachilles reconstruction can be used with good functional result and patient satisfaction.

  5. The superficial characterization of a large sample of asteroids: the S3OS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Mothe-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M.

    2002-09-01

    Informations about the compositional and mineralogical properties of a large sample of asteroids is important to better constraint their formation and evolution. In this sense large surveys have been performed in the last years either through photometric or spectroscopic observations (ex.: ECAS, 52colours, SMASS, etc.) with nearly 2000 asteroids sampled. However, in view of the steadly increasing number of known asteroids this sample is still in need of more data in order to have a complete knowledge of the distribution of compositions. The purpose of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey - S3OS2, was to contribute to increase the database of known superficial composition of asteroids in the visible range. The S3OS2 was performed at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under the agreement with the Observatorio Nacional, using the 1.52-m telescope equipped with a Boller & Chivens Spectrograph and a CCD. The survey was carried on from November 1996 up to September 2001 and visible spectra, in the range 4900-9200 Angstrom, were obtained for 843 asteroids. All these spectra will be available at the homepage of the Observatorio Nacional (http://www.on.br/institucional/) starting on October/2002. The taxonomic classification of all the sample will also be available at the same site. The spatial distribution of S3OS2 range from the Near Earth region, around 1.5 AU, up the Trojan region, around 5.2AU. Several families have been studied as well as several groups, all of which have been object of specific papers. In this presentation we will discuss the general properties and results of the survey, in view of what these represent for a better understanding about the formation and subsequent collisional and dynamical evolution of the asteroid belt as a whole. The author acknowledge the funding from CNPq, FAPERJ and CAPES.

  6. Dual-mode antenna design for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, S; Stauffer, P R; Neuman, D G

    2000-11-01

    Hyperthermia therapy of superficial skin disease has proven clinically useful, but current heating equipment is somewhat clumsy and technically inadequate for many patients. The present effort describes a dual-purpose, conformal microwave applicator that is fabricated from thin, flexible, multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) material to facilitate heating of surface areas overlaying contoured anatomy. Preliminary studies document the feasibility of combining Archimedean spiral microstrip antennas, located concentrically within the central region of square dual concentric conductor (DCC) annular slot antennas. The motivation is to achieve homogeneous tissue heating simultaneously with noninvasive thermometry by radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the target tissue under the applicator. Results demonstrate that the two antennas have complimentary regions of influence. The DCC ring antenna structure produces a peripherally enhanced power deposition pattern with peaks in the outer corners of the aperture and a broad minimum around 50% of maximum centrally. In contrast, the Archimedean spiral radiates (or receives) energy predominantly along the boresight axis of the spiral, thus confining the region of influence to tissue located within the central broad minimum of the DCC pattern. Analysis of the temperature-dependent radiometer signal (brightness temperature) showed linear correlation of radiometer output with test load temperature using either the spiral or DCC structure as the receive antenna. The radiometric performance of the broadband Archimedean antenna was superior compared to the DCC, providing improved temperature resolution (0.1 degree C-0.2 degree C) and signal sensitivity (0.3 degree C-0.8 degree C/degree C) at all four 500 MHz integration bandwidths tested within the frequency range from 1.2 to 3.0 GHz.

  7. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal neoplasms using the stag beetle knife.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, H; Hosokawa, A; Ogawa, K; Nishikawa, J; Kajiura, S; Ando, T; Ueda, A; Yoshita, H; Sugiyama, T

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an accepted standard treatment for early gastric cancer but is not widely used in the esophagus because of technical difficulties. To increase the safety of esophageal ESD, we used a scissors-type device called the stag beetle (SB) knife. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of ESD using the SB knife. We performed a single-center retrospective, uncontrolled trial. A total of 38 lesions were excised by ESD from 35 consecutive patients who were retrospectively divided into the following two groups according to the type of knife used to perform ESD: the hook knife (hook group) was used in 20 patients (21 lesions), and the SB knife (SB group) was used in 15 patients (17 lesions). We evaluated and compared the operative time, lesion size, en bloc resection rate, pathological margins free rate, and complication rate in both groups. The operative time was shorter in the SB group (median 70.0 minutes [interquartile range, 47.5-87.0]) than in the hook group (92.0 minutes [interquartile range, 63.0-114.0]) (P = 0.019), and the rate of complications in the SB group was 0% compared with 45.0% in the hook group (P = 0.004). However, the lesion size, en bloc resection rate, and pathological margins free rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, ESD using the SB knife was safer than that using a conventional knife for superficial esophageal neoplasms.

  8. Laminar optical tomography: high-resolution 3D functional imaging of superficial tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Devor, Anna; Dunn, Andrew K.; Boas, David A.

    2006-03-01

    Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) is a new medical imaging modality for high-resolution, depth-resolved, functional imaging of superficial tissue such as rodent cortex, skin and the retina. LOT uses visible laser light to image to depths of >2mm (far deeper than microscopy) and is highly sensitive to absorption and fluorescence contrast, enabling spectroscopic functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation to be imaged with 100-200 micron resolution. LOT has been used to image the hemodynamic response to stimulus in the somatosensory cortex of rats. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) images through the depth of the cortex can be used to delineate the arterial, capillary and venous responses, revealing new information about the intricacies of the oxygenation and blood flow dynamics related to neuronal activation. Additional applications of LOT are being explored, including the integration of 3D Voltage Sensitive Dye fluorescence imaging. LOT imaging uses a system similar to a confocal microscope, quickly scanning a focused beam of light over the surface of the tissue (~8Hz frame rate). Light is detected from both the focus of the scanning beam, and also at increasing distances from the beam's focus. This scattered light has penetrated more deeply into the tissue, and allows features at different depths to be distinguished. An algorithm that includes photon migration modeling of light scattering converts the raw data into 3D images. The motivation for functional optical imaging will be outlined, the basic principles of LOT imaging will be described, and the latest in-vivo results will be presented.

  9. Intradermal endothelin-1 excites bombesin-responsive superficial dorsal horn neurons in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, T.; Nagamine, M.; Davoodi, A.; Iodi Carstens, M.; Cevikbas, F.; Steinhoff, M.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in nonhistaminergic itch. Here we used electrophysiological methods to investigate whether mouse superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to intradermal (id) injection of ET-1 and whether ET-1-sensitive neurons additionally respond to other pruritic and algesic stimuli or spinal superfusion of bombesin, a homolog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) that excites spinal itch-signaling neurons. Single-unit recordings were made from lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice. We searched for units that exhibited elevated firing after id injection of ET-1 (1 μg/μl). Responsive units were further tested with mechanical stimuli, bombesin (spinal superfusion, 200 μg·ml−1·min−1), heating, cooling, and additional chemicals [histamine, chloroquine, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), capsaicin]. Of 40 ET-1-responsive units, 48% responded to brush and pinch [wide dynamic range (WDR)] and 52% to pinch only [high threshold (HT)]. Ninety-three percent responded to noxious heat, 50% to cooling, and >70% to histamine, chloroquine, AITC, and capsaicin. Fifty-seven percent responded to bombesin, suggesting that they participate in spinal itch transmission. That most ET-1-sensitive spinal neurons also responded to pruritic and algesic stimuli is consistent with previous studies of pruritogen-responsive dorsal horn neurons. We previously hypothesized that pruritogen-sensitive neurons signal itch. The observation that ET-1 activates nociceptive neurons suggests that both itch and pain signals may be generated by ET-1 to result in simultaneous sensations of itch and pain, consistent with observations that ET-1 elicits both itch- and pain-related behaviors in animals and burning itch sensations in humans. PMID:26311187

  10. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik-Bakalarz, Joanna; Arif, Salech; Chyrchel, Michał; Rakowski, Tomasz; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males) who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5%) patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5%) patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2%) patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8%) patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy), 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death). The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications. PMID:28344617

  11. Superficial fibular nerve variations of fascial piercing: A meta-analysis and clinical consideration.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, K A; Graves, M J; Vikse, J; Pękala, P A; Sanna, B; Henry, B M; Tubbs, R S; Walocha, J A

    2017-01-01

    The superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve (SFN) is one of the successive branches of the common fibular (peroneal) nerve and goes on to bifurcate into the medial dorsal cutaneous (MDN) and intermediate dorsal cutaneous (IDN) nerves. The SFN is a main contributor to sensory innervation of the foot and lower leg. It varies widely in its penetrance of the deep (crural) fascia, and differences in its subsequent course can result in iatrogenic injuries. Articles on the prevalence of this anatomical variation were identified by a comprehensive database search. The data collected were extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis. A total of 14 articles (n = 665 lower limbs) were included on the meta-analysis of SFN variations in fascial piercing. The normal Type 1 variation, where the SFN pierces the deep fascia as a single entity and later bifurcates into the MDN and IDN, had a pooled prevalence of 82.7% (95%CI: 74.0-89.4). The Type 2 variant, where the SFN bifurcates early and then pierces the fascial layer separately as the MDN and IDN, had a pooled prevalence of 15.6% (95%CI: 8.9-23.6). Type 3, when the SFN penetrates the deep fascia and courses similar to the MDN with absent IDN was noted in 1.8% (95%CI: 0.0-4.9) of cases. A substantial portion of the population has a pattern of SFN piercing that deviates from the normal Type 1 anatomy. It is recommended that possible SFN variants in patients should be addressed thoroughly to help prevent iatrogenic injuries and postoperative complications. Clin. Anat. 30:120-125, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Superficial Burn Wound Healing with Intermittent Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Under Limited Access and Conventional Dressings

    PubMed Central

    Honnegowda, Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda; Padmanabha Udupa, Echalasara Govindarama; Rao, Pragna; Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thermal injury is associated with several biochemical and histopathological alteration in tissue. Analysis of these objective parameters in research and clinical field are common to determine healing rate of burn wound. Negative pressure wound therapy has been achieved wide success in treating chronic wounds. This study determines superficial burn wound healing with intermittent negative pressure wound therapy under limited access and conventional dressings METHODS A total 50 patients were randomised into two equal groups: limited access and conventional dressing groups. Selective biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, hexosamine, total protein, and antioxidants, malondialdhyde (MDA), wound surface pH, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in the granulation tissue. Histopathologically, necrotic tissue, amount of inflammatory infiltrate, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition (ECM) were studied to determine wound healing under intermittent negative pressure. RESULTS Patients treated with limited access have shown significant increase in the mean hydroxyproline, hexosamine, total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and decrease in MDA, MMP-2, wound surface pH, and NO. Histopathologic study showed that there was a significant difference after 10 days of treatment between limited access vs conventional dressing group, Median (Q1, Q3)=3 (2, 4.25) vs 2 (1.75, 4). CONCLUSION Limited access was shown to exert its beneficial effects on wound healing by increasing ground substance, antioxidants and reducing MMP-2 activity, MDA, NO and providing optimal pH, decreasing necrotic tissue, amount of inflammatory infiltrate, increasing ECM deposition and angiogenesis. PMID:27853690

  13. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  14. Light and laser treatment modalities for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aird, Gregory A; Sitenga, Jenna L; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Vaudreuil, Adam; Huerter, Christopher J

    2017-02-27

    Treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is poorly standardized. The present review seeks to comprehensively discuss the potential for laser and light modalities in the treatment of DSAP. A systematic review of light and laser treatment modalities was conducted to include 26 cases of patients with DSAP. Systematic review resulted in 14 articles to be included. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) overall was the least successful treatment modality, with clinical improvement seen in a minority of patients (MAL-PDT: N = 9 patients, 33.3% showed improvement; ALA-PDT: N = 3 patients, 0% improvement; hypericin-PDT: N = 2 patients, 0% improvement) after numerous post-procedural side effects of hyperpigmentation, inflammation, erythema, and discomfort. Overall, in the available reports, PDT demonstrates poor outcomes with greater incidence of side effects. The response rates of DSAP lesions treated with lasers were as follows: (Q-switched ruby lasers: N = 2, 100%; CO2 laser: N = 1, 100%; PDT and CO2 combination therapy: N = 2, 0-50%; erbium and neodymium YAG lasers: N = 2, 100%; fractional 1927-nm thulium fiber lasers: N = 2, 100%; Grenz rays: N = 1, 100%; and fractional photothermolysis: N = 2, 100%). The side effects of laser therapy were minimal and included mild erythema, slight hyperpigmentation, and moderate edema. Laser therapy is a promising treatment option for DSAP with an excellent side effect profile. However, higher power studies are required to determine optimal guidelines for laser treatment of DSAP.

  15. Ultrasonic Surface Measurements for the investigation of superficial alteration of natural stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Bilgili, Filiz; Christen, Sandra; Cristiano, Luigia; Krompholz, Rolf; Mosca, Ilaria; Rose, David

    2013-04-01

    Seismic waveform analysis is applicable also to the centimeter and decimeter scale for non-destructive testing of pavement, facades, plaster, sculptures, or load-bearing structures like pillars. Mostly transmission measurements are performed and travel-times of first arriving P-waves are considered that have limited resolution for the upper centimeters of an object. In contrast, surface measurements are well suited to quantify superficial alterations of material properties e.g. due to weathering. A number of surface measurements have been carried out in the laboratory as well as on real structures in order to study systematically the information content of ultrasonic waveforms and their variability under real conditions. As a preposition for ultrasonic waveform analysis, reproducible, broad-band measurements have to be carried out with a definite radiation pattern and an about 1 mm accuracy of the measurement geometry. We used special coupling devices for effective ultrasonic surface measurements in the laboratory as well as at real objects. Samples of concrete with varying composition and samples of natural stone - marble, tuff, and sandstone - were repeatedly weathered and tested by ultrasonic measurements. The resistance of the samples to weathering and the penetration depth of the weathering are analyzed. Furthermore, material specific calibration curves for changes in velocities of elastic waves due to weathering can be obtained by these tests. Tests on real structures have been carried out for marble (Schlossbrücke, Berlin) and sandstone (Porta Nigra, Trier). Altogether, these test measurements show clearly that despite of the internal inhomogeneity of many real objects, their surface roughness and topography especially ultrasonic Rayleigh waves are well suited to study material alterations in the upper centimeters. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves may be inverted for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth.

  16. Measurement of dose reductions for superficial x-rays backscattered from bone interfaces.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N

    2008-09-07

    Accurate measurement and knowledge of dose delivered during superficial x-ray radiotherapy is required for patient dose assessment. Some tumours treated near the surface (within the first few centimetres) can have large posterior bone structures. This can cause perturbations to dose delivered due to changed backscatter contributions from the bony structure as compared to full water or tissue scattering conditions. Measured results have shown that up to 7.5% of Dmax reductions in dose can occur near the water/bone interface for 100 kVp, using 10 cm diameter field sizes when a 1 cm thick slab of bone is located at 2 cm depth. At smaller field sizes such as 2 cm diameter these values reduce to 2% for the same energy. Larger variations (up to 12.5% of maximum) have been seen at the phantom surface when the bone layer is directly behind the point of interest (within 0.5 mm) and smaller effects (up to 5% of maximum) at depths down to 5 cm. Interesting to note is the fact that for larger field sizes, an increase in percentage dose is found at the water/bone interface due to the production of low energy backscattered electrons similar to the effect found in lead. However, they are much smaller in magnitude and thus would not cause any significant dosimetric effects. In the case where large bony structures lie relatively close to the surface and the tissue above this region is being treated, a dosimeter such as radiochromic film can be used to estimate the dose reduction that may occur due to the changed backscatter conditions.

