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Sample records for plasmopara halstedii elicitor

  1. Plasmopara halstedii virus causes hypovirulence in Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of the sunflower.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Zipper, Reinhard; Totska, Maria; Spring, Otmar

    2013-08-01

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is an isometric virus recently found in the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. The fully sequenced virus genome consists of two ss(+)RNA strands encoding for the virus polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Most of previously screened field isolates of P. halstedii were found to harbor PhV, but effects of PhV on the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the oomycete have not been investigated yet. To assess the influence of PhV on the infectivity of P. halstedii, virus-free isolates of the oomycete were searched for, cultivated on sunflower and used for single zoospore infection. Four genetically homogenous strains belonging to three different pathotypes (710, 730, 750) were established. Subcultures of each strain were successfully infected with PhV. This afforded pairs of isogenic strains with and without virus and allowed assessment of the pathogenicity (susceptibility to specific sunflower genotypes) and aggressiveness (intensity of infection, time scale and density of sporulation) in cultivation of sunflower. While no significant difference was found in the pathogenicity of P. halstedii strains with and without virus towards sunflower seedlings of different resistance (pathotype differentials), the aggressiveness of the oomycete was diminished by PhV. Compared to the virus-free strains, the time required for the first sporulation (latent period) increased by about 1 day post inoculation. Progression of the pathogen from the hypocotyl into the epicotyl of sunflower (systemic infection) was reduced by about one third in the presence of virus. In the virus containing strains, the average density of sporangia produced per cm² cotyledon reached only 75% of the virus-free controls. In summary, the presence of PhV leads to hypovirulence effects by weakening the aggressiveness of P. halstedii.

  2. The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Plasmopara halstedii virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only very few viruses of Oomycetes have been studied in detail. Isometric virions were found in different isolates of the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of sunflower. However, complete nucleotide sequences and data on the genome organization were lacking. Methods Viral RNA of different P. halstedii isolates was subjected to nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the viral genome. The N-terminal sequence of the viral coat protein was determined using Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis. Results The complete nucleotide sequences of both single-stranded RNA segments (RNA1 and RNA2) were established. RNA1 consisted of 2793 nucleotides (nt) exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a single open-reading frame (ORF1) of 2745 nt. ORF1 was framed by a 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of 18 nt and a 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of 30 nt. ORF1 contained motifs of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) and showed similarities to RdRp of Scleropthora macrospora virus A (SmV A) and viruses within the Nodaviridae family. RNA2 consisted of 1526 nt exclusive its 3' poly(A) tract and a second ORF (ORF2) of 1128 nt. ORF2 coded for the single viral coat protein (CP) and was framed by a 5' UTR of 164 nt and a 3' UTR of 234 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 was verified by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS experiments. Top-Down MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the N-terminal sequence of the CP. The N-terminal sequence represented a region within ORF2 suggesting a proteolytic processing of the CP in vivo. The CP showed similarities to CP of SmV A and viruses within the Tombusviridae family. Fragments of RNA1 (ca. 1.9 kb) and RNA2 (ca. 1.4 kb) were used to analyze the nucleotide sequence variation of virions in different P. halstedii isolates. Viral sequence variation was 0.3% or less regardless of their host's pathotypes, the geographical origin and the sensitivity towards the fungicide metalaxyl. Conclusions The results showed the presence of a single and new virus type in

  3. Effector Polymorphisms of the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii and Their Use to Identify Pathotypes from Field Isolates.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Quentin; Bordat, Amandine; Sallet, Erika; Pouilly, Nicolas; Carrere, Sébastien; Roux, Fabrice; Vincourt, Patrick; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The obligate biotroph oomycete Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on sunflower crop, Helianthus annuus. The breakdown of several Pl resistance genes used in sunflower hybrids over the last 25 years came along with the appearance of new Pl. halstedii isolates showing modified virulence profiles. In oomycetes, two classes of effector proteins, key players of pathogen virulence, are translocated into the host: RXLR and CRN effectors. We identified 54 putative CRN or RXLR effector genes from transcriptomic data and analyzed their genetic diversity in seven Pl. halstedii pathotypes representative of the species variability. Pl. halstedii effector genes were on average more polymorphic at both the nucleic and protein levels than random non-effector genes, suggesting a potential adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence over the last 25 years. Twenty-two KASP (Competitive Allele Specific PCR) markers designed on polymorphic effector genes were genotyped on 35 isolates belonging to 14 Pl. halstedii pathotypes. Polymorphism analysis based on eight KASP markers aims at proposing a determination key suitable to classify the eight multi-isolate pathotypes into six groups. This is the first report of a molecular marker set able to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes based on the polymorphism of pathogenicity effectors. Compared to phenotypic tests handling living spores used until now to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes, this set of molecular markers constitutes a first step in faster pathotype diagnosis of Pl. halstedii isolates. Hence, emerging sunflower downy mildew isolates could be more rapidly characterized and thus, assessment of plant resistance breakdown under field conditions should be improved.

  4. Newly emerged populations of Plasmopara halstedii infecting rudbeckia exhibit unique genotypic profiles and are distinct from sunflower-infecting strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oomycete Plasmopara halstedii emerged at the onset of the 21st century as a destructive new pathogen causing downy mildew disease of ornamental Rudbeckia fulgida (rudbeckia) in the U.S.A. The pathogen is also a significant global problem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and is widely regarded a...

  5. Emergence of new virulent races of Plasmopara halstedii inciting downy mildew on sunflower in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to 2009, no isolate of Plasmopara halstedii, the cause of sunflower downy mildew (DM), recovered from sunflower in the United States caused disease on resistance genes Pl6, Pl7 or Pl8. These genes, originally released by the USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit in 1985, have been used extensively ...

  6. Asexual Recombinants of Plasmopara halstedii Pathotypes from Dual Infection of Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Otmar; Zipper, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically homogenous strains of Plasmopara halstedii differing in host specificity and fungicide tolerance were used to test the hypothesis that asexual genetic recombination occurs and may account for the high genotype diversity of this homothallic reproducing oomycete, which causes downy mildew in sunflower. Dual inoculation of sunflower seedlings with single zoospore strains of complementary infection characteristics caused sporulation under conditions where inoculation with each strain alone failed to infect. PCR-based investigation with strain-specific primers proved the presence of genetic traits from both progenitors in single sporangia collected from sporangiophores of such infections. Sister zoospores released from these sporangia revealed the genotype of the one or the other parental strain thus indicating heterokaryology of sporangia. Moreover, some zoospores showed amplification products of both parents, which suggests that the generally mononucleic spores derived from genetic recombination. The possibility of parasexual genetic exchange in the host-independent stage of infection and the evolutionary consequences are discussed. PMID:27907026

  7. Effector Polymorphisms of the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii and Their Use to Identify Pathotypes from Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gascuel, Quentin; Bordat, Amandine; Sallet, Erika; Pouilly, Nicolas; Carrere, Sébastien; Roux, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The obligate biotroph oomycete Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on sunflower crop, Helianthus annuus. The breakdown of several Pl resistance genes used in sunflower hybrids over the last 25 years came along with the appearance of new Pl. halstedii isolates showing modified virulence profiles. In oomycetes, two classes of effector proteins, key players of pathogen virulence, are translocated into the host: RXLR and CRN effectors. We identified 54 putative CRN or RXLR effector genes from transcriptomic data and analyzed their genetic diversity in seven Pl. halstedii pathotypes representative of the species variability. Pl. halstedii effector genes were on average more polymorphic at both the nucleic and protein levels than random non-effector genes, suggesting a potential adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence over the last 25 years. Twenty-two KASP (Competitive Allele Specific PCR) markers designed on polymorphic effector genes were genotyped on 35 isolates belonging to 14 Pl. halstedii pathotypes. Polymorphism analysis based on eight KASP markers aims at proposing a determination key suitable to classify the eight multi-isolate pathotypes into six groups. This is the first report of a molecular marker set able to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes based on the polymorphism of pathogenicity effectors. Compared to phenotypic tests handling living spores used until now to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes, this set of molecular markers constitutes a first step in faster pathotype diagnosis of Pl. halstedii isolates. Hence, emerging sunflower downy mildew isolates could be more rapidly characterized and thus, assessment of plant resistance breakdown under field conditions should be improved. PMID:26845339

  8. Characterization of a Plasmopara species on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and notes on P. halstedii, based on morphology and multiple gene phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Kiss, Levente; Vajna, László; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2009-10-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive and highly allergenic plant species, on which two species, Plasmopara halstedii and Plasmopara angustiterminalis, have been recognized to cause downy mildew disease. In this study, morphological and molecular patterns of seven Plasmopara specimens collected from A. artemisiifolia in Canada, Hungary, and USA were compared with those of P. halstedii and P. angustiterminalis from Helianthus and Xanthium, respectively. Analyses of partial sequences of three genes, namely those for the large subunit (28S) of rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) of mtDNA, were carried out to examine the phylogenetic relationships among these specimens using both Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods. All the phylogenetic analyses revealed that the downy mildew pathogens infecting A. artemisiifolia in Hungary and North America clearly represent a lineage distinct from other Plasmopara taxa investigated. The shape of sporangia and the width of trunks and branches also allowed the separation of the specimens parasitic to A. artemisiifolia from P. halstedii on Helianthus annuus and P. angustiterminalis on Xanthium strumarium. Surprisingly, the Hungarian and the Canadian specimens were more closely related to each other than to those from the USA based on COX2 and ND1 mtDNA data, although the D1/D2/D3 sequences of 28S rDNA were identical in all these Plasmopara specimens. The regional distribution of the mtDNA haplotypes seen in this study suggests a transatlantic migration has occurred and would be interesting to follow up with a more detailed sampling. To investigate the diversity within P. halstedii sensu lato, infecting different host plant species, specimens from six asteraceous genera, Ambrosia, Flaveria, Helianthus, Siegesbeckia, Solidago, and Xanthium, were also included in molecular analyses. These represented six distinct lineages according to the host plant genera. These

  9. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  10. Genome analyses of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii provide insights into effector evolution in downy mildews and Phytophthora.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Cano, Liliana M; Evangelisti, Edouard; Kemen, Eric; Judelson, Howard; Oome, Stan; Sambles, Christine; van den Hoogen, D Johan; Kitner, Miloslav; Klein, Joël; Meijer, Harold J G; Spring, Otmar; Win, Joe; Zipper, Reinhard; Bode, Helge B; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; Schornack, Sebastian; Studholme, David J; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Thines, Marco

    2015-10-05

    Downy mildews are the most speciose group of oomycetes and affect crops of great economic importance. So far, there is only a single deeply-sequenced downy mildew genome available, from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Further genomic resources for downy mildews are required to study their evolution, including pathogenicity effector proteins, such as RxLR effectors. Plasmopara halstedii is a devastating pathogen of sunflower and a potential pathosystem model to study downy mildews, as several Avr-genes and R-genes have been predicted and unlike Arabidopsis downy mildew, large quantities of almost contamination-free material can be obtained easily. Here a high-quality draft genome of Plasmopara halstedii is reported and analysed with respect to various aspects, including genome organisation, secondary metabolism, effector proteins and comparative genomics with other sequenced oomycetes. Interestingly, the present analyses revealed further variation of the RxLR motif, suggesting an important role of the conservation of the dEER-motif. Orthology analyses revealed the conservation of 28 RxLR-like core effectors among Phytophthora species. Only six putative RxLR-like effectors were shared by the two sequenced downy mildews, highlighting the fast and largely independent evolution of two of the three major downy mildew lineages. This is seemingly supported by phylogenomic results, in which downy mildews did not appear to be monophyletic. The genome resource will be useful for developing markers for monitoring the pathogen population and might provide the basis for new approaches to fight Phytophthora and downy mildew pathogens by targeting core pathogenicity effectors.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences.

    PubMed

    As-sadi, Falah; Carrere, Sébastien; Gascuel, Quentin; Hourlier, Thibaut; Rengel, David; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bordat, Amandine; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Gouzy, Jérôme; Godiard, Laurence; Vincourt, Patrick

    2011-10-11

    Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This work therefore provides valuable

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. Results A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. Conclusions This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This

  13. Metabolic Fingerprint of PS3-Induced Resistance of Grapevine Leaves against Plasmopara viticola Revealed Differences in Elicitor-Triggered Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Marielle; Lucio, Marianna; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Trouvelot, Sophie; Daire, Xavier; Kanawati, Basem; Lemaître-Guillier, Christelle; Poinssot, Benoît; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Induction of plant resistance against pathogens by defense elicitors constitutes an attractive strategy to reduce the use of fungicides in crop protection. However, all elicitors do not systematically confer protection against pathogens. Elicitor-induced resistance (IR) thus merits to be further characterized in order to understand what makes an elicitor efficient. In this study, the oligosaccharidic defense elicitors H13 and PS3, respectively, ineffective and effective to trigger resistance of grapevine leaves against downy mildew, were used to compare their effect on the global leaf metabolism. Ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) analysis allowed us to obtain and compare the specific metabolic fingerprint induced by each elicitor and to characterize the associated metabolic pathways. Moreover, erythritol phosphate was identified as a putative marker of elicitor-IR. PMID:28261225

  14. Metabolic Fingerprint of PS3-Induced Resistance of Grapevine Leaves against Plasmopara viticola Revealed Differences in Elicitor-Triggered Defenses.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Marielle; Lucio, Marianna; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Trouvelot, Sophie; Daire, Xavier; Kanawati, Basem; Lemaître-Guillier, Christelle; Poinssot, Benoît; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Induction of plant resistance against pathogens by defense elicitors constitutes an attractive strategy to reduce the use of fungicides in crop protection. However, all elicitors do not systematically confer protection against pathogens. Elicitor-induced resistance (IR) thus merits to be further characterized in order to understand what makes an elicitor efficient. In this study, the oligosaccharidic defense elicitors H13 and PS3, respectively, ineffective and effective to trigger resistance of grapevine leaves against downy mildew, were used to compare their effect on the global leaf metabolism. Ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) analysis allowed us to obtain and compare the specific metabolic fingerprint induced by each elicitor and to characterize the associated metabolic pathways. Moreover, erythritol phosphate was identified as a putative marker of elicitor-IR.

  15. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara halstedii on the native Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The showy black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) is an important perennial wildflower native to the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Besides its aesthetic value in the landscape, this native plant attracts pollinators and provides seeds for birds during t...

  16. Synthetic plant defense elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  17. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  18. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...

  19. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  20. Effects of carbon source, phosphorus concentration, and several micronutrients on biomass and geosmin production by Streptomyces halstedii.

    PubMed

    Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    The effects of various carbon sources, phosphorus concentration, and different concentrations of the micronutrients calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, potassium, and zinc were determined on biomass dry weight production, geosmin production, and geosmin/biomass (G/B) values for Streptomyces halstedii, a geosmin-producing actinomycete isolated from the sediment of an aquaculture pond. Of the substrates tested, maltose as a sole carbon source promoted maximal growth by S. halstedii while mannitol promoted maximal geosmin production, and galactose yielded the highest G/B values. Fish-food pellets and galactose were poor substrates for growth. Increasing phosphorus concentrations enhanced geosmin production and G/B values. Of the seven micronutrients tested, zinc, iron, and copper had the most profound effects on biomass and geosmin production. Increasing zinc concentrations promoted biomass production while inhibiting geosmin production and G/B values; increasing concentrations of copper and iron inhibited biomass and geosmin production. Increased copper concentrations had the greatest effect in preventing growth and geosmin production by S. halstedii.

  1. Children's Response to Adult Disgust Elicitors: Development and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Oaten, Megan J.; Case, Trevor I.; Repacholi, Betty M.; Wagland, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about when or how different disgust elicitors are acquired. In Study 1, parents of children (0-18 years old) rated how their child would react to 22 disgust elicitors. Different developmental patterns were identified for core, animal, and sociomoral elicitors, with core elicitors emerging first. In Study 2, children (2-16 years…

  2. Children's Response to Adult Disgust Elicitors: Development and Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Oaten, Megan J.; Case, Trevor I.; Repacholi, Betty M.; Wagland, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about when or how different disgust elicitors are acquired. In Study 1, parents of children (0-18 years old) rated how their child would react to 22 disgust elicitors. Different developmental patterns were identified for core, animal, and sociomoral elicitors, with core elicitors emerging first. In Study 2, children (2-16 years…

  3. Plant oligosaccharides - outsiders among elicitors?

    PubMed

    Larskaya, I A; Gorshkova, T A

    2015-07-01

    This review substantiates the need to study the plant oligoglycome. The available information on oligosaccharins - physiologically active fragments of plant cell wall polysaccharides - is summarized. The diversity of such compounds in chemical composition, origin, and proved biological activity is highlighted. At the same time, plant oligosaccharides can be considered as outsiders among elicitors of various natures in research intensity of recent decades. This review discusses the reasons for such attitude towards these regulators, which are largely connected with difficulties in isolation and identification. Together with that, approaches are suggested whose potentials can be used to study oligosaccharins. The topics of oligosaccharide metabolism in plants, including the ways of formation, transport, and inactivation are presented, together with data on biological activity and interaction with plant hormones. The current viewpoints on the mode of oligosaccharin action - perception, signal transduction, and possible "targets" - are considered. The potential uses of such compounds in medicine, food industry, agriculture, and biotechnology are discussed.

  4. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Adrien; Trouvelot, Sophie; Kelloniemi, Jani; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Daire, Xavier; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Flors, Victor; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam) and its sulfated derivative (PS3) have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i) the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii) grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i) PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii) PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA) and jasmonate-(JA)-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance.

  5. Proteomics towards the understanding of elicitor induced resistance of grapevine against downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Lemaître-Guillier, Christelle; Hovasse, Agnès; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Recorbet, Ghislaine; Poinssot, Benoît; Trouvelot, Sophie; Daire, Xavier; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2017-03-06

    Elicitors are known to trigger plant defenses in response to biotic stress, but do not systematically lead to effective resistance to pathogens. The reasons explaining such differences remain misunderstood. Therefore, elicitation and induced resistance (IR) were investigated through the comparison of two modified β-1,3 glucans applied on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) leaves before and after inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew. The sulfated (PS3) and the shortened (H13) forms of laminarin are both known to elicit defense responses whereas only PS3 induces resistance against downy mildew. The analysis of the 2-DE gel electrophoresis revealed that PS3 and H13 induced distinct proteomic profiles after treatment and pathogen inoculation. Our results point out that the PS3-induced resistance is associated with the activation of the primary metabolism especially on amino acids and carbohydrates pathways. In addition, few proteins, such as the 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR-like) related to the OPDA pathway, and an Arsenite-resistance protein (Serrate-like protein) could be considered as useful markers of induced resistance.

  6. Variation within and between Vitis species for foliar resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To complement existing control strategies, grape growers in humid climates desire cultivars with resistance to downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola. Numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm have previously been conducted to identify downy mildew resistance, but ratings o...

  7. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 151.2 Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identi...

