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Sample records for plasmonic hole array

  1. Exploring plasmonic coupling in hole-cap arrays

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Thomas M; Frederiksen, Maj; Bochenkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Summary The plasmonic coupling between gold caps and holes in thin films was investigated experimentally and through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. Sparse colloidal lithography combined with a novel thermal treatment was used to control the vertical spacing between caps and hole arrays and compared to separated arrays of holes or caps. Optical spectroscopy and FDTD simulations reveal strong coupling between the gold caps and both Bloch Wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP) modes and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-type resonances in hole arrays when they are in close proximity. The interesting and complex coupling between caps and hole arrays reveals the details of the field distribution for these simple to fabricate structures. PMID:25671146

  2. Ultrafast optical control of terahertz surface plasmons in subwavelength hole-arrays at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Chen, Hou - Tong; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John

    2010-12-10

    Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength metallic hole-arrays has been an active research area since its first demonstration. The frequency selective resonance properties of subwavelength metallic hole arrays, generally known as surface plasmon polaritons, have potential use in functional plasmonic devices such as filters, modulators, switches, etc. Such plasmonic devices are also very promising for future terahertz applications. Ultrafast switching or modulation of the resonant behavior of the 2-D metallic arrays in terahertz frequencies is of particular interest for high speed communication and sensing applications. In this paper, we demonstrate optical control of surface plasmon enhanced resonant terahertz transmission in two-dimensional subwavelength metallic hole arrays fabricated on gallium arsenide based substrates. Optically pumping the arrays creates a conductive layer in the substrate reducing the terahertz transmission amplitude of both the resonant mode and the direct transmission. Under low optical fluence, the terahertz transmission is more greatly affected by resonance damping than by propagation loss in the substrate. An ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrate is shown to allow ultrafast control with a switching recovery time of {approx}10 ps. We also present resonant terahertz transmission in a hybrid plasmonic film comprised of an integrated array of subwavelength metallic islands and semiconductor holes. A large dynamic transition between a dipolar localized surface plasmon mode and a surface plasmon resonance near 0.8 THz is observed under near infrared optical excitation. The reversal in transmission amplitude from a stopband to a passband and up to {pi}/2 phase shift achieved in the hybrid plasmonic film make it promising in large dynamic phase modulation, optical changeover switching, and active terahertz plasmonics.

  3. Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dintinger, J.; Klein, S.; Bustos, F.; Barnes, W. L.; Ebbesen, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of a J -aggregate and surface plasmon polariton modes of a subwavelength hole array have been studied in detail. By measuring the effects of hole array period, angular dispersion and concentration of the J -aggregate on the transmission of the array, the existence of a strong coupling regime is demonstrated with a Rabi splitting of 250 meV. This large splitting is explained not only by the high oscillator strength of the dye but also by the high local field amplitudes generated by surface plasmons of the metallic structure.

  4. Plasmonic hole arrays for combined photon and electron management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-11-01

    Material architectures that balance optical transparency and electrical conductivity are highly sought after for thin-film device applications. However, these are competing properties, since the electronic structure that gives rise to conductivity typically also leads to optical opacity. Nanostructured metal films that exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, while at the same time being electrically continuous, offer considerable flexibility in the design of their transparency and resistivity. Here, we present design guidelines for metal films perforated with arrays of nanometer-scale holes, discussing the consequences of the choice of nanostructure dimensions, of the type of metal, and of the underlying substrate on their electrical, optical, and interfacial properties. We experimentally demonstrate that such films can be designed to have broad-band optical transparency while being an order of magnitude more conductive than indium tin oxide. Prototypical photovoltaic devices constructed with perforated metal contacts convert ˜18% of the incident photons, compared to <1% for identical devices having contacts without the hole array.

  5. Plasmonic hole arrays for combined photon and electron management

    DOE PAGES

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-11-14

    Material architectures that balance optical transparency and electrical conductivity are highly sought after for thin-film device applications. However, these are competing properties, since the electronic structure that gives rise to conductivity typically also leads to optical opacity. Nanostructured metal films that exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, while at the same time being electrically continuous, offer considerable flexibility in the design of their transparency and resistivity. In this paper, we present design guidelines for metal films perforated with arrays of nanometer-scale holes, discussing the consequences of the choice of nanostructure dimensions, of the type of metal, and of the underlying substrate onmore » their electrical, optical, and interfacial properties. We experimentally demonstrate that such films can be designed to have broad-band optical transparency while being an order of magnitude more conductive than indium tin oxide. Finally, prototypical photovoltaic devices constructed with perforated metal contacts convert ~18% of the incident photons, compared to <1% for identical devices having contacts without the hole array.« less

  6. A study of angle dependent surface plasmon polaritons in nano-hole array structures

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Shankar; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Singh, Mahi R.

    2016-07-21

    We report that the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures possess a subwavelength hole radius and periodicity. The transmission coefficient for nano-hole array structures was measured for different angles of incidence of light. Each measured transmission spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. A theory of the transmission coefficient was developed based on the quantum density matrix method. It was found that the location of the surface plasmon polariton and the heights of the spectral peaks were dependent on the angle of incidence of light. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. This property of these structures has opened up new possibilities for sensing applications.

  7. Measurement of surface plasmon correlation length differences using Fibonacci deterministic hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tho Duc; Nahata, Ajay; Vardeny, Z Valy

    2012-07-02

    Using terahertz (THz) transmission measurements through two-dimensional Fibonacci deterministic subwavelength hole arrays fabricated in metal foils, we find that the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) correlation lengths for aperiodic resonances are smaller than those associated with the underlying grid. The enhanced transmission spectra associated with these arrays contain two groups of Fano-type resonances: those related to the two-dimensional Fibonacci structure and those related to the underlying hole grid array upon which the aperiodic Fibonacci array is built. For both groups the destructive interference frequencies at which transmission minima occur closely match prominent reciprocal vectors in the hole array (HA) structure-factor in reciprocal space. However the Fibonacci-related transmission resonances are much weaker than both their calculated Fourier intensity in k space and the grid-related resonances. These differences may arise from the complex, multi-fractal dispersion relations and scattering from the underlying grid arrays. We also systematically studied and compared the transmission resonance strength of Fibonacci HA and periodic HA lattices as a function of the number of holes in the array structure. We found that the Fibonacci-related resonance strengths are an order of magnitude weaker than that of the periodic HA, consistent with the smaller SPP correlation length for the aperiodic structure.

  8. Plasmonic hole arrays with extreme optical chirality in linear and nonlinear regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Kondratov, Alexei V.; Darinskii, Alexander N.; Artemov, Vladimir V.; Rogov, Oleg Y.; Gainutdinov, Radmir V.

    2016-04-01

    Metamaterials with high optical activity (OA) and circular dichroism (CD) are desired for various prospective applications ranging from circular light polarizing to enhanced chiral sensing and biosensing. Modern techniques allow fabricating subwavelength arrays of holes of complex chiral shapes that exhibit extreme optical chirality: their OA and CD take the whole range of possible values in the visible. In order to understand the nature of extreme chirality, we performed the electromagnetic finite difference time domain simulations for the hole shapes resolved by atomic force microscopy. The analysis of the simulation data allowed us to develop an analytical chiral coupled-mode model that nicely fits the results and explains the extreme chirality as determined by the Fano-type transmission resonance due to the interference of a weak background channel and a resonant plasmon channel. The model shows critical importance of the dissipation losses, the hole shape symmetry and chirality. In a planar 2D-chiral hole array, the mirror asymmetry can be induced by the difference of dielectric materials adjacent to the array sides and even their weak deviation results in remarkably strong OA and CD. We note that such deviations can arise due to the dielectric nonlinearity and discuss how 2D-chiral metamaterials in symmetric environment can acquire optical chirality due to the nonlinear symmetry breaking.

  9. The development of surface-plasmon-based sensors using arrays of sub-wavelength holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolo, A. G.; Gordon, R.; Kavanagh, K.; Sinton, D.

    2005-11-01

    The transmission of normally incident light through arrays of subwavelength holes (nanoholes) in gold thin films is enhanced at the wavelengths that satisfy the surface plasmon (SP) resonance condition. The enhanced transmission is accompanied by strong field localization and has potential for applications in several fields, ranging from quantum information processing to nanolithography. In this work, arrays of nanoholes were used as chemical sensors to monitor the binding of organic and biological molecules to metallic surfaces. In a first approach, the interaction between the adsorbate with the metallic nanostructure modified the SP resonance conditions, leading to a shift in the wavelength of maximum transmission. The sensitivity of this substrate was found to be 400 nm RIU -1 (refractive index units), which is comparable to other grating-based surface plasmon resonance devices. The array of nanoholes was also integrated into a microfluidic system and the characteristics of the solution flow and detection systems were evaluated. The second approach to sensor development using this class of substrate involved the observation of enhanced spectroscopic signal from species located within the SP field. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface- enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy were observed from adsorbed dyes. The enhanced spectroscopic signal was dependent on the fabrication parameters of the array. The largest enhancement was observed when the periodicity of the nanoholes matched the energy of the laser excitation. Among the main advantages of this substrate for chemical sensing is the collinear optical geometry. This simplifies the alignment with respect to the traditional reflection arrangement used in SPR sensing.

  10. Investigation of plasmon resonance tunneling through subwavelength hole arrays in highly doped conductive ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Nader, Nima Vangala, Shivashankar; Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Leedy, Kevin D.; Cleary, Justin W.; Look, David C.; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-07

    Experimental results pertaining to plasmon resonance tunneling through a highly conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) layer with subwavelength hole-arrays is investigated in the mid-infrared regime. Gallium-doped ZnO layers are pulsed-laser deposited on a silicon wafer. The ZnO has metallic optical properties with a bulk plasma frequency of 214 THz, which is equivalent to a free space wavelength of 1.4 μm. Hole arrays with different periods and hole shapes are fabricated via a standard photolithography process. Resonant mode tunneling characteristics are experimentally studied for different incident angles and compared with surface plasmon theoretical calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations. Transmission peaks, higher than the baseline predicted by diffraction theory, are observed in each of the samples at wavelengths that correspond to the excitation of surface plasmon modes.

  11. MEMS-based plasmon infrared emitter with hexagonal hole arrays perforated in the Al-SiO2-Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangqiang; San, Haisheng; Li, Changzheng; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuyuan

    2011-10-01

    A micro-machined plasmon infrared emitter with hexagonal hole arrays perforated in the Al/SiO2/Si structure is presented. The silicon-on-insulator wafer was employed to fabricate the hexagonal photonic crystal infrared emitters using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The Al/SiO2/Si structure perforated with periodic hexagonal hole arrays was resistively heated using direct-current voltage to active the boron-doped silicon membranes. The electrical characteristics and emission spectrum of infrared emitters under different excited voltage conditions were measured. Additionally, the reflection, transmission and absorption of light were also characterized to reveal the mechanism of narrowband-enhanced emission. The experimental results indicate that the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) caused by the diffraction of the thermal radiation impinge on the metal-dielectric grating and play an essential role in the extraordinary optical transmission and enhanced emission of subwavelength hole arrays. The constructive interference between the thermal radiation and the SPPs enriches the emission spectrum on the condition that the phase match relation is satisfied. It is demonstrated from the measured results of modulation performance and thermal imaging of emitters that the thickness of membranes and the thermal isolation between membranes and supporting frame structure have a significant influence on the modulation rate, emission intensity and the suppression of the background emission.

  12. High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Cumming, David R S

    2010-06-21

    Three primary color (red, green and blue) filters consisting of subwavelength triangular-lattice hole arrays in an aluminum film on glass were simulated and fabricated. A silicon dioxide cap layer, deposited on the patterned aluminum film, was found to almost double the transmission efficiency for all the filters. The measured peak transmittance for each color filter was above 30%, exhibiting a wavelength spectrum with a full-width at half-maximum of approximately 100 nm. Simulation results of various structures with different cap layers revealed the enhanced coupling between surface plasmon resonances at both sides of the metal film in a symmetrical configuration. It was found that gratings with as few as three periods were sufficient to demonstrate filtering. The effect of metal thickness and hole size was investigated in detail.

  13. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). This allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer. PMID:25705085

  14. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods.

    PubMed

    Camino, Fernando E; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D; Black, Charles T; Sfeir, Matthew Y

    2014-12-15

    We present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm(2)). This allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.

  15. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    DOE PAGES

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; ...

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use asmore » transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.« less

  16. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    SciTech Connect

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-05-15

    Here we present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). Lastly, this allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer.

  17. Scattering matrix method for optical excitation of surface plasmons in metal films with periodic arrays of subwavelength holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttu, N.; Xu, H. Q.

    2011-04-01

    We present the formulation of a scattering matrix method for the study of light-scattering properties of metal films. The method is employed for the study of the optical excitation of surface plasmons in a gold film of 15-230 nm thickness, patterned periodically with subwavelength nanoholes. The gold film is placed on a thick SiO2 wafer, and the nanoholes as well as the top side of the gold film are filled with H2O. Light is incident on the gold film from either the SiO2 or the H2O side. The extinction and reflectance spectra of the system, as well as the electromagnetic field distributions at certain characteristic wavelengths, are calculated. The extinction spectra show, depending on system parameters, one or several peaks in the visible wavelength range. The extinction peaks are found to be caused by surface plasmons. A simple model based on the dispersion relation for surface plasmons in an unperforated gold film is shown to predict the peak positions of the extinction for thick perforated films very well. Even for thin films, this simple model, which includes coupling of surface plasmons on both surfaces of the film, predicts peak positions of the extinction well if the hole diameter is small enough. As the hole diameter increases, the extinction peaks of thin films show redshifts. Extinction peaks caused by surface plasmons at the SiO2/Au interface in thick films exhibit strong redshifts when the film thickness is decreased. However, the extinction peaks caused by surface plasmons at the H2O/Au interface in thick films show a completely different behavior. In this case, the extinction peaks do not move noticeably when the film thickness is decreased. Instead, they are weakened and finally disappear. It is also found that each extinction peak is accompanied by an extinction dip and that a reflectance dip is located in the wavelength between the extinction peak and the dip. This arrangement of an extinction peak, a reflectance dip, and an extinction dip is a

  18. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G; El-Khoury, Patrick Z; Hess, Wayne P

    2014-12-18

    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films is used to map propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near-field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interference between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM experiments and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using a nanohole array.

  19. Interferometric Plasmonic Lensing with Nanohole Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-18

    Nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) of nanohole arrays in gold films maps propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from lithographically patterned structures. Strong near field photoemission patterns are observed in the PEEM images, recorded following low angle of incidence irradiation of nanohole arrays with sub-15 fs laser pulses centered at 780 nm. The recorded photoemission patterns are attributed to constructive and destructive interferences between PSPs launched from the individual nanoholes which comprise the array. By exploiting the wave nature of PSPs, we demonstrate how varying the array geometry (hole diameter, pitch, and number of rows/columns) ultimately yields intense localized photoemission. Through a combination of PEEM and finite-difference time-domain simulations, we identify the optimal array geometry for efficient light coupling and interferometric plasmonic lensing. We show a preliminary application of inteferometric plasmonic lensing by enhancing the photoemission from the vertex of a gold triangle using nanohole array.

  20. Tailoring terahertz plasmons with silver nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Song, Chunyuan; Lanier, Thomas E.; Singh, Ranjan; O'Hara, John F.; Dennis, William M.; Zhao, Yiping; Zhang, Weili

    2013-05-01

    Plasmonic materials that strongly interact with light are ideal candidates for designing subwavelength photonic devices. We report on direct coupling of terahertz waves in metallic nanorods by observing the resonant transmission of surface plasmon polariton waves through lithographically patterned films of silver nanorod (100 nm in diameter) micro-hole arrays. The best enhancement in surface plasmon resonant transmission is obtained when the nanorods are perfectly aligned with the electric field direction of the linearly polarized terahertz wave. This unique polarization-dependent propagation of surface plasmons in structures fabricated from nanorod films offers promising device applications. We conclude that the anisotropy of nanoscale metallic rod arrays imparts a material anisotropy relevant at the microscale that may be utilized for the fabrication of plasmonic and metamaterial based devices for operation at terahertz frequencies.

  1. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Dirk Jan W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Segerink, Frans B.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Prangsma, Jord C.

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optical frequency plasmonic analog to the phased antenna array as it is well known in radar technology and radio astronomy. Individual holes in a thick gold film act as dipolar emitters of surface plasmon polaritons whose phase is controlled individually using a digital spatial light modulator. We show experimentally, using a phase sensitive near-field microscope, that this optical system allows accurate directional emission of surface waves. This compact and flexible method allows for dynamically shaping the propagation of plasmons and holds promise for nanophotonic applications employing propagating surface plasmons. PMID:27121099

  2. A phased antenna array for surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Dirk Jan W; Korterik, Jeroen P; Segerink, Frans B; Herek, Jennifer L; Prangsma, Jord C

    2016-04-28

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves that propagate tightly bound to metal surfaces. The concentration of the electromagnetic field at the surface as well as the short wavelength of surface plasmons enable sensitive detection methods and miniaturization of optics. We present an optical frequency plasmonic analog to the phased antenna array as it is well known in radar technology and radio astronomy. Individual holes in a thick gold film act as dipolar emitters of surface plasmon polaritons whose phase is controlled individually using a digital spatial light modulator. We show experimentally, using a phase sensitive near-field microscope, that this optical system allows accurate directional emission of surface waves. This compact and flexible method allows for dynamically shaping the propagation of plasmons and holds promise for nanophotonic applications employing propagating surface plasmons.

  3. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array.

    PubMed

    Chou, Stephen Y; Ding, Wei

    2013-01-14

    Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and absorption in a sub-absorption-length-thick active layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode used in thin-film devices. Here, we report a proposal and the first experimental study and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high-efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH) solar cell", that offers a solution to all three issues with unprecedented performances. The ultrathin PlaCSH-SC is a thin plasmonic cavity that consists of a 30 nm thick front metal-mesh electrode with subwavelength hole-array (MESH) which replaces ITO, a thin (100 nm thick) back metal electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average absorption-length). Experimentally, the PlaCSH-SCs have achieved (1) light coupling-efficiency/absorptance as high as 96% (average 90%), broad-band, and Omni acceptance (light coupling nearly independent of both light incident angle and polarization); (2) an external quantum efficiency of 69% for only 27% single-pass active layer absorptance; leading to (3) a 4.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) at standard-solar-irradiation, which is 52% higher than the reference ITO-SC (identical structure and fabrication to PlaCSH-SC except MESH replaced by ITO), and also is among the highest PCE for the material system that was achievable previously only by using thick active materials and/or optimized polymer compositions and treatments. In harvesting scattered light, the Omni acceptance can increase PCE by additional 81% over ITO-SC, leading to a total 175% increase (i.e. 8% PCE). Furthermore, we found that (a) after formation of PlaCSH the light reflection and absorption by MESH are reduced by 2 to 6 fold from the values when it is alone; and (b) the sheet resistance of a 30 nm thick MESH is 2.2 ohm/sq or less-4.5 fold or more lower

  4. Quantum plasmonics with a metal nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhyoup; Tame, Mark; Lim, James; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2012-06-01

    We investigate an array of metal nanoparticles as a channel for nanophotonic quantum communication and the generation of quantum plasmonic interference. We consider the transfer of quantum states, including single qubits as plasmonic wave packets, and highlight the necessity of a quantum-mechanical description by comparing the predictions of quantum theory with those of classical electromagnetic theory. The effects of loss in the metal are included, thus putting our investigation into a practical setting and enabling the quantification of the performance of realistic nanoparticle arrays as plasmonic quantum channels. We explore the interference of single plasmons, finding nonlinear absorption effects associated with the quantum properties of the plasmon excitations. This work highlights the benefits and drawbacks of using nanophotonic periodic systems for quantum plasmonic applications, such as quantum communication and the generation of quantum interference.

  5. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, M; Bond, T; Behymer, E; Chang, A

    2010-02-23

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 103 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  6. VERTICAL PILLAR ARRAYS FOR PLASMON NANOCAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, M; Fasenfest, B; Behymer, E; Chang, A; Nguyen, H; Britten, J; Larson, C; Bond, T

    2010-04-02

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 10{sup 3} are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  7. Gold nanodisk array surface plasmon resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xueli

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated for sensing applications over the last decade. The resonance wavelengths of the nanostructures are usually measured in the transmission or reflection spectrum for chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, I introduce a nanoscale gap mediated surface plasmon resonance nanodisk array for displacement sensing and a super-period gold nanodisk grating enabled surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor. The super-period gold nanodisk grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD.

  8. Enhanced Optical Transmission Mediated by Localized Plasmons in Anisotropic, 3D Nanohole Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiun-Chan; Gao, Hanwei; Suh, Jae Yong; Zhou, Wei; Lee, Min Hyung; Odom, Teri W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes 3D nanohole arrays whose high optical transmission is mediated more by localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitations than by surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). First, LSPs on 3D hole arrays lead to optical transmission an order of magnitude higher than 2D planar hole arrays. Second, LSP-mediated transmission is broadband and more tunable than SPP-enhanced transmission which is restricted by Bragg coupling. Third, for the first time, two types of surface plasmons can be selectively excited and manipulated on the same plasmonic substrate. This new plasmonic substrate fabricated by high-throughput nanolithography techniques paves the way for cutting-edge optoelectronic and biomedical applications. PMID:20698633

  9. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  10. Universal optical transmission features in periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Domenico; Lezec, Henri J; Sweatlock, Luke A; Walters, Robert J; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-06-09

    We investigate the influence of array order in the optical transmission properties of subwavelength hole arrays, by comparing the experimental spectral transmittance of periodic and quasiperiodic hole arrays as a function of frequency. We find that periodicity and long-range order are not necessary requirements for obtaining enhanced and suppressed optical transmission, provided short-range order is maintained. Transmission maxima and minima are shown to result, respectively, from constructive and destructive interference at each hole, between the light incident upon and exiting from a given hole, and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) arriving from individual neighboring holes. These SPPs are launched along both illuminated and exit surfaces, by diffraction of the incident and emerging light at the neighboring individual subwavelength holes. By characterizing the optical transmission of a pair of subwavelength holes as a function of hole-hole distance, we demonstrate that a subwavelength hole can launch SPPs with an efficiency up to 35%, and with an experimentally determined launch phase phi = pi /2, for both input-side and exit-side SPPs. This characteristic phase has a crucial influence on the shape of the transmission spectra, determining transmission minima in periodic arrays at those frequencies where grating coupling arguments would instead predict maxima.

  11. Long-Wavelength Infrared Surface Plasmons on Ga-Doped ZnO Films Excited via 2D Hole Arrays for Extraordinary Optical Transmission (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    wavelength infrared regime. EOT is facilitated by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and can be tuned utilizing the physical...facilitated by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and can be tuned utilizing the physical structure size such as period. Pulse laser deposited...plasmonics, infrared, EOT, doped zinc oxides. 1. INTRODUCTION Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are a means of real-time, label-free biosensing

  12. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle. PMID:24201454

  13. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-01

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  14. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J.; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed “algorithmic spectrometry”. We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme. PMID:27721506

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J.; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-10-01

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed “algorithmic spectrometry”. We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme.

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Adaptive Infrared Multispectral Imaging using Plasmonic Filter Array.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Ku, Zahyun; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, James; Noyola, Michael J; Urbas, Augustine

    2016-10-10

    In our previous theoretical study, we performed target detection using a plasmonic sensor array incorporating the data-processing technique termed "algorithmic spectrometry". We achieved the reconstruction of a target spectrum by extracting intensity at multiple wavelengths with high resolution from the image data obtained from the plasmonic array. The ultimate goal is to develop a full-scale focal plane array with a plasmonic opto-coupler in order to move towards the next generation of versatile infrared cameras. To this end, and as an intermediate step, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of adaptive multispectral imagery using fabricated plasmonic spectral filter arrays and proposed target detection scenarios. Each plasmonic filter was designed using periodic circular holes perforated through a gold layer, and an enhanced target detection strategy was proposed to refine the original spectrometry concept for spatial and spectral computation of the data measured from the plasmonic array. Both the spectrum of blackbody radiation and a metal ring object at multiple wavelengths were successfully reconstructed using the weighted superposition of plasmonic output images as specified in the proposed detection strategy. In addition, plasmonic filter arrays were theoretically tested on a target at extremely high temperature as a challenging scenario for the detection scheme.

  18. Critical coupling in plasmonic resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-08-01

    We report critical coupling of electromagnetic waves to plasmonic cavity arrays fabricated on Moiré surfaces. Dark field plasmon microscopy imaging and polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements reveal the critical coupling conditions of the cavities. The critical coupling conditions depend on the superperiod of the Moiré surface, which also defines the coupling between the cavities. Complete transfer of the incident power can be achieved for traveling wave plasmonic resonators, which have a relatively short superperiod. When the superperiod of the resonators increases, the coupled resonators become isolated standing wave resonators in which complete transfer of the incident power is not possible. Analytical and finite difference time domain calculations support the experimental observations.

  19. Dark Field Imaging of Plasmonic Resonator Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinli, Atilla; Balci, Sinan; Karademir, Ertugrul; Kocabas, Coskun

    2012-02-01

    We present critical coupling of electromagnetic waves to plasmonic cavity arrays fabricated on Moir'e surfaces. The critical coupling condition depends on the superperiod of Moir'e surface, which also defines the coupling between the cavities. Complete transfer of the incident power can be achieved for traveling wave plasmonic resonators, which have relatively short superperiod. When the superperiod of the resonators increases, the coupled resonators become isolated standing wave resonators in which complete transfer of the incident power is not possible. Dark field plasmon microscopy imaging and polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements reveal the critical coupling conditions of the cavities. We image the light scattered from SPPs in the plasmonic cavities excited by a tunable light source. Tuning the excitation wavelength, we measure the localization and dispersion of the plasmonic cavity mode. Dark field imaging has been achieved in the Kretschmann configuration using a supercontinuum white light laser equipped with an acoustooptic tunable filter. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection and dark field imaging measurements are correlated and found to be in agreement with FDTD simulations.

  20. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Radko, Ilya P; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2008-03-17

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive index increases inside the array by a factor of approximately 1.08 (for the wavelength 800 nm) with respect to the SPP index at a flat surface. Observations of SPP focusing and deflection by circularly shaped areas as well as SPP waveguiding inside rectangular arrays are consistent with the SPP index increase deduced from the SPP refraction by triangular arrays. The SPP refractive index is found to decrease slightly for longer wavelengths within the wavelength range of 700-860 nm. Modeling based on the Green's tensor formalism is in a good agreement with the experimental results, opening the possibility to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation.

  1. Bloch oscillations in plasmonic waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, A.; Etrich, C.; Limboeck, T.; Bleckmann, F.; Soergel, E.; Rockstuhl, C.; Linden, S.

    2014-05-01

    The combination of modern nanofabrication techniques and advanced computational tools has opened unprecedented opportunities to mold the flow of light. In particular, discrete photonic structures can be designed such that the resulting light dynamics mimics quantum mechanical condensed matter phenomena. By mapping the time-dependent probability distribution of an electronic wave packet to the spatial light intensity distribution in the corresponding photonic structure, the quantum mechanical evolution can be visualized directly in a coherent, yet classical wave environment. On the basis of this approach, several groups have recently observed discrete diffraction, Bloch oscillations and Zener tunnelling in different dielectric structures. Here we report the experimental observation of discrete diffraction and Bloch oscillations of surface plasmon polaritons in evanescently coupled plasmonic waveguide arrays. The effective external potential is tailored by introducing an appropriate transverse index gradient during nanofabrication of the arrays. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical calculations.

  2. Large-area nanogap plasmon resonator arrays for plasmonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Mingliang; van Wolferen, Henk; Wormeester, Herbert; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin T.

    2012-07-01

    Large-area (~8000 mm2) Au nanogap plasmon resonator array substrates manufactured using maskless laser interference lithography (LIL) with high uniformity are presented. The periodically spaced subwavelength nanogap arrays are formed between adjacent nanopyramid (NPy) structures with precisely defined pitch and high length density (~1 km cm-2), and are ideally suited as scattering sites for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), as well as refractive index sensing. The two-dimensional grid arrangement of NPy structures renders the excitation of the plasmon resonators minimally dependent on the incident polarization. The SERS average enhancement factor (AEF) has been characterized using over 30 000 individual measurements of benzenethiol (BT) chemisorbed on the Au NPy surfaces. From the 1(a1), βCCC + νCS ring mode (1074 cm-1) of BT on surfaces with pitch λg = 200 nm, AEF = 0.8 × 106 and for surfaces with λg = 500 nm, AEF = 0.3 × 107 from over 99% of the imaged spots. Maximum AEFs > 108 have been measured in both cases.

  3. Plasmonic Periodic Nanodot Arrays via Laser Interference Lithography for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with >10% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yulin; Lim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Wang, Huan; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Park, Young Wook; Kim, Heejun; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Jihyeon; Kim, Dong Ha; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-11-22

    In this study, we demonstrate a viable and promising optical engineering technique enabling the development of high-performance plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices. Laser interference lithography was explored to fabricate metal nanodot (MND) arrays with elaborately controlled dot size as well as periodicity, allowing spectral overlap between the absorption range of the active layers and the surface plasmon band of MND arrays. MND arrays with ∼91 nm dot size and ∼202 nm periodicity embedded in a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hole transport layer remarkably enhanced the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 7.52% up to 10.11%, representing one of the highest PCE and degree of enhancement (∼34.4%) levels compared to the pristine device among plasmonic organic photovoltaics reported to date. The plasmonic enhancement mechanism was investigated by both optical and electrical analyses using finite difference time domain simulation and conductive atomic force microscopy studies.

  4. Optical singularities in plasmonic fields near single subwavelength holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoogh, A.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-11-01

    We identify phase and polarization singularities in near-field measurements and theoretical modeling of the electric near-field distributions that result from the scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from single subwavelength holes in optically thick gold films. We discuss properties of the singularities, such as their topological charge or the field amplitudes at their locations. We show that it is possible to tune the in-plane field amplitude at the positions of the polarization singularities by three orders of magnitude simply by varying the hole or incident plasmon beam size.

  5. Geometric universality of plasmon modes in graphene nanoribbon arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.

    2015-03-01

    Graphene plasmonics is a rapidly growing field with multiple potential applications. One of the standard ways to study plasmons in graphene is by fabricating an array of graphene nanoribbons where nanoribbon edges provide the efficient photon-plasmon coupling. We systematically analyze the problem of optical plasmonic response in such systems and demonstrate the purely geometric nature of the size quantization condition for graphene plasmons. Accurate numerical calculations allowed us to tabulate the universal geometric parameters of plasmon size quantization, which is expected to become useful in analysis of experimental data on plasmonic response of graphene nanoribbons. A simple analytical theory has also been developed, which accurately reproduces all the qualitative features of optical plasmonic response of graphene nanoribbons.

  6. Tunable plasmon polaritons in arrays of interacting metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weick, Guillaume; Mariani, Eros

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple cubic array of metallic nanoparticles supporting extended collective plasmons that arise from the near-field dipolar interaction between localized surface plasmons in each nanoparticle. We develop a fully analytical quantum theory of the strong-coupling regime between these collective plasmons and photons resulting in plasmon polaritons in the nanoparticle array. Remarkably, we show that the polaritonic band gap and the dielectric function of the metamaterial can be significantly modulated by the polarization of light. We unveil how such an anisotropic behavior in the plasmonic metamaterial is crucially mediated by the dipolar interactions between the nanoparticles despite the symmetry of the underlying lattice. Our results thus pave the way towards the realization of tunable quantum plasmonic metamaterials presenting interaction-driven birefringence.

  7. Discrete gap solitons in nonlinear binary plasmonic waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2015-03-01

    We investigate plasmonic mode propagation in nonlinear binary plasmonic waveguide arrays composed of two kinds of metal slabs alternately embedded in nonlinear dielectric materials, and numerically obtain soliton solutions with different symmetries. In particular, we find discrete gap solitons with strong transverse confinements reaching the scale of 10 nm. The equations to describe the mode propagations indicate that the system also provides a plasmonic platform to simulate aspects of quantum dynamics.

  8. Biosensing using plasmonic nanohole arrays with small, homogenous and tunable aperture diameters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kunli; Emilsson, Gustav; Dahlin, Andreas B

    2016-06-21

    Plasmonic nanohole arrays are widely used for optical label-free molecular detection. An important factor for many applications is the diameter of the apertures. So far nanohole arrays with controllable diameters below 100 nm have not been demonstrated and it has not been systematically investigated how the diameter influences the optical properties. In this work we fine-tune the diameter in short range ordered nanohole arrays down to 50 nm. The experimental far field spectra show how the wavelength of maximum extinction remains unaffected while the transmission maximum blue shifts with smaller diameters. The near field is visualized by numerical simulations, showing a homogenous enhancement throughout the cylindrical void at the transmission maximum for diameters between 50 and 100 nm. For diameters below 50 nm plasmon excitation is no longer possible experimentally or by simulations. Further, we investigate the refractive index sensing capabilities of the smaller holes. As the diameter was reduced, the sensitivity in terms of resonance shift with bulk liquid refractive index was found to be unaltered. However, for the transmission maximum the sensitivity becomes more strongly localized to the hole interior. By directing molecular binding to the bottom of the holes we demonstrate how smaller holes enhance the sensitivity in terms of signal per molecule. A real-time detection limit well below one protein per nanohole is demonstrated. The smaller plasmonic nanoholes should be suitable for studies of molecules confined in small volumes and as mimics of biological nanopores.

  9. Parallel fabrication of plasmonic nanocone sensing arrays.

    PubMed

    Horrer, Andreas; Schäfer, Christian; Broch, Katharina; Gollmer, Dominik A; Rogalski, Jan; Fulmes, Julia; Zhang, Dai; Meixner, Alfred J; Schreiber, Frank; Kern, Dieter P; Fleischer, Monika

    2013-12-09

    A fully parallel approach for the fabrication of arrays of metallic nanocones and triangular nanopyramids is presented. Different processes utilizing nanosphere lithography for the creation of etch masks are developed. Monolayers of spheres are reduced in size and directly used as masks, or mono- and double layers are employed as templates for the deposition of aluminum oxide masks. The masks are transferred into an underlying gold or silver layer by argon ion milling, which leads to nanocones or nanopyramids with very sharp tips. Near the tips the enhancement of an external electromagnetic field is particularly strong. This fact is confirmed by numerical simulations and by luminescence imaging in a confocal microscope. Such localized strong fields can amongst others be utilized for high-resolution, high-sensitivity spectroscopy and sensing of molecules near the tip. Arrays of such plasmonic nanostructures thus constitute controllable platforms for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A thin film of pentacene molecules is evaporated onto both nanocone and nanopyramid substrates, and the observed Raman enhancement is evaluated.

  10. Optofluidic plasmonic onchip nanosensor array for biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has been demonstrated in the past decade to be the gold standard technique for biochemical interaction analysis, and plays an important role in drug discovery and biomedical research. The technique circumvents the need of fluorescence/radioactive tagging or enzymatic detection, enables ultrasensitive remote sensing, and quantitatively monitors bio-interaction in real time. Although SPR has these attractive features that can satisfy most research/clinic requirements, there still exist problems that limit its applications. First, the reflection geometry of the prism coupling scheme adds limitations for high throughput screening application. Additionally, SPR instrumentations are bulky and not suitable for point-of-care settings. Moreover, the SPR sensor is embedded in conventional micro-fluidic cells, in which the sensor performance is limited by inefficient analyte transport. Suspended plasmonic nanohole array (PNA) offers an opportunity to overcome these limitations. A collinear excitation/collection coupling scheme combined with the small footprint of PNA provides unique platform for multiplexing and system minimization. The suspended nanohole structure also offers a unique configuration to integrate nano-photonics with nano-fluidics. This thesis focuses on developing a lab-on-a-chip PNA platform for point-of-care bio-detection. To achieve this, we first demonstrate that the figure-of-merit of our PNA sensor surpasses that of the prism coupled SPR. We also show that the ultrasensitive label-free PNA sensor is able to directly detect intact viruses from biological media at clinically relevant concentrations with little sample preparation. We then present a plasmonic microarray with over one million PNA sensors on a microscope slide for high throughput screening applications. A dual-color filter imaging method is introduced to increase the accuracy, reliability, and signal-to-noise ratio in a highly multiplexed manner. Finally

  11. Lattice plasmons in dielectric nanoparticle arrays arranged on metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lianxue; Ge, Chaoyang; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Cheng; Fang, Xin; Zhai, Wenhao; Tao, Li; Li, Yanping; Ran, Guangzhao

    2016-12-01

    We propose a hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal consisting of a square array of dielectric nanoparticles arranged on a metal film with a gap inbetween. Simulations show that this plasmonic crystal supports lattice plasmon modes just like the metal nanoparticle array, exhibiting an extremely narrow and deep reflection dip. When interparticle spacing increases from 800 to 1000 nm, the full width at half the maximum of lattice plasmons decreases from 21 to 4 nm, and the lowest reflectance is close to zero. The resonant wavelength of this plasmonic crystal is highly sensitive to the local environment. It yields a sensitivity of 700 nm RIU-1 and a figure of merit of 33, which can be used in sensing of the refractive index.

  12. The effect of holes in the dispersion relation of propagative surface plasmon modes of nanoperforated semitransparent metallic films

    SciTech Connect

    Kekesi, R. Meneses-Rodríguez, D.; García-Pérez, F.; González, M. U.; García-Martín, A.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G.

    2014-10-07

    We have analysed the effect that holes have on the properties of propagative surface plasmon modes in semitransparent nanoperforated Au films. The modes have been excited in Kretschmann configuration. Contrary to continuous films, where only one mode is excited, two modes are observed in Au nanohole array. The origin of this different behavior is discussed using effective optical properties for the nanoperforated films. The presence of the holes affects the effective optical constants of the membranes in two ways: it changes the contribution of the free electrons, and it gives rise to a localized transition due to a hole induced plasmon resonance. This localized transition interacts with the propagative surface plasmon modes, originating the two detected modes.

  13. Giant-enhancement of extraordinary optical transmission through nanohole arrays blocked by plasmonic gold mushroom caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Hu, Pidong; Liu, Chengpu

    2015-01-01

    An improved plasmonic hole array nanostructure model with the holes blocked by gold mushroom caps is proposed and it can realize a giant transmission with efficiency up to 65%, 182% larger than the unblocked nanohole array, due to the strong coupling between caps and holes, which plays the role of a cavity antenna. Moreover, the numerical investigation confirms that it provides more consistency with the practical experimental situations, than the nanodisk model instead. As expected, the light transmission sensitively depends on the geometric parameters of this new nanostructure; as the cap-hole's gap or cap's diameter vary, there always exists an optimal transmission efficiency. More interesting is that the corresponding optimal wavelength decreases with the gap's increment or the diameter's decrement, particularly in an exponential decaying way, and the decay rate is obviously influenced by the cap's parameters.

  14. Tri-layered composite plasmonic structure with a nanohole array for multiband enhanced absorption at visible to NIR frequencies: plasmonic and metamaterial resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Gangadhar; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-02-01

    A tri-layered composite structure of gold/ZnS/gold, with the top gold layer patterned into a periodic array of circular holes, was fabricated by laser interference lithography and lift-off processes. This plasmonic composite absorbing structure showed a series of enhanced absorption peaks across the visible to NIR frequencies with an peak absorption exceeding 95% at 0.52 μm wavelength. These absorption peaks were reproduced in electromagnetic simulations of the structures. The peaks are shown to arise from the various resonances of the system: the localized surface plasmon resonances of the holes, the surface plasmon polaritons on the various interfaces and the shape dependent electromagnetic resonances of the holes. The measured angular dispersion of the absorption peaks indicated the SPP origin of the resonances while the computer simulations of the electromagnetic fields could be used to understand the nature of the localized resonances.

  15. Fabrication of plasmonic cavity arrays for SERS analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Feng, Lei; Teng, Fei; Lu, Nan

    2017-05-05

    The plasmonic cavity arrays are ideal substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering analysis because they can provide hot spots with large volume for analyte molecules. The large area increases the probability to make more analyte molecules on hot spots and leads to a high reproducibility. Therefore, to develop a simple method for creating cavity arrays is important. Herein, we demonstrate how to fabricate a V and W shape cavity arrays by a simple method based on self-assembly. Briefly, the V and W shape cavity arrays are respectively fabricated by taking KOH etching on a nanohole and a nanoring array patterned silicon (Si) slides. The nanohole array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide assembled with monolayer of polystyrene (PS) spheres. The nanoring array is generated by taking a reactive ion etching on a Si slide covered with a monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane before self-assembling PS spheres. Both plasmonic V and W cavity arrays can provide large hot area, which increases the probability for analyte molecules to deposit on the hot spots. Taking 4-Mercaptopyridine as analyte probe, the enhancement factor can reach 2.99 × 10(5) and 9.97 × 10(5) for plasmonic V cavity and W cavity array, respectively. The relative standard deviations of the plasmonic V and W cavity arrays are 6.5% and 10.2% respectively according to the spectra collected on 20 random spots.

  16. Plasmonic Photovoltaic Cells with Dual-Functional Gold, Silver, and Copper Half-Shell Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Kim, Gyu Min; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2017-09-12

    Solid-state photovoltaic cells based on plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS) have attracted growing attention during the past decade. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the previously reported devices, which are generally loaded with dispersed metal nanoparticles as light absorbers, has not been sufficiently high. Here we report simpler plasmonic photovoltaic cells with interconnected Au, Ag, and Cu half-shell arrays deposited on SiO2@TiO2 colloidal crystals, which serve both as a plasmonic light absorber and as a current collector. The well-controlled and easily prepared plasmonic structure allows precise comparison of the PICS efficiency between different plasmonic metal species. The cell with the Ag half-shell array has higher photovoltaic performance than the cells with Au and Cu half-shell arrays because of the high population of photogenerated energetic electrons, which gives a high electron injection efficiency and suppressed charge recombination probability, achieving the highest PCE among the solid-state PICS devices even without a hole transport layer.

  17. Exciton-plasmon interactions in carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosdoff, David; Bondarev, Igor

    The response properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNs) allow for the excitation of both plasmons and excitons at optical frequencies, which can interact with each other to give rise to a variety of phenomena and applications. If carbon nanotubes are aligned in a periodic array, then energy bands can be formed due to the array periodicity. Using a quantum electrodynamics approach, the energy dispersion relation for the coupled exciton and plasmon excitations in the CN array is theoretically analyzed. The predicted result is the formation of photonic bands, which may give rise to tunable optoelectronic devices and other applications. Supported by NSF-ECCS-1306871.

  18. Terahertz magneto-plasmonics using cobalt subwavelength aperture arrays.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Barun; Pandey, Shashank; Nahata, Anjali; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Guruswamy, Sivaraman; Nahata, Ajay

    2017-09-20

    We characterize the terahertz (THz) magneto-plasmonic response of a cobalt-based periodic aperture array. The bare cobalt surface allows for low loss propagation of surface plasmon-polaritons, as evidenced by comparing the reflection from aperture arrays coated with Au and with Co. When an external magnetic field is applied in a polar Kerr geometry, we observe a maximum polarization rotation of ~0.6° and an ellipticity of ~0.35° from the Co-based array. These values are larger than expected based on existing models that include only interband transitions in ferromagnetic metals. We discuss possible reasons for the difference between experiment and theory.

  19. Near-field spectral properties of coupled plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Yang, Jinghuan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Gong, Qihuang; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2017-03-20

    We investigated the grating effect in complex gold dolmen structures, in which multiple plasmon modes are present due to plasmon hybridization, experimentally from both the far field and the near field. In particular, the near-field properties were investigated using photoemission electron microscopy, and it was demonstrated that two hybridized plasmon modes on the dolmen structures could be influenced by the grating effect. For comparison, we also investigated the grating effect in arrays of simple nanoblocks and heptamer structures, which were supposed to support a strong bright plasmon mode and a strong dark plasmon mode, respectively, in the near field. We found that the spectral responses of the two hybridized modes on the dolmen structures as the pitch size changed evolved in a manner similar to that of the bright dipole mode on the nanoblocks, whereas the dark mode on the heptamer structures is less sensitive to the pitch size.

  20. Surface plasmonic lightening characteristics through liquid crystal microlens arrays controlled electrically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qingle

    2015-12-01

    An approach for representing and evaluating surface plasmonic lightening through cylindrical liquid crystal microlens arrays (CLCMAs) of 128×128, is proposed. The CLCMAs are typical sandwiched structures, in which the LC materials with a thickness of ~20μm is fully filled into a preshaped microcavity with a pair of parallel electrodes fabricated by silica wafers coated by an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film. The top electrode is patterned using an arrayed micro-rectangle-hole with a size of 200×60μm2 and a minimum spacing of 50μm. The surface plasmonic radiation is excited and further participates the focusing of incident beams in the visible range. The output light fields involving the plasmonic radiation are investigated. Rising the voltage signal from ~1.4 to ~5.5VRMS, the excited plasmonic radiation will sequentially present typical states including the beam converging state, focusing together with partial incident beams, and lightening mainly along the edge of individual ITO micro-rectangle-hole.

  1. Plasmon switching effect based on graphene nanoribbon pair arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Wu, Lingxi; Liu, Qiong; Zhou, Renlong; Xie, Suxia; Chen, Jiangjiamin; Wu, Mengxiong; Zeng, Lisan

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the existence of plasmon switching effect in graphene nanostructure. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the plasmon resonance modes are studied in graphene nanoribbon pair arrays with the change of Fermi level, graphene width, and carrier mobility. It is found that the Fermi level and graphene width play an important role in changing the distribution of electric energy on different graphene nanoribbons, resulting in a significant plasmon switching effect. Moreover, we study the characteristic of resonance mode of one graphene ribbon by using glass rod with different shape. The effect of kerr material sandwiched between graphene nanoribbon pair is also considered.

  2. Extreme optical chirality of plasmonic nanohole arrays due to chiral Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratov, A. V.; Gorkunov, M. V.; Darinskii, A. N.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Rogov, O. Y.; Ezhov, A. A.; Artemov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    We study the physical origin of extreme optical chirality of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in metal. We reconstruct the nanoscale relief of the hole arrays by the atomic-force microscopy and post-process the data to acquire an average unit-cell shape clear of noise and defects. For this shape, we perform the electromagnetic finite difference time domain simulations that reproduce all important features observed by the light-transmission experiments, including the notably strong circular dichroism and optical activity covering the whole range of possible values. To interpret the simulation results, we develop a chiral coupled-mode model which yields analytical expressions that fit accurately the numerical data in a broad wavelength range. Our conclusions undoubtedly link the extreme optical chirality to the plasmon resonances of chiral holes and the associated chiral Fano-type transmission resonance.

  3. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Balakrishnan, Shankar; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2015-05-01

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  4. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahi R.; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Balakrishnan, Shankar

    2015-05-14

    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  5. Complete polarimetry on the asymmetric transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol; Maoz, Ben M; Nichols, Shane; Markovich, Gil; Kahr, Bart

    2014-06-02

    Dissymmetric, periodically nanostructured metal films can show non-reciprocal transmission of polarized light, in apparent violation of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. The wave vector dependence of the extraordinary optical transmission in gold films with square and oblique subwavelength hole arrays was examined for the full range of polarized light input states. In normal incidence, the oblique lattice, in contrast to square lattice, showed strong asymmetric, non-reciprocal transmission of circularly polarized light. By analyzing the polarization of the input and the output with a complete Mueller matrix polarimeter the mechanisms that permits asymmetric transmission while preserving the requirement of electromagnetic reciprocity is revealed: the coupling of the linear anisotropies induced by misaligned surface plasmons in the film. The square lattice also shows asymmetric transmission at non-normal incidence, whenever the plane of incidence does not coincide with a mirror line.

  6. Infrared plasmonics with indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi Qiang; Guo, Peijun; Zhang, Lingxiao; Zhou, Wei; Odom, Teri W; Seideman, Tamar; Ketterson, John B; Chang, Robert P H

    2011-11-22

    This article reports the study of infrared plasmonics with both random and periodic arrays of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NR). A description is given on the synthesis, patterning, and characterization of physical properties of the ITO NR arrays. A classical scattering model, along with a 3-D finite-element-method and a 3-D finite-difference-time-domain numerical simulation method has been used to interpret the unique light scattering phenomena. It is also shown that the intrinsic plasma frequency can be varied through careful postsynthesis processing of the ITO NRs. Examples are given on how coupled plasmon resonances can be tuned through patterning of the ITO NR arrays. In addition, environment dielectric sensing has been demonstrated through the shift of the resonances as a result of index change surrounding the NRs. These initial results suggest potential for further improvement and opportunities to develop a good understanding of infrared plasmonics using ITO and other transparent conducting oxide semiconducting materials.

  7. Plasmonic resonances in ordered and disordered aluminum nanocavities arrays.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campuzano, R. G.; Mendoza, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanocavities arrays were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of aluminum using oxalic and phosphoric acids as electrolytes. The morphology and topography of these structures were evaluated by SEM and AFM. Plasmonic properties of Al cavities arrays with different ordering and dimensions were analysed based on specular reflectivity. Al cavities arrays fabricated with phosphoric acid dramatically reduced the optical reflectivity as compared with unstructured Al. At the same time pronounced reflectivity dips were detectable in the 300nm-400nm range, which were ascribed to (0,1) plasmonic mode, and also a colored appearance in the samples is noticeably depending on the observation angle. These changes are not observed in samples made with oxalic acid and this fact was explained, based on a theoretical model, in terms that the surface plasmons are excited far in the UV range.

  8. Assessing the Location of Surface Plasmons Over Nanotriangle and Nanohole Arrays of Different Size and Periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Ledo, Debby; Gibson, Kirsty F.; Dhawan, Anuj; Couture, Maxime; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Graham, Duncan; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    The increasing popularity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor design based on nanotriangle or nanohole arrays, and the possibility to manufacture substrates at the transition between these plasmonic substrates, makes them ideal candidates for the establishment of structure-property relationships. This work features near diffraction-limited Raman images and FDTD simulations of nanotriangle and nanohole arrays substrates, which clearly demonstrate that the localization of the hot spot on these SERS substrates is significantly influenced by the ratio of diameter/periodicity (D/P). The experimental and simulation data reveal that the hot spots are located around nanotriangles (D/P = 1), characteristic of localized SPR. Decreasing the D/P ratio to 0.75-0.7 led to the creation of nanohole arrays, which promoted the excitation of a propagating surface plasmon (SP) delocalized over the metal network. The optimal SERS intensity was consistently achieved at this transition from nanotriangles to nanoholes, for every periodicity (650 nm to 1.5 μm) and excitation wavelength (633 and 785 nm) investigated, despite the presence or absence of a plasmonic band near the laser excitation. Further decreasing the D/P ratio led to excitation of a localized SP located around the rim of nanohole arrays for D/P of 0.5-0.6, in agreement with previous reports. In addition, this manuscript provides the first evidence that the hot spots are positioned inside the hole for D/P of 0.4, with the center being the region of highest electric field and Raman intensity. The compelling experimental evidence and FDTD simulations offer an overall understanding of the plasmonic properties of nanohole arrays as SERS and SPR sensors, which is of significant value in advancing the diversity of applications from such surfaces. PMID:23977402

  9. Plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time multiplex biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesuffleur, Antoine; Im, Hyungsoon; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Lim, Kwan Seop; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Large-scale studies of biomolecular interactions required for proteome-level investigations can benefit from a new class of emerging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: nanohole arrays and surface plasmon (SP) enhanced optical transmission. In this paper we present a real-time, label-free multiplex SPR imaging sensor in a microarray format. The system presented is built around a low-cost microscope with laser illumination, integrated with microfluidics. The specific binding kinetics of biotin and streptavidin are measured from several sensing elements simultaneously, demonstrating the feasibility of using nanohole arrays as a high-throughput SPR microarray sensor.

  10. Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Dridi, Montacer; Suh, Jae Yong; Kim, Chul Hoon; Co, Dick T; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Odom, Teri W

    2013-07-01

    Periodic dielectric structures are typically integrated with a planar waveguide to create photonic band-edge modes for feedback in one-dimensional distributed feedback lasers and two-dimensional photonic-crystal lasers. Although photonic band-edge lasers are widely used in optics and biological applications, drawbacks include low modulation speeds and diffraction-limited mode confinement. In contrast, plasmonic nanolasers can support ultrafast dynamics and ultrasmall mode volumes. However, because of the large momentum mismatch between their nanolocalized lasing fields and free-space light, they suffer from large radiative losses and lack beam directionality. Here, we report lasing action from band-edge lattice plasmons in arrays of plasmonic nanocavities in a homogeneous dielectric environment. We find that optically pumped, two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic Au or Ag nanoparticles surrounded by an organic gain medium show directional beam emission (divergence angle <1.5° and linewidth <1.3 nm) characteristic of lasing action in the far-field, and behave as arrays of nanoscale light sources in the near-field. Using a semi-quantum electromagnetic approach to simulate the active optical responses, we show that lasing is achieved through stimulated energy transfer from the gain to the band-edge lattice plasmons in the deep subwavelength vicinity of the individual nanoparticles. Using femtosecond-transient absorption spectroscopy, we verified that lattice plasmons in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays could reach a 200-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the dye because of their large local density of optical states.

  11. Fabrication of Au nanotube arrays and their plasmonic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haojun; Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Quan

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale Au nanotube arrays on ITO/glass with tunable inner diameters and wall thicknesses were fabricated via a CdSe nanotube array templating method. The initial tubular morphology of the CdSe-nanotube template was maintained during the synthesis, while the composition was converted from CdSe to Au. The obtained Au nanotube arrays showed two surface plasmon resonances in the extinction spectrum, mainly contributed by electron oscillation along the transverse and the longitudinal directions. When used as the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), the Raman scattering of the probe molecules (4-mercaptobenzoic acid) was amplified by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, mainly due to the plasmonic enhancement effect of the Au nanotube arrays.Large-scale Au nanotube arrays on ITO/glass with tunable inner diameters and wall thicknesses were fabricated via a CdSe nanotube array templating method. The initial tubular morphology of the CdSe-nanotube template was maintained during the synthesis, while the composition was converted from CdSe to Au. The obtained Au nanotube arrays showed two surface plasmon resonances in the extinction spectrum, mainly contributed by electron oscillation along the transverse and the longitudinal directions. When used as the substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), the Raman scattering of the probe molecules (4-mercaptobenzoic acid) was amplified by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, mainly due to the plasmonic enhancement effect of the Au nanotube arrays. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Basic characterizations, optical and SERS properties of Au nanotube arrays obtained from CdSe nanowire arrays; SERS spectra of Au-sputtered ITO/glass and bare ITO/glass; the calculation details of the enhancement factor. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33658a

  12. Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Sannomiya, Takumi; Villanueva, Luis G; Voros, Janos; Brugger, Juergen

    2011-02-22

    The fabrication of gold nanodots by stencil lithography and its application for optical biosensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance are presented. Arrays of 50-200 nm wide nanodots with different spacing of 50-300 nm are fabricated without any resist, etching, or lift-off process. The dimensions and morphology of the nanodots were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The fabricated nanodots showed localized surface plasmon resonance in their extinction spectra in the visible range. The resonance wavelength depends on the periodicity and dimensions of the nanodots. Bulk refractive index measurements and model biosensing of streptavidin were successfully performed based on the plasmon resonance shift induced by local refractive index change when biomolecules are adsorbed on the nanodots. These results demonstrate the potential of stencil lithography for the realization of plasmon-based biosensing devices.

  13. Numerical investigation of the enhancement factor of Raman scattering using plasmonic properties of gold nanorhomb arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrvar, L.; Dizaji, Z. V.; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures with sharp tips like nanorhomb array provide strong electric field enhancement and consequently meaningful Raman signal enhancement. In this study, the near-field electromagnetic enhancement of the gold nanorhomb array formed by a new proposed approach has been investigated using the finite element method (FEM). Feasibility and ease of fabrication, which are very important in practical applications, are intended in this approach. This nanorhomb array is achieved by arranging holes tangentially together in a square lattice. In other words, nanorhombs are formed by transition from nanohole to nanoparticle array. Optimization of this structure for a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate is performed by sweeping through the geometric parameters. The most privileged nanorhomb array substrate with highest hot spot density and EM field enhancement is obtained by calculating the enhancement factor (EF) and normalized EF (EFN) for Raman lines of pyridine. Our simulations indicate that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode of such nanorhomb array leads to high electromagnetic enhancement factor (EMEF) and average surface integral of field enhancement factor (\\overlineEF), which are hundreds of times greater than the nanohole arrays. It is found that this LSPR mode is thickness-dependent besides being periodicity-dependent. Finally, accurate EF is calculated by considering local incident field enhancement in terms of the excitation process and local density of states (LDOS) enhancements on emission process and then the best structure with highest EF is obtained.