  17. Intradermal endothelin-1 excites bombesin-responsive superficial dorsal horn neurons in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, T; Nagamine, M; Davoodi, A; Iodi Carstens, M; Cevikbas, F; Steinhoff, M; Carstens, E

    2015-10-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in nonhistaminergic itch. Here we used electrophysiological methods to investigate whether mouse superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to intradermal (id) injection of ET-1 and whether ET-1-sensitive neurons additionally respond to other pruritic and algesic stimuli or spinal superfusion of bombesin, a homolog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) that excites spinal itch-signaling neurons. Single-unit recordings were made from lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-anesthetized C57BL/6 mice. We searched for units that exhibited elevated firing after id injection of ET-1 (1 μg/μl). Responsive units were further tested with mechanical stimuli, bombesin (spinal superfusion, 200 μg·ml(-1)·min(-1)), heating, cooling, and additional chemicals [histamine, chloroquine, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), capsaicin]. Of 40 ET-1-responsive units, 48% responded to brush and pinch [wide dynamic range (WDR)] and 52% to pinch only [high threshold (HT)]. Ninety-three percent responded to noxious heat, 50% to cooling, and >70% to histamine, chloroquine, AITC, and capsaicin. Fifty-seven percent responded to bombesin, suggesting that they participate in spinal itch transmission. That most ET-1-sensitive spinal neurons also responded to pruritic and algesic stimuli is consistent with previous studies of pruritogen-responsive dorsal horn neurons. We previously hypothesized that pruritogen-sensitive neurons signal itch. The observation that ET-1 activates nociceptive neurons suggests that both itch and pain signals may be generated by ET-1 to result in simultaneous sensations of itch and pain, consistent with observations that ET-1 elicits both itch- and pain-related behaviors in animals and burning itch sensations in humans.

  18. The roles of superficial amygdala and auditory cortex in music-evoked fear and joy.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Fritz, Thomas; Herrera, Perfecto; Bonhage, Corinna; Küssner, Mats B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates neural correlates of music-evoked fear and joy with fMRI. Studies on neural correlates of music-evoked fear are scant, and there are only a few studies on neural correlates of joy in general. Eighteen individuals listened to excerpts of fear-evoking, joy-evoking, as well as neutral music and rated their own emotional state in terms of valence, arousal, fear, and joy. Results show that BOLD signal intensity increased during joy, and decreased during fear (compared to the neutral condition) in bilateral auditory cortex (AC) and bilateral superficial amygdala (SF). In the right primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b) BOLD signals increased during exposure to fear-evoking music. While emotion-specific activity in AC increased with increasing duration of each trial, SF responded phasically in the beginning of the stimulus, and then SF activity declined. Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI) analysis revealed extensive emotion-specific functional connectivity of AC with insula, cingulate cortex, as well as with visual, and parietal attentional structures. These findings show that the auditory cortex functions as a central hub of an affective-attentional network that is more extensive than previously believed. PPI analyses also showed functional connectivity of SF with AC during the joy condition, taken to reflect that SF is sensitive to social signals with positive valence. During fear music, SF showed functional connectivity with visual cortex and area 7 of the superior parietal lobule, taken to reflect increased visual alertness and an involuntary shift of attention during the perception of auditory signals of danger.

  19. CryoPlasty therapy of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Samson, Russell H; Showalter, David P; Lepore, Michael R; Ames, Scott

    Long-term patency remains a significant hurdle in the minimally invasive treatment of arteriosclerosis in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. New technologies designed to address the sources of restenosis have recently been introduced. CryoPlasty therapy (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) is a new approach designed to significantly reduce injury, elastic recoil, stent implantation, neointimal hyperplasia, and constrictive remodeling. The technique combines the dilatation forces of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with cold thermal energy applied to the plaque and vessel wall. The cumulative effect of limiting the sources of restenosis with CryoPlasty therapy was shown to demonstrate longer term patency in a prospective, multicenter, Investigational Device Exemption study of the PolarCath Peripheral Dilatation System. The CryoPlasty therapy experience of 1 center is reported, in which 47 lesions in 32 consecutive patients (34 procedures, 33 limbs) were treated. The technical success rate was 96%. There were no type 3 flow-limiting dissections, and only 4 (8.5%) lesions were stented. There were no unanticipated adverse events, specifically no thrombus, acute occlusions, distal embolizations, aneurysms, or groin complications. With an average follow-up of 12 months, only 5 lesions have recurred, 4 requiring re-intervention. The 12-month freedom from restenosis for lesions and limbs treated was 82.2% and 84.4%, respectively. These results are similar to the findings of the Investigational Device Exemption study and are encouraging. CryoPlasty therapy appears to be a viable endovascular therapeutic option to achieve longer term patency without compromising options for future interventions. The lack of early occlusions may be due to a low rate of spiral dissection that may be a particular benefit of this form of angioplasty.

  20. Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide.

    PubMed

    Oberkirchner, Ursula; Linder, Keith E; Zadrozny, Leah; Olivry, Thierry

    2010-10-01

    Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME; also known as superficial necrolytic dermatitis) is a syndrome most often associated with certain chronic liver diseases or pancreatic glucagonomas. In humans with glucagonoma-associated NME, skin lesions usually respond to octreotide, a somatostatin analogue that inhibits glucagon release. In this report an 11-year-old golden retriever dog with pancreatic glucagonoma and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver was diagnosed with NME. The dog exhibited erosions, ulcers and crusts on the paws, pressure points, muzzle, periocular area and prepuce. The dog was also anorexic and had difficulty walking. Because metastasis precluded surgery, treatment was initiated with subcutaneous octreotide (2 μg/kg twice daily). Skin lesions and systemic clinical signs improved markedly within 5 days. The dosage was increased to nearly 3 μg/kg twice daily and signs almost completely resolved within 10 days. Anorexia was the major adverse effect observed. During the following month, both dosage (1-3.7 μg/kg) and frequency (two to four times daily) of the octreotide injections were adjusted to permit control of clinical signs while maintaining adequate appetite. Temporary cessation of octreotide administration resulted in the rapid recurrence of skin lesions. Resuming injections led to improvement of clinical signs within 48 h. The dog was later euthanized because of progressive metastatic disease. In conclusion, subcutaneous octreotide injections were beneficial in this dog with glucagonoma-associated NME. This somatostatin analogue could be a valuable option to treat canine patients with non-resectable or relapsing pancreatic glucagonoma-associated NME.

  1. Anatomical variants of the superficial temporal artery in patients with microtia: a pilot descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Chong Kong; Das, Srijit; Huei, Yap Lok

    2016-01-01

    Superficial temporal artery (STA) based pedicled fascial flap plays a pivotal role in ear reconstruction for microtia patients. There is paucity of literature on the anatomy of the STA in microtia patients. The present study aimed to describe any possible anatomical variations seen in the STA of patients afflicted with microtia. Pre-operative carotid computer tomographic angiography images of patients under the microtia database of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit at a tertiary medical centre were selected and 3-dimensionally reconstructed. Measurements were made on the 3D reconstructed computed tomographic angiography images of the STA on both the sides of the microtic ear and the non-microtic ear to assess its various anatomical parameters. We managed to obtain a total of 39 computed tomographic angiography images of STAs for analysis. There was a significant difference in the number of main branches of STA between the two groups (P=0.006). The proportion of ears with 2 main branches was higher in the non-microtia group (89.5%) compared to the microtia group (45.0%). A significant difference was found in the STA diameter between the two groups (P=0.012). The mean diameter of STA in the non-microtia group was larger by 0.4 mm. Furthermore, the median angle of STA was larger on the side of the non-microtic ears compared to that of microtic ears by 24.5°, with a P-value of 0.011. The results of the study may be of clinical importance while planning and performing ear reconstructive surgeries using STA based pedicled fascial flaps. PMID:28127502

  2. Clinical spectrum, underlying etiologies and radiological characteristics of cortical superficial siderosis.

    PubMed

    Lummel, Nina; Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Demaerel, Philippe; Bochmann, Katja; Malik, Rainer; Opherk, Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) is an increasingly recognized MR-imaging marker most probably caused by focal convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There is accumulating evidence that cSS represents an important risk factor for subsequent intracranial hemorrhages. Here, we aimed to determine clinical symptoms, underlying etiologies, and radiological characteristics of cSS in a large patient cohort. We performed an electronic database search on all patients who presented between 2002 and 2013 to the university hospital Munich with non-traumatic and non-aneurysmal cSS. T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequences were analyzed regarding localization and extent of cSS as well as of acute SAH, intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) and microbleeds. Besides, all available clinical, laboratory, imaging and histological data were analyzed. 113 subjects matched the inclusion criteria. The following etiologies for cSS were identified: definite (n = 6; 5 %), probable (n = 75; 66 %), and possible (n = 28; 25 %) cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA); reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: 2 (2 %); central nervous system vasculitis: 1; and hyperperfusion syndrome: 1. Acute ICH was evident in 55 (49 %) cases. Other clinical manifestations were: transient focal neurological episodes (TFNE): 38 (34 %); cognitive impairment: 14 (12 %); generalized seizure: 4 (4 %); and headache: 2 (2 %). Adjusting for age and gender, cognitive impairment was more frequent in disseminated cSS, while TFNE was more often found in focal cSS (p = 0.042). Our data indicate CAA to be the most common etiology of cSS. In absence of symptomatic ICH, patients with focal cSS frequently present with TFNE, while those with disseminated cSS commonly manifest with cognitive impairment.

  3. Molecular features distinguish ten neuronal types in the mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Byun, Haewon; Kwon, Soohyun; Ahn, Hee-Jeong; Liu, Hong; Forrest, Douglas; Demb, Jonathan B; Kim, In-Jung

    2016-08-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain center involved in controlling head and eye movements in response to inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Visual inputs arise from both the retina and visual cortex and converge onto the superficial layer of the SC (sSC). Neurons in the sSC send information to deeper layers of the SC and to thalamic nuclei that modulate visually guided behaviors. Presently, our understanding of sSC neurons is impeded by a lack of molecular markers that define specific cell types. To better understand the identity and organization of sSC neurons, we took a systematic approach to investigate gene expression within four molecular families: transcription factors, cell adhesion molecules, neuropeptides, and calcium binding proteins. Our analysis revealed 12 molecules with distinct expression patterns in mouse sSC: cadherin 7, contactin 3, netrin G2, cadherin 6, protocadherin 20, retinoid-related orphan receptor β, brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3b, Ets variant gene 1, substance P, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and parvalbumin. Double labeling experiments, by either in situ hybridization or immunostaining, demonstrated that the 12 molecular markers collectively define 10 different sSC neuronal types. The characteristic positions of these cell types divide the sSC into four distinct layers. The 12 markers identified here will serve as valuable tools to examine molecular mechanisms that regulate development of sSC neuronal types. These markers could also be used to examine the connections between specific cell types that form retinocollicular, corticocollicular, or colliculothalamic pathways. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2300-2321, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G; Tan, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure-function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury.

  5. Access to the Superficial Femoral Artery in the Presence of a 'Hostile Groin': A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Adrian J.; Lotzof, Kevin; Howard, Adam

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Lower limb angioplasty is commonly performed via antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture, followed by selective superficial femoral artery (SFA) catheterization. Arterial access can be complicated by a 'hostile groin' (scarring, obesity, or previous failed CFA puncture). We prospectively investigated color duplex ultrasound (CDU)-guided SFA access for radiological interventions. Methods. Antegrade CDU-guided CFA and SFA puncture were compared in 30 patients requiring intervention for severe leg ischemia who had hostile groins. Demographics, screen time, radiation dose, intervention, and complications were prospectively recorded. Results. Treatment in 30 patients involved 44 angioplasties (40 transluminal, 4 subintimal) and 2 diagnostic angiograms. Fifteen of these patients had CDU-guided CFA punctures; in 8 of these patients CDU-guided CFA puncture 'failed' (i.e., there was failure to pass a guidewire or catheter into the CFA or SFA), necessitating immediate direct CDU-guided SFA puncture. Overall, the mean screen time and radiation dosage, via direct CDU-guided SFA puncture in 30 patients, was 4.8 min and 464 Gy cm{sup 2} respectively. With CDU-guided CFA puncture, mean screen time (10 min), radiation dose (2023 Gy cm{sup 2}), and complications (13%) were greater when compared with the SFA puncture results overall and in the same patients at subsequent similar procedures (2.7 min, 379 Gy cm{sup 2} (p < 0.05), no complications in this subgroup). Five complications occurred: 2 each at CFA and SFA entry sites, and 1 angioplasty embolus. Conclusions. The CDU-guided SFA puncture technique was both more effective than CDU-guided CFA access in patients with scarred groins, obesity, or failed CFA punctures and safer, with reduced screen times, radiation doses, and complications.

  6. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure–function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury. PMID:28326929

  7. Teicoplanin bonded sub-2 μm superficially porous particles for enantioseparation of native amino acids.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-10-10

    Superficially porous particles (SPPs) demonstrate superior efficiency than totally porous particles in chiral separations. In order to obtain high efficiency and fast separation, sub-2 μm SPPs with high surface area are synthesized, and with teicoplanin bonded, such materials are successfully applied into the rapid enantioseparation of native amino acids. In brief, 1.27 ± 0.06 μm nonporous silica particles are prepared by a modified seeded growth method, followed by mesoporous shell fabrication via one-pot templated dissolution and redeposition strategy, and pore size expansion via acid-refluxing. The diameter of the formed SPPs is 1.49 ± 0.04 μm, with the shell thickness as 206 nm. Nitrogen physisorption experiments show that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area is 213.6 m(2)/g and pore size is 9 nm. After teicoplanin derivatization with bonding capacity as 83.3 μmol/g, the prepared chiral stationary phase is packed into a stainless steel tube with the geometry of 50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.. In less than 6.4 min, six native amino acids (norleucine, alanine, valine, methionine, leucine, norvaline) are enantioseparated with resolution factors ranging from 1.9 to 5.0. Besides, the resolution for chiral separation is improved with ethanol-water instead of methanol-water as the mobile phase. Moreover, the low temperature gives higher resolution, but longer retention time and higher backpressure. Finally, the effect of flow rate on enantiomeric separation is studied and fast chiral separation within 1 min is obtained with flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. All these results show that the synthesized teicoplanin bonded sub-2 μm SPPs have great potential to achieve the enantioseparation of native amino acids with high resolution and rapid speed.

  8. Electromyography of superficial and deep neck muscles during isometric, voluntary, and reflex contractions.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Brault, John R; Hedenstierna, Sofia; Inglis, J Timothy

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly complex models of the neck neuromusculature need detailed muscle and kinematic data for proper validation. The goal of this study was to measure the electromyographic activity of superficial and deep neck muscles during tasks involving isometric, voluntary, and reflexively evoked contractions of the neck muscles. Three male subjects (28-41 years) had electromyographic (EMG) fine wires inserted into the left sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were placed over the left sternohyoid muscle. Subjects then performed: (i) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in the eight directions (45 deg intervals) from the neutral posture; (ii) 50 N isometric contractions with a slow sweep of the force direction through 720 deg; (iii) voluntary oscillatory head movements in flexion and extension; and (iv) initially relaxed reflex muscle activations to a forward acceleration while seated on a sled. Isometric contractions were performed against an overhead load cell and movement dynamics were measured using six-axis accelerometry on the head and torso. In all three subjects, the two anterior neck muscles had similar preferred activation directions and acted synergistically in both dynamic tasks. With the exception of splenius capitis, the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles also showed consistent activation directions and acted synergistically during the voluntary motions, but not during the sled perturbations. These findings suggest that the common numerical-modeling assumption that all anterior muscles act synergistically as flexors is reasonable, but that the related assumption that all posterior muscles act synergistically as extensors is not. Despite the small number of subjects, the data presented here can be used to inform and validate a neck model at three levels of increasing neuromuscular-kinematic complexity: muscles generating forces

  9. Runx1 Activities in Superficial Zone Chondrocytes, Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Clones and Response to Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Kimberly T.; Walcott, Marie E.; Gaur, Tripti; O’Connell, Shannon L.; Basil, Kirti; Tadiri, Christina P.; Mason-Savas, April; Silva, Jason A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S; Ayers, David C.; Lian, Jane B.; Fanning, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Runx1, the hematopoietic lineage determining transcription factor, is present in perichondrium and chondrocytes. Here we addressed Runx1 functions, by examining expression in cartilage during mouse and human osteoarthritis (OA) progression and in response to mechanical loading. Methods Spared and diseased compartments in knees of OA patients and in mice with surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus were examined for changes in expression of Runx1 mRNA (Q-PCR) and protein (immunoblot, immunohistochemistry). Runx1 levels were quantified in response to static mechanical compression of bovine articular cartilage. Runx1 function was assessed by cell proliferation (Ki67, PCNA) and cell type phenotypic markers. Results Runx1 is enriched in superficial zone (SZ) chondrocytes of normal bovine, mouse, and human tissues. Increasing loading conditions in bovine cartilage revealed a positive correlation with a significant elevation of Runx1. Runx1 becomes highly expressed at the periphery of mouse OA lesions and in human OA chondrocyte ‘clones’ where Runx1 co-localizes with Vcam1, the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker and lubricin (Prg4), a cartilage chondroprotective protein. These OA induced cells represent a proliferative cell population, Runx1 depletion in MPCs decreases cell growth, supporting Runx1 contribution to cell expansion. Conclusion The highest Runx1 levels in SZC of normal cartilage suggest a function that supports the unique phenotype of articular chondrocytes, reflected by upregulation under conditions of compression. We propose Runx1 co-expression with Vcam1 and lubricin in murine cell clusters and human ‘clones’ of OA cartilage, participate in a cooperative mechanism for a compensatory anabolic function. PMID:25078095