  8. Stilbenes from Vitis vinifera L. Waste: A Sustainable Tool for Controlling Plasmopara Viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Biais, Benoît; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Renouf, Elodie; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Richard, Tristan; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-05

    Stilbene-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera waste (cane, wood, and root) were characterized by UHPLC-MS. Eleven stilbenes were identified and quantified as follows: ampelopsin A, (E)-piceatannol, pallidol, (E)-resveratrol, hopeaphenol, isohopeaphenol, (E)-ε-viniferin, (E)-miyabenol C, (E)-ω-viniferin, r2-viniferin, and r-viniferin. The fungicide concentration inhibiting 50% of growth of Plasmopara viticola sporulation (IC50) was determined for the extracts and also for the main compounds isolated. r-Viniferin followed by hopeaphenol and r2-viniferin showed low IC50 and thus high efficacy against Plasmopara viticola. Regarding stilbene extracts, wood extract followed by root extract showed the highest antifungal activities. These data suggest that stilbene complex mixtures from Vitis vinifera waste could be used as a cheap source of bioactive stilbenes for the development of natural fungicides.

  9. The Sulfated Laminarin Triggers a Stress Transcriptome before Priming the SA- and ROS-Dependent Defenses during Grapevine's Induced Resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Adrien; Trouvelot, Sophie; Kelloniemi, Jani; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Daire, Xavier; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Flors, Victor; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam) and its sulfated derivative (PS3) have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i) the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii) grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i) PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii) PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA) and jasmonate-(JA)-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance. PMID:24516597

  10. Roles of plant elicitor peptides and their cognate PEPR receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Elicitor Peptides (AtPeps) and Plant Elicitor Peptide Receptors (AtPEPRs) constitute a ligand/receptor system regulating innate immune responses that contribute to disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Despite the seeming redundancy implied by interaction of the eight identif...

  11. Characterization of Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Markers for Plasmopara viticola, the Causal Agent of Grapevine Downy Mildew▿

    PubMed Central

    Delmotte, F.; Machefer, V.; Giresse, X.; Richard-Cervera, S.; Latorse, M. P.; Beffa, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report 34 new nuclear single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) markers that have been developed from an expressed sequence tag library of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew. This newly developed battery of markers will provide useful additional genetic tools for population genetic studies of this important agronomic species. PMID:21926208

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Plasmopara, Bremia and other genera of downy mildew pathogens with pyriform haustoria based on Bayesian analysis of partial LSU rDNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Riethmüller, Alexandra; Göker, Markus; Weiss, Michael; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2004-09-01

    Bayesian and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses of 92 collections of the genera Basidiophora, Bremia, Paraperonospora, Phytophthora and Plasmopara were performed using nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences containing the D1 and D2 regions. In the Bayesian tree, two main clades were apparent: one clade containing Plasmopara pygmaea s. lat., Pl. sphaerosperma, Basidiophora, Bremia and Paraperonospora, and a clade containing all other Plasmopara species. Plasmopara is shown to be polyphyletic, and Pl. sphaerosperma is transferred to a new genus, Protobremia, for which also the oospore characteristics are described. Within the core Plasmopara clade, all collections originating from the same host family except from Asteraceae and Geraniaceae formed monophyletic clades; however, higher-level phylogenetic relationships lack significant branch support. A sister group relationship of Pl. sphaerosperma with Bremia lactucae is highly supported. Within Bremia lactucae s. l., three distinct clades are evident, which only partly conform to the published host specificity groups. All species of the genera Basidiophora, Bremia, Paraperonospora and Plasmopara included in the present study were investigated for haustorial morphology, and all had ellipsoid to pyriform haustoria, which are regarded as a diagnostic synapomorphy of the whole clade. Aspects of coevolution and cospeciation within the downy mildew pathogens with ellipsoid to pyriform haustoria are briefly discussed.

  13. Fungal elicitors of the phytoalexin response in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Charles A.

    1981-09-01

    Several types of fungal molecules including cell wall polysaccharides, polypeptides, glycoproteins and lipid molecules have been found to serve as elicitors of phytoalexins in higher plants. Recent work has shown that an extracellular enzyme, endopolygalacturonase, from culture filtrates of the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer elicits the biosynthesis of an antifungal antibiotic, casbene, in extracts of treated castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) seedlings. A suggested mode of action of this elicitor in the plant in which fragments of the plant cell wall released through the catalytic action of the enzyme serve as secondary elicitors to trigger the plant response is proposed on the basis of preliminary observations. Possible modes of interaction of other types of fungal elicitors with plants are also discussed.

  14. The host guides morphogenesis and stomatal targeting in the grapevine pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Beate; Riemann, Michael; Büche, Claudia; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz; Nick, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The oomycete grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Ex de Bary) is a serious pathogen of grapevine and spreads by extremely efficient cycles of asexual propagation. The high efficiency must involve efficient sensing of the host. We therefore analyzed the time course and morphology of the early development of this pathogen in a host system, by infection of leaf discs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Müller-Thurgau), and in a host-free system. Host factors were demonstrated to influence pathogen development in the following ways: (i) the release of zoospores from mature sporangia was accelerated, (ii) the morphogenesis of the germ tube was coordinated, and (iii) the zoospores were targeted to the stomata by factors that depended on stomata closure. The findings show that the early development of P. viticola is regulated, specifically and coordinately, by factors originating from the host plant.

  15. Neural network for the estimation of leaf wetness duration: application to a Plasmopara viticola infection forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marta, A. Dalla; De Vincenzi, M.; Dietrich, S.; Orlandini, S.

    Leaf wetness duration (LWD) is one of the most important variables responsible for the outbreak of plant diseases but, in spite of its importance, the technology for measurement is not rather reliable. For this reason the modelling appears to be a valid support for LWD assessment. In this work a technique for LWD estimation that was applied in some agro-environmental studies from few years was used: artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN output then was used as input for an epidemiological model to predict Plasmopara viticola infections. The aim of this work was to carry out an ANN capable to find out the relationships between the agrometeorological input and LWD and to evaluate the impact of this estimated LWD when integrated in epidemiological simulations.

  16. Dose responses for Colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-mediated enzyme induction in French bean cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A; Dey, P M; Murphy, D L; Whitehead, I M

    1981-03-01

    The induction of L-phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and flavanone synthase in French bean cell suspension cultures in response to heat-released elicitor from cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is highly dependent upon elicitor concentration. The elicitor dose-response curve for PAL induction shows two maxima at around 17.5 and 50 μg elicitor carbohydrate per ml culture, whereas the flavanone synthase response shows one maximum at around 100 μg ml(-1). The PAL response is independent of the elicitor concentration present during the lag phase of enzyme induction; if the initial elicitor concentration is increased after 2 h by addition of extra elicitor, or decreased by dilution of the cultures, the dose response curves obtained reflect the concentration of elicitor present at the time of harvest. PAL induction is not prevented by addition of methyl sugar derivatives to the cultures; α-methyl-D-glucoside, itself a weak elicitor of PAL activity, elicits a multiphasic PAL response when increasing concentrations are added in the presence of Colletotrichum elicitor. Eight fractions with different monosaccharide compositions, obtained from the crude elicitor by gel-filtration, each elicit different dose-responses for PAL induction; the response to unfractionated elicitor is not the sum of the response to the isolated fractions. There is no correlation between the ability of the fractions to induce PAL in the cultures and their ability to act as elicitors of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation in bean hypocotyls.

  17. Analysis of xysA, a gene from Streptomyces halstedii JM8 that encodes a 45-kilodalton modular xylanase, Xys1.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Arribas, A; Sánchez, P; Calvete, J J; Raida, M; Fernández-Abalos, J M; Santamaría, R I

    1997-01-01

    The gene xysA from Streptomyces halstedii JM8 encodes a protein of 461 amino acids (Xys1) which is secreted into the culture supernatant as a protein of 45 kDa (Xys1L). Later, this form is proteolytically processed after residue D-362 to produce the protein Xys1S, which conserves the same xylanolytic activity. The cleavage removes a domain of 99 amino acids that shows similarity to bacterial cellulose binding domains and that allows the protein Xys1L to bind to crystalline cellulose (Avicel). Expression of this monocistronic gene is affected by the carbon source present in the culture medium, xylan being the best inducer. By using an anti-Xys1L serum, we have been able to detect xylanases similar in size to Xys1L and Xys1S in most of the different Streptomyces species analyzed, suggesting the ubiquity of these types of xylanases and their processing mechanism. PMID:9251186

  18. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA–SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen. PMID:27200038

  19. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-12-13

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use.

  1. The role of rain in dispersal of the primary inoculum of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Vittorio; Caffi, Tito

    2012-02-01

    Although primary infection of grapevines by Plasmopara viticola requires splash dispersal of inoculum from soil to leaves, little is known about the role of rain in primary inoculum dispersal. Distribution of rain splashes from soil to grapevine canopy was evaluated over 20 rain periods (0.2 to 64.2 mm of rain) with splash samplers placed within the canopy. Samplers at 40, 80, and 140 cm above the soil caught 4.4, 0.03, and 0.003 drops/cm(2) of sampler area, respectively. Drops caught at 40 and 80 cm (1.5 cm in diameter) were larger than drops at 140 cm (1.3 cm). Leaf coverage by splashed drops, total drop number, and drop size increased with an increase in the maximum intensity of rain (mm/h) during any rain period. Any rainfall led to infection in potted grapevines placed outside on leaf litter containing oospores, if the litter contained germinated oospores at the time of rain; infection severity was unrelated to rain amount or intensity. Results from vineyards also indicate that any rain can carry P. viticola inoculum from soil to leaves and should be considered a splash event in disease prediction systems. Sampling for early disease detection should focus on the lower canopy, where the probability of splash impact is greatest.

  2. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA-SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen.

  3. Revisiting Vitis vinifera Subtilase Gene Family: A Possible Role in Grapevine Resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Joana; Costa, Gonçalo J.; Maia, Marisa; Paulo, Octávio S.; Malhó, Rui; Sousa Silva, Marta; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defense mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing. All the subtilases identified present the characteristic S8 peptidase domain and the majority of them also have a pro-domain I9 inhibitor, a protease-associated (PA) domain, and a signal peptide for targeting to the secretory pathway. Phylogenetic studies revealed six subtilase groups denominated VvSBT1 to VvSBT6. As several evidences have highlighted the participation of plant subtilases in response to biotic stimulus, we have investigated subtilase participation in grapevine resistance to Plasmopara viticola, the causative agent of downy mildew. Fourteen grapevine subtilases presenting either high homology to P69C from tomato, SBT3.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana or located near the Resistance to P. viticola (RPV) locus were selected. Expression studies were conducted in the grapevine-P. viticola pathosystem with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Our results may indicate that some of grapevine subtilisins are potentially participating in the defense response against this biotrophic oomycete. PMID:27933087

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of Vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Vecchione, A; Zulini, L; Pertot, I

    2005-01-01

    In an abandoned farm in Tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, Plasmopara viticola. Anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive Vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. The anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a normal development of the disease. An ultrastructural study was carried out on leaf tissues of grapevine plants aimed at clarifying the cause of this phenomenon and detecting whether there were alterations in P. viticola mycelium and endophytes present. ELISA was also performed to check the presence of grapevine viruses in the plants. TEM results demonstrated that characteristic P. viticola was present in leaf samples showing oil spots, while, both the fungus and the host tissues showed cytological alterations in leaves with mosaic symptoms. Finally, hyphae were absent in leaf tissues without downy mildew spots, but showing severe ultrastructural modifications. Several plant virus infections were found in these grapevines. Literature reports that the development and sporulation of some phytopathogenic fungi inside their hosts can be limited by virus infections. Further experimental approaches are required to determine if resistance to P. viticola can be induced by viral infections in grapevines.

  5. Polymorphic SSR Markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the Newly Emergent Downy Mildew Pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; ...

    2015-11-10

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2-6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000-0.892 and 0.023-0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficientmore » to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease.« less

  6. Activation of Phospholipase A by Plant Defense Elicitors.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, S.; Heinstein, P. F.; Low, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Participation of phospholipase A (PLase A) in plant signal transduction has been documented for auxin stimulation of growth but not for elicitation of any plant defense response. In this paper, we report two independent assays for monitoring PLase A induction in plant cells and have used these assays to evaluate whether transduction of defense-related signals might require PLase A activation. Oligogalacturonic acid, a potent elicitor of the soybean (Glycine max) H2O2 burst, was unable to stimulate endogenous PLase A, suggesting that PLase A activation is not an obligate intermediate in the oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst pathway. In contrast, harpin and an extract from the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae both stimulated the oxidative burst and promoted a rapid increase in PLase A activity. To evaluate the possible role of this inducible PLase A activity in transducing the oxidative burst, we tested the effect of chlorpromazine-HCl, a PLase A inhibitor on elicitor-stimulated burst activity. Pretreatment with chloropromazine was found to inhibit the H2O2 burst triggered by V. dahliae extract at the same concentration at which it blocked PLase A activation. In contrast, neither the harpin- nor oligogalacturonic acid-induced burst was altered by addition of chlorpromazine. These data suggest that PLase A stimulation may be important in certain elicitor-induced oxidative bursts (e.g. V. dahliae) and that other elicitors such as oligogalacturonic acid and harpin must operate through independent signaling intermediates to activate the same defense response. PMID:12226235

  7. Host-specific salivary elicitor(s) of European corn borer induce defenses in tomato and maize.

    PubMed

    Louis, Joe; Peiffer, Michelle; Ray, Swayamjit; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-07-01

    Plants turn on induced defenses upon insect herbivory. In the current study, we evaluated the role of European corn borer (ECB) elicitors (molecules secreted by herbivores) that either induce/suppress defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Zea mays (maize), two very important crop plants that are grown for food and/or fuel throughout the world. We used a combination of molecular, biochemical, confocal and scanning electron microscopy, caterpillar spinneret ablation/cauterization, and conventional insect bioassay methods to determine the role of ECB elicitors in modulating defenses in both tomato and maize crop plants. Our results clearly demonstrate that the components present in the ECB saliva induce defense-related proteinase inhibitors in both tomato (PIN2) and maize (MPI). Presence of glucose oxidase in the ECB saliva induced defenses in tomato, but not in maize. However, ECB saliva induced genes present in the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway in both tomato and maize. Although ECB saliva can induce defenses in both tomato and maize, our results suggest that host-specific salivary components are responsible for inducing host plant defenses. Proteomic analysis of ECB salivary elicitors and plant receptors/signaling mechanisms involved in recognizing different ECB elicitors remains to be determined. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Phenotypic and histochemical traits of the interaction between Plasmopara viticola and resistant or susceptible grapevine varieties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease affecting mainly Vitis vinifera cultivated varieties around the world. Breeding for resistance through the crossing with less susceptible species is one of the possible means to reduce the disease incidence and the application of fungicides. The hybrid Bianca and some of its siblings are considered very promising but their resistance level can vary depending on the pathogen strain. Moreover, virulent strains characterized by high fitness can represent a potential threat to the hybrid cultivation. Results The host response and the pathogen virulence were quantitatively assessed by artificially inoculating cv Chardonnay, cv Bianca and their siblings with P. viticola isolates derived from single germinating oospores collected in various Italian viticultural areas. The host phenotypes were classified as susceptible, intermediate and resistant, according to the Area Under the Disease Progress Curve caused by the inoculated strain. Host responses in cv Bianca and its siblings significantly varied depending on the P. viticola isolates, which in turn differed in their virulence levels. The fitness of the most virulent strain did not significantly vary on the different hybrids including Bianca in comparison with the susceptible cv Chardonnay, suggesting that no costs are associated with virulence. Among the individual fitness components, only sporangia production was significantly reduced in cv Bianca and in some hybrids. Comparative histological analysis revealed differences between susceptible and resistant plants in the pathogen diffusion and cytology from 48 h after inoculation onwards. Defence mechanisms included callose depositions in the infected stomata, increase in peroxidase activity, synthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and the necrosis of stomata and cells immediately surrounding the point of invasion and determined alterations in the size of the infected areas

  9. Identification of Biomarkers for Defense Response to Plasmopara viticola in a Resistant Grape Variety.

    PubMed

    Chitarrini, Giulia; Soini, Evelyn; Riccadonna, Samantha; Franceschi, Pietro; Zulini, Luca; Masuero, Domenico; Vecchione, Antonella; Stefanini, Marco; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2017-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P. viticola. We investigated primary and secondary metabolism at 12, 24, 48, and 96 h post-inoculation (hpi). We used methods of identification and quantification for lipids (LC-MS/MS), phenols (LC-MS/MS), primary compounds (GC-MS), and semi-quantification for volatile compounds (GC-MS). We were able to identify and quantify or semi-quantify 176 metabolites, among which 53 were modulated in response to pathogen infection. The earliest changes occurred in primary metabolism at 24-48 hpi and involved lipid compounds, specifically unsaturated fatty acid and ceramide; amino acids, in particular proline; and some acids and sugars. At 48 hpi, we also found changes in volatile compounds and accumulation of benzaldehyde, a promoter of salicylic acid-mediated defense. Secondary metabolism was strongly induced only at later stages. The classes of compounds that increased at 96 hpi included phenylpropanoids, flavonols, stilbenes, and stilbenoids. Among stilbenoids we found an accumulation of ampelopsin H + vaticanol C, pallidol, ampelopsin D + quadrangularin A, Z-miyabenol C, and α-viniferin in inoculated samples. Some of these compounds are known as phytoalexins, while others are novel biomarkers for the defense response in Bianca. This work highlighted some important aspects of the host response to P. viticola in a commercial variety under controlled conditions, providing biomarkers for a better understanding of the mechanism of plant defense and a potential application

  10. The effectiveness of stilbenes in resistant Vitaceae: ultrastructural and biochemical events during Plasmopara viticola infection process.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Voinesco, Francine; Viret, Olivier; Spring, Jean-Laurent; Gindro, Katia

    2011-03-01

    Leaves of different Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, susceptible or resistant to downy mildew, Chasselas, Solaris, IRAC 2091 (cvs. Gamaret x Bronner) and Muscadinia rotundifolia were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola. Samples were then examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, by light microscopy and for their ability to synthesise stilbenes. These phytoalexins were strictly analysed at infection sites. In the susceptible Chasselas, P. viticola colonises, at 72h post-infection (hpi), all of the spongy mesophyll with functional haustoria and produces mainly the non toxic piceide. No necrotic zone was observed on Chasselas leaves. The ultrastructural response to downy mildew infection is different in each of the other three resistant grape cultivars. In Solaris, where leaf necrosis are rapidly induced, the infection is restricted to the upper part of the loose spongy mesophyll, and associated with a rapid cell wall disruption and the dispersion of cytoplasmic content along with the production of viniferins. In IRAC 2091, leaf necrosis are quite similar to those observed on Solaris but the infected plant cell, as well as the haustoria, show high electron dense cellular particles without any recognisable organelles, probably related to the effect of the toxic compound pterostilbene, which is synthesised in this grape cultivar. In M. rotundifolia leaf necrosis are much more scarce and smaller than in other cultivars, but pathogen and plant cells are both strongly affected, with concomitant expulsion of cytoplasmic materials through the stomata after P. viticola penetration. In this cultivar, the concentration of all identified stilbenes exceeds 1×10³ μmol mg(-1) FW. The critical role of stilbenes in the resistance of Vitis spp. is discussed.