  14. Engineering plasmonic nanorod arrays for colon cancer marker detection.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Stephanie L; Cao, Cuong; Zaribafzadeh, Hamed; Li, Shuzhou; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-15

    Engineering plasmonic nanomaterials or nanostructures towards ultrasensitive biosensing for disease markers or pathogens is of high importance. Here we demonstrate a systematic approach to tailor effective plasmonic nanorod arrays by combining both comprehensive numerical discrete dipole approximations (DDA) simulation and transmission spectroscopy experiments. The results indicate that 200×50 nm nanorod arrays with 300×500 nm period provide the highest figure of merit (FOM) of 2.4 and a sensitivity of 310 nm/RIU. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of nanorod arrays for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism in codon 12 of the K-ras gene that are frequently occurring in early stages of colon cancer, with a sensitivity down to 10 nM in the presence of 100-fold higher concentration of the homozygous genotypes. Our work shows significant potential of nanorod arrays towards point-of-care applications in diagnosis and clinical studies.

  15. Real-Time Label-Free Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing with Gold Nanohole Arrays Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Perdiguero, Josu; Retolaza, Aritz; Otaduy, Deitze; Juarros, Aritz; Merino, Santos

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a surface plasmon resonance sensor based on enhanced optical transmission through sub-wavelength nanohole arrays. This technique is extremely sensitive to changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium which result in a modulation of the transmitted light. The periodic gold nanohole array sensors were fabricated by high-throughput thermal nanoimprint lithography. Square periodic arrays with sub-wavelength hole diameters were obtained and characterized. Using solutions with known refractive index, the array sensitivities were obtained. Finally, protein absorption was monitored in real-time demonstrating the label-free biosensing capabilities of the fabricated devices. PMID:24135989

  16. Nanoparticle arrays: From magnetic response to coupled plasmon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, V. G.; Schedin, F.; Pisano, G.; Thackray, B.; Thomas, P. A.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    We study optical properties of optomagnetic metamaterials consisting of regular arrays of single and double Au nanodots (nanopillars). Using a combination of data from variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission, and reflection measurements, we identify localized plasmon resonances of gold nanodots and measure their dependence on dot size and substrate type. We demonstrate that arrays of Au nanopillars can support narrow collective plasmon resonances coupled to in-plane and out-of-plane localized plasmon resonances. The spectral positions of these plasmon modes are extracted from the angular dependence of the transmission and reflection spectra for two beam polarizations. We show that nanoarrays exhibit dramatically different optical response on conductive and nonconductive substrates and study its angular dependence. The optical response of nanoarrays is described well by coupled dipole approximation. The procedure for extracting optical constants of metamaterials based on ellipsometry is discussed and applied to our samples resulting in a calculated negative index of refraction for double-dot arrays at green light.

  17. Direct spectral imaging of plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time sensing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Spencer T; Rich, Isabel S; Lindquist, Nathan C

    2016-05-06

    Plasmon-enhanced optical transmission through arrays of nano-structured holes has led to the development of a new generation of optical sensors. In this paper, to dramatically simplify the standard optical setups of these sensors, we position the nanoholes, an LED illumination source and a spacer layer directly on top of a CMOS imager chip. Transmitted light diffracts from the nanohole array, spreading into a spectrum over the space of a millimeter to land on the imager as a full spectrum. Our chip is used as a sensor in both a liquid and a gas environment. The spectrum is monitored in real-time and the plasmon-enhanced transmission peaks shift upon exposure to different concentrations of glycerol-in-water solutions or ethanol vapors in nitrogen. While liquids provide good refractive index contrast for sensing, to enhance sensitivity to solvent vapors, we filled the nanoholes with solvatochromic dyes. This on-chip solution circumvents the bulky components (e.g. microscopes, coupling optics, and spectrometers) needed for traditional plasmonic sensing setups, uses the nanohole array as both the sensing surface and a diffraction grating, and maintains good sensitivity. Finally, we show simultaneous sensing from two side-by-side locations, demonstrating potential for multiplexing and lab on a chip integration.

  18. Plasmonic Tipless Pyramid Arrays for Cell Poration.

    PubMed

    Courvoisier, Sébastien; Saklayen, Nabiha; Huber, Marinus; Chen, Jun; Diebold, Eric D; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Mazur, Eric

    2015-07-08

    Improving the efficiency, cell survival, and throughput of methods to modify and control the genetic expression of cells is of great benefit to biology and medicine. We investigate, both computationally and experimentally, a nanostructured substrate made of tipless pyramids for plasmonic-induced transfection. By optimizing the geometrical parameters for an excitation wavelength of 800 nm, we demonstrate a 100-fold intensity enhancement of the electric near field at the cell-substrate contact area, while the low absorption typical for gold is maintained. We demonstrate that such a substrate can induce transient poration of cells by a purely optically induced process.

  19. Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Laurel L; Boyne, Devon; Booksh, Karl S

    2014-04-01

    Nanohole arrays exhibit unique surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics according to hole periodicity, diameter, and excitation wavelength (λ(SPR)). This contribution investigates the SPR characteristics and surface sensitivity of various nanohole arrays with the aim of tuning the parameters for optimal sensing capability. Both the Bragg surface plasmons (SPs) arising from diffraction by the periodic holes and the traditional propagating SPs are characterized with emphasis on sensing capability of the propagating SPs. Several trends in bulk sensitivity and penetration depth were established, and the surface sensitivity was calculated from bulk sensitivity and penetration depth of the SPs for different analyte thicknesses. Increased accuracy and precision in penetration depth values were achieved by incorporating adsorbate effects on substrate permittivity. The optimal nanohole array conditions for highest surface sensitivity were determined (820 nm periodicity, 0.27 diameter/periodicity, and λ(SPR) = 1550 nm), which demonstrated an increase in surface sensitivity for the 10 nm analyte over continuous gold films at their optimal λ(SPR) (1300 nm) and conventional visible λ(SPR) (700 nm).

  20. Design and analysis of subwavelength plasmonic waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillu, Venus; Singh, Shruti; Sinha, Ravindra K.

    2011-10-01

    We examine the propagation of plasmonic TM (Transverse Modes) modes generated in the designed periodic array of silver (Ag) embedded on silicon (Si) substrate. The properties of surface plasmons are tailored by altering the size of Ag nanorods and its periodicity. Conventional waveguides cannot guide electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit of light, which can be overcome by texturing the metal or dielectric surface. In this hybrid design we have textured the interface by placing metallic, Ag nanorods on Si substrate placed over bilayer system of glasses. This provides the missing momentum required, since SPP modes always lay beyond the light line and has shown strong confinement of light. Ag nanorods are structured at nano dimensions to control and manipulate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagation and thus open new possibilities in light matter interaction.

  1. Theoretical analysis of optical conveyor belt with plasmonic nanodisk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhun; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-07-01

    Plasmonic optical trapping allows trapping and manipulation of micro- and even nanometer-sized particles using localized and enhanced electric fields by plasmon resonance in metallic nanostructure. We consider an optical conveyor belt consisting of an array of nanodisks acting as optical tweezers with different sizes to implement a system to trap and manipulate particles through a laser-induced gradient force. An electric field induced and localized at each optical resonator is sensitive to the wavelength and polarization. The maximum electric field is enhanced at resonant wavelength depending on the shape and size of the plasmonic nanostructure used for light localization. By changing the light wavelength and polarization, the position of localized light induced in the disk can be determined and nanoparticles can be moved to a desired location through the variation of resonance conditions without any mechanical forces.

  2. Electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength-hole array excited by an electron beam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenggang; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Yuebao; Zhong, Renbin

    2009-09-01

    This paper explores the physics of the electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength holes array excited by a set of evanescent waves generated by a line charge of electron beam moving parallel to the array. Activated by a uniformly moving line charge, numerous physical phenomena occur such as the diffraction radiation on both sides of the array as well as the electromagnetic penetration or transmission below or above the cut-off through the holes. As a result the subwavelength holes array becomes a radiation array. Making use of the integral equation with relevant Green's functions, an analytical theory for such a radiation system is built up. The results of the numerical calculations based on the theory agree well with that obtained by the computer simulation. The relation among the effective surface plasmon wave, the electromagnetic penetration or transmission of the holes and the diffraction radiation is revealed. The energy dependence of and the influence of the hole thickness on the diffraction radiation and the electromagnetic penetration or transmission are investigated in detail. Therefore, a distinct diffraction radiation phenomenon is discovered.

  3. Gap plasmon resonator arrays for unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zeyu; Yang, Tian

    2016-04-01

    We report the design and experimental realization of a type of miniaturized device for efficient unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Each device consists of an array of evenly spaced gap plasmon resonators with varying dimensions. Particle swarm optimization is used to achieve a theoretical two-dimensional launching efficiency of about 51%, under the normal illumination of a 5-μm waist Gaussian beam at 780 nm. By modifying the wavefront of the SPPs, unidirectional SPPs with focused, Bessel, and Airy profiles are launched and imaged with leakage radiation microscopy.

  4. Gap plasmon resonator arrays for unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Zeyu; Yang, Tian

    2016-04-18

    We report the design and experimental realization of a type of miniaturized device for efficient unidirectional launching and shaping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Each device consists of an array of evenly spaced gap plasmon resonators with varying dimensions. Particle swarm optimization is used to achieve a theoretical two-dimensional launching efficiency of about 51%, under the normal illumination of a 5-μm waist Gaussian beam at 780 nm. By modifying the wavefront of the SPPs, unidirectional SPPs with focused, Bessel, and Airy profiles are launched and imaged with leakage radiation microscopy.

  5. Surface plasmon coupling enhanced dielectric environment sensitivity in a quasi-three-dimensional metallic nanohole array.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Pan, Jian; Zhan, Peng; Zhu, Shining; Ming, Naiben; Wang, Zhenlin; Han, Wenda; Jiang, Xunya; Zi, Jian

    2010-02-15

    An enhanced dielectric environment response is observed in a kind of metallic nanohole arrays which are prepared by metal deposition on a sacrificial two dimensional colloidal crystal template. The periodic metallic structures are composed of interlinked metallic half-shells supported on a planar dielectric substrate. When putting in dielectric matrix of different refractive index, the measured sensitivity of the quasi-three-dimensional metallic nanohole array can reach a value of 1192 nm per refractive index unit which shows a five-fold increase as compared with the metallic structures supported on the template. The observed boost in sensitivity is found to originate from a substantially reduced substrate effect, resulting in a pronounced surface plasmon coupling of which its strength is independent of the dielectric environment, a characteristics absent in conventional planar metallic subwavelength hole arrays. These findings are analyzed theoretically and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  6. MIRW properties of cylindrical holes array nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chunchao; Fu, Yuegang; Dong, Tingting; Zhou, Jianhong; Guo, Xudong

    2017-03-01

    To improve mediate infrared wavelength (MIRW) light energy transferring efficiency, the optical properties of antireflection micro/nanostructure with cylindrical holes periodic array on incident angle, wavelength, polarized angle and azimuth orientation was researched based on finite time-domain difference (FDTD) method. Results shows that the antireflection characteristics can be promised in wider spectral range and lager incident angles. Reflectivity function also presents different features as polarization and azimuth angles changed. These structure parameters were optimized to be period of 1 µm, duty cycle of 0.85 and erosion height of 0.5 µm. Samples of the structure were fabricated by electron beam exposure and reaction ion etch technology on silicon substrate. Finally, the diverse shape effect of bionic moth-eye was explored to give respective ideal parameters suitable for MIRW.

  7. Highly tunable plasmonic nanoring arrays for nanoparticle manipulation and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergides, M.; Truong, V. G.; Chormaic, S. Nic

    2016-09-01

    The advancement of trapping and detection of nano-objects at very low laser powers in the near-infra-red region (NIR) is crucial for many applications. Singular visible-light nano-optics based on abrupt phase changes have recently demonstrated a significant improvement in molecule detection. Here, we propose and demonstrate tunable plasmonic nanodevices, which can improve both the trapping field enhancement and detection of nano-objects using singular phase drops in the NIR range. The plasmonic nanostructures, which consist of gaps with dimensions 50 nm × 50 nm connecting nanorings in arrays is discussed. These gaps act as individual detection and trapping sites. The tunability of the system is evident from extinction and reflection spectra while increasing the aperture size in the arrays. Additionally, in the region where the plasmonic nano-array exhibits topologically-protected, near-zero reflection behaviour, the phase displays a rapid change. Our experimental data predict that, using this abrupt phase changes, one can improve the detection sensitivity by 10 times compared to the extinction spectra method. We finally report experimental evidence of 100 nm polystyrene beads trapping using low incident power on these devices. The overall design demonstrates strong capability as an optical, label-free, non-destructive tool for single molecule manipulation where low trapping intensity, minimal photo bleaching and high sensitivity is required.

  8. Plasmonic resonances in optomagnetic metamaterials based on double dot arrays.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Vasyl G; Schedin, Fred; Taylor, Shaun; Viita, David; Grigorenko, Alexander N

    2010-05-10

    We study optical properties of optomagnetic metamaterials produced by regular arrays of double gold dots (nanopillars). Using combined data of spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission and reflection measurements, we identify localized plasmon resonances of a nanopillar pair and measure their dependences on dot sizes. We formulate the necessary condition at which an effective field theory can be applied to describe optical properties of a composite medium and employ interferometry to measure phase shifts for our samples. A negative phase shift for transmitted green light coupled to an antisymmetric magnetic mode of a double-dot array is observed. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  9. High-performance biosensing using arrays of plasmonic nanotubes.

    PubMed

    McPhillips, John; Murphy, Antony; Jonsson, Magnus P; Hendren, William R; Atkinson, Ronald; Höök, Fredrik; Zayats, Anatoly V; Pollard, Robert J

    2010-04-27

    We show that aligned gold nanotube arrays capable of supporting plasmonic resonances can be used as high performance refractive index sensors in biomolecular binding reactions. A methodology to examine the sensing ability of the inside and outside walls of the nanotube structures is presented. The sensitivity of the plasmonic nanotubes is found to increase as the nanotube walls are exposed, and the sensing characteristic of the inside and outside walls is shown to be different. Finite element simulations showed good qualitative agreement with the observed behavior. Free standing gold nanotubes displayed bulk sensitivities in the region of 250 nm per refractive index unit and a signal-to-noise ratio better than 1000 upon protein binding which is highly competitive with state-of-the-art label-free sensors.

  10. Plasmon-Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with Size-Controllable Gold Nanodot Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, HJ; Lee, SH; Upadhye, AA; Ro, I; Tejedor-Tejedor, MI; Anderson, MA; Kim, WB; Huber, GW

    2014-10-01

    Size-controllable Au nanodot arrays (50, 63, and 83 nm dot size) with a narrow size distribution (+/- 5%) were prepared by a direct contact printing method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Titania was added to the Au nanodots using TiO2 sols of 2-3 nm in size. This created a precisely controlled Au nanodot with 110 nm of TiO2 overcoats. Using these precisely controlled nanodot arrays, the effects of Au nanodot size and TiO2 overcoats were investigated for photoelectrochemical water splitting using a three-electrode system with a fiber-optic visible light source. From UV-vis measurement, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak energy (ELSPR) increased and the LSPR line width (G) decreased with decreasing Au nanodot size. The generated plasmonic enhancement for the photoelectrochemical water splitting reaction increased with decreasing Au particle size. The measured plasmonic enhancement for light on/off experiments was 25 times for the 50 nm Au size and 10 times for the 83 nm Au nanodot size. The activity of each catalyst increased by a factor of 6 when TiO2 was added to the Au nanodots for all the samples. The activity of the catalyst was proportional to the quality factor (defined as Q = E-LSPR/Gamma) of the plasmonic metal nanostructure. The enhanced water splitting performance with the decreased Au nanodot size is probably due to more generated charge carriers (electron/hole pair) by local field enhancement as the quality factor increases.

  11. Plasmonic photovoltaics: near-field of a metal nanowire array on the interface for solar cell efficiency enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitruk, N. L.; Korovin, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of the main principles of plasmonic photovoltaics relative to the enhancement of the efficiency of solar cells (SCs) by means of light trapping in a thin film SC is considered in this paper. Theoretical analysis and corresponding numerical calculations of the transmittance into a semiconductor base enhancement due to light trapping via the excitation of local (surface) plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons in a periodic metal nanowire array have been performed. The calculations have been performed for rectangular cross-section metal nanowires by the differential formalism method using the covariant form of Maxwell’s equations in a curvilinear coordinate system. Local distributions of the electric field in plasmonic nanostructures are calculated for metal nanowires in both s- and p-polarization of incident light. Then both the light transmittance in the near- and far-field (wave) zones and the local generation rate of electron-hole pairs have been calculated using the spatial distribution of the Poynting vector. Angular/spectral distributions of transmittance and position/spectral distributions of the generation rate in the near-field zone have complicated the non-homogeneous character due to the excitation of surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons. It has been shown that the main highly enhanced near-field generation is localized in the so-called hot points on the nanoparticles/nanowires surface. The planar-averaged generation rate for the p-polarization of light has a near-field component, which is always more for a Si base (indirect bandgap semiconductor) than for GaAs (direct bandgap one). This plasmonic effect can be used for the base thicknesses down up to 100-150 nm due to light scattering and the surface plasmon enhancement of near-fields. These plasmon-carrying metal nanowires can be used as a current grid in an SC too.

  12. Fabrication of 250-nm-hole arrays in glass and fused silica by UV laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, R.; Gödecke, A.; Prießner, A.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-09-01

    Parallel nanohole drilling in glass using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) is demonstrated. For the first time, hole arrays with 500 nm pitch and individual holes with 250 nm diameter and more than 100 nm depth are fabricated by phase mask imaging using a Schwarzschild objective. Holes in soda lime glass are drilled by direct ablation; fused silica is processed by depositing a SiOx-film on SiO2, patterning the SiOx by ablation, and finally oxidizing the remaining SiOx to SiO2. Thermally induced ordered dewetting of noble metal films deposited on such templates may be used for the fabrication of plasmonic devices.

  13. Fabrication of doubly resonant plasmonic nanopatch arrays on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Stomeo, T.; Bianco, G. V.; Vincenti, M. A.; de Ceglia, D.; Petruzzelli, V.; Bruno, G.; De Vittorio, M.; Scalora, M.; D'Orazio, A.

    2013-06-01

    We report theoretical and experimental investigations of the optical response of two-dimensional periodic arrays of rectangular gold nanopatches grown on a monolayer graphene placed on a glass substrate. We discuss the numerical analysis and optical characterization by means of reflection spectra and show that rectangular nanopatches display a polarization-dependent response, at normal incidence, which leads to double plasmonic resonances due to the Wood anomaly. We detail the fabrication process highlighting how the resist primer and the adhesion layer can reduce and impede the graphene doping due to the environment and to the nanopatches, respectively, by means of Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Development of a mass-producible on-chip plasmonic nanohole array biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Kohei; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Nishida, Munehiro

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a polymer film based plasmonic device whose optical properties are tuned for measuring biological samples. The device has a circular nanohole array structure fabricated with a nanoimprint technique using a UV curable polymer, and then gold thin film is deposited by electron beam deposition. Therefore, the device is mass-producible, which is also very important for bioaffinity sensors. First the gold film thickness and hole depth were optimized to obtain the maximum dip shift for the reflection spectra. The dip shift is equivalent to the sensitivity to refractive index changes at the plasmonic device surface. We also calculated the variation in reflection spectra by changing the above conditions using the finite-difference time domain method, and we obtained agreement between the theoretical and experimental curves. The nanohole periodicity was adjusted from 400 to 900 nm to make it possible to perform measurements in the visible wavelength region to measure the aqueous samples with less optical absorption. The tuned bottom filled gold nanohole array was incorporated in a microfluidic device covered with a PDMS based microchannel that was 2 mm wide and 20 μm deep. As a proof of concept, the device was used to detect TNF-α by employing a direct immunochemical reaction on the plasmonic array, and a detection limit of 21 ng mL-1 was obtained by amplification with colloidal gold labeling instead of enzymatic amplification.We have developed a polymer film based plasmonic device whose optical properties are tuned for measuring biological samples. The device has a circular nanohole array structure fabricated with a nanoimprint technique using a UV curable polymer, and then gold thin film is deposited by electron beam deposition. Therefore, the device is mass-producible, which is also very important for bioaffinity sensors. First the gold film thickness and hole depth were optimized to obtain the maximum dip shift for the reflection spectra. The dip

  15. Dielectrophoresis-Enhanced Plasmonic Sensing with Gold Nanohole Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate dielectrophoretic concentration of biological analytes on the surface of a gold nanohole array, which concurrently acts as a nanoplasmonic sensor and gradient force generator. The combination of nanohole-enhanced dielectrophoresis, electroosmosis, and extraordinary optical transmission through the periodic gold nanohole array enables real-time label-free detection of analyte molecules in a 5 μL droplet using concentrations as low as 1 pM within a few minutes, which is more than 1000 times faster than purely diffusion-based binding. The nanohole-based optofluidic platform demonstrated here is straightforward to construct, applicable to both charged and neutral molecules, and performs a novel function that cannot be accomplished using conventional surface plasmon resonance sensors. PMID:24646075

  16. Preparation and Surface Plasmon Resonance of Copper Nanocap Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gui-Na; Man, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Li; Feng, Yan-Xiao

    Copper nanocap arrays, consisting of a SiO2 core with a Cu cap, were prepared by chemical synthesis combined with physical evaporation technique. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrophotometer. The copper nanocap arrays were found to exhibit tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peaks that were red-shifted as the ratio of the SiO2 core diameter to the Cu cap thickness increased. While the cap thickness varied between 20 nm and 50 nm, the SPR peak shifted from 1650 nm to 1230 nm. While the core diameter varied between 140 nm and 400 nm, the longitudinal SPR peak shifted from 1243 nm to 1830 nm.

  17. Optical filtering properties of subwavelength Tai-chi-shaped metal hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlin; Liu, Hui; Luo, Hu; Zhu, Weihua; Chen, Zhiyong; Liu, Jun; Guo, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to study the optical properties of a novel kind of periodic subwavelength hole arrays composed of Tai-chi-shaped holes in silver film, and the optical transmission properties of femtosecond optical pulse excitation is numerically calculated. We find that this Tai-chi-shaped device has better optical band-pass filtering properties, such as narrower pass band and higher transmissivity in visible wavelengths range, than other devices under consideration. Based on the generation of surface plasmons resonance mode in the dielectric-metal interface, the center wavelength of transmission can be tuned by changing the array periodicities. We observe that the tune ability mainly depends on the space period along the direction parallel to that of the incident pulse polarization. It is also found that both the strength and the wavelength of the transmission peaks of rectangularly distributed metal hole arrays are determined by the polarization of incident light. Additionally, we demonstrate the typical band-pass filtering properties of this Tai-Chi-shaped holes structure. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the narrow pass band is about 20 nm in visible wavelengths range.

  18. Tunneling spectroscopy of hole plasmons in a valence-band quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, B.R.; Foster, T.J.; Eaves, L.; Main, P.C.; Henini, M.; Fisher, D.J.; Lerch, M.L.; Martin, A.D.; Zhang, C.

    1996-10-01

    We investigate the current-voltage characteristics of a {ital p}-doped resonant tunneling diode. In the voltage range slightly above the bias corresponding to resonant tunneling of holes into the first light-hole subband of the quantum well, we observe two satellite peaks which we attribute to plasmon-assisted tunneling transitions. A theoretical model is presented to account for these peaks. The model is based on the excitation of intrasubband and intersubband heavy-hole plasmons in the quantum well by hot holes injected close to the energy of the first light-hole subband. We also study the behavior of the satellites when a magnetic field is applied either parallel to or perpendicular to the current. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. All-plasmonic Optical Phased Array Integrated on a Thin-film Platform.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuan-Song; Qu, Shi-Wei; Chen, Bao-Jie; Chan, Chi Hou

    2017-08-30

    Optical phased arrays have been demonstrated to enable a variety of applications ranging from high-speed on-chip communications to vertical surface emitting lasers. Despite the prosperities of the researches on optical phased arrays, presently, the reported designs of optical phased arrays are based on silicon photonics while plasmonic-based optical phased arrays have not been demonstrated yet. In this paper, a passive plasmonic optical phased array is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The beam of the proposed plasmonic optical phased array is steerable in the far-field area and a high directivity can be achieved. In addition, radio frequency phased array theory is demonstrated to be applicable to the description of the coupling conditions of the delocalized surface plasmons in optical phased arrays and thus the gap between the phased arrays at two distinctly different wavelengths can be bridged. The potential applications of the proposed plasmonic phased arrays include on-chip optical wireless nanolinks, optical interconnections and integrated plasmonic lasers.

  20. Plasmon resonances in a stacked pair of graphene ribbon arrays with a lateral displacement.

    PubMed

    He, Meng-Dong; Zhang, Gui; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Li, Jian-Bo; Wang, Xin-Jun; Huang, Zhen-Rong; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-03-24

    We find that a stacked pair of graphene ribbon arrays with a lateral displacement can excite plasmon waveguide mode in the gap between ribbons, as well as surface plasmon mode on graphene ribbon surface. When the resonance wavelengthes of plasmon waveguide mode and surface plasmon mode are close to each other, there is a strong electromagnetic interaction between the two modes, and then they contribute together to transmission dip. The plasmon waveguide mode resonance can be manipulated by the lateral displacement and longitudinal interval between arrays due to their influence on the manner and strength of electromagnetic coupling between two arrays. The findings expand our understanding of electromagnetic resonances in graphene-ribbon array structure and may affect further engineering of nanoplasmonic devices and metamaterials.

  1. Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dallapiccola, Ramona; Gopinath, Ashwin; Stellacci, Francesco; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-04-14

    In this paper we investigate for the first time the near-field optical behavior of two-dimensional Fibonacci plasmonic lattices fabricated by electron-beam lithography on transparent quartz substrates. In particular, by performing near-field optical microscopy measurements and three dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain simulations we demonstrate that near-field coupling of nanoparticle dimers in Fibonacci arrays results in a quasi-periodic lattice of localized nanoparticle plasmons. The possibility to accurately predict the spatial distribution of enhanced localized plasmon modes in quasi-periodic Fibonacci arrays can have a significant impact for the design and fabrication of novel nano-plasmonics devices.

  2. Enhanced optical transmission through sub-wavelength centered-polygonal hole arrays in silver thin film on silica substrate.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Hesam Edin; Park, Minkyu; Pournoury, Marzieh; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2011-04-25

    We numerically investigated the enhanced optical transmission through sub-wavelength centered-polygonal hole arrays (CPHA) in a thin Ag film deposited on the silica substrate. In octagonal and decagonal-CPHAs, we observed new hybrid transmission characteristics that were inherited from both crystalline and quasi-crystalline hole arrays. This peculiar nature was attributed to the unique arrangement of CPHAs which can be covered with copies of a single unit cell as in crystalline arrays, and their rotational symmetry as observed in quasi-crystalline arrays. Hybrid natures in CPHAs were further investigated in the transmission spectra and Fourier space representations of the arrays. Contributions from the nearest neighbor hole-to-hole distance to enhanced transmission were analyzed in order to quantify the plasmonic contributions from the Air/Ag interface and Silica/Ag interface. We also investigated the impact of layer structure, Air/Ag/Air versus Air/Ag/Silica in the transmissions and found that in CPHAs in Air/Ag/Silica structures, contributions from the Air/Ag interface became dominant in contrast to crystalline hole arrays with lower fold symmetry.

  3. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  4. Study of flow rate induced measurement error in flow-through nano-hole plasmonic sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Long; Huang, Liang; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through gold film perforated with periodically arrayed sub-wavelength nano-holes can cause extraordinary optical transmission (EOT), which has recently emerged as a label-free surface plasmon resonance sensor in biochemical detection by measuring the transmission spectral shift. This paper describes a systematic study of the effect of microfluidic field on the spectrum of EOT associated with the porous gold film. To detect biochemical molecules, the sub-micron-thick film is free-standing in a microfluidic field and thus subject to hydrodynamic deformation. The film deformation alone may cause spectral shift as measurement error, which is coupled with the spectral shift as real signal associated with the molecules. However, this microfluid-induced measurement error has long been overlooked in the field and needs to be identified in order to improve the measurement accuracy. Therefore, we have conducted simulation and analytic analysis to investigate how the microfluidic flow rate affects the EOT spectrum and verified the effect through experiment with a sandwiched device combining Au/Cr/Si3N4 nano-hole film and polydimethylsiloxane microchannels. We found significant spectral blue shift associated with even small flow rates, for example, 12.60 nm for 4.2 μl/min. This measurement error corresponds to 90 times the optical resolution of the current state-of-the-art commercially available spectrometer or 8400 times the limit of detection. This really severe measurement error suggests that we should pay attention to the microfluidic parameter setting for EOT-based flow-through nano-hole sensors and adopt right scheme to improve the measurement accuracy. PMID:26649131

  5. Dye gain gold NW array of surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Xu, Wenju; Fu, Deli; Wei, Duqu

    Plasmon lasers can support ultrasmall mode confinement and ultrafast dynamics with device feature sizes below the diffraction limit. At present in the single visible light frequency, the optical gain method of constraint SPP on metal nanowires structure reported less. We design the gold nanowire array structure, consisting of PMMA and R6G dye molecules as gain, by 488 nm pump in the middle of the nanowires position for wide range of light, use symmetry broken overcome that momentum does not match the photonic and SPP energy conversion. Theoretical analysis shows that dyes provide coherent optical feedback, resulting in nanowires face will observe laser properties of surface plasmons. Feature analysis: the incident light and pump joint strength is greater than the sum of strength which is the incident light, pump respectively. Under the effect of dye molecules gain effective, length of SPP transmission can increase 1 μm. The results achieved in a single optical frequency of stimulated radiation, application of dye optical gain can achieve continuous gain effect. This is for the future development of plasma amplifier and the wavelength laser.

  6. Optical properties of Ag nanoparticle arrays: Tuning the plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Drew, H. D.; Guo, S. H.; Phaneuf, R.

    2006-03-01

    Potential applications in the optical spectral range of meta-materials displaying negative permittivity and negative permeability has driven recent interest in nanostructured materials. Electromagnetic radiation incident on metallic nanoparticles induces a collective electronic excitation, or plasmon, which results in a detectable optical resonance. We report polarization-dependent transmission measurements of Ag nanoparticle arrays in the near-infrared to visible frequency range. E-beam lithography patterns arrays of nanoparticles from Ag deposited on transparent ITO-glass substrates. The array grid spacing is several hundred nanometers and the nanoparticle thickness and width are approximately 75,m. We vary the length to provide an in-plane aspect ratio (length to width) from 1,,to 4,,. The resonance shifts to lower (higher) energy with increasing aspect ratio for polarizations parallel to the long (short) axis. This work demonstrates the ability to tune optical resonance energies and widths in nanostructured materials with quality factors Q exceeding 10. Additionally, we discuss the effects of radiation damping, carrier scattering, and inhomogeneous broadening on the resonance widths.

  7. Nonlinear Surface Lattice Resonance in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Lior; Keren-Zur, Shay; Avayu, Ori; Suchowski, Haim; Ellenbogen, Tal

    2017-06-01

    We study experimentally second-harmonic generation from arrays of split-ring resonators at oblique incidence and find conditions of more than 30-fold enhancement of the emitted second harmonic with respect to normal incidence. We show that these conditions agree well with a nonlinear Rayleigh-Wood anomaly relation and the existence of a surface lattice resonance at the second harmonic. The existence of a nonlinear surface lattice resonance is theoretically confirmed by extending the coupled dipole approximation to the nonlinear case. We further show that the localized surface plasmon modes that collectively contribute to the surface lattice resonance are inherently dark modes that become highly bright due to the collective interaction.

  8. Using a Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition to Control Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Donev, E. U.; Suh, J. Y.; Lopez, R.; ...

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less

  9. Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy using metal oxide plasmonic antenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Abb, Martina; Wang, Yudong; Papasimakis, Nikitas; de Groot, C H; Muskens, Otto L

    2014-01-08

    We successfully demonstrate surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy using arrays of indium tin oxide (ITO) plasmonic nanoantennas. The ITO antennas show a strongly reduced plasmon wavelength, which holds promise for ultracompact antenna arrays and extremely subwavelength metamaterials. The strong plasmon confinement and reduced antenna cross section allows ITO antennas to be integrated at extremely high densities with no loss in performance due to long-range transverse interactions. By further reducing the spacing of antennas in the arrays, we access the regime of plasmonic near field coupling where the response is enhanced for both Au and ITO devices. Ultracompact ITO antennas with high spatial and spectral selectivity in spectroscopic applications offer a viable new platform for infrared plasmonics, which may be combined with other functionalities of these versatile materials in devices.

  10. Flux avalanches in superconducting films with periodic arrays of holes.

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; Metlushko, V.; Crabtree, G. W.; Materials Science Division; Inst. of Solid State Physics RAS

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic flux dynamics in Nb films with periodic hole arrays is studied magneto-optically. Flux motion in the shape of microavalanches along {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} directions of the hole lattice is observed. At lower temperatures anisotropic large scale thermo-magnetic avalanches dominate flux entry and exit. At T-T{sub c} critical-state-like field patterns periodically appear at fractions of the matching field.

  11. Surface-plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of quantum dots based on open-ring nanostructure array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Liu, Ye; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of quantum dots (QD) in visible range using plasmonic nanostructures has potential to advance several photonic applications. The enhancement effect is, however, limited by the light coupling efficiency to the nanostructures. Here we demonstrate experimentally a new open-ring nanostructure (ORN) array 100 nm engraved into a 200 nm thick silver thin film to maximize light absorption and, hence, PL enhancement at a broadband spectral range. The structure is different from the traditional isolated or through-hole split-ring structures. Theoretical calculations based on FDTD method show that the absorption peak wavelength can be adjusted by their period and dimension. A broadband absorption of about 60% was measured at the peak wavelength of 550 nm. The emission spectrum of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots was chosen to match the absorption band of the ORN array to enhance its PL. The engraved silver ORN array was fabricated on a silver thin film deposited on a silicon substrate using focus ion beam (FIB) patterning. The device was characterized by using a thin layer of QD water dispersion formed between the ORN substrate and a cover glass. The experimental results show the enhanced PL for the QD with emission spectrum overlapping the absorption band of ORN substrate and quantum efficiency increases from 50% to 70%. The ORN silver substrate with high absorption over a broadband spectrum enables the PL enhancement and will benefit applications in biosensing, wavelength tunable filters, and imaging.

  12. Sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores: The hole story.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Andreas B

    2015-07-21

    A review of sensing applications based on plasmonic nanopores is given. Many new types of plasmonic nanopores have recently been fabricated, including pores penetrating multilayers of thin films, using a great variety of fabrication techniques based on either serial nanolithography or self-assembly. One unique advantage with nanopores compared to other plasmonic sensors is that sample liquids can flow through the surface, which increases the rate of binding and improves the detection limit under certain conditions. Also, by utilizing the continuous metal films, electrical control can be implemented for electrochemistry, dielectrophoresis and resistive heating. Much effort is still spent on trying to improve sensor performance in various ways, but the literature uses inconsistent benchmark parameters. Recently plasmonic nanopores have been used to analyse targets of high clinical or academic interest. Although this is an important step forward, one should probably reflect upon whether the same results could have been achieved with another optical technique. Overall, this critical review suggests that the research field would benefit by focusing on applications where plasmonic nanopores truly can offer unique advantages over similar techniques.

  13. Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Nathan C; Lesuffleur, Antoine; Im, Hyungsoon; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2009-02-07

    We present nanohole arrays in thin gold films as sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging pixels in a microarray format. With SPR imaging, the resolution is not limited by diffraction, but by the propagation of surface plasmon waves to adjacent sensing areas, or nanohole arrays, causing unwanted interference. For ultimate scalability, several issues need to be addressed, including: (1) as several nanohole arrays are brought close to each other, surface plasmon interference introduces large sources of error; and (2) as the size of the nanohole array is reduced, i.e. fewer holes, detection sensitivity suffers. To address these scalability issues, we surround each biosensing pixel (a 3-by-3 nanohole array) with plasmonic Bragg mirrors, blocking interference between adjacent SPR sensing pixels for high-density packing, while maintaining the sensitivity of a 50 x larger footprint pixel (a 16-by-16 nanohole array). We measure real-time, label-free streptavidin-biotin binding kinetics with a microarray of 600 sub-micron biosensing pixels at a packing density of more than 10(7) per cm(2).

  14. Multiple plasmonic-photonic couplings in the Au nanobeaker arrays: enhanced robustness and wavelength tunability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-05-01

    Diffractive coupling in the plasmonic nanoparticle arrays introduces the collective plasmon resonances with high scattering efficiency and narrow linewidth. However, the collective plasmon resonances can be suppressed when the arrays are supported on the solid-state substrates with different superstrates because of the different dispersion relations between the substrate and the superstrate. Herein, we develop a general concept which seeks to synergize the subnanoparticle engineering of "hot spots" with the far-field coupling behavior, for the versatile control of plasmonic-photonic couplings in an asymmetric environment. To demonstrate our concept, we choose as an example the Au nanobeaker arrays (NBAs), which are the conformally coated Au thin layers on the interior sidewalls and bottoms of nanohole arrays in SiO2 substrates. Using the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we show that engineering the plasmonic "hot spots" in the NBAs by simply controlling the depth-to-diameter aspect ratio of individual units enables multiple plasmonic-photonic couplings in an asymmetric environment. These couplings are robust with a wide range of resonance wavelengths from visible to infrared. Furthermore, the angle-dependent transmission spectra of the arrays reveal a transition from band-edge to propagating state for the orthogonal coupling and a splitting of diffraction waves in the parallel coupling. The proposed NBAs will find enhanced applications in plasmonic lasers and biosensing.

  15. Multiscale Study of Plasmonic Scattering and Light Trapping Effect in Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung

    2017-02-02

    Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. The effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetic (EM) and quantum mechanical simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations, while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically. We found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device is substantially improved due to the local field enhancement of the plasmonic effect and light trapping by the nanowire array. In addition, we showed that there exists an optimal nanowire number density in terms of optical confinement and solar cell PCE.

  16. Enhanced millimeter-wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Beruete, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I; Dolado, J S; Martín-Moreno, L; Bravo-Abad, J; García-Vidal, F J

    2004-11-01

    We explore, both experimentally and theoretically, the existence in the millimeter-wave range of the phenomenon of extraordinary light transmission through arrays of subwavelength holes. We have measured the transmission spectra of several samples made on aluminum wafers by use of an AB Millimetre quasi-optical vector network analyzer in the wavelength range 4.2-6.5 mm. Clear signals of the existence of resonant light transmission at wavelengths close to the period of the array appear in the spectra.

  17. PIT-like effect with high directivity in hybrid plasmonic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yong; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Douguo; Ming, Hai

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the existence of plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) like spectral response in a hybrid system of plasmonic antenna array coupled with dielectric silicon array. After tuning the period of the silicon array, different resonant wavelength with high quality factor (range from 50 to 400) can be achieved. When the subradiant resonator (dielectric array) get close to the superradiant resonator (metallic nanoantenna array), a peak of PIT comes into emerging between the two asymmetric resonant dips. Meanwhile, the far-field emission pattern of the PIT peak was also observed with a highly directivity that was neatly two times than a same period of plasmonic Au array and the backward scattering was obviously suppressed. Our works provide productive insight into the light manipulation with near-field electromagnetic coupling.

  18. Plasmon enhanced broadband optical absorption in ultrathin silicon nanobowl array for photoactive devices applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rui-Nan; Peng, Kui-Qing Hu, Bo; Hu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-07-06

    Both photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are key optical components of photoactive devices for light harvesting, enabling solar cells with significant thickness reduction, and light detectors capable of detecting photons with sub-band gap energies. In this work, we study the plasmon enhanced broadband light absorption and electrical properties of silicon nanobowl (SiNB) arrays. The SiNB-metal photonic-plasmonic nanostructure-based devices exhibited superior light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to the infrared regime well below the band edge of Si due to effective optical coupling between the SiNB array and incident sunlight, as well as electric field intensity enhancement around metal nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The photonic-plasmonic nanostructure is expected to result in infrared-light detectors and high-efficiency solar cells by extending light-harvesting to infrared frequencies.

  19. Plasmon enhanced broadband optical absorption in ultrathin silicon nanobowl array for photoactive devices applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rui-Nan; Peng, Kui-Qing; Hu, Bo; Hu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-07-01

    Both photonic and plasmonic nanostructures are key optical components of photoactive devices for light harvesting, enabling solar cells with significant thickness reduction, and light detectors capable of detecting photons with sub-band gap energies. In this work, we study the plasmon enhanced broadband light absorption and electrical properties of silicon nanobowl (SiNB) arrays. The SiNB-metal photonic-plasmonic nanostructure-based devices exhibited superior light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to the infrared regime well below the band edge of Si due to effective optical coupling between the SiNB array and incident sunlight, as well as electric field intensity enhancement around metal nanoparticles due to localized surface plasmon resonance. The photonic-plasmonic nanostructure is expected to result in infrared-light detectors and high-efficiency solar cells by extending light-harvesting to infrared frequencies.

  20. Laser-ablative engineering of phase singularities in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Kabashin, Andrei V.; Zywietz, Urs; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.; Reinhardt, Carsten; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2014-02-17

    By using methods of laser-induced transfer combined with nanoparticle lithography, we design and fabricate large-area gold nanoparticle-based metamaterial arrays exhibiting extreme Heaviside-like phase jumps in reflected light due to a strong diffractive coupling of localized plasmons. When employed in sensing schemes, these phase singularities provide the sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 4} deg. of phase shift per refractive index unit change that is comparable with best values reported for plasmonic biosensors. The implementation of sensor platforms on the basis of such metamaterial arrays promises a drastic improvement of sensitivity and cost efficiency of plasmonic biosensing devices.

  1. Strong modulation of plasmons in Graphene with the use of an Inverted pyramid array diffraction grating

    PubMed Central

    Matthaiakakis, N.; Mizuta, H.; Charlton, M. D. B.

    2016-01-01

    An optical device configuration allowing efficient electrical tuning of surface plasmon wavelength and absorption in a suspended/conformal graphene film is reported. An underlying 2-dimensional array of inverted rectangular pyramids greatly enhances optical coupling to the graphene film. In contrast to devices utilising 1D grating or Kretchman prism coupling configurations, both s and p polarization can excite plasmons due to symmetry of the grating structure. Additionally, the excited high frequency plasmon mode has a wavelength independent of incident photon angle allowing multidirectional coupling. By combining analytical methods with Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis, absorption of plasmons is mapped over near infrared spectral range as a function of chemical potential. Strong control over both plasmon wavelength and strength is provided by an ionic gel gate configuration. 0.04eV change in chemical potential increases plasmon energy by 0.05 eV shifting plasmon wavelength towards the visible, and providing enhancement in plasmon absorption. Most importantly, plasmon excitation can be dynamically switched off by lowering the chemical potential and moving from the intra-band to the inter-band transition region. Ability to electrically tune plasmon properties can be utilized in applications such as on-chip light modulation, photonic logic gates, optical interconnect and sensing applications. PMID:27278301

  2. Plasmonic electric near-field enhancement in self-organized gold nanoparticles in macroscopic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondes, V.; Antonsson, E.; Plenge, J.; Raschpichler, C.; Halfpap, I.; Menski, A.; Graf, C.; Kling, M. F.; Rühl, E.

    2016-06-01

    When plasmonic nanoparticles are incorporated into nanostructures and they are exposed to external optical fields, plasmonic coupling causes electric near-field enhancement which is significantly larger than that of isolated nanoparticles. We report on the plasmonic coupling in arrays of gold nanospheres (20 ± 3 and 50 ± 4 nm) prepared by colloidal chemistry and self-organization. This yields field enhancement in arrays with areas of several mm2 and provides an alternative approach to lithographic methods for preparation of nanostructures for plasmonic applications. Gold nanospheres are surface-functionalized by organic ligands, which define the interparticle distance in the array upon self-organization of the nanoparticles. The experiments are accompanied by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which quantify the dependence of the field enhancement on the interparticle distance.

  3. Angular plasmon response of gold nanoparticles arrays: approaching the Rayleigh limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marae-Djouda, Joseph; Caputo, Roberto; Mahi, Nabil; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The regular arrangement of metal nanoparticles influences their plasmonic behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that the coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes can give rise to extremely narrow plasmon resonances. This is the case when the single-particle localized surface plasmon resonance (λLSP) is very close in value to the Rayleigh anomaly wavelength (λRA) of the nanoparticles array. In this paper, we performed angle-resolved extinction measurements on a 2D array of gold nano-cylinders designed to fulfil the condition λRA<λLSP. Varying the angle of excitation offers a unique possibility to finely modify the value of λRA, thus gradually approaching the condition of coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes. The experimental observation of a collective dipolar resonance has been interpreted by exploiting a simplified model based on the coupling of evanescent diffracted waves with plasmon modes. Among other plasmon modes, the measurement technique has also evidenced and allowed the study of a vertical plasmon mode, only visible in TM polarization at off-normal excitation incidence. The results of numerical simulations, based on the periodic Green's tensor formalism, match well with the experimental transmission spectra and show fine details that could go unnoticed by considering only experimental data.

  4. Angular plasmon response of gold nanoparticles arrays: approaching the Rayleigh limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marae-Djouda, Joseph; Caputo, Roberto; Mahi, Nabil; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The regular arrangement of metal nanoparticles influences their plasmonic behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that the coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes can give rise to extremely narrow plasmon resonances. This is the case when the single-particle localized surface plasmon resonance (λLSP) is very close in value to the Rayleigh anomaly wavelength (λRA) of the nanoparticles array. In this paper, we performed angle-resolved extinction measurements on a 2D array of gold nano-cylinders designed to fulfil the condition λRA<λLSP. Varying the angle of excitation offers a unique possibility to finely modify the value of λRA, thus gradually approaching the condition of coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes. The experimental observation of a collective dipolar resonance has been interpreted by exploiting a simplified model based on the coupling of evanescent diffracted waves with plasmon modes. Among other plasmon modes, the measurement technique has also evidenced and allowed the study of a vertical plasmon mode, only visible in TM polarization at off-normal excitation incidence. The results of numerical simulations, based on the periodic Green's tensor formalism, match well with the experimental transmission spectra and show fine details that could go unnoticed by considering only experimental data.

  5. Polarization-sensitive linear plasmonic nanostructures via colloidal lithography with uniaxial colloidal arrays.

    PubMed

    Saracut, V; Giloan, M; Gabor, M; Astilean, S; Farcau, C

    2013-02-01

    The ability of metallic nanostructures to support surface plasmon excitations is widely exploited nowadays for developing new technologies and applications in many fields, like communications, medicine or environment. It is known that the plasmonic response of a nanostructure is strongly dependent on its size and shape, and thus a fine control of these features is required for developing applications. In this paper uniaxial colloidal crystal arrays are prepared by convective self-assembly on DVD surfaces. These are then used as template/mask for metal film deposition, in order to obtain two original kinds of metallic nanostructures with controllable morphology: (i) linear arrays of metal half-shells (LAMHSs) and (ii) arrays of periodically serrated plasmonic strips (PSPSs). Angle-resolved optical transmittance measurements reveal the presence of several surface plasmon resonances, while polarized light transmission demonstrates the anisotropic plasmonic response of both LAMHSs and PSPSs. FDTD simulations support the experimental observations and help in the assignments of observed plasmon modes. The proposed linear metallic nanostructures can prove useful for the design of plasmonic components.

  6. Light focusing with tip formed array of plasmon-polariton waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.

    2007-09-01

    We present FDTD simulations of light interaction with two dimensional silver structure made of the tip forming array of channel plasmon-polariton waveguides, that confines light to a small width beam or focus. The flat end of triangle formed plasmon-polariton waveguides array is illuminated with the optical range H-polarized Gaussian beam or plane wave. Light is transported through the structure with plasmon-polariton waves on surface of metal. At sloped planes energy from plasmon-polariton modes is refracted at an angle defined by propagation constants of modes. Propagation constants of excited plasmon-polaritons modes in waveguides array are predicted by semi-analytical calculations. Choosing canal widths, their separation and slop angle, we can couple energy from waveguides array to both free space propagation beams and to surface waves of the whole tip structure, which have propagation constants greater than free space waves. Combined effects of refraction, diffraction on the narrow end of the structure and the plasmon-polaritons like properties of surface waves on the whole structure lead to significant local enhancement of the field, high directivity of the output energy and focusing with resolution below diffraction limit for free space.

  7. Surface plasmon dispersion in hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tenner, V T; de Dood, M J A; van Exter, M P

    2016-12-26

    We present a systematic experimental study on the optical properties of plasmonic crystals (PlC) with hexagonal symmetry. We compare the dispersion and avoided crossings of surface plasmon modes around the Γ-point of Au-metal hole arrays with a hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome lattice. Symmetry arguments and group theory are used to label the six modes and understand their radiative and dispersive properties. Plasmon-plasmon interaction are accurately described by a coupled mode model, that contains effective scattering amplitudes of surface plasmons on a lattice of air holes under 60°, 120°, and 180°. We determine these rates in the experiment and find that they are dominated by the hole-density and not on the complexity of the unit-cell. Our analysis shows that the observed angle-dependent scattering can be explained by a single-hole model based on electric and magnetic dipoles.

  8. Plasmonic Hot Hole Generation by Interband Transition in Gold-Polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Barman, Tapan; Hussain, Amreen A; Sharma, Bikash; Pal, Arup R

    2015-12-10

    Studies on hot carrier science and technology associated with various types of nanostructures are dominating today's nanotechnology research. Here we report a novel synthesis of polyaniline-gold (PAni-Au) nanocomposite thin films with gold nanostructures (AuNs) of desired shape and size uniformly incorporated in the polymer matrix. According to shape as well as size variation of AuNs, two tunable plasmonic UV-Visible absorption bands are observed in each of the nanocomposites. Plasmonic devices are fabricated using PAni-Au nanocomposite having different UV-Visible plasmon absorption bands. However, all the devices show strong photoelectrical responses in the blue region (400-500 nm) of the visible spectrum. The d-band to sp-band (d-sp) transition of electrons in AuNs produces hot holes that are the only carriers in the material responsible for photocurrent generation in the device. This work provides an experimental evidence of novel plasmonic hot hole generation process that was still a prediction.

  9. Plasmonic Hot Hole Generation by Interband Transition in Gold-Polyaniline

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Tapan; Hussain, Amreen A.; Sharma, Bikash; Pal, Arup R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on hot carrier science and technology associated with various types of nanostructures are dominating today’s nanotechnology research. Here we report a novel synthesis of polyaniline-gold (PAni-Au) nanocomposite thin films with gold nanostructures (AuNs) of desired shape and size uniformly incorporated in the polymer matrix. According to shape as well as size variation of AuNs, two tunable plasmonic UV-Visible absorption bands are observed in each of the nanocomposites. Plasmonic devices are fabricated using PAni-Au nanocomposite having different UV-Visible plasmon absorption bands. However, all the devices show strong photoelectrical responses in the blue region (400–500 nm) of the visible spectrum. The d-band to sp-band (d-sp) transition of electrons in AuNs produces hot holes that are the only carriers in the material responsible for photocurrent generation in the device. This work provides an experimental evidence of novel plasmonic hot hole generation process that was still a prediction. PMID:26656664

  10. The facile fabrication of tunable plasmonic gold nanostructure arrays using microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuen-Yuan; Huang, Jing-Wen; Gwo, Shangjr; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of isolated noble metal nanoparticles embedded in transparent substrates is the fasting growing demand for innovative plasmonic technologies. Here we report a simple and effective methodology for the preparation of highly stable plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in a glass surface. Size-controllable (10-70 nm) Au nanoparticles were rapidly prepared when subjected to the home-microwave plasma. Accordingly, the optical extinction maximum of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be systematically tuned in the range 532-586 nm. We find that the plasmonic structures are exceedingly stable toward immersion in ethanol solvents and pass successfully the adhesive tape test, which makes our system highly promising for efficient transmission-LSPR nanosensors. Besides, the attractive features of substrate-bound plasmonic nanostructures include its low cost, versatility, robustness, reusability and a promising ability to make a multi-arrayed LSPR biochip.

  11. Pulsar timing array analysis for black hole backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Sesana, A.

    2013-11-01

    An astrophysical population of supermassive black hole binaries is thought to be the strongest source of gravitational waves in the frequency range covered by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). A potential cause for concern is that the standard cross-correlation method used in PTA data analysis assumes that the signals are isotropically distributed and Gaussian random, while the signals from a black hole population are likely to be anisotropic and deterministic. Here we show that while the conventional analysis is not optimal for detecting signals from black hole binaries, the technique still works as the standard Hellings-Downs correlation curve turns out to hold for point sources. Moreover, the small effective number of signal samples blurs the distinction between Gaussian and deterministic signals. Possible improvements to the standard cross-correlation analysis that account for the anisotropy of the signal are discussed.

  12. Strong coupling in porphyrin J-aggregate excitons and plasmons in nano-void arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdele, Stefano; Jose, Bincy; Foster, Robert; Keyes, Tia E.; Rice, James H.

    2017-10-01

    Active plasmonic nano-void arrays made through colloidal lithography (a cost effective and rapid process) potentially offers opportunities for scalable device design. In this work we demonstrate strong coupling between Bragg-like quadrupole surface plasmon modes in nano-void substrate designs with Frankel excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer though angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of new hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 120 meV.

  13. Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2D semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Wang, Kai; ...

    2016-11-17

    With the advanced progress achieved in the field of nanotechnology, localized surface plasmons resonances (LSPRs) are actively considered to improve the efficiency of metal-based photocatalysis, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Here, we report on the exchange of energy and electric charges in a hybrid composed of a two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayer and an array of aluminum (Al) nanodisks. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy results indicate that within ~830 fs after photoexcitation of the 2D-WS2 semiconductor, energy transfer from the 2D-WS2 excitons excites the plasmons of the Al array. Then, upon the radiative and/or nonradiative damping of these excited plasmons, energy and/or electron transfermore » back to the 2D-WS2 semiconductor takes place as indicated by an increase in the reflected probe at the 2D exciton transition energies at later time-delays. This simultaneous exchange of energy and charges between the metal and the 2D-WS2 semiconductor resulted in an extension of the average lifetime of the 2D-excitons from ~15 to ~58 ps in absence and presence of the Al array, respectively. Furthermore, the indirectly excited plasmons were found to live as long as the 2D-WS2 excitons exist. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to generate exciton-plasmons coupling in a hybrid nanostructure may open new opportunities for optoelectronic applications such as plasmonic-based photodetection and photocatalysis.« less

  14. Control of the plasmonic resonance of a graphene coated plasmonic nanoparticle array combined with a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sio, Luciano; Cataldi, Ugo; Bürgi, Thomas; Tabiryan, Nelson; Bunning, Timothy J.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a switchable plasmonic device based on a conductive graphene oxide (cGO) coated plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) array, layered with nematic liquid crystal (NLC) as an active medium. A monolayer of NPs has been immobilized on a glass substrate through electrostatic interaction, and then grown in place using nanochemistry. This monolayer is then coated with a thin (less then 100nm) cGO film which acts simultaneously as both an electro-conductive and active medium. The combination of the conductive NP array with a separate top cover substrate having both cGO and a standard LC alignment layer is used for aligning a NLC film in a hybrid configuration. The system is analysed in terms of morphological and electro-optical properties. The spectral response of the sample characterized after each element is added (air, cGO, NLC) reveals a red-shift of the localized plasmonic resonance (LPR) frequency of approximately 62nm with respect to the NP array surrounded by air. The application of an external voltage (8Vpp) is suitable to modulate (blue shift) the LPR frequency by approximately 22nm.