  10. Infiltration processes in karstic chalk investigated through a spatial analysis of the geochemical properties of the groundwater: The effect of the superficial layer of clay-with-flints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Danièle; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Laignel, Benoît; Slimani, Smaïl; Delbart, Célestine

    2014-11-01

    In the Paris Basin in Upper Normandy (France), the chalk plateaus are covered with thick deposits of loess and clay-with-flints, from a few meters to approximately 40 m thick locally. A perched groundwater is sometimes observed in the superficial layers in which evapotranspiration processes seem to occur. This study's objective was to understand the effects of the thick clay-with-flints layers on the infiltration processes. To achieve this, we adopted a spatial approach comparing the maps of the geochemical properties of the Chalk groundwater and the maps of the thickness of clay-with-flints. The French national groundwater database, ADES (Accès aux Données des Eaux, BRGM), provided the mean geochemical properties in the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy. This database was used to prepare maps of the environmental tracers: Ca2+, HCO3-, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, NO3-, and SO42. The data are spatially well organized. Using principal component analysis (PCA), these maps were compared with the maps of the thickness of clay-with-flints. A focus on the coastal basins (northern Upper Normandy) shows a very strong spatial correlation between the maps of clay-with-flints thickness and all of the maps of the major ions. The thickness of clay-with-flints is negatively correlated with the autochthonous ions (HCO3- and Ca2+) and is positively correlated with the allochthonous ions (Cl-, Na+, SO42-, and NO3-). These results highlight that the thickness of clay-with-flints controls recharge. Two types of infiltration processes are proposed: (1) Thicker clay-with-flints allows storage in the perched groundwater, which allows evapotranspiration, resulting in high concentrations of allochthonous ions and a decrease in the dissolution potential of water and low concentrations of autochthonous ions. The infiltration of the perched groundwater is thus delayed and concentrated. (2) Thinner clay-with-flints causes the infiltration to be more diffuse, with low evapotranspiration and thus low

  11. Reduction in mechanical allodynia in complex regional pain syndrome patients with ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the superficial peroneal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Won Soek; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Mi Sun

    2016-01-01

    The superficial peroneal nerve is vulnerable to damage from ankle sprain injuries and fractures as well as surgery to this region. And it is also one of the most commonly involved nerves in complex regional pain syndrome type II in the foot and ankle region. We report two cases of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of superficial peroneal nerve for reduction of allodynia in CRPS patients. PMID:27738506

  12. An In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength of Composite to Superficial and Deep Dentin, Treated With Er:YAG Laser Irradiation or Acid-Etching.

    PubMed

    Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Nezhad Nasrollah, Fatemeh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Fekrazad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin on superficial and deep dentin after conditioning with phosphoric acid and Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Methods: Thirty human molars were selected, roots were removed and crowns were bisected to provide a total of 60 half-crowns. Specimens were ground to expose superficial and deep dentin. Samples were assigned to six groups: (1) AS (acid etching of superficial dentin); (2) AD (acid etching of deep dentin); (3) LS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin); (4) LD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin); (5) LAS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin followed by acid etching); (6) LAD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin followed by acid etching) The adhesive protocol was performed. Samples were thermocycled and micro-shear bond strength was tested to failure. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results: The AS group, demonstrated the greatest amount of micro-shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength in laser-treated groups which was more significant for deep dentin. Conclusion: Preparation of dentin with laser did not improve bonding to superficial and deep dentin.

  13. An In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength of Composite to Superficial and Deep Dentin, Treated With Er:YAG Laser Irradiation or Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Nezhad Nasrollah, Fatemeh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Fekrazad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin on superficial and deep dentin after conditioning with phosphoric acid and Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Methods: Thirty human molars were selected, roots were removed and crowns were bisected to provide a total of 60 half-crowns. Specimens were ground to expose superficial and deep dentin. Samples were assigned to six groups: (1) AS (acid etching of superficial dentin); (2) AD (acid etching of deep dentin); (3) LS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin); (4) LD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin); (5) LAS (Er:YAG laser irradiation on superficial dentin followed by acid etching); (6) LAD (Er:YAG laser irradiation on deep dentin followed by acid etching) The adhesive protocol was performed. Samples were thermocycled and micro-shear bond strength was tested to failure. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results: The AS group, demonstrated the greatest amount of micro-shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength in laser-treated groups which was more significant for deep dentin. Conclusion: Preparation of dentin with laser did not improve bonding to superficial and deep dentin. PMID:28144437

  14. Coexpression of COX-2 and iNOS in Angiogenesis of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Youichi; Sobajima, Jun; Higashi, Morihiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Yakabi, Koji; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    Using immunohistochemical staining, the present study was conducted to examine whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) affect angiogenesis in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We also analyzed the correlation between these two factors. Cyclooxygenase 2, iNOS, and angiogenesis in early-stage ESCC are unclear. Using 10 samples of normal squamous epithelium, 7 samples of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 45 samples of superficial esophageal cancer, we observed the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. We then investigated the COX-2 and iNOS immunoreactivity scores and the correlation between COX-2 or iNOS scores and microvessel density (MVD) using CD34 or CD105. The intensity of COX-2 or iNOS expression differed significantly according to histological type (P < 0.001). The scores of COX-2 and iNOS were lowest for normal squamous epithelium, followed in ascending order by LGIN, carcinoma in situ and tumor invading the lamina propria mucosae (M1-M2 cancer); and tumor invading the muscularis mucosa (M3) or deeper cancer. The differences were significant (P < 0.001). Cancers classified M1-M2 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively); M3; or deeper cancer (P < 0.01) had significantly higher COX-2 and iNOS scores than normal squamous epithelium. There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and iNOS scores (P < 0.001, rs = 0.51). Correlations between COX-2 score and CD34-positive MVD or CD105-positive MVD were significant (rs = 0.53, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P < 0.001, respectively). Inducible nitric oxide synthase score was also significantly correlated with CD34 MVD and CD105 MVD (rs = 0.45, P < 0.001; rs = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively). Chemoprevention of COX-2 or iNOS activity may blunt the development of ESCC from precancerous lesions.

  15. Development of sustainable groundwater extraction practices for a major superficial aquifer supporting a groundwater dependent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, K. R.; Froend, R.; Davies, M.; Stock, B.; Martin, M.; Robertson, C.; Eamus, D.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Australia many groundwater dependent ecosystems have been adversely affected by unsympathetic water abstraction practices. In Western Australia, the largest single supply of drinking water for the city of Perth is a superficial aquifer known as the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, located over an area of approximately 2200 km2 within and to the north of the city on the coastal plain. The groundwater resource supplies 60% of Perth’s pubic drinking water supply and 85% of total water demand for all users. Much of the mound is overlain by phreatophytic Banksia woodland that is susceptible to drought stress and death if the root system is separated from the unconfined aquifer for prolonged periods over the hot, dry Mediterranean summer. Drought stress has been exacerbated by diminished rainfall due to a changing climate regime. The aim of this research is to develop guidelines for sustainable groundwater abstraction (timing and volume) that will maintain the long term integrity of the ecosystem and recover up to 5GL/yr from existing borefields. We seek to investigate whether a change in abstraction regime, from ‘peak demand’ summer pumping to winter pumping allows groundwater levels to recover sufficiently prior to summer, thereby maintaining a healthy vegetation system. Hydrological and plant water status parameters were monitored over two winters at research sites with an initial depth to groundwater of less than 5m. During winter and spring, groundwater abstraction at a reduced capacity resulted in a 0.75m drawdown. Operation of the bores did not adversely impact the water status of phreatophytic Banksia at the study sites relative to control sites. Analysis of plant water source partitioning indicated that plants exposed to the winter drawdown were sustained by unsaturated zone soil moisture storage replenished by winter rainfall. When pumping ceased, the water table rose rapidly and plants utilised more groundwater during late spring and summer as the

  16. Final Results of the Protected Superficial Femoral Artery Trial Using the FilterWire EZ System

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Paulsen, Friedrich; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of debris-capture for distal protection using the FilterWire EZ Embolic Protection System (Boston Scientific, Mountain View, CA) with the additional aim to further define the incidence of distal embolization during superficial femoral artery (SFA) interventions. A prospective, single-centre registry was designed to evaluate the performance of the FilterWire EZ in capturing debris during standard SFA percutaneous intervention. The PRO-RATA study included 30 patients suitable for PTA (Fontaine IIb to III or Rutherford I to II classification). The primary end points were occurrence of distal embolization or decreased runoff, improvement in ankle-brachial index ankle-brachial index (ABI) after the procedure, and number of filters containing emboli. Secondary end points included major adverse events (i.e., procedure- or device-related death and/or clinical target lesion revascularisation), device delivery, deployment success, and incidence of embolic recovery (patients with device success exhibiting embolic protection in the filter). Procedural success was determined as {<=}30% residual stenosis with no worsening of distal runoff as determined on angiography. A total of 29 patients (age 66.2 {+-} 12 years; total no. of limbs = 30; total no. of lesions = 30) suitable for PTA were enrolled in the study between February 2007 and March 2008. There were 26 patients with claudication (Fontaine IIB) and 3 patients with stage IV peripheral vascular disease. In one patient, lesions in both legs were treated. No procedural or device-related complications occured. The average degree of stenosis was 86 {+-} 7%. Stenosis length ranged from 8 to 88 mm. The average degree of residual stenosis was 10 {+-} 10%. ABI improved from 0.56 {+-} 0.16 to 0.92 {+-} 0.19 (P < 0.05). No restenosis or dissection was seen at 1-month ultrasound follow-up. Macroscopic debris was found in 27 of 30 filters of all distal protection devices

  17. Creation of a neo-aortoiliac system from lower extremity deep and superficial veins.

    PubMed Central

    Clagett, G P; Bowers, B L; Lopez-Viego, M A; Rossi, M B; Valentine, R J; Myers, S I; Chervu, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the morbidity, mortality, and intermediate term follow-up of patients undergoing replacement of their aortoiliac-femoral systems with lower extremity deep and superficial veins. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most commonly used treatment for aortic prosthetic infection is ectopic bypass and removal of the prosthesis. The overall mortality rate with this approach is approximately 20%, with an amputation rate of 10% to 14%. Other limitations include thrombosis of the ectopic bypass leading to limb loss, reinfection of the ectopic bypass, and aortic stump blowout. Dissatisfaction with this approach has led the authors to develop the following. METHODS: A neo-aortoiliac system (NAIS) was fashioned from lower extremity deep veins (DV), greater saphenous veins (GSV), or both in patients with infected aortobifemoral prosthesis (n = 17) and other complex aortic problems (n = 3). Removal of infected prosthetic material, harvest of vein, and creation of NAIS was performed as a single-staged procedure. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality and amputation rates were 10% each. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) operative time was 6.5 +/- 1.8 hours and the blood transfusion requirement was 4 +/- 3 units. Four patients experienced postoperative gastrointestinal complications with peritonitis and sepsis; NAIS vein graft resisted infection and remained intact. The mean follow-up time was 22.5 +/- 16 months. NAISs constructed from GSVs were prone to the development of focal stenoses requiring intervention or diffuse neointimal hyperplasia leading to occlusion. In contrast, all NAISs from larger caliber DVs have remained widely patent. The failure rate of GSV NAISs was 64%, compared to 0% for DV NAISs (p = 0.006). Despite the high failure rate in patients with GSV NAISs, none has required amputation. In patients who had DVs harvested for NAIS reconstruction, limb edema and other signs of venous hypertension have been minimal. CONCLUSION: NAIS

  18. Heating Capacity of ReBound Shortwave Diathermy and Moist Hot Packs at Superficial Depths

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Amanda R.; Draper, David O.; Johnson, A. Wayne; Diede, Mike T.; Rigby, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The effectiveness of a new continuous diathermy unit, ReBound, as a heating modality is unknown. Objective: To compare the effects of ReBound diathermy with silicate-gel moist hot packs on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Design:  Crossover study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 12 healthy, college-aged volunteers (4 men, 8 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.25 years, calf subcutaneous fat thickness = 7.2 ± 1.9 mm). Intervention(s): On 2 different days, 1 of 2 modalities (ReBound diathermy, silicate-gel moist hot pack) was applied to the triceps surae muscle of each participant for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the modality was removed, and temperature decay was recorded for 20 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Medial triceps surae intramuscular tissue temperature at a depth of 1 cm was measured using an implantable thermocouple inserted horizontally into the muscle. Measurements were taken every 5 minutes during the 30-minute treatment and every minute during the 20-minute temperature decay, for a total of 50 minutes. Treatment was analyzed through a 2 × 7 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Temperature decay was analyzed through a 2 × 21 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results: During the 30-minute application, tissue temperatures at a depth of 1 cm increased more with the ReBound diathermy than with the moist hot pack (F6,66 = 7.14, P < .001). ReBound diathermy and moist hot packs increased tissue temperatures 3.69°C ± 1.50°C and 2.82°C ± 0.90°C, respectively, from baseline. Throughout the temperature decay, ReBound diathermy produced a greater rate of heat dissipation than the moist hot pack (F20,222 = 4.42, P < .001). Conclusions: During a 30-minute treatment at a superficial depth, the ReBound diathermy increased tissue temperature to moderate levels, which were greater than the levels reached with moist hot packs. PMID:23855362

  19. Infrared camera based thermometry for quality assurance of superficial hyperthermia applicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johannes; Hartmann, Josefin; Bert, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to provide a feasible and easy to apply phantom-based quality assurance (QA) procedure for superficial hyperthermia (SHT) applicators by means of infrared (IR) thermography. The VarioCAM hr head (InfraTec, Dresden, Germany) was used to investigate the SA-812, the SA-510 and the SA-308 applicators (all: Pyrexar Medical, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). Probe referencing and thermal equilibrium procedures were applied to determine the emissivity of the muscle-equivalent agar phantom. Firstly, the disturbing potential of thermal conduction on the temperature distribution inside the phantom was analyzed through measurements after various heating times (5-50 min). Next, the influence of the temperature of the water bolus between the SA-812 applicator and the phantom’s surface was evaluated by varying its temperature. The results are presented in terms of characteristic values (extremal temperatures, percentiles and effective field sizes (EFS)) and temperature-area-histograms (TAH). Lastly, spiral antenna applicators were compared by the introduced characteristics. The emissivity of the used phantom was found to be ɛ  =  0.91  ±  0.03, the results of both methods coincided. The influence of thermal conduction with regard to heating time was smaller than expected; the EFS of the SA-812 applicator had a size of (68.6  ±  6.7) cm2, averaged group variances were  ±3.0 cm2. The TAHs show that the influence of the water bolus is mostly limited to depths of  <3 cm, yet it can greatly enhance or reduce heat generation in this regime: at a depth of 1 cm, measured maximal temperature rises were 14.5 °C for T Bolus  =  30 °C and 8.6 °C for T Bolus  =  21 °C, respectively. The EFS was increased, too. The three spiral antenna applicators generated similar heat distributions. Generally, the procedure proved to yield informative insights into applicator characteristics, thus making the application