  11. Pathogen development and host responses to Plasmopara viticola in resistant and susceptible grapevines: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao; Liu, Rui-Qi; Su, Hang; Su, Li; Guo, Yu-Rui; Wang, Zi-Jia; Du, Wei; Li, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V. piasesezkii and V. pseudoreticulata and the suceptible V. vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. Following inoculation with sporangia of P. viticola isolate 'YL' on V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir', the infection was characterized by a rapid spread of intercellular hyphae, a high frequency of haustorium formation within the host's mesophyll cells, the production of sporangia and by the absence of host-cell necrosis. In contrast zoospores were collapsed in the resistant V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1', or secretions appeared arround stomata at the beginning of the infection period in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8'. The main characteristics of the resistance responses were the rapid depositions of callose and the appearance of empty hyphae and the plasmolysis of penetrated tissue. Moreover, collapsed haustoria were observed in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' at 5 days post inoculation (dpi) and in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' at 7 dpi. Lastly, necrosis extended beyond the zone of restricted colonization in all three resistant genotypes. Sporangia were absent in V. piasezkii 'Liuba-8' and greatly decreased in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa 'Langao-5' and in V. pseudoreticulata 'Baihe-35-1' compared with in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. Overall, these results provide insights into the cellular biological basis of the incompatible interactions between the pathogen and the host. They indicate a number of several resistant Chinese wild

  12. Elicitor induction of mRNA activity. Rapid effects of elicitor on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase mRNA activities in bean cells.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M A; Dixon, R A; Hahlbrock, K; Lamb, C J

    1983-01-17

    Changes in the activity levels of mRNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits synthesised in vitro in an mRNA-dependent rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system. Elicitor heat-released from cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes marked rapid increases in the polysomal activities of the mRNAs encoding the two enzymes concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of phaseollin accumulation during the phytoalexin defence response. Increased polysomal mRNA activities encoding the two enzymes can be observed 30 min after elicitor treatment. The patterns of induction of the mRNA activities are broadly similar with respect to time and elicitor concentration although small but distinct differences between the enzymes were observed in the elicitor concentration giving maximum induction. There is a close correlation between the induction of polysomal mRNA activity and the induction of enzyme synthesis in vivo by elicitor treatment with respect to both the kinetics of induction and the dependence on elicitor concentration. The data indicate that elicitor stimulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase synthesis in vivo is largely a result of increased polysomal activity of the mRNAs encoding these enzymes. Similar patterns of induction of polysomal mRNA activity are observed with elicitor preparations from a variety of sources. The marked increases in polysomal mRNA activities encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase are increases as a proportion of total cellular mRNA activity, indicating that elicitor does not increase these polysomal mRNA activities by stimulation of selective recruitment from the total

  13. Growing bacteria shed elicitors of Drosophila humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jenny; Oldenvi, Sandra; Fahlander, Carina; Daenthanasanmak, Anusara; Steiner, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    It has been much debated how the Drosophila immune system can recognize bacterial peptidoglycan that is often hidden. We show that bacteria separated from Drosophila S2 cells by a semipermeable membrane can upregulate the Imd pathway. Supernatants from exponentially growing but not from stationary-phase bacterial cultures induce antimicrobial peptides. It is also made likely that the shed elicitors are of peptidoglycan nature. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Proteomics analysis of Bacillus licheniformis in response to oligosaccharides elicitors.

    PubMed

    Reffatti, Patricia Fernanda; Roy, Ipsita; Odell, Mark; Keshavarz, Tajalli

    2014-01-01

    The role of oligosaccharides as biotic elicitors has been recognised in the enhanced production of antibiotics from fungal and bacterial cultures. The yield of bacitracin A in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis was increased after supplementation with oligoguluronate (OG), and mannan oligosaccharides (MO) and its mechanism at transcription level been established already. However, the elicitation mechanism at post transcriptional level has not been reported so far. In this paper we investigate changes in proteomics of B. licheniformis in presence of the oligosaccharide elicitors OG and MO. Differentially expressed proteins were examined using 2D-PAGE stained with colloidal Coomassie and were further identified by LC-MS/MS. We identified 19 differentially expressed proteins including those involved in carbon metabolism, energy generation, amino acid biosynthesis, oxidative and general stress response. The novel findings of this work, together with previous reports, contribute to the unravelling of the overall mechanism of elicitation in B. licheniformis cultures and reliability of the use of these elicitors for potential industrial application.

  15. Two genes encoding an endoglucanase and a cellulose-binding protein are clustered and co-regulated by a TTA codon in Streptomyces halstedii JM8.

    PubMed Central

    Garda, A L; Fernández-Abalos, J M; Sánchez, P; Ruiz-Arribas, A; Santamaría, R I

    1997-01-01

    Streptomyces halstedii JM8 Cel2 is an endoglucanase of 28 kDa that is first produced as a protein of 42 kDa (p42) and is later processed at its C-terminus. Cel2 displays optimal activity towards CM-cellulose at pH6 and 50 degrees C and shows no activity against crystalline cellulose or xylan. The N-terminus of p42 shares similarity with cellulases included in family 12 of the beta-glycanases and the C-terminus shares similarity with bacterial cellulose-binding domains included in family II. This latter domain enables the precursor to bind so tightly to Avicel that it can only be eluted by boiling in 10% (w/v) SDS. Another open reading frame (ORF) situated 216 bp downstream from the p42 ORF encodes a protein of 40 kDa (p40) that does not have any clear hydrolytic activity against cellulosic or xylanosic compounds, but shows high affinity for Avicel (crystalline cellulose). The p40 protein is processed in old cultures to give a protein of 35 kDa that does not bind to Avicel. Translation of both ORFs is impaired in Streptomyces coelicolor bldA mutants, suggesting that a TTA codon situated at the fourth position of the first ORF is responsible for this regulation. S1 nuclease protection experiments demonstrate that both ORFs are co-transcribed. PMID:9182697

  16. Pathogen development and host responses to Plasmopara viticola in resistant and susceptible grapevines: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao; Liu, Rui-Qi; Su, Hang; Su, Li; Guo, Yu-Rui; Wang, Zi-Jia; Du, Wei; Li, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Liu, Guo-Tian; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The downy mildew disease in grapevines is caused by Plasmopara viticola. This disease poses a serious threat wherever viticulture is practiced. Wild Vitis species showing resistance to P. viticola offer a promising pathway to develop new grapevine cultivars resistant to P. viticola which will allow reduced use of environmentally unfriendly fungicides. Here, transmission and scanning microscopy was used to compare the resistance responses to downy mildew of three resistant genotypes of V. davidii var. cyanocarpa, V. piasesezkii and V. pseudoreticulata and the suceptible V. vinifera cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’. Following inoculation with sporangia of P. viticola isolate ‘YL’ on V. vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’, the infection was characterized by a rapid spread of intercellular hyphae, a high frequency of haustorium formation within the host’s mesophyll cells, the production of sporangia and by the absence of host-cell necrosis. In contrast zoospores were collapsed in the resistant V. pseudoreticulata ‘Baihe-35-1’, or secretions appeared arround stomata at the beginning of the infection period in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa ‘Langao-5’ and V. piasezkii ‘Liuba-8’. The main characteristics of the resistance responses were the rapid depositions of callose and the appearance of empty hyphae and the plasmolysis of penetrated tissue. Moreover, collapsed haustoria were observed in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa ‘Langao-5’ at 5 days post inoculation (dpi) and in V. piasezkii ‘Liuba-8’ at 7 dpi. Lastly, necrosis extended beyond the zone of restricted colonization in all three resistant genotypes. Sporangia were absent in V. piasezkii ‘Liuba-8’ and greatly decreased in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa ‘Langao-5’ and in V. pseudoreticulata ‘Baihe-35-1’ compared with in V. vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’. Overall, these results provide insights into the cellular biological basis of the incompatible interactions between the pathogen and the host. They

  17. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed.

  18. Responses of soybean genotypes to pathogen infection after the application of elicitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean diseases and pests can affect soybean production. One emerging pest management method is to treat plants with chemical elicitors at nontoxic levels to induce host resistance. The objective of this research was to determine if elicitors, benzothiadiazole (BTH), chitosan (CHT), phenylalanine (...

  19. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.E.; Ebel, J.

    1987-06-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a ..beta..-1,3-(/sup 3/H) glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent K/sub d/ value for ..beta..-glucan elicitor binding is approx. = 0.2 x 10/sup -6/ M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies the (/sup 3/H)glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched ..beta..-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay.

  20. Induction of systemic resistance in different varieties of Solanum tuberosum by pure and crude elicitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Bariya, Himanshu S; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakkar, Amit N; Subramanian, R B

    2011-02-01

    A 10 kD elicitor protein (infestin) produced by Phytopthora infestans was purified and its efficacy for induction of systemic resistance in resistant and susceptible varieties of Solanum tuberosum was studied. Culture filtrates from P. infestans with and without purified elicitor (infestin) were used as elicitors to understand the effect of purified elicitor (infestin) on development of systemic resistance. Culture filtrate and purified elicitor (infestin) were found to induce hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of resistant varieties, but not on susceptible varieties after 48 h. Culture filtrate devoid of purified elicitor (infestin) did not induce any necrotic spots even on resistant variety. Purified elicitor (infestin) was found to induce glucose oxidase, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and peroxidase enzymes in resistant S. tuberosum plants, however the induction of these enzymes was low in susceptible varieties. The oxidative enzymes were found to induce earlier than antioxidative enzymes and there was negative correlation between these two groups of enzymes. Levels of salicylic acid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1, 3 glucanase and chitinase activities were also found higher in resistant than in susceptible varieties. It was observed that purified elicitor (infestin) was superior to crude culture filtrate, but was not capable of inducing systemic resistance in susceptible varieties.

  1. Control of foliar pathogens of spring barley using a combination of resistance elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dale R.; Havis, Neil D.; Paterson, Linda; Taylor, Jeanette; Walsh, David J.; Sablou, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the resistance elicitors acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), cis-jasmone (CJ), and a combination of the three products, to control infection of spring barley by Rhynchosporium commune was examined under glasshouse conditions. Significant control of R. commune was provided by ASM and CJ, but the largest reduction in infection was obtained with the combination of the three elicitors. This elicitor combination was found to up-regulate the expression of PR-1b, which is used as a molecular marker for systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, the elicitor combination also down-regulated the expression of LOX2, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA). In field experiments over 3 consecutive years, the effects of the elicitor combination were influenced greatly by crop variety and by year. For example, the elicitor combination applied on its own provided significant control of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and R. commune in 2009, whereas no control on either variety was observed in 2007. In contrast, treatments involving both the elicitor combination and fungicides provided disease control and yield increases which were equal to, and in some cases better than that provided by the best fungicide-only treatment. The prospects for the use of elicitor plus fungicide treatments to control foliar pathogens of spring barley in practice are discussed. PMID:24904629

  2. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme

    PubMed Central

    Sbaihat, Layth; Takeyama, Keiko; Koga, Takeharu; Takemoto, Daigo; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants' resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and O2 − production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. PMID:25802893

  3. Separation and identification of highly fluorescent compounds derived from trans-resveratrol in the leaves of Vitis vinifera infected by Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Olejníčková, Julie; Jílek, Rudolf; Sotolář, Radek

    2012-03-06

    A method for identification of highly fluorescent compounds in vine leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola was developed using reversed phase liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorometric detection. Fluorescent compounds were extracted from leaves with a methanol-water mixture (70:30). Separation by HPLC was performed using a C(18) column and gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mixtures (20-80% of acetonitrile). The main unknown fluorescent compound was identified by line spectral comparison with a standard obtained by UV photoisomerization of trans-resveratrol glucoside, and its structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identification and structural elucidation of the fluorescent compound in the leaves of Vitis vinifera allows early detection of Plasmopara viticola invasion.

  4. The rhizobacterial elicitor acetoin induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Kunjeti, Sridhara G; Donofrio, Nicole M; Czymmek, Kirk J; Paré, Paul W; Bais, Harsh P

    2010-03-01

    The majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer plant immunity against a wide range of foliar diseases by activating plant defences that reduce a plant's susceptibility to pathogen attack. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) plants exposed to Bacillus subtilis strain FB17 (hereafter FB17), results in reduced disease severity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hereafter DC3000) compared to plants without FB17 treatment. Exogenous application of the B. subtilis derived elicitor, acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), was found to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) and protect plants against DC3000 pathogenesis. Moreover, B. subtilis acetoin biosynthetic mutants that emitted reduced levels of acetoin conferred reduced protection to A. thaliana against pathogen infection. Further analysis using FB17 and defense-compromised mutants of A. thaliana indicated that resistance to DC3000 occurs via NPR1 and requires salicylic acid (SA)/ethylene (ET) whereas jasmonic acid (JA) is not essential. This study provides new insight into the role of rhizo-bacterial volatile components as elicitors of defense responses in plants.

  5. The Elicitor Cryptogein Blocks Glucose Transport in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Stéphane; Lemoine, Rémi; Sequeira-Legrand, Anabelle; Fayolle, Léon; Delrot, Serge; Pugin, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Cryptogein is a 10-kD protein secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea that induces a hypersensitive response on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi) plants and a systemic acquired resistance against various pathogens. The mode of action of this elicitor has been studied using tobacco cell suspensions. Our previous data indicated that within minutes, cryptogein signaling involves various events including changes in ion fluxes, protein phosphorylation, sugar metabolism, and, eventually, cell death. These results suggested that transport of sugars could be affected and, thus, involved in the complex relationships between plant and microorganisms via elicitors. This led us to investigate the effects of cryptogein on glucose (Glc) uptake and mitochondrial activity in tobacco cells. Cryptogein induces an immediate inhibition of Glc uptake, which is not attributable to plasma membrane (PM) depolarization. Conversely, cryptogein-induced valine uptake is because of PM depolarization. Inhibition of the PM Glc transporter(s) was shown to be mediated by a calcium-dependent phosphorylation process, and is independent of active oxygen species production. This inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in O2 uptake rate by cells and a large mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Thus, inhibition of Glc uptake accompanied by inhibition of phosphorylative oxidation may participate in hypersensitive cell death. These results are discussed in the context of competition between plants and microorganisms for apoplastic sugars. PMID:12481101

  6. The rhizobacterial elicitor acetoin induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Kunjeti, Sridhara G; Donofrio, Nicole M; Czymmek, Kirk J; Paré, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    The majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer plant immunity against a wide range of foliar diseases by activating plant defences that reduce a plant’s susceptibility to pathogen attack. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) plants exposed to Bacillus subtilis strain FB17 (hereafter FB17), results in reduced disease severity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (hereafter DC3000) compared to plants without FB17 treatment. Exogenous application of the B. subtilis derived elicitor, acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), was found to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) and protect plants against DC3000 pathogenesis. Moreover, B. subtilis acetoin biosynthetic mutants that emitted reduced levels of acetoin conferred reduced protection to A. thaliana against pathogen infection. Further analysis using FB17 and defense-compromised mutants of A. thaliana indicated that resistance to DC3000 occurs via NPR1 and requires salicylic acid (SA)/ethylene (ET) whereas jasmonic acid (JA) is not essential. This study provides new insight into the role of rhizo-bacterial volatile components as elicitors of defense responses in plants. PMID:20585504

  7. Ethyl gallate displays elicitor activities in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Richard, Claire

    2017-09-29

    Alkyl gallates showed elicitor activities on tobacco in both whole plants and cell suspensions. Methyl gallate (MG), ethyl gallate (EG) and propyl gallate (PG) infiltration into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions and topical production of autofluorescent compounds revealed under UV light. When sprayed on tobacco plants at 5 mM, EG promoted upregulation of defence-related genes such as the antimicrobial PR1, -1,3-glucanase PR2, chitinase PR3 and osmotin PR5 target genes. Tobacco BY-2 cells challenged with EG underwent cell death in 48 h, significantly reduced in the presence of the protease inhibitor aprotinin. The three alkyl gallates all caused alkalinisation of the BY-2 extracellular medium, whereas gallic acid did not trigger any pH variation. Using EGTA or LaCl3, we showed that Ca2+ mobilisation occurred in BY-2 cells elicited with EG. Overall, our findings are the first evidence of alkyl gallate elicitor properties with early perception events on plasma membrane, potential hypersensitive reactions and PR-related downstream defence responses in tobacco.

  8. Identification of innate immunity elicitors using molecular signatures of natural selection.

    PubMed

    McCann, Honour C; Nahal, Hardeep; Thakur, Shalabh; Guttman, David S

    2012-03-13

    The innate immune system is an ancient and broad-spectrum defense system found in all eukaryotes. The detection of microbial elicitors results in the up-regulation of defense-related genes and the elicitation of inflammatory and apoptotic responses. These innate immune responses are the front-line barrier against disease because they collectively suppress the growth of the vast majority of invading microbes. Despite their critical role, we know remarkably little about the diversity of immune elicitors. To address this paucity, we reasoned that hosts are more likely to evolve recognition to "core" pathogen proteins under strong negative selection for the maintenance of essential cellular functions, whereas repeated exposure to host-defense responses will impose strong positive selective pressure for elicitor diversification to avoid host recognition. Therefore, we hypothesized that novel bacterial elicitors can be identified through these opposing forces of natural selection. We tested this hypothesis by examining the genomes of six bacterial phytopathogens and identifying 56 candidate elicitors that have an excess of positively selected residues in a background of strong negative selection. We show that these positively selected residues are atypically clustered, similar to patterns seen in the few well-characterized elicitors. We then validated selected candidate elicitors by showing that they induce Arabidopsis thaliana innate immunity in functional (virulence suppression) and cellular (callose deposition) assays. These finding provide targets for the study of host-pathogen interactions and applied research into alternative antimicrobial treatments.

  9. Effect of elicitor spray at different reproductive stages on saponin content of soybean.

    PubMed

    Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Salyer, Joseph; Chen, Pengyin; Lee, Sun-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The beneficial health effects of soybeans may be enhanced by increasing bioactive compounds including soyasaponins (ssp). The objective of this study is to elucidate the effect of elicitors sprayed on Ozark variety soybeans, on ssp content. Different concentrations of elicitors, ethyl acetate (EA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), were sprayed at 4 different growth stages (1-bloom, 2-pod development, 3-seed development, and 4-seed maturity). Seeds were ground, defatted, ssp was extracted and identified and quantified with HPLC. Elicitor and growth stage had an effect on βg and βa contents of soybeans compared with control (P < 0.05). Elicitor had an effect on total ssp content (P < 0.001) and αg and γg content of soybeans compared with control (P < 0.05). Total ssp content of EA 0.05 M, MJ 0.001 M, and 0.005 M sprayed soybeans were higher than EA 0.001 M, which is higher than control (P < 0.05; 3.62, 3.56, 3.56, 3.29, and 2.98 μmol/g soybean, respectively). The overall effect of elicitor on total ssp content was not dependent on growth stage, however, elicitors sprayed at growth stages 1, 2, and 3 showed differences among elicitor applied soybeans. Elicitors applied at growth stage 4 did not have any effect on total ssp content compared to control. Elicitors EA 0.05 M, MJ 0.001, and 0.005 M can be applied on any growth stage to increase total saponin content of soybean variety Ozark. Higher saponin content may improve the beneficial health effects of soybean consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Thigmomorphogenesis: the relationship of mechanical perturbation to elicitor-like activity and ethylene production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    An extracellular solution obtained from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Resistant Cherokee Wax) stems induced phytoalexin-like substance and ethylene production in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Wayne] cotyledon bioassay. The elicitor-like activity for phytoalexin formation and ethylene production was increased by mechanical perturbation of bean stems. Moreover, the application of extracted or known elicitors to bean plants mimicked the effect of mechanical perturbation (i.e., inhibition of stem elongation and enhancement of radial growth). The effects of extract when applied exogenously, on elicitor-like activity in the bioassay as well as stem thickening were decreased by aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. These results suggest that elicitor-like substances which are formed in response to mechanical perturbation contribute to the thigmomorphogenesis.