  15. Enhanced vibrational spectroscopy, intracellular refractive indexing for label-free biosensing and bioimaging by multiband plasmonic-antenna array.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Chang, Ming-Hsuan; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Lee, Yao-Chang; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-10-15

    In this study, we report a multiband plasmonic-antenna array that bridges optical biosensing and intracellular bioimaging without requiring a labeling process or coupler. First, a compact plasmonic-antenna array is designed exhibiting a bandwidth of several octaves for use in both multi-band plasmonic resonance-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy and refractive index probing. Second, a single-element plasmonic antenna can be used as a multifunctional sensing pixel that enables mapping the distribution of targets in thin films and biological specimens by enhancing the signals of vibrational signatures and sensing the refractive index contrast. Finally, using the fabricated plasmonic-antenna array yielded reliable intracellular observation was demonstrated from the vibrational signatures and intracellular refractive index contrast requiring neither labeling nor a coupler. These unique features enable the plasmonic-antenna array to function in a label-free manner, facilitating bio-sensing and imaging development.

  16. Deterministic Coupling of Quantum Emitters in 2D Materials to Plasmonic Nanocavity Arrays.

    PubMed

    Tran, Toan Trong; Wang, Danqing; Xu, Zai-Quan; Yang, Ankun; Toth, Milos; Odom, Teri W; Aharonovich, Igor

    2017-04-12

    Quantum emitters in two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for studies of light-matter interaction and next generation, integrated on-chip quantum nanophotonics. However, the realization of integrated nanophotonic systems requires the coupling of emitters to optical cavities and resonators. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid systems in which quantum emitters in 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are deterministically coupled to high-quality plasmonic nanocavity arrays. The plasmonic nanoparticle arrays offer a high-quality, low-loss cavity in the same spectral range as the quantum emitters in hBN. The coupled emitters exhibit enhanced emission rates and reduced fluorescence lifetimes, consistent with Purcell enhancement in the weak coupling regime. Our results provide the foundation for a versatile approach for achieving scalable, integrated hybrid systems based on low-loss plasmonic nanoparticle arrays and 2D materials.

  17. Tunable plasmonic response of metallic nanoantennna heterodimer arrays modified by atomic-layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambold, Raymond A.; Borst, Benjamin D.; Qi, Jie; Weisel, Gary J.; Willis, Brian G.; Zimmerman, Darin T.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of tunable, plasmon extinction characteristics of arrays of nanoscale antennas that have potential use as sensors, energy-harvesting devices, catalytic converters, in near-field optical microscopy, and in surface-enhanced spectroscopy. Each device is composed of a palladium triangular-prism antenna and a flat counter-electrode. Arrays of devices are fabricated on silica using electron-beam lithography, followed by atomic-layer deposition of copper. Optical extinction is measured by employing a broadband light source in a confocal, transmission arrangement. We characterize the plasmon resonance behavior by examining the dependence on device length, the gap spacing between the electrodes, material properties, and the device array density, all of which contribute in varying degrees to the measured response. We employ finite-difference time-domain simulations to demonstrate good qualitative agreement between experimental trends and theory and use scanning electron microscopy to correlate plasmonic extinction characteristics with changes in morphology.

  18. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Gui-qiang; Zhou, Hai-qing; Liu, Xiao-shan; Huang, Kuan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Fu, Guo-lan

    2013-04-19

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light-matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components.

  19. Exciton enhancement and exciplex quenching by plasmonic effect of Aluminum nanoparticle arrays in a blue organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Khadir, Samira; Diallo, AmadouThierno; Chakaroun, Mahmoud; Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2017-05-01

    We report the investigation of plasmonic effect of array of aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) on blue micro-OLED subject to exciplex emission. N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) andcarbazol derivative 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) have been used as the emitting layer (EML) and hole transport layer (HTL), respectively. For the reference µ-OLED without Al-NPs, we observed two emission peaks attributed to CBP emission and exciplex emission formed at the NPB/CBP (EML/HTL) interface. By the incorporation of the Al-NPs array, obtained by e-beam lithography technique on the ITO anode, the exciplex emission has been widely depressed. Moreover, thanks to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), an enhancement of the CBP emission has been achieved indicating an efficient energy coupling between the LSPR of the Al-NPs and the CBP excitons. Thus, an enhancement of about 20% of the efficiency of the µ-OLED with Al-NPs in comparison to the reference device has been obtained.

  20. Vacuum nano-hole array embedded organic light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-ho; Song, Young Seok; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Jang-Joo; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2014-03-07

    We demonstrated a nano-hole array (NHA) embedded structure that was fabricated for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a robust reverse transfer process. The NHA structure is proposed in this study as a strategy for maximizing the diffraction strength of two dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) by engineering vacuum nano-holes inside a dielectric slab. The electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLED was improved by more than twice. Such an optical enhancement was evaluated by using the angular dependence of photoluminescence (PL). The FDTD simulation was carried out to optimize the NHA structure for extraction of the emission induced from both vertical and horizontal dipoles. We explored the effect of the NHA structure on the extraction improvement converted from waveguide mode by measuring EL intensities of the devices with a hemisphere lens. In addition, the transfer process employed in this study yielded extremely low surface roughness, and thus outstanding electrical characteristics.

  1. Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joonhan; Choi, Yunkyoung; Lee, Myungjae; Jeon, Heonsu; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-12-01

    A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures.A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The incident angle dependence of reflectance spectra and the atomic force microscopy image of the Au nanoparticle array on a silk film after 1 hour of ultrasonication. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05172f

  2. Tunable plasmons in regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag-shaped edges

    PubMed Central

    Vacacela Gomez, Cristian; Pisarra, Michele; Gravina, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence for and the theoretical confirmation of tunable edge plasmons and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons have opened up new opportunities to scrutinize the main geometric and conformation factors, which can be used to modulate these collective modes in the infrared-to-terahertz frequency band. Here, we show how the extrinsic plasmon structure of regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons, with perfectly symmetric edges, is influenced by the width, chirality and unit-cell length of each ribbon, as well as the in-plane vacuum distance between two contiguous ribbons. Our predictions, based on time-dependent density functional theory, in the random phase approximation, are expected to be of immediate help for measurements of plasmonic features in nanoscale architectures of nanoribbon devices. PMID:28243554

  3. Self-assembly based plasmonic nanoparticle array coupling with hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Hong; Li, Hongdong

    2017-09-14

    Investigation of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS)/plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) composites is of crucial importance for developing plasmaron-based nanodevices. In this study, a simple and effective way for depicting the fabrication of BNNS/Au NP nanocomposites is reported. Diblock copolymer-based NP arrays exhibiting high hexagonal ordering and offering easy control of particle size are utilized to produce Au NP arrays by directly bonding them to BNNSs on a large scale, allowing to investigate the underlying physics of the metal/BNNS interface. The coupling between BNNSs and plasmonic Au NP arrays, work function, charge transfer and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of BNNS phonon modes are explored. It is revealed that local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NPs induces an electromagnetic mechanism responsible for enhanced Raman results of BNNSs when placing them below Au NPs. In contrast, essential contribution of chemical enhancement from charge transfer induced by energy realignment at the metal/BNNS interface is manifested in hybrid systems of Au NPs and encapsulated BNNS. This work is the first demonstration on evolution of plasmon resonance and charge-based interactions dependent on metal/BNNS interface, thus providing straightforward implications to further develop BNNS-based plasmonics, optoelectronics, and electronics.

  4. Novel architecture of plasmon excitation based on self-assembled nanoparticle arrays for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hanggochnuri; Sohn, Ahrum; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kumar, Brijesh; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-22

    An efficient approach to producing hexagonally self-assembled and well-dispersed gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) in the pores of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is reported. This approach is particularly useful for tuning the surface plasmon resonance frequency of Au NPs by varying the effective dielectric constant of AAO. A strongly enhanced Raman spectrum of dye molecule rhodamine 6G using these well-dispersed Au NPs revealed that such a self-assembled Au NP array can induce a strong plasmonic field. Furthermore, we demonstrated a new architecture of plasmon excitation in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) inverted organic solar cell (IOSC) using the Au NP array with AAO. The optical response of an active layer poly(3-hexylthiophene):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester was enhanced by this strong plasmonic field associated a well-dispersed Au NP array. A comparative study of AAO with and without Au NPs confirmed plasmonic improvement of the BHJ IOSC. Simulation results showed that Au NPs concentrate the incoming light into a strongly localized field and enhance light absorption in a wide wavelength range.

  5. Planoconcave lens by negative refraction of stacked subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Beruete, M; Navarro-Cía, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I

    2008-06-23

    This work presents the design of a planoconcave parabolic negative index metamaterial lens operating at millimeter wavelengths fabricated by using stacked subwavelength hole arrays. A staircase approximation to the ideal parabola profile has been done by removing step by step one lattice in each dimension of the transversal section. Theory predicts power concentration at the focal point of the parabola when the refractive index equals -1. Both simulation and measurement results exhibit an excellent agreement and an asymmetrical focus has been observed. The possibility to design similar planoconcave devices in the terahertz and optical wavelengths could be a reality in the near future.

  6. Directional outcoupling of photoluminescence from Eu(III)-complex thin films by plasmonic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, S.; Saito, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Kamakura, R.; Nakanishi, T.; Fujita, K.; Verschuuren, M. A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Tanaka, K.

    2017-02-01

    A plasmonic array, consisting of metallic nanocylinders periodically arranged with a pitch comparable to the optical wavelength, is a system in which both the localized surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and diffraction in the plane of the array are simultaneously excitable. When combined with a phosphor film, the array acts as a photoluminescence (PL) director and enhancer. Since the array can modify both excitation and emission processes, the overall modification mechanism is generally complex and difficult to understand. Here, we examined the mechanism by simplifying the discussion using an emitter with a high quantum yield, large Stokes shift, and long PL lifetime. Directional PL enhancement as large as five-fold occurred, which is mainly caused by outcoupling, i.e., the PL trapped in the emitter film by total internal reflection is extracted into free space through the SPPs and diffraction. The present scheme is robust and applicable to arbitrary emitters, and it is useful for designing compact and efficient directional illumination devices.

  7. Efficient design, accurate fabrication and effective characterization of plasmonic quasicrystalline arrays of nano-spherical particles

    PubMed Central

    Namin, Farhad A.; Yuwen, Yu A.; Liu, Liu; Panaretos, Anastasios H.; Werner, Douglas H.; Mayer, Theresa S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the scattering properties of two-dimensional quasicrystalline plasmonic lattices are investigated. We combine a newly developed synthesis technique, which allows for accurate fabrication of spherical nanoparticles, with a recently published variation of generalized multiparticle Mie theory to develop the first quantitative model for plasmonic nano-spherical arrays based on quasicrystalline morphologies. In particular, we study the scattering properties of Penrose and Ammann- Beenker gold spherical nanoparticle array lattices. We demonstrate that by using quasicrystalline lattices, one can obtain multi-band or broadband plasmonic resonances which are not possible in periodic structures. Unlike previously published works, our technique provides quantitative results which show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:26911709

  8. Efficient Photocurrent Enhancement from Porphyrin Molecules on Plasmonic Copper Arrays: Beneficial Utilization of Copper Nanoanntenae on Plasmonic Photoelectric Conversion Systems.

    PubMed

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Tsunenari, Natsumi; Uchida, Koji; Tahara, Hironobu; Takeda, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Kyo; Jin, Shota; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Nobuko; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Watanuki, Yasuhiro; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Otsuki, Joe; Yamada, Sunao

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrated the usefulness of Cu light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennae for the development of inexpensive and efficient artificial organic photoelectric conversion systems. The systems consisted of the stacked structures of layers of porphyrin as a dye molecule, oxidation-suppressing layers, and plasmonic Cu arrayed electrodes. To accurately evaluate the effect of Cu nanoantenna on the porphyrin photocurrent, the production of Cu2O by the spontaneous oxidation of the electrode surfaces, which can act as a photoexcited species under visible light irradiation, was effectively suppressed by inserting the ultrathin linking layers consisting of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, titanium oxide, and poly(vinyl alcohol) between the electrode surface and porphyrin molecules. The reflection spectra in an aqueous environment of the arrayed electrodes, which were prepared by thermally depositing Cu on two-dimensional colloidal crystals of silica with diameters of 160, 260, and 330 nm, showed clear reflection dips at 596, 703, and 762 nm, respectively, which are attributed to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). While the first dip lies within the wavelengths where the imaginary part of the Cu dielectric function is moderately large, the latter two dips lie within a region of a quite small imaginary part. Consequently, the LSPR excited at the red region provided a particularly large enhancement of porphyrin photocurrent at the Q-band (ca. 59-fold), compared to that on a Cu planar electrode. These results strongly suggest that the plasmonic Cu nanoantennae contribute to the substantial improvement of photoelectric conversion efficiency at the wavelengths, where the imaginary part of the dielectric function is small.

  9. Two-dimensional silver nanodot array fabricated using nanoporous alumina for a chemical sensor platform of localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Kim, T.-R.; Ji, M.-G.; Lee, S.; Woo, D.; Choi, Y.-W.

    2016-03-01

    The noble metal nanostructure has attracted significant attention because of their potential applications as sensitive sensor platform blocks for biological and chemical sensing. The unique optical property of the metal nanostructure is originated from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The fabrication of metal nanostructure is a key issue for sensor applications of LSPR. In this paper, fabrication technique of two-dimensional Ag nanodot array on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate via the nanoporous alumina mask and the utilization as a platform for LSPR chemical sensor was studied. Well-ordered Ag nanodot array with approximately 65 nm diameter in periodic pattern of 105 nm was fabricated using the nanoporous alumina with through-holes as an evaporation mask. The LSPR of Ag nanodot array on ITO glass substrate was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The LSPR wavelength-shifts owing to the concentration variances of Methylene Blue (MB) adsorbed on Ag nanodot arrays were examined for application of chemical sensor.

  10. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-08

    In this paper, subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunneling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm–1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

  11. Quantum plasmonics of a metal nanoparticle array for on-chip nanophotonic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhyoup; Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris; Tame, Mark; Lim, James; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2013-03-01

    With the advancement of nanofabrication techniques, metallic nanoparticles have been attracting significant attention due to their novel capabilities offering the prospects of miniaturization, scalability, and strong coherent coupling to single-emitters that conventional photonics cannot achieve. In this work, we investigate an array of metal nanoparticles for on-chip quantum networking, quantum computation and communication on scales far below the diffraction limit. For this purpose, we first consider the transfer of quantum states, including single qubits as plasmonic wave packets, and explore the interference of single plasmons associated with the quantum properties of the plasmon excitation. In addition, we study dipole induced reflection effects in the plasmonic setting. The results seem promising for quantum control applications such as single-photon switching and slow light in the nanoscale. We also propose a scheme of entanglement generation between distant emitters embedded in the array of metal nanoparticles. The techniques introduced in this work may assist in the further theoretical and experimental studies of plasmonic nanostructures for quantum control applications and probing nanoscale optical phenomena. Science Department, Technical University of Crete, Crete, Greece

  12. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm−1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures. PMID:27499258

  13. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; ...

    2016-08-08

    In this paper, subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunneling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulationsmore » predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm–1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.« less

  14. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-08-08

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm(-1), corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

  15. Ultrafast dynamics of metal plasmons induced by 2D semiconductor excitons in hybrid nanostructure arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Wang, Kai; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lin, Ming -Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Xiao, Kai; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-11-17

    With the advanced progress achieved in the field of nanotechnology, localized surface plasmons resonances (LSPRs) are actively considered to improve the efficiency of metal-based photocatalysis, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Here, we report on the exchange of energy and electric charges in a hybrid composed of a two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayer and an array of aluminum (Al) nanodisks. Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy results indicate that within ~830 fs after photoexcitation of the 2D-WS2 semiconductor, energy transfer from the 2D-WS2 excitons excites the plasmons of the Al array. Then, upon the radiative and/or nonradiative damping of these excited plasmons, energy and/or electron transfer back to the 2D-WS2 semiconductor takes place as indicated by an increase in the reflected probe at the 2D exciton transition energies at later time-delays. This simultaneous exchange of energy and charges between the metal and the 2D-WS2 semiconductor resulted in an extension of the average lifetime of the 2D-excitons from ~15 to ~58 ps in absence and presence of the Al array, respectively. Furthermore, the indirectly excited plasmons were found to live as long as the 2D-WS2 excitons exist. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to generate exciton-plasmons coupling in a hybrid nanostructure may open new opportunities for optoelectronic applications such as plasmonic-based photodetection and photocatalysis.

  16. Simulated study of plasmonic coupling in noble bimetallic alloy nanosphere arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Amit; Verma, S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The plasmonic coupling between the interacting noble metal nanoparticles plays an important role to influence the optical properties of arrays. In this work, we have extended the Mie theory results of our recent communication to include the effect of particle interactions between the alloy nanoparticles by varying interparticle distance and number of particles. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak position, full width at half maxima (FWHM) and scattering efficiency of one dimensional (1D) bimetallic alloy nanosphere (BANS) arrays of earlier optimized compositions i.e. Ag0.75Au0.25, Au0.25Cu0.75 and Ag0.50Cu0.50 have been studied presently by using discrete dipole approximation (DDA) simulations. Studies have been made to optimize size of the nanosphere, number of spheres in the arrays, material and the interparticle distance. It has been found that both the scattering efficiency and FWHM (bandwidth) can be controlled in the large region of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum by varying the number of interacting particles and interparticle distance. In comparison to other alloy arrays, Ag0.50Cu0.50 BANS arrays (each of particle radius 50 nm) shows larger tunability of LSPR with wide bandwidth (essential condition for plasmonic solar cells).

  17. Enhanced second harmonic generation by photonic-plasmonic Fano-type coupling in nanoplasmonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gary F; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-07-10

    In this communication, we systematically investigate the effects of Fano-type coupling between long-range photonic resonances and localized surface plasmons on the second harmonic generation from periodic arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in monomer and dimer geometries. Specifically, by scanning the wavelength of an ultrafast tunable pump laser over a large range, we measure the second harmonic excitation spectra of these arrays and demonstrate their tunability with particle size and separation. Moreover, through a comparison with linear optical transmission spectra, which feature asymmetric Fano-type lineshapes, we demonstrate that the second harmonic generation is enhanced when coupled photonic-plasmonic resonances of the arrays are excited at the fundamental pump wavelength, thus boosting the intensity of the electromagnetic near-fields. Our experimental results, which are supported by numerical simulations of linear optical transmission and near-field enhancement spectra based on the Finite Difference Time Domain method, demonstrate a direct correlation between the onset of Fano-type coupling and the enhancement of second harmonic generation in arrays of Au nanoparticles. Our findings enable the engineering of the nonlinear optical response of Fano-type coupled nanoparticle arrays that are relevant to a number of device applications in nonlinear nano-optics and plasmonics, such as on-chip frequency generators, modulators, switchers, and sensors.

  18. Patterning of plasmonic nanoparticles into multiplexed one-dimensional arrays based on spatially modulated electrostatic potential.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Sun, Yinghui; Nowak, Christoph; Kibrom, Asmorom; Zou, Changji; Ma, Jan; Fuchs, Harald; Li, Shuzhou; Chi, Lifeng; Chen, Xiaodong

    2011-10-25

    We report a new strategy to pattern plasmonic nanoparticles into multiplexed one-dimensional arrays based on the spatially modulated electrostatic potential. The 32 nm Au nanoparticles can be simultaneously deposited on one chip with tunable interparticle distance by solely adjusting the width of the grooves. Furthermore, 32 and 13 nm Au nanoparticles can be selectively deposited in grooves of different widths on one chip. As a result, the surface plasmon absorption bands on the chip can be tuned depending on the interparticle distance or the particle size of multiplex 1D arrays, which could enhance the Raman scattering cross section of the adsorbed molecules and result in multiplex surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response on the chip. This strategy provides a general method to fabricate 1D multiplex arrays with different particle sizes and interparticle distances on one chip.

  19. Tunable and angle-insensitive plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays with multispectral diffraction response

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kangwen; Ma, Xunpeng; Zhang, Zuyin; Xu, Yun Song, Guofeng

    2014-03-14

    Plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays are investigated numerically by means of the Finite Element Method. Numerical analysis shows that a series of multipolar resonances take place when graphene ribbon arrays are illuminated by a TM polarized electromagnetic wave. Moreover, these resonances are angle-independent, and can be tuned greatly by the width and the doping level of the graphene ribbons. Specifically, we demonstrate that for graphene arrays with several sets of graphene ribbons, which have different widths or doping levels, each of these multipolar resonances will be split into several ones. In addition, as plasmon resonances can confine electromagnetic field at the ribbon edges, graphene ribbons with different widths or doping levels offer intriguing application for electrically tunable spectral imaging.

  20. Hyperbolic and Plasmonic Properties of Silicon/Ag Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-17

    Evans, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, D. O’Connor, W. Dickson, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic core/shell nanorod arrays...and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009). 41. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun...M. Leskela, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011). 52. O. J. Glembocki, S. M. Prokes

  1. High performing phase-based surface plasmon resonance sensing from metallic nanohole arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Z. L.; Wong, S. L.; Ong, H. C.; Wu, S. Y.; Ho, H. P.

    2014-04-28

    We show the spectral figure-of-merit (FOM) from nanohole arrays can be larger than 1900/RIU by phase-based surface plasmon resonance. By using temporal coupled mode theory, we find the p-s polarization phase jump is the sharpest when both the absorption and radiative decay rates of surface plasmon polaritons are matched, yielding an extremely small spectral differential phase linewidth and thus superior FOM. The result is supported by numerical simulation and experiment. As a demonstration, we show the phase detection outperforms the conventional spectral counterpart significantly by sensing the binding of bovine serum albumin antibodies under identical condition.

  2. Ultra-sharp plasmonic resonances from monopole optical nanoantenna phased arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shi-Qiang; Bruce Buchholz, D.; Zhou, Wei; Ketterson, John B.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-06-09

    Diffractively coupled plasmonic resonances possess both ultra-sharp linewidths and giant electric field enhancement around plasmonic nanostructures. They can be applied to create a new generation of sensors, detectors, and nano-optical devices. However, all current designs require stringent index-matching at the resonance condition that limits their applicability. Here, we propose and demonstrate that it is possible to relieve the index-matching requirement and to induce ultra-sharp plasmon resonances in an ordered vertically aligned optical nano-antenna phased array by transforming a dipole resonance to a monopole resonance with a mirror plane. Due to the mirror image effect, the monopole resonance not only retained the dipole features but also enhanced them. The engineered resonances strongly suppressed the radiative decay channel, resulting in a four-order of magnitude enhancement in local electric field and a Q-factor greater than 200.

  3. Tunable Optical Performances on a Periodic Array of Plasmonic Bowtie Nanoantennas with Hollow Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Chou Chao, Chung-Ting; Rao, Jhin-Yu; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Lim, Chee Ming; Lim, Ren Chong; Voo, Nyuk Yoong

    2016-09-01

    We propose a design method to tune the near-field intensities and absorption spectra of a periodic array of plasmonic bowtie nanoantennas (PBNAs) by introducing the hollow cavities inside the metal nanostructures. The numerical method is performed by finite element method that demonstrates the engineered hollow PBNAs can tune the optical spectrum in the range of 400-3000 nm. Simulation results show the hollow number is a key factor for enhancing the cavity plasmon resonance with respect to the hotspot region in PBNAs. The design efforts primarily concentrate on shifting the operation wavelength and enhancing the local fields by manipulating the filling dielectric medium, outline film thickness, and hollow number in PBNAs. Such characteristics indicate that the proposed hollow PBNAs can be a potential candidate for plasmonic enhancers and absorbers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  4. Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption in GaAs Nanowire Array Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Yan, Xin; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a plasmon-enhanced solar cell structure based on a GaAs nanowire array decorated with metal nanoparticles. The results show that by engineering the metallic nanoparticles, localized surface plasmon could be excited, which can concentrate the incident light and propagate the energy to nanowires. The surface plasmon can dramatically enhance the absorbance of near-bandgap light, and the enhancement is influenced by the size and material of nanoparticles. By optimizing the particle parameters, a large absorbance enhancement of 50 % at 760 nm and a high conversion efficiency of 14.5 % can be obtained at a low diameter and period ratio (D/P ratio) of 0.3. The structure is promising for low-cost high-performance nanoscale solar cells.

  5. Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption in GaAs Nanowire Array Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhong; Yan, Xin; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a plasmon-enhanced solar cell structure based on a GaAs nanowire array decorated with metal nanoparticles. The results show that by engineering the metallic nanoparticles, localized surface plasmon could be excited, which can concentrate the incident light and propagate the energy to nanowires. The surface plasmon can dramatically enhance the absorbance of near-bandgap light, and the enhancement is influenced by the size and material of nanoparticles. By optimizing the particle parameters, a large absorbance enhancement of 50 % at 760 nm and a high conversion efficiency of 14.5 % can be obtained at a low diameter and period ratio ( D/ P ratio) of 0.3. The structure is promising for low-cost high-performance nanoscale solar cells.

  6. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB.

  7. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB. PMID:28205615

  8. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal-organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Erwen; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2017-06-01

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal-organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic-MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. The demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic-MOF device proves a promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.

  9. Hedgehog subwavelength hole arrays: control over the THz enhanced transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Cía, M.; Rodriguez-Ulibarri, Pablo; Beruete, M.

    2013-01-01

    By backing or sandwiching a holey metal layer with or between isotropic dielectric slabs, additional peaks of transmission within the long-wavelength regime arise as a result of the induced transverse magnetic (TM) or transverse electric (TE) grounded dielectric modes. A similar control of the complex surface wave modes, and thus of the extraordinary transmission (ET) peaks, is demonstrated here via anisotropic slabs in the form of a fakir's bed of nails. However, it is shown that those ET peaks formed from TE modes are suppressed because of the inherent dispersion characteristics of the free-standing grounded pins. This allows the red-shifting of the ET for the polarization parallel to the larger in-plane period of the hole array, but unlike the dielectric isotropic slab configuration, the orthogonal polarization remains inhibited. In memoriam Professor Mario Sorolla.

  10. Nonlinear Photochromic Switching in the Plasmonic Field of a Nanoparticle Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otolski, Christopher J.; Argyropoulos, Christos; Elles, Christopher G.

    2017-06-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures provide unique environments for non-resonant excitation and switching of photochromic compounds. In this study, photochromic diarylethene molecules were deposited on top of a periodically ordered array of gold nanorods (170 x 80 nm) and then irradiated with <100 fs laser pulses. Irradiation at 800 nm drives the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle array and induces the photochromic conversion of molecules via non-resonant two-photon excitation. Transmission measurements using broadband continuum laser pulses probe the progress of the photochemical cycloreversion reaction as molecules switch from a visible-absorbing closed-ring structure to a transparent open-ring structure. The spatial dependence of the two-photon conversion of molecules in the plasmonic near field of the array is modeled using calculated field enhancements, and compared with similar measurements for a film of molecules on a glass substrate. Wavelength-dependent polarization effects in the near field of the array lead to interesting anisotropy results in the transmission signal. The results emphasize the importance of both the spatial dependence and anisotropy of the enhanced electric fields in driving non-resonant photochromic reactions.

  11. Multi-resonant plasmonic nanodome arrays for label-free biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Charles J; Semancik, Steve

    2013-09-07

    The characteristics and utility of plasmonic nanodome arrays capable of supporting multiple resonance modes are described. A low-cost, large-area replica molding process is used to produce, on flexible plastic substrates, two-dimensional periodic arrays of cylinders that are subsequently coated with SiO2 and Ag thin films to form dome-shaped structures, with 14 nm spacing between the features, in a precise and reproducible fashion. Three distinct optical resonance modes, a grating diffraction mode and two localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, are observed experimentally and confirmed by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) modeling which is used to calculate the electromagnetic field distribution of each resonance around the nanodome array structure. Each optical mode is characterized by measuring sensitivity to bulk refractive index changes and to surface effects, which are examined using stacked polyelectrolyte layers. The utility of the plasmonic nanodome array as a functional interface for biosensing applications is demonstrated by performing a bioassay to measure the binding affinity constant between protein A and human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model system. The nanoreplica molding process presented in this work allows for simple, inexpensive, high-throughput fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures over a large surface area (120 × 120 mm(2)) without the requirement for high resolution lithography or additional processes such as etching or liftoff. The availability of multiple resonant modes, each with different optical properties, allows the nanodome array surface to address a wide range of biosensing problems with various target analytes of different sizes and configurations.

  12. Plasmonic enhancement of amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells with hexagonal silver arrays made with nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Guney, D. O.; Pearce, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Nanosphere lithography (NSL) provides an opportunity for a low-cost and scalable method to optically engineer solar photovoltaic (PV) cells. For PV applications, NSL is widely used in rear contact scenarios to excite surface plasmon polariton and/or high order diffractions, however, the top contact scenarios using NSL are rare. In this paper a systematic simulation study is conducted to determine the capability of achieving efficiency enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells using NSL as a top contact plasmonic optical enhancer. The study focuses on triangular prism and sphere arrays as they are the most commonly and easily acquired through direct deposition or low-temperature annealing, respectively. For optical enhancement, a characteristic absorption profile is generated and analyzed to determine the effects of size, shape and spacing of plasmonic structures compared to an un-enhanced reference cell. The factors affecting NSL-enhanced PV performance include absorption, shielding effects, diffraction, and scattering. In the triangular prism array, parasitic absorption of the silver particles proves to be problematic, and although it can be alleviated by increasing the particle spacing, no useful enhancement was observed in the triangular prism arrays that were simulated. Sphere arrays, on the other hand, have broad scattering cross-sections that create useful scattering fields at several sizes and spacing intervals. For the simulated sphere arrays the highest enhancement found was 7.4%, which was fabricated with a 250 nm radius nanosphere and a 50 nm silver thickness, followed by annealing in inert gas. These results are promising and provide a path towards the commercialization of plasmonic a-Si:H solar cells using NSL fabrication techniques.

  13. Multi-resonant plasmonic nanodome arrays for label-free biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Charles J.; Semancik, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The characteristics and utility of plasmonic nanodome arrays capable of supporting multiple resonance modes are described. A low-cost, large-area replica molding process is used to produce, on flexible plastic substrates, two-dimensional periodic arrays of cylinders that are subsequently coated with SiO2 and Ag thin films to form dome-shaped structures, with 14 nm spacing between the features, in a precise and reproducible fashion. Three distinct optical resonance modes, a grating diffraction mode and two localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, are observed experimentally and confirmed by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) modeling which is used to calculate the electromagnetic field distribution of each resonance around the nanodome array structure. Each optical mode is characterized by measuring sensitivity to bulk refractive index changes and to surface effects, which are examined using stacked polyelectrolyte layers. The utility of the plasmonic nanodome array as a functional interface for biosensing applications is demonstrated by performing a bioassay to measure the binding affinity constant between protein A and human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model system. The nanoreplica molding process presented in this work allows for simple, inexpensive, high-throughput fabrication of nanoscale plasmonic structures over a large surface area (120 × 120 mm2) without the requirement for high resolution lithography or additional processes such as etching or liftoff. The availability of multiple resonant modes, each with different optical properties, allows the nanodome array surface to address a wide range of biosensing problems with various target analytes of different sizes and configurations.

  14. Second harmonic generation from patterned GaAs inside a subwavelength metallic hole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenjun; Zhang, Shuang; Malloy, K. J.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Panoiu, N. C.; Osgood, R. M.

    2006-10-01

    By extending GaAs dielectric posts with a large second-order nonlinear susceptibility through the holes of a subwavelength metallic hole array coupled to the metal surface-plasma wave, strong second harmonic (SH) signal is observed. The SH signal is strengthened as a result of the enhanced electromagnetic fields inside the hole apertures.

  15. Self-assembled large-area annular cavity arrays with tunable cylindrical surface plasmons for sensing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming; Shen, Tianyi; Zhou, Jing

    2015-02-24

    Surface plasmons that propagate along cylindrical metal/dielectric interfaces in annular apertures in metal films, called cylindrical surface plasmons (CSPs), exhibit attractive optical characteristics. However, it is challenging to fabricate these nanocoaxial structures. Here, we demonstrate a practical low-cost route to manufacture highly ordered, large-area annular cavity arrays (ACAs) that can support CSPs with great tunability. By employing a sol-gel coassembly method, reactive ion etching and metal sputtering techniques, regular, highly ordered ACAs in square-centimeter-scale with a gap width tunable in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers have been produced with good reproducibility. Ag ACAs with a gap width of 12 nm and a gap height of 635 nm are demonstrated. By finite-difference time-domain simulation, we confirm that the pronounced dips in the reflectance spectra of ACAs are attributable to CSP resonances excited in the annular gaps. By adjusting etching time and Ag film thickness, the CSP dips can be tuned to sweep the entire optical range of 360 to 1800 nm without changing sphere size, which makes them a promising candidate for forming integrated plasmonic sensing arrays. The high tunability of the CSP resonant frequencies together with strong electric field enhancement in the cavities make the ACAs promising candidates for surface plasmon sensors and SERS substrates, as, for example, they have been used in liquid refractive index (RI) sensing, demonstrating a sensitivity of 1505 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 9. One of the CSP dips of ACAs with a certain geometry size is angle- (0-70 degrees) and polarization-independent and can be used as a narrow-band absorber. Furthermore, the nano annular cavity arrays can be used to construct solar cells, nanolasers and nanoparticle plasmonic tweezers.

  16. Hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of silicon/Ag aligned nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Prokes, S M; Glembocki, Orest J; Livenere, J E; Tumkur, T U; Kitur, J K; Zhu, G; Wells, B; Podolskiy, V A; Noginov, M A

    2013-06-17

    The hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of silicon nanowire/Ag arrays have been investigated. The aligned nanowire arrays were formed and coated by atomic layer deposition of Ag, which itself is a metamaterial due to its unique mosaic film structure. The theoretical and numerical studies suggest that the fabricated arrays have hyperbolic dispersion in the visible and IR ranges of the spectrum. The theoretical predictions have been indirectly confirmed by polarized reflection spectra, showing reduction of the reflection in p polarization in comparison to that in s polarization. Studies of dye emission on top of Si/Ag nanowire arrays show strong emission quenching and shortening of dye emission kinetics. This behavior is also consistent with the predictions for hyperbolic media. The measured SERS signals were enhanced by almost an order of magnitude for closely packed and aligned nanowires, compared to random nanowire composites. These results agree with electric field simulations of these array structures.

  17. Plasmonic hysteresis: temperature dependent resonance of vanadium-dioxide coated gold nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Davon; Nag, Joyeeta; Donev, Eugene; Suh, Jae; Haglund, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The optical properties of metal nanostructures are dominated by the free-electron, or plasmonic, response of the material. In the case of metal nanoparticles, this leads to a resonant extinction with wavelength determined by the particles' size, shape, material, and surrounding dielectric. Vanadium-dioxide has a hysteretic transition from a semiconductor to a metal about 68C accompanied by a change in its structural, electrical and optical properties. Using vanadium dioxide as a thermochromic dielectric switch, we map out the hysteresis of the plasmonic resonance of gold nanoparticle arrays coated with the metal-oxide as a function of temperature. To study this plasmonic dependence on temperature, a sample of 20nm thick Au nanoparticle arrays with various particle sizes and grating constants were coated with a 60nm thick vanadium dioxide film. We find that near the transition, the particle plasmon resonance can shift position over 250nm. Measurements of the line shape show the effects of strong correlation in the vicinity of the switching temperatures.

  18. Electron photoemission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays: analysis of collective resonances and embedding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically study the characteristics of photoelectron emission in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Nanoparticles are partially embedded in a semiconductor, forming Schottky barriers at metal/semiconductor interfaces through which photoelectrons can tunnel from the nanoparticle into the semiconductor; photodetection in the infrared range, where photon energies are below the semiconductor band gap (insufficient for band-to-band absorption in semiconductor), is therefore possible. The nanoparticles are arranged in a sparse rectangular lattice so that the wavelength of the lattice-induced Rayleigh anomalies can overlap the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the individual particles, bringing about collective effects from the nanoparticle array. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we analyze the effects of lattice constant, embedding depth, and refractive index step between the semiconductor layer and an adjacent transparent conductive oxide layer. We show that the presence of refractive index mismatch between media surrounding the nanoparticles disrupts the formation of a narrow absorption peak associated with the Rayleigh anomaly, so the role of collective lattice effects in the formation of plasmonic resonance is diminished. We also show that 5-20 times increase of photoemission can be achieved on embedding of nanoparticles without taking into account dynamics of ballistic electrons. The results obtained can be used to increase efficiency of plasmon-based photodetectors and photovoltaic devices. The results may provide clues to designing an experiment where the contributions of surface and volume photoelectric effects to the overall photocurrent would be defined.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor based on silicon photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaoyun; Sun, Xiuhui; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Du, Chunlei

    2010-11-01

    The detection limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor is constrained in part by the SPR biochip and in part by the resolution of the optical intensity of detecting instruments. In this paper, silicon photodiode is proposed as the optical intensity detecting element instead of the traditionally used charge coupled device (CCD), combining with high resolution analog/digital converter, this method can efficiently reduce the cost and increase the sensitivity of the SPRI system while keeping its virtue of multiple channels real time detecting. Based on this method, An SPRI experimental system with two channels is designed and the optical intensity of each channel is detected by a photodiode. By carrying out testing experiments using sucrose solution with different concentrations (corresponding to different refractive index), the system sensitivity of 10-6 refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained.

  20. Optical impedance matching using coupled plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, P; Hebbink, M; de Waele, R; Black, L; Lenzmann, F; Polman, A

    2011-04-13

    Silver nanoparticle arrays placed on top of a high-refractive index substrate enhance the coupling of light into the substrate over a broad spectral range. We perform a systematic numerical and experimental study of the light incoupling by arrays of Ag nanoparticle arrays in order to achieve the best impedance matching between light propagating in air and in the substrate. We identify the parameters that determine the incoupling efficiency, including the effect of Fano resonances in the scattering, interparticle coupling, as well as resonance shifts due to variations in the near-field coupling to the substrate and spacer layer. The optimal configuration studied is a square array of 200 nm wide, 125 nm high spheroidal Ag particles, at a pitch of 450 nm on a 50 nm thick Si(3)N(4) spacer layer on a Si substrate. When integrated over the AM1.5 solar spectral range from 300 to 1100 nm, this particle array shows 50% enhanced incoupling compared to a bare Si wafer, 8% higher than a standard interference antireflection coating. Experimental data show that the enhancement occurs mostly in the spectral range near the Si band gap. This study opens new perspectives for antireflection coating applications in optical devices and for light management in Si solar cells.

  1. Plasmonic properties of nanoparticle-film systems and periodic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Fei

    In this thesis we perform theoretical investigations on the optical properties of geometrically infinite metallic nano-structures such as nanoparticle/film systems and periodic nanoparticle arrays. We apply both Plasmon Hybridization (PH) and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) methods and we obtain quantitative agreement with experimental measurements as well as other theoretical methods such as Mie Theory and Finite Element simulation. For the nanoparticle over film structure, our research shows that the plasmonic interaction between the nanoparticle and the film is an electromagnetic analogue of the spinless Anderson-Fano model, which was used to describe the interaction of a localized electronic state with a continuous band of electronic states. Three characteristic regimes of the model are realized as the energy of the nanoparticle plasmon resonance lies above, within, or below the energy band of the surface plasmon state. These three interaction regimes are controlled by the film thickness. In the thin film limit, the plasmonic coupling between the nanoshell and the film induces a low-energy virtual state (VS) mainly composed of delocalized film, which can be further tuned as the aspect ratio of the nanoshell changes. The calculations are found to agree well with experimental measurements. Using FDTD method, we show that the electromagnetic field enhancement induced by the VS in the thin film limit can be very large and the nanoparticle/film system could serve as an ideal substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS). The plasmonic properties of nanoparticle arrays are investigated using FDTD with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). Our research shows that 2D hexagonal (hcp) nanoshell arrays possess ideal properties as a substrate that combines SERS and Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption (SEIRA), with large electric field enhancements at the same spatial locations in the structure. With small

  2. Photoacoustic technique for the characterization of plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of gold nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Mussi, V.; Sibilia, C.; Bovino, F. A.

    2017-02-01

    We apply photo-acoustic (PA) technique to examine plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of nanoholes etched in gold/chromium layer upon a glass substrate. The pitch of these arrays lies in the near IR, and this, under appropriate wave vector matching conditions in the visible region, allows for the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) guided along a dielectric - metal surface. SPP offered new approaches in light guiding and local field intensity enhancement, but their detection is often difficult due to the problematic discrimination of their contribution from the overall scattering. Here PA measures the energy absorbed due to the non-radiative decay of SPPs. We report on the absorption enhancement by presenting the spatial mapping of absorption under the incidence angles and wavelength that correspond to the efficient excitation of SPPs. Moreover, a comparison with optical transmission measurements is carried out, underlining the applicability and sensitivity of PA technique.

  3. Linearly polarized light emission from quantum dots with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Ren, Mengxin; Chen, Mo; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Junku; Pi, Biao; Zhang, Xinzheng; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-05-13

    Polarizers provide convenience in generating polarized light, meanwhile their adoption raises problems of extra weight, cost, and energy loss. Aiming to realize polarizer-free polarized light sources, herein, we present a plasmonic approach to achieve direct generation of linearly polarized optical waves at the nanometer scale. Periodic slot nanoantenna arrays are fabricated, which are driven by the transition dipole moments of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots. By harnessing interactions between quantum dots and scattered fields from the nanoantennas, spontaneous emission with a high degree of linear polarization is achieved from such hybrid antenna system with polarization perpendicular to antenna slot. We also demonstrate that the polarization is engineerable in aspects of both spectrum and magnitude by tailoring plasmonic resonance of the antenna arrays. Our findings will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarized light-emitting devices, which are useful in optical displays, spectroscopic techniques, optical telecommunications, and so forth.

  4. Plasmonic nanohole array sensors fabricated by template transfer with improved optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Peipei; Jiang, Hao; Sabarinathan, Jayshri; Yang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance sensors of the nanohole array type provide a promising platform for label-free biosensing on surfaces. For their extensive use, an efficient fabrication procedure to make nanoscale features on metallic films is required. We develop a simple and robust template-transfer approach to structure periodic nanohole arrays in optically thick Au films on poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrates. This technique significantly simplifies the process of sensor fabrication and reduces the cost of the device. A spectral analysis approach is also developed for improving the sensor performance. The sensitivity of the resulting sensor to refractive index change is 522 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the resolution is improved to 2 × 10-5 RIU, which are among the best reported values for localized surface plasmon resonance sensors. We also demonstrate the limit of detection of this sensor for cardiac troponin-I.

  5. Parasitic antenna effect in terahertz plasmon detector array for real-time imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Ryu, Min Woo; Rok Kim, Kyung; Han, Seong-Tae

    2015-10-01

    The performance uniformity of each pixel integrated with a patch antenna in a terahertz plasmon detector array is very important in building the large array necessary for a real-time imaging system. We found a parasitic antenna effect in the terahertz plasmon detector whose response is dependent on the position of the detector pixel in the illumination area of the terahertz beam. It was also demonstrated that the parasitic antenna effect is attributed to the physical structure consisting of signal pads, bonding wires, and interconnection lines on a chip and a printed circuit board. Experimental results show that the performance of the detector pixel is determined by the sum of the effects of each parasitic antenna and the on-chip integrated antenna designed to detect signals at the operating frequency. The parasitic antenna effect can be minimized by blocking the interconnections with a metallic shield.

  6. Slanted gold mushroom array: a switchable bi/tridirectional surface plasmon polariton splitter.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Fang, Guisheng; Cerjan, Alexander; Chi, Zhenguo; Fan, Shanhui; Jin, Chongjun

    2016-08-25

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) show great promise in providing an ultracompact platform for integrated photonic circuits. However, challenges remain in easily and efficiently coupling light into and subsequently routing SPPs. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable bi/tridirectional beam splitter which can simultaneously perform both tasks. The photonic device consists of a periodic array of slanted gold 'mushrooms' composed of angled dielectric pillars with gold caps extruding from a periodic array of perforations in a gold film. The unidirectional coupling results from the interference of the in-plane guided modes scattered by a pair of dislocated gold gratings, while the output channel is determined by the polarization of the incident beam. This device, in combination with dynamic polarization modulation techniques, has the potential to serve as a router or switch in plasmonic integrated circuits.

  7. Plasmonic data storage medium with metallic nano-aperture array embedded in dielectric material.

    PubMed

    Park, Sinjeung; Won Hahn, Jae

    2009-10-26

    We propose a plasmonic data storage medium with a high-transmission metal aperture array embedded in a dielectric material. Bowtie apertures, having an outline of 80 nm and a ridge gap of 30 nm, are arranged in a two dimensional array with a bit pitch of 100 nm and a track pitch of 280 nm. Using the finite differential time domain (FDTD) method, we calculate the exposure power needed to record optical data, the contrast for readability of recorded data, and cross talk between the main track and adjacent tracks. Compared to a conventional blu-ray disc, the exposure power needed to record optical data in the proposed plasmonic data storage medium is less than a quarter of the conventional threshold power, and the density of the data storage is about 1.8 times larger.

  8. Investigation of polarization-selective InGaAs sensor with elliptical two-dimensional holes array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Fu, Dong; Hu, Xiaobin; Xu, Yun; Song, Guofeng; Wei, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging in infrared wavelengths have attracted more and more attention for broad applications in meteorological observations, medicine, remote sensing and many other fields. Metal metamaterial structures are used in nanophotonics in order to localize and enhance the incident electromagnetic field. Here we develop an elliptical gold Two-Dimensional Holes Array (2DHA) in which photons can be manipulated by surface plasmon resonance, and the ellipse introduce the asymmetry to realize a polarization selective function. Strong polarization dependence is observed in the simulated transmission spectra. To further understand the coupling mechanism between gold holes array and InP, the different parameters of the 2DHA are analyzed. It is shown that the polarization axis is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse, and the degree of polarization is determined by the aspect ratio of the ellipse. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of the 2DHA shows a linear dependence on the array period, the bandwidth of transmission spectra closely related to duty cycle of the ellipse in each period. This result will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarization selective infrared sensor.

  9. Tunable plasmon-enhanced birefringence in ribbon array of anisotropic two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliji, Kaveh; Fallahi, Arya; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Low, Tony

    2017-05-01

    We explore the far-field scattering properties of anisotropic two-dimensional materials in ribbon array configuration. Our study reveals the plasmon-enhanced linear birefringence in these ultrathin metasurfaces, where linearly polarized incident light can be scattered into its orthogonal polarization or be converted into circular polarized light. We found wide modulation in both amplitude and phase of the scattered light via tuning the operating frequency or material's anisotropy and develop models to explain the observed scattering behavior.

  10. Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by electron beam with graphene ribbon arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2017-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as an alternative material to support surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with its excellent properties such as the tight electromagnetic field localization, low dissipative loss, and versatile tunability. Thus, graphene surface plasmon polaritons (GSPs) provide an exciting platform to develop a series of novel devices and systems from the optical band to the terahertz (THz) band. In this paper, theoretical and simulated studies about the excitation of SPPs by an injected electron beam with periodic graphene ribbon arrays deposited on a dielectric medium are presented. The analytical dispersion expression of the GSP mode on the graphene ribbon arrays is obtained by using a modal expansion method along with periodic boundary conditions in the structure. With this result, the dispersion relation, propagation loss, and field pattern of the propagating GSPs for both periodic graphene microribbon arrays and the complete graphene sheet are investigated and analyzed in the THz band. It is shown that the electromagnetic field with a better concentration on the interface can be realized with graphene ribbon arrays compared with the graphene sheet for a given frequency. Besides, the excitation of GSPs by an injected electron beam with graphene ribbon arrays is modeled and implemented by the particle-in-cell simulation based on the finite difference time domain algorithm. GSPs can be excited effectively when the dispersion line of the electron beam and SPPs on the graphene ribbon arrays is matched with each other well. Besides, the dependences of output power on electron beam parameters such as the distance of the electron beam above the graphene ribbon surface and beam voltage are studied and analyzed. Finally, the tunability of graphene conductivity via biased voltage with a ground metal is considered and the tunable excitation of GSPs on the structure with biased drive voltage by the injected electron beam is also realized. The present work can find a

  11. Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays

    PubMed Central

    Adato, Ronen; Yanik, Ahmet A.; Amsden, Jason J.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Hong, Mi K.; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice

    2009-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy enabling direct access to vibrational fingerprints of the molecular structure is a powerful method for functional studies of bio-molecules. Although the intrinsic absorption cross-sections of IR active modes of proteins are nearly 10 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding Raman cross-sections, they are still small compared to that of fluorescence-label based methods. Here, we developed a new tool based on collective excitation of plasmonic nanoantenna arrays and demonstrated direct detection of vibrational signatures of single protein monolayers. We first tailored the geometry of individual nanoantennas to form resonant structures that match the molecular vibrational modes. The tailored nanoantennas are then arranged in such a way that their in-phase dipolar coupling leads to a collective excitation of the ensemble with strongly enhanced near fields. The combined collective and individual plasmonic responses of the antenna array play a critical role in attaining signal enhancement factors of 104–105. We achieved measurement of the vibrational spectra of proteins at zeptomole levels for the entire array, corresponding to only 145 molecules per antenna. The near-field nature of the plasmonic enhancement of the absorption signals is demonstrated with progressive loading of the nanoantennas with varying protein film thicknesses. Finally, an advanced model based on nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is introduced, which explains the observed Fano-type absorption line-shapes and tuning of the absorption strengths with the antenna resonance. PMID:19880744

  12. Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Adato, Ronen; Yanik, Ahmet A; Amsden, Jason J; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Hong, Mi K; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice

    2009-11-17

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy enabling direct access to vibrational fingerprints of the molecular structure is a powerful method for functional studies of bio-molecules. Although the intrinsic absorption cross-sections of IR active modes of proteins are nearly 10 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding Raman cross-sections, they are still small compared to that of fluorescence-label based methods. Here, we developed a new tool based on collective excitation of plasmonic nanoantenna arrays and demonstrated direct detection of vibrational signatures of single protein monolayers. We first tailored the geometry of individual nanoantennas to form resonant structures that match the molecular vibrational modes. The tailored nanoantennas are then arranged in such a way that their in-phase dipolar coupling leads to a collective excitation of the ensemble with strongly enhanced near fields. The combined collective and individual plasmonic responses of the antenna array play a critical role in attaining signal enhancement factors of 10(4)-10(5). We achieved measurement of the vibrational spectra of proteins at zeptomole levels for the entire array, corresponding to only 145 molecules per antenna. The near-field nature of the plasmonic enhancement of the absorption signals is demonstrated with progressive loading of the nanoantennas with varying protein film thicknesses. Finally, an advanced model based on nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is introduced, which explains the observed Fano-type absorption line-shapes and tuning of the absorption strengths with the antenna resonance.

  13. Plasmonic super-localization using nano-post arrays for biomedical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hongki; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures enable field confinement which is locally amplified within sub-diffraction limited volume. The localized near-field can be useful in many biomedical sensing and imaging applications. In this research, we present the near-field characteristics localized by plasmonic nano-post arrays for biomedical spectroscopy. Circular gold nano-post arrays were modeled on gold and chrome films fabricated on a glass substrate whose thickness was 50, 20 and 2 nm, respectively. The nano-post arrays were fabricated with an e-beam lithography and a diameter of the post was 250 nm with periods varied as 500, 700, and 900 nm. The field localization produced by nano-posts was induced by angled illumination with a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope objective lens and measured by a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The NSOM has a tapered fiber probe with a 70-nm aperture and was a continuous-wave laser whose wavelength is 532 nm as light source. Incident TM-polarized light exhibited field localization on one side of an individual gold nano-post. When the direction of light incidence was changed opposite, localized field was switched to the opposite edge of the circular nano-post. We performed 3D finite difference time domain s for the field calculation and confirmed the localized field distribution at given illumination angles. We also discuss the potential applications of plasmonic field localization for analysis of biomolecules, cells, and tissues.

  14. Normal and anomalous plasmonic lattice modes of gold nanodisk arrays in inhomogeneous media

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Wing, W. J.; Campbell, Q.

    2016-03-21

    We study plasmonic lattice modes in two dimensional arrays of large metallic nanodisks in strongly inhomogeneous environments with controlled dielectric asymmetries. This is done within the two limits of positive (air/substrate) and negative (Si/substrate) asymmetries. In the former, the nanodisks are exposed to air, while in the latter, they are fully embedded in a dielectric material with a refractive index much higher than that of the glass substrate (Si). Our results show that in the air/substrate limit, the arrays can mainly support two distinct visible and infrared peaks associated with the optical coupling of multipolar plasmonic resonances of nanodisks in air and substrate (normal modes). As the nanodisks are gradually embedded in Si, i.e., going from the positive to negative asymmetry limit, the visible peak undergoes more than 200 nm red shift without significant mode degradation. Our results show that as this transition happens, a third peak (anomalous mode) becomes dominant. The amplitude and wavelength of this peak increase quadratically with the thickness of the Si layer, indicating formation of a unique collective mode. We study the impact of this mode on the emission semiconductor quantum dots, demonstrating they become much brighter as the result of the long-reach plasmonic fields of the nanodisks when the arrays are in this mode.

  15. Plasmonic colour generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Link, Stephan; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-11-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk-hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large-area printing and nanoscale lithography compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies, including nanoimprint lithography and self-assembly. Finally, we review recent developments in dynamically reconfigurable plasmonic colours and in the laser-induced post-processing of plasmonic colour surfaces.

  16. Plasmonic nanodot array optimization on organic thin film solar cells using anodic aluminum oxide templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyuyoung; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2013-09-01

    The fabrication method of plasmonic nanodots on ITO or nc-ZnO substrate has been developed to improve the efficiency of organic thin film solar cells. Nanoscale metallic nanodots arrays are fabricated by anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template mask which can have different structural parameters by varying anodization conditions. In this paper, the structural parameters of metallic nanodots, which can be controlled by the diverse structures of AAO template mask, are investigated to enhance the optical properties of organic thin film solar cells. It is found that optical properties of the organic thin film solar cells are improved by finding optimization values of the structural parameters of the metallic nanodot array.

  17. Long-range surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on X-shaped gold plasmonic nanohole arrays.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chao; Galvan, Daniel David; Meng, Guowen; Yu, Qiuming

    2017-09-13

    A multilayered architecture including a thin Au film supporting an X-shaped nanohole array and a thick continuous Au film separated by a Cytop dielectric layer is reported in this work. Long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) was generated at the top Au/water interface, which also resulted in a long-range surface-enhanced Raman scattering (LR-SERS) effect. LR-SPR originates from the coupling of surface plasmons (SPs) propagating along the opposite sides of the thin Au film embedded in a symmetric refractive index environment with Cytop (n = 1.34) and water (n = 1.33). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation method was used to investigate the optimal dimensions of the substrate by studying the reflectance spectra and electric field profiles. The calculated optimal structure was then fabricated via electron beam lithography, and its LR-SERS performance was demonstrated by detecting rhodamine 6G and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid in the refractive index-matched environment. We believe that this structure as a LR-SPR or LR-SERS substrate can have broad applications in biosensing.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance: instrumental resolution using photo diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Knut; Stålberg, Ralph; Lundström, Ingemar; Liedberg, Bo

    2000-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are used to study biomolecular interactions. We have performed a theoretical analysis of a SPR instrument using a convergent beam, a linear detector with various numbers of pixels and various analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) with a corresponding resolution ranging from 8 to 16 bits. Studies of small molecules at low concentrations or with low affinities are limited by the instrumental set-up, e.g. by the resolution, linearity and noise. The amplitudes of these parameters are highly dependent on the detector, ADC and dip-finding algorithm used. We have studied several dip-finding algorithms, e.g. intensity measurements, second- and third-order polynomial fits and centroid algorithms. Each algorithm used with the ADC and the detector has a resolution associated with it. Some algorithms also have an intrinsic algorithm error that is dependent on the number of pixels and the shape of the dip. A weighted centroid algorithm that has an excellent overall performance is described. If an accuracy of 10-6 refractive index units (RIU) is satisfactory, a 12-bit ADC and a 64-pixel detector are appropriate. Theoretically, by using a 16-bit ADC and a 1024-pixel detector, a resolution of better than 10-9 RIU is obtainable.