  20. Prophylactic steroid administration for strictures after endoscopic resection of large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Tomohiro; Yano, Tomonori; Kato, Tomoji; Imajoh, Maomi; Noguchi, Masaaki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Osera, Shozo; Yoda, Yusuke; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: One of the major complications after endoscopic resection (ER) for large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is benign esophageal stricture, which can reduce quality of life even if ESCC achieves a cure without organ resection. Recently, steroid administration has been reported as a prophylactic treatment to prevent esophageal strictures. This retrospective study evaluated the stricture rate according to the different width of mucosal defects due to ER and compared it to that seen with prophylactic steroid administration. Patients and methods: Between June 2007 and December 2013, we enrolled patients with ESCC who had 3/4 or larger circumferential mucosal defects due to ER. In December 2009, steroid injections (triamcinolone acetonide 50 mg) into the ulcer bed due to ER were introduced. Beginning in November 2012, we commenced oral steroid administration (prednisolone 30 mg/day, tapered gradually for 8 weeks) in addition to steroid injection. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the width of mucosal defect after ER (Group A, ≥ 3/4 and < 7/8; Group B, ≥ 7/8 and less than the entire circumference; and Group C, the entire circumference). We retrospectively evaluated the stricture rate by comparing no treatment, steroid injection, or steroid injection followed by oral steroid according to the width of mucosal defect. Results: A total of 115 patients met the selection criteria. In Group B, no treatment had a significantly higher stricture rate (100 %, vs. steroid injection: 56 % P = 0.015; vs steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 20 % P < 0.001). Conversely, in Group C, the stricture rate was high, regardless of treatment (no treatment: 100 %; steroid injection: 100 %; steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 71 %). Conclusions: Although prophylactic steroid administration is effective to prevent strictures for 7/8 circumference or larger mucosal defects, it is

  1. Reactivity to superficial and deep stimuli in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Carli, Giancarlo; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated pain sensitivity in patients with fibromyalgia or other types of chronic, diffuse musculoskeletal pain to establish whether fibromyalgia represents the end of a continuum of dysfunction in the nociceptive system. One hundred and forty five patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS) completed an epidemiological questionnaire to provide information about fatigue, stiffness, sleep, the intensity of pain (VAS 0-100) and its extent both at onset and at present. Algometry was performed at all American College of Rheumatology (ACR) tender points and at ten control points. Patients were divided into five main groups: fibromyalgia (FS) patients, secondary-concomitant fibromyalgia (SCFS) patients, patients with widespread pain (WP) but not reaching the ACR criterion of 11 tender points, patients with diffuse multiregional pain (MP) not reaching the ACR criteria (widespread pain, tender point counts), and patients with multiregional pain associated with at least 11 tender points (MPTE). von Frey monofilaments were used to assess superficial punctate pressure pain thresholds. Heat and cold pain thresholds were determined with a thermal stimulator. Ischemic pain was assessed by the cold pressure test and the submaximal effort tourniquet test. The scores for stiffness and present pain intensity gradually increased concomitantly with the increase in tender point count and pain extent. The pressure pain thresholds for positive tender and positive control points were significantly lower in the SCFS, FS and MPTE groups than in HS, MP and WP groups, the latter three groups displaying similar values. In all groups, there were no differences in pain thresholds between positive tender and positive control points. The heat pain threshold and the pain threshold in the cold pressure test were lower in the FS and SCFS groups than in HS. The cold pressure tolerance was lower in patients with widespread pain than in HS. In the von Frey test, all patient groups except MP

  2. The growth and structure of thin oxide films on nickel superficially modified with ceria and cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwinski, Franciszek

    A small addition of elements with a high affinity to oxygen can have a profound effect on the high temperature oxidation behaviour of many metals and alloys. In order to explain the improvement in oxidation resistance, the research was conducted using Ni-NiO as a model system of cation-diffusing oxides, and Ce as a typical reactive element. Three essential techniques were employed to modify the surface of Ni with Ce and CeO2: ion implantation, sol-gel technology, and reactive sputtering. The improvement of Ni oxidation resistance was assessed by oxygen uptake measurements mainly during the early stages but also for long-term exposures at temperatures between 873 and 1073 K in pure oxygen, both at low and atmospheric pressures. The variety of oxides produced were examined in detail by several advanced techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion-mass spectrometry, transmission- and scanning-transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron and x-ray analyzers, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction techniques. In order to provide direct evidence regarding the mechanism of oxide growth, a sequential oxidation using oxygen isotopes 16O2/18O2 was conducted. After conversion to the form of ceramic coating, superficially applied CeO2 sol-gel significantly reduced the Ni oxidation rate as well as changing the NiO morphology and internal microstructure. The extent of the effect depended on coating thickness, size of CeO2 particles, substrate surface finishing and preoxidation before coating. Under optimum conditions, the reduction in the Ni oxidation rate achieved by sol-gel, reactive sputtering, and ion implantation, was similar. It was found that Ni oxidation resistance is controlled by a well-defined NiO sublayer that is composed of randomly-oriented NiO grains and CeO2 particles. Moreover, in this sublayer, the Ce4+ ions segregate to the NiO grain boundaries. At high

  3. Sertaconazole: a review of its use in the management of superficial mycoses in dermatology and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Plosker, Greg L

    2009-01-01

    Sertaconazole (Dermofix, Ertaczo, Ginedermofix, Monazol, Mykosert or Zalain), an imidazole antifungal agent, inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential cell wall component of fungi. It is indicated in the EU for the treatment of superficial skin mycoses such as dermatophytosis (including tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea manus, tinea barbae and tinea pedis), cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp, and in the US for tinea pedis only. Sertaconazole has broad-spectrum antifungal activity against dermatophytes of the Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum genera, and yeasts of the genera Candida and Cryptococcus; additionally, it is effective against opportunistic filamentous fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the antifungal activity of sertaconazole is maintained in clinical isolates of dermatophytes that show reduced susceptibility to other azoles. While the drug has good dermal penetration, this is not associated with systemic absorption. In clinical trials in patients with superficial mycoses, 2% sertaconazole cream applied twice daily was effective in the eradication of a range of dermatophytoses, and a significantly greater proportion of patients were cured compared with those receiving 2% miconazole cream twice-daily treatment. In patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, sertaconazole as a single-dose ovule or tablet was effective in the eradication of Candida spp., and achieved both a more rapid and a higher cure rate compared with a triple dose of econazole. Both as a topical cream and suppository preparation, sertaconazole was generally well tolerated. Sertaconazole is a well established antifungal agent, which is now available in a variety of formulations, and remains a useful treatment option particularly in patients with fungal infections resistant to other azoles. Like other azoles, sertaconazole inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell walls

  4. Dosimetric verification of surface and superficial doses for head and neck IMRT with different PTV shrinkage margins

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, An-Cheng; Lai, Pei-Ling; Liang, Ji-An; and others

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric uncertainty in the surface and superficial regions is still a major concern for radiation therapy and becomes more important when using the inverse planning algorithm for IMRT. The purpose of this study was to measure dose distributions and to evaluate the calculation accuracy in the superficial region for different planning target volume (PTV) shrinkage methods for head and neck IMRT plans. Methods: A spherical polystyrene phantom 160 mm in diameter (ball phantom) was used to simulate the shape of the head. Strips of superflab bolus with thicknesses of 3.5 and 7.0 mm were spread on the surface of the ball phantom. Three sets of CT images were acquired for the ball phantom without and with the bolus. The hypothetical clinical target volume (CTV) and critical structures (spinal cord and parotid glands) were outlined on each set of CT images. The PTVs were initially created by expanding an isotropic 3 mm margin from the CTV and then margins of 0, 3, and 5 mm were shrunk from the phantom surface for dosimetric analysis. Seven-field IMRT plans with a prescribed dose of 180 cGy and same dose constraints were designed using an Eclipse treatment planning system. Superficial doses at depths of 0, 3.5, and 7.0 mm and at seven beam axis positions (gantry angles of 0 deg., 30 deg., 60 deg., 80 deg., 330 deg., 300 deg., and 280 deg.) were measured for each PTV shrinkage margin using 0.1 mm ultrathin thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each plan, the measured doses were compared to the calculated doses. Results: The PTV without shrinkage had the highest intensity and the steepest dose gradient in the superficial region. The mean measured doses for different positions at depths of 0, 3.5, and 7.0 mm were 106{+-}18, 185{+-}16, and 188{+-}12 cGy, respectively. For a PTV with 3 mm shrinkage, the mean measured doses were 94{+-}13, 183{+-}8, and 191{+-}8 cGy. For a PTV with 5 mm shrinkage, the mean measured doses were 86{+-}11, 173{+-}8, and 187{+-}5 cGy. The

  5. [A double blind randomised clinical trial to assess the efficacy of the treatments of the superficial pressure sores].

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Paola; Saiani, Luisa; Laquintana, Dario; Palese, Alvisa; Perli, Serena; Andreatta, Mariarosa; Rosa, Federica; Chini, Patrizia; Soraperra, Francesca; Ventura, Ida; Suriani, Cinzia; Romani, Silvia; Zancarli, Miriam; Martini, Marta; Partel, Francesca; Bassetti, Serena; Kaisermann, Rita; Bortolotti, Chiara; Gianordoli, Mirta; Rizzoli, Ilaria; Nardelli, Roberta; Pellizzari, Enrico; Valduga, Edda; Castaman, Marta; Pordenon, Marta; Beltrame, Moira; Bertolo, Cecilia; Casasola, Eleonora; Del Pin, Patrizia; Giolo, Simonetta; Marcatti, Emanuele; Pecini, Dina; Rodaro, Marisa; Zanon, Cristina; Stefanon, Laura; Covre, Lidia; Babbo, Consuela; Martin, Irma; Roilo, Antonia; Zanutel, Marta; Sabbadin, Silvano; Boin, Laura; Caron, Alessia; Martignago, Egidio; Venturin, Valter; Greggio, Annalisa; Frigo, Paola; Lazzaron, Daniela; Tonietto, Annalisa; Zanin, Barbara; Zorzi, Silvano; Zuanon, Antonio; Salmaso, Daniele; Frison, Tiziana; Marin, Irene; Buosi, Antonella; Fiorese, Elena; Gasparin, Dino; Goat, Barbara; Saccardo, Graziella; Simonetto, Ornella; Gomiero, Silvio; Baccara, Nicoletta; Ghirardello, Lucia; Niolu, Marilena; Silvestri, Sabrina; Buffon, Maria Luisa; Casson, Paola; Santantonio, Rosy; Albore, Piersandro; Mazzorana, Elvira; Terziariol, Laura; Bulgarelli, Giuliana; Barani, Elisa; Gasparini, Patrizia; Migliori, Salvina; Sasso, Elisa; Marfisi, Rosa Maria; Tognoni, Gianni; Sgaroni, Guya; Noro, Gabriele; Mattiuzzo, Mara

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the progresses of knowledge and care, pressure sores continue to be a clinically relevant problem. A double blind randomised controlled trial was organised to assess the efficacy of triticum vulgaris (Fitostimoline) vs placebo in the re-epithelisation of superficial pressure sores. Patients with stage NPUAP II or superficial pressure sores, with an expected survival of more than 3 months and eligible for a follow-up up to 8 weeks were included, over a period of 2 years in 46 clinical sites. The protocol was approved by local ethical committees and informed consent was obtained before randomisation. Medications were performed by nurses if the patient was hospitalised and by nurses or properly instructed caregivers at home. Weekly follow-up controls were assumed by nurses. Out of the 294 randomised patients 270 were included in the analyses. The two groups are comparable for the main characteristics except for Norton Scale mean values, less severe in the group assigned to active treatment (10.1+/-3.7 vs 8.9+/-3.2). The mean follow-up was of 3.8 and 4.2 weeks with a mean duration of 26+/-18 and 29+/-18 days for the experimental group and controls respectively. Seventy-six patients in the treatment group and controls (58.0 and 54.7) had their lesions re-epithelized. Adjusting results for age, initial Norton and Push scores there are no differences between treated and controls (OR 0.99 95% IC 0.60-1.67). This multicentre study, sponsored by a research group of nurses, failed to support the hypothesis that triticum vulgaris, the active component of the product Fitostimoline, given on top of recommended treatment, provides a specific therapeutic advantage in terms of frequency and timing of re-epithelization in superficial pressure sores.

  6. Value of Superficial Cultures for Prediction of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Long-Term Catheters: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rabadán, P.; Echenagusia, A.; Camúñez, F.; Rodríguez-Rosales, G.; Simó, G.; Echenagusia, M.; Bouza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cultures taken from the skin and from the hubs of short-term central venous catheters can help us to predict catheter-related bloodstream infections (C-RBSIs). The value of these cultures for such predictions has not been assessed in long-term catheters. Our objective was to assess the value of superficial cultures for the prediction of C-RBSI among patients with long-term catheters. Over a 2-year period, we prospectively obtained cultures from the skin overlying reservoir ports (group A) and from the skin insertion site and hubs of all tunneled catheters (group B). This routine was performed by vascular and interventional radiologists immediately before catheter removal (irrespective of the reason for withdrawal). Swabs were processed semiquantitatively. Catheter tips from both groups were cultured using Maki's semiquantitative technique and sonication. We also performed cultures of the reservoir ports at different sites. C-RBSI was defined as the isolation of the same species of microorganism(s) both in the colonized catheter and in at least 1 peripheral blood culture. We included 372 catheters (group A, 223; group B, 149) during the study period. The catheter colonization rate was 23.4% (87/372), and 28 patients had C-RBSI. Validity index values for the capacity of surface cultures to predict C-RBSI in groups A and B were, respectively, as follows: sensitivity, 23.5% and 45.5%; specificity, 59.7% and 63.0%; positive predictive value, 4.6% and 8.9%; and negative predictive value, 90.4% and 93.5%. Superficial cultures of patients with long-term catheters could help us to rule out the catheter as the portal of entry of bloodstream infections. Superficial cultures (from skin and hubs) proved to be a useful conservative diagnostic tool for ruling out C-RBSI among patients with long-term tunneled catheters and totally implantable venous access ports. PMID:23850957

  7. Efficacy and complication of endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim For patients with superficial esophageal carcinoma, ESD was one of treatment modalities to remove the lesion safely and effectively. We perform this meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and incidence of complication of ESD for patients with superficial esophageal carcinoma. Method Articles were searched in MEDLINE (PubMed and Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, Google scholar, and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently searched and extracted data. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of ESD was analyzed by calculating pooled en bloc and R0 resection rate. Incidence of complications such as perforation, stenosis and mediastinal emphysema was also calculated. Pooling was conducted using either fixed-effects model or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity across studies. Results 21 studies (1152 patients and 1240 lesions) were included in this analysis. The pooled en bloc resection rate was 99% (95% CI 99%-100%). Stratified by tumor size, en bloc resection rates did not show any significant difference. The pooled R0 resection rate was 90% (95% CI 87%-93%). The pooled R0 resection rate was 85% (95% CI, 80%-90%) for large tumor and 92% (95% CI, 87%-93%) for small tumor (p < 0.001). Stenosis served as the most common reported complication with pooled incidence of 5% (95% CI 3-8%), followed by perforation (1%, 95% CI 0-1%) and mediastinal emphysema (0% CI 0-1%). The incidence of postoperative stenosis decreased significantly after 2011 (2%, 95% CI 0-3%) compared with that before 2011 (9%, 95% CI 3-8%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion ESD was an efficient modality for treating superficial esophageal carcinoma, with perfect en bloc and R0 resection rate and low complication rate. The most common complication of ESD was stenosis. Although recurrence rate was low, patients should be maintained in a scheduled surveillance program. PMID:24885614

  8. Change in Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness, Corneal Thickness, Volume and Topography after Superficial Cauterization for Conjunctivochalasis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ye, Cong; Ng, Paul K F; Li, Emmy Y M; Yuen, Hunter K L; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-07-17

    We evaluated the change in tear film lipid layer thickness, corneal thickness, volume and topography after superficial cauterization of symptomatic conjunctivochalasis. Bilateral superficial conjunctival cauterization was performed in 36 eyes of 18 patients with symptomatic conjunctivochalasis. The mean age of patients (12 males, 6 females) was 68.6 ± 10.9 years (range: 44-83 years). Preoperatively, 28 eyes (77.8%) had grade 1 conjunctivochalasis, and 8 eyes (22.2%) had grade 2 conjunctivochalasis. At 1 month postoperatively, the severity of conjunctivochalasis decreased significantly (p < 0.001) and 29 eyes (80.6%) had grade 0 conjunctivochalasis whereas 7 eyes (19.4%) had grade 1 conjunctivochalasis. The mean Ocular Surface Disease Index score decreased from 31.5 ± 15.2 preoperatively to 21.5 ± 14.2 at the end of 1 month postoperatively (p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in mean tear film lipid layer thickness 1 month after the surgery (49.6 ± 16.1 nm vs 62.6 ± 21.6 nm; p < 0.001). The central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness and corneal volume decreased significantly postoperatively (p < 0.001). Our study showed that superficial conjunctival cauterization is an effective technique for management of conjunctivochalasis in the short term. An increase in tear film lipid layer thickness along with a decrease in corneal thickness and volume were observed after surgical correction of conjunctivochalasis.