  11. Thigmomorphogenesis: the relationship of mechanical perturbation to elicitor-like activity and ethylene production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    An extracellular solution obtained from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Resistant Cherokee Wax) stems induced phytoalexin-like substance and ethylene production in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Wayne] cotyledon bioassay. The elicitor-like activity for phytoalexin formation and ethylene production was increased by mechanical perturbation of bean stems. Moreover, the application of extracted or known elicitors to bean plants mimicked the effect of mechanical perturbation (i.e., inhibition of stem elongation and enhancement of radial growth). The effects of extract when applied exogenously, on elicitor-like activity in the bioassay as well as stem thickening were decreased by aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. These results suggest that elicitor-like substances which are formed in response to mechanical perturbation contribute to the thigmomorphogenesis.

  12. Phytohormone-based activity mapping of insect herbivore-produced elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Eric A.; Engelberth, Jurgen; Alborn, Hans T.; Tumlinson, James H.; Teal, Peter E. A.

    2009-01-01

    In response to insect attack, many plants exhibit dynamic biochemical changes, resulting in the induced production of direct and indirect defenses. Elicitors present in herbivore oral secretions are believed to positively regulate many inducible plant defenses; however, little is known about the specificity of elicitor recognition in plants. To investigate the phylogenic distribution of elicitor activity, we tested representatives from three different elicitor classes on the time course of defense-related phytohormone production, including ethylene (E), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid, in a range of plant species spanning angiosperm diversity. All families examined responded to at least one elicitor class with significant increases in E and JA production within 1 to 2 h after treatment, yet elicitation activity among species was highly idiosyncratic. The fatty-acid amino acid conjugate volicitin exhibited the widest range of phytohormone and volatile inducing activity, which spanned maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). In contrast, the activity of inceptin-related peptides, originally described in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), was limited even within the Fabaceae. Similarly, caeliferin A16:0, a disulfooxy fatty acid from grasshoppers, was the only elicitor with demonstrable activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although precise mechanisms remain unknown, the unpredictable nature of elicitor activity between plant species supports the existence of specific receptor-ligand interactions mediating recognition. Despite the lack of an ideal plant model for studying the action of numerous elicitors, E and JA exist as highly conserved and readily quantifiable markers for future discoveries in this field. PMID:19124770

  13. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding an elicitor of Phytophthora colocasiae.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2010-02-28

    The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack. These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. A cDNA encoding elicitor, the major secreted extracellular glycoprotein of Phytophthora colocasiae, a pathogen of taro (Colocasia esculenta) plants, was isolated, sequenced and characterized. The expression of the corresponding elicitor gene during the disease cycle of P. colocasiae was analyzed. Elicitor was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores and zoospores. In planta, during infection of taro, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of elicitor was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of elicitor were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The elicitation of the suspension-cultured taro cells was effective in the induction of the enzyme activity of l-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase, peroxidase and lipoxygenase as well as the expression of defense-related endochitinase gene. All these biological activities were exerted within a low concentration range. The glycoprotein represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance. It may also be useful to engineer broad disease protection in taro plant against Phytophthora leaf blight.

  14. Structure-activity relationships of oligo-beta-glucoside elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, J J; Birberg, W; Fügedi, P; Pilotti, A; Garegg, P J; Hong, N; Ogawa, T; Hahn, M G

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of a family of chemically synthesized oligo-beta-glucosides, ranging in size from hexamer to decamer, to induce phytoalexin accumulation in soybean cotyledons were investigated to determine which structural elements of the oligoglucosides are important for their biological activity. The results of the biological assays established that the following structural motif is necessary for the oligo-beta-glucosides to have high elicitor activity: [formula; see text] The branched trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the oligoglucosides was found to be essential for maximum elicitor activity. Substitution of either the nonreducing terminal backbone glucosyl residue or the side-chain glucosyl residue closest to the nonreducing end with glucosaminyl or N-acetylglucosaminyl residues reduced the elicitor activity of the oligoglucosides between 10-fold and 10,000-fold. Elicitor activity was also reduced 1000-fold if the two side-chain glucosyl residues were attached to adjacent backbone glucosyl residues rather than to glucosyl residues separated by an unbranched residue. In contrast, modifications of the reducing terminal glucosyl residue of an elicitor-active hepta-beta-glucoside by conjugation with tyramine and subsequent iodination had no significant effect on the elicitor activity of the hepta-beta-glucoside. These results demonstrate that oligo-beta-glucosides must have a specific structure to trigger the signal transduction pathway, which ultimately leads to the de novo synthesis of phytoalexins in soybean. PMID:1840904

  15. The Course of Colonization of Two Different Vitis Genotypes by Plasmopara viticola Indicates Compatible and Incompatible Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    PubMed

    Unger, Sabine; Büche, Claudia; Boso, Susana; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT The course of colonization of leaf mesophyll by the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, in a susceptible and a resistant grapevine genotype was examined in order to characterize the development of the pathogen in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen interactions. Within a few hours after inoculation, the pathogen was established in the susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Müller-Thurgau and formed primary hyphae with a first haustorium. No further development occurred in the following 10 to 18 h. The next step, in which the hyphae grew and branched to colonize the intercellular space of the host tissue, was observed 1.5 days after inoculation. After 3 days, the intercostal fields were entirely filled with mycelium and sporulation was abundant under favorable environmental conditions. The first infection steps were essentially the same in the resistant V. rupestris. However, the invasive growth of P. viticola was delayed, and further development ceased before the intercostal fields were filled with mycelium.

  16. Thiamine induced resistance to Plasmopara viticola in grapevine and elicited host-defense responses, including HR like-cell death.

    PubMed

    Boubakri, Hatem; Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Chong, Julie; Bertsch, Christophe; Mliki, Ahmed; Soustre-Gacougnolle, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Recently, thiamine (VitaminB1) has been shown to induce resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis plants through priming of defense responses. In this paper, we have demonstrated the efficiency of thiamine to induce resistance against downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola in a susceptible Vitis vinifera cultivar "Chardonnay" under glasshouse controlled conditions by providing a dual mode of action involving direct antifungal activity and elicitation of host-defense responses. Thiamine-induced defense responses included the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in both grapevine suspension cultured cells (SCC) and plant leaves, upregulation of an array of defense-related genes and the induction of other defense responses at subcellular level such as callose deposition in stomata cells, phenolic compounds accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR) like-cell death. Epifluorescence microscopy studies revealed dramatic changes in P. viticola individual developmental stages during its colonization of the intercellular space of the leaf mesophyll in thiamine-treated plants. Collectively, our report evidenced the efficiency of thiamine in the control of downy mildew in grapevine by direct and indirect effects, suggesting that thiamine could be an attractive alternative to chemical fungicides in disease management in vineyards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2−6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000−0.892 and 0.023−0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficient to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease. PMID:26649270

  18. Identification of Plasmopara viticola genes potentially involved in pathogenesis on grapevine suggests new similarities between oomycetes and true fungi.

    PubMed

    Luis, P; Gauthier, A; Trouvelot, S; Poinssot, B; Frettinger, P

    2013-10-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, these organisms share many common features during infection. We identified genes in the oomycete Plasmopara viticola that are potentially involved in pathogenesis in grapevine by using fungal databases and degenerate primers. Fragments of P. viticola genes encoding NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PvNuo), laccase (PvLac), and invertase (PvInv) were obtained. PvNuo was overexpressed at 2 days postinoculation (dpi), during the development of the first hyphal structures and haustoria. PvLac was overexpressed at 5 dpi when genes related to pterostilbene biosynthesis were induced in grapevine. Transcript level for PvInv increased between 1 and 4 dpi before reaching a plateau. These results might suggest a finely tuned strategy of infection depending on nutrition and plant response. Phylogenetic analyses of PvNuo showed that P. viticola clustered with other oomycetes and was associated with brown algae and diatoms, forming a typical Straminipila clade. Based on the comparison of available sequences for laccases and invertases, the group formed by P. viticola and other oomycetes tended to be more closely related to Opisthokonta than to Straminipila. Convergent evolution or horizontal gene transfer could explain the presence of fungus-like genes in P. viticola.

  19. Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Horii, A; McCue, P; Shetty, K

    2007-02-01

    Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming.

  20. Fungal Elicitor-Mediated Responses in Pine Cell Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malcolm M.; Ellis, Brian E.

    1992-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) is involved in the lignification of pine suspension cultures in response to an elicitor prepared from an ectomycorrhizal fungus. To elucidate the molecular basis of this response, PAL was purified to homogeneity from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) suspension cultures using anion-exchange and chromatofocussing fast protein liquid chromatography. Physical characterization of the enzyme revealed that pine PAL was similar to PAL from other plant sources. Pine PAL had a pH optimum of 8.8, an isoelectric point of 5.75, and a native molecular mass of 340 kilodaltons. The enzyme appears to be a tetramer composed of 77 kilodalton subunits. Chromatographic and western blot analyses were used to identify possible isoenzymic changes in pine PAL in response to elicitation and to determine the nature of the increase in PAL activity associated with inducible lignification in these cultures. Only one species of PAL was detected in P. banksiana cell cultures and increased quantities of this protein were correlated with the enhanced enzyme activity observed in elicited cultures. P. banksiana PAL was not feedback-inhibited by a wide range of phenolic compounds at micromolar concentrations, including the reaction product cinnamic acid. Our data suggest that a different set of metabolic and molecular controls must be in place for the regulation of PAL in pine. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:16668649

  1. In vivo localization at the cellular level of stilbene fluorescence induced by Plasmopara viticola in grapevine leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bellow, Sébastien; Latouche, Gwendal; Brown, Spencer C.; Poutaraud, Anne; Cerovic, Zoran G.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate localization of phytoalexins is a key for better understanding their role. This work aims to localize stilbenes, the main phytoalexins of grapevine. The cellular localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by Plasmopara viticola, the agent of downy mildew, was determined in grapevine leaves of very susceptible, susceptible, and partially resistant genotypes during infection. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and microspectrofluorimetry were used to acquire UV-excited autofluorescence three-dimensional images and spectra of grapevine leaves 5–6 days after inoculation. This noninvasive technique of investigation in vivo was completed with in vitro spectrofluorimetric studies on pure stilbenes as their fluorescence is largely affected by the physicochemical environment in various leaf compartments. Viscosity was the major physicochemical factor influencing stilbene fluorescence intensity, modifying fluorescence yield by more than two orders of magnitude. Striking differences in the localization of stilbene fluorescence induced by P. viticola were observed between the different genotypes. All inoculated genotypes displayed stilbene fluorescence in cell walls of guard cells and periclinal cell walls of epidermal cells. Higher fluorescence intensity was observed in guard-cell walls than in any other compartment due to increased local viscosity. In addition stilbene fluorescence was found in epidermal cell vacuoles of the susceptible genotype and in the infected spongy parenchyma of the partially resistant genotype. The very susceptible genotype was devoid of fluorescence both in the epidermal vacuoles and the mesophyll. This strongly suggests that the resistance of grapevine leaves to P. viticola is correlated with the pattern of localization of induced stilbenes in host tissues. PMID:22412183

  2. Effect of dose rate and mixtures of fungicides on selection for QoI resistance in populations of Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Genet, Jean-Luc; Jaworska, Grazyna; Deparis, Francine

    2006-02-01

    Resistance to QoI fungicides (strobilurins, famoxadone and fenamidone) in populations of Plasmopara viticola (Berk & Curt) Berlese & de Toni developed soon after their introduction in France and Italy. Current resistance management strategies include limitation of the number of applications, use of mixtures and alternation of fungicides with different modes of action. The selection pressure resulting from QoI fungicides applied alone or in mixtures with non-QoI fungicides was investigated in whole plant experiments under controlled conditions. QoI-resistant populations of P. viticola gradually reverted to full sensitivity following consecutive transfers to untreated plants, suggesting that resistant phenotypes were less competitive than sensitive ones. When cycled on QoI-treated plants, reduction in sensitivity was greater for the QoI fungicide which had greater intrinsic activity on P. viticola. Sensitivity decreased at each subsequent cycle, resulting in almost full resistance after four generations. Mixture experiments indicated that selection pressure was affected most by the dose of the QoI fungicide and the nature of the partner fungicide. Folpet delayed selection pressure most effectively when it was associated with famoxadone or azoxystrobin. Mancozeb was least effective at reducing the rate of selection compared with the QoI alone, and fosetyl-aluminium was intermediate. Higher rates of selection were recorded when the dose of the QoI fungicide, solo or in a mixture, was increased from 1 to 4 microg ml(-1). Increasing the dose of the non-QoI partner fungicide in the mixture from 10 to 30 microg ml(-1) resulted in reduced selection pressure. These results suggest that the choice of the fungicide partner and its dosage in the mixture can significantly affect the success of QoI resistance management strategies under practical conditions.

  3. cDNA-AFLP analysis of plant and pathogen genes expressed in grapevine infected with Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Polesani, Marianna; Desario, Filomena; Ferrarini, Alberto; Zamboni, Anita; Pezzotti, Mario; Kortekamp, Andreas; Polverari, Annalisa

    2008-01-01

    Background The oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni causes downy mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). This pathogen is strictly biotrophic, thus completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. We have carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify grapevine and P. viticola genes associated with the infection process. Results We carried out cDNA-AFLP analysis on artificially infected leaves of the susceptible cultivar Riesling at the oil spot stage, on water-treated leaves and on a sample of pure sporangia as controls. Selective amplifications with 128 primer combinations allowed the visualization of about 7000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected leaves, 1196 of which (17%) were differentially expressed. We sequenced 984 fragments, 804 of which were identified as grapevine transcripts after homology searching, while 96 were homologous to sequences in Phytophthora spp. databases and were attributed to P. viticola. There were 82 orphan TDFs. Many grapevine genes spanning almost all functional categories were downregulated during infection, especially genes involved in photosynthesis. Grapevine genes homologous to known resistance genes also tended to be repressed, as were several resistance gene analogs and carbonic anhydrase (recently implicated in pathogen resistance). In contrast, genes encoding cytoskeletal components, enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and beta-oxidation pathways, and pathogenesis related proteins were primarily upregulated during infection. The majority of P. viticola transcripts expressed in planta showed homology to genes of unknown function or to genomic Phytophthora sequences, but genes related to metabolism, energy production, transport and signal transduction were also identified. Conclusion This study provides the first global catalogue of grapevine and P. viticola genes expressed

  4. Biotic elicitor enhanced production of psoralen in suspension cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Abrar; Baig, Mirza Mushtaq Vaseem

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. were established from the leaf disk derived callus. The effect of different biotic elicitors prepared from the fungal extract (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum), yeast extract and chitosan with different concentrations was studied. The increased synthesis of psoralen in 16-day old cell cultures under 16 h of light and 8 h of dark period was studied. Elicitation of psoralen in A. niger elicitor treated cells was found 9-fold higher over control cells. Treating the cells with P. notatum, yeast extract and chitosan elicitors lead to four to seven-fold higher psoralen accumulation over control cells. The extract of A. niger at 1.0% v/v increased the significant accumulation of psoralen (9850 μg/g DCW) in the cultured cells. Our study clearly shows that all the elicitors had the potential to increase the accumulation of psoralen but the A. niger elicitor at 1.0% v/v induced maximum accumulation. PMID:25313287

  5. Elicitor-mediated induction of chalcone isomerase in Phaseolus vulgaris cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A; Gerrish, C; Lamb, C J; Robbins, M P

    1983-12-01

    Approximately fourfold increases in the extractable activity of the enzyme chalcone isomerase (CHI, EC 5.5.1.6) were observed within 24 h of treatment of cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris with a crude elicitor preparation heatreleased from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The induction of CHI activity was highly dependent upon elicitor concentration, with maximum induction occurring in two discrete concentration ranges. A basal half-life for CHI>32 h in control cultures was determined by labelling with (2)H from (2)H2O followed by analysis of the equilibrium distribution of enzyme activity in CsCl density gradients. Comparative density labelling indicated that at both the lower and higher effective elicitor concentrations, the induced appearance of CHI activity was the result of an apparent initial activation of pre-existing enzyme followed by an increase in the rate of de-novo synthesis of the enzyme as compared with non-elicited controls. The increased appearance of the enzyme over the first 8 h in elicitor-treated cultures was inhibited by cycloheximide, cordycepin and actinomycin D. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of co-ordinate enzyme induction operating in French-bean cell cultures exposed to fungal elicitors.

  6. Plasma membrane order and fluidity are diversely triggered by elicitors of plant defence.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Roman; Der, Christophe; Grosjean, Kevin; Anca, Iulia; Noirot, Elodie; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lochman, Jan; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Although plants are exposed to a great number of pathogens, they usually defend themselves by triggering mechanisms able to limit disease development. Alongside signalling events common to most such incompatible interactions, modifications of plasma membrane (PM) physical properties could be new players in the cell transduction cascade. Different pairs of elicitors (cryptogein, oligogalacturonides, and flagellin) and plant cells (tobacco and Arabidopsis) were used to address the issue of possible modifications of plant PM biophysical properties induced by elicitors and their links to other events of the defence signalling cascade. We observed an increase of PM order whatever the elicitor/plant cell pair used, provided that a signalling cascade was induced. Such membrane modification is dependent on the NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, cryptogein, which is the sole elicitor able to trap sterols, is also the only one able to trigger an increase in PM fluidity. The use of cryptogein variants with altered sterol-binding properties confirms the strong correlation between sterol removal from the PM and PM fluidity enhancement. These results propose PM dynamics as a player in early signalling processes triggered by elicitors of plant defence.

  7. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity.

  8. The regulatory mechanism of fungal elicitor-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis in medical plants.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xin; Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2017-03-01

    A wide range of external stress stimuli trigger plant cells to undergo complex network of reactions that ultimately lead to the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Throughout evolution, endophytic fungi, an important constituent in the environment of medicinal plants, have known to form long-term stable and mutually beneficial symbiosis with medicinal plants. The endophytic fungal elicitor can rapidly and specifically induce the expression of specific genes in medicinal plants which can result in the activation of a series of specific secondary metabolic pathways resulting in the significant accumulation of active ingredients. Here we summarize the progress made on the mechanisms of fungal elicitor including elicitor signal recognition, signal transduction, gene expression and activation of the key enzymes and its application. This review provides guidance on studies which may be conducted to promote the efficient synthesis and accumulation of active ingredients by the endogenous fungal elicitor in medicinal plant cells, and provides new ideas and methods of studying the regulation of secondary metabolism in medicinal plants.