  19. Lithographically Patterned Nanoscale Electrodeposition of Plasmonic, Bimetallic, Semiconductor, Magnetic, and Polymer Nanoring Arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyunghee; Loget, Gabriel; Corn, Robert M

    2014-12-18

    Large area arrays of magnetic, semiconducting, and insulating nanorings were created by coupling colloidal lithography with nanoscale electrodeposition. This versatile nanoscale fabrication process allows for the independent tuning of the spacing, diameter, and width of the nanorings with typical values of 1.0 μm, 750 nm, and 100 nm, respectively, and was used to form nanorings from a host of materials: Ni, Co, bimetallic Ni/Au, CdSe, and polydopamine. These nanoring arrays have potential applications in memory storage, optical materials, and biosensing. A modified version of this nanoscale electrodeposition process was also used to create arrays of split gold nanorings. The size of the split nanoring opening was controlled by the angle of photoresist exposure during the fabrication process and could be varied from 50% down to 10% of the ring circumference. The large area (cm(2) scale) gold split nanoring array surfaces exhibited strong polarization-dependent plasmonic absorption bands for wavelengths from 1 to 5 μm. Plasmonic nanoscale split ring arrays are potentially useful as tunable dichroic materials throughout the infrared and near-infrared spectral regions.

  20. Lithographically Patterned Nanoscale Electrodeposition of Plasmonic, Bimetallic, Semiconductor, Magnetic, and Polymer Nanoring Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Large area arrays of magnetic, semiconducting, and insulating nanorings were created by coupling colloidal lithography with nanoscale electrodeposition. This versatile nanoscale fabrication process allows for the independent tuning of the spacing, diameter, and width of the nanorings with typical values of 1.0 μm, 750 nm, and 100 nm, respectively, and was used to form nanorings from a host of materials: Ni, Co, bimetallic Ni/Au, CdSe, and polydopamine. These nanoring arrays have potential applications in memory storage, optical materials, and biosensing. A modified version of this nanoscale electrodeposition process was also used to create arrays of split gold nanorings. The size of the split nanoring opening was controlled by the angle of photoresist exposure during the fabrication process and could be varied from 50% down to 10% of the ring circumference. The large area (cm2 scale) gold split nanoring array surfaces exhibited strong polarization-dependent plasmonic absorption bands for wavelengths from 1 to 5 μm. Plasmonic nanoscale split ring arrays are potentially useful as tunable dichroic materials throughout the infrared and near-infrared spectral regions. PMID:25553204

  1. Plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer across a silver nanowire array via resonant transmission and subwavelength imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Li, Min; Yang, Zhong-Jian; Peng, Xiao-Niu; Su, Xiong-Rui; Zhang, Zong-Suo; Li, Jian-Bo; Kim, Nam-Chol; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2010-09-28

    Efficient plasmon-mediated excitation energy transfer between the CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) across the silver nanowire array up to 560 nm in length is observed. The subwavelength imaging and spectral response of the silver nanowire arrays with near-field point-source excitations are revealed by theoretical simulations. Our studies demonstrate three advantages of the nanosystem: efficient exciton-plasmon conversion at the input side of the array through near-field strong coupling, directional waveguidance and resonant transmission via half-wave plasmon modes of the nanowire array, and subwavelength imaging at the output side of the array. These advantages allow a long-range radiative excitation energy transfer with a high efficiency and a good directionality.

  2. Tuning the wavelength of spoof plasmons by adjusting the impedance contrast in an array of penetrable inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, M. L.; Maurel, A.; Mercier, J.-F.; Félix, S.; Barra, F.

    2015-08-01

    While spoof plasmons have been proposed in periodic arrays of sound-hard inclusions, we show that they also exist when inclusions are penetrable. Moreover, we show that their wavelength can be tuned by the impedance mismatch between the inclusion material and the surrounding medium, beyond the usual effect of filling fraction in the array. It is demonstrated that sound-soft materials increase the efficiency in the generation of sub-wavelength plasmons, with much lower wavelengths than sound-hard materials and than a homogeneous slab. An application to the generation of acoustic spoof plasmons by an ultra compact array of air/polydimethylsiloxane inclusions in water is proposed with plasmon wavelength tunable up to deep sub-wavelength scales.

  3. Plasmonic nanohole arrays on Si-Ge heterostructures: an approach for integrated biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augel, L.; Fischer, I. A.; Dunbar, L. A.; Bechler, S.; Berrier, A.; Etezadi, D.; Hornung, F.; Kostecki, K.; Ozdemir, C. I.; Soler, M.; Altug, H.; Schulze, J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanohole array surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors offer a promising platform for high-throughput label-free biosensing. Integrating nanohole arrays with group-IV semiconductor photodetectors could enable low-cost and disposable biosensors compatible to Si-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that can be combined with integrated circuitry for continuous monitoring of biosamples and fast sensor data processing. Such an integrated biosensor could be realized by structuring a nanohole array in the contact metal layer of a photodetector. We used Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy to investigate nanohole arrays in a 100 nm Al film deposited on top of a vertical Si-Ge photodiode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We find that the presence of a protein bilayer, constitute of protein AG and Immunoglobulin G (IgG), leads to a wavelength-dependent absorptance enhancement of ~ 8 %.

  4. Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiun-Chan; Ji, Jin; Hogle, James M.; Larson, Dale N.

    2009-01-01

    We performed multiplexed sensing on nanohole array devices to simultaneously obtain information on molecular absorption, scattering, and refractive-index change, which were distinguished by using different array structures with distinct optical behavior. Up to 25 arrays were fabricated within a 65 μm × 50 μm area to provide real-time information of the local surface environment. The performance of multiplexed sensing was examined by flowing NaCl, coomassie blue, bovine serum albumin, and liposome solutions that exhibit different visible light absorption / scattering properties and different refractive indices. Experimental artifacts from light source fluctuation, sample injections, and light scattering induced by aggregates in solutions were detected by monitoring superwavelength holes or nanohole arrays with different periodicity and hole diameters. PMID:19157848

  5. Tailoring plasmonic properties of gold nanohole arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Peng; Cushing, Scott K.; Suri, Savan; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-01

    The wide plasmonic tuning range of nanotriangle and nanohole array patterns fabricated by nanosphere lithography makes them promising in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. Unfortunately, it is challenging to optimize these patterns for SERS sensing because their optical response is a complex mixture of localized and propagating surface plasmons. In this paper, transmission and reflection measurements are combined with finite difference time domain simulations to identify and separate each plasmonic mode, discerning which resonance leads to the electromagnetic field enhancement. The SERS enhancement is found to be dominated by the absorption, which is shifted from the transmission and reflection dips usually used as tuning points, and by the ‘gap’ defects formed within the pattern. These effects have different spectral and geometric dependences, forming two optimization curves which can be used to predict the best performance for a given excitation wavelength. The developed model is verified with experimental SERS measurements for several nanohole sizes and periodicities, and then used to give optimal fabrication parameters for a range of measurement conditions. The results will promote the application of two-dimensional plasmonic nanoarrays in SERS sensors. PMID:25586930

  6. Metamaterials and plasmonics: From nanoparticles to nanoantenna arrays, metasurfaces, and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco, Monticone; Andrea, Alù

    2014-04-01

    The rise of plasmonic metamaterials in recent years has unveiled the possibility of revolutionizing the entire field of optics and photonics, challenging well-established technological limitations and paving the way to innovations at an unprecedented level. To capitalize the disruptive potential of this rising field of science and technology, it is important to be able to combine the richness of optical phenomena enabled by nanoplasmonics in order to realize metamaterial components, devices, and systems of increasing complexity. Here, we review a few recent research directions in the field of plasmonic metamaterials, which may foster further advancements in this research area. We will discuss the anomalous scattering features enabled by plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoclusters, and show how they may represent the fundamental building blocks of complex nanophotonic architectures. Building on these concepts, advanced components can be designed and operated, such as optical nanoantennas and nanoantenna arrays, which, in turn, may be at the basis of metasurface devices and complex systems. Following this path, from basic phenomena to advanced functionalities, the field of plasmonic metamaterials offers the promise of an important scientific and technological impact, with applications spanning from medical diagnostics to clean energy and information processing.

  7. Multispectral optical enhanced transmission of a continuous metal film coated with a plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gui-qiang; Hu, Ying; Liu, Zheng-qi; Cai, Zheng-jie; Zhang, Xiang-nan; Chen, Yuan-hao; Huang, Kuan

    2014-04-01

    We propose and show multispectral optical enhanced transmission in the visible and near-infrared region in a continuous metal film coated with a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal non-close-packed plasmonic array. The plasmonic array consists of metal/dielectric multilayer core-shell nanoparticles. The excitation of near-field plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent core-shell nanoparticles, plasmon resonance coupling between adjacent metal layers in the nanoparticle, and surface plasmon (SP) waves on the metal film are mainly responsible for the multispectral optical enhanced transmission behavior. The multispectral optical enhanced transmission response could be highly modified in the wavelength range, transparent bandwidth and transmission intensity by varying the geometry parameters including the gap distance between adjacent plasmonic nanoparticles, the size of metal core and the thickness of dielectric layer between the metal layers. In addition, the number of optical enhanced transmission bands increases with the number of metal layers in the plasmonic nanoparticle. The proposed structure shows many merits such as the deep sub-wavelength size, multispectral optical enhanced transmission bands as well as fully retained electric and mechanical properties of the natural metal. These merits may provide promising applications for highly integrated optoelectronic devices including plasmonic filters, nanoscale multiplexers, and nonlinear optics.

  8. Super-radiant plasmon mode is more efficient for SERS than the sub-radiant mode in highly packed 2D gold nanocube arrays.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A

    2015-08-21

    The field coupling in highly packed plasmonic nanoparticle arrays is not localized due to the energy transport via the sub-radiant plasmon modes, which is formed in addition to the regular super-radiant plasmon mode. Unlike the sub-radiant mode, the plasmon field of the super-radiant mode cannot extend over long distances since it decays radiatively with a shorter lifetime. The coupling of the plasmon fields of gold nanocubes (AuNCs) when organized into highly packed 2D arrays was examined experimentally. Multiple plasmon resonance optical peaks are observed for the AuNC arrays and are compared to those calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. The calculated electromagnetic plasmon fields of the arrays displayed high field intensity for the nanocubes located in the center of the arrays for the lower energy super-radiant mode, while the higher energy sub-radiant plasmon mode displayed high field intensity at the edges of the arrays. The Raman signal enhancement by the super-radiant plasmon mode was found to be one hundred fold greater than that by sub-radiant plasmon mode because the super-radiant mode has higher scattering and stronger plasmon field intensity relative to the sub-radiant mode.

  9. Super-radiant plasmon mode is more efficient for SERS than the sub-radiant mode in highly packed 2D gold nanocube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.

    2015-08-21

    The field coupling in highly packed plasmonic nanoparticle arrays is not localized due to the energy transport via the sub-radiant plasmon modes, which is formed in addition to the regular super-radiant plasmon mode. Unlike the sub-radiant mode, the plasmon field of the super-radiant mode cannot extend over long distances since it decays radiatively with a shorter lifetime. The coupling of the plasmon fields of gold nanocubes (AuNCs) when organized into highly packed 2D arrays was examined experimentally. Multiple plasmon resonance optical peaks are observed for the AuNC arrays and are compared to those calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. The calculated electromagnetic plasmon fields of the arrays displayed high field intensity for the nanocubes located in the center of the arrays for the lower energy super-radiant mode, while the higher energy sub-radiant plasmon mode displayed high field intensity at the edges of the arrays. The Raman signal enhancement by the super-radiant plasmon mode was found to be one hundred fold greater than that by sub-radiant plasmon mode because the super-radiant mode has higher scattering and stronger plasmon field intensity relative to the sub-radiant mode.

  10. Template-Stripped Smooth Ag Nanohole Arrays with Silica Shells for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyungsoon; Lee, Si Hoon; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Johnson, Timothy W.; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Nagpal, Prashant; Norris, David J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive, reproducible and high-throughput fabrication of nanometric apertures in metallic films can benefit many applications in plasmonics, sensing, spectroscopy, lithography and imaging. Here we use template stripping to pattern periodic nanohole arrays in optically thick, smooth Ag films with a silicon template made via nanoimprint lithography. Ag is a low-cost material with good optical properties, but it suffers from poor chemical stability and biocompatibility. However, a thin silica shell encapsulating our template-stripped Ag nanoholes facilitates biosensing applications by protecting the Ag from oxidation as well as providing a robust surface that can be readily modified with a variety of biomolecules using well-established silane chemistry. The thickness of the conformal silica shell can be precisely tuned by atomic layer deposition, and a 15-nm-thick silica shell can effectively prevent fluorophore quenching. The Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells can also be bonded to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels for fluorescence imaging, formation of supported lipid bilayers, and real-time, label-free SPR sensing. Additionally, the smooth surfaces of the template-stripped Ag films enhance refractive index sensitivity compared with as-deposited, rough Ag films. Because nearly centimeter-sized nanohole arrays can be produced inexpensively without using any additional lithography, etching or lift-off, this method can facilitate widespread applications of metallic nanohole arrays for plasmonics and biosensing. PMID:21770414

  11. Design and Implementation of Noble Metal Nanoparticle Cluster Arrays for Plasmon Enhanced Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bo; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle Cluster Arrays (NCAs) are a class of electromagnetic materials that comprise chemically defined nanoparticles assembled into clusters of defined size in an extended deterministic arrangement. NCAs are fabricated through integration of chemically synthesized building blocks into predefined patterns using a hybrid top-down/bottom-up fabrication approach that overcomes some of the limitations of conventional top-down fabrication methods with regard to minimum available feature size and structural complexity. NCAs can sustain near-field interactions between nanoparticles within individual clusters as well as between entire neighboring clusters. The availability of near-field interactions on multiple length scales - together with the ability to further enhance the coupled plasmon modes through photonic modes in carefully designed array morphologies - leads to a multiscale cascade electromagnetic field enhancement throughout the array. This feature article introduces the design and fabrication fundamentals of NCAs and characterizes the electromagnetic coupling mechanisms in the arrays. Furthermore, it reviews how the optical properties of NCAs can be tuned through the size and shape of the nanoparticle building blocks and the geometry, size, and separation of the assembled clusters. NCAs have potential applications in many different areas; this feature article focuses on plasmon enhanced biosensing and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in particular. PMID:22299057

  12. Optical properties of plasmonic nanoantenna arrays based on H-shaped nanoparticles with extended arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkmen, Mustafa; Aslan, Erdem

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we present the optical properties of a plasmonic nanoantenna array based on H-shaped gold nanoparticles with extended arms, which can be used for infrared detection applications. Plasmonic nanoantennas operating at the infrared and visible region provide a unique way to capture, control and manipulate light at the nanoscale through the excitation of collective electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. The unit cell of proposed antenna consists of one H-shaped nanostructure and two extended arms located on the lateral sides of this nanostructure. We will demonstrate the proposed antenna has a dual band spectral response and the locations of the resonance frequencies can be adjusted by changing the geometrical dimensions of both the H-shaped nanoparticles and the extended arms. Theoretical calculations of the reflectance spectra of the nanoantenna array are performed by using simulation software, which utilizes Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In order to show the sensing capacity of the structure, the effect of the dielectric medium on the resonance frequency is also determined. The results show that the proposed antenna can be utilized for infrared sensing applications.

  13. Second harmonic excitation spectroscopy in studies of Fano-type coupling in plasmonic arrays (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Gary F.; Trevino, Jacob T.; Pecora, Emanuele Francesco; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Scattering by plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles can be tailored by particle material, size, shape, and local as well as long-range order. In this presentation we discuss a series of experiments in which long-range Fano-type coupling between grating resonances and localized surface palsmon (LSP) resonances were studied using second harmonic excitation (SH-E) spectroscopy. By tuning the excitation wavelength of a femtosecond laser and measuring the relative second harmonic (SH) signal we demonstrated that when long-range grating resonances spectrally overlap with those of the LSPs, electromagnetic field enhancement occurs on the surface of the nanoparticles leading to an increase in nonlinear scattering. This effect has been demonstrated for periodic arrays of monomers and dimers, bi-periodic antenna arrays for multi-spectral focusing to a single point, and chirped nanoparticle structures for broadband field enhancement. Results are supported by finite difference time domain simulations showing that electromagnetic fields are enhanced close on the surface of the nanoparticles when long-range structural resonances are excited. These studies have revealed design principles for engineering the interplay of photonic and plasmonic coupling for future linear and nonlinear plasmonic devices.

  14. Formation and dissolution of microbubbles on highly-ordered plasmonic nanopillar arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiumei; Bao, Lei; Dipalo, Michele; De Angelis, Francesco; Zhang, Xuehua

    2015-01-01

    Bubble formation from plasmonic heating of nanostructures is of great interest in many applications. In this work, we study experimentally the intrinsic effects of the number of three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures on the dynamics of microbubbles, largely decoupled from the effects of dissolved air. The formation and dissolution of microbubbles is observed on exciting groups of 1, 4, and 9 nanopillars. Our results show that the power threshold for the bubble formation depends on the number density of the nanopillars in highly-ordered arrays. In the degassed water, both the growth rate and the maximal radius of the plasmonic microbubbles increase with an increase of the illuminated pillar number, due to the heat balance between the heat loss across the bubble and the collective heating generated from the nanopillars. Interestingly, our results show that the bubble dissolution is affected by the spatial arrangement of the underlying nanopillars, due to the pinning effect on the bubble boundary. The bubbles on nanopillar arrays dissolve in a jumping mode with step-wise features on the dissolution curves, prior to a smooth dissolution phase for the bubble pinned by a single pillar. The insight from this work may facilitate the design of nanostructures for efficient energy conversion. PMID:26687143

  15. Graphene-enhanced plasmonic nanohole arrays for environmental sensing in aqueous samples

    PubMed Central

    Genslein, Christa; Hausler, Peter; Kirchner, Eva-Maria; Bierl, Rudolf; Baeumner, Antje J

    2016-01-01

    The label-free nature of surface plasmon resonance techniques (SPR) enables a fast, specific, and sensitive analysis of molecular interactions. However, detection of highly diluted concentrations and small molecules is still challenging. It is shown here that in contrast to continuous gold films, gold nanohole arrays can significantly improve the performance of SPR devices in angle-dependent measurement mode, as a signal amplification arises from localized surface plasmons at the nanostructures. This leads consequently to an increased sensing capability of molecules bound to the nanohole array surface. Furthermore, a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sensor surface was layered over the nanohole array. Reduced graphene oxide is a 2D nanomaterial consisting of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and is an attractive receptor surface for SPR as it omits any bulk phase and therefore allows fast response times. In fact, it was found that nanohole arrays demonstrated a higher shift in the resonance angle of 250–380% compared to a continuous gold film. At the same time the nanohole array structure as characterized by its diameter-to-periodicity ratio had minimal influence on the binding capacity of the sensor surface. As a simple and environmentally highly relevant model, binding of the plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) via π-stacking was monitored on the rGO gold nanohole array realizing a limit of detection of as low as 20 nM. The concentration-dependent signal change was studied with the best performing rGO-modified nanohole arrays. Compared to continuous gold films a diameter-to-periodicity ratio (D/P) of 0.43 lead to a 12-fold signal enhancement. Finally, the effect of environmental waters on the sensor was evaluated using samples from sea, lake and river waters spiked with analytically relevant amounts of DEP during which significant changes in the SPR signal are observed. It is expected that this concept can be successfully transferred to enhance the sensitivity in SPR

  16. Graphene-enhanced plasmonic nanohole arrays for environmental sensing in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Genslein, Christa; Hausler, Peter; Kirchner, Eva-Maria; Bierl, Rudolf; Baeumner, Antje J; Hirsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The label-free nature of surface plasmon resonance techniques (SPR) enables a fast, specific, and sensitive analysis of molecular interactions. However, detection of highly diluted concentrations and small molecules is still challenging. It is shown here that in contrast to continuous gold films, gold nanohole arrays can significantly improve the performance of SPR devices in angle-dependent measurement mode, as a signal amplification arises from localized surface plasmons at the nanostructures. This leads consequently to an increased sensing capability of molecules bound to the nanohole array surface. Furthermore, a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sensor surface was layered over the nanohole array. Reduced graphene oxide is a 2D nanomaterial consisting of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms and is an attractive receptor surface for SPR as it omits any bulk phase and therefore allows fast response times. In fact, it was found that nanohole arrays demonstrated a higher shift in the resonance angle of 250-380% compared to a continuous gold film. At the same time the nanohole array structure as characterized by its diameter-to-periodicity ratio had minimal influence on the binding capacity of the sensor surface. As a simple and environmentally highly relevant model, binding of the plasticizer diethyl phthalate (DEP) via π-stacking was monitored on the rGO gold nanohole array realizing a limit of detection of as low as 20 nM. The concentration-dependent signal change was studied with the best performing rGO-modified nanohole arrays. Compared to continuous gold films a diameter-to-periodicity ratio (D/P) of 0.43 lead to a 12-fold signal enhancement. Finally, the effect of environmental waters on the sensor was evaluated using samples from sea, lake and river waters spiked with analytically relevant amounts of DEP during which significant changes in the SPR signal are observed. It is expected that this concept can be successfully transferred to enhance the sensitivity in SPR

  17. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface

  18. Broad-Range Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances of a Multilayer Coaxial Nanohole Array with an Electroactive Polymer Wrapper.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziwei; Yu, Ye; Sun, Ningwei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Gu, Panpan; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Wei; König, Tobias A F; Fery, Andreas; Zhang, Gang

    2017-10-11

    Plasmonic assemblies featuring high sensitivity that can be readily shifted by external fields are the key for sensitive and versatile sensing devices. In this paper, a novel fast-responsive plasmonic nanocomposite composed of a multilayer nanohole array and a responsive electrochromic polymer is proposed with the plasmonic mode appearance vigorously cycled upon orthogonal electrical stimuli. In this nanocomposite, the coaxially stacked plasmonic nanohole arrays can induce multiple intense Fano resonances, which result from the crosstalk between a broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the designed discrete transmission peaks with ultrahigh sensitivity; the polymer wrapper could provide the sensitive nanohole array with real-time-varied surroundings of refractive indices upon electrical stimuli. Therefore, a pronounced pure electroplasmonic shift up to 72 nm is obtained, which is the largest pure electrotuning SPR range to our knowledge. The stacked nanohole arrays here are also directly used as a working electrode, and they ensure sufficient contact between the working electrode (plasmonic structure) and the electroactive polymer, thus providing considerably improved response speed (within 1 s) for real-time sensing and switching.

  19. Highly Enhanced Fluorescence Signals of Quantum Dot-Polymer Composite Arrays Formed by Hybridization of Ultrathin Plasmonic Au Nanowalls.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Yeon; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Cho, Kyeong Min; Jung, Woo-Bin; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-11-11

    Enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of quantum dot (QD)-polymer nanocomposite arrays is an important issue in QD studies because of the significant reduction of fluorescence signals of such arrays due to nonradiative processes in densely packed polymer chains in solid films. In this study, we enhance the fluorescence intensity of such arrays without significantly reducing their optical transparency. Enhanced fluorescence is achieved by hybridizing ultrathin plasmonic Au nanowalls onto the sidewalls of the arrays via single-step patterning and hybridization. The plasmonic Au nanowall induces metal-enhanced fluorescence, resulting in a maximum 7-fold enhancement of the fluorescence signals. We also prepare QD nanostructures of various shapes and sizes by controlling the dry etching time. In the near future, this facile approach can be used for fluorescence enhancement of colloidal QDs with plasmonic hybrid structures. Such structures can be used as optical substrates for imaging applications and for fabrication of QD-LED devices.

  20. Plasmon hybridization in stacked double crescents arrays fabricated by colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Nicolas; Fischer, Janina; Mohammadi, Reza; Retsch, Markus; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Landfester, Katharina; Weiss, Clemens K; Kreiter, Max

    2011-02-09

    We apply colloidal lithography to construct stacked nanocrescent dimer structures with an exact vertical alignment and a separation distance of approximately 10 nm. Highly ordered, large arrays of these nanostructures are accessible using nonclose-packed colloidal monolayers as masks. Spatially separated nanocrescent dimers are obtained by application of spatially distributed colloids. The polarization dependent optical properties of the nanostructures are investigated in detail and compared to single crescents. The close proximity of the nanocrescents leads to a coupling process that gives rise to new optical resonances which can be described as linear superpositions of the individual crescents' plasmonic modes. We apply a plasmon hybridization model to explain the spectral differences of all polarization dependent resonances and use geometric arguments to explain the respective shifts of the resonances. Theoretical calculations are performed to support the hybridization model and extend it to higher order resonances not resolved experimentally.

  1. Survey of plasmonic gaps tuned at sub-nanometer scale in self-assembled arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Li-Hua; Yi, Li-Zhi; Wang, Gui-Sheng; Zhang, Chao; Yuan, Song-Liu

    2016-04-01

    Creating nanoscale and sub-nanometer gaps between noble metal nanoparticles is critical for the applications of plasmonics and nanophotonics. To realize simultaneous attainments of both the optical spectrum and the gap size, the ability to tune these nanoscale gaps at the sub-nanometer scale is particularly desirable. Many nanofabrication methodologies, including electron beam lithography, self-assembly, and focused ion beams, have been tested for creating nanoscale gaps that can deliver significant field enhancement. Here, we survey recent progress in both the reliable creation of nanoscale gaps in nanoparticle arrays using self-assemblies and in the in-situ tuning techniques at the sub-nanometer scale. Precisely tunable gaps, as we expect, will be good candidates for future investigations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, non-linear optics, and quantum plasmonics.

  2. Plasmonic phased array feeder enabling ultra-fast beam steering at millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, R; Burla, M; Abrecht, F C; Welschen, S; Hoessbacher, C; Heni, W; Gebrewold, S A; Baeuerle, B; Josten, A; Salamin, Y; Haffner, C; Johnston, P V; Elder, D L; Leuchtmann, P; Hillerkuss, D; Fedoryshyn, Y; Dalton, L R; Hafner, C; Leuthold, J

    2016-10-31

    In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated microwave phoneeded for beamtonics phased array antenna feeder at 60 GHz with a record-low footprint. Our design is based on ultra-compact plasmonic phase modulators (active area <2.5µm2) that not only provide small size but also ultra-fast tuning speed. In our design, the integrated circuit footprint is in fact only limited by the contact pads of the electrodes and by the optical feeding waveguides. Using the high speed of the plasmonic modulators, we demonstrate beam steering with less than 1 ns reconfiguration time, i.e. the beam direction is reconfigured in-between 1 GBd transmitted symbols.

  3. Tunable, broadband and high-efficiency Si/Ge hot luminescence with plasmonic nanocavity array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Gongmin; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Lin; Mu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Li, Wei; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Xi

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the massive application in the electronics industry for decades, silicon has been considered as one of the best candidates for the photonics industry. However, a high-efficiency, broadband light source is still a challenge. In this paper, we theoretically propose a Si/Ge based platform consisting of plasmonic nanocavity array to realize the tunable, broadband, and high-efficiency Si/Ge hot luminescence from infrared to visible region with large luminescence enhancement (about 103). It is demonstrated that the large luminescence enhancement is due to the resonance between the intrinsic hot luminescence and the plasmonic nanocavity modes with ultra-small effective mode volumes. And, the size and Ge composition of Si 1 - x Ge x nanowire can be tuned to realize the tunable and broadband luminescence. This study gives rise to many applications in silicon photonics, like ultrafast optical communications, sensors, and on-chip spectral measurements.

  4. Simultaneous electrical and plasmonic monitoring of potential induced ion adsorption on metal nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Robert; Fraschina, Corrado; Dielacher, Bernd; Sannomiya, Takumi; Dahlin, Andreas B; Vörös, Janos

    2013-06-07

    Simultaneous LSPR and electronic sensing of potential induced ion adsorption onto gold nanowire arrays is presented. The formation of a Stern layer upon applying an electrochemical potential generated a complex optical response. Simulation of a lossy atomic layer on the nanowire array using the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) corresponded very well to the experimentally observed peak position, intensity, and radius of curvature changes. Additionally, a significant voltage-dependent change in the resistance of the gold nanowire array was observed during the controlled formation of the electrical double layer. The results demonstrated that an applied electrochemical potential induces measurable changes in the optical and electrical properties of the gold nanowire surface. This is the first demonstration of combined plasmonic and nanowire resistance-based sensing of a surface process in the literature.

  5. Polarization-induced tunability of localized surface plasmon resonances in arrays of sub-wavelength cruciform apertures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul G; Biris, Claudiu G; Osley, Edward J; Gaathon, Ophir; Osgood, Richard M; Panoiu, Nicolae C; Warburton, Paul A

    2011-12-05

    We demonstrate experimentally that by engineering the structural asymmetry of the primary unit cell of a symmetrically nanopatterned metallic film the optical transmission becomes strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave. By considering a specific plasmonic structure consisting of square arrays of nanoscale asymmetric cruciform apertures we show that the enhanced optical anisotropy is induced by the excitation inside the apertures of localized surface plasmon resonances. The measured transmission spectra of these plasmonic arrays show a transmission maximum whose spectral location can be tuned by almost 50% by simply varying the in-plane polarization of the incident photons. Comprehensive numerical simulations further prove that the maximum of the transmission spectra corresponds to polarization-dependent surface plasmon resonances tightly confined in the two arms of the cruciform aperture. Despite this, there are isosbestic points where the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra are polarization-independent, regardless of the degree of asymmetry of the apertures.

  6. Ag colloids and arrays for plasmonic non-radiative energy transfer from quantum dots to a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Graham P.; Gough, John J.; Higgins, Luke J.; Karanikolas, Vasilios D.; Wilson, Keith M.; Garcia Coindreau, Jorge A.; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Parbrook, Peter J.; Bradley, A. Louise

    2017-03-01

    Non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) can be an efficient process of benefit to many applications including photovoltaics, sensors, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Combining the remarkable optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of quantum wells (QWs) allows for the formation of hybrid devices which can utilize NRET as a means of transferring absorbed optical energy from the QDs to the QW. Here we report on plasmon-enhanced NRET from semiconductor nanocrystal QDs to a QW. Ag nanoparticles in the form of colloids and ordered arrays are used to demonstrate plasmon-mediated NRET from QDs to QWs with varying top barrier thicknesses. Plasmon-mediated energy transfer (ET) efficiencies of up to ˜25% are observed with the Ag colloids. The distance dependence of the plasmon-mediated ET is found to follow the same d -4 dependence as the direct QD to QW ET. There is also evidence for an increase in the characteristic distance of the interaction, thus indicating that it follows a Förster-like model with the Ag nanoparticle-QD acting as an enhanced donor dipole. Ordered Ag nanoparticle arrays display plasmon-mediated ET efficiencies up to ˜21%. To explore the tunability of the array system, two arrays with different geometries are presented. It is demonstrated that changing the geometry of the array allows a transition from overall quenching of the acceptor QW emission to enhancement, as well as control of the competition between the QD donor quenching and ET rates.

  7. Design of a Surface-Plasmon-Resonance Sensor Based on a Microstructured Optical Fiber with Annular-Shaped Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanfeng; Chen, Mingyang; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yongkang; Yang, Jichang

    2014-09-01

    A novel design is proposed for highly sensitive surface-plasmon-resonance sensors. The sensor is based on a microstructured optical fiber with two layers of annular-shaped holes. A gold layer is deposited on the inner surface of the second hole-layer, in which the holes have several micrometers thickness in size, facilitating analyte infiltration and metal layer deposition. In the first layer of holes, the sector-ring-shaped arms, used as supporting strips, are utilized to tune the resonance depth of the sensor. Numerical results indicate that the sensor operation wavelength can be tuned across the C+L-band. The spectral sensitivity of 1.0 · 104 nm · RIU-1 order of magnitude and a detection limit of 1.0 · 10-4 RIU order are demonstrated over a wide range of analyte refractive index from 1.320 to 1.335.

  8. Sensitive surface plasmon resonance enabled by templated periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xuan; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Choi, Baeck; Wu, Kedi; Jiang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a simple and scalable colloidal lithography technology for fabricating periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts for sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. This new bottom-up approach leverages a unique polymer wetting layer between a self-assembled, non-close-packed monolayer silica colloidal crystal and a silicon substrate to template ordered gold nanodonuts with tunable geometries over wafer-sized areas. The processes involved in this templating nanofabrication approach, including spin coating, oxygen plasma etching, and metal sputtering, are all compatible with standard microfabrication technologies. Specular reflection measurements reveal that the efficient electromagnetic coupling of the incident light with the tunable SPR modes of the templated gold nanodonut arrays enables good spectral tunability. Bulk refractive index sensing experiments show that a high SPR sensitivity of ∼758 nm per refractive index unit, which outperforms many plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by both top-down and bottom-up approaches, can be achieved using the templated gold nanodonut arrays. Numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations have also been performed to complement the optical characterization and the theoretical results match well with the experimental measurements.

  9. Plasmonic gold mushroom arrays with refractive index sensing figures of merit approaching the theoretical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Zhou, Jianhua; Liu, Tianran; Tao, Yuting; Jiang, Ruibin; Liu, Mingxuan; Xiao, Guohui; Zhu, Jinhao; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wang, Xuehua; Jin, Chongjun; Wang, Jianfang

    2013-08-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based sensing has found wide applications in medical diagnosis, food safety regulation and environmental monitoring. Compared with commercial propagating surface plasmon resonance (PSPR)-based sensors, LSPR ones are simple, cost-effective and suitable for measuring local refractive index changes. However, the figure of merit (FOM) values of LSPR sensors are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of PSPR ones, preventing the widespread use of LSPR sensors. Here we describe an array of submicrometer gold mushrooms with a FOM reaching ~108, which is comparable to the theoretically predicted upper limit for standard PSPR sensors. Such a high FOM arises from the interference between Wood’s anomaly and the LSPRs. We further demonstrate the array as a biosensor for detecting cytochrome c and alpha-fetoprotein, with their detection limits down to 200 pM and 15 ng ml-1, respectively, suggesting that the array is a promising candidate for label-free biomedical sensing.

  10. Active plasmonic switching at mid-infrared wavelengths with graphene ribbon arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hong-Son; How Gan, Choon

    2013-06-01

    An active plasmonic switch based on single- and few-layer doped graphene ribbon array operating in the mid-infrared spectrum is investigated with theoretical and numerical calculations. It is shown that significant resonance wavelength shifts and modulation depths can be achieved with a slight variation of the doping concentration of the graphene ribbon. The few-layer graphene ribbon array device outperforms the single-layer one in terms of the achievable modulation depth. Our simulations reveal that, by modulating the Fermi-energy level between 0.2 eV and 0.25 eV, a four-layer graphene ribbon array device can achieve a modulation depth and resonance wavelength shift of ˜13 dB and 0.94 μm, respectively, compared to ˜2.8 dB and 1.85 μm for a single-layer device. Additionally, simple fitting models to predict the modulation depth and the resonance wavelength shift are proposed. These prospects pave the way towards ultrafast active graphene-based plasmonic devices for infrared and THz applications.

  11. Influence of plasmonic array geometry on energy transfer from a quantum well to a quantum dot layer.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Luke J; Marocico, Cristian A; Karanikolas, Vasilios D; Bell, Alan P; Gough, John J; Murphy, Graham P; Parbrook, Peter J; Bradley, A Louise

    2016-10-27

    A range of seven different Ag plasmonic arrays formed using nanostructures of varying shape, size and gap were fabricated using helium-ion lithography (HIL) on an InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) substrate. The influence of the array geometry on plasmon-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a single InGaN QW to a ∼80 nm layer of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix is investigated. It is shown that the energy transfer efficiency is strongly dependent on the array properties and an efficiency of ∼51% is observed for a nanoring array. There were no signatures of FRET in the absence of the arrays. The QD acceptor layer emission is highly sensitive to the array geometry. A model was developed to confirm that the increase in the QD emission on the QW substrate compared with a GaN substrate can be attributed solely to plasmon-enhanced FRET. The individual contributions of direct enhancement of the QD layer emission by the array and the plasmon-enhanced FRET are separated out, with the QD emission described by the product of an array emission factor and an energy transfer factor. It is shown that while the nanoring geometry results in an energy transfer factor of ∼1.7 the competing quenching by the array, with an array emission factor of ∼0.7, results in only an overall gain of ∼14% in the QD emission. The QD emission was enhanced by ∼71% for a nanobox array, resulting from the combination of a more modest energy transfer factor of 1.2 coupled with an array emission factor of ∼1.4.

  12. Plasmonic lattice resonance-enhanced light emission from plastic scintillators by periodical Ag nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Zhu, Zhichao; Wu, Qiang; Cheng, Chuanwei; Gu, Mu; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hong; Liu, Jinliang; Chen, Liang; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2017-05-01

    We have demonstrated that periodical arrays of silver nanoparticles can enhance the light emission from a plastic scintillator layer on the surface of a silicon substrate. The enhancement is attributed to surface lattice resonances with a photonic-plasmonic nature. Although the enhancement exhibits directional characteristics for individual wavelengths, the wavelength-integrated enhancement shows a monotonous increase with increasing emission angle. As a result, an overall 1.81-fold wavelength- and angle-integrated enhancement has been obtained. This observation is promising for fundamental and applied research into enhanced luminescent material layers on opaque substrates.

  13. Plasmon-Coupled Whispering Gallery Modes on Nanodisk Arrays for Signal Enhancements.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Young; Lee, Wonju; Ahn, Heesang; Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Chang-Seok; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Kyujung

    2017-09-15

    Metallic nanostructures including single and double nanodisks are successfully used to enhance the localized electric field in vicinity of microcavity in whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor. We demonstrate numerical calculations of plasmonic coupling of WGMs to single and double nanodisk arrays on a planar substrate. We then experimentally confirmed that the resonance wavelength of WGM sensor was dramatically shifted by adoption of single and double nanodisks on the surface of microcavity in the WGM sensor. Thus, our approach provides the tunable sensitivity of WGM sensor, and has a great potential to be used in numerous areas where the single biomolecule, protein-protein folding and biomolecular interactions are involved.

  14. Controlled plasmon enhanced fluorescence by silver nanoparticles deposited onto nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenglong; Wu, Yanni; Dong, Jun; Gao, Wei; Han, Qingyan; Zheng, Hairong

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures of porous alumina array (PAA) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared for enhancing fluorescence emission. In order to avoid fluorescence quenching effects and obtain clear fluorescence enhancement, the molecules were separated by using such 3D substrates, and the mean distance between the molecules and nanoparticles’ surface can be easily controlled by changing the diameters of the PAA tube. It was found that the PAA tube with smaller size provides better fluorescence enhancement. Enhanced cross section, a new fluorescence enhanced factor, combined with the simulation of localized electromagnetic field enhancement was presented to understand the experimental results.

  15. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D

    2017-04-14

    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 10^{3} pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 10^{10}  M_{⊙} out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4×10^{8}  M_{⊙}). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  16. Using Particle Lithography to Tailor the Architecture of Au Nanoparticle Plasmonic Nanoring Arrays.

    PubMed

    Pravitasari, Arika; Negrito, Maelani; Light, Kristin; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan; Sheldon, Matthew; Batteas, James D

    2017-09-25

    The facile assembly of metal nanostructured arrays is a fundamental step in the design of plasmon enhanced chemical sensing and solar cell architectures. Here we have investigated methods of creating controlled formations of two-dimensional periodic arrays comprised of 20 nm Au nanoparticles (NPs) on a hydrophilic polymer surface using particle lithography. To direct the assembly process, capillary force and NP concentration both play critical roles on the resulting nanostructured arrays. As such, tuning these experimental parameters can directly be used to modify the nature of the nanostructures formed. To explore this, two different concentrations of Au NP solutions (∼7 × 10(11) or 4 × 10(12) NPs/mL) were used in conjunction with a fixed concentration of polystyrene microspheres (PS MS, ∼6 × 10(9) PS MS/mL). Assembly at a relative humidity (RH) of 45% with the higher concentration resulted in the formation of well-defined Au nanorings of ca. 23 nm in height and 881 nm in diameter with a pitch of 2.5 μm. Assembly at 65% RH with the lower concentration of NPs resulted in Au nanodonut arrays comprised of isolated single Au NPs. To explore the extent of coupling in the well-defined structures, dark field scattering spectra were collected and showed a broad localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak with a shoulder, which full-wave electrodynamics modeling (finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method) attributed to be a result of pronounced particle-particle coupling along the circumference of the nanoring array.

  17. Aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters exploiting a nanopatch array.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Vivek R; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2014-11-12

    Nanophotonic devices enabled by aluminum plasmonics are saliently advantageous in terms of their low cost, outstanding sustainability, and affordable volume production. We report, for the first time, aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters, which are fabricated just with single step electron-beam lithography. The filters feature selective suppression in the transmission spectra, which is realized by combining the propagating and nonpropagating surface plasmons mediated by an array of opaque and physically thin aluminum nanopatches. A broad palette of bright, high-contrast subtractive colors is successfully demonstrated by simply varying the pitches of the nanopatches. These subtractive color filters have twice the photon throughput of additive counterparts, ultimately providing elevated optical transmission and thus stronger color signals. Moreover, the filters are demonstrated to conspicuously feature a dual-mode operation, both transmissive and reflective, in conjunction with a capability to exhibit micron-scale colors in arbitrary shapes. They are anticipated to be diversely applied to digital display, digital imaging, color printing, and sensing.

  18. Flow visualization of film cooling with spanwise injection from a small array of holes and compound-angle injection from a large array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a smooth, flat plate was studied for two configurations: (1) spanwise injection through a four hole staggered array; and (2) compound angle injection through a 49 hole staggered array. The ratio of boundary layer thicknesses to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Streaklines showing the motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles that followed the flow field.

  19. Shrinking-hole colloidal lithography: self-aligned nanofabrication of complex plasmonic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Syrenova, Svetlana; Wadell, Carl; Langhammer, Christoph

    2014-05-14

    Plasmonic nanoantennas create locally strongly enhanced electric fields in so-called hot spots. To place a relevant nanoobject with high accuracy in such a hot spot is crucial to fully capitalize on the potential of nanoantennas to control, detect, and enhance processes at the nanoscale. With state-of-the-art nanofabrication, in particular when several materials are to be used, small gaps between antenna elements are sought, and large surface areas are to be patterned, this is a grand challenge. Here we introduce self-aligned, bottom-up and self-assembly based Shrinking-Hole Colloidal Lithography, which provides (i) unique control of the size and position of subsequently deposited particles forming the nanoantenna itself, and (ii) allows delivery of nanoobjects consisting of a material of choice to the antenna hot spot, all in a single lithography step and, if desired, uniformly covering several square centimeters of surface. We illustrate the functionality of SHCL nanoantenna arrangements by (i) an optical hydrogen sensor exploiting the polarization dependent sensitivity of an Au-Pd nanoantenna ensemble; and (ii) single particle hydrogen sensing with an Au dimer nanoantenna with a small Pd nanoparticle in the hot spot.

  20. Investigation on the plasmon Talbot effect of finite-sized periodic arrays of metallic nanoapertures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenli; Li, Haoyong; Gao, Bo; Yu, Yiting

    2017-01-01

    We present an in-depth and systematical investigation on the plasmon Talbot effect of finite-sized two-dimensional (2D) periodic metallic nanoaperture arrays. The nanoaperture shapes, fill factor, lattice distribution, array size, film thickness, material property and polarization state of the incident light are considered, and the inherent influencing rules are summarized via the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations. The nanoaperture shapes, fill factor or array size seems to express a tiny influence on Talbot effect, which shows a good agreement with our previously reported experimental results. Besides, square lattice brings out a much more uniform Talbot pattern than the triangular distribution, and the smaller array period should be taken to estimate the Talbot distance when it comes to a rectangular distribution. Furthermore, the thickness of Au film is suggested to within the range of 50~100 nm, which gives a broadest Talbot contour. It is also found out that the elliptical shape of hotspots is closely related to the linearly polarization state of the light source, showing an asymmetric electromagnetic field. The research contributes to a better understanding of the optical transmission features through periodic metallic nanoaperture arrays, which provides opportunities for the potential applications such as nanofabrication, optoelectronics, and imaging. PMID:28350012

  1. Plasmonic Coupling Effects in Large-area High-enhancement, Periodically-Arrayed Nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezares, Francisco; Caldwell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest; Kariniemi, Maarit; Niinistö, Jaakko; Hatanpää, Timo; Rendell, Ronald; Ukaegbu, Maraizu; Ritala, Mikko; Prokes, Sharka; Hosten, Charles; Leskela, Markku

    2012-02-01

    Periodically arrayed Si nanopillars, coated with a thin layer of Ag, have been shown to produce large-area (˜1 mm or more), uniform enhancement of the electromagnetic (EM) field near the surface of such arrays, thus suggesting suitability for the development of next-generation chem/bio-sensors. Although short-range plasmonic coupling effects are expected to increase the enhancement factor of these arrays several orders of magnitude, limitations in current lithographic techniques prohibit the fabrication of closely spaced nanopillars where such coupling effects become significant. Here we show experimentally that the use of Atomic Layer Deposition of Ag allows for the fabrication of Ag-coated Si nanopillar arrays with interpillar spacings of a few nanometers (˜2 nm) resulting in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in EM enhancement observed throughout the whole array area. Experimental observations that provide insight into the nature of the different coupling phenomena contributing to the overall enhancement of the EM field in these systems will also be discussed.

  2. Investigation on the plasmon Talbot effect of finite-sized periodic arrays of metallic nanoapertures.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Li, Haoyong; Gao, Bo; Yu, Yiting

    2017-03-28

    We present an in-depth and systematical investigation on the plasmon Talbot effect of finite-sized two-dimensional (2D) periodic metallic nanoaperture arrays. The nanoaperture shapes, fill factor, lattice distribution, array size, film thickness, material property and polarization state of the incident light are considered, and the inherent influencing rules are summarized via the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations. The nanoaperture shapes, fill factor or array size seems to express a tiny influence on Talbot effect, which shows a good agreement with our previously reported experimental results. Besides, square lattice brings out a much more uniform Talbot pattern than the triangular distribution, and the smaller array period should be taken to estimate the Talbot distance when it comes to a rectangular distribution. Furthermore, the thickness of Au film is suggested to within the range of 50~100 nm, which gives a broadest Talbot contour. It is also found out that the elliptical shape of hotspots is closely related to the linearly polarization state of the light source, showing an asymmetric electromagnetic field. The research contributes to a better understanding of the optical transmission features through periodic metallic nanoaperture arrays, which provides opportunities for the potential applications such as nanofabrication, optoelectronics, and imaging.

  3. Optimal geometric parameters of ordered arrays of nanoprisms for enhanced sensitivity in localized plasmon based sensors.

    PubMed

    Michieli, Niccolò; Kalinic, Boris; Scian, Carlo; Cesca, Tiziana; Mattei, Giovanni

    2015-03-15

    Plasmonic sensors based on ordered arrays of nanoprisms are optimized in terms of their geometric parameters like size, height, aspect ratio for Au, Ag or Au0.5-Ag0.5 alloy to be used in the visible or near IR spectral range. The two figures of merit used for the optimization are the bulk and the surface sensitivity: the first is important for optimizing the sensing to large volume analytes whereas the latter is more important when dealing with small bio-molecules immobilized in close proximity to the nanoparticle surface. A comparison is made between experimentally obtained nanoprisms arrays and simulated ones by using Finite Elements Methods (FEM) techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. Yu.; Guinea, F.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; Martin-Moreno, L.

    2012-02-01

    Resonance diffraction in the periodic array of graphene microribbons is theoretically studied following a recent experiment [L. Ju , Nature Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.146 6, 630 (2011)]. Systematic studies over a wide range of parameters are presented. It is shown that a much richer resonant picture would be observable for higher relaxation times of charge carriers: More resonances appear and transmission can be totally suppressed. The comparison with the absorption cross-section of a single ribbon shows that the resonant features of the periodic array are associated with leaky plasmonic modes. The longest-wavelength resonance provides the highest visibility of the transmission dip and has the strongest spectral shift and broadening with respect to the single-ribbon resonance, due to collective effects.

  5. Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishifuji, Miki; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2006-07-01

    Effective utilization of coupled surface plasmon resonance from gold nanoparticles was demonstrated experimentally for optoelectronic applications based on second-order nonlinear optics. Hybrid polymer nanoassemblies were constructed by manipulating gold nanoparticle arrays with nonlinear optical active polymer nanosheets to investigate the second harmonic generation. The gold nanoparticle arrays were assembled on heterodeposited polymer nanosheets. The second harmonic light intensity was enhanced by a factor of 8. The observed enhancement was attributed to coupling of surface plasmons between two adjacent gold nanoparticles, thereby enhancing the surface electromagnetic field around the nanoparticles at the fundamental light wavelength (1064nm).

  6. Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence on Au nanohole array for prostate-specific antigen detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wu, Lin; Wong, Ten It; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Xiaohu; Zhou, Xiaodong; Bai, Ping; Liedberg, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) has been widely applied for the enhancement of fluorescence emission for biosensing owing to its potential for strong field enhancement. However, due to its small penetration depth, LSP offers limited fluorescence enhancement over a whole sensor chip and, therefore, insufficient sensitivity for the detection of biomolecules, especially large molecules. We demonstrate the simultaneous excitation of LSP and propagating surface plasmon (PSP) on an Au nanohole array under Kretschmann configuration for the detection of prostate-specific antigen with a sandwich immunoassay. The proposed method combines the advantages of high field enhancement by LSP and large surface area probed by PSP field. The simulated results indicated that a maximum enhancement of electric field intensity up to 1,600 times can be achieved under the simultaneous excitation of LSP and PSP modes. The sandwich assay of PSA carried out on gold nanohole array substrate showed a limit of detection of 140 fM supporting coexcitation of LSP and PSP modes. The limit of detection was approximately sevenfold lower than that when only LSP was resonantly excited on the same substrate. The results of this study demonstrate high fluorescence enhancement through the coexcitation of LSP and PSP modes and pave a way for its implementation as a highly sensitive bioassay. PMID:28392689

  7. Investigation of surface plasmon resonance in composite nanostructure of silver film and nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Junyi; Wu, Xingzhi; Song, Yinglin

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the surface plasmon resonance in a new composite nanostructure (Nanowires array beneath metal film). Computational simulation results exhibit that, for both transverse electric(TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization, the positions of resonance peaks is extremely sensitive to the change of center distance (Filling ratio of nanowires). When the diameter of Nanowires is 4nm and under TM polarization, the resonance angle increasing with the increase of center distance. In the case of TE polarization, the result is completely the opposite within limits. It is also shown that changes in thickness of Ag film(At the top of the Ag nanowire) has little direct effect on the resonance angle, But the characteritics of SPR intensity is influenced by the thickness of Ag film in the most degree. When the thickness of Ag film is 50 nm, In range of 10nm to 100nm, the minimum value of the reflectance is only 0.05, the result is consistent with the previous studies. Additionally, the nano composite structure material is very sensitive to the refractive index change of the lowest layer when under the TE- polarization. we have done mode analysis of the SPR structure for both simple and practical structures using comsol multiphysics, our approach is intend to show the feasibity and extend the applicability of the plasmonic nanowires, could lead to provide the basis for design the new structure of nanowires array.

  8. Nonlinear chiro-optical amplification by plasmonic nanolens arrays formed via directed assembly of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sushmita; Liu, Xiaoying; Jarrett, Jeremy W; Brown, Dean; Pustovit, Vitaliy; Urbas, Augustine; Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Nealey, Paul F; Vaia, Richard A

    2015-03-11

    Metal nanoparticle assemblies are promising materials for nanophotonic applications due to novel linear and nonlinear optical properties arising from their plasmon modes. However, scalable fabrication approaches that provide both precision nano- and macroarchitectures, and performance commensurate with design and model predictions, have been limiting. Herein, we demonstrate controlled and efficient nanofocusing of the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies of incident linearly and circularly polarized light using reduced symmetry gold nanoparticle dimers formed by surface-directed assembly of colloidal nanoparticles. Large ordered arrays (>100) of these C∞v heterodimers (ratio of radii R1/R2 = 150 nm/50 nm = 3; gap distance l = 1 ± 0.5 nm) exhibit second harmonic generation and structure-dependent chiro-optic activity with the circular dichroism ratio of individual heterodimers varying less than 20% across the array, demonstrating precision and uniformity at a large scale. These nonlinear optical properties were mediated by interparticle plasmon coupling. Additionally, the versatility of the fabrication is demonstrated on a variety of substrates including flexible polymers. Numerical simulations guide architecture design as well as validating the experimental results, thus confirming the ability to optimize second harmonic yield and induce chiro-optical responses for compact sensors, optical modulators, and tunable light sources by rational design and fabrication of the nanostructures.

  9. Surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence on Au nanohole array for prostate-specific antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wu, Lin; Wong, Ten It; Zhang, Jinling; Liu, Xiaohu; Zhou, Xiaodong; Bai, Ping; Liedberg, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) has been widely applied for the enhancement of fluorescence emission for biosensing owing to its potential for strong field enhancement. However, due to its small penetration depth, LSP offers limited fluorescence enhancement over a whole sensor chip and, therefore, insufficient sensitivity for the detection of biomolecules, especially large molecules. We demonstrate the simultaneous excitation of LSP and propagating surface plasmon (PSP) on an Au nanohole array under Kretschmann configuration for the detection of prostate-specific antigen with a sandwich immunoassay. The proposed method combines the advantages of high field enhancement by LSP and large surface area probed by PSP field. The simulated results indicated that a maximum enhancement of electric field intensity up to 1,600 times can be achieved under the simultaneous excitation of LSP and PSP modes. The sandwich assay of PSA carried out on gold nanohole array substrate showed a limit of detection of 140 fM supporting coexcitation of LSP and PSP modes. The limit of detection was approximately sevenfold lower than that when only LSP was resonantly excited on the same substrate. The results of this study demonstrate high fluorescence enhancement through the coexcitation of LSP and PSP modes and pave a way for its implementation as a highly sensitive bioassay.

  10. Ultrathin efficient perovskite solar cells employing a periodic structure of a composite hole conductor for elevated plasmonic light harvesting and hole collection.

    PubMed

    Long, Mingzhu; Chen, Zefeng; Zhang, Tiankai; Xiao, Yubin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Jian; Yan, Keyou; Xu, Jianbin

    2016-03-28

    We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure composite (PMC) HTM in combination with the conformal Au electrode could promote the absorption through the enhanced cavity effects, leading to comparable absorption even using much thinner perovskite (240 nm). We identified that the cavity was the combination of Fabry-Pérot interferometer and surface plasmonic resonance, with light harvesting enhancement through surface plasmon polariton or waveguide modes that propagate in the plane of the perovskite layer. On the other hand, the PMC HTM increased hole conductivity by one order of magnitude with respect to standard spiro-OMeTAD HTM due to molecular packing and self-assembly, embodying traceable hole mobility and density elevation up to 3 times, and thus the hysteresis was greatly avoided. Owing to dual optical and electronic enhancement, the PMC PSC afforded high efficiency PSC using as thin as 240 nm perovskite layer, delivering a V(oc) of 1.05 V, J(sc) of 22.9 mA cm(-2), FF of 0.736, and efficiency amounting to 17.7% PCE, the highest efficiency with ultrathin perovskite layer.

  11. High Figure of Merit (FOM) of Bragg Modes in Au-Coated Nanodisk Arrays for Plasmonic Sensing.

    PubMed

    Couture, Maxime; Brulé, Thibault; Laing, Stacey; Cui, Wenli; Sarkar, Mitradeep; Charron, Benjamin; Faulds, Karen; Peng, Wei; Canva, Michael; Masson, Jean-Francois

    2017-10-01

    Gold-coated nanodisk arrays of nearly micron periodicity are reported that have high figure of merit (FOM) and sensitivity necessary for plasmonic refractometric sensing, with the added benefit of suitability for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), large-scale microfabrication using standard photolithographic techniques and a simple instrumental setup. Gold nanodisk arrays are covered with a gold layer to excite the Bragg modes (BM), which are the propagative surface plasmons localized by the diffraction from the disk array. This generates surface-guided modes, localized as standing waves, leading to highly confined fields confirmed by a mapping of the SERS intensity and numerical simulations with 3D finite element method. The optimal gold-coated nanodisk arrays are applied for refractometric sensing in transmission spectroscopy with better performance than nanohole arrays and they are integrated to a 96-well plate reader for detection of IgY proteins in the nanometer range in PBS. The potential for sensing in biofluids is assessed with IgG detection in 1:1 diluted urine. The structure exhibits a high FOM of up to 46, exceeding the FOM of structures supporting surface plasmon polaritons and comparable to more complex nanostructures, demonstrating that subwavelength features are not necessary for high-performance plasmonic sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Observation of a hole-size-dependent energy shift of the surface-plasmon resonance in Ni antidot thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, H.; Akinoglu, E. M.; Fumagalli, P.; Caballero, B.; García-Martín, A.; Papaioannou, E. Th.; Cuevas, J. C.; Giersig, M.