  9. Randomized Trial of the SMART Stent versus Balloon Angioplasty in Long Superficial Femoral Artery Lesions: The SUPER Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, Nicholas; Walker, Paul T.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thorpe, Anthony P.; Sidhu, Paul S.; Robinson, Graham; Ransbeeck, Mariella van

    2013-04-15

    To determine whether primary stenting reduces the rate of restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty alone in the endovascular treatment of long superficial femoral artery lesions; and to assess the effect of treatment on quality of life. A total of 150 patients with superior femoral artery occlusion or severe stenosis of 5-22 cm length from 17 UK centers were randomized to either primary stenting with the SMART stent or balloon angioplasty (i.e., percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, PTA). Bailout stent placement was permitted in case of inadequate result from PTA. The primary end point was restenosis measured by duplex ultrasound at 1 year. Quality-of-life assessments were performed by the EuroQol (EQ)-5D questionnaire. Mean lesion length was 123.0 mm in the stent group and 116.8 mm in the PTA group. A total of 140 (93.3 %) of 150 had total occlusions. At 12 months' follow-up, restenosis measured by Duplex ultrasound was not significantly different between the stent and PTA groups by intention-to-treat or as-treated analyses: 47.2 versus 43.5 % (p = 0.84) and 40.8 versus 46.7 % (p = 0.68), respectively. There were fewer target lesion revascularizations in patients randomized to stenting, but this did not reach statistical significance (12.5 vs. 20.8 %, p = 0.26). There was no difference in the rate of amputation. Patients in both groups reported improved quality of life. Primary stenting of long lesions in predominantly occluded superficial femoral arteries does not reduce the rate of binary restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty and bailout stenting. Both treatment strategies conferred a meaningful and sustained improvement to the quality of life of patients with severe superficial femoral artery disease.

  10. 1.1 μm superficially porous particles for liquid chromatography: part II: column packing and chromatographic performance.

    PubMed

    Blue, Laura E; Jorgenson, James W

    2015-02-06

    The predicted advantages of superficially porous particles over totally porous particles are decreased eddy dispersion, longitudinal diffusion, and resistance to mass transfer contributions to the theoretical plate height. While sub-2 micron superficially porous particles are commercially available, further improvements in performance are predicted by decreasing the particle diameter and decreasing the porous layer thickness. 1.1 μm superficially porous particles with 187Å pores have been synthesized using a layer-by-layer method tuned for production of smaller diameter particles. Following synthesis, these particles were packed into 30 μm i.d. capillary columns and their chromatographic performance evaluated using electrochemical detection. Based on the initial studies, the column efficiency did not meet theory, but was similar to the commercially available products tested. It is believed that the column packing process plays a critical role in the sub-par column performance. To determine if column efficiency could be predicted by solvent-particle interactions, in-solution optical microscopy and sedimentation velocity of particles in various slurry solvents were investigated and compared to column performance. Aggregating slurry solvents, such as methanol were found to produce columns with increased efficiency. The hmin for a column packed with an acetone slurry and a methanol slurry at 3mg/mL were found to be 6.3 and 3.5, respectively. Increasing the slurry concentration to 25mg/mL further improved the efficiency, producing a column with an hmin of 2.6. These efficiency results were accurately predicted by in-solution optical microscopy.

  11. Angled Cool-Tip Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation of Small Superficial Subcapsular Tumors in the Liver: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Jung; Lee, Shin Jae; Shin, Min Woo; Shin, Won Sun; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Gyoung Min; Kim, Man Deuk; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Choi, Jin Sub; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall, in order to traverse normal liver parenchyma, and thereby, obtain favorable configuration of ablation margin. Materials and Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 15 small superficial subcapsular liver tumors abutting abdominal wall in 15 patients, treated with radiofrequency ablation from March 2013 to June 2015 using a cool-tip electrode manually modified to create 25–35° angle at the junction between exposed and insulated segments. The tumors were hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13) and metastases (n = 2: cholangiocellular carcinoma and rectosigmoid cancer), with maximum diameter of 10–26 mm (mean, 15.68 ± 5.29 mm). Under ultrasonographic guidance, the electrode tip was advanced to the depth of the tumors' epicenter about 1 cm from the margin. The tip was re-directed to penetrate the tumor for radiofrequency ablation. Minimal ablation margin was measured at immediate post-treatment CT. Radiological images and medical records were evaluated for success rate, length of minimal ablation margin and complications. Results Technical success rate of obtaining complete necrosis of the tumors was 100%, with no procedure-related complication. Minimal ablation margin ranged from 3–12 mm (mean, 7.07 ± 2.23 mm). CT/MRI follow-up at 21–1022 days (mean, 519.47 ± 304.51 days) revealed no local recurrence, but distant recurrence in 9 patients. Conclusion Using an angled cool-tip electrode for radiofrequency ablation of small superficial subcapsular tumors abutting abdominal wall may be a feasible technique for obtaining adequate ablation margin and lower complication rate. PMID:27587963

  12. Ichthyosiform dermatosis with superficial blister formation and peeling: evidence for a desmosomal anomaly and altered epidermal vitamin A metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mevorah, B; Salomon, D; Siegenthaler, G; Hohl, D; Meier, M L; Saurat, J H; Frenk, E

    1996-02-01

    We describe a man with generalized congenital ichthyosiform dermatosis, severe cheilitis, and palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis with superficial blistering. Low-dose acitretin therapy induced areas of peeling skin, similar to that seen in the peeling skin syndrome. Histologically, the skin was moderately hyperkeratotic and the palmar blisters were subcorneal. Electron microscopy revealed that the splitting occurred within the desmosomal plaque. Ultrastructural and biochemical investigations indicated epidermal hypervitaminosis A, probably related to alteration of epidermal retinoic acid metabolism. This disease is proposed as a hitherto unreported variant of the peeling skin syndrome.

  13. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for the investigation of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysms--two case reports--.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Takuya; Kawashima, Masatou; Mannoji, Hiromichi

    2005-03-01

    An 89-year-old man and a 60-year-old man presented with superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms which developed secondary to trauma. Conventional cerebral angiography and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) angiography clearly demonstrated the STA pseudoaneurysms. The patients underwent surgical excision of the aneurysms based on the conventional cerebral angiography findings in one patient and 3D CT angiography findings in other patient. 3D CT angiography is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic method for detecting extracranial aneurysms such as STA pseudoaneurysm, especially the relationship between the aneurysm and surrounding structures, including the calvarium.

  14. Superficially porous particles with 1000Å pores for large biomolecule high performance liquid chromatography and polymer size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Brian M; Schuster, Stephanie A; Boyes, Barry E; Shields, Taylor J; Miles, William L; Haynes, Mark J; Moran, Robert E; Kirkland, Joseph J; Schure, Mark R

    2017-03-17

    To facilitate mass transport and column efficiency, solutes must have free access to particle pores to facilitate interactions with the stationary phase. To ensure this feature, particles should be used for HPLC separations which have pores sufficiently large to accommodate the solute without restricted diffusion. This paper describes the design and properties of superficially porous (also called Fused-Core(®), core shell or porous shell) particles with very large (1000Å) pores specifically developed for separating very large biomolecules and polymers. Separations of DNA fragments, monoclonal antibodies, large proteins and large polystyrene standards are used to illustrate the utility of these particles for efficient, high-resolution applications.

  15. Superficial alteration and soluble salts in the calcarenite weathering. case study of almohade monuments in Rabat: Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaouia, N.; Elwartiti, M.; Baghdad, B.

    2005-09-01

    This work analyzes the stone superficial deterioration of some monuments in Rabat city. The rock is a calcarenite with porous texture, rich in calcium carbonates and fossils. The techniques used to study the surfaces altered by blackening or black crusts, are the SEM equipped with EDX microprobe, the X-ray diffraction, and the analysis of the soluble salts by ionic chromatography for anions and flame spectrometer for cations. They reveal significant contents of calcium sulphates, mainly gypsum, often associated with sodium chlorides. These salts known to have a destructive effect on the calcareous stones seem to be originated from the contamination by atmospheric pollutants, particularly sulfur dioxide, and by the marine sprays.

  16. Superficial dosimetry imaging based on Čerenkov emission for external beam radiotherapy with megavoltage x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Fox, Colleen J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Čerenkov radiation emission occurs in all tissue, when charged particles (either primary or secondary) travel at velocity above the threshold for the Čerenkov effect (about 220 KeV in tissue for electrons). This study presents the first examination of optical Čerenkov emission as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial dose for MV x-ray beams.Methods: In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of flat and curved surfaces were studied to analyze the energy spectra of charged particles produced in different regions near the surfaces when irradiated by MV x-ray beams. Čerenkov emission intensity and radiation dose were directly simulated in voxelized flat and cylindrical phantoms. The sampling region of superficial dosimetry based on Čerenkov radiation was simulated in layered skin models. Angular distributions of optical emission from the surfaces were investigated. Tissue mimicking phantoms with flat and curved surfaces were imaged with a time domain gating system. The beam field sizes (50 × 50–200 × 200 mm{sup 2}), incident angles (0°–70°) and imaging regions were all varied.Results: The entrance or exit region of the tissue has nearly homogeneous energy spectra across the beam, such that their Čerenkov emission is proportional to dose. Directly simulated local intensity of Čerenkov and radiation dose in voxelized flat and cylindrical phantoms further validate that this signal is proportional to radiation dose with absolute average discrepancy within 2%, and the largest within 5% typically at the beam edges. The effective sampling depth could be tuned from near 0 up to 6 mm by spectral filtering. The angular profiles near the theoretical Lambertian emission distribution for a perfect diffusive medium, suggesting that angular correction of Čerenkov images may not be required even for curved surface. The acquisition speed and signal to noise ratio of the time domain gating system were investigated for different acquisition procedures, and the

  17. Successful carbon dioxide angiography guided endovascular thrombectomy of the superficial femoral artery in a young patient with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Giusca, Sorin; Eisele, Tom; Raupp, Dorothea; Eisenbach, Christoph; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2017-03-01

    Currently, the treatment of thromboembolic ischemia of the lower extremities includes percutaneous rotational thrombectomy and aspiration devices. However, the standard approach for endovascular treatment requires the administration of iodine contrast agents, which is problematic in patients with pre-existing renal disease and diabetes. Herein, we describe a case of a CO2 angiography guided endovascular thrombectomy of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in a young patient with critical limb ischemia. Mechanical thrombectomy using the Rotarex system, catheter aided aspiration and subsequent stent placement in the SFA was entirely guided using CO2 angiography.

  18. Three-dimensional shape measurement system applied to superficial inspection of non-metallic pipes for the hydrocarbons transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arciniegas, Javier R.; González, Andrés. L.; Quintero, L. A.; Contreras, Carlos R.; Meneses, Jaime E.

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional shape measurement is a subject that consistently produces high scientific interest and provides information for medical, industrial and investigative applications, among others. In this paper, it is proposed to implement a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction system for applications in superficial inspection of non-metallic pipes for the hydrocarbons transport. The system is formed by a CCD camera, a video-projector and a laptop and it is based on fringe projection technique. System functionality is evidenced by evaluating the quality of three-dimensional reconstructions obtained, which allow observing the failures and defects on the study object surface.

  19. [Femoral superficial vein thrombosis due to a large iliopsoas bursitis secondary to polyethylene wear debris in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax Pérez, R; Salinas Gilabert, J E; Lajara Marco, F; Lax Pérez, A; Ferrero Manzanal, F; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo Plazas, L

    2012-01-01

    A 76 year old male patient with a history of implantation of a total hip arthroplasty Perfecta (Orthomet(®)), who presented with an iliac fossa mass, increased diameter of the thigh, and pain during hip flexion and extension. CT and ultrasound show the presence of a giant cystic mass in left iliac fossa about 7 cm in diameter next to the prosthesis. A pseudo-tumour secondary to wear debris after placement of a total arthroplasty is rare. We present a case of a large iliopsoas bursitis caused by polyethylene particles, which caused compression and thrombosis of the superficial femoral vein.

  20. [Superficial femoral vein thrombosis due to large psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax-Pérez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Pérez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2012-01-01

    Male, 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip arthroplasty who presents with a mass in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and hip pain upon flexion and extension. Complementary ultrasound and computed tomography scan studies show a giant lobulated cystic mass in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, near the prosthesis. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent. We present a case of large psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles which caused superficial femoral vein compression and thrombosis.

  1. [Thrombosis of the superficial femoral vein due to psoas bursitis secondary to particle disease in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Lax-Pérez, R; Salinas-Gilabert, J E; Lajara-Marco, F; Lax-Pérez, A; Corraliza-Zamorano, A; García-Gálvez, A; Izquierdo-Plazas, L

    2011-01-01

    The case of a male 76 year-old patient with a history of total hip replacement surgery is presented herein. The patient had tumors in the iliac fossa with swelling of the thigh and pain upon hip flexion and extension. The complementary ultrasound and computed tomography show a large lobed cystic tumor in the left iliac fossa, 7 cm in diameter, close to the prosthesis. The diagnosis was psoas bursitis secondary to the release of polyethylene particles that caused compression and thrombosis of the superficial femoral vein. Cyst formation caused by polyethylene disease after total hip arthroplasty is infrequent.

  2. Productivity and order versus the superficial behavior of the prox reaction on a copper-ceria catalyst Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Joaquín; Valencia, Eliana; Araya, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for the productivity and order of the PROX/copper-ceria catalyst reaction with different superficial %Cu are made. The results are correlated with the behavior of the different surface species (CO, H, O, OH, vacancies) during the process. Among other results, an inversion is seen of the production of CO2 with respect to that of H2O with the increase of %Cu, a positive order for CO2 with at low CCO, and with CO2 if it is low, a positive order for H2O with CO2 only if %Cu is high, and zero order with CH2 in all cases.

  3. Probing glycine receptor stoichiometry in superficial dorsal horn neurones using the spasmodic mouse.

    PubMed

    Graham, B A; Tadros, M A; Schofield, P R; Callister, R J

    2011-05-15

    Inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) are pentameric ligand gated ion channels composed of α and β subunits assembled in a 2:3 stoichiometry. The α1/βheteromer is considered the dominant GlyR isoform at 'native' adult synapses in the spinal cord and brainstem. However, the α3 GlyR subunit is concentrated in the superficial dorsal horn (SDH: laminae I-II), a spinal cord region important for processing nociceptive signals from skin, muscle and viscera. Here we use the spasmodic mouse, which has a naturally occurring mutation (A52S) in the α1 subunit of the GlyR, to examine the effect of the mutation on inhibitory synaptic transmission and homeostatic plasticity, and to probe for the presence of various GlyR subunits in the SDH.We usedwhole cell recording (at 22-24◦C) in lumbar spinal cord slices obtained from ketamine-anaesthetized (100 mg kg⁻¹, I.P.) spasmodic and wild-type mice (mean age P27 and P29, respectively, both sexes). The amplitude and decay time constants of GlyR mediated mIPSCs in spasmodic micewere reduced by 25% and 50%, respectively (42.0 ± 3.6 pA vs. 31.0 ± 1.8 pA, P <0.05 and 7.4 ± 0.5 ms vs. 5.0 ± 0.4 ms, P <0.05; means ± SEM, n =34 and 31, respectively). Examination of mIPSC amplitude versus rise time and decay time relationships showed these differences were not due to electrotonic effects. Analysis of GABAAergic mIPSCs and A-type potassium currents revealed altered GlyR mediated neurotransmission was not accompanied by the synaptic or intrinsic homeostatic plasticity previously demonstrated in another GlyR mutant, spastic. Application of glycine to excised outside-out patches from SDH neurones showed glycine sensitivity was reduced more than twofold in spasmodic GlyRs (EC50 =130 ± 20 μM vs. 64 ± 11 μM, respectively; n =8 and 15, respectively). Differential agonist sensitivity and mIPSC decay times were subsequently used to probe for the presence of α1-containing GlyRs in SDHneurones.Glycine sensitivity, based on the response

  4. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-09-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid-the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis-with a 2 Na(+): 1 I(-) stoichiometry. The two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I(-) binding site interact allosterically: when Na(+) binds to a Na(+) site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na(+) and for I(-) increases significantly. In all Na(+)-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na(+) ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues-S66, D191, Q194, and Q263-are also involved in Na(+) coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I(-) These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance.