  9. Purification and characterization of elicitor protein from Phytophthora colocasiae and basic resistance in Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Kamal; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2009-01-01

    An elicitor was identified in the fungus Phytophthora colocasiae. The molecular weight of the purified elicitor was estimated by means of gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE and was estimated as 15kDa. Protease treatment severely reduced its activity, allowing the conclusion that the elicitor is proteinaceous. Infiltration of a few nanograms of this proteinaceous elicitor into taro leaves caused the formation of lesions that closely resemble hypersensitive response lesions. The elicitation of the cells was effective in the induction of the activity of lipoxygenase. Cellular damage, restricted to the infiltrated zone, occurred only several hours later, after the infiltration of the elicitor protein. After few days, systemic acquired resistance was also induced. Thus, taro plant cells that perceived the glycoprotein generated a cascade of signals acting at local, short, and long distances, and causing the coordinate expression of specific defence. The obtained results give important information regarding the plant-pathogen interactions, mainly as subsidy for taro improvement against Phytophthora leaf blight.

  10. Plasma membrane order and fluidity are diversely triggered by elicitors of plant defence

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Roman; Der, Christophe; Grosjean, Kevin; Anca, Iulia; Noirot, Elodie; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lochman, Jan; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Although plants are exposed to a great number of pathogens, they usually defend themselves by triggering mechanisms able to limit disease development. Alongside signalling events common to most such incompatible interactions, modifications of plasma membrane (PM) physical properties could be new players in the cell transduction cascade. Different pairs of elicitors (cryptogein, oligogalacturonides, and flagellin) and plant cells (tobacco and Arabidopsis) were used to address the issue of possible modifications of plant PM biophysical properties induced by elicitors and their links to other events of the defence signalling cascade. We observed an increase of PM order whatever the elicitor/plant cell pair used, provided that a signalling cascade was induced. Such membrane modification is dependent on the NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, cryptogein, which is the sole elicitor able to trap sterols, is also the only one able to trigger an increase in PM fluidity. The use of cryptogein variants with altered sterol-binding properties confirms the strong correlation between sterol removal from the PM and PM fluidity enhancement. These results propose PM dynamics as a player in early signalling processes triggered by elicitors of plant defence. PMID:27604805

  11. Crystal Structure Analysis and the Identification of Distinctive Functional Regions of the Protein Elicitor Mohrip2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Duan, Liangwei; Wang, Meifang; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor MoHrip2, which was extracted from Magnaporthe oryzae as an exocrine protein, triggers the tobacco immune system and enhances blast resistance in rice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which MoHrip2 acts as an elicitor remain unclear. Here, we investigated the structure of MoHrip2 to elucidate its functions based on molecular structure. The three-dimensional structure of MoHrip2 was obtained. Overall, the crystal structure formed a β-barrel structure and showed high similarity to the pathogenesis-related (PR) thaumatin superfamily protein thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor (TL-XI). To investigate the functional regions responsible for MoHrip2 elicitor activities, the full length and eight truncated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and were evaluated for elicitor activity in tobacco. Biological function analysis showed that MoHrip2 triggered the defense system against Botrytis cinerea in tobacco. Moreover, only MoHrip2M14 and other fragments containing the 14 amino acids residues in the middle region of the protein showed the elicitor activity of inducing a hypersensitive response and resistance related pathways, which were similar to that of full-length MoHrip2. These results revealed that the central 14 amino acid residues were essential for anti-pathogenic activity. PMID:27507984

  12. Elicitors of Host Plant Defenses Partially Suppress Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations under Field Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Defense elicitors are products that activate acquired defense responses in plants, thus rendering the plants less susceptible to attack by a broad range of pests. We previously demonstrated under laboratory conditions that foliar applications of the defense elicitors Actigard (acibenzolar-S-methyl)...

  13. Contamination of chitin oligosaccharides in a laminarioligosaccharide preparation can cause a confused interpretation of its elicitor activity.

    PubMed

    Desaki, Yoshitake; Otomo, Ippei; Shibuya, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Chitinase treatment of a commercial laminarioligosaccharide preparation from a mushroom resulted in a loss of previously reported elicitor activity in rice cells, indicating that the activity was attributable not to the laminarioligosaccharide but rather to the contaminating chitin fragments. This suggests that the elicitor activity of laminarioligosacchraides from such sources containing chitinaceous substances should be carefully interpreted.

  14. Dissecting the transcriptional response to elicitors in Vitis vinifera cells.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Lorena; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production.

  15. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  16. Defense gene expression in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of french bean cv. Imuna.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J S; Jennings, A C; Edwards, L A; Mavandad, M; Lamb, C J; Dixon, R A

    1989-12-01

    Cell suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Imuna accumulated isoflavonoid phytoalexins on exposure to elicitor from the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (CL). This was preceeded by rapid increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). However, the patterns of expression of PAL and CHS genes differed from those observed in cultures of a previously studied bean cultivar. The relative levels of transcripts from individual members of the CHS multigene family differed significantly at 1.5 h compared to 22.5 h after elicitation. More strikingly, three PAL genes were expressed in cultivar Imuna in response to fungal elicitor, whereas two are expressed in elicitor-treated cell cultures of cultivar Canadian Wonder.

  17. Soybean. beta. -glucan binding sites display maximal affinity for a heptaglucoside phytoalexin-elicitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cosio, E.G.; Waldmueller, T.; Frey, T.; Ebel, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The affinity of soybean {beta}-glucan-binding sites for a synthetic heptaglucan elicitor was tested in a ligand-competition assay against a {sup 125}I-labeled 1,3-1,6-{beta}-glucan preparation (avg. DP=20). Half-maximal displacement of label (IC{sub 50}) was obtained at 9nM heptaglucan, the highest affinity of all fractions tested to date. Displacement followed a uniform sigmoidal pattern and was complete at 1{mu}M indicating access of heptaglucan to all sites available to the labeled elicitor. A mathematical model was used to predict IC{sub 50} values according to the DP of glucan fragments obtained from fungal cell walls. The lowest IC{sub 50} predicted by this model is 3nM. Binding affinity of the glucans was compared with their elicitor activity in a bioassay.

  18. Activation of Shikimate, Phenylpropanoid, Oxylipins, and Auxin Pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum Elicitors-Treated Moss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Schmelz, Eric; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins, and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. PMID:27047509

  19. Activation of Shikimate, Phenylpropanoid, Oxylipins, and Auxin Pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum Elicitors-Treated Moss.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Schmelz, Eric; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins, and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors.

  20. Environmental stress and elicitors enhance taxol production by endophytic strains of Paraconiothyrium variabile and Epicoccum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Somjaipeng, Supunnika; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of different elicitors (seven, different concentrations) and environmental factors (water activity (aw), pH) on taxol production by strains of two endophytic fungi, Paraconiothyrium variabile and Epicoccum nigrum, isolated from temperate yew trees. A defined liquid broth medium was modified with elicitors, solute aw depressors at different pH values. For P. variabile, the best elicitor was salicylic acid at 50mg/l which gave a taxol yield of 14.7±4.8μg/l. The study of synergistic effects between elicitor, aw and pH on taxol production showed that the highest yield of taxol (68.9±11.9μg/l) was produced under modified ionic stress of 0.98aw (KCl) at pH 5 when supplemented with 20mg/l of salicylic acid. For E. nigrum, serine was the best elicitor which increased yield significantly (29.6 fold) when KCL was used as the aw depressor (0.98aw) at pH 5.0 with 30mg/l of serine. The maximum taxol yield produced by E. nigrum was 57.1±11.8μg/l. Surface response models were used to build contour maps to determine the conditions for maximum and marginal conditions for taxol yield in relation to the best elicitor and aw, and the best pH for the first time. This will be beneficial for identifying key parameters for improvement of taxol yields by endophytic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Elicitor activity of chitosan and arachidonic acid: their similarity and distinction].

    PubMed

    Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Chalenko, G I; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

    2012-01-01

    Two elicitors-chitosan and arachidonic acid-induced the same defense responses in potatoes, stimulating the processes of wound reparation and inducing the formation of phytoalexins, inhibitors of proteinase, and active forms of oxygen. However, chitosan induced the defense potential of plant tissues at concentrations higher than those of arachidonic acid. The protective action of chitosan was defined by two parameters, i.e., the ability to induce the immune responses in plant tissues and to exhibit a toxic effect on the pathogen development, causing late blight and seedling blight, whereas the elicitor effect of arachidonic acid depended on its ability to induce the defense potential of plant tissues only.

  2. Helicoverpa zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly induce defenses in tomato by triggering a salivary elicitor(s).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Peiffer, Michelle; Hoover, Kelli; Rosa, Cristina; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2017-05-01

    Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Laboratory-reared H. zea inoculated with one of the bacteria identified in field-collected H. zea, Enterobacter ludwigii, induced expression of the tomato defense-related enzyme polyphenol oxidase and genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), whereas the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive pathogenesis-related gene was suppressed. Additionally, saliva and its main component glucose oxidase from inoculated caterpillars played an important role in elevating tomato anti-herbivore defenses. However, there were only low detectable amounts of regurgitant or bacteria on H. zea-damaged tomato leaves. Our results suggest that H. zea gut-associated bacteria indirectly mediate plant-insect interactions by triggering salivary elicitors. These findings provide a proof of concept that introducing gut bacteria to a herbivore may provide a novel approach to pest management through indirect induction of plant resistance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Elicitor(s) in Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) causing the Japanese rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) to induce the ovicidal substance, benzyl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Oh; Nakayama, Naoya; Toda, Kyohei; Tebayashi, Shinichi; Kim, Chul-Sa

    2013-01-01

    We elucidate the mechanism for inducing the production of ovicidal benzyl benzoate by Japonica rice varieties to kill eggs of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), lying in the rice plant. Even when subjected to physical damage by a needle or damage with water, the rice plant produced no benzyl benzoate. However, significant benzyl benzoate was produced when the plant was damaged with a methanol extract or homogenate of S. furcifera. The extract of the male did not induce the production of benzyl benzoate, but that of the female did. We concluded from these results that benzyl benzoate was induced by some elicitor(s) in the female of S. furcifera.

  4. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T.; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata’s OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  5. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata's OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature.

  6. N-Acylethanolamines in Signal Transduction of Elicitor Perception. Attenuation of Alkalinization Response and Activation of Defense Gene Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swati; Venables, Barney J.; Chapman, Kent D.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent study of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) metabolism in elicitor-treated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells, we identified a rapid release and accumulation of medium-chain N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) (e.g. N-myristoylethanolamine or NAE 14:0) and a compensatory decrease in cellular NAPE (K.D. Chapman, S. Tripathy, B. Venables, A.D. Desouza [1998] Plant Physiol 116: 1163–1168). In the present study, we extend this observation and report a 10- to 50-fold increase in NAE 14:0 content in leaves of tobacco (cv Xanthi) plants treated with xylanase or cryptogein elicitors. Exogenously supplied synthetic NAE species affected characteristic elicitor-induced and short- and long-term defense responses in cell suspensions of tobacco and long-term defense responses in leaves of intact tobacco plants. In general, synthetic NAEs inhibited elicitor-induced medium alkalinization by tobacco cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exogenous NAE 14:0 induced expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in a manner similar to fungal elicitors in both cell suspensions and leaves of tobacco. NAE 14:0, but not myristic acid, activated phenylalanine ammonia lyase expression at submicromolar concentrations, well within the range of NAE 14:0 levels measured in elicitor-treated plants. Collectively, these results suggest that NAPE metabolism, specifically, the accumulation of NAE 14:0, are part of a signal transduction pathway that modulates cellular defense responses following the perception of fungal elicitors. PMID:10594117

  7. Stomatal Closure and Rise in ROS/NO of Arabidopsis Guard Cells by Tobacco Microbial Elicitors: Cryptogein and Harpin

    PubMed Central

    Gayatri, Gunja; Agurla, Srinivas; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Anil, Kondreddy; Podile, Appa R.; Raghavendra, Agepati S.

    2017-01-01

    Plants use stomatal closure mediated by elicitors as the first step of the innate immune response to restrict the microbial entry. We present a comprehensive study of the effect of cryptogein and harpin, two elicitors from microbial pathogens of tobacco, on stomatal closure and guard cell signaling components in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant. Cryptogein as well as harpin induced stomatal closure, while elevating the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the guard cells of A. thaliana. Kinetic studies with fluorescent dyes revealed that the rise in ROS levels preceded that of NO in guard cells, when treated with these two elicitors. The restriction of NO levels in guard cells, even by ROS modulators indicates the essentiality of ROS for NO production during elicitor-triggered stomatal closure. The signaling events during elicitor-induced stomatal closure appear to converge at NADPH oxidase and ROS production. Our results provide the first report on stomatal closure associated with rise in ROS/NO of guard cells by cryptogein and harpin in A. thaliana. Our results establish that A. thaliana can be used to study stomatal responses to the typical elicitors from microbial pathogens of other plants. The suitability of Arabidopsis opens up an excellent scope for further studies on signaling events leading to stomatal closure by microbial elicitors. PMID:28680439

  8. Calcium signatures and signaling in cytosol and organelles of tobacco cells induced by plant defense elicitors.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Hamid; Chiltz, Annick; Madani, Siham; Vatsa, Parul; Schoefs, Benoît; Pugin, Alain; Garcia-Brugger, Angela

    2012-06-01

    Calcium signatures induced by two elicitors of plant defense reactions, namely cryptogein and oligogalacturonides, were monitored at the subcellular level, using apoaequorin-transformed Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi cells, in which the apoaequorin calcium sensor was targeted either to cytosol, mitochondria or chloroplasts. Our study showed that both elicitors induced specific Ca(2+) signatures in each compartment, with the most striking difference relying on duration. Common properties also emerged from the analysis of Ca(2+) signatures: both elicitors induced a biphasic cytosolic [Ca(2+)] elevation together with a single mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] elevation concomitant with the first cytosolic [Ca(2+)] peak. In addition, both elicitors induced a chloroplastic [Ca(2+)] elevation peaking later in comparison to cytosolic [Ca(2+)] elevation. In cryptogein-treated cells, pharmacological studies indicated that IP(3) should play an important role in Ca(2+) signaling contrarily to cADPR or nitric oxide, which have limited or no effect on [Ca(2+)] variations. Our data also showed that, depending on [Ca(2+)] fluxes at the plasma membrane, cryptogein triggered a mitochondrial respiration increase and affected excess energy dissipation mechanisms in chloroplasts. Altogether the results indicate that cryptogein profoundly impacted cell functions at many levels, including organelles.

  9. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of plant elicitor peptides (pep) genes in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PROPEP1, PROPEP 2, and PROPEP3 genes appear to have roles in a feedback loop that amplifies defense signaling pathways initiated by pathogens. We present evidence to support the role of peptides derived from PROPEP genes as endogenous elicitors that are generated in response to pathogens. The preval...

  10. Phytohormone-based activity mapping of insect herbivore-produced elicitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In response to insect attack many plants exhibit dynamic biochemical changes resulting in the induced production of direct and indirect defenses. Elicitors present in herbivore oral secretions are believed to positively regulate many inducible plant defenses; however, little is known about the speci...

  11. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  12. Release of elicitors from rice blast spores under the action of reactive oxygen species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on secretion of hypothesized elicitors from spores of rice blast causal fungus Magnaporthe grisea were studied. For spore exposure to exogenous ROS, they were germinated for 5 h in 50 µM H2O2 followed by addition of catalase E.C. 1.11.1.6 (to decompose pe...

  13. Increased universality of Lepidopteran elicitor compounds across insects: Identification of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) are known elicitors of induced release of volatile compounds in plants that, in turn, attract foraging parasitoids. Since the discovery of volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] in the regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1, a series of related FAC...

  14. Avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat cultivars treated with systemic acquired resistance elicitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The synthetic systemic acquired resistance elicitor benzothiadiazole (BTH) has been shown to elicit avenanthramide biosynthesis in the oat cultivar ‘Belle’. This report investigates the response of multiple oat cultivars to BTH as well as 2,6- dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) at different growth stag...

  15. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Itishree; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Acharya, Priyambada

    2013-01-01

    We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe), the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes. PMID:24187521

  16. CERK1, a LysM receptor kinase, is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Miya, Ayako; Albert, Premkumar; Shinya, Tomonori; Desaki, Yoshitake; Ichimura, Kazuya; Shirasu, Ken; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Naoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2007-12-04

    Chitin is a major component of fungal cell walls and serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) for the detection of various potential pathogens in innate immune systems of both plants and animals. We recently showed that chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP), plasma membrane glycoprotein with LysM motifs, functions as a cell surface receptor for chitin elicitor in rice. The predicted structure of CEBiP does not contain any intracellular domains, suggesting that an additional component(s) is required for signaling through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm. Here, we identified a receptor-like kinase, designated CERK1, which is essential for chitin elicitor signaling in Arabidopsis. The KO mutants for CERK1 completely lost the ability to respond to the chitin elicitor, including MAPK activation, reactive oxygen species generation, and gene expression. Disease resistance of the KO mutant against an incompatible fungus, Alternaria brassicicola, was partly impaired. Complementation with the WT CERK1 gene showed cerk1 mutations were responsible for the mutant phenotypes. CERK1 is a plasma membrane protein containing three LysM motifs in the extracellular domain and an intracellular Ser/Thr kinase domain with autophosphorylation/myelin basic protein kinase activity, suggesting that CERK1 plays a critical role in fungal MAMP perception in plants.

  17. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  18. Induction of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco cell suspension cultures by fungal elicitor

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, J.; Nable, R.

    1987-10-01

    Large amounts of the sesquiterpenoid capsidiol accumulated in the media of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY14) cell suspension cultures upon addition of fungal elicitor. Capsidiol accumulation was proportional to the amount of elicitor added. The accumulation of capsidiol was preceded by a transient increase in the capsidiol de novo synthesis rate as measured by the incorporation of exogenous (/sup 14/C)acetate. Changes in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity, an enzyme of general isoprenoid metabolism, paralleled the changes in (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation into capsidiol. Incubation of the cell cultures with mevinolin, a potent in vitro inhibitor of the tobacco HMGR enzyme activity, inhibited the elicitor-induced capsidiol accumulation in a concentration dependent manner. (/sup 14/C)Acetate incorporation into capsidiol was likewise inhibited by mevinolin treatment. Unexpectedly, (/sup 3/H) mevalonate incorporation into capsidiol was also partially inhibited by mevinolin, suggesting that mevinolin may effect secondary sites of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in vivo beyond HMGR. The data indicated the importance of the induced HMGR activity for capsidiol production in elicitor-treated tobacco cell suspension cultures.

  19. Effect of elicitors on the production of gossypol and methylated gossypol in cotton hairy roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of two-chemical elicitors, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, on the production of gossypol, 6-methoxy gossypol, and 6,6'-dimethoxy gossypol in Gossypium barbadense hairy roots was examined. Methyl jasmonate, but not salicylic acid, was found to increase the production of gossypol and ...