    2015-04-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the magneto-optic properties of a series of nickel antidot thin films is presented. The hole diameter varies from 869 down to 636 nm, while the lattice periodicity is fixed at 920 nm. This results in an overall increase of the polar Kerr rotation with decreasing hole diameter due to the increasing surface coverage with nickel. In addition, at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.3 eV, where surface-plasmon excitations are expected, we observe distinct features in the polar Kerr rotation not present in continuous nickel films. The spectral position of the peaks exhibits a red shift with decreasing hole size. This is explained within the context of an effective medium theory by a change in the effective dielectric function of the Ni thin films.

  13. Aluminum ultraviolet-visible plasmonic arrays for broadband and wavelength-selective enhancements of quantum dot emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannegulla, A.; Liu, Y.; Wu, B.; Cheng, L.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Enhancement of spontaneous emission can be achieved by the interaction between quantum emitters and the free electrons on metal surfaces, which creates additional energy relaxation channels through plasmon excitations. It can also be realized by extra near-field excitation of quantum emitters through surface plasmons created by absorption of far-field illumination. By using aluminum dimple arrays with their surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) tunable to span from the visible to UV regions, we demonstrate the control of the quantum dot (QD)-SPR coupling routes to realize either wavelength-selective enhancement of QD emission or broadband enhancement of multicolor QDs. The cost effective Al plasmonic structures enable enhancement of light emission and excitation at tailorable wavelengths and could advance the performance and design flexibility of light-emitting devices and photovoltaic technologies.

  14. Fabrication of 3-{mu}m diameter pin hole array (PHA) on thick W substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Levato, T.; Pathak, N. C.; Ciricosta, O.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Giulietti, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Giulietti, D.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Delogu, P.

    2010-02-02

    Pin-hole arrays are used for a variety of applications including, for example, X-ray imaging of laser-plasmas for fusion relevant studies. More recently, a novel X-ray imaging technique has been proposed (this conference L. A. Gizzi et al.) within the High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) to obtain spectrally resolved X-ray imaging using single photon detection. This technique requires a large number of images or, alternatively, large arrays of pin-holes, possibly with very small diameter (<<10 {mu}m). In view of this, a technique was implemented for the fabrication of large arrays of pin-holes in thick metal substrates. Here we report on the optimizations of the laser-matter interaction process to obtain high aspect ratio cylinder-like pin-hole on heavy metal substrate by using a frequency-doubled Ti:Sa femtosecond laser pulses operating at 10 Hz. The influence of an air breakdown and a (ns)prepulse, on the drilled pin-hole, is showed by means of SEM images both for surface effects and internal quality of the channels, with evidence of micro and nano-sized structures. The holes drilled at an intensity just below the laser breakdown threshold for plasma creation in air, have an internal diameter of about 3 {mu}m on a W substrate of 70 {mu}m thickness, a micro-cylinder-like shape and no detectable deviations of the axis from a straight line. Arrays of up to 800 pin-holes were produced with the pin-hole properties being highly stable across the array. The final X-ray transmission is showed by using a mu-focus X-ray source.

  15. Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang

    2015-02-14

    Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.

  16. Oil-in-water emulsion as fabrication platform for uniform plasmon-controlled two-dimensional metallic nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Ryusuke; Takeyasu, Nobuyuki; Kaneta, Takashi; Takemoto, Yoshito

    2016-07-01

    Gold/silver nanoparticles were trapped at the oil/water interface of oil droplets dispersed in water. The metallic nanoparticles were self-assembled into a uniform two-dimensional large array structure through the aggregation and coalescence of the nanoparticle-covered oil droplets. The plasmon resonance of the array structure was tunable and a surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurement was performed with the silver nanoparticle array. The enhancement factor was ∼105 and enhanced Raman signals were observed over the whole array ( ≳ \\text{cm}2) with high reproducibility, which is an advantage of a self-assembly method using a liquid/liquid interface.

  17. Generation of high power pulsed terahertz radiation using a plasmonic photoconductive emitter array with logarithmic spiral antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Christopher W.; Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona

    2014-02-24

    An array of 3 × 3 plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters with logarithmic spiral antennas is fabricated on a low temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate and characterized in response to a 200 fs optical pump from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser at 800 nm wavelength. A microlens array is used to split and focus the optical pump beam onto the active area of each plasmonic photoconductive emitter element. Pulsed terahertz radiation with record high power levels up to 1.9 mW in the 0.1–2 THz frequency range is measured at an optical pump power of 320 mW. The record high power pulsed terahertz radiation is enabled by the use of plasmonic contact electrodes, enhancing the photoconductor quantum efficiencies, and by increasing the overall device active area, mitigating the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels.

  18. Plasmon-induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in porous anodic aluminum oxide films encapsulated with silver nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Han; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Lau, Ben-Chao; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Tzeng, Yonhua

    2010-12-20

    We report on plasmon induced optical switching of electrical conductivity in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of silver (Ag) nanoparticles encapsulated inside nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films. The reversible switching of photoconductivity greatly enhanced by an array of closely spaced Ag nanoparticles which are isolated from each other and from the ambient by thin aluminum oxide barrier layers are attributed to the improved electron transport due to the localized surface plasmon resonance and coupling among Ag nanoparticles. The photoconductivity is proportional to the power, and strongly dependent on the wavelength of light illumination. With Ag nanoparticles being isolated from the ambient environments by a thin layer of aluminum oxide barrier layer of controlled thickness in nanometers to tens of nanometers, deterioration of silver nanoparticles caused by environments is minimized. The electrochemically fabricated nanostructured Ag/AAO is inexpensive and promising for applications to integrated plasmonic circuits and sensors.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices.

  20. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV–vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV–vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  1. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Lei; Ji, Chun-Lei; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  2. Au nanostructure arrays for plasmonic applications: annealed island films versus nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatynskyi, Andrii M.; Lytvyn, Vitalii K.; Nazarenko, Volodymyr I.; Guo, L. Jay; Lucas, Brandon D.; Chegel, Volodymyr I.

    2015-03-01

    This paper attempts to compare the main features of random and highly ordered gold nanostructure arrays (NSA) prepared by thermally annealed island film and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) techniques, respectively. Each substrate possesses different morphology in terms of plasmonic enhancement. Both methods allow such important features as spectral tuning of plasmon resonance position depending on size and shape of nanostructures; however, the time and cost is quite different. The respective comparison was performed experimentally and theoretically for a number of samples with different geometrical parameters. Spectral characteristics of fabricated NSA exhibited an expressed plasmon peak in the range from 576 to 809 nm for thermally annealed samples and from 606 to 783 nm for samples prepared by NIL. Modelling of the optical response for nanostructures with typical shapes associated with these techniques (parallelepiped for NIL and semi-ellipsoid for annealed island films) was performed using finite-difference time-domain calculations. Mathematical simulations have indicated the dependence of electric field enhancement on the shape and size of the nanoparticles. As an important point, the distribution of electric field at so-called `hot spots' was considered. Parallelepiped-shaped nanoparticles were shown to yield maximal enhancement values by an order of magnitude greater than their semi-ellipsoid-shaped counterparts; however, both nanoparticle shapes have demonstrated comparable effective electrical field enhancement values. Optimized Au nanostructures with equivalent diameters ranging from 85 to 143 nm and height equal to 35 nm were obtained for both techniques, resulting in the largest electrical field enhancement. The application of island film thermal annealing method for nanochips fabrication can be considered as a possible cost-effective platform for various surface-enhanced spectroscopies; while the NIL-fabricated NSA looks like more effective for sensing of

  3. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting. PMID:27652788

  4. Enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS₂ using plasmonic nanodisc arrays.

    PubMed

    Butun, Serkan; Tongay, Sefaattin; Aydin, Koray

    2015-04-08

    Single-layer direct band gap semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides are quite attractive for a wide range of electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics applications. Their monolayer thickness provides significant advantages in many applications such as field-effect transistors for high-performance electronics, sensor/detector applications, and flexible electronics. However, for optoelectronics and photonics applications, inherent monolayer thickness poses a significant challenge for the interaction of light with the material, which therefore results in poor light emission and absorption behavior. Here, we demonstrate enhanced light emission from large-area monolayer MoS2 using plasmonic silver nanodisc arrays, where enhanced photoluminescence up to 12-times has been measured. Observed phenomena stem from the fact that plasmonic resonance couples to both excitation and emission fields and thus boosts the light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Reported results allow us to engineer light-matter interactions in two-dimensional materials and could enable highly efficient photodetectors, sensors, and photovoltaic devices, where photon absorption and emission efficiency highly dictate the device performance.

  5. Fabrication of anisotropically arrayed nano-slots metasurfaces using reflective plasmonic lithography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Changtao; Gao, Ping; Liu, Kaipeng; Pu, Mingbo; Jin, Jinjin; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Yu, Honglin; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-11-28

    Nanofabrication technology with high-resolution, high-throughput and low-cost is essential for the development of nanoplasmonic and nanophotonic devices. At present, most metasurfaces are fabricated in a point by point writing manner with electron beam lithography or a focused ion beam, which imposes a serious cost barrier with respect to practical applications. Near field optical lithography, seemingly providing a high-resolution and low-cost way, however, suffers from the ultra shallow depth and poor fidelity of obtained photoresist patterns due to the exponential decay feature of evanescent waves. Here, we propose a method of surface plasmonic imaging lithography by introducing a reflective plasmonic lens to amplify and compensate evanescent waves, resulting in the production of nano resist patterns with high fidelity, contrast and enhanced depth beyond that usually obtained by near field optical lithography. As examples, a discrete and anisotropically arrayed nano-slots mask pattern with different orientations and a size of 40 nm × 120 nm could be imaged in photoresist and transferred successfully onto a metal layer through an etching process. Evidence for the pattern quality is given by virtue of the fabricated metasurface lens devices showing good focusing performance in experiments. It is believed that this method provides a parallel, low-cost, high-throughput and large-area nanofabrication route for fabricating nanostructures of holograms, vortex phase plates, bio-sensors and solar cells etc.

  6. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2016-09-22

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from 'top-down' patterning or 'bottom-up' self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system's optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel 'metamaterials', optimised for light reflection or harvesting.

  7. Theory of tailorable optical response of two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles at interfaces are promising candidates for novel optical metamaterials. Such systems materialise from ‘top–down’ patterning or ‘bottom–up’ self-assembly of nanoparticles at liquid/liquid or liquid/solid interfaces. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extended effective quasi-static four-layer-stack model for the description of plasmon-resonance-enhanced optical responses of such systems. We investigate in detail the effects of the size of nanoparticles, average interparticle separation, dielectric constants of the media constituting the interface, and the nanoparticle position relative to the interface. Interesting interplays of these different factors are explored first for normally incident light. For off-normal incidence, the strong effects of the polarisation of light are found at large incident angles, which allows to dynamically tune the reflectance spectra. All the predictions of the theory are tested against full-wave simulations, proving this simplistic model to be adequate within the quasi-static limit. The model takes seconds to calculate the system’s optical response and makes it easy to unravel the effect of each system parameter. This helps rapid rationalization of experimental data and understanding of the optical signals from these novel ‘metamaterials’, optimised for light reflection or harvesting.

  8. Ag colloids and arrays for plasmonic non-radiative energy transfer from quantum dots to a quantum well.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Graham P; Gough, John J; Higgins, Luke J; Karanikolas, Vasilios D; Wilson, Keith M; Garcia Coindreau, Jorge A; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Parbrook, Peter J; Bradley, A Louise

    2017-03-17

    Non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) can be an efficient process of benefit to many applications including photovoltaics, sensors, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Combining the remarkable optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of quantum wells (QWs) allows for the formation of hybrid devices which can utilize NRET as a means of transferring absorbed optical energy from the QDs to the QW. Here we report on plasmon-enhanced NRET from semiconductor nanocrystal QDs to a QW. Ag nanoparticles in the form of colloids and ordered arrays are used to demonstrate plasmon-mediated NRET from QDs to QWs with varying top barrier thicknesses. Plasmon-mediated energy transfer (ET) efficiencies of up to ∼25% are observed with the Ag colloids. The distance dependence of the plasmon-mediated ET is found to follow the same d (-4) dependence as the direct QD to QW ET. There is also evidence for an increase in the characteristic distance of the interaction, thus indicating that it follows a Förster-like model with the Ag nanoparticle-QD acting as an enhanced donor dipole. Ordered Ag nanoparticle arrays display plasmon-mediated ET efficiencies up to ∼21%. To explore the tunability of the array system, two arrays with different geometries are presented. It is demonstrated that changing the geometry of the array allows a transition from overall quenching of the acceptor QW emission to enhancement, as well as control of the competition between the QD donor quenching and ET rates.

  9. Embedded plasmonic quantum well infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert L.; Bonakdar, Alireza; Memis, Omer G.; Fathipour, Vala; Jang, Sung Jun; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    In order to lessen the strain of cooling requirements on mid-infrared detectors, reducing the volume of the detecting medium is one promising solution. It is necessary to augment the absorption (quantum efficiency) lost when shrinking the detector volume. We present a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector with a plasmonic structure embedded within and around the detection media. This device has a self-aligned plasmonic-hole array designed for 8μm wavelength and a planar top contact to the array of detector material. This arrangement has an expected field enhancement of an order of magnitude and lends itself to making a Focal Plane Array.

  10. Enhancing absorption properties of composite nanosphere and nanowire arrays by localized surface plasmon resonance shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Leping; Du, Xiaoze; Yang, Yongping

    Nanoparticles with nonmetallic core and metallic shell can improve the spectral solar absorption efficiency for traditional working fluids, due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect exists at the surfaces of these core-shell composite nanoparticles. In this work, the effect of geometry and material, and hence the LSPR effect, on the optical absorption properties of core-shell nanostructures was numerically demonstrated by the finite difference time domain method. The nanostructures were formed by varying the inner and outer radii of the composite nanospheres and nanowires and by changing the particle spacing for their arrays. The result indicates that varying the inner radius itself can tune the absorption efficiency factors of the nanostructures monotonously, while an optimal outer radius may exist for maximizing the absorption efficiency factors. It also shows that varying the inner radius itself can widen the absorption spectrums for the arrays, but the absorptance tends to increase with decreasing inner radius or particle spacing. Meanwhile, the second absorption peaks may be observed for nanowires or nanosphere/nanowire arrays, which can be tuned by the resonance shifts induced by the change of either inner or outer radius and hence the LSPR effect. The coupled LSPR effect under studied can be efficiently utilized for tuning the optical absorption properties of nanoparticles used in many applications including photothermal conversion, and perspective also exists for many other applications including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enhancement.

  11. Large-Scale Plasmonic nanoCones Array For Spectroscopy Detection.

    PubMed

    Das, Gobind; Battista, Edmondo; Manzo, Gianluigi; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2015-10-28

    Advanced optical materials or interfaces are gaining attention for diagnostic applications. However, the achievement of large device interface as well as facile surface functionalization largely impairs their wide use. The present work is aimed to address different innovative aspects related to the fabrication of large-area 3D plasmonic arrays, their direct and easy functionalization with capture elements, and their spectroscopic verifications through enhanced Raman and enhanced fluorescence techniques. In detail, we have investigated the effect of a Au-based nanoCone array, fabricated by means of direct nanoimprint technique over large area (mm(2)), on protein capturing and on the enhancement in optical signal. A selective functionalization of gold surfaces was proposed by using a peptide (AuPi3) previously selected by phage display. In this regard, two different sequences, labeled with fluorescein and biotin, were chemisorbed on metallic surfaces. The presence of Au nanoCones array consents an enhancement in electric field on the apex of cone, enabling the detection of molecules. We have witnessed around 12-fold increase in fluorescence intensity and SERS enhancement factor around 1.75 × 10(5) with respect to the flat gold surface. Furthermore, a sharp decrease in fluorescence lifetime over nanoCones confirms the increase in radiative emission (i.e., an increase in photonics density at the apex of cones).

  12. Plasmon-induced photonic and energy-transfer enhancement of solar water splitting by a hematite nanorod array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtian; Cushing, Scott K.; Zheng, Peng; Meng, Fanke; Chu, Deryn; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-10-01

    Plasmonic metal nanostructures offer a promising route to improve the solar energy conversion efficiency of semiconductors. Here we show that incorporation of a hematite nanorod array into a plasmonic gold nanohole array pattern significantly improves the photoelectrochemical water splitting performance, leading to an approximately tenfold increase in the photocurrent at a bias of 0.23 V versus Ag|AgCl under simulated solar radiation. Plasmon-induced resonant energy transfer is responsible for enhancement at the energies below the band edge, whereas above the absorption band edge of hematite, the surface plasmon polariton launches a guided wave mode inside the nanorods, with the nanorods acting as miniature optic fibres, enhancing the light absorption. In addition, the intense local plasmonic field can suppress the charge recombination in the hematite nanorod photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. Our results may provide a general approach to overcome the low optical absorption and spectral utilization of thin semiconductor nanostructures, while further reducing charge recombination losses.

  13. Compact Feeding Network for Array Radiations of Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun Jun; Yin, Jia Yuan; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a splitter feeding network for array radiations of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are guided by ultrathin corrugated metallic strips. Based on the coupled mode theory, SPP fields along a single waveguide in a certain frequency range can be readily coupled into two adjacent branch waveguides with the same propagation constants. We propose to load U-shaped particles anti-symmetrically at the ends of such two branch waveguides, showing a high integration degree of the feeding network. By controlling linear phase modulations produced by the U-shaped particle chain, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the SPP fields based on bound modes can be efficiently radiated to far fields in broadside direction. The proposed method shows that the symmetry of electromagnetic field modes can be exploited to the SPP transmission network, providing potential solutions to compact power dividers and combiners for microwave and optical devices and systems. PMID:26948142

  14. Oscillons, solitons, and domain walls in arrays of nonlinear plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noskov, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles plays a central role in the emerging novel technologies employing optics beyond the diffraction limit. Combining strong surface plasmon resonances, high intrinsic nonlinearities and deeply subwavelength scales, arrays of metal nanoparticles offer a unique playground to develop novel concepts for light manipulation at the nanoscale. Here we suggest a novel principle to control localized optical energy in chains of nonlinear subwavelength metal nanoparticles based on the fundamental nonlinear phenomenon of modulation instability. In particular, we demonstrate that modulation instability can lead to the formation of long-lived standing and moving nonlinear localized modes of several distinct types such as bright and dark solitons, oscillons, and domain walls. We analyze the properties of these nonlinear localized modes and reveal different scenarios of their dynamics including transformation of one type of mode to another. We believe this work paves a way towards the development of nonlinear nanophotonics circuitry.

  15. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Keya; Guo, Zhongyi; Liu, Shutian; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-07-22

    Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells.

  16. Localized surface plasmon resonance sensing structure based on gold nanohole array on beveled fiber edge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Enming; Jia, Peipei; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Li, Hanyang; Huang, Peng; Liu, Diyou; Li, Hanyang; Yang, Xinghua; Lu, Liu; Guan, Chunying

    2017-08-07

    This paper proposes a simple, stable, sensitive, and angle-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing structure based on multi-mode optical fiber. We adopted the template transfer method to integrate a nanohole array onto a fiber tip with beveled angle. Experimental results indicated that beveled angle structured probe sensor outperform the flat optical fiber tip structured LSPR sensor in our experiment. We tested the sensitivity and the figure of merit (FOM) of the probe beveled angle from 5° to 22°, with refractive index ranging from 1.333 to 1.385, to find that sensitivity and FOM were optimal at fiber tip bevel angle of 7°, reaching 487 nm/RIU and 29 respectively. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal–organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; ...

    2017-06-06

    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal–organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Additionally, experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic–MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. Lastly, the demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic–MOF device proves a promising strategymore » for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.« less

  18. Compact Feeding Network for Array Radiations of Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun Jun; Yin, Jia Yuan; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-07

    We propose a splitter feeding network for array radiations of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are guided by ultrathin corrugated metallic strips. Based on the coupled mode theory, SPP fields along a single waveguide in a certain frequency range can be readily coupled into two adjacent branch waveguides with the same propagation constants. We propose to load U-shaped particles anti-symmetrically at the ends of such two branch waveguides, showing a high integration degree of the feeding network. By controlling linear phase modulations produced by the U-shaped particle chain, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the SPP fields based on bound modes can be efficiently radiated to far fields in broadside direction. The proposed method shows that the symmetry of electromagnetic field modes can be exploited to the SPP transmission network, providing potential solutions to compact power dividers and combiners for microwave and optical devices and systems.

  19. Absorption efficiency enhancement in inorganic and organic thin film solar cells via plasmonic honeycomb nanoantenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Tok, Rüştü Umut; Sendur, Kürşat

    2013-08-15

    We demonstrate theoretically that by embedding plasmonic honeycomb nanoantenna arrays into the active layers of inorganic (c-Si) and organic (P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS) thin film solar cells, absorption efficiency can be improved. To obtain the solar cell absorption spectrum that conforms to the solar radiation, spectral broadening is achieved by breaking the symmetry within the Wigner-Seitz unit cell on a uniform hexagonal grid. For optimized honeycomb designs, absorption efficiency enhancements of 106.2% and 20.8% are achieved for c-Si and P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS thin film solar cells, respectively. We have demonstrated that the transverse modes are responsible for the enhancement in c-Si solar cells, whereas both the longitudinal and transverse modes, albeit weaker, are the main enhancement mechanisms for P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS solar cells. For both inorganic and organic solar cells, the absorption enhancement is independent of polarization.

  20. High power telecommunication-compatible photoconductive terahertz emitters based on plasmonic nano-antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Lu, Hong; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-11-01

    We present a high-power and broadband photoconductive terahertz emitter operating at telecommunication optical wavelengths, at which compact and high-performance fiber lasers are commercially available. The presented terahertz emitter utilizes an ErAs:InGaAs substrate to achieve high resistivity and short carrier lifetime characteristics required for robust operation at telecommunication optical wavelengths. It also uses a two-dimensional array of plasmonic nano-antennas to offer significantly higher optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiencies compared to the conventional photoconductive emitters, while maintaining broad operation bandwidths. We experimentally demonstrate pulsed terahertz radiation over 0.1-5 THz frequency range with the power levels as high as 300 μW. This is the highest-reported terahertz radiation power from a photoconductive emitter operating at telecommunication optical wavelengths.

  1. High power telecommunication-compatible photoconductive terahertz emitters based on plasmonic nano-antenna arrays.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Lu, Hong; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-11-07

    We present a high-power and broadband photoconductive terahertz emitter operating at telecommunication optical wavelengths, at which compact and high-performance fiber lasers are commercially available. The presented terahertz emitter utilizes an ErAs:InGaAs substrate to achieve high resistivity and short carrier lifetime characteristics required for robust operation at telecommunication optical wavelengths. It also uses a two-dimensional array of plasmonic nano-antennas to offer significantly higher optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiencies compared to the conventional photoconductive emitters, while maintaining broad operation bandwidths. We experimentally demonstrate pulsed terahertz radiation over 0.1-5 THz frequency range with the power levels as high as 300 μW. This is the highest-reported terahertz radiation power from a photoconductive emitter operating at telecommunication optical wavelengths.

  2. Current Approach in Surface Plasmons for Thin Film and Wire Array Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Keya; Guo, Zhongyi; Liu, Shutian; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmons, which exist along the interface of a metal and a dielectric, have been proposed as an efficient alternative method for light trapping in solar cells during the past ten years. With unique properties such as superior light scattering, optical trapping, guide mode coupling, near field concentration, and hot-electron generation, metallic nanoparticles or nanostructures can be tailored to a certain geometric design to enhance solar cell conversion efficiency and to reduce the material costs. In this article, we review current approaches on different kinds of solar cells, such as crystalline silicon (c-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cells, organic solar cells, nanowire array solar cells, and single nanowire solar cells. PMID:28793457

  3. On-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of CO2 using high resolution plasmonic filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Li, Erwen; Squire, Kenneth; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-05-01

    We report an ultra-compact, cost-effective on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy system for CO2 sensing using narrow-band optical filter array based on plasmonic gratings with a waveguide layer. By varying the periodicity of the gratings, the transmission spectra of the filters can be continuously tuned to cover the 2.0 μm sensing window with high spectral resolution around 10 nm. Our experimental results show that the on-chip spectroscopy system can resolve the two symmetric vibrational bands of CO2 at 2.0 μm wavelength, which proves its potential to replace the expensive commercial IR spectroscopy system for on-site gas sensing.

  4. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    PubMed

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations.

  5. Conformal Coating of a Phase Change Material on Ordered Plasmonic Nanorod Arrays for Broadband All-Optical Switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peijun; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Chen, Xinqi; Hock, Adam S.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Schaller, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Actively tunable optical transmission through artificial metamaterials holds great promise for next-generation nanophotonic devices and metasurfaces. Plasmonic nanostructures and phase change materials have been extensively studied to this end due to their respective strong interactions with light and tunable dielectric constants under external stimuli. Seamlessly integrating plasmonic components with phase change materials, as demonstrated in the present work, can facilitate phase change by plasmonically enabled light confinement and meanwhile make use of the high sensitivity of plasmon resonances to the variation of dielectric constant associated with the phase change. The hybrid platform here is composed of plasmonic indium tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) conformally coated with an ultrathin layer of a prototypical phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), which enables all-optical modulation of the infrared as well as the visible spectral ranges. The interplay between the intrinsic plasmonic nonlinearity of ITO-NRAs and the phase transition induced permittivity change of VO2 gives rise to spectral and temporal responses that cannot be achieved with individual material components alone.

  6. Conformal Coating of a Phase Change Material on Ordered Plasmonic Nanorod Arrays for Broadband All-Optical Switching.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Diroll, Benjamin T; Chen, Xinqi; Hock, Adam S; Chang, Robert P H; Martinson, Alex B F; Schaller, Richard D

    2017-01-24

    Actively tunable optical transmission through artificial metamaterials holds great promise for next-generation nanophotonic devices and metasurfaces. Plasmonic nanostructures and phase change materials have been extensively studied to this end due to their respective strong interactions with light and tunable dielectric constants under external stimuli. Seamlessly integrating plasmonic components with phase change materials, as demonstrated in the present work, can facilitate phase change by plasmonically enabled light confinement and meanwhile make use of the high sensitivity of plasmon resonances to the variation of dielectric constant associated with the phase change. The hybrid platform here is composed of plasmonic indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) conformally coated with an ultrathin layer of a prototypical phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), which enables all-optical modulation of the infrared as well as the visible spectral ranges. The interplay between the intrinsic plasmonic nonlinearity of ITO-NRAs and the phase transition induced permittivity change of VO2 gives rise to spectral and temporal responses that cannot be achieved with individual material components alone.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-02

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  8. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  9. Fabrication and optically pumped lasing of plasmonic nanolaser with regular ZnO/GaN nanoheterojunction array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Peifeng; Lin, En; Wang, Peng; Mei, Mingwei; Huang, Qiuying; Jiao, Jiao; Zhao, Qing

    2017-09-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a novel regularly arrayed plasmonic nanolasers. This main microstructure of the device is composed of a hexagonal array of n-ZnO/p-GaN nanoheterojunctions fabricated using the micro-fabrication method. Furthermore, the optically pumped lasing in the device is demonstrated. The spectroscopy characterization results of the device show that the surface plasmon excited around the NWs surface can be used to stimulate and strongly compress the optical modes in the NW cavity. This electromagnetic confinement effect is employed to optimize the beam quality and increase the light intensity compared to the laser fabricated with the bare NWs array. The impact of the array arrangement on the coherent combining efficiency of the arrayed nanolasers has been numerically studied. The results show that the arrayed hexagonal nanolasers could improve the combining efficiency compared to the nanolaser with the randomly positioned array. Qualitatively, these calculated results agree well with the experimental results of the laser beam spot mapping. This demonstrates the scope for using such architectures to improve the combination efficiency of the arrayed nanolasers.

  10. Waveguide Plasmon Resonance of Arrayed Metallic Nanostructures Patterned on a Soft Substrate by Direct Contact Printing Lithography.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2017-08-13

    This paper presents a direct contact printing method to obtain arrayed metallic nanostructures on a soft polymer substrate. It utilizes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from silicon molds to transfer metallic nanopatterns onto a polymer substrate based on differences in interfacial bonding energy. Arrayed metallic nanodisks with a disk diameter down to 180 nm and a center-to-center pitch around 400 nm are experimentally patterned on a PET substrate. The patterned metallic nanostructures are then spin-coated with a polymer layer; which mechanically secures the patterned nanostructures and optically allows waveguide plasmon resonance being excited by incident EM waves. Both experimental works and theoretical modeling are given to illustrate the behaviors of different types of plasmon resonance. These arrayed metallic nanostructures patterned on a soft polymer substrate and their tunable optical characteristics open up many possibilities in future engineering applications.

  11. Ultrathin efficient perovskite solar cells employing a periodic structure of a composite hole conductor for elevated plasmonic light harvesting and hole collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Mingzhu; Chen, Zefeng; Zhang, Tiankai; Xiao, Yubin; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Jian; Yan, Keyou; Xu, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure composite (PMC) HTM in combination with the conformal Au electrode could promote the absorption through the enhanced cavity effects, leading to comparable absorption even using much thinner perovskite (240 nm). We identified that the cavity was the combination of Fabry-Pérot interferometer and surface plasmonic resonance, with light harvesting enhancement through surface plasmon polariton or waveguide modes that propagate in the plane of the perovskite layer. On the other hand, the PMC HTM increased hole conductivity by one order of magnitude with respect to standard spiro-OMeTAD HTM due to molecular packing and self-assembly, embodying traceable hole mobility and density elevation up to 3 times, and thus the hysteresis was greatly avoided. Owing to dual optical and electronic enhancement, the PMC PSC afforded high efficiency PSC using as thin as 240 nm perovskite layer, delivering a Voc of 1.05 V, Jsc of 22.9 mA cm-2, FF of 0.736, and efficiency amounting to 17.7% PCE, the highest efficiency with ultrathin perovskite layer.We developed a molecule/polymer composite hole transporting material (HTM) with a periodic microstructure for morphology replication of a corrugated Au electrode, which in combination plays a dual role in the optical and electronic enhancement of high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The electro-optics revealed that perovskite couldn't readily extinct the red light even though the thickness increased to 370 nm, but we found that the quasi periodic microstructure

  12. Fabrication of anisotropically arrayed nano-slots metasurfaces using reflective plasmonic lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Changtao; Gao, Ping; Liu, Kaipeng; Pu, Mingbo; Jin, Jinjin; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Yu, Honglin; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-11-01

    Nanofabrication technology with high-resolution, high-throughput and low-cost is essential for the development of nanoplasmonic and nanophotonic devices. At present, most metasurfaces are fabricated in a point by point writing manner with electron beam lithography or a focused ion beam, which imposes a serious cost barrier with respect to practical applications. Near field optical lithography, seemingly providing a high-resolution and low-cost way, however, suffers from the ultra shallow depth and poor fidelity of obtained photoresist patterns due to the exponential decay feature of evanescent waves. Here, we propose a method of surface plasmonic imaging lithography by introducing a reflective plasmonic lens to amplify and compensate evanescent waves, resulting in the production of nano resist patterns with high fidelity, contrast and enhanced depth beyond that usually obtained by near field optical lithography. As examples, a discrete and anisotropically arrayed nano-slots mask pattern with different orientations and a size of 40 nm × 120 nm could be imaged in photoresist and transferred successfully onto a metal layer through an etching process. Evidence for the pattern quality is given by virtue of the fabricated metasurface lens devices showing good focusing performance in experiments. It is believed that this method provides a parallel, low-cost, high-throughput and large-area nanofabrication route for fabricating nanostructures of holograms, vortex phase plates, bio-sensors and solar cells etc.Nanofabrication technology with high-resolution, high-throughput and low-cost is essential for the development of nanoplasmonic and nanophotonic devices. At present, most metasurfaces are fabricated in a point by point writing manner with electron beam lithography or a focused ion beam, which imposes a serious cost barrier with respect to practical applications. Near field optical lithography, seemingly providing a high-resolution and low-cost way, however, suffers

  13. Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Campillo, Igor

    2006-06-12

    Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as photonic band-gap, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed propagation. Up to now, relations of photonic crystals and negative refraction have been shown as well as of photonic crystals and sub-wavelength hole arrays. Here we report a left-handed metamaterial engineered by a combination of sub-wavelength hole array plates periodically stacked to form a photonic crystal structure. It is shown the possibility of fine-tuning the metamaterial in order to permit extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of engineering left-handed metamaterials by just drilling holes in metallic plates and brings together single structure photonic crystals, extraordinary optical transmission and left-handed behaviour.

  14. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Joshua R. Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. ABO blood-typing using an antibody array technique based on surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Houngkamhang, Nongluck; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2013-09-09

    In this study, readily available antibodies that are used in standard agglutination tests were evaluated for their use in ABO blood typing by a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) technique. Five groups of antibodies, including mixed clones of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB, and single clones of anti-A and anti-B, were used to construct the five-line detection arrays using a multichannel flow cell in the SPR imager. The red blood cell (RBC) samples were applied to a multichannel flow cell that was orthogonal to the detection line arrays for blood group typing. We found that the blood samples were correctly grouped in less than 12 min by the SPR imaging technique, and the results were consistent with those of the standard agglutination technique for all 60 samples. We found that mixed clones of antibodies provided 33%-68% greater change in the SPR signal than the single-clone antibodies. Applying the SPR imaging technique using readily available antibodies may reduce the costs of the antibodies, shorten the measurement time, and increase the throughput.

  16. Amplification of resonant field enhancement by plasmonic lattice coupling in metallic slit arrays

    PubMed Central

    Klarskov, Pernille; Tarekegne, Abebe T.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zhang, X.-C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopic investigation in the terahertz (THz) range requires significant field strength of the light fields. It is still a challenge to obtain the required field strengths in free space from table-top laser systems at sufficiently high repetition rates to enable quantitative nonlinear spectroscopy. It is well known that local enhancement of the THz field can be obtained for instance in narrow apertures in metallic films. Here we show by simulation, analytical modelling and experiment that the achievable field enhancement in a two-dimensional array of slits with micrometer dimensions in a metallic film can be increased by at least 60% compared to the enhancement in an isolated slit. The additional enhancement is obtained by optimized plasmonic coupling between the lattice modes and the resonance of the individual slits. Our results indicate a viable route to sensitive schemes for THz spectroscopy with slit arrays manufactured by standard UV photolithography, with local field strengths in the multi-ten-MV/cm range at kHz repetition rates, and tens of kV/cm at oscillator repetition rates. PMID:27886232

  17. Amplification of resonant field enhancement by plasmonic lattice coupling in metallic slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Tarekegne, Abebe T.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zhang, X.-C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopic investigation in the terahertz (THz) range requires significant field strength of the light fields. It is still a challenge to obtain the required field strengths in free space from table-top laser systems at sufficiently high repetition rates to enable quantitative nonlinear spectroscopy. It is well known that local enhancement of the THz field can be obtained for instance in narrow apertures in metallic films. Here we show by simulation, analytical modelling and experiment that the achievable field enhancement in a two-dimensional array of slits with micrometer dimensions in a metallic film can be increased by at least 60% compared to the enhancement in an isolated slit. The additional enhancement is obtained by optimized plasmonic coupling between the lattice modes and the resonance of the individual slits. Our results indicate a viable route to sensitive schemes for THz spectroscopy with slit arrays manufactured by standard UV photolithography, with local field strengths in the multi-ten-MV/cm range at kHz repetition rates, and tens of kV/cm at oscillator repetition rates.

  18. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Ferry A A; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob B; Langhammer, Christoph

    2016-02-23

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage, and optimization of the surface density. These cannot be fulfilled even using state-of-the-art self-assembly strategies of colloids. As a solution, we present here a generic bottom-up nanolithography-compatible fabrication approach for large-area arrays of alloy nanoparticles on surfaces. To illustrate the concept, we focus on Au-based binary and ternary alloy systems with Ag, Cu, and Pd, due to their high relevance for nanoplasmonics and complete miscibility, and characterize their optical properties. Moreover, as an example for the relevance of the obtained materials for integration in devices, we demonstrate the superior and hysteresis-free plasmonic hydrogen-sensing performance of the AuPd alloy nanoparticle system.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    , Zhengtong Liu, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, Rasmus H Pedersen, Alexandra Boltasseva, Jiji Chen, Joseph Irudayaraj, Alexander V Kildishev and Vladimir M Shalaev Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes R F Oulton, G Bartal, D F P Pile and X Zhang Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film F de León-Pérez, G Brucoli, F J García-Vidal and L Martín-Moreno Shaping and manipulation of light fields with bottom-up plasmonic structures C Girard, E Dujardin, G Baffou and R Quidant Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission A Mohammadi, V Sandoghdar and M Agio Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon J-Y Laluet, A Drezet, C Genet and T W Ebbesen Mode mapping of plasmonic stars using TPL microscopy P Ghenuche, S Cherukulappurath and R Quidant Controlling optical transmission through magneto-plasmonic crystals with an external magnetic field G A Wurtz, W Hendren, R Pollard, R Atkinson, L Le Guyader, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing, I I Smolyaninov and A V Zayats Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions M Durach, A Rusina, V I Klimov and M I Stockman Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides Pierre Berini Mapping plasmons in nanoantennas via cathodoluminescence R Gómez-Medina, N Yamamoto, M Nakano and F J García de Abajo Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators T Søndergaard, J Jung, S I Bozhevolnyi and G Della Valle Surface plasmon polariton-mediated enhancement of the emission of dye molecules on metallic gratings J Gómez Rivas, G Vecchi and V Giannini Nanoshells to nanoeggs to nanocups: optical properties of reduced symmetry core-shell nanoparticles beyond the quasistatic limit Mark W Knight and Naomi J Halas Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency T H Taminiau, F D Stefani and N F van Hulst Green

  20. Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field. PMID:24274897

  1. Stretchable array of metal nanodisks on a 3D sinusoidal wavy elastomeric substrate for frequency tunable plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Di; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Siyi; Tian, Limei; Song, Ningfang

    2017-03-17

    Metal nanostructures integrated with soft, elastomeric substrates provide an unusual platform with capabilities in plasmonic frequency tuning of mechanical strain. In this paper, we have prepared a tunable optical device, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on a low-modulus, and high-elongation elastomeric substrate with a three-dimensional (3D) sinusoidal wavy, and their optical characteristics have been measured and analyzed in detail. Since surface plasmon is located and propagates along metal surfaces with sub-wavelength structures, and those dispersive properties are determined by the coupling strength between the individual structures, in this study, a 3D sinusoidal curve elastomeric substrate is used to mechanically control the inter-nanodisk spacing by applying straining and creating a frequency tunable plasmonic device. Here we study the optical resonance peak shifting generated by stretching this type of flexible device, and the role that 3D sinusoidal curve surface configuration plays in determining the tunable properties. Since only the hybrid dipolar mode has been observed in experiments, the coupled dipole approximation (CDA) method is employed to simulate the optical response of these devices, and the experimental and simulation results show that these devices have high tunability to shift optical resonance peaks at near-infrared wavelengths, which will provide strong potential for new soft optical sensors and wearable plasmonic sensors.

  2. Aluminum nanopyramid array with tunable ultraviolet-visible-infrared wavelength plasmon resonances for rapid detection of carbohydrate antigen 199.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbo; Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Lelun; Zhou, Zhangkai; Chen, Huanjun; Zhou, Jianhua

    2016-05-15

    Aluminum-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) holds attractive properties include low cost, high natural abundance, and ease of processing by a wide variety of methods including complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, making itself having an edge over conventional ones induced by noble metal. However, the inherent drawbacks of plasmonic mode limited on UV-green wavelength, low refractive index sensitivity, as well as heavy-shape-dependence greatly prevent aluminum plasmonics from real-life biosensing. Here, we demonstrated a uniform quasi-3-dimensional Al nanopyramid array (NPA) structure with tunable ultraviolet-visible-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) plasmon resonances for biosensing. By changing the reflection measuring angle, we could easily obtain typical peaks simultaneously exhibited on the reflectance spectrum across UV-vis-NIR wave region. The Al NPAs carried out high refractive index sensitivities which even comparable with that of noble metal, and can be used as a biosensor for directly detecting cytochrome c and carbohydrate antigen 199 in air after the sensing surface was washed cleanly and dried; the limits of detection were determined to be 800 nM and 29 ng/mL, respectively. Our proposed work therefore initiates the low-cost, high-performance biosensing using aluminum plasmonics, which would find wide applications in rapid diagnosis, mobile-healthcare and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stretchable array of metal nanodisks on a 3D sinusoidal wavy elastomeric substrate for frequency tunable plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Di; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Siyi; Tian, Limei; Song, Ningfang

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanostructures integrated with soft, elastomeric substrates provide an unusual platform with capabilities in plasmonic frequency tuning of mechanical strain. In this paper, we have prepared a tunable optical device, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on a low-modulus, and high-elongation elastomeric substrate with a three-dimensional (3D) sinusoidal wavy, and their optical characteristics have been measured and analyzed in detail. Since surface plasmon is located and propagates along metal surfaces with sub-wavelength structures, and those dispersive properties are determined by the coupling strength between the individual structures, in this study, a 3D sinusoidal curve elastomeric substrate is used to mechanically control the inter-nanodisk spacing by applying straining and creating a frequency tunable plasmonic device. Here we study the optical resonance peak shifting generated by stretching this type of flexible device, and the role that 3D sinusoidal curve surface configuration plays in determining the tunable properties. Since only the hybrid dipolar mode has been observed in experiments, the coupled dipole approximation (CDA) method is employed to simulate the optical response of these devices, and the experimental and simulation results show that these devices have high tunability to shift optical resonance peaks at near-infrared wavelengths, which will provide strong potential for new soft optical sensors and wearable plasmonic sensors.

  4. Tunable Lattice Coupling of Multipole Plasmon Modes and Near-Field Enhancement in Closely Spaced Gold Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Zhang, Xian; Ringe, Emilie; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Considering the nanogap and lattice effects, there is an attractive structure in plasmonics: closely spaced metallic nanoarrays. In this work, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes for closely spaced gold nanorod arrays, offering a new insight into the higher order cavity modes coupled with each other in the lattice. The resonances can be greatly tuned by changes in inter-rod gaps and nanorod heights while the influence of the nanorod diameter is relatively insignificant. Experimentally, pronounced suppressions of the reflectance are observed. Meanwhile, the near-field enhancement can be further enhanced, as demonstrated through surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We then confirm the correlation between the near-field and far-field plasmonic responses, which is significantly important for maximizing the near-field enhancement at a specific excitation wavelength. This lattice coupling of multipole plasmon modes is of broad interest not only for SERS but also for other plasmonic applications, such as subwavelength imaging or metamaterials. PMID:26983501

  5. Metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms based on plasmonic ordered copper arrays: wavelength dependence of quenching and enhancement effects.

    PubMed

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Tamura, Takahiro; Tahara, Hironobu; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Otsuki, Joe; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Nobuko; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2013-11-26

    Ordered arrays of copper nanostructures were fabricated and modified with porphyrin molecules in order to evaluate fluorescence enhancement due to the localized surface plasmon resonance. The nanostructures were prepared by thermally depositing copper on the upper hemispheres of two-dimensional silica colloidal crystals. The wavelength at which the surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructures was generated was tuned to a longer wavelength than the interband transition region of copper (>590 nm) by controlling the diameter of the underlying silica particles. Immobilization of porphyrin monolayers onto the nanostructures was achieved via self-assembly of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, which also suppressed the oxidation of the copper surface. The maximum fluorescence enhancement of porphyrin by a factor of 89.2 was achieved as compared with that on a planar Cu plate (CuP) due to the generation of the surface plasmon resonance. Furthermore, it was found that while the fluorescence from the porphyrin was quenched within the interband transition region, it was efficiently enhanced at longer wavelengths. It was demonstrated that the enhancement induced by the proximity of the fluorophore to the nanostructures was enough to overcome the highly efficient quenching effects of the metal. From these results, it is speculated that the surface plasmon resonance of copper has tremendous potential for practical use as high functional plasmonic sensor and devices.

  6. Plasmonic resonances in hybrid systems of aluminum nanostructured arrays and few layer graphene within the UV-IR spectral range.

    PubMed

    González-Campuzano, Ricardo; Saniger, J M; Mendoza, Doroteo

    2017-09-15

    The size-controllable and ordered Al nanocavities and nanodomes arrays were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of aluminum using phosphoric acid, citric acid and mixture both acids. Few layer graphene (FLG) was transferred directly on top of Al nanostructures and their morphology were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The interaction between FLG and the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures arrays were investigated based on specular reflectivity in the UV-Vis-IR range and Raman Spectroscopy. We found that their optical reflectivity was dramatically reduced as compared with unstructured Al. At the same time pronounced reflectivity dips were detectable in the 200 nm-896 nm wavelength range, which were ascribed to plasmonic resonances. The plasmonic properties of these nanostructures do not exhibit evident changes by the presence of FLG in the UV-Vis range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By contrast, the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) of FLG was observed in nanocavities and nanodomes structures that result in an intensity increase of the characteristic G and 2D bands of FLG induced by the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters.

    PubMed

    Mahani, Fatemeh Fouladi; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-20

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%-80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40-50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  8. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouladi Mahani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-01

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%–80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40–50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  9. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ming-Zheng; Cao, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Hui; Tang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Lu-Ning; Qi, Ning; Huang, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Al-Deyab, S. S.; Lai, Yue-Kun

    2016-02-01

    An ultrasonication-assisted in situ deposition strategy was utilised to uniformly decorate plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) to construct a Ag@TiO2 NTA composite. The Ag nanoparticles act as efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizers to drive photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. The Ag nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface and inside the highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes. The visible-light-driven hydrogen production activities of silver nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts were evaluated using methanol as a sacrificial reagent in water under a 500 W Xe lamp with a UV light cutoff filter (λ >= 420 nm). It was found that the hydrogen production rate of the Ag@TiO2 NTAs prepared with ultrasonication-assisted deposition for 5 min was approximately 15 times higher than that of its pristine TiO2 NTAs counterpart. The highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is attributed to the SPR effect of Ag for enhanced visible light absorption and boosting the photogenerated electron-hole separation/transfer. This strategy is promising for the design and construction of high efficiency TiO2 based photocatalysts for solar energy conversion.An ultrasonication-assisted in situ deposition strategy was utilised to uniformly decorate plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) to construct a Ag@TiO2 NTA composite. The Ag nanoparticles act as efficient surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizers to drive photocatalytic water splitting under visible light irradiation. The Ag nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on the surface and inside the highly oriented TiO2 nanotubes. The visible-light-driven hydrogen production activities of silver nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube array photocatalysts were evaluated using methanol as a sacrificial reagent in water under a 500 W Xe lamp with a UV light cutoff filter (λ >= 420 nm

  10. Coupled-plasmon induced optical nonlinearities in anisotropic arrays of gold nanorod clusters supported in a polymeric film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Melissa; Baltar, H. T. M. C. M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Vaia, R.; Park, K.; Che, J.; Hsiao, M.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Baev, A.; Prasad, P. N.

    2017-04-01

    Exploiting a giant plasmonic field enhancement in an anisotropic array of gold nanorod clusters in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film, we have experimentally studied its nonlinear absorptive and refractive response. Gold nanorod cluster-PVA nanocomposites were prepared, and the uniaxial alignment was obtained by mechanically stretching the films. Using the Z-scan method and excitation with 100 fs pulses at 800 nm, intensities up to 70 GW/cm2 at 20 Hz, saturation of both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction were observed. The results are discussed in light of a plasmonic effect arising from the gold nanorod clusters aligned in the stretched polymeric matrix. A polarization dependent sign reversal of the nonlinear refraction was observed, which can find applications in nanoscale photonic devices. The results are supported by finite element analysis of local electric field distribution in the arrays of gold nanorod clusters.

  11. Surface plasmon enhanced green light emitting diodes with silver nanorod arrays embedded in p-GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yaping; Yun, Feng; Wang, Yue; Ding, Wen; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Maofeng; Su, Xilin; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrated surface-plasmon (SP) enhanced green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Three types of Ag nanorod arrays with a minimum distance between the quantum well (QW) and Ag of 20, 40, and 55 nm respectively were fabricated on p-GaN layer. Photoluminescence measurements showed ˜175% emission enhancement for the 20 nm spacing while almost no enhancement for the 55 nm spacing. Simulation result showed that a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at a wavelength of ˜500 nm generated by Ag nanorod arrays induced InGaN/GaN QW and SP coupling. However, the electrical field of the LSPR generated by Ag nanorods only spread ˜40 nm in the vertical direction in GaN. This simulation result well explains the observation of SP-QW coupling emission enhancement for 20 nm spacing between Ag and QW, and the lack of enhancement for the 55 nm spacing samples.

  12. Flexible Near-Infrared Photovoltaic Devices Based on Plasmonic Hot-Electron Injection into Silicon Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Dong; Gao, Yang; Ma, Jun; Long, Ran; Wang, Chengming; Xiong, Yujie

    2016-03-24

    The development of flexible near-infrared (NIR) photovoltaic (PV) devices containing silicon meets the strong demands for solar utilization, portability, and sustainable manufacture; however, improvements in the NIR light absorption and conversion efficiencies in ultrathin crystalline Si are required. We have developed an approach to improve the quantum efficiency of flexible PV devices in the NIR spectral region by integrating Si nanowire arrays with plasmonic Ag nanoplates. The Ag nanoplates can directly harvest and convert NIR light into plasmonic hot electrons for injection into Si, while the Si nanowire arrays offer light trapping. Taking the wavelength of 800 nm as an example, the external quantum efficiency has been improved by 59 % by the integration Ag nanoplates. This work provides an alternative strategy for the design and fabrication of flexible NIR PVs.

  13. Plasmonic non-concentric nanorings array as an unidirectional nano-optical conveyor belt actuated by polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Guanghui; Jiao, Wenxiang; Ying, Zhoufeng; Zou, Ningmu; Ho, Ho-Pui; Sun, Tianyu; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-15

    We report a nano-optical conveyor belt containing an array of gold plasmonic non-concentric nanorings (PNNRs) for the realization of trapping and unidirectional transportation of nanoparticles through rotating the polarization of an excitation beam. The location of hot spots within an asymmetric plasmonic nanostructure is polarization dependent, thus making it possible to manipulate a trapped target by rotating the incident polarization state. In the case of PNNR, the two poles have highly unbalanced trap potential. This greatly enhances the chance of transferring trapped particles between adjacent PNNRs in a given direction through rotating the polarization. As confirmed by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis, an array of PNNRs forms an unidirectional nano-optical conveyor belt, which delivers target nanoparticles or biomolecules over a long distance with nanometer accuracy. With the capacity to trap and to transfer, our design offers a versatile scheme for conducting mechanical sample manipulation in many on-chip optofluidic applications.

  14. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  15. Plasmonic nanoantenna array with single-chip integrated metal-organic framework for infrared absorption gas sensing (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-Joong; Li, Erwen; Zhang, Yujing; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.

    2017-03-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) is a spectroscopic technique used to identify molecular fingerprints by resonant detection of infrared vibrational modes through coupling with the plasmonic modes of metallic nanostructures. Many reported works have demonstrated its capability to enhance the infrared absorption of solid or liquid samples. However, this technique has not been successfully applied to gas sensing yet due to the short light-matter interaction length and intrinsically weak absorption of gas compared to solid or liquid materials. Usually, IR gas sensing is conducted in a gas cell with a long absorption path. In the paper, we propose an integrated photonic device to expand the application of SEIRA to gas sensing by combining metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazole framework) with plasmonic nanoantenna array. The device consists of an Au nanopatch array on sapphire substrate and is covered by a thin layer of MOF material. The MOF thin film, which is a new class of highly nanoporous material, serves as a gas absorber to selectively adsorb and concentrate CO2 from ambient environment into the thin layer, which has a high spatial overlap with the high intensity optical field of the plasmonic nanopatch antenna array. Namely, we can effectively increase the gas molecule concentration at the hot-spots for the SEIRA device. The experimentally demonstrated peak IR enhancement factor of the device for carbon dioxide sensing is over 1,100 times.

  16. Photoluminescence Enhancement of CuInS2 Quantum Dots in Solution Coupled to Plasmonic Gold Nanocup Array.

    PubMed

    Peer, Akshit; Hu, Zhongjian; Singh, Ajay; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Biswas, Rana; Htoon, Han

    2017-09-01

    A strong plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) decay rate in quantum dots (QDs) coupled to an array of gold-coated nanocups is demonstrated. CuInS2 QDs that emit at a wavelength that overlaps with the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) of the gold nanocup array are placed in the cups as solutions. Time-resolved PL reveals that the decay rate of the QDs in the plasmonically coupled system can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, it is shown that this enhancement in PL decay rate results from an enhancement factor of ≈100 in electric field intensity provided by the plasmonic mode of the nanocup array, which is also responsible for the EOT. The simulated Purcell factor approaches 86 at the bottom of the nanocup and is ≈3-15 averaged over the nanocup cavity height, agreeing with the experimental enhancement result. This demonstration of solution-based coupling between QDs and gold nanocups opens up new possibilities for applications that would benefit from a solution environment such as biosensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photoluminescence Enhancement of CuInS2 Quantum Dots in Solution Coupled to Plasmonic Gold Nanocup Array

    DOE PAGES

    Peer, Akshit; Hu, Zhongjian; Singh, Ajay; ...

    2017-07-05

    A strong plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) decay rate in quantum dots (QDs) coupled to an array of gold-coated nanocups is demonstrated. CuInS2 QDs that emit at a wavelength that overlaps with the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) of the gold nanocup array are placed in the cups as solutions. Time-resolved PL reveals that the decay rate of the QDs in the plasmonically coupled system can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, it is shown that this enhancement in PL decay rate results from an enhancement factor of ≈100 in electric field intensitymore » provided by the plasmonic mode of the nanocup array, which is also responsible for the EOT. The simulated Purcell factor approaches 86 at the bottom of the nanocup and is ≈3–15 averaged over the nanocup cavity height, agreeing with the experimental enhancement result. In conclusion, this demonstration of solution-based coupling between QDs and gold nanocups opens up new possibilities for applications that would benefit from a solution environment such as biosensing.« less

  18. Coherent and tunable light radiation from nanoscale surface plasmons array via an exotic Smith-Purcell effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihao

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate that surface plasmons on a nanoscale metallic array can be transformed into radiation waves via an exotic Smith-Purcell effect. Although the radiation frequency and direction satisfy the Smith-Purcell relation, it is coherent radiation with directions specified, which is essentially different from the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation. Its radiation spectral density is an order of magnitude higher. By adjusting the material and structure of the array, the radiation frequency can be tuned from an infrared to ultraviolet region. Its remarkable advantages in intensity, coherence, tunability, and miniature size indicate new prospects in developing nanoscale light sources and related techniques.

  19. Slanted annular aperture arrays as enhanced-transmission metamaterials: Excitation of the plasmonic transverse electromagnetic guided mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Belkhir, Abderrahmane

    2013-11-18

    We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.

  20. Constraints on individual supermassive black hole binaries from pulsar timing array limits on continuous gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Katelin; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2016-06-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent information about the dynamical masses Mbh of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and use this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of Mbh in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves (as a function of angular position in the sky) can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in many galaxies in our samples. The constraints are stronger for galaxies with larger Mbh and at smaller distances. For the black holes with Mbh ≳ 5 × 109 M⊙ at the centres of NGC 1600, NGC 4889, NGC 4486 (M87), and NGC 4649 (M60), any binary companion in orbit within the PTA frequency bands would have to have a mass ratio of a few per cent or less.

  1. Modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance for an array of Ag nanostructures layered with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhenzhen; Huang, Haishen; Wan, Yuan; Deng, Luogen

    2016-08-01

    Sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for an array of Ag (silver) nanostructures layered with nematic liquid crystals (NLC) is investigated. Calculations are made by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method under different geometrical and environmental parameters. Results show that the LSPR wavelength in this array can be controlled and tuned to infrared wavelength range by the rotation of the NLC optical-axis. The rotation of the array and the modifications to height of the NLC layer, the size and periods of the array can affect the sensitivity of the LSPR. The sensitivity is higher when the optical-axis is in xoz plane, than that for the optical-axis in xoy plane. An improved sensitivity has been obtained in the simulation.