  5. Shaping and resizing of multifed slot radiators used in conformal microwave antenna arrays for hyperthermia treatment of large superficial diseases.

    PubMed

    Maccarini, Paolo F; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Juang, Titania; De Luca, Valeria; Rangarao, Sneha; Neumann, Daniel; Martins, Carlos Daniel; Craciunescu, Oana; Stauffer, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently shown that chestwall recurrence of breast cancer and many other superficial diseases can be successfully treated with the combination of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia. Conformal microwave antenna array for hyperthermia treatment of large area superficial diseases can significantly increase patient comfort while at the same time facilitate treatment of larger and more irregularly shaped disease. A large number of small efficient antennas is preferable for improved control of heating, as the disease can be more accurately contoured and the lower power requirement correlates with system reliability, linearity and reduced cost. Thus, starting from the initially proposed square slot antennas, we investigated new designs for multi-fed slot antennas of several shapes that maximize slot perimeter while reducing radiating area, thus increasing antenna efficiency. Simulations were performed with commercial electromagnetic simulation software packages (Ansoft HFSS) to demonstrate that the antenna size reduction method is effective for several dual concentric conductor (DCC) aperture shapes and operating frequencies. The theoretical simulations allowed the development of a set of design rules for multi-fed DCC slot antennas that facilitate conformal heat treatments of irregular size and shape disease with large multi-element arrays. Independently on the shape, it is shown that the perimeter of 10cm at 915 MHz delivers optimal radiation pattern and efficiency. While the maximum radiation is obtained for a circular pattern the rectangular shape is the one that feels more efficiently the array space.

  6. Numbness after Transradial Cardiac Catheterization: the Results from a Nerve Conduction Study of the Superficial Radial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ho-Jun; Kim, Ji-Young; Han, Jae Deok; Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Je Sang; Park, Jin Sik; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Choi, Young Jin; Shim, Won-Heum; Kwon, Sung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Numbness on the hand occurs infrequently after a transradial cardiac catheterization (TRC). The symptom resembles that of neuropathy. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, the predicting factors and the presence of neurological abnormalities of numbness, using a nerve conduction study (NCS). Subjects and Methods From April to December 2013, all patients who underwent a TRC were prospectively enrolled. From among these, the patients who experienced numbness on the ipsilateral hand were instructed to describe their symptoms using a visual analogue scale; subsequently, NCSs were performed on these patients. Results Of the total 479 patients in the study sample, numbness occurred in nine (1.8%) following the procedure. The NCS was performed for eight out of the nine patients, four (50%) of which had an abnormal NCS result at the superficial radial nerve. A larger sheath and history of myocardial infarction (p=0.14 and 0.08 respectively) tended towards the occurrence of numbness; however, only the use of size 7 French sheaths was an independent predictor for the occurrence of numbness (odds ratio: 5.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-28.58, p=0.042). The symptoms disappeared for all patients but one, within four months. Conclusion A transient injury of the superficial radial nerve could be one reason for numbness after a TRC. A large sheath size was an independent predictor of numbness; therefore, large sized sheaths should be used with caution when performing a TRC. PMID:27014346

  7. c(RGDfK) decorated micellar drug delivery system for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danhua; Zhang, Guan; Gan, Zhihua

    2013-08-10

    The aim of this work was to develop a targeted drug delivery system with potentials for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) was first conjugated with the cyclic (Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-d-Phenylalanine-Lysine) (c(RGDfK)) and fluorescein isothiocyannate (FITC) via the functional terminal groups of hydrophilic block, and then assembled into micelles. The interaction between micelles and various model cells was well studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The c(RGDfK) on the surface of the micelle was confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis and cell affinity with human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells (U87MG). The cell viability of bladder cancer cells (T-24 cells) after incubation with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded polymeric micelles was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The results revealed that c(RGDfK) modified micelles showed strong affinity to T-24 cells and strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of T-24 cells when doxorubicin drug was loaded, indicating the high affinity of c(RGDfK) to bladder cancer cells. The c(RGDfK) modified micelles assembled from PCL-b-PEO diblock copolymers developed in this study are of great potentials as nano-scaled drug delivery system for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

  8. Dermatophyte species in superficial mycoses in the Kraków district, Poland in the years 1972-2007.

    PubMed

    Macura, A B; Krzyściak, P; Skóra, M; Gniadek, A

    2010-03-01

    Considerable changes in the dermatophyte spectrum have been observed in the past century. Hence, many authors point out the necessity of performing periodical overviews of the mycological flora producing mycoses in humans in a given area. Analysis of dermatophyte species was performed, which were isolated from the lesions in patients suspected of superficial mycosis and referred to the Department of Mycology. The materials were isolated from patients suspected of superficial mycosis from Kraków region from January 1, 1972 through December 31, 2007. A total of 4983 dermatophyte strains were isolated from 23 124 specimens, which amounts to 21.5%. The percentage of dermatophytes isolated in the past decade decreased to 13.1% in the year 2007. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered Trichophyton mentagrophytes during the entire survey period: 62.4 vs. 33.5%. The participation of Microsporum canis amounted to 1.71% and that of Epidermophyton floccosum to 1.32%. The species M. canis appeared by the end of the 1980s. The remaining dermatophyte species comprised 1% of the isolates. A considerable decrease in dermatophyte isolations has been observed since 2000. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered T. mentagrophytes during the entire period of study. The percentages of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes are decreasing while the percentages of other dermatophytes are slowly increasing.

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis Infection Complicating Intravesical BCG Instillation for the Treatment of Superficial Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Elzein, Fatehi; Albogami, Nada; Saad, Mustafa; El Tayeb, Nazik; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Elyamany, Ghaleb

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) remains a first-line treatment for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Although its use is relatively safe, severe complications such as granulomatous hepatitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonitis, and sepsis occur in few patients. Complications of intravesical instillation of BCG can be local or systemic, with early or late presentation. CASE PRESENTATION Here, we report an 88-year-old man who developed fever, rigors, and episodes of syncope following fourth intravesical BCG instillation for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pancytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, ground glass appearance on computerized tomography of the chest scan in addition to multiple bone marrow granulomas, suggested the diagnosis of disseminated BCG infection. All these features recovered on antituberculosis treatment. CONCLUSION Our case study highlights the importance of early recognition and prompt treatment of patients with disseminated BCG infection following intravesical instillation. Although isolation of mycobacterium is desirable to make the diagnosis, it is not unusual to have negative smears and cultures and this should not be used to dismiss the possibility of BCG infection. PMID:27559301

  10. Retapamulin: a review of its use in the management of impetigo and other uncomplicated superficial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Keam, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    Topical retapamulin (Altabax, Altargo) is the first pleuromutilin antibacterial approved for the treatment of uncomplicated superficial skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (excluding meticillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) and Streptococcus pyogenes in patients aged > or = 9 months. In the EU, retapamulin is indicated for use in patients with impetigo or with infected small lacerations, abrasions or sutured wounds (without abscesses); in the US, it is indicated for use in patients with impetigo. Retapamulin has a novel site of action on bacterial ribosomes. In clinical trials in patients with impetigo, topical retapamulin 1% ointment twice daily for 5 days (the approved regimen) was superior to placebo; treatment with retapamulin was noninferior to that with topical fusidic acid. In patients with secondarily infected traumatic lesions, treatment with retapamulin was noninferior to that with oral cefalexin, although the efficacy of retapamulin was reduced in patients with MRSA infections or superficial abscesses. Retapamulin was well tolerated in both paediatric and adult patients, and the majority of adverse events were of mild to moderate severity. Thus, the introduction of topical retapamulin 1% ointment extends the treatment options available in the management of impetigo and uncomplicated secondarily infected traumatic lesions.

  11. Clinical and radiological evidence to support superficial parotidectomy as the treatment of choice for chronic parotid sialadenitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Amin, M A; Bailey, B M; Patel, S R

    2001-10-01

    We present a retrospective series of 23 consecutive parotidectomies, over a 10-year period (1989-1999) for 22 patients with chronic sialadenitis unresponsive to conservative measures. There were 10 male and 12 female patients. Mean age was 52 years (range 12-72), and mean duration of symptoms 4.5 years (range 8 months-30 years). All patients had preoperative sialography and 2 had computed tomography to exclude a neoplasm. A complete superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was done in all cases. Fifteen patients developed temporary facial nerve weakness postoperatively and 7 developed Frey's syndrome. There were no cases of permanent facial nerve palsy. Nineteen patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms and 3 patients had mild persisting symptoms that did not necessitate any further treatment. Histologically there was evidence of sialadenosis in one case and benign lymphoepithelial lesion in another; the others showed evidence of chronic sialadenitis of varying degrees of severity. Fifteen patients had postoperative sialograms, of which 11 showed evidence of some filling of residual parotid gland parenchyma and in 8 patients there was filling of a normal-looking accessory lobe. In this series, superficial parotidectomy with preservation of the main duct was safe and effective, with minimal long-term complications, for most patients with chronic parotid sialadenitis that was unresponsive to conservative measures and, in some patients, it allowed some preservation of function. The potential damage to the facial nerve and the cosmetic problems associated with a total or near-total parotidectomy were avoided.

  12. Recent advancements and future directions of superficially porous chiral stationary phases for ultrafast high-performance enantioseparations.

    PubMed

    Catani, Martina; Ismail, Omar H; Gasparrini, Francesco; Antonelli, Michela; Pasti, Luisa; Marchetti, Nicola; Felletti, Simona; Cavazzini, Alberto

    2017-01-16

    This review focuses on the use of superficially porous particles (SPPs) as chiral stationary phases for ultra-high performance liquid enantioseparations. In contrast to what happened in achiral separations where core-shell particles invaded the market, the introduction of SPPs in chiral liquid chromatography (LC) has been relatively recent. This is due in part to the technical difficulties in the preparation of these phases, and in part to scarce understanding of mass transfer phenomena in chiral chromatography. As a matter of fact, nowadays, the development of superficially porous CSPs is still in its infancy. This paper covers the most recent advancements in the field of core-shell technology applied to chiral separations. We review the kinds of chiral selectors that have been used for the preparation of these phases, by discussing the advantages of chiral SPPs over their fully-porous counterparts for high efficient high throughput enantioseparations. Notwithstanding the apparently obvious advantages in terms of the mass transfer of chiral SPPs, some critical aspects that could impact their development are presented.

  13. Experimental studies regarding wear processes through dry friction of the superficial layer for an unconventional treated steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadatu, C. P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the studies on tribomodels regarding the dry friction wear and the processes of the wear in this case is to determine the wear intensity for a certain type of tribomodel and for a certain type of material. An Amsler stand was used. The experimental study uses two distinct values of task of loading (Q). The rolls with different diameters were used in order to obtain different sliding degrees (ξ). Studies have been made for the improvement of the mechanical properties of a Chromium – Molybdenum alloyed steel, unconventional treated in a magnetic field. The Thermo-magnetic treatment was applied before a thermo-chemical treatment. The mechanical properties of the material have been improved, particularly in the case of a great content of aluminum and chromium. The hardness values of the superficial layers which have been obtained after a complex thermo-magnetic and thermo - chemical treatments, the superficial layers content and the behavior of the steels at the wear tests were used as criterion. Diffractometric analysis and a statistical modeling completed this study.

  14. Reflectance confocal microscopy and dermoscopy for in vivo, non-invasive skin imaging of superficial basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GHITA, MIHAELA A.; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; ROSCA, ADRIAN E.; KALESHI, HARILLAQ; CARUNTU, ANA; MORARU, LILIANA; DOCEA, ANCA OANA; ZURAC, SABINA; BODA, DANIEL; NEAGU, MONICA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) is the second most frequent histological type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually requiring a skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. It usually appears on the upper trunk and shoulders as erythematous and squamous lesions. Although it has a slow growth and seldom metastasizes, early diagnosis and management are of crucial importance in preventing local invasion and subsequent disfigurement. Dermoscopy is nowadays an indispensable tool for the dermatologist when evaluating skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a novel imaging technique that allows the non-invasive, in vivo quasi-microscopic morphological and dynamic assessment of superficial skin tumors. Moreover, it offers the advantage of performing infinite repeatable determinations to monitor disease progression and non-surgical treatment for sBCC. Herein, we present three lesions of sBCC evaluated using in vivo and non-invasive imaging techniques, emphasizing the usefulness of combining RCM with dermoscopy for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of sBCC. PMID:27123056

  15. Is photodynamic therapy an appropriate treatment of feline superficial squamous cell carcinomas? Two case studies in small animal practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinck, Elke; Cagnie, B.; Vinck, H.; Cambier, D.

    2003-12-01

    Oncological research and cancer treatment are more common in human medicine than in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless the latest decennium chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery also figure largely in the cancer treatment of pets. For this matter, the present study tried to explore the applicability of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a proper and advantageous alternative for those treatments. PDT using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) cream was applied on superficial squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) at the nasal planum of two cats. Five hours after the cream was applied, the photosensitizing agent was removed and the sensitized area was irradiated with a red Light Emitting Diode (LED) contrivance with a wavelength of 660 nm. LED irradiation was administrated during 20 minutes, at a power output of 80 mW, with an energy density outcome of 38 J/cm2. The day after ths irradiation, the tumor area became erythematous and somewhat oedematous. After two days a scab occurred. Long-term post treatment observation showed complete removal of the malign cells related with regain of normal skin structure after three weeks. Follow-up period of one year for the first case and of two months for the second case revealed no recurrence. These promising results indicate that PDT is a possible alternative method to treat superficial skin tumors. Especially when taking into account that chemotherapy and radiotherapy are time-consuming treatments and that surgery (complete removal of the nasal planum) is not an esthetical solution.

  16. Computed tomographic angiography of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis based on volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral imaging display.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiong; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Anhong; Huang, Yanping; Deng, Xuefei

    2015-12-01

    As damage to the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis may create catastrophic complications even after successful surgery, it is important to visualize and determine the normal features of the venous anastomosis with computed tomographic angiography. A total of 90 patients underwent a 64-detector row helical CT scan of head. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis was reconstructed by volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral display algorithm. In particular, we examined the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian, in order to analyze the venous anastomosis. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis varied across different individuals, and in this study, six types of anastomosis were found. In 28 % of patients, no venous anastomosis was found in the unilateral cerebral hemisphere. The display rate of the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian in contributing to venous anastomosis was 70, 80, and 91 %, respectively. The number of vein of Trolard and vein of Labbe on the left side was greater than that of those on the right side. We implemented the 64-detector row helical CT as a rapid and noninvasive method to investigate the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis in our group of patients. We performed substantial image processing for the visualization of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis; this would not only enable the early diagnosis of cerebral venous disease, but also protect the cerebral vein during neurosurgical intervention.