  20. Molecular effects of resistance elicitors from biological origin and their potential for crop protection

    PubMed Central

    Wiesel, Lea; Newton, Adrian C.; Elliott, Ian; Booty, David; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Hein, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain a sophisticated innate immune network to prevent pathogenic microbes from gaining access to nutrients and from colonizing internal structures. The first layer of inducible response is governed by the plant following the perception of microbe- or modified plant-derived molecules. As the perception of these molecules results in a plant response that can provide efficient resistance toward non-adapted pathogens they can also be described as “defense elicitors.” In compatible plant/microbe interactions, adapted microorganisms have means to avoid or disable this resistance response and promote virulence. However, this requires a detailed spatial and temporal response from the invading pathogens. In agricultural practice, treating plants with isolated defense elicitors in the absence of pathogens can promote plant resistance by uncoupling defense activation from the effects of pathogen virulence determinants. The plant responses to plant, bacterial, oomycete, or fungal-derived elicitors are not, in all cases, universal and need elucidating prior to the application in agriculture. This review provides an overview of currently known elicitors of biological rather than synthetic origin and places their activity into a molecular context. PMID:25484886

  1. The role of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) from Nicotiana benthamiana in the elicitor-triggered hypersensitive response and stomatal closure

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Suomeng; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Wei; Song, Wenwen; Dou, Xianying; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2010-01-01

    Elicitors/pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger the plant immune system, leading to rapid programmed cell death (hypersensitive response, HR) and stomatal closure. Previous reports have shown that the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), a cysteine proteinase responsible for the maturation of vacuolar proteins, has caspase-1-like activity and mediates TMV- and mycotoxin-induced cell death. The role of VPE from Nicotiana benthamiana in the response to three elicitors: bacterial harpin, fungal Nep1, and oomycete boehmerin, is described here. Single-silenced (NbVPE1a or NbVPE1b) and dual-silenced (NbVPE1a/1b) N. benthamiana plants were produced by virus-induced gene silencing. Although NbVPE silencing does not affect H2O2 accumulation triggered by boehmerin, harpin, or Nep1, the HR is absent in NbVPE1a- and NbVPE1a/1b-silenced plants treated with harpin alone. However, NbVPE-silenced plants develop a normal HR after boehmerin and Nep1 treatment. These results suggest that harpin-triggered HR is VPE-dependent. Surprisingly, all gene-silenced plants show significantly impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells. Dual-silenced plants show increased elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. The accumulation of transcripts associated with defence and cell redox is modified by VPE silencing in elicitor signalling. Overall, these results indicate that VPE from N. benthamiana functions not only in elicitor-induced HR, but also in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that VPE may be involved in elicitor-triggered immunity. PMID:20603283

  2. Polymorphic SSR Markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the Newly Emergent Downy Mildew Pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-11-10

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2-6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000-0.892 and 0.023-0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficient to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease.

  3. Solubilization of functional plasma membrane-localized hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins from soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, J J; Alba, R; Côté, F; Enkerli, J; Hahn, M G

    1993-01-01

    Total membranes prepared from roots of soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings have previously been shown to contain proteinaceous binding site(s) for a hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor of phytoalexin accumulation. The hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins have now been shown to co-migrate with a plasma membrane marker enzyme (vanadate-sensitive H(+)-ATPase) on linear sucrose density gradients. With the use of detergents, the elicitor-binding proteins have been solubilized in functional form from soybean root membranes. The nonionic detergents n-dodecylsucrose, n-dodecylmaltoside, and Triton X-114, at concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/mL, each solubilizes between 50 and 60% of the elicitor-binding activity in a single extraction of the membranes. A zwitterionic detergent, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane-sulfonate (ZW 3-12), also solubilizes about 40% of the total binding activity at detergent concentrations between 1 and 2 mg/mL, but the total binding activity recovered is only approximately 50% of that recovered with the nonionic detergents. The elicitor-binding proteins solubilized with either n-dodecylsucrose or ZW 3-12 retain the high affinity for radiolabeled hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor (apparent dissociation constant [Kd] = 1.8 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively) that was observed with the membrane-localized binding proteins (apparent Kd = 1 nM). Competitive ligand-binding experiments with several structurally related synthetic oligoglucosides demonstrate that the solubilized binding proteins retain specificity for elicitor-active oligosaccharides, irrespective of the detergent used for solubilization. Moreover, the binding affinities of the oligoglucosides for the solubilized binding proteins correlate well with their abilities to induce phytoalexin accumulation in soybean cotyledon tissue. Gel-permeation chromatography of n-dodecylsucrose-solubilized elicitor-binding proteins demonstrate that the bulk of the elicitor-binding activity is associated with

  4. Rapid induction of the synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and of chalcone synthase in elicitor-treated plant cells.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M A; Dixon, R A; Hahlbrock, K; Lamb, C

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase, two characteristic enzymes of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, have been investigated by direct immunoprecipitation of in vivo [35S]methionine-labelled enzyme subunits in elicitor-treated cells of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Elicitor, heat-released from cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes marked but transient increases in the rates of synthesis of both enzymes concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of phaseollin accumulation during the phytoalexin defence response. Increased rates of synthesis of both enzymes can be observed 20 min after elicitor treatment and the pattern of induction of synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase are broadly similar with respect to elicitor concentration and time, maximum rates of synthesis being attained between 2.5 h and 3.0 h after elicitor treatment. Within this overall co-ordination small but distinct differences between the enzymes were observed in: (a) the elicitor concentrations giving maximum enzyme synthesis, and (b) the precise timing of maximum enzyme synthesis, with that for chalcone synthase occurring 20-30 min earlier than that for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. However, for a given rate of enzyme synthesis, induction of the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase is more efficient at high elicitor concentrations. This may reflect the operation under certain circumstances of post-translational control of the activity levels of these enzymes as implicated for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by previous density-labelling experiments [Lawton et al. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 633, 162-175]. The same pattern of induction of enzyme synthesis is observed with elicitor preparations from a variety of sources.

  5. Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway and PR of potato tuber against Fusarium sulphureum by fungal elicitor from Trichothecium roseum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Yan; Bi, Yang; Yan, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Yi; Shen, Ke-Ping; Li, Yong-Cai

    2016-09-01

    The induced resistance of potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum cv. Xindaping) tissue against Fusarium sulphureum by a fungal elicitor from the incompatible pathogen Trichothecium roseum and its possible mechanism were studied. The results showed that the lesion development of the wound-inoculated potato tuber was significantly reduced by treatment with the fungal elicitor from T. roseum (P < 0.05). Inoculation with F. sulphureum on the 16th day after treatment with the fungal elicitor80 at 15.0 μg/ml had the best resistant effect in the potato tuber, with the diameter being only reduced by 47 % that of the control. In addition, the results also showed that the potato tuber treated with the fungal elicitor80 could systemically induce lignin deposition, total phenolic content, flavonoid content and defense enzymes, including three keys phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL, 4CL and C4H) and pathogenesis-related (GLU and CHT) enzymes. The fungal elicitor80 also enhanced the up-regulation of the transcription and expression of PAL, C4H, 4CL, GLU and CHT genes. The treatment with the fungal elicitor80 + F. sulphureum caused the marked and/or prompt enhancement of all indexes when compared to treatment with the fungal elicitor80 or inoculation with the pathogen alone. The results suggested that the fungal elicitor of T. roseum could significantly enhance defense responses in potato tuber against dry rot mainly due to the up-regulation of the transcription and expression of resistance-related genes as well as increasing the activity of resistance-related enzymes and antifungal compounds.

  6. Increased sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and an apparent decrease in sterol biosynthesis in elicitor-treated tobacco cell suspension cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Voegeli, U.; Bhatt, P.N.; Chappell, J.

    1987-04-01

    Addition of fungel elicitor prepared from Phytophthora parasitica to tobacco cell suspension cultures leads to an increased production of the phytoalexin capsidiol. Capsidiol is a sesquiterpenoid which is most likely synthesized from farnesylpyrophosphat (FPP) by a bicyclic cyclase reaction. Because FPP is also a substrate for squalene synthetase and therefore a precursor of sterol biosynthesis, the question arises whether or not the accumulation of capsidiol in elicitor-treated cells occurs at the expense of sterol biosynthesis. (/sup 14/C)-acetate was given to elicitor-treated and control (no treatment) cell cultures and incorporation into sterols and capsidiol determined. No labeled capsidiol was detected in control cells. In elicitor-treated cells about 12-15% of the radioactivity taken up by the cells was incorporated into capsidiol. In contrast, control cells incorporated 4 times more radioactivity into sterols than elicitor-treated cells. Similar results were obtained using (/sup 3/H)-mevalonate as a precursor of capsidiol and sterol biosynthesis. Likely explanations for the apparently decline in sterol biosynthesis in elicitor-treated cells include: (1) inhibition of squalene synthetase; (2) induction of capsidiol synthesizing enzymes; and (3) metabolic channeling of FPP into capsidiol versus sterols. These possibilities will be discussed further together with other results.

  7. Differential effect of purified spruce chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases on the activity of elicitors from ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Salzer, P; Hübner, B; Sirrenberg, A; Hager, A

    1997-07-01

    Two chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and two beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39) were purified from the culture medium of spruce (Picea abines [L.] Karst.) cells to study their role in modifying elicitors, cell walls, growth, and hyphal morphology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The 36-kD class I chitinase (isoelectric point [pl] 8.0) and the 28-kD chitinase (pl 8.7) decreased the activity of elicitor preparations from Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex Fries.) Quél., Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers., and Suillus variegatus (Sw.: Fr.) O.K., as demonstrated by using the elicitor-induced extracellular alkalinization in spruce cells as a test system. In addition, chitinases released monomeric products from the walls of these ectomycorrhizal fungi. The beta-1,3-glucanases (35 kD, pl 3.7 and 3.9), in contrast, had little influence on the activity of the fungal elicitors and released only from walls of A. muscaria some polymeric products. Furthermore, chitinases alone and in combination with beta-1,3-glucanases had no effect on the growth and morphology of the hyphae. Thus, it is suggested that apoplastic chitinases in the root cortex destroy elicitors from the ectomycorrhizal fungi without damaging the fungus. By this mechanism the host plant could attenuate the elicitor signal and adjust its own defense reactions to a level allowing symbiotic interaction.

  8. Dataset of the Botrytis cinerea phosphoproteome induced by different plant-based elicitors.

    PubMed

    Liñeiro, Eva; Chiva, Cristina; Cantoral, Jesús M; Sabido, Eduard; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorylation is one of the main post-translational modification (PTM) involved in signaling network in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, one of the most relevant phytopathogenic fungus. The data presented in this article provided a differential mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome of B. cinerea under two different phenotypical conditions induced by the use of two different elicitors: glucose and deproteinized Tomate Cell Walls (TCW). A total 1138 and 733 phosphoproteins were identified for glucose and TCW culture conditions respectively. Raw data are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier (PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003099). Further interpretation and discussion of these data are provided in our research article entitled "Phosphoproteome analysis of B.cinerea in response to different plant-based elicitors" (Liñeiro et al., 2016) [1].

  9. Linear β-1,3 Glucans Are Elicitors of Defense Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Klarzynski, Olivier; Plesse, Bertrand; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Kopp, Marguerite; Kloareg, Bernard; Fritig, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Laminarin, a linear β-1,3 glucan (mean degree of polymerization of 33) was extracted and purified from the brown alga Laminaria digitata. Its elicitor activity on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was compared to that of oligogalacturonides with a mean degree of polymerization of 10. The two oligosaccharides were perceived by suspension-cultured cells as distinct chemical stimuli but triggered a similar and broad spectrum of defense responses. A dose of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin or oligogalacturonides induced within a few minutes a 1.9-pH-units alkalinization of the extracellular medium and a transient release of H2O2. After a few hours, a strong stimulation of Phe ammonia-lyase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, and lipoxygenase activities occurred, as well as accumulation of salicylic acid. Neither of the two oligosaccharides induced tissue damage or cell death nor did they induce accumulation of the typical tobacco phytoalexin capsidiol, in contrast with the effects of the proteinaceous elicitor β-megaspermin. Structure activity studies with laminarin, laminarin oligomers, high molecular weight β-1,3–1,6 glucans from fungal cell walls, and the β-1,6–1,3 heptaglucan showed that the elicitor effects observed in tobacco with β-glucans are specific to linear β-1,3 linkages, with laminaripentaose being the smallest elicitor-active structure. In accordance with its strong stimulating effect on defense responses in tobacco cells, infiltration of 200 μg mL−1 laminarin in tobacco leaves triggered accumulation within 48 h of the four families of antimicrobial pathogenesis-related proteins investigated. Challenge of the laminarin-infiltrated leaves 5 d after treatment with the soft rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora resulted in a strong reduction of the infection when compared with water-treated leaves. PMID:11080280

  10. Large-scale preparation of the phytoalexin elicitor glucohexatose and its application as a green pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jun; Kong, Fanzuo; Lin, Bangmao; Lei, Huide

    2003-02-12

    Large-scale preparation of the phytoalexin elicitor was achieved through a highly regio- and sterereoselective synthesis using 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-d-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (1), 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-d-glucofuranose (2), and 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (3) as the synthons. Coupling of 1 with 2 gave the 1-->3-linked disaccharide; subsequent selective removal of 5,6-O-isopropylidene to give 5 followed by selective 6-O-glycosylation with 1 afforded the trisaccharide 6. Hydrolysis to remove the 1,2-O-isopropylidene was accompanied by ring expansion, giving 3,6-branched pyranosyl trisaccharide. Acetylation, selective 1-O-deacetylation, and activation with trichloroacetonitrile gave the trisaccharide donor 7. The trisaccharide acceptor 9 was prepared from condensation of the disaccharide 5 with 3 and subsequent 6-O-deacetylation. Coupling of the trisaccharide donor 7 with the trisaccharide acceptor 9 and subsequent deprotection afforded the glucohexatose elicitor. The cost of the produced glucohexatose should be low enough to allow its applications in agriculture as a green pesticide. At a concentration of 5-10 mg/L, the resultant elicitor was used to treat growing orange trees and harvested oranges, giving very encouraging results, comparable with those obtained using commercial pesticides at a concentration of 1400 mg/L (Topsin-M) for growing trees and 900 mg/L (Tecto) for harvested oranges, respectively. Treatment of tomato leaves against Botrytis cinerea with the synthetic elicitor at a concentration of 10 mg/L gave 82% inhibition, comparable with the inhibition of 84% by Wanmeiling at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. Treatment of tea leaves also showed promising results.

  11. Influence of fungal elicitors on biosynthesis of natamycin by Streptomyces natalensis HW-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahong; Yuan, Jiangfeng; Gu, Shaobin; Shi, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of fungal elicitors on biosynthesis of natamycin in the cultures of Streptomyces natalensis HW-2, the biomass and filtrate of the broth from Aspergillus niger AS 3.6472, Penicillium chrysogenum AS 3.5163, A. oryzae AS 3.2068, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AS 2.2081 were used to induce natamycin production in S. natalensis HW-2. The results showed that the biomass of P. chrysogenum AS 3.5163 could enhance the yield of natamycin from 0.639 to 0.875 g l(-1). The elicitor from the fermentation broth of P. chrysogenum AS 3.5163 showed the highest inducing efficiency with the yield of natamycin enhanced from 0.632 to 1.84 g l(-1). The elicitor that was cultured for 2 days showed the strongest inducing activity during the fermentation of S. natalensis HW-2 for 24 h, and the yield of natamycin was enhanced from 0.637 to 2.12 g l(-1). The biochemical parameters were examined at the end of fermentation and the results demonstrated that both the growth of cells and the concentration of residual sugar could be influenced. The residual sugar decreased from 5.03 to 4.27 g l(-1), and the biomass decreased from 10.26 to 6.87 g l(-1). Finally, the elicitor was identified as a low molecular weight substance with a similar polarity to that of butyl alcohol by primary qualitative analysis.

  12. Enhanced secondary metabolite biosynthesis by elicitation in transformed plant root system: effect of abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Plants generally produce secondary metabolites in nature as a defense mechanism against pathogenic and insect attack. In this study, we applied several abiotic elicitors in order to enhance growth and ginseng saponin biosynthesis in the hairy roots of Panax ginseng. Generally, elicitor treatments were found to inhibit the growth of the hairy roots, although simultaneously enhancing ginseng saponin biosynthesis. Tannic acid profoundly inhibited the hairy root growth during growth period. Also, ginseng saponin content was not significantly different from that of the control. The addition of selenium at inoculum time did not significantly affect ginseng saponin biosynthesis. However, when 0.5 mM selenium was added as an elicitor after 21 d of culture, ginseng saponin content and productivity increased to about 1.31 and 1.33 times control levels, respectively. Also, the addition of 20 microM NiSO4 resulted in an increase in ginseng saponin content and productivity, to about 1.20 and 1.23 times control levels, respectively, and also did not inhibit the growth of the roots. Sodium chloride treatment inhibited hairy root growth, except at a concentration of 0.3% (w/v). Increases in the amounts of synthesized ginseng saponin were observed at all concentrations of added sodium chloride. At 0.1% (w/v) sodium chloride, ginseng saponin content and productivity were increased to approx 1.15 and 1.13 times control values, respectively. These results suggest that processing time for the generation of ginseng saponin in a hairy root culture can be reduced via the application of an elicitor.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of sunflower downy mildew in North Dakota from 2001 to 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) is an economic problem in sunflowers in North Dakota (ND), which historically produces about half the U.S. sunflower crop. From 2001 to 2011, the prevalence and incidence of downy mildew was monitored in ND as part of two large survey efforts, namely a m...

  14. Pl17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of...

  15. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes PlArg and Pl8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew, which is caused by fungus Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese & de Toni, is one of the most important diseases that affect sunflower production globally. Two downy mildew resistance genes, PlArg and Pl8, were discovered in the late 1980s. Over two decades, PlArg is still effective aga...

  16. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Plasmopara halstedii is one of the most destructive diseases in the world that severely impacts sunflower production. Management tools for DM include the destruction of volunteer sunflower plants, fungicides applied as seed treatments, and planting DM-resistant hybrids; t...

  17. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed...

  18. Chitinase cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor, wounding, and infection.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, S A; Bell, J N; Boller, T; Lamb, C J

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1,4 N-acetylglucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin, is a component of the inducible defenses of plants. We show that chitinase synthesis is stimulated in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cell suspension cultures treated with fungal cell wall elicitors and in hypocotyls in response to infection with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Chitinase cDNA clones were isolated by antibody screening of a lambdagt11 cDNA library containing sequences complementary to poly A(+) RNA from elicited cells. The identity of these clones was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis and comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that determined for the amino-terminal sequence of bean chitinase. Elicitor causes a very rapid activation of chitinase transcription with a 10-fold stimulation after 5 minutes and 30-fold increase within 20 minutes. This leads to a marked, transient accumulation of chitinase transcripts with maximum levels 2 hours after elicitor treatment, concomitant with the phase of rapid enzyme synthesis. Chitinase transcripts also markedly accumulate in wounded and infected hypocotyls. Chitinase cDNA sequences hybridize to several genomic fragments suggesting there are several chitinase genes in the bean genome.