  2. Bolometric detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation with graphene-plasmonic antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Xiao, Long; Kindness, Stephen J.; Kamboj, Varun S.; Wei, Binbin; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Nakanishi, Kenichi; Aria, Adrianus I.; Hofmann, Stephan; E Beere, Harvey; Ritchie, David A.

    2017-05-01

    We present a fast room temperature terahertz detector based on graphene loaded plasmonic antenna arrays. The antenna elements, which are arranged in series and are shorted by graphene, are contacting source and drain metallic pads, thus providing both the optical resonant element and the electrodes. The distance between the antenna’s arms of approximately 300 nm allows a strong field enhancement in the graphene region, when the incident radiation is resonant with the antennas. The current passing through the source and drain is dependent on the graphene’s conductivity, which is modified by the power impinging onto the detector as well as from the biasing back-gate voltage. The incident radiation power is thus translated into a current modification, with the main detection mechanism being attributed to the bolometric effect. The device has been characterized and tested with two bound to continuum terahertz quantum cascade lasers emitting at a single frequency around 2 THz and 2.7 THz yielding a maximum responsivity of ~2 mA W-1.

  3. Plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting using au nanoparticles decorated on hematite nanoflake arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xuemei; Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Schmuki, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Hematite nanoflake arrays were decorated with Au nanoparticles through a simple solution chemistry approach. We show that the photoactivity of Au-decorated Fe2 O3 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the UV/Visible region compared with the bare Fe2 O3 . Au-nanoparticle-decorated Fe2 O3 nanoflake electrodes exhibit a significant cathodic shift of the onset potential up to 0.6 V [vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)], and a two times increase in the water oxidation photocurrent is achieved at 1.23 VRHE . A maximum photocurrent of 2.0 mA cm(-2) at 1.6 VRHE is obtained in 1 M KOH under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm(-2) ) conditions. The enhancement in photocurrent can be attributed to the Au nanoparticles acting as plasmonic photosensitizers that increase the optical absorption. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Self-assembly based plasmonic arrays tuned by atomic layer deposition for extreme visible light absorption.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Carl; Zeltzer, Gabriel; Ruiz, Ricardo; Thomann, Isabell; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Brongersma, Mark L; Bent, Stacey F

    2013-07-10

    Achieving complete absorption of visible light with a minimal amount of material is highly desirable for many applications, including solar energy conversion to fuel and electricity, where benefits in conversion efficiency and economy can be obtained. On a fundamental level, it is of great interest to explore whether the ultimate limits in light absorption per unit volume can be achieved by capitalizing on the advances in metamaterial science and nanosynthesis. Here, we combine block copolymer lithography and atomic layer deposition to tune the effective optical properties of a plasmonic array at the atomic scale. Critical coupling to the resulting nanocomposite layer is accomplished through guidance by a simple analytical model and measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thereby, a maximized absorption of light exceeding 99% is accomplished, of which up to about 93% occurs in a volume-equivalent thickness of gold of only 1.6 nm. This corresponds to a record effective absorption coefficient of 1.7 × 10(7) cm(-1) in the visible region, far exceeding those of solid metals, graphene, dye monolayers, and thin film solar cell materials. It is more than a factor of 2 higher than that previously obtained using a critically coupled dye J-aggregate, with a peak width exceeding the latter by 1 order of magnitude. These results thereby substantially push the limits for light harvesting in ultrathin, nanoengineered systems.

  5. Fast terahertz optoelectronic amplitude modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial antenna arrays and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessop, David S.; Sol, Christian W. O.; Xiao, Long; Kindness, Stephen J.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Lin, Hungyen; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Ren, Yuan; Kamboj, Varun S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Zeitler, J. Axel; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    The growing interest in terahertz (THz) technologies in recent years has seen a wide range of demonstrated applications, spanning from security screening, non-destructive testing, gas sensing, to biomedical imaging and communication. Communication with THz radiation offers the advantage of much higher bandwidths than currently available, in an unallocated spectrum. For this to be realized, optoelectronic components capable of manipulating THz radiation at high speeds and high signal-to-noise ratios must be developed. In this work we demonstrate a room temperature frequency dependent optoelectronic amplitude modulator working at around 2 THz, which incorporates graphene as the tuning medium. The architecture of the modulator is an array of plasmonic dipole antennas surrounded by graphene. By electrostatically doping the graphene via a back gate electrode, the reflection characteristics of the modulator are modified. The modulator is electrically characterized to determine the graphene conductivity and optically characterization, by THz time-domain spectroscopy and a single-mode 2 THz quantum cascade laser, to determine the optical modulation depth and cut-off frequency. A maximum optical modulation depth of ~ 30% is estimated and is found to be most (least) sensitive when the electrical modulation is centered at the point of maximum (minimum) differential resistivity of the graphene. A 3 dB cut-off frequency > 5 MHz, limited only by the area of graphene on the device, is reported. The results agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulations, and demonstrate the first steps towards ultra-fast, graphene based THz optoelectronic devices.

  6. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Photocatalysis of Au/Pt-decorated TiO2 Nanopillar Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Shuang; Lv, Ruitao; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    The low quantum yields and lack of visible light utilization hinder the practical application of TiO2 in high-performance photocatalysis. Herein, we present a design of TiO2 nanopillar arrays (NPAs) decorated with both Au and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) directly synthesized through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature. Au/Pt NPs with sizes of ~4 nm are well-dispersed on the TiO2 NPAs as evidenced by electron microscopic analyses. The present design of Au/Pt co-decoration on the TiO2 NPAs shows much higher visible and ultraviolet (UV) light absorption response, which leads to remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities on both the dye degradation and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Its photocatalytic reaction efficiency is 21 and 13 times higher than that of pure TiO2 sample under UV-vis and visible light, respectively. This great enhancement can be attributed to the synergy of electron-sink function of Pt and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs, which significantly improves charge separation of photoexcited TiO2. Our studies demonstrate that through rational design of composite nanostructures one can harvest visible light through the SPR effect to enhance the photocatalytic activities initiated by UV-light, and thus realize more effectively utilization of the whole solar spectrum for energy conversion. PMID:27215703

  7. Platinum plasmonic nanostructure arrays for massively parallel single-molecule detection based on enhanced fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Obara, Takayuki; Itabashi, Naoshi; Imai, Kazumichi

    2011-11-04

    We fabricated platinum bowtie nanostructure arrays producing fluorescence enhancement and evaluated their performance using two-photon photoluminescence and single-molecule fluorescence measurements. A comprehensive selection of suitable materials was explored by electromagnetic simulation and Pt was chosen as the plasmonic material for visible light excitation near 500 nm, which is preferable for multicolor dye-labeling applications like DNA sequencing. The observation of bright photoluminescence (λ = 500-600 nm) from each Pt nanostructure, induced by irradiation at 800 nm with a femtosecond laser pulse, clearly indicates that a highly enhanced local field is created near the Pt nanostructure. The attachment of a single dye molecule was attempted between the Pt triangles of each nanostructure by using selective immobilization chemistry. The fluorescence intensities of the single dye molecule localized on the nanostructures were measured. A highly enhanced fluorescence, which was increased by a factor of 30, was observed. The two-photon photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence intensity showed qualitatively consistent gap size dependence. However, the average fluorescence enhancement factor was rather repressed even in the nanostructure with the smallest gap size compared to the large growth of photoluminescence. The variation of the position of the dye molecule attached to the nanostructure may influence the wide distribution of the fluorescence enhancement factor and cause the rather small average value of the fluorescence enhancement factor.

  8. In-Plane Plasmonic Antenna Arrays with Surface Nanogaps for Giant Fluorescence Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Flauraud, Valentin; Regmi, Raju; Winkler, Pamina M; Alexander, Duncan T L; Rigneault, Hervé; van Hulst, Niek F; García-Parajo, María F; Wenger, Jérôme; Brugger, Jürgen

    2017-03-08

    Optical nanoantennas have a great potential for enhancing light-matter interactions at the nanometer scale, yet fabrication accuracy and lack of scalability currently limit ultimate antenna performance and applications. In most designs, the region of maximum field localization and enhancement (i.e., hotspot) is not readily accessible to the sample because it is buried into the nanostructure. Moreover, current large-scale fabrication techniques lack reproducible geometrical control below 20 nm. Here, we describe a new nanofabrication technique that applies planarization, etch back, and template stripping to expose the excitation hotspot at the surface, providing a major improvement over conventional electron beam lithography methods. We present large flat surface arrays of in-plane nanoantennas, featuring gaps as small as 10 nm with sharp edges, excellent reproducibility and full surface accessibility of the hotspot confined region. The novel fabrication approach drastically improves the optical performance of plasmonic nanoantennas to yield giant fluorescence enhancement factors up to 10(4)-10(5) times, together with nanoscale detection volumes in the 20 zL range. The method is fully scalable and adaptable to a wide range of antenna designs. We foresee broad applications by the use of these in-plane antenna geometries ranging from large-scale ultrasensitive sensor chips to microfluidics and live cell membrane investigations.

  9. Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhang; Peng, Wei; Li, Lixia; Qian, Siyu; Wang, Qiao

    2015-08-15

    Introducing a conducting metal layer and the structural asymmetry to elliptical annular aperture arrays, multiple plasmonic coupled-resonant modes are generated under normal incidence in the visible light range. The electromagnetic fields can be strongly enhanced at resonant modes in this device, which increases the interaction volume of the detected analyte and optical fields; therefore, multiple plamonic coupled modes exhibit higher refractive index sensitivity than as large as 610 nm/RIU. The distinct Fano-like resonance around a wavelength of 681 nm originates from the interference between bonding dipolar and the quadrupolar modes. Due to the excitation of sharp spectral features as narrow as 7 nm, high figure of merits of 94 at the Fano-like dip is obtained in a wide refractive index range of 1.33-1.40. Furthermore, to generate strong Fano-like resonance, the geometric shape of ellipse is selected, which is a good geometric shape candidate compared to the circle shape. This device is promising for biosensing applications with high sensitivity and low limit of detection.

  10. Reflective plasmonic waveplates based on metal-insulator-metal subwavelength rectangular annular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Wang, Chinhua; Xu, Fuyang; Lou, Yimin; Cao, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng

    2014-04-01

    We propose and present a quarter-wave plate using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with sub-wavelength rectangular annular arrays (RAA) patterned in the upper Au film. It is found that by manipulating asymmetric width of the annular gaps along two orthogonal directions, the reflected amplitude and phase of the two orthogonal components can be well controlled via the RAA metasurface tuned by the MIM cavity effect, in which the localized surface plasmon resonance dip can be flattened with the cavity length. A quarter-wave plate has been realized through an optimized design at 1.55 μm, in which the phase difference variation of less than 2% of the π/2 between the two orthogonal components can be obtained in an ultra-wide wavelength range of about 130 nm, and the reflectivity is up to ˜90% within the whole working wavelength band. It provides a great potential for applications in advanced nanophotonic devices and integrated photonic systems.

  11. Plasmonic sensor with high figure of merit based on differential polarization spectra of elliptical nanohole array.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bin; Basnet, Pradip; Larson, Steven; Ingram, Whitney; Zhao, Yiping

    2017-10-05

    Using the difference of the polarization transmission spectra of elliptical nanohole arrays (ENAs), the figure of merit (FOM) of the sensor performance of ENA can be significantly improved, and is inversely proportional to the measurement resolution. By optimizing the aspect ratio of the elliptical holes, Ag thickness, substrate-effect, and adhesive layer, the sensitivity, FOM, and relative sensitivity of the ENA can be improved to be 775 nm RIU(-1), 705 RIU(-1), and 70.23%, respectively, with an excellent linear dependence on the change of refractive index. Such a high-performance sensor also can be used in monitoring the molecule adsorption and RNA hybridization, revealing a highly localized near-field enhancement. This will benefit the sensing of surface-specific binding events in biologic detection and medical diagnosis.

  12. Sub-100-nm ordered silicon hole arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sub-100-nm silicon nanohole arrays were fabricated by a combination of the site-selective electroless deposition of noble metals through anodic porous alumina and the subsequent metal-assisted chemical etching. Under optimum conditions, the formation of deep straight holes with an ordered periodicity (e.g., 100 nm interval, 40 nm diameter, and high aspect ratio of 50) was successfully achieved. By using the present method, the fabrication of silicon nanohole arrays with 60-nm periodicity was also achieved. PMID:24090268

  13. 2D Arrays of Hexagonal Plasmonic Necklaces for Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis; Bausá, Luisa E; Ramírez, Mariola O

    2017-02-10

    Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowing the enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) at the ferroelectric domain boundaries. A 400-fold SHG enhancement is achieved at the near-UV spectral region with subsequent interest for technological applications.

  14. Numerical study of rotating detonation engine with an array of injection holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S.; Han, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to adopt the method of injection via an array of holes in three-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The calculation is based on the Euler equations coupled with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. A pre-mixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is used. The present study uses a more practical fuel injection method in RDE simulations, injection via an array of holes, which is different from the previous conventional simulations where a relatively simple full injection method is usually adopted. The computational results capture some important experimental observations and a transient period after initiation. These phenomena are usually absent in conventional RDE simulations due to the use of an idealistic injection approximation. The results are compared with those obtained from other numerical studies and experiments with RDEs.

  15. Numerical study of rotating detonation engine with an array of injection holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S.; Han, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to adopt the method of injection via an array of holes in three-dimensional numerical simulations of a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The calculation is based on the Euler equations coupled with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. A pre-mixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is used. The present study uses a more practical fuel injection method in RDE simulations, injection via an array of holes, which is different from the previous conventional simulations where a relatively simple full injection method is usually adopted. The computational results capture some important experimental observations and a transient period after initiation. These phenomena are usually absent in conventional RDE simulations due to the use of an idealistic injection approximation. The results are compared with those obtained from other numerical studies and experiments with RDEs.

  16. Extraordinary transmission and left-handed propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Falcone, Francisco; Campillo, Igor; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2007-02-05

    Metallic plates embedded between dielectric slabs and perforated by rectangular arrays of subwavelength holes with a dense periodicity in one of the directions support extraordinary transmission (ET) phenomena, viz. strong peaks in the transmittance frequency dependence. Stacks of such perforated plates support ET phenomena with propagation along the stack axis that is characterized by the left handed behavior. The incorporation of the dielectric materials and dense periodicity allows significantly reducing the illuminated area of the perforated plate required experimentally to observe the ET phenomena as compared to the areas required in the case of free standing rectangular hole arrays. This facilitates the experimental investigation of ET under excitation in the Fresnel zone of Gaussian beams.

  17. Optical absorption enhancement in slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Wen; Li, Zhao-Feng; Liu, Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    We investigate slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays as light absorbing structures for solar photovoltaics via simulation. With only 1-μm equivalent thickness, a maximum short-circuit current density of 34.9 mA/cm2 is obtained. Moreover, by adding an Ag mirror under the whole structure, a short-circuit current density of 37.9 mA/cm2 is attained. It is understood that the optical absorption enhancement mainly results from three aspects. First, the silicon nanocone holes provide a highly efficient antireflection effect. Second, after breaking the geometric symmetry, the slanted silicon nanocone hole supports more resonant absorption modes than vertical structures. Third, the Fabry-Perot resonance enhances the light absorption after adding an Ag mirror. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274066, 61474115, and 61504138) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032602).

  18. Solar hydrogen generation by a CdS-Au-TiO2 sandwich nanorod array enhanced with Au nanoparticle as electron relay and plasmonic photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangtian; Cushing, Scott K; Zheng, Peng; Senty, Tess; Meng, Fanke; Bristow, Alan D; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2014-06-11

    This paper presents a sandwich-structured CdS-Au-TiO2 nanorod array as the photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) for hydrogen generation via splitting water. The gold nanoparticles sandwiched between the TiO2 nanorod and the CdS quantum dot (QD) layer play a dual role in enhancing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency. First, the Au nanoparticles serve as an electron relay, which facilitates the charge transfer between CdS and TiO2 when the CdS QDs are photoexcited by wavelengths shorter than 525 nm. Second, the Au nanoparticles act as a plasmonic photosensitizer, which enables the solar-to-hydrogen conversion at wavelengths longer than the band edge of CdS, extending the photoconversion wavelength from 525 to 725 nm. The dual role of Au leads to a photocurrent of 4.07 mA/cm(2) at 0 V (vs Ag|AgCl) under full solar spectrum irradiation and a maximum solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 2.8%. An inversion analysis is applied to the transient absorption spectroscopy data, tracking the transfer of electrons and holes in the heterostructure, relating the relaxation dynamics to the underlying coupled rate equation and revealing that trap-state Auger recombination is a dominant factor in interfacial charge transfer. It is found that addition of Au nanoparticles increases the charge-transfer lifetime, reduces the trap-state Auger rate, suppresses the long-time scale back transfer, and partially compensates the negative effects of the surface trap states. Finally, the plasmonic energy-transfer mechanism is identified as direct transfer of the plasmonic hot carriers, and the interfacial Schottky barrier height is shown to modulate the plasmonic hot electron transfer and back transfer. Transient absorption characterization of the charge transfer shows defect states cannot be ignored when designing QD-sensitized solar cells. This facile sandwich structure combines both the electrical and the optical functions of Au nanoparticles into a

  19. Magnetization Reversal in an Fe Film with an Array of Elliptical Holes on a Square Lattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED NSN 7540-01-280-5500 I. Guedes , M. Grimsditch, V. Metlushko, R. Camley, B. Ilic, P. Neuzil, R. Kumar University of Colorado - Colorado...description of the phenomenon. Magnetization reversal in an Fe film with an array of elliptical holes on a square lattice I. Guedes * and M. Grimsditch...applied field is along the long and short axes of the ellipses. I. GUEDES et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 67, 024428 ~2003! 024428-2 have quite different

  20. 3D branched ZnO nanowire arrays decorated with plasmonic au nanoparticles for high-performance photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2014-03-26

    Plasmonic photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is very promising in the conversion of abundant solar energy into chemical energy. However, the solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies reported so far are still too low for practical use, which can be improved by optimizing the design and synthesis of individual blocks (i. e., the compositions, sizes, shapes of the metal and the coupling semiconductors) and the assembly of these blocks into targeted three-dimensional (3D) structures. Here, we constructed a composite plasmonic metal/semiconductor photoanode by decorating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on 3D branched ZnO nanowire arrays (B-ZnO NWs) through a series of simple solution chemical routes. The 3D ordered Au/B-ZnO NWs photoanodes exhibited excellent PEC activities in both ultraviolet and visible region. The improved photoactivities in visible region were demonstrated to be caused by the surface-plasmon-resonance effect of Au NPs. The photoconversion efficiency of Au/B-ZnO NWs photoanode reached 0.52% under simulated sunlight illumination. This is a high value of solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies reported till nowadays for plasmonic PEC water splitting, which was mainly benefit from the extensive metal/semiconductor interfaces for efficient extraction of hot electron from Au NPs and excellent charge-carries collection efficiency of the 3D ordered Au/B-ZnO NWs photoelectrode.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul K; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John F; Han, Jiaguang; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  2. Quantifying Surface Loss Induced by Anti-Vortex Hole Arrays in Planar Superconducting Circuits for Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaro, B.; Megrant, A.; Dunsworth, A.; Chen, Z.; Campbell, B.; Hoi, I.-C.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Two important dissipation sources in superconducting circuits operated at low power are surface loss from two level systems (TLS) and magnetic vortex loss. By patterning the superconducting electrodes with an array of holes, it is possible to reduce or eliminate loss due to magnetic vortices. However, since the highest levels of coherence in planar superconducting circuits have been achieved by improving the electrode-substrate interface, it is natural to expect that adding hole arrays to the electrodes may cause excess surface loss. We present simulations predicting the excess loss magnitude to be < 10 % for typical ground plane hole arrays, but for extreme cases of hole size or placement the loss may be much greater. We confirm the simulation result with measurements of high quality factor resonators (Qi > 106) with and without the hole patterns.

  3. Influence of the interlayer on coupling of surface plasmons in a sandwiched structure with periodic array of nanoapertures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liu-Yang; Qin, Ling; Zhu, Li-Hao; Fan, Ren-Hao; Li, De; Peng, Ru-Wen

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the optical properties of a multilayer structure, where a SiO2 film is sandwiched by silver films with periodic array of sub-wavelength apertures. Due to the coupling of surface plasmons (SPs) between different layers, electric and magnetic resonances have been observed. By varying the thickness of the interlayer SiO2, we can modify relative phase of the SPs resonance and control the shifts of transmission peaks. Experimentally the multilayers are fabricated by magnetron sputtering and the array of apertures is milled by focused-ion-beam facility. The measured optical transmission spectra reasonably agree with our numerical calculation, which bases on three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. To understand the shifts of the peaks, we present a phenomenological explanation, considering the transmission peaks as energy levels, and the coupling of localized surface plasmons as perturbation. These results may have potential applications in designing plasmonic devices and tuning electromagnetic wave in nanophotonics.

  4. Tailoring the plasmonic modes of metal nanoparticle arrays with lattice anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, King Chun; Lee, Sze Fung; Yu, Kin Wah

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the plasmonic band structure of three-dimensional lattices of nanoparticles under external electromagnetic waves. The long-range dipolar forces among polarized nanoparticles lead to the collective motion of the dipole moments to form plasmon. The resulting plasmonic dispersion thus depends on the polarizability of individual particle and the lattice structure of the whole system. We tailor sets of desirable plasmonic modes through varying the polarizability of nanoparticles or lattice anisotropy which can be tuned by incident GHz ultrasonic waves. Similar work of one-dimensional particle chain was contributed by Maier (2003), but we further extend the system into three-dimensional cases. In order to deal with the long-range interactions, we adopt the Ewald method to develop a viable means for calculating the plasmonic dispersion relation. Furthermore, we consider the formalism for diatomic basis of nanoshell. The plasmonic modes of each particle may couple and form hybridized plasmonic band attributed to level repulsion effect. This method provides a flexible way to manipulate plasmonic wave in a lattice by tuning the characteristic parameters of particle shape or lattice structure.

  5. Water flattens graphene wrinkles: laser shock wrapping of graphene onto substrate-supported crystalline plasmonic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaowu; Lee, Seunghyun; Kumar, Prashant; Nian, Qiong; Wang, Wenqi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-11-01

    Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic nanoantenna hybrid nanosystems, which can be exploited for several front-edge applications including photovoltaics, plasmonic waveguiding and molecular sensing at trace levels. Wrinkling instabilities of graphene on these plasmonic nanostructures, however, would cause reactive oxygen or sulfur species to diffuse and react with the materials, decrease charge transfer rates and block intense hot-spots. No ex situ graphene wrapping technique has been explored so far to control these wrinkles. Here, we present a method to generate seamless integration by using water as a flyer to transfer the laser shock pressure to wrap graphene onto plasmonic nanocrystals. This technique decreases the interfacial gap between graphene and the covered substrate-supported plasmonic nanoparticle arrays by exploiting a shock pressure generated by the laser ablation of graphite and the water impermeable nature of graphene. Graphene wrapping of chemically synthesized crystalline gold nanospheres, nanorods and bipyramids with different field confinement capabilities is investigated. A combined experimental and computational method, including SEM and AFM morphological investigation, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy characterization, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique. Graphene covered gold bipyramid exhibits the best result among the hybrid nanosystems studied. We have shown that the hybrid system fabricated by laser shock can be used for enhanced molecular sensing. The technique developed has the characteristics of tight integration, and chemical/thermal stability, is instantaneous in nature, possesses a large scale and room temperature processing capability, and can be further extended to integrate other 2D materials with various 0-3D nanomaterials.Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic

  6. Water flattens graphene wrinkles: laser shock wrapping of graphene onto substrate-supported crystalline plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaowu; Lee, Seunghyun; Kumar, Prashant; Nian, Qiong; Wang, Wenqi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-12-21

    Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic nanoantenna hybrid nanosystems, which can be exploited for several front-edge applications including photovoltaics, plasmonic waveguiding and molecular sensing at trace levels. Wrinkling instabilities of graphene on these plasmonic nanostructures, however, would cause reactive oxygen or sulfur species to diffuse and react with the materials, decrease charge transfer rates and block intense hot-spots. No ex situ graphene wrapping technique has been explored so far to control these wrinkles. Here, we present a method to generate seamless integration by using water as a flyer to transfer the laser shock pressure to wrap graphene onto plasmonic nanocrystals. This technique decreases the interfacial gap between graphene and the covered substrate-supported plasmonic nanoparticle arrays by exploiting a shock pressure generated by the laser ablation of graphite and the water impermeable nature of graphene. Graphene wrapping of chemically synthesized crystalline gold nanospheres, nanorods and bipyramids with different field confinement capabilities is investigated. A combined experimental and computational method, including SEM and AFM morphological investigation, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy characterization, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique. Graphene covered gold bipyramid exhibits the best result among the hybrid nanosystems studied. We have shown that the hybrid system fabricated by laser shock can be used for enhanced molecular sensing. The technique developed has the characteristics of tight integration, and chemical/thermal stability, is instantaneous in nature, possesses a large scale and room temperature processing capability, and can be further extended to integrate other 2D materials with various 0-3D nanomaterials.

  7. Design of an optical sensor based on plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharwat, Marwa M.; AlSharif, Haya; Alshabani, Haifaa; Qadi, Eilaf; Sultan, Maha

    2016-04-01

    Plasmonic nano-structured array sensors have been highlighted by their tremendously promising applications, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensors. In this paper, within the visible spectrum region, the optical transmission properties of a metallic thin film deposited over dielectric films of various refraction indices are investigated. With finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the optical transmission spectra of such plasmonic structures based on both nano-holes and nano-disc arrays. This investigation includes monitoring the modification in both the transmission resonance wavelengths and peak transmittance. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the interaction between light and plasmonic nano-hole and nano-disc arrays. It shows that the changing the shapes of the nano-holes can affect the resonance wavelengths and the intensity of transmitted spectra and alter its resonance peak transmittance values. We found that the interaction coupling between the localized plasmons (LSP) and the propagating surface plasmons (PSP) can be tuned to boost the performance of the optical sensor.

  8. Enhanced detection sensitivity of higher-order vibrational modes of gold nanodisks on top of a GaN nanorod array through localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Szu-Chi; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Huang, Yu-Ru; Chen, I.-Ju; Chang, Hung-Chun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-11-01

    We report a method that enables the excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in a gold nanodisk array by placing each nanodisk on top of a GaN nanorod. When the rod length was much longer than the plasmon penetration depth inside the nanorod, the plasmonic field was found to be localized, and coupling between neighboring gold nanodisks was eliminated. The interaction between LSPs and acoustic vibrations in gold nanodisks was then investigated. Owing to the strong localization of the plasmonic field, weak, higher-order vibrational modes of gold nanodisk could be optically observed. Furthermore, such an LSP-based acoustic sensor could be operated at any angle of incident light. Our study not only provides an approach to excite LSPs in high-density metallic arrays, but also opens one of the possible solutions for the development of highly sensitive sub-terahertz hypersonic sensors with high angle tolerance of incident light.

  9. Dynamically tuning emission band of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots assembled on Ag nanorod array: plasmon-enhanced Stark shift.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Niu; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Zhong-Hua

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate tuning emission band of CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanorod array by dynamically adjusting exciton-plasmon interaction. Large red-shift is observed in two-photon luminescence (TPL) spectra of the SQDs when the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanorod array is adjusted to close to excitation laser wavelength, and the spectral red-shift of TPL reaches as large as 101 meV by increasing excitation power, which is slightly larger than full width at half-maximum of emission spectrum of the SQDs. The observed LSPR-dependent spectral shifting behaviors are explained by a theoretical model of plasmon-enhanced quantum-confined Stark effect. These observations could find the applications in dynamical information processing in active plasmonic and photonic nanodevices.

  10. Ionospheric holes made by ballistic missiles from North Korea detected with a Japanese dense GPS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Masaru; Heki, Kosuke

    2010-09-01

    A dense array of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is a useful tool to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GPS array of ionospheric holes, i.e., localized electron depletion. They were made by neutral molecules in exhaust plumes (e.g., water) of ballistic missiles from North Korea, Taepodong-1 and -2, launched on 31 August, 1998, and 5 April, 2009, respectively. Negative anomaly of electron density emerged ˜6 min after the launches in the middle of the Japan Sea, and extended eastward along the missile tracks. By comparing the numerical simulation of electron depletion and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content, we suggest that the exhaust plumes from the Taepodong-2 second stage effused up to ˜1.5 × 1026 water molecules per second. The ionospheric hole signature was used to constrain the Taepodong-2 trajectory together with other information, e.g., coordinates of the launch pad, time and coordinates of the first stage splashdown, and height and time of the second stage passage over Japan. The Taepodong-2 is considered to have reached the ionospheric F region in ˜6 min, flown above northeastern Japan ˜7 min after the launch, and crashed to the Pacific Ocean without attaining the first astronautical velocity. The ionospheric hole in the 1998 Taepodong-1 launch was much less in size, but it is difficult to compare directly the thrusts of the two missiles due to uncertainty of the Taepodong-1 trajectory.

  11. Method of constructing dished ion thruster grids to provide hole array spacing compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The center-to-center spacings of a photoresist pattern for an array of holes applied to a thin metal sheet are increased by uniformly stretching the thin metal sheet in all directions along the plane of the sheet. The uniform stretching is provided by securely clamping the periphery of the sheet and applying an annular force against the face of the sheet, within the periphery of the sheet and around the photoresist pattern. The technique is used in the construction of ion thruster grid units where the outer or downstream grid is subjected to uniform stretching prior to convex molding. The technique provides alignment of the holes of grid pairs so as to direct the ion beamlets in a direction parallel to the axis of the grid unit and thereby provide optimization of the available thrust.

  12. Negative refraction in a prism made of stacked subwavelength hole arrays.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cia, M; Beruete, M; Sorolla, M; Campillo, I

    2008-01-21

    Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as negative refraction index, perfect lenses, and invisibility. However, losses are one of the big challenges to be surpassed in order to design practical devices at optical wavelengths. Here we report negative refraction in a prism engineered by stacked sub-wavelength hole arrays. These structures exhibit inherently an extraordinary optical transmission which could offer a solution to the problem of losses at optical wavelengths. It is shown the possibility to obtain negative indices of refraction starting from near to zero values. Our work demonstrates by a direct experiment the feasibility of engineering negative refraction by just drilling sub-wavelength holes in metallic plates and stacking them.

  13. EUV stochastic noise analysis and LCDU mitigation by etching on dense contact-hole array patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seo Min; Koo, Sunyoung; Park, Jun-Taek; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Myoungsoo; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Alek C.

    2014-04-01

    Experimental local CD uniformity (LCDU) of the dense contact-hole (CH) array pattern is statistically decomposed into stochastic noise, mask component, and metrology factor. Each component are compared quantitatively, and traced after etching to find how much improvement can be achieved by smoothing. Etch CDU gain factor is defined as the differential of etch CD by resist CD, and used to estimate etch CDU on resist CDU. Stochastic noise has influenced on not only LCDU but also local placement error (LPE) of each contact-hole. This LPE is also decomposed into its constituents in the same statistical way. As a result, stochastic noise is found to be the most dominant factor on LCDU and LPE. Etch LCDU is well expected by Etch Gain factor, but LPE seems to be kept same after etching. Fingerprints are derived from the repeating component and the boundary size for excluding proximity effect in analysis is investigated.

  14. Plasmon enhanced CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods array deposited with Ag nanoparticles as photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M.; Ahmadi, V.; Yousefi rad, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2015-04-01

    CdS-quantum dot sensitized solar cell using ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array deposited with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as photoanode was fabricated. Light absorption effect of Ag NPs on improvement of the cell performance was investigated. Performance improvement of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) was controlled by the structure design and architecture. Different decorations and densities of Ag NPs were utilized on the photoanode. Results showed that using 5% Ag NPs in the photoanode results in the increased efficiency, fill factor, and circuit current density from 0.28% to 0.60%, 0.22 to 0.29, and 2.18 mA/cm2 to 3.25 mA/cm2, respectively. Also, incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) results showed that cell performance improvement is related to enhanced absorption in the photoanode, which is because of the surface plasmonic resonance and light scattering of Ag NPs in the photoanode. Measurements of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that hole transfer kinetics increases with introduction of Ag NPs into photoanode. Also, it is shown that chemical capacitance increases with introduction of Ag NPs. Such increase can be attributed to the surface palsmonic resonance of Ag NPs which leads to absorption of more light in the photoanode and generation of more photoelectron in the photoanode.

  15. Synergistic Effect of Surface Plasmonic particles and Surface Passivation layer on ZnO Nanorods Array for Improved Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yichong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Yong; Shen, Yanwei; Sun, Yihui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanorods array exhibit excellent electron mobility and thus hold great potential as photoanode for photoelelctrochemical water splitting. However, the poor absorption of visible light and the prominent surface recombination hider the performance improvement. In this work, Au nanoparticles and aluminium oxide were deposited onto the surface of ZnO nanorods to improve the PEC performance. The localized surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs could expand the absorption spectrum to visible region. Simultaneously, the surface of passivation with Au NPs and Al2O3 largely suppressed the photogenerated electron-hole recombination. As a result, the optimal solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ZnO/Au/Al2O3 with 5 cycles was 6.7 times that of pristine ZnO, ascribed to the synergistic effect of SPR and surface passivation. This research reveals that the synergistic effect could be used as an important method to design efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27443692

  16. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; de Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting.

  17. Free Carrier Induced Spectral Shift for GaAs Filled Metallic Hole Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Bahae , G. I . Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, “Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range...Free carrier induced spectral shift for GaAs filled metallic hole arrays Jingyu Zhang 1,2,* , Bin Xiang 3 , Mansoor Sheik- Bahae 4 , and S. R. J...OCIS codes: (310.6628) Subwavelength structures;(190.4350) Nonlinear optics at surfaces References and links 1. J. M. Luther, P. K. I . Jain, T. Ewers

  18. Constraints on the Dynamical Environments of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries Using Pulsar-Timing Arrays.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephen R; Simon, Joseph; Sampson, Laura

    2017-05-05

    We introduce a technique for gravitational-wave analysis, where Gaussian process regression is used to emulate the strain spectrum of a stochastic background by training on population-synthesis simulations. This leads to direct Bayesian inference on astrophysical parameters. For pulsar timing arrays specifically, we interpolate over the parameter space of supermassive black-hole binary environments, including three-body stellar scattering, and evolving orbital eccentricity. We illustrate our approach on mock data, and assess the prospects for inference with data similar to the NANOGrav 9-yr data release.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance imaging system with Mach-Zehnder phase-shift interferometry for DNA micro-array hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiu, Feng-Ming; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tsai, Chien-Hung; Tsou, Chia-Yuan; Su, Y.-D.; Lin, G.-Y.; Huang, K.-T.; Chyou, Jin-Jung; Ku, Wei-Chih; Chiu, S.-K.; Tzeng, C.-M.

    2002-09-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging system is presented as a novel technique based on modified Mach-Zehnder phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) for biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA), which measures the spatial phase variation of a resonantly reflected light in biomolecular interaction. In this technique, the micro-array SPR biosensors with over a thousand probe NDA spots can be detected simultaneously. Owing to the feasible and swift measurements, the micro-array SPR biosensors can be extensively applied to the nonspecific adsorption of protein, the membrane/protein interactions, and DNA hybridization. The detection sensitivity of the SPR PSI imaging system is improved to about 1 pg/mm2 for each spot over the conventional SPR imaging systems. The SPR PSI imaging system and its SPR sensors have been successfully used to observe slightly index change in consequence of argon gas flow through the nitrogen in real time, with high sensitivity, and at high-throughout screening rates.

  20. Fault zone structure observations from the SAFOD Pilot Hole vertical seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria, A.; Shalev, E.; Malin, P.

    2003-04-01

    In July 2003 we installed a 32 level array of 15 Hz, 3-component seismometers in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth Pilot Hole. The Pilot Hole sits on the southwestern side of the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone. The array levels are spaced 40 m apart and cover the depth interval of 856 to 2096 m. Both surface explosion and earthquake data have been recorded with the array using sampling rates of 1 and 2 KHz, respectively. Because of their location below the complex structure and strong attenuation of the near surface, the microearthquake recordings contain seismic energy up to very high frequencies, for some events as high as 600 Hz. Travel time curves from these data contain evidence for the reflection and refraction of P and S waves within the fault zone. As can be expected, the curves are strong functions of azimuth, with phases traveling parallel to the fault showing significantly less uphole moveout than those traveling normal to it. This feature is a direct result of the 2-dimensionality of the local geology. There is a change in seismic velocities and amplitudes a few hundred meter below the top of the array. This is somewhat unexpected given that this is also a few hundred meters below the local sediment-granite basement contact. Further, the fault zone P and S wave velocity structures appear to vary in significantly different fashions. The same seems to be true for the fault zone P and S wave attenuation. The S-wave data show signs of shear wave splitting, possibly originating from the fault zones primary facture system. These fractures may also account for the difference in the P and S wave velocity variations and attenuation, particularly if these fractures are fluid filled.

  1. Integrating plasmonic diagnostics and microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lifang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is generally divided into two categories: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of electromagnetic modes propagating along a (noble) metal/dielectric interface and localized SPRs (LSPRs) on nanoscopic metallic structures (particles, rods, shells, holes, etc.). Both optical transducer concepts can be combined with and integrated in microfluidic devices for biomolecular analyte detections, with the benefits of small foot-print for point-of-care detection, low-cost for one-time disposal, and ease of being integrated into an array format. The key technologies in such integration include the plasmonic chip, microfluidic channel fabrication, surface bio-functionalization, and selection of the detection scheme, which are selected according to the specifics of the targeting analytes. This paper demonstrates a few examples of the many versions of how to combine plasmonics and integrated microfluidics, using different plasmonic generation mechanisms for different analyte detections. One example is a DNA sensor array using a gold film as substrate and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy as the transduction method. This is then compared to grating-coupled SPR for poly(ethylene glycol) thiol interaction detected by angle interrogation, gold nanohole based LSPR chip for biotin-strepavidin detection by wavelength shift, and gold nanoholes/nanopillars for the detection of prostate specific antigen by quantum dot labels excited by the LSPR. Our experimental results exemplified that the plasmonic integrated microfluidics is a promising tool for understanding the biomolecular interactions and molecular recognition process as well as biosensing, especially for on-site or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:26392832

  2. Integrating plasmonic diagnostics and microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lifang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonics is generally divided into two categories: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of electromagnetic modes propagating along a (noble) metal/dielectric interface and localized SPRs (LSPRs) on nanoscopic metallic structures (particles, rods, shells, holes, etc.). Both optical transducer concepts can be combined with and integrated in microfluidic devices for biomolecular analyte detections, with the benefits of small foot-print for point-of-care detection, low-cost for one-time disposal, and ease of being integrated into an array format. The key technologies in such integration include the plasmonic chip, microfluidic channel fabrication, surface bio-functionalization, and selection of the detection scheme, which are selected according to the specifics of the targeting analytes. This paper demonstrates a few examples of the many versions of how to combine plasmonics and integrated microfluidics, using different plasmonic generation mechanisms for different analyte detections. One example is a DNA sensor array using a gold film as substrate and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy as the transduction method. This is then compared to grating-coupled SPR for poly(ethylene glycol) thiol interaction detected by angle interrogation, gold nanohole based LSPR chip for biotin-strepavidin detection by wavelength shift, and gold nanoholes/nanopillars for the detection of prostate specific antigen by quantum dot labels excited by the LSPR. Our experimental results exemplified that the plasmonic integrated microfluidics is a promising tool for understanding the biomolecular interactions and molecular recognition process as well as biosensing, especially for on-site or point-of-care diagnostics.

  3. ZnO/Ag composite nanorod arrays for surface-plasmon-enhanced emission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D. Bharathi

    2014-04-01

    The surface plasmon resonance enhanced emission through coupling of surface plasmons and exciton band energies is studied in hybrid ZnO/Ag nanostructure. The catalytic growth of ZnO nanorods is controlled in seed mediated growth by altering size distribution of Ag nanoislands. X-ray diffraction shows a predominant (002) crystal plane confirming the preferential growth of ZnO nanorods on as-deposited Ag. Increase of surface roughness in Ag film by post deposition annealing process enhances the light emission due to momentum matching between surface plasmons and excitons as well as a red shift of 32 meV occurs due to multi phonon and phonon-exciton interaction.

  4. ZnO/Ag composite nanorod arrays for surface-plasmon-enhanced emission study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Anil Kumar E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com; Mohan, D. Bharathi E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    The surface plasmon resonance enhanced emission through coupling of surface plasmons and exciton band energies is studied in hybrid ZnO/Ag nanostructure. The catalytic growth of ZnO nanorods is controlled in seed mediated growth by altering size distribution of Ag nanoislands. X-ray diffraction shows a predominant (002) crystal plane confirming the preferential growth of ZnO nanorods on as-deposited Ag. Increase of surface roughness in Ag film by post deposition annealing process enhances the light emission due to momentum matching between surface plasmons and excitons as well as a red shift of 32 meV occurs due to multi phonon and phonon-exciton interaction.

  5. Fabrication of micro hole array on the surface of CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser for antireflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangping; Zhang, Tianhui; Fan, Siling; Cheng, Guanghua

    2017-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS is a promising long-wave infrared (8-12 μm) window material. Yet antireflection is necessary since Fresnel reflection from its surface is high due to the high refractive index of ZnS. Sub-wavelength structured surface of micro hole array was fabricated on CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser ablation. The effects of beam profile, pulse width and beam power on the radius and morphology of the holes were studied. Gaussian beam can cause severe melted-resolidified layers around the hole, yet Bessel beam only resulted in thin ribbon around the hole. The picosecond Bessel laser is more suitable than femtosecond laser for ablating holes on ZnS. The radius of the holes increases with increasing the Bessel beam pulse width and the beam power. But larger power may cause circle grooves around the central holes. Ordered hole array was fabricated on single side of CVD ZnS and antireflection was realized.

  6. Extraordinary transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength slot arrays mediated by spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Xia, Song; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional gratings consisting of sub-wavelength metallic slot arrays have been widely applied in the design of novel devices due to their polarization-selective characteristics. When the incident electric field is polarized along the slot direction, the slot arrays are opaque, behaving like a metal surface. Here we propose a scheme of making slot arrays transparent for electromagnetic (EM) waves, which is achieved by the incorporation of corrugated metal strip arrays. Incident waves are first converted into spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) propagating along the strips. Since SSPPs confine EM fields in sub-wavelength scales, EM waves can penetrate through the sub-wavelength slots. High transmission was thus obtained, with an efficiency as high as 95%. Moreover, position and bandwidth of the transmission band can be tailored by adjusting the groove depth and the slot width, respectively. It is expected that the design may find potential applications in the multifunctional devices with frequency- and polarization-selective features.

  7. Rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by a new array format-based surface plasmon resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang-Chen; Chang, Chia-Chen; Lu, Chia-Chen; Wei, Chia-Fong; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2012-03-01

    Tubercle bacillus [TB] is one of the most important chronic infectious diseases that cause millions of deaths annually. While conventional smear microscopy and culture methods are widely used for diagnosis of TB, the former is insensitive, and the latter takes up to 6 to 8 weeks to provide a result, limiting the value of these methods in aiding diagnosis and intermediate decisions on treatment. Therefore, a rapid detection method is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis assessment, and recurrence monitoring. A new surface plasmon resonance [SPR] biosensor based on an array format, which allowed immobilizing nine TB antigens onto the sensor chip, was constructed. Simultaneous determination of multiple TB antibodies in serum had been accomplished with this array-based SPR system. The results were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a conventional immunological method. Array-based SPR showed more advantages in providing label-free and real-time detection. Additionally, the high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of TB infection showed its potential for future development of biosensor arrays for TB diagnosis.

  8. Thin crystalline silicon with double-sided nano-hole array fabricated by soft UV-NIL and RIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Yulian; Lu, Linfeng; Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Xufei

    2017-05-01

    The thin crystalline silicon (c-Si) is deemed to be an alternative material for solar cells, but it is too thin to effectively absorb light on a broad spectrum. Here we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that a double-sided nano-hole array on free-standing thin c-Si (20 µm) by combining soft ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (soft UV-NIL) and reactive ion etching (RIE), which is simple and possible for mass production. This thin c-Si with double-sided nano-hole array proves to show 40% lower light reflectivity than flat silicon at long wavelength range, which is coincident with the simulated results. The thin c-Si with double-sided nano-hole array also has the advantages of good flexibility and uniform thickness, adding feasibility to apply the structure to photonic devices.

  9. Plasmonic enhancement of UV emission from ZnO thin films induced by Al nano-concave arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Łuka, Grzegorz; Włodarski, Maksymilian

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmons (SPs) supported by Al nano-concave arrays with increasing interpore distance (Dc) were used to enhance the ultraviolet light emission from ZnO thin films. Two sets of samples were prepared: in the first set the thin ZnO films were deposited directly on Al nanoconcaves (the Al/ZnO samples) and in the second set a 10 nm - Al2O3 spacer was placed between the textured Al and the ZnO films (the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO samples). In the Al/ZnO samples the enhancement was limited by a nonradiative energy dissipation due to the Ohmic loss in the Al metal. However, for the ZnO layer deposited directly on Al nanopits synthesized at 150 V (Dc = 333 ± 18 nm), the largest 9-fold enhancement was obtained by achieving the best energy fit between the near band-edge (NBE) emission from ZnO and the λ(0,1) SPP resonance mode. In the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO samples the amplification of the UV emission was smaller than in the Al/ZnO samples due to a big energy mismatch between the NBE emission and the λ(0,1) plasmonic mode. The results obtained in this work indicate that better tuning of the NBE - λ(0,1) SPP resonance mode coupling is possible through a proper modification of geometrical parameters in the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO system such as Al nano-concave spacing and the thickness of the corresponding layer. This approach will reduce the negative influence of the non-radiative plasmonic modes and most likely will lead to further enhancement of the SP-modulated UV emission from ZnO thin films.

  10. Localized surface plasmon induced enhancement of electron-hole generation with silver metal island at n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Gurpreet Yadav, K. L.; Mitra, Anirban

    2015-08-03

    Localized surface plasmon induced generation of electron-hole pairs with inclusion of metal islands of noble metal like Ag can enhance the photocurrent. A heterostructure of n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu{sub 2}O with inclusion of Ag metalislands at the junction has been fabricated. I-V characteristic curve of these heterostructures shows a significant enhancement of photocurrent under the illumination (1.5 AMU). This enhancement of photocurrent is attributed to the supply of hot electrons generated in silver metal nanoislands. It has also been shown that inclusion of metal islands increases the absorption of solar spectrum in visible region at 500 nm. Enhancement of photocurrent may also be due to the direct resonance energy transfer from Localized Surface Plasmons of metal islands to Cu{sub 2}O.

  11. Broadband localized surface-plasmon-enhanced green light-emitting diodes by silver nanocone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Gong, Zhina; Wang, Jiangteng; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Yun, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with silver nanocone-shaped structures embedded in p-GaN have been demonstrated with the surface plasmon (SP) enhancement effect. The resonance frequency has been broadened and the strength of coupling has been considerably enhanced. Compared with the LED without Ag nanocones, the integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the SP-enhanced LED was improved by ∼275%, and the electroluminescence (EL) enhancement ratio at a different wavelength was evaluated at an injection current of 50 mA/mm2. At the same time, a reduction in the recombination lifetime indicated an increased internal quantum efficiency of LEDs. The results of simulation using nanocones as well as nanorods indicate good correlation with the experimental observation of the broadening effect. This structure is promising for converting incident photons into the localized surface plasmon (LSP) mode, to enhance the emission of LEDs within a broad wavelength range.

  12. Frequency comb generation using plasmonic resonances in a time-dependent graphene ribbon array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altares Menendez, Galaad; Maes, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for subwavelength photonics, among other reasons because of its large tunability, extreme confinement of plasmonic modes, and limited losses. Here we use the interplay of time modulation and plasmonic resonances in graphene gratings to efficiently generate frequency combs. By using rigorous simulations and a coupled-mode theory model, we show that the combs can be strongly tailored via both the grating and time modulation properties, and can range from the mid-infrared to far-infrared. The grating properties, via the resonance lifetime, strongly influence the conversion efficiency, while the temporal modulation defines the comb's frequency spacing and shape. We examine in detail the dynamics of this interplay between cavity and modulation. With the grating mechanism, a similar frequency comb generation is obtained with a modulation amplitude that is three orders of magnitude smaller than in the planar case.

  13. Double active control of the plasmonic resonance of a gold nanoparticle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sio, Luciano; Cunningham, Alastair; Verrina, Vanessa; Tone, Caterina Maria; Caputo, Roberto; Bürgi, Thomas; Umeton, Cesare

    2012-11-01

    A two-fold active control of the plasmonic resonance of randomly distributed gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been achieved. GNPs have been immobilized on an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate and then covered with a liquid crystalline compound. The system has been investigated by means of atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, revealing the presence of isolated and well distributed GNPs. The application of an external electric field to the sample has a two-fold consequence: the re-orientation of the hybrid-aligned liquid crystal layer and the formation of a carrier accumulation layer in the proximity of the ITO substrate. The refractive indices of both liquid crystal and accumulation layers are influenced by the applied field in a competitive way and produce a ``dancing behavior'' of the GNP's plasmonic resonance spectral position.

  14. Design of crossing metallic metasurface arrays based on high sensitivity of gap enhancement and transmittance shift for plasmonic sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Syu, Jhih-Yu; Chou Chao, Chung-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Lim, Chee Ming

    2017-02-01

    We have systematically investigated a general approach to optimize the optical performances of a 2D array of crossing metal nanoparticle (MNP) thin film. These functionalized metasurface MNPs are designed for use as wavelength-selection filters in high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopic plasmonic sensors. The effects of different structural parameters corresponding to the gap-enhancement and bonded transmittance modes on MNP arrays are studied. Two types of sensor configurations based on gold MNP arrays are thoroughly investigated by using the finite element method. The calculated transmittance spectra of the proposed metasurfaces demonstrate near-infrared transmittance dips with a sensitivity range of 120-700 nm RIU-1 in a dielectric constant (ɛ) ranging from 1.0-3.0. We illustrate that it is possible to increase their sensitivity in the detection of chemical and biological substances. The proposed metasurfaces supporting both core-medium sensitivity and bonded-mode resonances are desirable for label-free sensing applications.

  15. Biological sensing using hybridization phase of plasmonic resonances with photonic lattice modes in arrays of gold nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutha, Rithvik R.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J.

    2017-09-01

    We study biological sensing using the hybridization phase of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) with diffraction modes (photonic lattice modes) in arrays of gold nanoantennas. We map the degree of the hybridization process using an embedding dielectric material (Si), identifying the critical thicknesses wherein the optical responses of the arrays are mainly governed by pure LSPRs (insignificant hybridization), Fano-type coupling of LSPRs with diffraction orders (hybridization state), and their intermediate state (hybridization phase). The results show that hybridization phase can occur with slight change in the refractive index (RI), leading to sudden reduction of the linewidth of the main spectral feature of the arrays by about one order of magnitude while it is shifted nearly 140 nm. These processes, which offer significant improvement in RI sensitivity and figure of merit, are utilized to detect monolayers of biological molecules and streptavidin-conjugated semiconductor quantum dots with sensitivities far higher than pure LSPRs. We further explore how these sensors can be used based on the uncoupled LSPRs by changing the polarization of the incident light.

  16. Biological sensing using hybridization phase of plasmonic resonances with photonic lattice modes in arrays of gold nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Gutha, Rithvik R; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J

    2017-09-01

    We study biological sensing using the hybridization phase of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) with diffraction modes (photonic lattice modes) in arrays of gold nanoantennas. We map the degree of the hybridization process using an embedding dielectric material (Si), identifying the critical thicknesses wherein the optical responses of the arrays are mainly governed by pure LSPRs (insignificant hybridization), Fano-type coupling of LSPRs with diffraction orders (hybridization state), and their intermediate state (hybridization phase). The results show that hybridization phase can occur with slight change in the refractive index (RI), leading to sudden reduction of the linewidth of the main spectral feature of the arrays by about one order of magnitude while it is shifted nearly 140 nm. These processes, which offer significant improvement in RI sensitivity and figure of merit, are utilized to detect monolayers of biological molecules and streptavidin-conjugated semiconductor quantum dots with sensitivities far higher than pure LSPRs. We further explore how these sensors can be used based on the uncoupled LSPRs by changing the polarization of the incident light.

  17. Earthquake source parameters determined by the SAFOD Pilot Hole seismic array

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imanishi, K.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Prejean, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    We estimate the source parameters of #3 microearthquakes by jointly analyzing seismograms recorded by the 32-level, 3-component seismic array installed in the SAFOD Pilot Hole. We applied an inversion procedure to estimate spectral parameters for the omega-square model (spectral level and corner frequency) and Q to displacement amplitude spectra. Because we expect spectral parameters and Q to vary slowly with depth in the well, we impose a smoothness constraint on those parameters as a function of depth using a linear first-differenfee operator. This method correctly resolves corner frequency and Q, which leads to a more accurate estimation of source parameters than can be obtained from single sensors. The stress drop of one example of the SAFOD target repeating earthquake falls in the range of typical tectonic earthquakes. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Source scaling relationships of microearthquakes at Parkfield, CA, determined using the SAFOD Pilot Hole Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Kazutoshi; Ellsworth, William L.

    We estimate the source parameters of 34 microearthquakes at Parkfield, CA, ranging in size from M -0.2 to M 2.1, by analyzing seismograms recorded by the 32-level, 3-component seismic array installed in the SAFOD Pilot Hole. We succeeded in obtaining stable spectral ratios by stacking the ratios calculated from the moving windows taken along the record following the direct waves. These spectral ratios were modeled to determine seismic moments and corner frequencies assuming an omega-squared model. Static stress drops and apparent stresses of microearthquakes at Parkfield display moment-independent scaling in agreement with scaling laws reported for moderate and large earthquakes. It is likely that the dynamics of microearthquakes at Parkfield is macroscopically similar to that of larger tectonic earthquakes.

  19. Direct Visualization of Molecular Scale Chemical Adsorptions on Solids using Plasmonic Nanoparticle Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-14

    light can excite the surface plasmons, which coherently resonate with those of nearby nanoparticles, causing extinction or scattering of light with...to allow solid state capture of mercury, which enables simultaneous mercury sensing and capturing. In case of explosive detection, the explosive...hemispheric nanoparticles. The diameter and interparticle spacing of nanoparticles are determined by the diameters of nanospheres and are 50 and 230 nm

  20. Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Greta J; Lee, Hye Jin; Corn, Robert M

    2002-10-15

    The characterization of peptide arrays on gold surfaces designed for the study of peptide-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging is described. A two-step process was used to prepare the peptide arrays: (i) a set of parallel microchannels was used to deliver chemical reagents to covalently attach peptide probes to the surface by a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction; (ii) a second microchannel with a wraparound design was used as a small-volume flow cell (5 microL) to introduce antibody solutions to the peptide surface. As a demonstration, the interactions of the FLAG epitope tag and monoclonal anti-FLAG M2 were monitored by SPR imaging using a peptide array. This peptide-antibody pair was studied because of its importance as a means to purify fusion proteins. The surface coverage of the FLAG peptide was precisely controlled by creating the peptide arrays on mixed monolayers of alkanethiols containing an amine-terminated surface and an inert alkanethiol. The mole fraction of peptide epitopes was also controlled by reacting solutions containing FLAG peptide and the non-interacting peptide HA or cysteine. By studying variants based on the FLAG binding motif, it was possible to distinguish peptides differing by a single amino acid substitution using SPR imaging. In addition, quantitative analysis of the signal was accomplished using the peptide array to simultaneously determine the binding constants of the antibody-peptide interactions for four peptides. The binding constant, K(ads), for the FLAG peptide was measured and found to be 1.5 x 10(8) M(-1) while variants made by the substitution of alanine for residues based on the binding motif had binding constants of 2.8 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(6), and 2.0 x 10(6) M(-1).

  1. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10−5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers. PMID:26923610

  2. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-02-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10-5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers.