  17. Supermicrosurgical anastomosis of superficial lymphatic vessel to deep lymphatic vessel for a patient with cellulitis-induced chronic localized leg lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Koshima, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Supermicrosurgical lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) has been reported to be useful for the treatment of obstructive lymphedema. However, LVA has a potential risk of anastomosis site thrombosis. It is more physiological to use a lymphatic vessel as a recipient vessel of lymphatic bypass surgery, because there is no chance for blood to contact the anastomosis site. We report a chronic localized lower leg lymphedema case treated with supermicrosurgical superficial-to-deep lymphaticolymphatic anastomosis (LLA). A 66-year-old male with a 60-year history of cellulitis-induced left lower leg lymphedema suffered from very frequent episodes of cellulitis and underwent LLA under local infiltration anesthesia. LLA was performed at the dorsum of the left foot. A dilated superficial lymphatic vessel was found in the fat layer, and a nondilated intact deep lymphatic vessel was found along the dorsalis pedis artery below the deep fascia. The superficial lymphatic vessel was supermicrosurgically anastomosed to the deep lymphatic vessel in a side-to-end fashion. After the surgery, the patient had no episodes of cellulitis, and the left lower leg lymphedematous volume decreased. Superficial-to-deep LLA may be a useful option for the treatment of secondary lymphedema due to obstruction of only the superficial lymphatic system.

  18. The influence of steroids on the vascular tension of isolated superficial nasal and facial veins in gilts during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the facial vein into the external jugular vein and through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus. The venous cavernous sinus is the site where hormones and pheromones permeate from venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to: (1) determine whether estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in maturating prepubertal gilts (PP) and in prepubertal gilts deprived of ovarian hormones (PPov), and (2) to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors (PR), and estradiol receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in these veins. The influence of hormones on the vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel, the hormonal status and dose of hormone used. Estradiol decreased the vascular tension in the nasal and facial veins of PP gilts (P < 0.01). In PPov gilts, the effect of E2 was opposing, however it caused strong tension in the proximal and distal parts of the facial vein (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Progesterone increased the vascular tension in the proximal segment of the nasal vein and in the distal segment of the frontal and facial veins, and decreased the tension in the distal segment of the nasal and facial veins (P < 0.05) of PP gilts. In PPov gilts, P4 produced strong increase in the tension of distal and proximal segments of the nasal vein (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and of distal segment of the facial vein (P < 0.01), strong decrease in the tension of the distal part of the nasal vein (P < 0.01) and had limited effect on other veins. Expression of ER beta, but not of PR, was observed in the superficial nasal and facial veins. In conclusion, the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins in

  19. A new design for superficial temporal fascial flap for reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal system in one-stage procedure: medusa flap.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kulahci, Yalcin; Kapi, Emin; Karakol, Percin

    2009-12-01

    Reconstruction of the eyebrows, eyelids, and destroyed lacrimal drainage system is a challenging procedure for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. In the case presented, a superficial temporal fascial flap was designed for reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal drainage system in a one-stage procedure in facial burn patient. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first combined reconstruction of the eyebrow, upper and lower eyelids, and lacrimal drainage system in one surgical procedure with pedicled superficial temporal fascial flap including skin island and buccal mucosal graft. During the 1-year follow-up period, no complication was encountered and patient healed uneventfully.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of In-Stent Occlusion: New Technique for Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion (Direct Stent Puncture Technique)

    SciTech Connect

    Palena, Luis Mariano Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-15

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  1. Endovascular treatment of in-stent occlusion: new technique for recanalization of long superficial femoral artery occlusion (direct stent puncture technique).

    PubMed

    Palena, Luis Mariano; Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-01

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  2. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  3. Multichannel time domain fNIRS mapping of cortical activation and superficial systemic responses during neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, R.; Muthalib, M.; Zucchelli, L.; Perrey, S.; Contini, D.; Caffini, M.; Spinelli, L.; Kerr, G.; Torricelli, A.

    2013-06-01

    We recorded maps of cortical and systemic hemodynamic responses (oxy-hemoglobin, O2Hb and deoxy-hemoglobin, HHb) during incremental neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right forearm in nine subjects by a 32- channel time domain fNIRS (TD-fNIRS) instrument. Statistical parametric maps (SPM) relative to the different current stimulations (under and over the maximal tolerated intensity-MTI) versus the 10%MTI were generated. Exploiting the temporal information contained in the TD-fNIRS signal it was possible to create different maps referring to the deeper (cortical activations) and the more superficial (systemic changes) head layers. The increasing of the stimulation current on the right forearm muscle produced a significantly larger bilateral sensorimotor and prefrontal cortical activations (i.e. increase in the O2Hb and decrease in HHb) than the systemic changes. Physiological parameters (heart rate, breathing rate and skin conductance) were also monitored.

  4. [Scalp neuralgia and headache elicited by cranial superficial anatomical causes: supraorbital neuralgia, occipital neuralgia, and post-craniotomy headache].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Most scalp neuralgias are supraorbital or occipital. Although they have been considered idiopathic, recent studies revealed that some were attributable to mechanical irritation with the peripheral nerve of the scalp by superficial anatomical cranial structures. Supraorbital neuralgia involves entrapment of the supraorbital nerve by the facial muscle, and occipital neuralgia involves entrapment of occipital nerves, mainly the greater occipital nerve, by the semispinalis capitis muscle. Contact between the occipital artery and the greater occipital nerve in the scalp may also be causative. Decompression surgery to address these neuralgias has been reported. As headache after craniotomy is the result of iatrogenic injury to the peripheral nerve of the scalp, post-craniotomy headache should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  5. Unidentified intralesional and intracellular coccoid microorganism discovered in the young man with a diffuse erosive gastroduodenitis and multiple superficial ulcerations

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Takayuki; Adkins, Graham

    2014-01-01

    A Helicobacter pylori-negative young Japanese man with dyspeptic symptoms suffered from a diffuse erosive gastroduodenitis and multiple superficial ulcerations. Histology and electron microscopic examinations on the biopsy specimens revealed the presence of multiple unidentified intralesional and intracellular coccoid microorganisms in the pathological gastroduodenal mucosa. Microaerophilic and anaerobic Gram-negative coccoid and filamentobacillary bacteria were cultured from the gastric aspirate. The triple therapy containing tetracycline for 14 days followed by 4 months treatment with omeprazole resulted in the resolution of the gastroduodenal pathology. The question, therefore, was raised regarding a possible role for the cultured coccoid bacteria in the pathogenesis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolated Gram-negative coccoid bacteria revealed a close relationship with Haemophilus haemolyticus. The unidentified coccoid microorganisms and cultured X and V factors independent coccoid bacteria, however, shared similar phenotypic, microbiological and pathological characteristics to the novel Gram-negative Streptococcaceae: Okadaella gastrococcus. PMID:24495976

  6. A surgical approach to giant condyloma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumour) with underlying superficial vulvar carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZEKAN, JOSKO; PETROVIC, DAVOR; EL-SAFADI, SAMER; BANOVIC, MAJA; HULINA, DAVOR; HRGOVIC, ZLATKO

    2013-01-01

    Anogenital warts (condyloma acuminatum or venereal warts) are a common sexually transmitted disease in males and females. Common clinical treatment of anogenital warts is conservative, however, in extreme cases conservative therapy is insufficient and surgical excision is required. Giant condyloma acuminata (Buschke-Löwenstein tumour) is an extremely rare clinical type of genital wart, characterised by aggressive down growth into underlying dermal structures. A 55-year-old female presented with cauliflower-like growth over the anogenital and sacral region, earlier diagnosed as condyloma acuminatum which was resistant to conservative therapy. During the period between 2005 and 2008 the patient underwent five surgical procedures. Due to the size and location of the tumour, gynaecological and plastic surgeons were involved in the procedures. In addition, definitive histology examination identified a superficial vulvar carcinoma. PMID:23420321

  7. System maps for retention of small neutral compounds on a superficially porous particle column in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Atapattu, Sanka N; Poole, Colin F; Praseuth, Mike B

    2016-10-14

    The system constants of the solvation parameter model are used to prepare system maps for the retention of small neutral molecules on the ocadecylsiloxane-bonded silica superficially porous particle stationary phase (Kinetex C18) for aqueous-organic solvent mobile phases containing 10-70% (v/v) methanol or acetonitrile. A comparison of the system constants with eight commercially available octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica columns for the same separation conditions confirms that the general retention properties of Kinetex C-18 are similar to totally porous octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica stationary phases and that method transfer should be no more difficult than that usually observed when substituting one octadecylsiloxane-bonded silica column for another.

  8. SU-E-T-309: Tangential Modulated Arc Therapy: A Novel Technique for the Treatment of Superficial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, M; Chin, E; Li, R; Xing, L; Bush, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We propose a new type of treatment that employs a modulated and sliding tangential photon field to provide superior coverage of superficial targets when compared to other commonly employed methods while drastically reducing dose to the underlying sensitive structures often present in these cases. Methods: Modulated treatment plans were formulated for a set of three representative cases. The first was a revised treatment of a scalp sarcoma, while the second was a treatment of a right posterior chest wall sarcoma. For these cases, asymmetric jaw placement, angular limitations, and central isocenter placements were used to force the optimization algorithm into finding solutions with beamlines that were not perpendicular to the body surface. The final case targeted the chest wall of a breast cancer patient, in which standard treatments were compared to the use of modulated fields with multiple isocenters along the chest wall. Results: When compared with unrestricted modulated arcs, the tangential arc scalp treatment reduced the max and mean doses delivered to the brain by 33Gy (from 55 to 22Gy) and 6Gy (from 14Gy to 8Gy), respectively. In the right posterior chest wall case, the V10 in the ipsilateral lung was kept below 5% while retaining a Rx dose (45Gy) target coverage of over 97%. For the breast case, the modulated plan achieved reductions in high dose to the ipsilateral lung and heart by a factor of 2–3 when compared to classic laterally opposed tangents and reduced the V5 by 40% when compared to standard modulated arcs. Conclusion: Tangential modulated arc therapy has outperformed the conventional modalities of treatment for superficial lesions used in our clinic. We hope that with the advent of digitally controlled linear accelerators, we can uncover further benefits of this new technique and extend its applicability to a wider section of the patient population.

  9. Long-term coital behaviour in women treated with cognitive behaviour therapy for superficial coital pain and vaginismus.

    PubMed

    Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate long-term coital behaviour in women treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for superficial coital pain and vaginismus. Data were taken from a questionnaire concerning long-term coital behaviour sent to 59 women who presented to Linköping University Hospital because of superficial coital pain, had been diagnosed with vaginismus, and had been treated with CBT. Data were also traced from therapy records: mean follow-up time was 39 months, the women had suffered for an average of almost 4 years, and required a mean of 14 treatment sessions. Forty-four of the 59 women returned the questionnaire, for a response rate of 74.6%. At follow-up, 81% of the treated women had had intercourse. A majority (61%) rated their ability to have intercourse without pain as 6 or higher (on a scale from 0-10), and 61% rated their ability to enjoy intercourse as 6 or higher (on a scale from 0-10). The proportion of women with positive treatment outcome at follow-up ranged from 81% (able to have intercourse) to 6% (able to have pain-free intercourse). An ability to have intercourse at end of therapy was maintained at follow-up. Two-thirds of the women reported high fulfillment of individual treatment goals. At follow-up, the women estimated a significantly higher self-worth as sex partners, and as women and human beings, than before treatment. Twelve per cent of the original sample had healed after a few assessment sessions and without treatment.

  10. Enhanced cell affinity of chitosan membranes mediated by superficial cross-linking: a straightforward method attainable by standard laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velázquez, Eustolia; Silva, Maite; Taboada, Pablo; Mano, João F; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel

    2014-01-13

    It is well accepted that the surface modification of biomaterials can improve their biocompatibility. In this context, techniques like ion etching, plasma-mediated chemical functionalization, electrospinning, and contact microprinting have successfully been employed to promote the cell adhesion and proliferation of chitosan (CH) substrates. However, they prove to be time-consuming, highly dependent on environmental conditions, and/or limited to the use of expensive materials and sophisticated instruments not accessible to standard laboratories, hindering to a high extent their straightforward application. Filling this gap, this paper proposes the superficial cross-linking of CH as a much simpler and accessible means to modify its superficial properties in order to enhance its cellular affinity. CH membranes were prepared by solvent casting followed by a cross-linking step mediated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of glutaraldehyde (GA). The membranes were characterized against non- and solution cross-linked membranes in terms of their mechanical/surface properties and biological performance. Among others, the CVD membranes proved (i) to be more mechanically stable against cell culture and sterilization than membranes cross-linked in solution and (ii) to prompt the adherence and sustained proliferation of healthy cells to levels even superior to commercial tissue culture plates (TCPs). Accordingly, the CVD cross-linking approach was demonstrated to be a simple and cost-effective alternative to the aforementioned conventional methods. Interestingly, this concept can also be applied to other biomaterials as long as GA (or other volatile components alike) can be employed as a cross-linker, making possible the cross-linking reaction at mild experimental conditions, neither requiring sophisticated lab implements nor using any potentially harmful procedure.

  11. A blue-LED-based device for selective photocoagulation of superficial abrasions: theoretical modeling and in vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; De Siena, Gaetano; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.; Alfieri, Domenico; Cannarozzo, Giovanni

    2010-02-01

    The blue light (~400 nm) emitted by high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) is selectively absorbed by the haemoglobin content of blood and then converted into heat. This is the basic concept in setting up a compact, low-cost, and easy-to-handle photohaemostasis device for the treatment of superficial skin abrasions. Its main application is in reducing bleeding from superficial capillary vessels during laser induced aesthetic treatments, such as skin resurfacing, thus reducing the treatment time and improving aesthetic results (reduction of scar formation). In this work we firstly present the preliminary modeling study: a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the LED induced photothermal process was set up, in order to estimate the optimal wavelength and treatment time, by studying the temperature dynamics in the tissue. Then, a compact, handheld illumination device has been designed: commercially available high power LEDs emitting in the blue region were mounted in a suitable and ergonomic case. The prototype was tested in the treatment of dorsal excoriations in rats. Thermal effects were monitored by an infrared thermocamera, experimentally evidencing the modest and confined heating effects and confirming the modeling predictions. Objective observations and histopathological analysis performed in a follow-up study showed no adverse reactions and no thermal damage in the treated areas and surrounding tissues. The device was then used in human patients, in order to stop bleeding during Erbium laser skin resurfacing procedure. By inducing LED-based photocoagulation, the overall treatment time was shortened and scar formation was reduced, thus enhancing esthetic effect of the laser procedure.

  12. Does ultrasound measurement improve the accuracy of electronic brachytherapy in the treatment of superficial non-melanomatous skin cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Junhan; Cui, Haiyan; Stea, Baldassarre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) is a form of contact radiation therapy used for thin superficial non-melanomatous skin cancers (NMSCs). An accurate measurement of diameter and depth is important for eBT treatment planning. Therefore, we compared clinical measurements by an experienced physician to measurements obtained using ultrasound (US), an objective imaging modality, in order to determine if clinical measurements were accurate enough for adequate NMSC treatment. Material and methods Eighteen patients with 20 biopsy-proven NMSCs first had a clinical examination and then an US evaluation prior to starting eBT. One physician provided a clinical measurement for diameter and depth based on physical examination during radiation oncology consultation. The patients then had an US evaluation with a 14 or 18 MHz US unit, to determine both the diameter and depth measurements; eBT dose prescription was done using the US derived measurements. The clinical measurements and US measurements were compared using a t-test. Results Seventeen lesions were basal cell carcinoma and 3 lesions were squamous cell carcinoma. The most common location was the nose (10 lesions). The difference between the clinical and the US derived measurements for the second largest diameter was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.03), while the difference for the largest diameter of the lesions was not (p = 0.24). More importantly, the depth measurements obtained with US were also found to be significantly different from the clinical estimates (p = 0.02). All patients have had a complete response to therapy with a median follow-up of 24 months. Conclusions Statistically different measurements were obtained in 2 of 3 parameters used in choosing applicator size and prescription depth using an US assessment. The data presented suggests that US is a more objective modality than clinical judgment for determining superficial NMSC diameter and prescription depth for personalized eBT planning

  13. SU-D-19A-07: Dosimetric Comparison of HDR Plesiotherapy and Electron Beam Therapy for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A; Jacob, D; Andreou, K; Raben, A; Chen, H; Koprowski, C; Mourtada, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Large superficial (skin, soft tissue sarcoma) lesions located on curved areas are hard to treat with electrons. The Freiburg Flap (Nucletron, Netherlands) is a flexible mesh style surface which can be easily shaped to fit curved surfaces for reproducible HDR fraction delivery. To understand the fundamental dosimetric differences, a dosimetric comparison was made between HDR plesiotherapy (Freiburg applicator for lesions over 4cm) and external electron beam radiotherapy over cases with varying target curvature (both stylized and clinical cases). Methods: Four stylized cases with variable complexity were created using artificial DICOM axial CT slices and RT structures (a square and three curved structures on a 4.5cm radius cylinder). They were planned using Oncentra v4.3 and exported to Pinnacle v9.6 for electrons planning. The HDR source dwell positions were optimized for the best coverage of the targets using graphical optimization. Electron treatment plans were created in Pinnacle using the same CT and RT structures of three HDR cases with surface lesions previously treated with the Freiburg flap. The En face electron plans used 6-12 MeV electrons and 0.5–1 cm bolus was added to increase surface dose. The electron plans were prescribed to an isodose line to conform to the target. Results: For all lesions, the average target dose coverage was similar (D90ave of 100% for HDR vs 101% for electrons). For lesions with high curvature, the HDR coverage was better (D90 102% vs D90 97% for electron). For all cases, adjacent structures high dose region was lower for HDR than electrons (D1cc 100% for HDR vs D1cc 111% for electrons). Conclusion: HDR plesiotherapy offers excellent target conformity for superficial targets similar to electrons. However, for lesions with complex curved surfaces, HDR has the advantage to achieve better dose distributions using graphical optimization to spare adjacent normal tissue while maximizing target coverage.