  19. A novel elicitor protein from Phytophthora parasitica induces plant basal immunity and systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Hsuan; Yan, Hao-Zhi; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between Phytophthora pathogens and host plants involves the exchange of complex molecular signals from both sides. Recent studies of Phytophthora have led to the identification of various apoplastic elicitors known to trigger plant immunity. Here, we provide evidence that the protein encoded by OPEL of Phytophthora parasitica is a novel elicitor. Homologues of OPEL were identified only in oomycetes, but not in fungi and other organisms. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that OPEL is expressed throughout the development of P. parasitica and is especially highly induced after plant infection. Infiltration of OPEL recombinant protein from Escherichia coli into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Samsun NN) resulted in cell death, callose deposition, the production of reactive oxygen species and induced expression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity markers and salicylic acid-responsive defence genes. Moreover, the infiltration conferred systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Tobacco mosaic virus, the bacteria wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and P. parasitica. In addition to the signal peptide, OPEL contains three conserved domains: a thaumatin-like domain, a glycine-rich protein domain and a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) domain. Intriguingly, mutation of a putative laminarinase active site motif in the predicted GH domain abolished its elicitor activity, which suggests enzymatic activity of OPEL in triggering the defence response. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease.

  1. Quaternized chitosan oligomers as novel elicitors inducing protection against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huafeng; Xia, Wei; Shan, Chi; Zhou, Tingting; Cai, Weiming; Zhang, Wenqing

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligomers prepared from enzyme hydrolysis of chitosan have for many years been recognized as potent elicitors of plant innate immunity, but their efficacy is limited by the degree of polymerization and the degree of acetylation. In this study, we presented a new type of chitosan oligomers (COS), with the name of quaternized chitosan oligomers (QCOS) that were prepared by reacting COS with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and overcome these problems. First, QCOS clearly induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition in Arabidopsis seedlings. Second, we found that PAD3 expression was significantly upregulated more than 5-fold by QCOS as compared to COS. Further, PAD3 expression activated by QCOS was required for inducing Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, independent of salicylic acid signaling. These results demonstrate that quaternized modifications of COS possess better elicitor properties than the original COS and that QCOS stimulate plant protection against B. cinerea attack in Arabidopsis. Importantly, our work provides a novel and valuable strategy for enhancing elicitor activities of other types of oligosaccharides for plant innate immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fei; Chang, Xiao-Li; Nick, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic reorganization during plant defence. This response is generally interpreted as part of the cellular repolarization establishing physical barriers against the invading pathogen. To gain insight into the functional significance of cytoskeletal responses for defence, two Vitis cell cultures that differ in their microtubular dynamics were used, and the cytoskeletal response to the elicitor Harpin in parallel to alkalinization of the medium as a fast response, and the activation of defence-related genes were followed. In one cell line derived from the grapevine cultivar 'Pinot Noir', microtubules contained mostly tyrosinylated alpha-tubulin, indicating high microtubular turnover, whereas in another cell line derived from the wild grapevine V. rupestris, the alpha-tubulin was strongly detyrosinated, indicating low microtubular turnover. The cortical microtubules were disrupted and actin filaments were bundled in both cell lines, but the responses were elevated in V. rupestris as compared with V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. The cytoskeletal responsiveness correlated with elicitor-induced alkalinization and the expression of defence genes. Using resveratrol synthase and stilbene synthase as examples, it could be shown that pharmacological manipulation of microtubules could induce gene expression in the absence of elicitor. These findings are discussed with respect to a role for microtubules as positive regulators of defence-induced gene expression.

  3. Chitin Nanofiber Elucidates the Elicitor Activity of Polymeric Chitin in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Matsui, Hidenori; Urakami, Takeshi; Okuda, Sanami; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Chitin, an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer, is a component of fungal cell walls and a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern that elicits plant defense responses. As polymeric chitin is difficult to handle due to its insolubility in water, many studies on chitin-induced immune responses have used water-soluble low-molecular weight chitin instead. Thus, it is unclear if polymeric chitin can induce resistance. Here, we examined the elicitor activity of chitin nanofiber (CNF) of submicron thickness prepared from polymeric chitin. CNF showed a high dispersing ability in water and induced both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chitin-induced defense-related gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The Arabidopsis chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (Atcerk1) mutant, which is impaired in chitin perception, also failed to respond to CNF. CNF exposure triggered ROS generation in suspension-cultured cells from Oryza sativa. Furthermore, pre-treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with CNF effectively reduced pathogen infection by both the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. These results demonstrate that CNF has elicitor activity and will help define the role of polymeric chitin in plant immune responses. PMID:26697049

  4. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  5. Role of Elicitors in Inducing Resistance in Plants against Pathogen Infection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Meenakshi; Sohal, Baldev Singh

    2013-01-01

    Disease control is largely based on the use of fungicides, bactericides, and insecticides—chemical compounds toxic to plant invaders, causative agents, or vectors of plant diseases. However, the hazardous effect of these chemicals or their degradation products on the environment and human health strongly necessitates the search for new, harmless means of disease control. There must be some natural phenomenon of induced resistance to protect plants from disease. Elicitors are compounds, which activate chemical defense in plants. Various biosynthetic pathways are activated in treated plants depending on the compound used. Commonly tested chemical elicitors are salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, benzothiadiazole, benzoic acid, chitosan, and so forth which affect production of phenolic compounds and activation of various defense-related enzymes in plants. Their introduction into agricultural practice could minimize the scope of chemical control, thus contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture. This paper chiefly highlights the uses of elicitors aiming to draw sufficient attention of researchers to the frontier research needed in this context. PMID:25969762

  6. The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Fei; Chang, Xiao-Li; Nick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic reorganization during plant defence. This response is generally interpreted as part of the cellular repolarization establishing physical barriers against the invading pathogen. To gain insight into the functional significance of cytoskeletal responses for defence, two Vitis cell cultures that differ in their microtubular dynamics were used, and the cytoskeletal response to the elicitor Harpin in parallel to alkalinization of the medium as a fast response, and the activation of defence-related genes were followed. In one cell line derived from the grapevine cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’, microtubules contained mostly tyrosinylated α-tubulin, indicating high microtubular turnover, whereas in another cell line derived from the wild grapevine V. rupestris, the α-tubulin was strongly detyrosinated, indicating low microtubular turnover. The cortical microtubules were disrupted and actin filaments were bundled in both cell lines, but the responses were elevated in V. rupestris as compared with V. vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’. The cytoskeletal responsiveness correlated with elicitor-induced alkalinization and the expression of defence genes. Using resveratrol synthase and stilbene synthase as examples, it could be shown that pharmacological manipulation of microtubules could induce gene expression in the absence of elicitor. These findings are discussed with respect to a role for microtubules as positive regulators of defence-induced gene expression. PMID:20675535

  7. Grapevine cell early activation of specific responses to DIMEB, a resveratrol elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Zamboni, Anita; Gatto, Pamela; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pilati, Stefania; Viola, Roberto; Mattivi, Fulvio; Moser, Claudio; Velasco, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Background In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol. Results The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening. Conclusions We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis. PMID:19660119

  8. A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses.

  9. Induction of chalcone isomerase in elicitor-treated bean cells. Comparison of rates of synthesis and appearance of immunodetectable enzyme.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A

    1984-11-15

    Chalcone isomerase, an enzyme involved in the formation of flavonoid-derived compounds in plants, has been purified nearly 600-fold from cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chromatofocussing yielded a single form of the enzyme of apparent pI 5.0. This preparation was used to raise rabbit anti-(chalcone isomerase) serum. Changes in the rate of synthesis of chalcone isomerase have been investigated by indirect immunoprecipitation of enzyme labelled in vivo with [35S]methionine in elicitor-treated cultures of P. vulgaris. Elicitor, heat-released from cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of bean, causes increased synthesis of the isomerase, with maximum synthetic rate occurring 11-12 h after exposure to elicitor. Immune blotting studies indicate that the elicitor-mediated increase in extractable activity of the isomerase is associated with increased appearance of immunodetactable isomerase protein of Mr 27 000. However, the maximum level of immunodetectable isomerase was attained approximately 6 h earlier than maximum extractable activity. Furthermore, a 2.8-fold increase in enzyme activity above basal levels at 12 h after elicitor-treatment was associated with a corresponding 5.8-fold increase in immunodetectable enzyme. It is concluded that elicitor induces the synthesis of both active and inactive chalcone isomerase of Mr 27 000, and that some activation of inactive enzyme occurs during the elicitor-mediated increase in isomerase activity. The presence of a pool of inactive chalcone isomerase in bean cell cultures has recently been suggested on the basis of density labelling experiments utilising 2H from 2H2O [Dixon et al. (1983) Planta (Berl.) 159, 561-569].

  10. Rapid induction by fungal elicitor of the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, a specific enzyme of lignin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grand, C; Sarni, F; Lamb, C J

    1987-11-16

    A fivefold increase in the extractable activity of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism specific for lignin synthesis, was observed within 10 h of treatment of cell-suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with a high-molecular-mass elicitor preparation heat-released from mycelial cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Elicitor caused a rapid, marked but transient increase in the synthesis of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase with maximum rates 2-3 h after elicitation, concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity. There is a close correspondence between increased polysomal mRNA activity encoding cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, as measured by incorporation of [35S]methionine into immunoprecipitable enzyme subunits in vitro, and the stimulation of enzyme synthesis in vivo in response to elicitor. This marked increase in polysomal mRNA activity represents an increase as a proportion of total cellular mRNA activity, indicating that elicitor does not stimulate synthesis of this enzyme by selective recruitment from the total pool of cellular mRNA. Elicitor stimulation of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase activity and enzyme synthesis is more rapid than previously observed for other proteins involved inducible defense mechanisms, such as enzymes of phytoalexin biosynthesis or the apoproteins of cell-wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins.

  11. Role of Jasmonates in the Elicitor- and Wound-Inducible Expression of Defense Genes in Parsley and Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Ellard-Ivey, M.; Douglas, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Jasmonates have been proposed to be signaling intermediates in the wound and/or elicitor-activated expression of plant defense genes. We used parsley (Petroselinum crispum) cell cultures and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing 4CL1-GUS gene fusions to investigate the potential role played by jasmonates in mediating the wound and/or elicitor activation of phenylpropanoid and other defense-related genes. Jasmonates and [alpha]-linolenic acid strongly induced the expression of 4CL in a dose-dependent manner in parsley cells; methyl jasmonate also activated the coordinate expression of other phenylpropanoid genes and the accumulation of furanocoumarin phytoalexins. However, the response of the cells to optimal methyl jasmonate concentrations was distinct quantitatively and qualitatively from the response of elicitor-treated cells. In transgenic tobacco wound-inducible tobacco 4CL genes and a 4CL1 promoter-GUS transgene were responsive to jasmonates and [alpha]-linolenic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of parsley cells or tobacco leaves with a lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced their responsiveness to the elicitor and to wounding. These results show that the elicitor response in parsley cells can be partially mimicked by jasmonate treatment, which supports a role for jasmonates in mediating wound-induced expression of 4CL and other phenylpropanoid genes. PMID:12226384

  12. Reducing copper use in the environment: The use of larixol and larixyl acetate to treat downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola in viticulture.

    PubMed

    Thuerig, Barbara; James, Emily E; Schärer, Hans-Jakob; Langat, Moses K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Treutwein, Jonas; Kleeberg, Ina; Ludwig, Mathias; Jayarajah, Praveen; Giovannini, Oscar; Markellou, Emilia; Tamm, Lucius

    2017-09-14

    Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions. Toxicologically and technically acceptable solvents like ethanol were used to extract the active compounds larixyl acetate and larixol from bark in sufficient amounts and their combined concentration could be increased up to 39% by purification steps. The combined concentration of larixyl acetate and larixol from larch turpentine could be increased up to 66%. MIC100 against P. viticola in vitro (6-23 μg mL(-1) ) and EC50 in planta under semi-controlled conditions (0.2-0.4 mg mL(-1) ) were promising compared to other plant extracts. In vineyards, efficacies of larch extracts reached up to 68% in a stand-alone strategy and 84% in low-copper strategies. Larch extracts represent valid candidates for copper reduction in organic vineyards, and their development into a sustainable plant protection product might be feasible. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil leaves induced by selected abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Szymanowska, Urszula; Złotek, Urszula; Karaś, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates changes in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves induced by arachidonic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA). The anthocyanins content was significantly increased by all elicitors used in this study; however, no increase was observed in the antioxidant activity of the analyzed extracts. Additionally, a significant decrease by about 50% in the ability to chelate Fe(II) was noted. Further, an increase in the potential anti-inflammatory activity of basil anthocyanins was observed after treatment with each the abiotic elicitor. The IC50 value for lipoxygenase inhibition was almost twice as low after elicitation as that of the control. Also, cyclooxygenase inhibition by anthocyanins was stimulated by abiotic elicitors, except for JA-sample. Additionally, HPLC-analysis indicated that elicitation with AA, JA and BABA caused increases in content most of all anthocyanin compounds.

  14. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  15. Identification of rice blast fungal elicitor-responsive genes by differential display analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, C Y; Lee, S H; Park, H C; Bae, C G; Cheong, Y H; Choi, Y J; Han, C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2000-04-01

    In order to study molecular interactions that occur between rice and rice blast fungus upon infection, we isolated fungal elicitor-responsive genes from rice (Oryza sativa cv. Milyang 117) suspension-cultured cells treated with fungal elicitor prepared from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) employing a method that combined mRNA differential display and cDNA library screening. Data base searches with the isolated cDNA clones revealed that the OsERG1 and OsERG2 cDNAs share significant similarities with the mammalian Ca2+-dependent lipid binding (C2) domains. The OsCPX1 cDNA is highly homologous to peroxidases. The OsHin1 cDNA exhibits homology to the tobacco hin1 gene, whose expression is induced by avirulent pathogens. The OsLPL1 and OsMEK1 cDNAs share homologies with lysophospholipases and serine/threonine mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases, respectively. The OsWRKY1 and OsEREBP1 cDNAs are homologous to transcription factors, such as the WRKY protein family and the AP2/EREBP family, respectively. Transcripts of the OsERG1, OsHin1, and OsMEK1 genes were specifically elevated only in response to the avirulent race KJ301 of the rice blast fungus. Our study yielded a number of elicitor-responsive genes that will not only provide molecular probes, but also contribute to our understanding of host defense mechanisms against the rice blast fungus.

  16. [Callose accumulation during treatment of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells with biotic elicitors].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianov, V I; Kravchuk, Zh N; Poliakovskiĭ, S A; Dmitriev, A P

    2008-01-01

    Time-course of induced accumulation of callose in tomato cells has been studied. Localization of callose in L. esculenthum cells was investigated by fluorescent microscopy technique, and the optimal time for its determination was found. Callose accumulation in tomato cells treated with different biotic elicitors was determined. Nonlinear dependence between callose accumulation and concentration of chitin oligomers (with 3-5 N-acetylglucosamine fragments) was established. Increasing of callose accumulation in tomato cells was proportional to the increase of concentration ofchitin dimer and chitosan in the culture medium.

  17. Conditioning of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) Suspension Cells Increases Elicitor-Induced Incorporation of Cell Wall Phenolics.

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, H.; Franke, R.; Krause, K.; Conrath, U.; Jeblick, W.; Grimmig, B.; Matern, U.

    1993-01-01

    The elicitor-induced incorporation of phenylpropanoid derivatives into the cell wall and the secretion of soluble coumarin derivatives (phytoalexins) by parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) suspension cultures can be potentiated by pretreatment of the cultures with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid or derivatives of salicylic acid. To investigate this phenomenon further, the cell walls and an extracellular soluble polymer were isolated from control cells or cells treated with an elicitor from Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea. After alkaline hydrolysis, both fractions from elicited cells showed a greatly increased content of 4-coumaric, ferulic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, as well as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin. Two minor peaks were identified as tyrosol and methoxytyrosol. The pretreatment effect is most pronounced at a low elicitor concentration. Its specificity was elaborated for coumarin secretion. When the parsley suspension cultures were preincubated for 1 d with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic, 4- or 5-chlorosalicylic, or 3,5- dichlorosalicylic acid, the cells exhibited a greatly increased elicitor response. Pretreatment with isonicotinic, salicylic, acetylsalicylic, or 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid was less efficient in enhancing the response, and some other isomers were inactive. This increase in elicitor response was also observed for the above-mentioned monomeric phenolics, which were liberated from cell walls upon alkaline hydrolysis and for "lignin-like" cell wall polymers determined by the thioglycolic acid method. It was shown for 5-chlorosalicylic acid that conditioning most likely improves the signal transduction leading to the activation of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase. The conditioning thus sensitizes the parsley suspension cells to respond to lower elicitor concentrations. If a similar mechanism were to apply to whole plants treated with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, a known inducer of systemic

  18. Elicitor modulation of the turnover of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in French bean cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M A; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J

    1980-12-01

    (1) The mechanisms underlying the transient increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity during phaseollin accumulation in cell suspension cultures of Dwarf French bean (Phaseolus volgaris) have been investigated using density labelling with 3H from 2H2O coupled with residual analysis of the equilibrium distribution of enzyme activity in high-resolution KBr density gradients. (2) The resolution achieved in this system is sufficient to allow quantitative analysis of the relative proportions of light, unlabelled, pre-existing enzyme and heavy, labelled, newly synthesised enzyme. (3) Elicitor released by heat treatment of cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of French bean, caused a marked but transient increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity concomitant with the onset of phaseollin accumulation in the bean cultures. The induction of enzyme activity was highly dependent on elicitor concentration, with maximum induction occurring in two discrete concentration ranges; at an intermediate elicitor concentration, or at supra-optimal elicitor concentrations, no enzyme induction was observed. (4) At low concentrations of elicitor the induction of enzyme was entirely a result of elicitor stimulation of the rate of de novo enzyme production. In contrast, at higher elicitor concentrations the increase in enzyme activity was accompanied by a marked apparent stabilization of the enzyme in vivo, and the rapid but transient increase in enzyme activity was achieved by a programme of reciprocal changes in the rate constant for de novo enzyme production and the rate constant for removal of enzyme activity. Such reciprocal control of the rates of enzyme production and removal may be crucial in determining the magnitude and duration of the phytoalexin defense response. (5) Information on the specific activity of 2H label in the amino acid pools was obtained from analysis of the equilibrium distribution of residual, labelled

  19. A Novel Role for the TIR Domain in Association with Pathogen-Derived Elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Schiff, Michael; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Tsao, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2007-01-01

    Plant innate immunity is mediated by Resistance (R) proteins, which bear a striking resemblance to animal molecules of similar function. Tobacco N is a TIR-NB-LRR R gene that confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus, specifically the p50 helicase domain. An intriguing question is how plant R proteins recognize the presence of pathogen-derived Avirulence (Avr) elicitor proteins. We have used biochemical cell fraction and immunoprecipitation in addition to confocal fluorescence microscopy of living tissue to examine the association between N and p50. Surprisingly, both N and p50 are cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, and N's nuclear localization is required for its function. We also demonstrate an in planta association between N and p50. Further, we show that N's TIR domain is critical for this association, and indeed, it alone can associate with p50. Our results differ from current models for plant innate immunity that propose detection is mediated solely through the LRR domains of these molecules. The data we present support an intricate process of pathogen elicitor recognition by R proteins involving multiple subcellular compartments and the formation of multiple protein complexes. PMID:17298188

  20. Upregulation of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins in edible legumes by light and fungal elicitor treatments.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ashish; Warber, Sara; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Duke, James A

    2003-06-01

    In this study, our working hypothesis was that continuous light and fungal elicitation treatment of legume seedlings would lead to enhanced levels of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins. Based on short-term light and dark treatments, isoflavonoid (genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin) and soluble protein concentrations were significantly upregulated in the "light" environment compared to the "dark" environment for all edible legume species (kudzu vine, soybean, garbanzo bean, fava bean, mung bean, adzuki bean) that were tested. Kudzu seedlings showed the highest levels of both isoflavonoids and soluble proteins after light-elicited upregulation compared to the other legumes analyzed. All legumes showed less up-regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis when treated with Phytophtora sojae fungal elicitor. Oligosaccharide fungal elicitor caused no such upregulation. The findings in this study show that edible legume seedlings have enhanced levels of isoflavonoids and soluble proteins when they are grown in the light compared to the conventional practice of growing such seedlings in the dark. This will clearly result in significant improvement in their nutritive and medicinal value.