  3. Effects of morphology, diameter and periodic distance of the Ag nanoparticle periodic arrays on the enhancement of the plasmonic field absorption in the CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Eskandari, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Yousefirad, Mansooreh; Nabavi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the numerical calculations of plasmonic field absorption of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) periodic arrays in the CdSe quantum dot (QD) film are investigated by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD). Diameter (D), periodic distance (P), and morphology effects of Ag NPs are investigated on the improvement of the plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film. Results show that plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is enhanced with reduction of D of Ag NPs until 5 nm and reduces thereafter. It is observed that with raising D of Ag NPs, optimum plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is shifted toward the higher P. Moreover, with varying morphology of Ag NPs from spherical to cylindrical, cubic, ringing and pyramid, the plasmonic field absorption is considerably enhanced in CdSe QD film and position of quadrupole plasmon mode (QPPM) is shifted toward further wavelength. For cylindrical Ag NPs, the QPPM intensity increased with raising height (H) until 15 nm and reduces thereafter.

  4. Subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric broadband terahertz gradient index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Kanghee; Han, Daehoon; Ahn, Jaewook

    2014-09-01

    Structuring at subwavelength scales brings out artificial media with anomalous optical features called metamaterials. All-dielectric metamaterials have high potential for practical applications over the whole electromagnetic spectrum owing to low loss and optical isotropy. Here, we report subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial with broadband THz operation. The unit cell consists of a single subwavelength through-hole on highly resistive monocrystalline silicon. Depending on the fill-factor and period, the effective index was linearly modulated at 0.3–1.6 THz. The experimental results also demonstrate silicon gradient refractive index (Si-GRIN) lenses with parabolic index profiles through the spatial modification of a single unit cell along the radial direction. Si-GRIN lenses either focus 0.4–1.6 THz beam to the diffraction-limit or serve as a flat and thin solid immersion lens on the backside of THz photoconductive antenna for highly efficient pulse extraction. This all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial opens up opportunities for integrated THz GRIN optics.

  5. Searching for GW signals from eccentric supermassive black-hole binaries with pulsar-timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stephen; Gair, Jonathan; Huerta, Eliu; McWilliams, Sean

    2015-04-01

    The mergers of massive galaxies leads to the formation of supermassive black-hole binaries in the common merger remnants. Various mechanisms have been proposed to harden these binaries into the adiabatic GW inspiral regime, from interactions with circumbinary disks to stellar scattering. It may be the case that these mechanisms leave the binary with a residual eccentricity, such that the deviation to the time-of-arrival of pulsar signals induced by the emitted GW passing between the Earth and a pulsar will contain a signature of this eccentricity. Current pulsar-timing search pipelines only probe circular binary systems, but much effort is now being devoted to considering the influence of the binary environment on GW signals. We will detail our efforts in constructing a generalised GW search pipeline to constrain the eccentricity of single systems with arrays of precisely-timed pulsars, which may shed light on the influence of various supermassive black-hole binary hardening mechanisms and illuminate the importance of environmental couplings.

  6. Plasmon-induced charge separation at two-dimensional gold semishell arrays on SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} colloidal crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ling; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectrodes based on plasmonic Au semishell (or halfshell) arrays are developed. A colloidal crystal consisting of SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} core-shell particles is prepared on a TiO{sub 2}-coated transparent electrode. A Au semishell (or halfshell) array is deposited by sputtering or evaporation on the colloidal crystal. An electrode with the semishell (or halfshell) array exhibits negative photopotential shifts and anodic photocurrents under visible light at 500-800 nm wavelengths in an aqueous electrolyte containing an electron donor. In particular, hydroquinone and ethanol are good electron donors. The photocurrents can be explained in terms of plasmon-induced charge separation at the Au-TiO{sub 2} interface.

  7. Ionospheric hole made by the 2012 North Korean rocket observed with a dense GNSS array in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Yuki; Heki, Kosuke

    2014-07-01

    A dense array of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is useful to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GNSS array of an ionospheric hole, i.e., localized electron depletion, made by water vapor molecules in the exhaust plume of the second-stage engine of the Unha-3 rocket launched from North Korea, on 12 December 2012. The Russian GNSS was used for the first time to observe such an ionospheric hole. The hole emerged ~6 min after the launch above the middle of the Yellow Sea, and its size and depth suggest that the Unha-3 is slightly less powerful than the 2009 Taepodong-2 missile, also from North Korea. Smaller-scale electron depletion signatures appeared ~10 min after the launch above the southern East China Sea, which is possibly caused by the exhaust plume of the third-stage engine.

  8. Probing the assembly history and dynamical evolution of massive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyuan; Middleton, Hannah; Sesana, Alberto; Del Pozzo, Walter; Vecchio, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    We consider the inverse problem in pulsar timing array (PTA) analysis, investigating what astrophysical information about the underlying massive black hole binary (MBHB) population can be recovered from the detection of a stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB). We employ a physically motivated model that connects the GWB spectrum to a series of parameters describing the underlying redshift evolution of the MBHB mass function and to the typical eccentricity they acquire while interacting with the dense environment of post-merger galactic nuclei. This allows the folding in of information about the spectral shape of the GWB into the analysis. The priors on the model parameters are assumed to be uninformative and consistent with the current lack of secure observations of sub-parsec MBHBs. We explore the implications of current upper limits and of future detections with a variety of PTA configurations. We confirm our previous finding that current upper limits can only place an upper bound on the overall MBHB merger rate. Depending on the properties of the array, future detections can also constrain several MBHB population models at different degrees of fidelity. In particular, a simultaneous detection of a steepening of the spectrum at high frequency and a bending at low frequency will place strong constraints on both the MBHB mass function and on the typical eccentricity of inspiralling MBHBs, providing insights into MBHB astrophysics unlikely to be achievable by any other means.

  9. Collective photonic-plasmonic resonances in noble metal - dielectric nanoparticle hybrid arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-10-27

    Coherent scattering of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in regular arrays can generate Surface Lattice Resonances (SLRs) with characteristically sharp spectral features. Herein, we investigate collective resonances in compositionally more complex arrays comprising NP clusters and NPs with different chemical compositions at pre-defined lattice sites. We first characterize the impact of NP clustering by exchanging individual gold NPs in the array through dimers of electromagnetically strongly coupled gold NPs. Then, we analyze hybrid arrays that contain both gold metal NP dimers and high refractive index dielectric NPs as building blocks. We demonstrate that the integration of gold NP clusters andmore » dielectric NPs into one array enhances E-field intensities not only in the vicinity of the NPs but also in the ambient medium of the entire array. In addition, this work shows that the ability to integrate multiple building blocks with different resonance conditions in one array provides new degrees of freedom for engineering optical fields in the array plane with variable amplitude and phase.« less

  10. Collective photonic-plasmonic resonances in noble metal - dielectric nanoparticle hybrid arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yan; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-10-27

    Coherent scattering of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in regular arrays can generate Surface Lattice Resonances (SLRs) with characteristically sharp spectral features. Herein, we investigate collective resonances in compositionally more complex arrays comprising NP clusters and NPs with different chemical compositions at pre-defined lattice sites. We first characterize the impact of NP clustering by exchanging individual gold NPs in the array through dimers of electromagnetically strongly coupled gold NPs. Then, we analyze hybrid arrays that contain both gold metal NP dimers and high refractive index dielectric NPs as building blocks. We demonstrate that the integration of gold NP clusters and dielectric NPs into one array enhances E-field intensities not only in the vicinity of the NPs but also in the ambient medium of the entire array. In addition, this work shows that the ability to integrate multiple building blocks with different resonance conditions in one array provides new degrees of freedom for engineering optical fields in the array plane with variable amplitude and phase.

  11. Enhanced ultraviolet emission of ZnO microrods array based on Au surface plasmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wen-po; Jing, Ai-hua; Li, Jing-hua; Liang, Gao-feng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the Au/ZnO hybrid microstructure was fabricated by assembling Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the surface of ZnO microrods, and an obviously improved ultraviolet (UV) emission of ZnO is observed in the hybrid microstructure. About 27-fold enhancement ratio of the UV emission to the green band emission of ZnO is achieved. The underlying enhanced mechanism of the UV emission intensities can be ascribed to the charge transfer and the efficient coupling between ZnO excitons and Au surface plasmon (SP).

  12. Localization of surface plasmon polaritons in hexagonal arrays of Moiré cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2011-01-01

    In view of the progress on the confinement of light, we report on the dispersion characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on two-dimensional Moiré surfaces in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements show omnidirectional confinement of SPPs. The resonance wavelength of SPP cavity modes can be adjusted by tuning the propagation direction of SPPs. The results may have an impact on the control of spontaneous emission and absorption with applications in light emitting diodes and solar cells, as well as in quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  13. Meta-Optics with Nanowire Grid Arrays: Hyperbolic Fabry-Perot Modes and Hyperbolic Tamm Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durach, Maxim; Keene, David; Lepain, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we introduce a new class of structures - cavities formed by metal-dielectric metasurfaces. These cavities support a zoo of various resonances, including hyperbolic Tamm plasmons and hyperbolic Fabry-Perot modes, which feature anisotropic clover-leaf dispersion parallel to the metasurface and strong coupling between TM and TE polarizations in the modes. The properties and spectrum of the modes are highly tunable by the dimensional and material parameters of the structure and can be used for directional emission, modification of radiation produced by electric dipole emitters into magnetic dipole radiation as well as 90 degree polarization rotators and polarization rotation mirrors.

  14. Arrays of holes fabricated by electron-beam lithography combined with image reversal process using nickel pulse reversal plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Yousef; Lavallée, Eric; Lau, Kien Mun; Beauvais, Jacques; Drouin, Dominique; Cloutier, Melanie; Turcotte, David; Yang, Pan; Kelkar, Prasad

    2004-05-01

    A critical issue in fabricating arrays of holes is to achieve high-aspect-ratio structures. Formation of ordered arrays of nanoholes in silicon nitride was investigated by the use of ultrathin hard etch mask formed by nickel pulse reversal plating to invert the tonality of a dry e-beam resist patterned by e-beam lithography. Ni plating was carried out using a commercial plating solution based on nickel sulfamate salt without organic additives. Reactive ion etching using SF6/CH4 was found to be very effective for pattern transfer to silicon nitride. Holes array of 100 nm diam, 270 nm period, and 400 nm depth was fabricated on a 5×5 mm2 area. .

  15. High Brightness Plasmon-Enhanced Nanostructured Gold Photoemitters

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Kong, Lingmei; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-30

    Plasmonic nanohole arrays are fabricated in gold thin films by focused ion beam (FIB) lithography. Subsequent heat treatment creates sub 100 nm nanometric structures including tips, rods and flakes, all localized in the nanohole array region. The combined nanohole array and nanostructured surface comprise an efficient photoemitter. High brightness photoemission is observed from this construct using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), following 780 nm femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. By comparing our observables to results of finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations, we demonstrate that photoemission from the sub-100 nm structures is enhanced in the region of propagating surface plasmons launched from the nanohole arrays. Additionally, by tuning hole diameter and separation in the nanohole array, the photoemission intensity of nanostructured photoemitters can be controlled. We observe a photoemission enhancement of over 108, relative to photoemission from the flat region of the gold substrate at laser intensities well below the ablation threshold.

  16. Self-assembled bundled TiO2 nanowire arrays encapsulated with indium tin oxide for broadband absorption in plasmonic photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Hao, Qi; Fan, Xingce; Luo, Zhengwei; Hou, Xiangyu; Yang, Xiaozhi; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K

    2017-10-11

    In order to enhance photocatalysis by broadening light harvesting, bundled TiO2 nanowire bundle arrays are encapsulated with indium tin oxide (ITO) by a self-assembly technique involving anodization, electrochemical etching, and ITO deposition. The plasmonic photocatalyst, which has a multiscale structure with variable nanoscale gaps as well as microscale funnels, shows broadband localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of 84% in the wavelength range between 400 and 2500 nm. The improved photocatalytic efficiency is demonstrated by methyl orange degradation under sunlight illumination. The improvement stems from enhanced light harvesting arising from the localized surface plasmon resonance of the ITO membrane which extends the light response to the visible and NIR regions and excites hot charge carriers.

  17. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  18. Label-free cell-substrate adhesion imaging on plasmonic nanocup arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, L. P.; Seo, S.; Kim, S.; Goddard, L. L.; Liu, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a crucial biological and biomedical parameter defining cell differentiation, cell migration, cell survival, and state of disease. Because of its importance in cellular function, several tools have been developed in order to monitor cell adhesion in response to various biochemical and mechanical cues. However, there remains a need to monitor cell adhesion and cell-substrate separation with a method that allows real-time measurements on accessible equipment. In this article, we present a method to monitor cell-substrate separation at the single cell level using a plasmonic extraordinary optical transmission substrate, which has a high sensitivity to refractive index changes at the metal-dielectric interface. We show how refractive index changes can be detected using intensity peaks in color channel histograms from RGB images taken of the device surface with a brightfield microscope. This allows mapping of the nonuniform refractive index pattern of a single cell cultured on the plasmonic substrate and therefore high-throughput detection of cell-substrate adhesion with observations in real time. PMID:28271009

  19. Plasmon resonance imaging apparatus having nano-lycurgus-cup arrays and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang Logan; Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Hsiao, Austin Yin Kyai

    2016-10-11

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed that are configured to permit nanoplasmonic spectroscopy sensing in the form of colorimetric sensing. An example apparatus involves: (a) an array layer having a top surface and a bottom surface, wherein a plurality of nanoholes are defined in the top surface of the array layer, wherein the plurality of nanoholes each have at least one sidewall surface and a bottom surface, (b) a thin metal film disposed on the top surface of the array layer and on the bottom surface of each of the plurality of nanoholes, and (c) a plurality of nanoparticles disposed on the at least one sidewall surface of the plurality of nanoholes.

  20. Understanding the role of surface plasmon polaritons in two-dimensional achiral nanohole arrays for polarization conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z. L.; Yiu, L. Y.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Chan, C. T.; Ong, H. C.

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the dependence of the rotation angle and ellipticity on the sample orientation and incident polarization from metallic nanohole arrays. The arrays have fourfold symmetry and thus do not possess any intrinsic chirality. We elucidate the role of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in determining the extrinsic chirality, and we verify the results by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Our results have indicated the outgoing reflection arises from the interference between the nonresonant background, which preserves the input polarization, and the SPP radiation damping, which is linearly polarized but carries a different polarization defined by the vectorial field of SPPs. More importantly, the interference manifests various polarization states ranging from linear to elliptical across the SPP resonance. We analytically formulate the outgoing waves based on temporal coupled mode theory (CMT), and the calculations agree with the FDTD results. From CMT, we find the polarization conversion depends on the interplay between the absorption and radiative decay rates of SPPs and the sample orientation.

  1. Plasmonic photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Chen, Yu Lim; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into semiconductor photocatalysts and possesses two prominent features-a Schottky junction and localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR). The former is of benefit to charge separation and transfer whereas the latter contributes to the strong absorption of visible light and the excitation of active charge carriers. This article aims to provide a systematic study of the fundamental physical mechanisms of plasmonic photocatalysis and to rationalize many experimental observations. In particular, we show that LSPR could boost the generation of electrons and holes in semiconductor photocatalysts through two different effects-the LSPR sensitization effect and the LSPR-powered bandgap breaking effect. By classifying the plasmonic photocatalytic systems in terms of their contact form and irradiation state, we show that the enhancement effects on different properties of photocatalysis can be well-explained and systematized. Moreover, we identify popular material systems of plasmonic photocatalysis that have shown excellent performance and elucidate their key features in the context of our proposed mechanisms and classifications.

  2. An Au nanofin array for high efficiency plasmonic optical retarders at visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Miho; Iwami, Kentaro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    An Au nanofin array was designed and fabricated for in a microscale optical retarder with high transmittance at visible wavelengths. The array was designed on the basis of the theory of waveguides. The adopted nanocoating process realized a high aspect ratio Au structure with a period of 400 nm and a height of 800 nm. The transmittance of transverse magnetic polarized light at visible to near-infrared wavelengths exceeded 40% and a retardation of 170° was achieved at 633 nm.

  3. Sub-10 nm near-field localization by plasmonic metal nanoaperture arrays with ultrashort light pulses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hongki; Kim, Chulhong; Kim, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Near-field localization by ultrashort femtosecond light pulses has been investigated using simple geometrical nanoapertures. The apertures employ circular, rhombic, and triangular shapes to localize the distribution of surface plasmon. To understand the geometrical effect on the localization, aperture length and period of the nanoapertures were varied. Aperture length was shown to affect the performance more than aperture period due mainly to intra-aperture coupling of near-fields. Triangular apertures provided the strongest spatial localization below 10 nm in size as well as the highest enhancement of field intensity by more than 7000 times compared to the incident light pulse. Use of ultrashort pulses was found to allow much stronger light localization than with continuous-wave light. The results can be used for super-localization sensing and imaging applications where spatially localized fields can break through the limits in achieving improved sensitivity and resolution. PMID:26628326

  4. Complementary layer pairs of plasmonic ladder-like structured films: Fabrication and visible-near-infrared properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Gangadhar; Mandal, P.; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-08-01

    Complementary layer pairs consisting of an array of elongated gold patches on one layer with the complementary elongated holes on a second separated gold layer were fabricated by laser interference lithography using a double-exposure method. The anisotropic complementary layers, with a stretched hexagonal lattice, show polarization dependent enhanced transmittance at near-infrared wavelengths. The wavelengths of the peak transmittance through the plasmonic films are well correlated with the wavelengths of the resonant excitations of surface plasmon resonances of the system. The enhanced transmittance through such complementary layer pairs and the role played by the plasmonic resonances at the wavelengths with peak transmittance are confirmed through electromagnetic simulations. The enhanced transmittance is mediated by the plasmonic resonances of the hole arrays or cavity resonances due to the pair of complementary layers.

  5. Nanofabrication of high throughput 30 nm hole 2D arrays by a simple visible laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazushi; Narita, Chieko; Kumaresan, Ramanujam; Shinohara, Takuya; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate two-dimensional nanohole array substrates prepared using the visible laser ablation technique. We fabricated Au/polymer hybrid thin films where the Au nanoparticles were fixed onto the block copolymer substrate, which was used as the microphase-separated structure. The film was coated with a thin layer of poly(methyl acrylate), and was then irradiated with a nanosecond 532 nm pulsed laser light. The light excited the resonant plasmon absorption band of the Au nanoparticles. The nanoparticles underwent explosive vaporization via a superheated state, resulting in the formation of two-dimensional nanohole arrays on the film surface. The relevant mechanism aspects of the nanohole formation process and the relationship with laser fluence are presented.

  6. Towards multielectron photocatalysis: a porphyrin array for lateral hole transfer and capture on a metal oxide surface.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bradley J; Durrell, Alec C; Koepf, Matthieu; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-05-21

    Current molecular water-oxidation photoelectrocatalytic cells have substantial kinetic limitations under normal solar photon flux where electron-hole recombination processes may outcompete charge buildup on the catalytic centers. One method of overcoming these limitations is to design a system where multiple light-harvesting dyes work cooperatively with a single catalyst. We report a porphyrin monomer/dyad array for analysis of lateral hole transfer on a SnO2 surface consisting of a free-base porphyrin that functions to absorb light and initiate charge injection into the conduction band of SnO2, which leaves a positive charge on the organic moiety, and a free-base porphyrin/Zn-porphyrin dyad molecule that functions as a thermodynamic trap for the photoinduced holes. By using transient absorption spectroscopy, we have determined that the holes on the surface-bound free-base porphyrins are highly mobile via electron self-exchange between close-packed neighbors. The lateral charge-transfer processes were modelled by treating the system statistically with a random-walk method that utilizes experimentally derived kinetic parameters. The results of the modelling indicate that each self-exchange (hop) occurs within 25 ns and that the holes are efficiently transferred to the Zn-porphyrin. This hole-harvesting scheme provides a framework for enhancing the efficiency of multielectron photoelectrocatalytic reactions such as the four-electron oxidation of water.

  7. Manufacturability of dense hole arrays with directed self-assembly using the CHIPS flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arjun; Nam, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongsu; Chan, Boon Teik; Wu, Hengpeng; Yin, Jian; Cao, Yi; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) has attracted significant interest as a patterning technique over the past few years. We have previously reported the development of a new process flow, the CHIPS flow (Chemo-epitaxy Induced by Pillar Structures), where we use ArFi lithography and plasma etch to print guiding pillar patterns for the DSA of cylindrical phase BCPs into dense hexagonal hole arrays of 22.5 nm half-pitch and 15 nm half-pitch [1]. The ability of this DSA process to generate dense regular patterns makes it an excellent candidate for patterning memory devices. Thus, in this paper we study the applicability of the CHIPS flow to patterning for DRAM storage layers. We report the impact of various process conditions on defect density, defect types and pattern variability. We also perform detailed analysis of the DSA patterns, quantify pattern placement accuracy and demonstrate a route towards excellent LCDU after pattern transfer into a hard mask layer.

  8. Detecting Eccentric Supermassive Black Hole Binaries with Pulsar Timing Arrays: Resolvable Source Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Huerta, E. A.; Gair, J. R.; McWilliams, S. T.

    2016-01-01

    The couplings between supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) and their environments within galactic nuclei have been well studied as part of the search for solutions to the final parsec problem. The scattering of stars by the binary or the interaction with a circumbinary disk may efficiently drive the system to sub-parsec separations, allowing the binary to enter a regime where the emission of gravitational waves can drive it to merger within a Hubble time. However, these interactions can also affect the orbital parameters of the binary. In particular, they may drive an increase in binary eccentricity which survives until the system’s gravitational-wave (GW) signal enters the pulsar-timing array (PTA) band. Therefore, if we can measure the eccentricity from observed signals, we can potentially deduce some of the properties of the binary environment. To this end, we build on previous techniques to present a general Bayesian pipeline with which we can detect and estimate the parameters of an eccentric SMBHB system with PTAs. Additionally, we generalize the PTA {{ F }}{{e}}-statistic to eccentric systems, and show that both this statistic and the Bayesian pipeline are robust when studying circular or arbitrarily eccentric systems. We explore how eccentricity influences the detection prospects of single GW sources, as well as the detection penalty incurred by employing a circular waveform template to search for eccentric signals, and conclude by identifying important avenues for future study.

  9. On the plasmonic photovoltaic.

    PubMed

    Mubeen, Syed; Lee, Joun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Singh, Nirala; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2014-06-24

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics is currently a mature science and the foundation of a lucrative industry. In conventional excitonic solar cells, electron-hole pairs are generated by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the "built in" potential resulting from charge transfer accompanying Fermi-level equalization either at a p-n or a Schottky junction, followed by carrier collection at appropriate electrodes. Here we report a stable, wholly plasmonic photovoltaic device in which photon absorption and carrier generation take place exclusively in the plasmonic metal. The field established at a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction separates charges. The negative carriers are high-energy (hot) electrons produced immediately following the plasmon's dephasing. Some of the carriers are energetic enough to clear the Schottky barrier or quantum mechanically tunnel through it, thereby producing the output photocurrent. Short circuit photocurrent densities in the range 70-120 μA cm(-2) were obtained for simulated one-sun AM1.5 illumination with devices based on arrays of parallel gold nanorods, conformally coated with 10 nm TiO2 films and fashioned with a Ti metal collector. For the device with short circuit currents of 120 μA cm(-2), the internal quantum efficiency is ∼2.75%, and its wavelength response tracks the absorption spectrum of the transverse plasmon of the gold nanorods indicating that the absorbed photon-to-electron conversion process resulted exclusively in the Au, with the TiO2 playing a negligible role in charge carrier production. Devices fabricated with 50 nm TiO2 layers had open-circuit voltages as high as 210 mV, short circuit current densities of 26 μA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.3. For these devices, the TiO2 contributed a very small but measurable fraction of the charge carriers.

  10. Millimeter-Sized Suspended Plasmonic Nanohole Arrays for Surface-Tension-Driven Flow-Through SERS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present metallic nanohole arrays fabricated on suspended membranes as an optofluidic substrate. Millimeter-sized suspended nanohole arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography. We demonstrate refractive-index-based tuning of the optical spectra using a sucrose solution for the optimization of SERS signal intensity, leading to a Raman enhancement factor of 107. Furthermore, compared to dead-ended nanohole arrays, suspended nanohole arrays capable of flow-through detection increased the measured SERS signal intensity by 50 times. For directed transport of analytes, we present a novel methodology utilizing surface tension to generate spontaneous flow through the nanoholes with flow rates of 1 μL/min, obviating the need for external pumps or microfluidic interconnects. Using this method for SERS, we obtained a 50 times higher signal as compared to diffusion-limited transport and could detect 100 pM 4-mercaptopyridine. The suspended nanohole substrates presented herein possess a uniform and reproducible geometry and show the potential for improved analyte transport and SERS detection. PMID:25678744

  11. Carrying the physics of black-hole binary evolution into gravitational-wave models for pulsar-timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stephen; Sampson, Laura; Simon, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    There has recently been significant interest in how the galactic environments of supermassive black-hole binaries influences the stochastic gravitational-wave background signal from a population of these systems, and in how the resulting detection prospects for pulsar-timing arrays are effected. Tackling these problems requires us to have robust and computationally-efficient models for the strain spectrum as a function of different environment influences or the binary orbital eccentricity. In this talk we describe a new method of constructing these models from a small number of synthesized black-hole binary populations which have varying input physics. We use these populations to train an interpolant via Gaussian-process regression, allowing us to carry real physics into our subsequent pulsar-timing array inferences, and to also correctly propagate forward uncertainties from our interpolation.

  12. Ag Nanoparticles Located on Three-Dimensional Pine Tree-Like Hierarchical TiO2 Nanotube Array Films as High-Efficiency Plasmonic Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinxia; Wang, Zhenhuan; Li, Wenqing; Zhang, Xingang; He, Dong; Xiao, Xiangheng

    2017-01-01

    High specific surface area three-dimensional pine tree-like hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array films loaded with Ag nanoparticles were successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal reaction combining with simple and feasible magnetron sputtering. The composite Ag/TiO2-branched nanotube arrays show outstanding photocatalytic property, which is attributed to the boost of plasmonic enhancement carrier generation and separation, higher specific surface area, higher organic pollutant absorption, faster charge transport, and superior light-harvesting efficiency for efficient charge collection. The work provides a cost-effective and flexible pathway to develop high-performance photocatalyst or optoelectronic devices.

  13. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Caihong; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Huabing; Chen, Jian; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Wu, Peiheng

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  14. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Huabing

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  15. Study of plasmonic nanoparticle arrays for photon management in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläsi, Benedikt; Jüchter, Sabrina; Meisenheimer, Sarah-Katharina; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Wellens, Christine; Fix, Thomas; Schwarz, Ulrich T.

    2014-05-01

    Metallic nanostructures revealing plasmonic effects are a promising approach for improved photon management in thin solar cells. Irregular structures, as found in literature, suffer from parasitic absorption as a result of the varying dimensions of the particles. The parasitic absorption can be minimized by realising regularly ordered particles. Our fabrication process, suitable to meet these requirements, is based on interference lithography (IL), UV nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and lift-off. As a process capable of large area structure origination, we use IL for the realization of master structures. Combining IL with NIL as a replication technique, the process chain is very versatile concerning nanoparticle shapes, sizes and arrangements. In the UV-NIL process, a flexible silicone stamp, which was replicated from the master structure, is pressed into a resist, which is cross-linked by UV light. A plasma etching step is applied to remove the residual resist layer. Afterwards, the substrate is coated with a thin metal layer and finally a lift-off is carried out. This results in metallic nanoparticles arranged in a regular pattern on the substrate. We show simulations and experimental results of round and elliptical disks and half spheres arranged in crossed and hexagonal gratings on glass and silicon. The elliptical particles show polarization dependent resonance effects. In a model assisted parameter study, we demonstrate the influence of various structure parameters on the absorption enhancement in silicon. Finally, optical measurements of ordered silver nanoparticles on the rear side of a silicon wafer are shown.

  16. Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. L.; Ho, H. P.; Yu, T. T.; Suen, Y. K.; Chow, Winnie W. Y.; Wu, S. Y.; Law, W. C.; Yuan, W.; Li, W. J.; Kong, S. K.; Lin, Chinlon

    2007-04-01

    We present a biosensor design based on capturing the two-dimenstional (2D) phase image of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This 2D SPR imaging technique may enable parallel label-free detection of multiple analytes and is compatible with the microarray chip platform. This system uses our previously reported differential phase measurement approach, in which 2D phase maps obtained from the signal (P) and reference (S) polarizations are compared pixel by pixel. This technique greatly improves detection resolution as the subtraction step can eliminate measurement fluctuations caused by external disturbances as they essentially appear in both channels. Unlike conventional angular SPR systems, in which illumination from a range of angles must be used, phase measurement requires illumination from only one angle, thus making it well suited for 2D measurement. Also, phase-stepping introduced from a moving mirror provides the necessary modulation for accurate detection of the phase. In light of the rapidly increasing need for fast real-time detection, quantification, and identification of a range of proteins for various biomedical applications, our 2D SPR phase imaging technique should hold a promising future in the medical device market.

  17. Fundamental research on the label-free detection of protein adsorption using near-infrared light-responsive plasmonic metal nanoshell arrays with controlled nanogap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Shuhei; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we focused on the label-free detection of simple protein binding using near-infrared light-responsive plasmonic nanoshell arrays with a controlled interparticle distance. The nanoshell arrays were fabricated by a combination of colloidal self-assembly and subsequent isotropic helium plasma etching under atmospheric pressure. The diameter, interparticle distance, and shape of nanoshells can be tuned with nanometric accuracy by changing the experimental conditions. The Au, Ag, and Cu nanoshell arrays, having a 240-nm diameter (inner, 200-nm polystyrene (PS) core; outer, 20-nm metal shell) and an 80-nm gap distance, exhibited a well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak at the near-infrared region. PS@Au nanoshell arrays showed a 55-nm red shift of the maximum LSPR wavelength of 885 nm after being exposed to a solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins for 18 h. On the other hand, in the case of Cu nanoshell arrays before/after incubation to the BSA solution, we found a 30-nm peak shifting. We could evaluate the difference in LSPR sensing performance by changing the metal materials.

  18. Yagi-Uda optical antenna array collimated laser based on surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Lin, Jie; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Bin; Tan, Jiubin; Jin, Peng

    2016-06-01

    The divergence and directivity of a laser with a periodic Yagi-Uda optical antenna array modulated surface are investigated by finite element method. The nanoparticle optical antenna arrays are optimized to achieve the high directivity and the small divergence by using of Helmholtz's reciprocity theorem. When the nanoparticle antenna replaced by a Yagi-Uda antenna with same size, the directivity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated laser beam are notably enhanced. The main reason is that the directors of the Yagi-Uda antennas induce more energy to propagate towards the antenna transmitting direction. The results can provide valuable guidelines in designing collimated laser, which can be widely applied in the field of biologic detection, spatial optical communication and optical measurement.

  19. Plasmon resonance enhanced optical transmission and magneto-optical Faraday effects in nanohole arrays blocked by metal antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chengxin; Tang, Zhixiong; Wang, Sihao; Li, Daoyong; Chen, Leyi; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2017-07-01

    The properties of the optical and magneto-optical effects of an improved plasmonic nanohole arrays blocked by gold mushroom caps are investigated by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. It is most noteworthy that the strongly enhanced Faraday rotation along with high transmittance has been achieved simultaneously by optimizing the parameters of nanostructure in a broad spectrum spanning visible to near-infrared frequencies, which is very important in practical application for designing novel optical and magneto-optical devices. In our designed structure, we obtained two extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) resonant peaks along with enhanced Faraday rotation and two peaks of the figure of merit (FOM). By optimizing the geometrical parameters of the structure, we can obtain an almost 10-fold enhancement of Faraday rotation with a corresponding transmittance 50%, and the FOM of 0.752 at the same wavelength. As expected, the optical and magneto-optical effects sensitively depends on the geometrical parameters of our structure, which can be simply tailored by the height of pillar, the diameter of mushroom cap, and the period of the structure, and so on. The physical mechanism of these physical phenomena in the paper has been explained in detail. These research findings are of great theoretical significance in developing the novel magneto-optical devices in the future.

  20. Multiple surface plasmon resonances of square lattice nanohole arrays in Au-SiO2-Au multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zao; Liu, Miao; Luo, Jiangshan; Zhao, Yulin; Zhang, Weibin; Yi, Yougen; Yi, Yong; Duan, Tao; Wang, Chaoyang; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-05-01

    The optical properties and the local electromagnetic field enhancement of a multilayer structure with square lattice nanohole arrays in Au-SiO2-Au multilayer films are numerically studied using finite-difference time domain method. Simulation results demonstrate that the multiple surface plasmons (SP) resonances consist of SP on the air/Au interface, SiO2/Au interfaces (the middle layers), Au/SiO2 interface (the lower layer) and coupling modes on the Au film and Au film. We investigated some of structure parameters that influence the SP resonances of the multilayer nanostructure. Adjustment of the thickness of SiO2 film (H2), the diameter (R) of circular nanoholes, the periods (C) of square lattice and the thickness of Au film (H1) could change the absorption intensity and the SP resonances. The simulation of the electromagnetic field distributions shows that the location of the local electromagnetic field enhancement can specify the different SP resonances patterns. Dipole, quadrupole, and twelve-pole SP resonances modes can be found in the multilayer nanostructure. These studies are important for applications using multiple SP resonances.

  1. Localized surface plasmon resonance in two-dimensional silver nanodot array fabricated using nanoporous alumina mask for chemical sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mi; Ji, Myung-Gi; Kim, Tae-Ryong; Shim, Cheol-Hwee; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha; Choi, Young-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) metal nanodot arrays (NDAs) have been attracting significant attention for use in biological and chemical sensing applications. The unique optical properties of the metal NDAs originate from their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Nanofabrication methods that use nanoporous alumina masks (NAMs) have been widely used to produce metal NDAs. We report a fabrication technique for a 2-D Ag NDA and its utilization as a platform for LSPR-based sensing applications. A well-ordered Ag NDA of ˜70-nm diameter, arranged in a periodic pattern of 105 nm, was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using an NAM as an evaporation mask. The LSPR of the Ag NDA on the ITO glass was investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The LSPR wavelength shifts caused by the variations in the quantity of methylene blue adsorbed on the Ag NDA were examined. The results of this study suggest that the Ag NDA prepared using NAM can be used as a chemical sensor platform.

  2. Plasmonic photoanodes for solar water splitting with visible light.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joun; Mubeen, Syed; Ji, Xiulei; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2012-09-12

    We report a plasmonic water splitting cell in which 95% of the effective charge carriers derive from surface plasmon decay to hot electrons, as evidenced by fuel production efficiencies up to 20-fold higher at visible, as compared to UV, wavelengths. The cell functions by illuminating a dense array of aligned gold nanorods capped with TiO(2), forming a Schottky metal/semiconductor interface which collects and conducts the hot electrons to an unilluminated platinum counter-electrode where hydrogen gas evolves. The resultant positive charges in the Au nanorods function as holes and are extracted by an oxidation catalyst which electrocatalytically oxidizes water to oxygen gas.

  3. Electromagnetic counterparts of supermassive black hole binaries resolved by pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu; Menou, Kristen; Haiman, Zoltán.

    2012-02-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are expected to detect gravitational waves (GWs) from individual low-redshift (z≲ 1.5) compact supermassive (M≳ 109 M⊙) black hole (SMBH) binaries with orbital periods of ˜0.1-10 yr. Identifying the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts of these sources would provide confirmation of putative direct detections of GWs, present a rare opportunity to study the environments of compact SMBH binaries and could enable the use of these sources as standard sirens for cosmology. Here we consider the feasibility of such an EM identification. We show that because the host galaxies of resolved PTA sources are expected to be exceptionally massive and rare, it should be possible to find unique hosts of resolved sources out to z≈ 0.2. At higher redshifts, the PTA error boxes are larger, and may contain as many as ˜100 massive-galaxy interlopers. The number of candidates, however, remains tractable for follow-up searches in upcoming wide-field EM surveys. We develop a toy model to characterize the dynamics and the thermal emission from a geometrically thin gaseous disc accreting on to a PTA-source SMBH binary. Our model predicts that at optical and infrared frequencies, the source should appear similar to a typical luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, owing to the evacuation of the accretion flow by the binary's tidal torques, the source might have an unusually low soft X-ray luminosity and weak ultraviolet (UV) and broad optical emission lines, as compared to an AGN powered by a single SMBH with the same total mass. For sources at z˜ 1, the decrement in the rest-frame UV should be observable as an extremely red optical colour. These properties would make the PTA sources stand out among optically luminous AGN, and could allow their unique identification. Our results also suggest that accreting compact SMBH binaries may be included among the observed population of optically bright, X-ray-dim AGN.

  4. Prospects for gravitational-wave detection and supermassive black hole astrophysics with pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, V.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G.

    2015-03-01

    Large-area sky surveys show that massive galaxies undergo at least one major merger in a Hubble time. Ongoing pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments are aimed at measuring the gravitational-wave (GW) emission from binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the centres of galaxy merger remnants. In this paper, using the latest observational estimates for a range of galaxy properties and scaling relations, we predict the amplitude of the GW background generated by the binary SMBH population. We also predict the numbers of individual binary SMBH GW sources. We predict the characteristic strain amplitude of the GW background to lie in the range 5.1 × 10-16 < Ayr < 2.4 × 10-15 at a frequency of (1 yr)-1, with 95 per cent confidence. Higher values within this range, which correspond to the more commonly preferred choice of galaxy merger time-scale, will fall within the expected sensitivity ranges of existing PTA projects in the next few years. In contrast, we find that a PTA consisting of at least 100 pulsars observed with next-generation radio telescopes will be required to detect continuous-wave GWs from binary SMBHs. We further suggest that GW memory bursts from coalescing SMBH pairs are not viable sources for PTAs. Both the GW background and individual GW source counts are dominated by binaries formed in mergers between early-type galaxies of masses ≳5 × 1010 M⊙ at redshifts ≲1.5. Uncertainties in the galaxy merger time-scale and the SMBH mass-galaxy bulge mass relation dominate the uncertainty in our predictions.

  5. Optical functionality of plasmon-exciton nanomaterials in the strong coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Maxim

    Understanding optical plasmon-exciton interaction in hybrid plasmonic nanostructures is important for tuning the optical response, e.g. for applications in nonlinear optics, organic solar cells, or organic light-emitting diodes. In developing such nanostructures, the strong coupling phenomena play crucial role allowing to efficiently transfer energy between plasmons and molecular excitons on a femtosecond time scale. In this talk I will discuss modeling aspects of various optical phenomena at plasmonic interfaces using Maxwell-Bloch equations in three dimensions. Various plasmonic systems including periodic V-grooves, bowtie antennas, nanowires, periodic hole arrays, and others will be considered. In particular, I will demonstrate that one can design hybrid nanomaterials with highly pronounced Fano resonances using femtosecond lasers. I will show that it is possible to use ultra-short laser pulses to materials with desired properties and functionality. Electromagnetic energy transport in systems composed of closely spaced nanowires in a presence of molecular excitons will also be discussed.

  6. Oscillatory penetration of near-fields in plasmonic excitation at metal-dielectric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. C.; Kang, J. H.; Park, Q-H.; Krishna, S.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The electric field immediately below an illuminated metal-film that is perforated with a hole array on a dielectric consists of direct transmission and scattering of the incident light through the holes and evanescent near-field from plasmonic excitations. Depending on the size and shape of the hole apertures, it exhibits an oscillatory decay in the propagation direction. This unusual field penetration is explained by the interference between these contributions, and is experimentally confirmed through an aperture which is engineered with four arms stretched out from a simple circle to manipulate a specific plasmonic excitation available in the metal film. A numerical simulation quantitatively supports the experiment. This fundamental characteristic will impact plasmonics with the near-fields designed by aperture engineering for practical applications. PMID:27090841

  7. Oscillatory penetration of near-fields in plasmonic excitation at metal-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Kang, J. H.; Park, Q.-H.; Krishna, S.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    2016-04-01

    The electric field immediately below an illuminated metal-film that is perforated with a hole array on a dielectric consists of direct transmission and scattering of the incident light through the holes and evanescent near-field from plasmonic excitations. Depending on the size and shape of the hole apertures, it exhibits an oscillatory decay in the propagation direction. This unusual field penetration is explained by the interference between these contributions, and is experimentally confirmed through an aperture which is engineered with four arms stretched out from a simple circle to manipulate a specific plasmonic excitation available in the metal film. A numerical simulation quantitatively supports the experiment. This fundamental characteristic will impact plasmonics with the near-fields designed by aperture engineering for practical applications.

  8. Quantum interference of highly-dispersive surface plasmons (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokpanov, Yury S.; Fakonas, James S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous experiments have shown that surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) preserve their entangled state and do not cause measurable decoherence. However, essentially all of them were done using SPPs whose dispersion was in the linear "photon-like" regime. We report in this presentation on experiments showing how transition to "true-plasmon" non-linear dispersion regime, which occurs near SPP resonance frequency, will affect quantum coherent properties of light. To generate a polarization-entangled state we utilize type-I parametric down-conversion, occurring in a pair of non-linear crystals (BiBO), glued together and rotated by 90 degrees with respect to each other. For state projection measurements, we use a pair of polarizers and single-photon avalanche diode coincidence count detectors. We interpose a plasmonic hole array in the path of down-converted light before the polarizer. Without the hole array, we measure visibility V=99-100% and Bell's number S=2.81±0.03. To study geometrical effects we fabricated plasmonic hole arrays (gold on optically polished glass) with elliptical holes (axes are 190nm and 240nm) using focused ion beam. When we put this sample in our system we measured the reduction of visibility V=86±5% using entangled light. However, measurement using classical light gave exactly the same visibility; hence, this reduction is caused only by the difference in transmission coefficients of different polarizations. As samples with non-linear dispersion we fabricated two-layer (a-Si - Au) and three-layer (a-Si - Au - a-Si) structures on optically polished glass with different pitches and circular holes. The results of measurements with these samples will be discussed along with the theoretical investigations.

  9. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Matthew D.

    2017-03-01

    The Maxwell–Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  10. Single-mode tuning of the plasmon resonance in high-density pillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    The Maxwell-Garnett (MG) effective medium model has a pure resonance controlled by volume fraction f, but is usually invalid at high density. I present special 2D structures that match quasistatic MG over the entire range 0  <  f  <  1, in several regular and semi-regular arrays, expanding the applicability of MG. Optimal contours depend on both lattice and fill-factor, transforming from circular at low f to nearly polygonal at high f. A key insight is the direct relationship between optimal surface polarization and surface position. Electrodynamic calculations underline the effect of constituent permittivity on spatial dispersion and required sizes for quasistatic response in various materials.

  11. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiwang; Yan, Yong; Guo, Miao; Han, Xiaojuan; Hu, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%. PMID:27869765

  12. Localization of CO₂ Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiwang; Yan, Yong; Guo, Miao; Han, Xiaojuan; Hu, Yonghui

    2016-11-19

    Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO₂ leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  13. A centimeter-scale sub-10 nm gap plasmonic nanorod array film as a versatile platform for enhancing light-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Xue, Jiancai; Zheng, Zebo; Li, Jiahua; Ke, Yanlin; Yu, Ying; Han, Jun-Bo; Xie, Weiguang; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Huanjun; Wang, Xuehua

    2015-09-01

    Strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures with sub-10 nm gaps can enable intense electric field enhancements which greatly benefit the various light-matter interactions. From the point view of practical applications, such nanostructures should be of low-cost, facile fabrication and processing, large-scale with high-yield of the ultrasmall gaps, and easy for integration with other functional components. However, nowadays techniques for reliable fabrication of these nanostructures usually involve complex, time-consuming, and expensive lithography procedures, which are limited either by their low-throughput or the small areas obtained. On the other hand, so far most of the studies on the sub-10 nm gap nanostructures mainly focused on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering and high-harmonic generations, while leaving other nonlinear optical properties unexplored. In this work, using a scalable process without any lithography procedures, we demonstrated a centimeter-scale ordered plasmonic nanorod array film (PNRAF) with well-defined sub-10 nm interparticle gaps as a versatile platform for strongly enhanced light-matter interactions. Specifically, we showed that due to its plasmon-induced localized electromagnetic field enhancements, the Au PNRAF could exhibit extraordinary intrinsic multi-photon avalanche luminescence (MAPL) and nonlinear saturable absorption (SA). Furthermore, the PNRAF can be easily integrated with semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) as well as wide bandgap semiconductors to strongly enhance their fluorescence and photocurrent response, respectively. Our method can be easily generalized to nanorod array films consisting of other plasmonic metals and even semiconductor materials, which can have multiple functionalities derived from different materials. Overall, the findings in our study have offered a potential strategy for design and fabrication of nanostructures with ultrasmall gaps for future photonic and optoelectronic applications.Strongly coupled

  14. Single standing carbon nanotube array in gate holes using a silicon nitride cap layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Moon, Jong Hyun; Park, Kyu Chang; Jang, Jin

    2005-12-12

    We studied the growth of a single standing carbon nanotube (CNT) which was grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in the gate hole formed by conventional photolithography in the silicon nitride. The number of CNT per hole increases with increasing the gate hole diameter and a single CNT could be grown in a 3 {mu}m hole. A single standing CNT in a gate hole exhibited the turn-on field of 1.6 V/{mu}m and the current density of 16 {mu}A at 3.3 V/{mu}m. The emission currents follow the Fowler-Nordheim equation with a field enhancement factor of 1.14x10{sup 7}.

  15. Generation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Hybrid Au–Ag Nanoparticle Arrays as a Sensor of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Cai, Haoyuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Yang, Guangsong; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic nanoparticle arrays (PNAs) were designed to investigate their extinction spectra of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). First, their simulating extinction spectra were calculated by discrete dipole approximation (DDA) numerical method by changing the media refractive index. Simulation results showed that as the media refractive index was changed from 1.0 to 1.2, the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra had no apparent change and the wavelength to reveal the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra was shifted lower value. Polystyrene (PS) nanospheres with two differently arranged structures were used as the templates to deposit the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic PNAs by evaporation method. The hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate PNAs were grown on single crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates, and their measured extinction spectra were compared with the calculated results. Finally, the fabricated hexagonal lattices of triangular PNAs were investigated as a sensor of polychlorinated biphenyl solution (PCB-77) by observing the wavelength to reveal the maximum extinction efficiency (λmax). We show that the adhesion of β-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CD) on the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs could be used to increase the variation of λmax. We also demonstrate that the adhesion of SH-β-CD increases the sensitivity and detection effect of PCB-77 in hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs. PMID:27527188

  16. Optofluidic microsystem with quasi-3 dimensional gold plasmonic nanostructure arrays for online sensitive and reproducible SERS detection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yan; Idso, Matthew N; Galvan, Daniel D; Yu, Qiuming

    2015-03-10

    Practical applications of chemical and biological detections through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) require high reproducibility, sensitivity, and efficiency, along with low-cost, straightforward fabrication. In this work, we integrated a poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip with quasi-3D gold plasmonic nanostructure arrays (Q3D-PNAs), which serve as SERS-active substrates, into an optofluidic microsystem for online sensitive and reproducible SERS detections. The Q3D-PNA PDMS chip was fabricated through soft lithography to ensure both precision and low-cost fabrication. The optimal dimension of the Q3D-PNA in PDMS was designed using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulations with a simulated enhancement factor (EF) of 1.6×10(6). The real-time monitoring capability of the SERS-based optofluidic microsystem was investigated by kinetic on/off experiments through alternatively flowing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and ethanol in the microfluidic channel. A switch-off time of ∼2 min at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) was demonstrated. When applied to the detection of low concentration malathion, the SERS-based optofluidic microsystem with Q3D-PNAs showed high reproducibility, significantly improved efficiency and higher detection sensitivity via increasing the flow rate. The optofluidic microsystem presented in this paper offers a simple and low-cost approach for online, label-free chemical and biological analysis and sensing with high sensitivity, reproducibility, efficiency, and molecular specificity.

  17. Detection of eccentric supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays: Signal-to-noise ratio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Gair, Jonathan R.; Taylor, Stephen R.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the expected signal-to-noise ratios of supermassive black hole binaries on eccentric orbits observed by pulsar timing arrays. We derive several analytical relations that extend the results of Peters and Mathews [Phys. Rev. D 131, 435 (1963)] to quantify the impact of eccentricity in the detection of single resolvable binaries in the pulsar timing array band. We present ready-to-use expressions to compute the increase/loss in signal-to-noise ratio of eccentric single resolvable sources whose dominant harmonic is located in the low/high frequency sensitivity regime of pulsar timing arrays. Building upon the work of Phinney (arXiv:astro-ph/0108028) and Enoki and Nagashima [Prog. Theor. Phys. 117, 241 (2007)], we present an analytical framework that enables the construction of rapid spectra for a stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by a cosmological population of eccentric sources. We confirm previous findings which indicate that, relative to a population of quasicircular binaries, the strain of a stochastic, isotropic gravitational-wave background generated by a cosmological population of eccentric binaries will be suppressed in the frequency band of pulsar timing arrays. We quantify this effect in terms of signal-to-noise ratios in a pulsar timing array.

  18. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core-shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  19. Structural characterization and plasmonic properties of two-dimensional arrays of hydrophobic large gold nanoparticles fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Takuya; Tachikiri, Yuki; Sako, Takayuki; Takahashi, Yukina; Yamada, Sunao

    2017-05-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating two-dimensional (2D) arrays of larger gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) (diameters 17, 28, and 48 nm) by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Although the particle size of AuNPs is one of the most important factors in order to control the optical properties of 2D arrays, there have been reported only the size of less than ∼20 nm. This is a first report on the bottom-up fabrication of 2D arrays consisting of hydrophobic AuNP with the diameter of ∼50 nm, of which the size is expected to obtain maximum near-field effects. Octadecylthiolate-capped AuNPs (ODT-AuNPs) which were prepared by our method could be re-dispersed in chloroform even after drying completely, realizing the spreading of the colloidal chloroform solution onto the water surface. Accordingly, densely-packed 2D LB films of ODT-AuNPs could be fabricated on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, when water as the subphase and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an amphiphilic agent were used. PEG played an important role to form densely-packed film uniformly due to increasing affinity between hydrophobic AuNP and water. Absorption spectra of the films revealed that the resonance wavelengths of plasmon oscillation through interparticle plasmon coupling were clearly correlated with the particle sizes rather than deposition densities.

  20. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2015-01-07

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz ≥ 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ∼ 60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.

  1. Fabrication of subwavelength holes using nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.; Besser, J.; Baum, M.; Saupe, R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.

    2013-03-01

    Driven by the demand of miniaturized and highly integrated functionalities in the area of photonics and photonic circuits, the metal or plasmon optics has become a promising method for manipulating light at the nanometer scale. Especially the application of periodic sub wavelength hole structures within an opaque metal film on a dielectric substrate holds many advantages for the realization of optical filters, since the variation of the hole diameter and the periodicity allows a selective filter response. This paper is concerned with the modeling, fabrication and characterization of a sub wavelength hole array for surface plasmon enhanced transmission of light [1]. The theoretical backgrounds as well as the basics of the simulation by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) are described for the target structure with a hole diameter of 180 nm and a periodicity of 400 nm. By using a double-molding technology via nanoimprint lithography the fabrication of this sub wavelength hole array with a peak wavelength of 470 nm and full width at half maximum of 50 nm from a silicon nanopillar master is demonstrated. In order to ensure the dimensional stability of the molded structures, characterization was consequently done by means of a self made non-contact mode atomic force microscope.

  2. Wavelength-addressed intra-board optical interconnection by plug-in alignment with a micro hole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakama, Kenichi; Tokiwa, Yuu; Mikami, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Intra-board interconnection between optical waveguide channels is suitable for assembling high-speed optoelectronic printed wiring boards (OE-PWB). Here, we propose a novel optical interconnection method combining techniques for both wavelength-based optical waveguide addressing and plug-in optical waveguide alignment with a micro-hole array (MHA). This array was fabricated by the mask transfer method. For waveguide addressing, we used a micro passive wavelength selector (MPWS) module, which is a type of Littrow mount monochromator consisting of an optical diffraction grating, a focusing lens, and the MHA. From the experimental results, we found that the wavelength addressing operation of the MPWS module was effective for intra-board optical interconnection.

  3. Vortex Pinning in Superconducting MoGe Films Containing Conformal Arrays of Nanoscale Holes and Magnetic Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.

    2013-03-01

    Recent numerical simulations by Ray et al. predict that a conformal pinning array can produce stronger vortex pinning effect than other pinning structures with an equivalent density of pinning sites. Here we present experimental investigations on conformal pinning structures. Direct and conformal pinning arrays of triangular and square lattices were introduced into MoGe superconducting films using focused-ion-beam milling or electron-beam lithography. Transport measurements on critical currents and magnetoresistances were carried out on these samples to reveal the advantages of conformal pinnings. Effects of random pinnings with the same average density were also studied for comparison. Details on sample fabrications and effects of pinning types (holes versus magnetic dots) will be presented. Work supported by the US DoE-BES funded Energy Frontier Research Center (YLW), and by Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (MLL, ZLX, LEO, RD, UW, WKK), under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357

  4. Fabrication of a micro through-hole array by gas-blowing a PDMS-treated polyamide screen for a flexible drag-reducing skin-like device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhou, Kai; Zhao, Xiang; Kong, Quancun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for fabricating a flexible skin-like device for generating and trapping micro bubbles with the aim of reducing underwater drag. This low-cost, efficient, high-pressure gas-blow method is used to fabricate a micro through-hole array in a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gel-based skin. The key parameters in the gas-blowing method are investigated, such as the viscosity of PDMS and the blowing pressure in order to optimize the quality of through-hole layer. Deviation of the linear dimensions of the obtained micro holes was less than 4.5%. In addition, multiphase computational fluid dynamics models were built to analyze the drag-reduction performance of bell-shaped holes made by this method. Compared with cylindrical through holes produced by molding, the drag-reduction effect of bell-shaped holes increased as much as 34%.

  5. Thin-film solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells and a rear surface etched with light trapping micro-hole array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaroh; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    A light trapping effect in GaAs p-i-n solar cells with InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the i-layer was demonstrated by applying a light scattering texture to the rear surface of the cell. A thin-film MQW solar cell was successfully fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) to grow an inverted n-i-p photovoltaic (PV) structure; this structure was then transferred to a Si support substrate to prevent optical loss due to free carrier absorption. For the light scattering texture, the use of both the wet-etched micro-hole arrayed SiO2 dielectric layer on the rear surface of the cell and the secondarily etched micro hole array on the GaAs layer was attempted. On the SiO2 layer, the micro hole array pattern was obtained by the radio frequency sputtering of the layer followed by wet etching with photolithographic patterning. On the GaAs layer, the micro-hole array pattern was obtained by direct etching through a SiO2 template. Compared with the light scattering effects of the micro-hole-arrayed SiO2 layer, the secondarily etched GaAs rear contact layer showed a significant improvement in external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the wavelength range from 855 to 1000 nm that corresponds to the photon absorption wavelength in MQWs.

  6. The sub-micron hole array in sapphire produced by inductively-coupled plasma reactive ion etching.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chun-Ming; Huang, Su-Wei; Lee, Chao-Te; Wu, Tzung-Chen; Hsueh, Wen-Jeng; Ma, Kung-Jeng; Chiang, Donyau

    2012-02-01

    The sub-micron hole array in a sapphire substrate was fabricated by using nanosphere lithography (NSL) combined with inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) technique. Polystyrene nanospheres of about 600 nm diameter were self-assembled on c-plane sapphire substrates by the spin-coating method. The diameter of polystyrene nanosphere was modified by using oxygen plasma in ICP-RIE system. The size of nanosphere modified by oxygen plasma was varied from 550 to 450 nm with different etching times from 15 to 35 s. The chromium thin film of 100 nm thick was then deposited on the shrunk nanospheres on the substrate by electron-beam evaporation system. The honeycomb type chromium mask can be obtained on the sapphire substrate after the polystyrene nanospheres were removed. The substrate was further etched in two sets of chlorine/Argon and boron trichloride/Argon mixture gases at constant pressure of 50 mTorr in ICP-RIE processes. The 400 nm hole array in diameter can be successfully produced under suitable boron trichloride/Argon gas flow ratio.