  14. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G; Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  15. Incisions for cochlear implant flaps and superficial skin temperature. Skin temperature/blood circulation in CI flaps.

    PubMed

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Sievert, Uwe; Graumüller, Sylke; Wild, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Healing and integration of a cochlear implant is largely influenced by good blood circulation in the covering skin, which, on the other hand, is closely correlated to skin temperature. Measuring superficial flap temperatures by thermography is an easy way to get some clues about the corresponding blood supply. These data should allow some implications for the design of skin flaps in cochlear implant surgery. In 15 patients thermography was carried out prior to and after cochlear implantation, using the Agema 550 Thermovision system. It was evident, that the anatomic courses of the major superficial arteries were represented by areas of increased temperature. The pattern of temperature distribution may allow some conclusions concerning site and shape of surgical incisions. From our data we concluded, that most types of incisions do not interfere too much with the arterial blood supply. However, some types like the extended retroauricular C-incision may eventually cause problems. Our data suggest, that the straight or slightly curved vertical retroauricular incision causes the least impairment of blood circulation. After surgery, directly along the incisions (and later along the scars) temperature was diminished, indicating reduced blood circulation. In our series, the thickness of the implant did not impede blood circulation significantly. So far, we could not examine patients with local circulation disorders. Probably local scars, skin atrophies, angiopathies etc. may present typical patterns of temperature distribution, which require individual design of skin flaps. Thermography is an easy method which can give impressions of local blood circulation in skin flaps. If the courses of the major arteries and their branches are respected, blood circulation within the flap should not be problematic. Thermography is likely to help designing optimal flaps in cases with impeded blood circulation e.g. by pre-existing scar formations.

  16. Electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma: a report of two prospective pilot trials using different doses

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Llanas, Olga; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Celada-Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Barker, Christopher A.; Tormo-Micó, Alejandro; Pérez-Calatayud, Jose; Botella-Estrada, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common cancer in the Caucasian population. Treatment aims to eradicate the tumor with the lowest possible functional and aesthetic impact. Electronic brachytherapy (EBT) is a treatment technique currently emerging. This study aims to show the outcomes of two consecutive prospective pilot clinical trials using different radiation doses of EBT with Esteya® EB system for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma. Material and methods Two prospective, single-center, non-randomized, pilot studies were conducted. Twenty patients were treated in each study with different doses. The first group (1) was treated with 36.6 Gy in 6 fractions of 6.1 Gy, and the second group (2) with 42 Gy in 6 fractions of 7 Gy. Cure rate, acute toxicity, and late toxicity related to cosmesis were analyzed in the two treatment groups. Results In group 1, a complete response in 90% of cases was observed at the first year of follow-up, whereas in group 2, the complete response was 95%. The differences with reference to acute toxicity and the cosmetic results between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions Our initial experience with Esteya® EB system to treat superficial and nodular BCC shows that a dose of 36.6 Gy and 42 Gy delivered in 6 fraction of 7 Gy achieves a 90% and 95% clinical cure rate at 1 year, respectively. Both groups had a tolerable toxicity and a very good cosmesis. The role of EBT in the treatment of BCC is still to be defined. It will probably become an established option for selected patients in the near future. PMID:26985197

  17. Radiosensitization effect of folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles on HeLa cancer cells under orthovoltage superficial radiotherapy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshgard, Karim; Hashemi, Bijan; Arbabi, Azim; Javad Rasaee, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    Due to the high atomic number of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), they are known as new radiosensitizer agents for enhancing the efficiency of superficial radiotherapy techniques by increasing the dose absorbed in tumor cells wherein they can be accumulated selectively. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of various common low energy levels of orthovoltage x-rays and megavoltage γ-rays (Co-60) on enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of HeLa cancer cells in the presence of conjugated folate and non-conjugated (pegylated) GNPs. To achieve this, GNPs with an average diameter of 52 nm were synthesized and conjugated to folic acid molecules. Pegylated GNPs with an average diameter of 47 nm were also synthesized and used as non-conjugated folate GNPs. Cytotoxicity assay of the synthesized folate-conjugated and pegylated GNPs was performed using different levels of nanoparticle concentration incubated with HeLa cells for 24 h. The radiosensitizing effect of both the conjugated and pegylated GNPs on the cells at a concentration of 50 µM was compared using MTT as well as clonogenic assays after exposing them to 2 Gy ionizing radiation produced by an orthovoltage x-ray machine at four different kVps and γ-rays of a Co-60 unit. Significant differences were noted among various irradiated groups with and without the folate conjugation, with an average dose enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.64 ± 0.05 and 1.35 ± 0.05 for the folate-conjugated and pegylated GNPs, respectively. The maximum DEF was obtained with the 180 kVp x-ray beam for both of the GNPs. Folate-conjugated GNPs can significantly enhance the cell killing potential of orthovoltage x-ray energies (especially at 180 kVp) in folate receptor-expressing cancer cells, such as HeLa, in superficial radiotherapy techniques.

  18. Functional connectivity between the superficial and deeper layers of the superior colliculus: an anatomical substrate for sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Doubell, Timothy P; Skaliora, Irini; Baron, Jérôme; King, Andrew J

    2003-07-23

    The superior colliculus (SC) transforms both visual and nonvisual sensory signals into motor commands that control orienting behavior. Although the afferent and efferent connections of this midbrain nucleus have been well characterized, little is know about the intrinsic circuitry involved in sensorimotor integration. Transmission of visual signals from the superficial (sSC) to the deeper layers (dSC) of the SC has been implicated in both the triggering of orienting movements and the activity-dependent processes that align maps of different sensory modalities during development. However, evidence for the synaptic connectivity appropriate for these functions is lacking. In this study, we used a variety of anatomical and physiological methods to examine the functional organization of the sSC-dSC pathway in juvenile and adult ferrets. Axonal tracing in adult ferrets showed that, as in other species, sSC neurons project topographically to the dSC, providing a route for the transmission of visual signals to the multisensory output layers of the SC. We found that sSC axons terminate on dSC neurons that stain prominently for the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, a subpopulation of which were identified as tectoreticulospinal projection neurons. We also show that the sSC-dSC pathway is topographically organized and mediated by monosynaptic excitatory synapses even before eye opening in young ferrets, suggesting that visual signals routed via the sSC may influence the activity of dSC neurons before the emergence of their multisensory response properties. These findings indicate that superficial- to deep-layer projections provide spatially ordered visual signals, both during development and into adulthood, directly to SC neurons that are involved in coordinating sensory inputs with motor outputs.

  19. Both superficial and deep zone articular chondrocyte subpopulations exhibit the Crabtree effect but have different basal oxygen consumption rates.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Hannah K; Knight, Martin M; Lee, David A

    2010-06-01

    In the absence of in vivo measurements, the oxygen concentration within articular cartilage is calculated from the balance between cellular oxygen consumption and mass transfer. Current estimates of the oxygen tension within articular cartilage are based on oxygen consumption data from full-depth tissue samples. However, superficial and deep cell subpopulations of articular cartilage express intrinsic metabolic differences. We test the hypothesis that the subpopulations differ with respect to their intrinsic oxygen consumption rate. Chondrocytes from the full cartilage thickness demonstrate enhanced oxygen consumption when deprived of glucose, consistent with the Crabtree phenomena. Chondrocyte subpopulations differ in the prevailing availability of oxygen and glucose, which decrease with distance from the cartilage-synovial fluid interface. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the oxygen consumption of each subpopulation is modulated by nutrient availability, by examining the expression of the Crabtree effect. The deep cells had a greater oxygen consumption than the superficial cells (V(max) of 6.6 compared to 3.2 fmol/cell/h), consistent with our observations of mitochondrial volume (mean values 52.0 vs. 36.4 microm(3)/cell). Both populations expressed the Crabtree phenomena, with oxygen consumption increasing approximately 2.5-fold in response to glycolytic inhibition by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose. Over 90% of this increase was oligomycin-sensitive and thus accounted for by oxidative phosphorylation. The data contributes towards our understanding of chondrocyte energy metabolism and provides information valuable for the accurate calculation of the oxygen concentration that the cells experience in vivo. The work has further application to the optimisation of bioreactor design and engineered tissues.

  20. Feasibility of imaging superficial palmar arch using micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pruzan, Alison N; Kaufman, Audrey E; Calcagno, Claudia; Zhou, Yu; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To demonstrate feasibility of vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch using high frequency micro-ultrasound, 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Four subjects (ages 22-50 years) were scanned on a micro-ultrasound system with a 45-MHz transducer (Vevo 2100, VisualSonics). Subjects’ hands were then imaged on a 3T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Biograph MMR) using an 8-channel special purpose phased array carotid coil. Lastly, subjects’ hands were imaged on a 7T clinical MR scanner (Siemens Magnetom 7T Whole Body Scanner) using a custom built 8-channel transmit receive carotid coil. All three imaging modalities were subjectively analyzed for image quality and visualization of the vessel wall. RESULTS Results of this very preliminary study indicated that vessel wall imaging of the superficial palmar arch was feasible with a whole body 7T and 3T MRI in comparison with micro-ultrasound. Subjective analysis of image quality (1-5 scale, 1: poorest, 5: best) from B mode, ultrasound, 3T SPACE MRI and 7T SPACE MRI indicated that the image quality obtained at 7T was superior to both 3T MRI and micro-ultrasound. The 3D SPACE sequence at both 7T and 3T MRI with isotropic voxels allowed for multi-planar reformatting of images and allowed for less operator dependent results as compared to high frequency micro-ultrasound imaging. Although quantitative analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the three methods, the 7T Tesla trended to have better visibility of the vessel and its wall. CONCLUSION Imaging of smaller arteries at the 7T is feasible for evaluating atherosclerosis burden and may be of clinical relevance in multiple diseases. PMID:28298968

  1. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I− symporter

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I− transport in the thyroid—the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis—with a 2 Na+: 1 I− stoichiometry. The two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I− binding site interact allosterically: when Na+ binds to a Na+ site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na+ and for I− increases significantly. In all Na+-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na+ ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues—S66, D191, Q194, and Q263—are also involved in Na+ coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I−. These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance. PMID:27562170

  2. Real time-based targeted Metabolomic approach as risk assessment tools for controlling superficial scald in ‘Granny Smith’ apples during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of superficial scald incidence in ‘Granny Smith’ apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit during cold or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage increases with increased storage duration and oxygen level during CA storage. The objective of this study was to invest...

  3. High-Resolution Ultrasonography of the Superficial Peroneal Motor and Sural Sensory Nerves May Be a Non-invasive Approach to the Diagnosis of Vasculitic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Schäfer, Kristina A.; Mackenrodt, Daniel; Sommer, Claudia; Müllges, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is an emerging new tool in the investigation of peripheral nerves. We set out to assess the utility of HRUS performed at lower extremity nerves in peripheral neuropathies. Nerves of 26 patients with polyneuropathies of different etiologies and 26 controls were investigated using HRUS. Patients underwent clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological assessment, and a diagnostic sural nerve biopsy as part of the routine work-up. HRUS was performed at the sural, tibial, and the common, superficial, and deep peroneal nerves. The superficial peroneal nerve longitudinal diameter (LD) distinguished best between the groups: patients with immune-mediated neuropathies (n = 13, including six with histology-proven vasculitic neuropathy) had larger LD compared to patients with non-immune-mediated neuropathies (p < 0.05) and to controls (p < 0.001). Among all subgroups, patients with vasculitic neuropathy showed the largest superficial peroneal nerve LD (p < 0.001) and had a larger sural nerve cross-sectional area when compared with disease controls (p < 0.001). Enlargement of the superficial peroneal and sural nerves as detected by HRUS may be a useful additional finding in the differential diagnosis of vasculitic and other immune-mediated neuropathies. PMID:27064457

  4. Photodynamic Therapy Combined with CO2 Laser Vaporization on Disseminated Superficial Actinic Porokeratosis: A Report of 2 Cases on the Face

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hei Sung; Baek, Ji Hye; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is a skin condition that usually shows a poor response to different modalities of treatment. Herein we describe 2 patients with DSAP on the face, each treated with 3 to 4 sessions of photodynamic therapy combined with laser vaporization. PMID:22148053

  5. The relationship between superficial muscle activity during the cranio-cervical flexion test and clinical features in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Shaun; Falla, Deborah; Jull, Gwendolen

    2011-10-01

    Changes in motor behavior are a known feature of chronic mechanical neck pain disorders. This study examined the strength of the association between reported levels of pain and disability from 84 individuals (63 women, 21 men) with chronic mechanical neck pain and levels of electromyographic activity recorded from superficial cervical flexor (sternocleidomastoid; SCM and anterior scalene; AS) muscles during progressive stages of the cranio-cervical flexion muscle test. A significant positive association was observed between superficial muscle activity and pain intensity (P < 0.003), but not pain duration (P > 0.5) or perceived disability (P > 0.21). The strongest relationship between pain intensity and superficial muscle activity occurred at the final increment of the cranio-cervical flexion test (inner-range test position) for both the SCM and AS muscles (R(2) = 0.16). Although a positive and significant relationship between pain intensity and superficial muscle activity was shown, the relationship was only modest (16% explained variance), indicating that multiple factors contribute to the altered motor function observed in individuals with chronic mechanical neck pain.

  6. High-Resolution Ultrasonography of the Superficial Peroneal Motor and Sural Sensory Nerves May Be a Non-invasive Approach to the Diagnosis of Vasculitic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Schäfer, Kristina A; Mackenrodt, Daniel; Sommer, Claudia; Müllges, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is an emerging new tool in the investigation of peripheral nerves. We set out to assess the utility of HRUS performed at lower extremity nerves in peripheral neuropathies. Nerves of 26 patients with polyneuropathies of different etiologies and 26 controls were investigated using HRUS. Patients underwent clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological assessment, and a diagnostic sural nerve biopsy as part of the routine work-up. HRUS was performed at the sural, tibial, and the common, superficial, and deep peroneal nerves. The superficial peroneal nerve longitudinal diameter (LD) distinguished best between the groups: patients with immune-mediated neuropathies (n = 13, including six with histology-proven vasculitic neuropathy) had larger LD compared to patients with non-immune-mediated neuropathies (p < 0.05) and to controls (p < 0.001). Among all subgroups, patients with vasculitic neuropathy showed the largest superficial peroneal nerve LD (p < 0.001) and had a larger sural nerve cross-sectional area when compared with disease controls (p < 0.001). Enlargement of the superficial peroneal and sural nerves as detected by HRUS may be a useful additional finding in the differential diagnosis of vasculitic and other immune-mediated neuropathies.

  7. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space