  7. Aluminum plasmonic photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qi; Wang, Chenxi; Huang, Hao; Li, Wan; Du, Deyang; Han, Di; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic processes is dictated largely by plasmonic materials with the capability to enhance light absorption as well as the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate how to improve the plasmonic photocatalytic properties of TiO2/Al nano-void arrays by overlapping the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes with the TiO2 band gap. The plasmonic TiO2/Al arrays exhibit superior photocatalytic activity boasting an enhancement of 7.2 folds. The underlying mechanisms concerning the radiative energy transfer and interface energy transfer processes are discussed. Both processes occur at the TiO2/Al interface and their contributions to photocatalysis are evaluated. The results are important to the optimization of aluminum plasmonic materials in photocatalytic applications. PMID:26497411

  8. Controllable Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Patterned VO2 Nanoparticle, Nanodome, and Nanonet Arrays with Tunable Temperature-Dependent Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yujie; Wen, Xinglin; Zhao, Dongyuan; Che, Renchao; Xiong, Qihua; Long, Yi

    2017-07-25

    A universal approach to develop various two-dimensional ordered nanostructures, namely nanoparticle, nanonet and nanodome arrays with controllable periodicity, ranging from 100 nm to 1 μm, has been developed in centimeter-scale by nanosphere lithography technique. Hexagonally patterned vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanoparticle array with average diameter down to sub-100 nm as well as 160 nm of periodicity is fabricated, exhibiting distinct size-, media-, and temperature-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance switching behaviors, which fits well with the predication of simulations. We specifically explore their decent thermochromic performance in an energy saving smart window and develop a proof-of-concept demo which proves the effectiveness of patterned VO2 film to serve as a smart thermal radiation control. This versatile and facile approach to fabricate various ordered nanostructures integrated with attractive phase change characteristics of VO2 may inspire the study of temperature-dependent physical responses and the development of smart devices in extensive areas.

  9. The nightmare scenario: measuring the stochastic gravitational wave background from stalling massive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, Irina; Barausse, Enrico

    2017-10-01

    Massive black hole binaries, formed when galaxies merge, are among the primary sources of gravitational waves targeted by ongoing pulsar timing array (PTA) experiments and the upcoming space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) interferometer. However, their formation and merger rates are still highly uncertain. Recent upper limits on the stochastic gravitational wave background obtained by PTAs are starting to be in marginal tension with theoretical models for the pairing and orbital evolution of these systems. This tension can be resolved by assuming that these binaries are more eccentric or interact more strongly with the environment (gas and stars) than expected, or by accounting for possible selection biases in the construction of the theoretical models. However, another (pessimistic) possibility is that these binaries do not merge at all, but stall at large (˜pc) separations. We explore this extreme scenario by using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model including massive black holes (isolated and in binaries), and show that future generations of PTAs will detect the stochastic gravitational wave background from the massive black hole binary population within 10-15 yr of observations, even in the `nightmare scenario' in which all binaries stall at the hardening radius. Moreover, we argue that this scenario is too pessimistic, because our model predicts the existence of a subpopulation of binaries with small mass ratios (q ≲ 10-3) that should merge within a Hubble time simply as a result of gravitational wave emission. This subpopulation will be observable with large signal-to-noise ratios by future PTAs thanks to next-generation radio telescopes such as Square Kilometre Array or Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, and possibly by LISA.

  10. Effects of nonlocal plasmons in gapped graphene micro-ribbon array and two-dimensional electron gas on near-field electromagnetic response in the deep subwavelength regime.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey; Roslyak, Oleksiy

    2013-02-01

    A self-consistent theory involving Maxwell's equations and a density-matrix linear-response theory is solved for an electromagnetically coupled doped graphene micro-ribbon array (GMRA) and a quantum well (QW) electron gas sitting at an interface between a half-space of air and another half-space of a doped semiconductor substrate, which supports a surface-plasmon mode in our system. The coupling between a spatially modulated total electromagnetic (EM) field and the electron dynamics in a Dirac-cone of a graphene ribbon, as well as the coupling of the far-field specular and near-field higher-order diffraction modes, are included in the derived electron optical-response function. Full analytical expressions are obtained with nonlocality for the optical-response functions of a two-dimensional electron gas and a graphene layer with an induced bandgap, and are employed in our numerical calculations beyond the long-wavelength limit (Drude model). Both the near-field transmissivity and reflectivity spectra, as well as their dependence on different configurations of our system and on the array period, ribbon width, graphene chemical potential of QW electron gas and bandgap in graphene, are studied. Moreover, the transmitted E-field intensity distribution is calculated to demonstrate its connection to the mixing of specular and diffraction modes of the total EM field. An externally tunable EM coupling among the surface, conventional electron-gas and massless graphene intraband plasmon excitations is discovered and explained. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the dependence of the graphene-plasmon energy on the ribbon's width and chemical potential in this paper and the recent experimental observation given by [Nat. Nanotechnol.6, 630-634 (2011)] for a GMRA in the terahertz-frequency range.

  11. Plasmonic enhancement of light trapping into organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2015-12-01

    The present work is devoted to the review of the methods to improve light trapping into polymer solar cells. After a discussion on the important role of the improvement of the light-trapping technique in the fabrication of solar cells by applying the plasmonic enhancement effect, we review the results of the study on this topic, which were obtained mainly during recent years. The light-trapping nanostructures usually comprised the following basic elements: antireflection coating, randomly distributed or symmetric-periodic monolayers of metallic spherical nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs with different shapes, spherical NPs with core-shell structure, nanovoids, plasmonic metallic grating, grating organic active layer, grating indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, dielectric grating, photonic structure, and plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array. Each light-trapping nanostructure may use either one or two of the above-mentioned basic elements.

  12. Plasmonic silver quantum dots coupled with hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrodes for efficient visible-light photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zichao; Wang, Wenchao; Xiao, Shuning; Li, Xin; Cui, Yingying; Zhang, Dieqing; Li, Guisheng; Li, Hexing

    2015-06-12

    A plasmonic Ag/TiO2 photocatalytic composite was designed by selecting Ag quantum dots (Ag QDs) to act as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photosensitizer for driving the visible-light driven photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Vertically oriented hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (H-TiO2-NTAs) with macroporous structure were prepared through a two-step method based on electrochemical anodization. Subsequently, Ag QDs, with tunable size (1.3-21.0 nm), could be uniformly deposited on the H-TiO2 NTAs by current pulsing approach. The unique structure of the as-obtained photoelectrodes greatly improved the photoelectric conversion efficiency. The as-obtained Ag/H-TiO2-NTAs exhibited strong visible-light absorption capability, high photocurrent density, and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity toward photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation (λ>420 nm). The enhancement in the photoelectric conversion efficiency and activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of silver and the unique hierarchical structures of TiO2 nanotube arrays, strong SPR effect, and anti-shielding effect of ultrafine Ag QDs.

  13. Laser-drilled micro-hole arrays on polyurethane synthetic leather for improvement of water vapor permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wang, A. H.; Zheng, R. R.; Tang, H. Q.; Qi, X. Y.; Ye, B.

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of lasers at 1064, 532 and 355 nm wavelengths respectively were adopted to construct micro-hole arrays on polyurethane (PU) synthetic leather with an aim to improve water vapor permeability (WVP) of PU synthetic leather. The morphology of the laser-drilled micro-holes was observed to optimize laser parameters. The WVP and slit tear resistance of the laser-drilled leather were measured. Results show that the optimized pulse energy for the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers are 0.8, 1.1 and 0.26 mJ, respectively. The diameters of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized laser pulse energy were about 20, 15 and 10 μm, respectively. The depths of the micro-holes drilled with the optimized pulse energy were about 21, 60 and 69 μm, respectively. Compared with the untreated samples, the highest WVP growth ratio was 38.4%, 46.8% and 53.5% achieved by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. And the highest decreasing ratio of slit tear resistance was 11.1%, 14.8%, and 22.5% treated by the 1064, 532 and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Analysis of the interaction mechanism between laser beams at three kinds of laser wavelengths and the PU synthetic leather revealed that laser micro-drilling at 355 nm wavelength displayed both photochemical ablation and photothermal ablation, while laser micro-drilling at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths leaded to photothermal ablation only.

  14. Key Science with the Square Kilometer Array: Strong-field Tests of Gravity using Pulsars and Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.; Kramer, M.; Backer, D. C.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Science Working Groupthe Square Kilometer Array Team

    2005-12-01

    A Galactic census of pulsars with the SKA will discover most of the active pulsars in the Galaxy beamed toward us. The sheer number of pulsars discovered, along with the exceptional timing precision the SKA can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics and will enable significant tests of theories of gravity. Census discoveries will almost certainly include pulsar-black hole binaries as well as pulsars orbiting the super-massive black hole in the Galactic center. These systems provide unique opportunties for probing the ultra-strong field limit of relativistic gravity and will complement future gravitational wave detections using LISA-like instruments. SKA measurements can be used to test the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture and the No-Hair theorem. The large number of millisecond pulsars discovered with the SKA will also provide a dense array of precision clocks on the sky that can be used as multiple arms of a cosmic gravitational wave detector, which can be used to detect and measure the stochastic cosmological gravitational wave background that is expected from a number of sources. In addition to gravitational tests, the large number of lines of sight will provide a detailed map of the Galaxy's electron density and magnetic fields and important information on the dynamics and evolutionary histories of neutron stars. The census will provide examples of nearly every possible outcome of the evolution of massive stars, including (as above) pulsar black-hole systems and sub-millisecond pulsars, if they exist. These objects will yield constraints on the equation of state of matter at super-nuclear densities. Masses of pulsars and their binary companions planets, white dwarfs, other neutron stars, and black holes will be determined to ˜ 1% for hundreds of objects. The SKA will also provide partial censuses of nearby galaxies through periodicity and giant-pulse detections, yielding important information on the intergalactic medium.

  15. Three-dimensional scanning near field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging of random arrays of copper nanoparticles: implications for plasmonic solar cell enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezugwu, Sabastine; Ye, Hanyang; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz >= 220 nm from the surface for random arrays of Cu-NPs of ~60-100 nm in diameter. These heights are too large to use Cu-NPs in contact of the active layer for light harvesting in thin organic solar cells, which are typically no thicker than 200 nm. Using a 200 nm transparent spacer between the system of Cu-NPs and the solar cell active layer, we demonstrate that forward-scattered light can be conveyed in 200 nm thin film solar cells. This architecture increases the solar cell photoconversion efficiency by a factor of 3. Our 3D-SNOM technique is general enough to be suitable for a large number of other applications in nanoplasmonics.In order to investigate the suitability of random arrays of nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement in the visible-near infrared range, we introduced three-dimensional scanning near-field optical microscopy (3D-SNOM) imaging as a useful technique to probe the intensity of near-field radiation scattered by random systems of nanoparticles at heights up to several hundred nm from their surface. We demonstrated our technique using random arrays of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) at different particle diameter and concentration. Bright regions in the 3D-SNOM images, corresponding to constructive interference of forward-scattered plasmonic waves, were obtained at heights Δz >= 220

  16. Far-field control of focusing plasmonic waves through disordered nanoholes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunsung; Ahn, Joonmo; Choi, Wonjun; Lee, Hakjoon; Jhon, Young Min; Lee, Sanghoon; Choi, Wonshik

    2014-10-15

    Control of near-field waves is the key to going beyond the diffraction limit in imaging and manipulating target objects. Here we present the focusing of plasmonic waves, a type of near-field waves, by the wavefront shaping of far-field waves. We coupled far-field waves to a random array of holes on a thin gold film to generate speckled plasmonic waves. By controlling the phase pattern of the incident waves with the wavelength of 637 nm, we demonstrated the focusing of plasmonic waves down to 170 nm at arbitrary positions. Our study shows the possibility of using disordered nanoholes as a plasmonic lens with high flexibility in the far-field control.

  17. Coherent Plasmon and Phonon-Plasmon Resonances in Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Farmer, Damon B; Cao, Qing; Tersoff, Jerry; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Avouris, Phaedon; Han, Shu-Jen

    2017-06-23

    Carbon nanotubes provide a rare access point into the plasmon physics of one-dimensional electronic systems. By assembling purified nanotubes into uniformly sized arrays, we show that they support coherent plasmon resonances, that these plasmons couple to nanotube and substrate phonons, and that the resulting phonon-plasmon resonances have quality factors as high as 10. Because nanotube plasmons intensely strengthen electromagnetic fields and light-matter interactions, they provide a compelling platform for surface-enhanced spectroscopy and tunable optical devices at deep-subwavelength scales.

  18. Combining 3-D plasmonic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal nanoparticles as a versatile concept for reliable, sensitive, and selective molecular detection by SERS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Senlik, Erhan; Biskin, Erhan; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman; Tamer, Ugur; Demirel, Gokhan

    2014-03-28

    The detection of molecules at an ultralow level by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has recently attracted enormous interest for various applications especially in biological, medical, and environmental fields. Despite the significant progress, SERS systems are still facing challenges for practical applications related to their sensitivity, reliability, and selectivity. To overcome these limitations, in this study, we have proposed a simple yet facile concept by combining 3-D anisotropic gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes for highly reliable, selective, and sensitive detection of some hazardous chemical and biological warfare agents in trace amounts through SERS. The gold nanorod arrays were created on the BK7 glass slides or silicon wafer surfaces via the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique without using any template material or lithography technique and their surface densities were adjusted by manipulating the deposition angle (α). It is found that gold nanorod arrays fabricated at α = 10° exhibited the highest SERS enhancement in the absence of colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synergetic enhancement was obviously observed in SERS signals when combining gold nanorod arrays with colloidal gold nanoparticles having different shapes (i.e., spherical, rod, and cage). Due to their ability to produce localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in transverse and longitudinal directions, utilization of colloidal gold nanorods as a synergetic agent led to an increase in the enhancement factor by about tenfold compared to plain gold nanorod arrays. Moreover, we have tested our approach to detect some chemical and biological toxins namely dipicolinic acid (DIP), methyl parathion (MP), and diethyl phosphoramidate (DP). For all toxins, Raman spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios and reproducibility were successfully obtained over a broad concentration range (5 ppm-10 ppb). Our results suggest that the slightly tangled and

  19. Coupling of Surface Plasmons and Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Nanophotonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanti, Sriharsha V.

    emission wavelengths, photostability, and high quantum yields. Here, we focus on studying the emission from CdSe nanocrystals near plasmonic structures in the weak and strong coupling regimes. In the weak coupling regime, plasmonic structures can be used to selectively modify the radiative rates at the desired wavelengths. We tailor plasmonic structures to enhance and tune the emission from the surface states of CdSe nanocrystals throughout the visible. Due to their size, a significant fraction of atoms are on the surface; however, electron-hole recombination via surface states is typically dark. We further use electrochemistry to probe the energy levels of the surface states. In the strong coupling regime, the energy levels of the surface plasmons and nanocrystals hybridize to form polariton states. In this regime, we demonstrate polariton emission from CdSe/CdSZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals on silver hole arrays. Emission from these polariton states should be coherent and has implications for thresholdless lasing. While the above studies focus on the change in nanocrystal behavior near metals, these nanocrystals can also be used to improve plasmonic performance. We study the potential of thin layers of CdSe nanocrystals to amplify surface plasmons and enhance their propagation lengths. When the nanocrystals are excited using an external pump, propagating surface plasmons can stimulate emission from these nanocrystals and amplify. If more surface plasmons are generated than lost, then surface-plasmon signals can propagate over extremely long distances and even amplified. We calculate the gain provided and discuss the importance of key parameters such as the absorption and emission cross section, spacer layer thickness, nanocrystal lifetime, and temperature. Finally, we systematically study the emission properties and exciton decay in Ag-doped CdSe nanocrystals, which were recently shown to exhibit enhanced photoluminescence. Overall, this thesis aims to improve

  20. Analysis of Subwavelength Metal Hole Array Structure for the Enhancement of Back-Illuminated Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-25

    surface plasmon polariton mode and a guided Fabry-Perot mode. Simulation method accomplished in this paper provides a generalized approach to optimize...and the noise equivalent difference in temperature (NEDT) at resonance wavelengths. The improved performance results from a surface plasmon polariton ...resonances (resulting from surface plasmon polariton and guided Fabry-Perot modes) are shown in the inset to the figure. #180599 - $15.00 USD Received

  1. Analysis of Subwavelength Metal Hole Array Structure for the Enhancement of Back-Illuminated Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-25

    surface plasmon polariton mode and a guided Fabry-Perot mode. Simulation method accomplished in this paper provides a generalized approach to optimize...resulting from a surface plasmon polariton mode and a guided Fabry-Perot mode. Simulation method accomplished in this paper provides a generalized...performance results from a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode and a guided Fabry-Perot mode, that enhance x or y (along the polarization direction used

  2. Employing hole-array recess of barrier layer of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures to reduce annealing Temperature of Ohmic contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kefeng

    2017-10-01

    Ohmic contact to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures employing hole-array recess of barrier layer is conducted in this paper, in which an Ohmic contact resistance of 0.2 Ωmm with an annealing temperature of 800 °C with 15 nm deep holes recessed on the AlGaN layer before annealing is obtained. The annealing temperature and metal morphology post annealing is compared between Ohmic contacts with and without hole array recess. The annealing temperature required for the Ohmic contact with hole recess to achieve minimum ohmic contact resistance is 40 °C lower when compared to an ordinary Ohmic contact without hole array recess. Additionally metal morphology is significantly improved, such as the reduction of irregular metal particles and metal bumps forming in the annealing process, smaller alloying grains, perfectly straight metal edge and no educts existing at metal sidewalls are realized. The results demonstrated in this paper are beneficial to the performance, yield and reliability of relevant devices and circuits.

  3. Conversion of the optical orbital angular momentum in a plasmon-assisted second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhu, Yunzhi; Huang, Xiaoyang; Fang, Xinyuan; Zhong, Weihao; Wang, Qianjin; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Min

    2016-08-22

    We experimentally demonstrate the plasmon-assisted second-harmonic generation of an optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam. Because of the shape resonance, the plasmons in a periodic array of rectangular metal holes greatly enhance the nonlinear optical conversion of an OAM state. The OAM conservation (i.e., 2l{sub 1} = l{sub 2} with l{sub 1} and l{sub 2} being the OAM numbers of the fundamental and second-harmonic waves, respectively) holds well under our experimental configuration. Our results provide a potential way to realize nonlinear optical manipulation of an OAM mode in a nano-photonic device.

  4. Silicon-gold core-shell nanowire array for an optically and electrically characterized refractive index sensor based on plasmonic resonance and Schottky junction.

    PubMed

    Qin, Linling; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Runfeng; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    This work reports the plasmonically enhanced refractive index sensor consisting of silicon nanowire array (Si-NWA) coated by a conformal gold (Au) nanoshell. Compared to the pure Si or Au NWA system, the Si-Au core-shell setup leads to substantially enhanced optical in-coupling to excite strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for highly sensitive sensors. Results indicate that the SPR wavelength can be subtly tuned by manipulating the nanowire radius, and it shows a strong shift with very small variation of the refractive index of the analyte. Furthermore, we configure the system into the Schottky junction, which can separate the photogenerated hot electrons so that the electrical outputs under various incident wavelengths can be measured. The capabilities of optical and electrical measurements ensure a high flexibility of the sensing system. Through our optoelectronic evaluation, the optimally designed system shows a sensitivity up to 1008 nm per refractive index unit and a full width at half-maximum of 9.89 nm; moreover, the high sensing performance can be sustained in a relatively large range of the incident angle.

  5. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Dielectric Core Effects on Two-Dimensional Periodic Arrays of Silver Nanospheres in a Square Lattice Embedded at Different Depths in a Silica Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuh-Sien; Jheng, Ci-Yao

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric core effects and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes of a two-dimensional (2D) periodic array of silver nanospheres (PASNSs) in a square lattice embedded at different depths in a silica substrate normally illuminated with the x-polarization plane wave are numerically investigated by using the finite element method with three-dimensional calculations. The unit cell of the 2D PASNSs examined is a unique structure, which is composed of a metallic nanoshell and a dielectric core (DC). Results show that the near-field optical properties and SPR modes obtained from the embedding cases of 2D PASNS are quite different from those of the solid cases of their counterpart, resulting in a field intensity increase and a redshift due to the plasmon hybridization of metallic nanoshells and their DCs. The strength of the hybridization depends on the geometry of the composite metallic nanoparticles and the surrounding media. On the basis of our simulations, we find two important parameters, i.e., the permittivity of the media filling DCs and the depth of the 2D PASNSs embedded in a silica substrate, which can affect the transmittance spectra and the position of SPR wavelengths. The intensity of transmittance spectra is reduced and the peak resonance is redshifted as the depth of the embedded 2D PASNSs is increased.

  6. Radio detections of the brightening black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127 made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, J.; Staley, T.; Fender, R.; Motta, S.; Cantwell, T.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first new radio detections of the re-brightening black hole X-ray binary candidate Swift J1753.5-0127, obtained on 15 February and 19 February 2017 with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA) interferometer.

  7. Development of Uncooled Micro-bolometer Arrays Based on Hole-doped Rare-Earth Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyi, E.; Yong, Grace; Keshavarz, Camron; Sharma, Prakash; Rubin, Christopher; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Gross, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Material properties indicate that rare earth manganites have a competitive advantage over VOx which is a material commonly employed as bolometric sensors in state of the art uncooled imaging arrays. We will present the results of our work on developing manganite thin films for uncooled micro-bolometer arrays. By fine tuning the cation composition and stoichiometry, we have identified material compositions suitable for uncooled bolometer operation and developed thin films of these materials by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Si. For hetero-epitaxy on Si, we employ lattice engineering schemes to circumvent problems such as chemical incompatibility and amorphization of the substrate surface due to the native oxide. We are in the process of fabricating single test bolometers and micro-bolometer arrays. We will discuss the results of materials development and device fabrication efforts and will present performance parameters and estimated figures of merit for test bolometers. We will also discuss efforts towards understanding and alleviating material problems such as the residual stresses in the thin film heterostructures which are of critical importance for the fabrication of suspended microstructures. We acknowledge support from the NSF grant ECCS 1128586 at Towson University.

  8. Design of a High-Performance Micro Integrated Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Silicon-On-Insulator Rib Waveguide Array.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengpeng; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yujin; Li, Tianjian

    2015-07-16

    Based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide with large cross-section, a micro integrated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biochemical sensor platform is proposed. SPR is excited at the deeply etched facet of the bend waveguide by the guiding mode and a bimetallic configuration is employed. With the advantages of SOI rib waveguide and the silicon microfabrication technology, an array of the SPR sensors can be composed to implement wavelength interrogation of the sensors' output signal, so the spectrometer or other bulky and expensive equipment are not necessary, which enables the SPR sensor to realize the miniaturization and integration of the entire sensing system. The performances of the SPR sensor element are verified by using the two-dimensional finite-different time-domain method. The parameters of the sensor element and the array are optimized for the achievement of high performance for biochemical sensing application. As a typical example, a single bimetallic SPR sensor with 3 nm Au over 32 nm Al possesses a high sensitivity of 3.968 × 104 nm/RIU, a detection-accuracy of 14.7 μm(-1). For a uniparted SPR sensor, it can achieve a detection limit of 5.04 × 10(-7) RIU. With the relative power measurement accuracy of 0.01 dB, the refractive index variation of 1.14 × 10(-5) RIU can be detected by the SPR sensor array.

  9. Surface Plasmon Resonances in 1D and 2D Arrays of Metal Nanoparticles for the Control of Enhanced Spectroscopies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...SPECTROSCOPIES FA9550-09-1-0579 Noguez, Cecilia Roman-Velazquez, Carlos E. Angulo, Ali M. Instituto de Fisica Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico...representation, nanoshells, nanospheres U U U SAR 2 Cecilia Noguez +52 (55) 5622 5106 Final Technical Report Grant/Contract Title: SURFACE PLASMON

  10. 3D-Array of Au-TiO2 Yolk-Shell as Plasmonic Photocatalyst Boosting Multi-Scattering with Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowei; Lou, Zaizhu; Zhang, Peng; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-11-23

    Nowadays, how to convert solar energy efficiently to other energies, such as chemical energy, is an important subject. In the present work, gold nanosphere (AuNS) monoencapsulated in TiO2 hollow nanosphere (Au-TiO2) and three-dimensional assembled array of Au-TiO2 (3D-array) were fabricated to carefully explore the multiscattering effect on the photocatalytic activity of H2 generation under simulated solar light and visible light irradiation, respectively. Au-TiO2 with the inner cavity diameter of 176 nm was uniformly synthesized via SiO2 protection method and then was used as building blocks for construction of 3D-array. The 3D-array exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity of H2 generation (3.5 folds under visible light irradiation, 1.4 folds under solar light irradiation) than Au-TiO2. Single-particle plasmonic photoluminescence measurement and computational simulation of finite difference time domain (FDTD) were performed to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of photocatalysis. It was suggested that the hot electrons generated by AuNS under visible light irradiation play a significant role during the photocatalysis process. The higher activity of 3D-array is due to the elongation of light path length because of the multiscattering in-between Au-TiO2 and the reflection inside of the TiO2 shell. Therefore, the AuNS has more opportunity to absorb light and more hot electrons are expected to be generated through the electron transfer from AuNS to TiO2 shell, leading to an increment in the H2 generation. This result gives us a new perspective of constructing structures for efficient light utilization.

  11. Resonant optical transmission through thin metallic films with and without holes.

    PubMed

    Bonod, Nicolas; Enoch, Stefan; Li, Lifeng; Evgeny, Popov; Neviere, Michel

    2003-03-10

    Using a rigorous electromagnetic analysis of two-dimensional (or crossed) gratings, we account, in a first step, for the enhanced transmission of a sub-wavelength hole array pierced inside a metallic film, when plasmons are simultaneously excited at both interfaces of the film. Replacing the hole array by a continuous metallic film, we then show that resonant extraordinary transmission can still occur, provided the film is modulated. The modulation may be produced in both a one-dimensional and a two dimensional geometry either by periodic surface deformation or by adding an array of high index pillars. Transmittivity higher than 80% is found when surface plasmons are excited at both interfaces, in a symmetric configuration.

  12. Formation of Gold Microparticles by Ablation with Surface Plasmons

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Quincy; Molian, Pal

    2013-01-01

    The formation of gold microparticles on a silicon substrate through the use of energetic surface plasmons is reported. A laser-assisted plasmonics system was assembled and tested to synthesize gold particles from gold thin film by electrical field enhancement mechanism. A mask containing an array of 200 nm diameter holes with a periodicity of 400 nm was prepared and placed on a silicon substrate. The mask was composed of 60 µm thick porous alumina membrane sputter-coated with 100 nm thin gold film. A Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength and 230 µs pulse width (free-running mode) was then passed through the mask at an energy fluence of 0.35 J/cm2. The extraordinary transmission of laser light through alumina/gold micro-hole optical antenna created both extended and localized surface plasmons that caused the gold film at the bottom of the mask to fragment into microparticles and deposit on the silicon substrate that is in direct contact with the mask. The surface plasmon method is simpler, quicker, more energy efficient, and environmentally safer than existing physical and chemical methods, as well as being contamination-free, and can be extended to all types of materials that will in turn allow for new possibilities in the formation of structured surfaces. PMID:28348354

  13. Computationally efficient analysis of extraordinary optical transmission through infinite and truncated subwavelength hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Miguel; Boix, Rafael R.; Medina, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a computationally efficient technique for the analysis of extraordinary transmission through both infinite and truncated periodic arrays of slots in perfect conductor screens of negligible thickness. An integral equation is obtained for the tangential electric field in the slots both in the infinite case and in the truncated case. The unknown functions are expressed as linear combinations of known basis functions, and the unknown weight coefficients are determined by means of Galerkin's method. The coefficients of Galerkin's matrix are obtained in the spatial domain in terms of double finite integrals containing the Green's functions (which, in the infinite case, is efficiently computed by means of Ewald's method) times cross-correlations between both the basis functions and their divergences. The computation in the spatial domain is an efficient alternative to the direct computation in the spectral domain since this latter approach involves the determination of either slowly convergent double infinite summations (infinite case) or slowly convergent double infinite integrals (truncated case). The results obtained are validated by means of commercial software, and it is found that the integral equation technique presented in this paper is at least two orders of magnitude faster than commercial software for a similar accuracy. It is also shown that the phenomena related to periodicity such as extraordinary transmission and Wood's anomaly start to appear in the truncated case for arrays with more than 100 (10 ×10 ) slots.

  14. Measuring the parameters of massive black hole binary systems with pulsar timing array observations of gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2010-05-15

    The observation of massive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) is one of the goals of gravitational-wave astronomy in the coming years. Massive (> or approx. 10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}) and low-redshift (< or approx. 1.5) sources are expected to be individually resolved by upcoming PTAs, and our ability to use them as astrophysical probes will depend on the accuracy with which their parameters can be measured. In this paper we estimate the precision of such measurements using the Fisher-information-matrix formalism. For this initial study we restrict ourselves to 'monochromatic' sources, i.e. binaries whose frequency evolution is negligible during the expected {approx_equal}10 yr observation time, which represent the bulk of the observable population based on current astrophysical predictions. In this approximation, the system is described by seven parameters and we determine their expected statistical errors as a function of the number of pulsars in the array, the array sky coverage, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal. At fixed SNR (regardless of the number of pulsars in the PTA), the gravitational-wave astronomy capability of a PTA is achieved with {approx_equal}20 pulsars; adding more pulsars (up to 1000) to the array reduces the source error box in the sky {Delta}{Omega} by a factor {approx_equal}5 and has negligible consequences on the statistical errors on the other parameters, because the correlations among parameters are already removed to a large extent. If one folds in the increase of coherent SNR proportional to the square root of the number of pulsars, {Delta}{Omega} improves as 1/SNR{sup 2} and the other parameters as 1/SNR. For a fiducial PTA of 100 pulsars uniformly distributed in the sky and a coherent SNR=10, we find {Delta}{Omega}{approx_equal}40 deg{sup 2}, a fractional error on the signal amplitude of {approx_equal}30% (which constrains only very poorly the chirp mass-luminosity distance combination M{sup 5/3}/D

  15. Photocurrent in graphene harnessed by tunable intrinsic plasmons.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Marcus; Low, Tony; Zhu, Wenjuan; Yan, Hugen; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon

    2013-01-01

    Graphene's optical properties in the infrared and terahertz can be tailored and enhanced by patterning graphene into periodic metamaterials with sub-wavelength feature sizes. Here we demonstrate polarization-sensitive and gate-tunable photodetection in graphene nanoribbon arrays. The long-lived hybrid plasmon-phonon modes utilized are coupled excitations of electron density oscillations and substrate (SiO2) surface polar phonons. Their excitation by s-polarization leads to an in-resonance photocurrent, an order of magnitude larger than the photocurrent observed for p-polarization, which excites electron-hole pairs. The plasmonic detectors exhibit photo-induced temperature increases up to four times as large as comparable two-dimensional graphene detectors. Moreover, the photocurrent sign becomes polarization sensitive in the narrowest nanoribbon arrays owing to differences in decay channels for photoexcited hybrid plasmon-phonons and electrons. Our work provides a path to light-sensitive and frequency-selective photodetectors based on graphene's plasmonic excitations.

  16. Enhanced optical output power by the silver localized surface plasmon coupling through side facets of micro-hole patterned InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Jea; Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Ah Hyun; Lee, Seul Be; Lee, Gun Hee; Yang, Gye-Mo; Pham, Hai Dinh; Thu, Hoang Thi; Cuong, Tran Viet; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2014-06-30

    Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes were significantly enhanced using silver nanostructures incorporated in periodic micro-hole patterned multi quantum wells (MQWs). Our results show an enhancement of 60% in the wall-plug efficiency at an injection current of 100 mA when Ag nano-particles were deposited on side facet of MQWs passivated with SiO2. This improvement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate through resonance coupling between localized surface plasmons in Ag nano-particles and the excitons in MQWs.

  17. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Metal Nanodot Nanowire Arrays Studied by Far-Field and Near-Field Optical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    microscope, nanoholes or nanogrooves can be created on the film. After coating a thin Au film by electron beam evaporation and soaking the sample in acetone...SNOM. III. Results and Discussion: (a) LSPR of Au Nanodots With the use of an indentation force of 3.8 μN, a nanohole array was generated on the...images of (a) a nanohole array on PMMA and (b) the corresponding Au nanodot array after lift-off. SEM images of (c) a Au nanodot pattern “NANO” on

  18. Band Structures of Plasmonic Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Lambert, Henry; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-03-01

    In angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), the acceleration of a photo-electron upon photon absorption may trigger shake-up excitations in the sample, leading to the emission of phonons, electron-hole pairs, and plasmons, the latter being collective charge-density fluctuations. Using state-of-the-art many-body calculations based on the `GW plus cumulant' approach, we show that electron-plasmon interactions induce plasmonic polaron bands in group IV transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2). We find that the energy vs. momentum dispersion relations of these plasmonic structures closely follow the standard valence bands, although they appear broadened and blueshifted by the plasmon energy. Based on our results we identify general criteria for observing plasmonic polaron bands in the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of solids.

  19. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383–396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  20. Nanospherical-lens lithographical Ag nanodisk arrays embedded in p-GaN for localized surface plasmon-enhanced blue light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tongbo Wu, Kui; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Yu; Huo, Ziqiang; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Junxi; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Jinmin; Lan, Ding

    2014-06-15

    Large-scale Ag nanodisks (NDs) arrays fabricated using nanospherical-lens lithography (NLL) are embedded in p-GaN layer of an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) for generating localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in the quantum-well (QWs). Based on the Ag NDs with the controlled surface coverage, LSP leads to the improved crystalline quality of regrowth p-GaN, increased photoluminescence (PL) intensity, reduced PL decay time, and enhanced output power of LED. Compared with the LED without Ag NDs, the optical output power at a current of 350 mA of the LSP-enhanced LEDs with Ag NDs having a distance of 20 and 35 nm to QWs is increased by 26.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The electrical characteristics and optical properties of LEDs with embedded Ag NPs are dependent on the distance of between Ag NPs and QWs region. The LED with Ag NDs array structure is also found to exhibit reduced emission divergence, compared to that without Ag NDs.

  1. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  2. The BlackGEM array in search of black hole mergers: integrated performance modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Klein Wolt, Marc; Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Engels, Arno; de Haan, Menno; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Nelemans, Gijs; Paalberends, Willem Jelle; Pal, Sari; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The Radboud University Nijmegen in collaboration with the NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation group at ASTRON is currently leading the development and realization of the BlackGEM observing facility. The BlackGEM science team aims to be the first to catch the optical counterpart of a gravitational wave event. The BlackGEM project will put an array of three medium-sized optical telescopes at the La Silla site of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. It is uniquely equipped to achieve a combination of wide-field and high sensitivity through its array-like approach. Each BlackGEM unit telescope is a modified Dall-Kirkham-type telescope consisting of a 65cm primary mirror, a 21cm spherical secondary mirror and a triplet corrector lens. The spatial resolution on the sky will be 0.56 asec/pixel and the total field-of-view per telescope is 2.7 square degrees. The main requirement is to achieve a 5-sigma sensitivity of 23rd magnitude within a 5-minute exposure under 15 m/s wind gust conditions. This demands a very stable optical system with tight control of all the error contributions. This has been realized with a spreadsheet based integrated instrument model. The model contains all relevant telescope instrument parameters and environmental conditions. The spreadsheet is partly used for performance calculations and partly used to combine and integrate the output from several other sources. The spreadsheet model calculates the overall performance based on an Exposure Time Calculator using the Noise Equivalent Area metric (NEA). The NEA is further budgeted over 7 main High Level Requirements. The spreadsheet model is coupled to 1) a ZEMAX telescope optical model 2) a telescope FEM analysis to predict the optomechanical response under various gravity, temperature and wind load conditions, 3) a Matlab Simulink thermal model to predict the transient temperature behaviour of the most important telescope elements and 4) a Matlab Simulink control model to predict the

  3. MEASURING MASS ACCRETION RATE ONTO THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN M87 USING FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, C. Y.; Asada, K.; Rao, R.; Nakamura, M.; Algaba, J. C.; Liu, H. B.; Inoue, M.; Koch, P. M.; Ho, P. T. P.; Matsushita, S.; Pu, H.-Y.; Nishioka, H.; Pradel, N.; Akiyama, K.

    2014-03-10

    We present the first constraint on the Faraday rotation measure (RM) at submillimeter wavelengths for the nucleus of M87. By fitting the polarization position angles (χ) observed with the Submillimeter Array at four independent frequencies around ∼230 GHz and interpreting the change in χ as a result of external Faraday rotation associated with accretion flow, we determine the RM of the M87 core to be between –7.5 × 10{sup 5} and 3.4 × 10{sup 5} rad m{sup –2}. Assuming a density profile of the accretion flow that follows a power-law distribution and a magnetic field that is ordered, radial, and has equipartition strength, the limit on the RM constrains the mass accretion rate M-dot to be below 9.2 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at a distance of 21 Schwarzschild radii from the central black hole. This value is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the Bondi accretion rate, suggesting significant suppression of the accretion rate in the inner region of the accretion flow. Consequently, our result disfavors the classical advection-dominated accretion flow and prefers the adiabatic inflow-outflow solution or convection-dominated accretion flow for the hot accretion flow in M87.

  4. Wide-gamut plasmonic color filters using a complementary design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seon Uk; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic color filters (PCFs) can acquire primary colors from non-polarized incident light through a two-dimensional arrangement of subwavelength holes. However, owing to the geometry of the 2D array, unintended secondary transmitted peaks derived from the higher-order modes of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) lead to color cross-talk with the primary peaks. Herein, we propose a complementary design method for generating high-purity red, green, and blue (R/G/B) by combining the G/B filters of hole-arrays with the R filters of dot-arrays. Metallic dot-array filters, wherein the wavelength band under 575 nm was effectively blocked by the induction of peak broadening, operated as optical high-pass filters exhibiting pure red, and consequently widen the color gamut of PCFs by 30% without loss of luminance and color tunability. This harmonious combination promises to yield competitiveness for a next-generation color filter by enhancing the color reproducibility of plasmonic nanostructures.

  5. Wide-gamut plasmonic color filters using a complementary design method

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Uk; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic color filters (PCFs) can acquire primary colors from non-polarized incident light through a two-dimensional arrangement of subwavelength holes. However, owing to the geometry of the 2D array, unintended secondary transmitted peaks derived from the higher-order modes of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) lead to color cross-talk with the primary peaks. Herein, we propose a complementary design method for generating high-purity red, green, and blue (R/G/B) by combining the G/B filters of hole-arrays with the R filters of dot-arrays. Metallic dot-array filters, wherein the wavelength band under 575 nm was effectively blocked by the induction of peak broadening, operated as optical high-pass filters exhibiting pure red, and consequently widen the color gamut of PCFs by 30% without loss of luminance and color tunability. This harmonious combination promises to yield competitiveness for a next-generation color filter by enhancing the color reproducibility of plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:28084453

  6. Wide-gamut plasmonic color filters using a complementary design method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Uk; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2017-01-13

    Plasmonic color filters (PCFs) can acquire primary colors from non-polarized incident light through a two-dimensional arrangement of subwavelength holes. However, owing to the geometry of the 2D array, unintended secondary transmitted peaks derived from the higher-order modes of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) lead to color cross-talk with the primary peaks. Herein, we propose a complementary design method for generating high-purity red, green, and blue (R/G/B) by combining the G/B filters of hole-arrays with the R filters of dot-arrays. Metallic dot-array filters, wherein the wavelength band under 575 nm was effectively blocked by the induction of peak broadening, operated as optical high-pass filters exhibiting pure red, and consequently widen the color gamut of PCFs by 30% without loss of luminance and color tunability. This harmonious combination promises to yield competitiveness for a next-generation color filter by enhancing the color reproducibility of plasmonic nanostructures.

  7. Theory of transmission of light by sub-wavelength cylindrical holes in metallic films.

    PubMed

    García, N; Bai, Ming

    2006-10-16

    This paper presents theory and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations for a single and arrays of sub-wavelength cylindrical holes in metallic films presenting large transmission. These calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. This effect has to be understood in terms of the properties exhibited by the dielectric constant of metals which cannot be treated as ideal metals for the purpose of transmission and diffraction of light. We discuss the cases of well-differentiated metals silver and tungsten. It is found that the effect of surface plasmons or other surface wave excitations due to a periodical set of holes or other roughness at the surface is marginal. The effect can enhance but also can depress the transmission of the arrays as shown by theory and experiments. The peak structure observed in experiments is a consequence of the interference of the wavefronts transmitted by each hole and is determined by the surface array period independently of the material. Without large transmission through a single hole there is no large transmission through the array. We found that in the case of Ag which at the discussed frequencies is a metal there are cylindrical plasmons at the wall of the hole, as reported by Economu et al 30 years ago, that enhanced the transmission. But it turns out, as will be explained, that for the case of W which behaves as a dielectric, there is also a large transmission when compared with that of an ideal metal waveguide at large wavelengths. To deal with this problem one has to use the measured dielectric function of the metals. We discuss thoroughly all these cases and compare with the data. We notice that to discuss these data, for a single hole's transmission, in terms of the Bethe approximation of ideal metals is misleading. Therefore, the extraordinary enhancement of the transmission for the holes arrays versus the single hole does not exist.

  8. Enhancement of Light via Surface Plasmon Coupling in the Visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Emily A.

    The incidence of light with momentum components outside the light cone on the surface of a negative permittivity material results in the excitation of a surface plasmon polariton and the enhancement of the incident signal when there is momentum and energy conservation. This process has an impact across many fields including imaging, optical computing, signaling, and photovoltaic devices, among others. I examine the role and tunability of light-surface plasmon interactions in several applications. I demonstrate a tuned metamaterial grating system that allows the signal from evanescent waves to be detected in the far field in the visible regime. I fabricate a metamaterial that is tuned to support surface plasmons that couple to visible light across a wide range of wavelengths. I characterize the plasmonic response through a simple technique wherein a the reflection from a subwavelength grating on a metamaterial indicates surface plasmon coupling when its intensity dips. With this I demonstrate that the reflection trends match well with simulation, indicating that coupling of light to surface plasmons occurs at the expected crossing points. The strength of coupling (denoted by the drop in reflection) however, is less than expected. Transmission measurements reveal a depolarizing effect that accounts for the decrease in evanescent light enhancement by the surface plasmons and is due to the surface roughness at the interfaces between the metal and dielectric. I also use a tuned metamaterial perforated with a subwavelength array of circular apertures to exhibit extraordinary transmission in the visible. I compare the transmission of the metamaterial to that of a thin film of Ag with equivalent thickness that has fewer plasmon modes and a resonance position in the UV to find that for 400 nm, both thin films exhibit a transmission minimum at 650 nm. Both film spectra have plasmon-aided extraordinary transmission peaks where there is momentum and energy conservation between

  9. Enhancement of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells with front-surface hexagonal plasmonic arrays from nanoscale lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenlong; Gwamuri, Jephias; Cvetanovic, Sandra; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Guney, Durdu O.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2017-07-01

    The study first uses numerical simulations of hexagonal triangle and sphere arrays to optimize the performance of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic devices. The simulations indicated the potential for a sphere array to provide optical enhancement (OE) up to 7.4% compared to a standard cell using a nanosphere radius of 250 nm and silver film thickness of 50 nm. Next a detailed series of a-Si:H cells were fabricated and tested for quantum efficiency and characteristic and current-voltage (I-V) profiles using a solar simulator. Triangle and sphere array based cells, as well as the uncoated reference cells are analyzed and the results find that the simulation does not precisely predict the observed enhancement, but it forecasts a trend and can be used to guide fabrication. In general, the measured OE follows the simulated trend: (1) for triangular arrays no enhancement is observed and as the silver thickness increases the more degradation of the cell; (2) for annealed arrays both measured and simulated OE occur with the thinner silver thickness. Measured efficiency enhancement reached 20.2% and 10.9% for nanosphere diameter D = 500 nm, silver thicknesses h = 50 nm and 25 nm, respectively. These values, which surpass simulation results, indicate that this method is worth additional investigation.

  10. Patterning sub-25nm half-pitch hexagonal arrays of contact holes with chemo-epitaxial DSA guided by ArFi pre-patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arjun; Chan, Boon Teik; Parnell, Doni; Wu, Hengpeng; Yin, Jian; Cao, Yi; Gronheid, Roel

    2015-03-01

    The patterning potential of block copolymer (BCP) materials via various directed self-assembly (DSA) schemes has been demonstrated for over a decade. We have previously reported the HONEYCOMB flow; a process flow where we utilize Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography and Oxygen plasma to guide the assembly of cylindrical phase BCPs into regular hexagonal arrays of contact holes [1, 2]. In this work we report the development of a new process flow, the CHIPS flow, where we use ArFi lithography to print guiding patterns for the chemo-epitaxial DSA of BCPs. Using this process flow we demonstrate BCP assembly into hexagonal arrays with sub-25 nm half-pitch and discuss critical steps of the process flow. Additionally, we discuss the influence of under-layer surface energy on the DSA process window and report contact hole metrology results.

  11. Large-area arrays of gold nanotructures from azopolymer templates (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerland, Robert J.; Koskela, Jenni E.; Kaivola, Matti; Ras, Robin H. A.; Priimagi, Arri

    2016-09-01

    Subwavelength-sized, periodically arranged holes in an opaque metal film have gained much attention since 1998, when Ebbesen et al. first reported the phenomenon of enhanced transmission of light through such a hole-array structure. Certain wavelengths show distinctly higher transmission than what would be expected based simply on the number of holes and the transmission of a single subwavelength hole, a phenomenon commonly attributed to different plasmonic modes in nanohole arrays. Traditionally, nanoscale holes and slits in metal films have been fabricated via electron-beam lithography or focused ion beam milling. Typically, finite hole arrays up to 50 μm in size with high control over hole size, shape, periodicity and resolution can be created with these methods. However, EBL and FIB become very costly and time-consuming to make larger-sized hole arrays and are not suitable for low-cost mass production. Herein, we exploit surface patterns on azopolymer films for making highly ordered and uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanoislands in thin gold films. The nanostructures can be created by employing azopolymer surface patterns as a template for metal deposition, after which the metal surface is subjected to large-area ion milling. Azopolymer-based surface patterning provides an easy way to vary the size and periodicity of the structures, which are manufactured homogeneously over large areas. The largest possible size of the structures depends merely on the size of the optical inscription beam and the used ion milling apparatus.

  12. Effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2017-02-01

    Although solar cells can meet the increasing demand for energy of modern world, their usage is not as widespread as expected because of their high production cost and low efficiency. Thin-film and ultra-thin-film solar cells with single and multiple active layers are being investigated to reduce cost. Additionally, multiple active layers of different energy bandgaps are used in tandem in order to absorb the solar spectra more efficiently. However, the efficiency of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells may suffer significantly mainly because of low photon absorption and current mismatch between active layers. In this work, we study the effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells. We consider three structures| each with a top amorphous silicon layer and a bottom micro-crystalline silicon layer, and an intermediate plasmonic layer between them. The intermediate layer is either a metal layer with periodic holes or periodic metal strips or periodic metal nano-clusters. Using a finite difference time domain technique for incident AM 1.5 solar spectra, we show that these intermediate layers help to excite different plasmonic and photonic modes for different light polarizations, and thereby, increase the absorption of light significantly. We find that the short-circuit current density increases by 12%, 6%, and 9% when the intermediate plasmonic structure is a metal hole-array, strips, and nano-clusters, respectively, from that of a structure that does not have the intermediate plasmonic layer.

  13. Dynamic templating: A new pathway for the assembly of large-area arrays of plasmonic, magnetic and semiconductor nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Pouyan

    Substrate-based nanostructures are of great importance due to their applications in microelectronic devices, chemical sensors, catalysis and photovoltaics. This dissertation describes a novel fabrication technique for the formation of periodic arrays of substrate-based nanoparticles. The prescribed route, referred to as dynamic templating, requires modest levels of instrumentation consisting of a sputter coater, micrometer-scale shadow masks and a tube furnace. The route has broad applicability, having already produced periodic arrays of gold, silver, copper, platinum, nickel, cobalt, germanium and Au--Ag alloys on substrates as diverse as silicon, sapphire, silicon--carbide, and glass. The newly devised method offers large-area, high-throughput capabilities for the fabrication of periodic arrays of sub-micrometer and nanometer-scale structures and overcomes a significant technological barrier to the widespread use of substrate-based templated assembly by eliminating the need for periodic templates having nanoscale features. Because this technique only requires modest levels of instrumentation, researchers are now able to fabricate periodic arrays of nanostructures that would otherwise require advanced fabrication facilities.

  14. Enhancing the Sensitivity of NDIR Spectroscopy Using Plasmonic Crystal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Amr Elsayed Shebl Mahmoud

    Monitoring the concentration of methane is of crucial importance for health, safety, and maintenance. NDIR spectroscopy is a widely used commercially available method of monitoring the concentration of Gases. Enhancing the sensitivity of the IR detector enhances the limit of detection of NDIR sensors. Plasmonic crystal structures have been shown to enhance the absorption of EM radiation at certain wavelengths depending on their dimensions. In this thesis, a 13 fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane NDIR gas sensor was achieved by designing a plasmonic crystal structure. The structure is a layer of gold with a two dimensional array of micro sized holes. The dimensions of the structure were optimized by COMSOL(TM) simulations to get maximum absorption at lambda = 7:7 mum. The structure was fabricated and the NDIR sensor was developed to experimentally show the enhancement. The experimental results showed good agreement with the simulations and achieved the expected enhancement.

  15. Devices and materials for THz spectroscopy: GHz CMOS circuits, periodic hole-arrays and high-frequency dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Daniel J.

    This dissertation is composed of three main projects, linked together by the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the first project, we detected the radiation from a silicon CMOS circuit, using a fourier transform interferometer. At the time of measurement, this 410 GHz circuit had the highest operating frequency for silicon integrated technology. The measured radiated power from the 410 GHz circuits was in the order of 0.01 muW. This circuit had radiated intensities comparable to those of commercially available black-body sources in the 400 GHz region. The high power and high emission per source area suggested possible spectroscopy applications. We also studied the optical properties of periodic hole-arrays with resonant frequencies in the THz region. Although the transmittance spectra of these structures have been extensively studied, here we present reflectance measurements that allow the analysis of the extinction/absorption spectra. The results were compared to predictions from the trapped-mode theory on the ohmic losses of these systems. Our results did not support the prediction of a suppression of the R + T spectra at the resonant frequency. Also, we studied the time-dependence of femtosecond pulses reflected from periodic hole arrays with resonant frequencies in the NIR region. Our results show that if the trapped modes theory is correct, then the lifetime of these modes are below 100 fs. Finally, in the third project, we studied the Raman active modes of various bismuth pyrochlores Bi3/2ZnNb3/2O7 (BZN), Bi3/2ZnTa3/2O7 (BZT), Bi3/2MgNb 3/2O7 (BMN) and Bi3/2MgTa3/2O 7 (BMT), which have earned recent attention for high-frequency applications. The spectra of the four compositions are very similar, suggesting no major structural differences among these materials. The spectra were compared to those of other pyrochlores and specific discussions are offered for the assignment of each mode. Although there are clear differences between the spectra of

  16. Earthquake source parameters of repeating microearthquakes at Parkfield, CA, determined using the SAFOD Pilot Hole seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, K.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2005-12-01

    We determined source parameters of repeating microearthquakes occurring at Parkfield, CA, using the SAFOD Pilot Hole seismic array. To estimate reliable source parameters, we used the empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution method which removes the attenuation effects and site responses by taking the spectral amplitude ratio between the spectra of the two colocated events. For earthquakes during the period from December 2002 to October 2003 whose S-P time differences are less than 1 s, we detected 34 events that classified into 14 groups. Moment magnitudes range from -0.3 to 2.1. These data were recorded at a sampling rate of 2 kHz. The dataset includes two SAFOD target repeating earthquakes which occurred on October 2003. In general, the deconvolution procedure is an unstable process, especially for higher frequencies, because small location differences result in the profound effects on the spectral ratio. This leads to large uncertainties in the estimations of corner frequencies. According to Chaverria et al. [2003], the wavetrain recorded in the Pilot Hole is dominated by reflections and conversions and not random coda waves. So, we expect that the spectral ratios of the waves between P and S wave will also reflect the source, as will the waves following S wave. We compared spectral ratios calculated from the direct waves with those from other parts of the wavetrain, and confirmed that they showed similar shapes. Therefore it is possible to obtain a more robust measure of spectral ratio by stacking the ratios calculated from shorter moving windows taken along the record following the direct waves. We further stacked all ratios obtained from each level of the array. The stacked spectral ratios were inverted for corner frequencies assuming the omega-square model. We determined static stress drops from those corner frequencies assuming a circular crack model. We also calculated apparent stresses for each event by considering frequency dependent attenuation

  17. Deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North with the Very Large Array - I. Source extraction and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernstrom, T.; Scott, Douglas; Wall, J. V.; Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Perley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source-finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper II). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75 arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30-70 per cent of sources are missed or fit inaccurately once the source size becomes larger than the beam, possibly explaining source count errors in high-resolution surveys. We also investigate the effect of blending, finding that any sources with separations smaller than the beam size are fit as single sources. We show that the use of machine-learning techniques can correctly identify blended sources up to 90 per cent of the time, and prior-driven fitting can lead to a 70 per cent improvement in the number of de-blended sources.

  18. Dynamics between J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in strong coupling regime (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Haiyu; Sun, Hong-Bo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-09-01

    Strong coupling regime is reached when SPPs and matter exchange energy coherently and reversibly before losses take place, resulting in the formation of new hybrid exciton-plasmon states formed by lower and upper energy bands [1,2]. In this field most of the works focus on steady-state observations, indeed experiments on the dynamics of such hybrid systems are relatively scarce and their intrinsic photophysics is still far from being understood. Here, in order to improve our understanding of the dynamics of hybrid exciton-plasmon states, we have studied through ultrafast pump-probe approach, a hybrid system composed by gold hole arrays and J-aggregate molecules while modifying the lattice constant of the metallic array. Under upper hybrid band resonant excitation, transient absorption spectra provide the evidence that exciton-plasmon hybrid states are formed. Meanwhile, kinetics analysis led to the discovery of a remarkably long-lived upper band, at least one order of magnitude at 1/e than bare J-aggregate molecules. This result was explained with the identification, in the transient absorption spectra, of a trap state combined with the negligible relaxation effect from vibrational modes. The intrinsic long lifetime of hybrid states is of crucial importance both from a fundamental and applicative point of view, having implications in the use of exciton-plasmon states for technological purposes. The understanding of the dynamics on strong coupling systems can provide indeed a promising route towards novel ultrafast plasmonic devices with coherent functionalities.

  19. Molecular Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Willets, Katherine A

    2016-06-12

    In this review, we survey recent advances in the field of molecular plasmonics beyond the traditional sensing modality. Molecular plasmonics is explored in the context of the complex interaction between plasmon resonances and molecules and the ability of molecules to support plasmons self-consistently. First, spectroscopic changes induced by the interaction between molecular and plasmonic resonances are discussed, followed by examples of how tuning molecular properties leads to active molecular plasmonic systems. Next, the role of the position and polarizability of a molecular adsorbate on surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals is examined experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we introduce recent research focused on using molecules as plasmonic materials. Each of these examples is intended to highlight the role of molecules as integral components in coupled molecule-plasmon systems, as well as to show the diversity of applications in molecular plasmonics.

  20. Numerical calculation of plasmonic field absorption enhancement in CdSe-quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorods by Ag nanoparticle periodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Eskandari, Mehdi; Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic field absorption enhancement (PFAE) of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) periodic arrays in CdSe-quantum dot (QD) sensitized ZnO nanorods was numerically investigated by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD). The Ag NPs with spherical morphology were found to have an optimum PFAE compared to other Ag NP morphologies such as cubic and pyramidal. The results also showed that PFAE intensity in CdSe-QD-sensitized ZnO nanorods is increased with the reduction of Ag NP diameter until 10 nm and decreases thereafter. Moreover, the optimum density of spherical Ag NPs for optimum PFAE was observed as 20%. PFAE in CdSe-QD-sensitized ZnO nanorods is improved with increasing space between ZnO nanorods until 180 nm and reduces thereafter. Finally, the results showed that PFAE of Ag NPs for the high distance between ZnO nanorods is dependent on radiation angle; while for the low distance between ZnO nanorods it is free of radiation angle.