  1. Elicitor-induced prolyl hydroxylase from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Localization, purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, G P; Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A

    1985-08-01

    The enzyme prolyl hydroxylase (proline: 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase, EC 1.14.11.12), induced in suspension-cultured cells of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean) by treatment with an elicitor preparation from the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, has been investigated. The enzyme, which catalyses the hydroxylation of poly-L-proline with the stoichiometric decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate, has been shown to be localized mainly in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. After solubilization from microsomal membranes, the hydroxylase was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on poly-L-proline-Sepharose 4B. The subunit Mr, as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/poly-acrylamide-gel electrophoresis, was 65 000, the subunit apparently being recovered as a doublet: the subunits associate under non-denaturing conditions to give at least a tetramer. The bean hydroxylase has kinetic properties and cofactor requirements similar to those previously reported for the enzyme from other plants. Elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured bean cells leads to a rapid induction of prolyl hydroxylase activity concomitant with induction of a protein: arabinosyl-transferase and increased levels of an arabinosylated hydroxyproline-rich protein.

  2. Transcriptional activation of plant defense genes by fungal elicitor, wounding, and infection.

    PubMed

    Lawton, M A; Lamb, C J

    1987-01-01

    Activation of plant defense genes was investigated by analysis of transcripts completed in vitro by isolated nuclei. Elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cells caused marked transient stimulation of transcription of genes encoding apoproteins of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGP) and the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS), concomitant with the onset of rapid accumulation of the respective mRNAs and hence expression of the phytoalexin (PAL, CHS), lignin (PAL), and HRGP defense responses. While there was a lag of 2 h prior to stimulation of HRGP gene transcription, induction of the transcription of PAL and CHS genes occurred within 5 min of elicitor treatment. Induction of transcription of PAL, CHS, and HRGP genes was also observed in wounded hypocotyls and in infected hypocotyls during race-cultivar-specific interactions with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose. Transcriptional activation occurred not only in directly infected tissue but also in distant, hitherto uninfected tissue, indicating intercellular transmission of an endogenous signal for defense gene activation. It is concluded that transcriptional activation of defense genes characteristically underlies induction of the corresponding defense responses and expression of disease resistance.

  3. Effect of fermentation parameters, elicitors and precursors on camptothecin production from the endophyte Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Dixit, Madhulika; Srivastava, Smita

    2016-04-01

    Volumetric productivity of camptothecin from the suspension culture of the endophyte Fusarium solani was enhanced up to ∼152 fold (from 0.19 μg l(-1) d(-1) to 28.9 μg l(-1) d(-1)) under optimized fermentation conditions including initial pH (6.0), temperature (32 °C) and agitation speed (80 rpm) with (5% (v/v)) ethanol as medium component. Among various elicitors and precursors studied, tryptamine (0.5 mM) as precursor and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.075 mM) as an elicitor added on day 6 of the cultivation period resulted in maximum enhancement of camptothecin concentration (up to 4.5 and 3.4-fold, respectively). These leads provide immense scope for further enhancement in camptothecin productivity at bioreactor level. The cytotoxicity analysis of the crude camptothecin extract from the fungal biomass revealed its high effectiveness against colon and mammary gland cancer cell lines.

  4. Regulation of sesquiterpene cyclase gene expression. Characterization of an elicitor- and pathogen-inducible promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, S; Mei, L; Newman, J; Back, K; Chappell, J

    1997-01-01

    The promoter for a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) sesquiterpene cyclase gene, a key regulatory step in sesquiterpene phytoalexin biosynthesis, has been analyzed. The EAS4 promoter was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, and the temporal and spatial expression patterns of GUS activity were examined in stably transformed plants and in transient expression assays using electroporated protoplasts of tobacco. No GUS activity was observed in any tissues under normal growth conditions. A low level of GUS activity was detected in wounded leaf, root, and stem tissues, whereas a much higher level was observed when these tissues were challenged with elicitors or microbial pathogens. The GUS expression pattern directed by the EAS4 promoter was identical to the induction patterns observed for the endogenous sesquiterpene cyclase genes. Neither exogenous salicylic acid nor methyl jasmonate induced GUS expression; and H2O2 induced GUS expression to only a limited extent. Although the EAS4 promoter contains cis-sequences resembling previously identified transcriptional control motifs, other cis-sequences important for quantitative and qualitative gene expression were identified by deletion and gain-of-function analyses. The EAS4 promoter differs from previously described pathogen-/elicitor-inducible promoters because it only supports inducible gene expression and directs unique spatial expression patterns. PMID:9342864

  5. Changes in the levels of off-flavor generation in soybean through biotic elicitor treatments.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Vinutha, T; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Kar, Abhijit; Rai, Raj D

    2015-01-21

    The nutritional benefits of soybean remain underutilized as the off-flavor present in it limits the consumption and acceptability among people. The aim of the present study was to unveil the effect of the phytohormones methyl jasmonate (MJ: 0, 50 μM, 1 mM, and 15 mM) and salicylic acid (SA: 0, 50 μM, 0.1 mM, and 10 mM) as elicitors on two contrasting off-flavor soybean varieties at different growth stages (1, bloom; 2, pod development; 3, seed development). The effects of two elicitors varied widely and were found to be dose dependent and growth stage independent. SA reduces the lipoxygenase (LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, which in turn resulted in reduction in the TBA number and carbonyl value in contrast to MJ. SA 0.1 mM is the most effective dose in reduction of off-flavor determining parameters and protein oxidation, and it reduces the LOX and HPL activity by 2.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively in "high off-flavor" cultivar 'Bragg' compared to "low off-flavor" cultivar 'DS 2706' which showed 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively. This reduction in protein oxidation is also supported by enhanced content of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, phytohormone SA can be used in reduction of off-flavor generation, more effectively than MJ treatments, in soybean.

  6. High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacterial genome sequences have revealed an immense reservoir of biosynthetic gene clusters, sets of contiguous genes that have the potential to produce drugs or drug-like molecules. However, the majority of these gene clusters appear to be inactive for unknown reasons prompting terms such as “cryptic” or “silent” to describe them. Because natural products have been a major source of therapeutic molecules, methods that rationally activate these silent clusters would have a profound impact on drug discovery. Herein, a new strategy is outlined for awakening silent gene clusters using small molecule elicitors. In this method, a genetic reporter construct affords a facile read-out for activation of the silent cluster of interest, while high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries provides potential inducers. This approach was applied to two cryptic gene clusters in the pathogenic model Burkholderia thailandensis. The results not only demonstrate a prominent activation of these two clusters, but also reveal that the majority of elicitors are themselves antibiotics, most in common clinical use. Antibiotics, which kill B. thailandensis at high concentrations, act as inducers of secondary metabolism at low concentrations. One of these antibiotics, trimethoprim, served as a global activator of secondary metabolism by inducing at least five biosynthetic pathways. Further application of this strategy promises to uncover the regulatory networks that activate silent gene clusters while at the same time providing access to the vast array of cryptic molecules found in bacteria. PMID:24808135

  7. Elicitor-Induced Spruce Stress Lignin (Structural Similarity to Early Developmental Lignins).

    PubMed Central

    Lange, B. M.; Lapierre, C.; Sandermann, H.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Picea abies (L.) Karst released polymeric material into the culture medium when treated with an elicitor preparation from the spruce needle pathogen Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii. The presence of lignin (about 35%, w/w) was demonstrated by phloroglucinol/HCI reactivity and quantitation with thioglycolic acid. Carbohydrate (about 14%, w/w) and protein (about 32%, w/w) were also detected. Amino acid analysis revealed that hydroxyproline and proline predominated. Thioacidolysis and subsequent Raney nickel desulfurization allowed the analysis of lignin-building units and interunit bonds. Compared with spruce wood lignin, an approximately 20-fold higher relative amount of p-hydroxyphenyl units was determined. A high content of p-hydroxyphenyl units is typical for certain developmental lignins, such as conifer compression wood and middle lamella lignins, as well as all induced cell culture lignins so far analyzed. Cross-linkages of the pinoresinol type ([beta]-[beta]) in the excreted cell culture lignin were markedly increased, whereas [beta]-1 interunit linkages were decreased relative to spruce wood lignin. The amount and nature of cross-linkages were shown to be intermediate between those in wood lignin and in enzymatically prepared lignins. In summary, the elicitor-induced stress lignin was excreted as a lignin-extensin complex that closely resembled early developmental lignins. PMID:12228544

  8. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  9. Metabolomics reveals biotic and abiotic elicitor effects on the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi terpenoid content.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Meyer, Achim; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-04-05

    The effects of six biotic and abiotic elicitors, i.e. MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), ZnCl2, glutathione and β-glucan BG (fungal elicitor), and wounding, on the secondary metabolite accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi were assessed. Upon elicitation, metabolites were extracted and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Except for MeJA, no differences in photosynthetic efficiency were observed after treatments, suggesting the absence of a remarkable stress on primary production. Chemometric analyses of UPLC-MS data showed clear segregation of SA and ZnCl2 elicited samples at 24 and 48 h post elicitation. Levels of acetylated diterpene and sterol viz., sarcophytonolide I and cholesteryl acetate, was increased in ZnCl2 and SA groups, respectively, suggesting an activation of specific acetyl transferases. Post elicitation, sarcophytonolide I level increased 132 and 17-folds at 48 h in 0.1 mM SA and 1 mM ZnCl2 groups, respectively. Interestingly, decrease in sarcophine, a major diterpene was observed only in response to ZnCl2, whereas no change was observed in sesquiterpene content following treatments. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first documentation for elicitation effects on a soft corals secondary metabolome and suggests that SA could be applied to increase diterpenoid levels in corals.

  10. Responses of Cultured Tobacco Cells to Cryptogein, a Proteinaceous Elicitor from Phytophthora cryptogea1

    PubMed Central

    Blein, Jean-Pierre; Milat, Marie-Louise; Ricci, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    In culture, the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora cryptogea secretes a protein which elicits hypersensitive-like necroses and protects tobacco plants against invasion by the pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae. This protein, named cryptogein, has been purified and its amino acid sequence determined. In this work, we studied the effect of cryptogein on tobacco cell suspension cultures. Cryptogein was lethal at about 0.10 micromolar. When added at sublethal doses, it elicited the production of ethylene and phytoalexins. It also induced a rapid increase in pH and conductivity of the extracellular medium without affecting the integrity of the plasma membrane. Cryptogein reduced the fusicoccin-induced acidification of the extracellular medium. The concentration which inhibited the fusicoccin response by 50% was 0.8 nanomolar, while 1 micromolar erythrosine B, an ATPase inhibitor, was needed to produce the same inhibition. However, cryptogein did not inhibit the activity of a purified plasma membrane ATPase. Results of binding studies with whole cells suggested the presence of elicitor-binding sites with a high affinity for cryptogein. The involvement of the plasma membrane during the initial interaction between elicitor and cells is discussed. PMID:16668010

  11. Effect of elicitors and precursors on azadirachtin production in hairy root culture of Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study involved strategies for enhancement in in vitro azadirachtin (commercially used biopesticide) production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica. Improvement in the azadirachtin production via triggering its biosynthetic pathway in plant cells was carried out by the exogenous addition of precursors and elicitors in the growth medium. Among the different abiotic stress inducers (Ag(+), Hg(+2), Co(+2), Cu(+2)) and signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) tested, salicylic acid at 15 mg l(-1) of concentration was found to enhance the azadirachtin yield in the hairy roots to the maximum (up to 4.95 mg g(-1)). Similarly, among the different biotic elicitors tested (filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrates of Phoma herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Myrothecium sp., Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotium rolfsii; yeast extract; and yeast extract carbohydrate fraction), addition of filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrate of C. lunata (1 % v/v) resulted in maximum azadirachtin yield enhancement in hairy root biomass (up to 7.1 mg g(-1)) with respect to the control (3.3 mg g(-1)). Among all the biosynthetic precursors studied (sodium acetate, cholesterol, squalene, isopentynyl pyrophosphate, mavalonic acid lactone, and geranyl pyrophosphate), the overall azadirachtin production (70.42 mg l(-1) in 25 days) was found to be the highest with cholesterol (50 mg l(-1)) addition as an indirect precursor in the medium.

  12. Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Qianliang; Su, Chunyan; Zheng, Chengjian; Jia, Min; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Luping

    2013-12-01

    Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system.

  13. Genetic signature of a range expansion and leap-frog event after the recent invasion of Europe by the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Michael C; Austerlitz, Fréderic; Giraud, Tatiana; Labbé, Frédéric; Papura, Daciana; Richard-Cervera, Sylvie; Delmotte, François

    2013-05-01

    Biologic invasions can have important ecological, economic and social consequences, particularly when they involve the introduction and spread of plant invasive pathogens, as they can threaten natural ecosystems and jeopardize the production of human food. Examples include the grapevine downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, an invasive species native to North America, introduced into Europe in the 1870s. We investigated the introduction and spread of this invasive pathogen, by analysing its genetic structure and diversity in a large sample from European vineyards. Populations of P. viticola across Europe displayed little genetic diversity, consistent with the occurrence of a bottleneck at the time of introduction. Bayesian coalescent analyses revealed a clear population expansion signal in the genetic data. We detected a weak, but significant, continental-wide population structure, with two geographically and genetically distinct clusters in Western and Eastern European vineyards. Approximate Bayesian computation, analyses of clines of genetic diversity and of isolation-by-distance patterns provided evidence for a wave of colonization moving in an easterly direction across Europe. This is consistent with historical reports, first mentioning the introduction of the disease in Bordeaux vineyards (France) and sub-sequently documenting its rapid spread across Europe. This initial introduction in the west was probably followed by a 'leap-frog' event into Eastern Europe, leading to the formation of the two genetic clusters we detected. This study shows that recent population genetics methods within the Bayesian and coalescence frameworks are extremely powerful for increasing our understanding of pathogen population dynamics and invasion histories.

  14. Artificial intelligence approach with the use of artificial neural networks for the creation of a forecasting model of Plasmopara viticola infection.

    PubMed

    Bugliosi, R; Spera, G; La Torre, A; Campoli, L; Scaglione, M

    2006-01-01

    Most of the forecasting models of Plasmopara viticola infections are based upon empiric correlations between meteorological/environmental data and pathogen outbreak. These models generally overestimate the risk of infections and induce to treat the vineyard even if it should be not necessary. In rare cases they underrate the risk of infection leaving the pathogen to breakout. Starting from these considerations we have decided to approach the problem from another point of view utilizing Artificial Intelligence techniques for data elaboration and analysis. Meanwhile the same data have been studied with a more classic approach with statistical tools to verify the impact of a large data collection on the standard data analysis methods. A network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the Italian national territory transmits 12 environmental parameters every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base. Other pedologic data is collected directly from the field and sent via Internet to the centralized data base utilizing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) running a specific software. Data is stored after having been preprocessed, to guarantee the quality of the information. The subsequent analysis has been realized mostly with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Collecting and analizing data in this way will probably bring us to the possibility of preventing Plasmospara viticola infection starting from the environmental conditions in this very complex context. The aim of this work is to forecast the infection avoiding the ineffective use of the plant protection products in agriculture. Applying different analysis models we will try to find the best ANN capable of forecasting with an high level of affordability.

  15. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Cutin monomers and surface wax constituents elicit H2O2 in conditioned cucumber hypocotyl segments and enhance the activity of other H2O2 elicitors

    PubMed

    Fauth; Schweizer; Buchala; Markstadter; Riederer; Kato; Kauss

    1998-08-01

    Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their epidermal surface and cut segments were conditioned to develop competence for H2O2 elicitation. Alkaline hydrolysates of cutin from cucumber, tomato, and apple elicited H2O2 in such conditioned segments. The most active constituent of cucumber cutin was identified as dodecan-1-ol, a novel cutin monomer capable of forming hydrophobic terminal chains. Additionally, the cutin hydrolysates enhanced the activity of a fungal H2O2 elicitor, similar to cucumber surface wax, which contained newly identified alkan-1,3-diols. The specificity of elicitor and enhancement activity was further elaborated using some pure model compounds. Certain saturated hydroxy fatty acids were potent H2O2 elicitors as well as enhancers. Some unsaturated epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids were also excellent H2O2 elicitors but inhibited the fungal elicitor activity. Short-chain alkanols exhibited good elicitor and enhancer activity, whereas longer-chain alkan-1-ols were barely active. The enhancement effect was also observed for H2O2 elicitation by ergosterol and chitosan. The physiological significance of these observations might be that once the cuticle is degraded by fungal cutinase, the cutin monomers may act as H2O2 elicitors. Corrosion of cutin may also bring surface wax constituents in contact with protoplasts and enhance elicitation.

  17. ZmPep1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis elicitor Peptide 1, regulates maize innate immunity and enhances disease resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize gene termed ZmPROPEP1. The gene was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1...

  18. Effect of methyl jasmonate, sodium selenate and chitosan as exogenous elicitors on the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts.

    PubMed

    Carvacho, Herna Barrientos; Pérez, Carmen; Zúñiga, Gustavo; Mahn, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli sprouts are a good source of secondary metabolites, exhibiting biological activity, such as polyphenols, whose concentration is affected by the exposure to exogenous elicitors. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium selenate, chitosan and methyl jasmonate, applied directly to the seeds or through irrigation, on the content and profile of phenolic compounds in broccoli sprouts. The effect on antioxidant activity was also investigated. Methyl jasmonate and chitosan decreased antioxidant capacity. Methyl jasmonate significantly decreased total polyphenols content in comparison with control sprouts, while chitosan significantly increased it. Sodium selenate had no statistical effect on antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols concentration. The polyphenols profile in sprouts was composed by quercetin, morine, genisteine, luteoline and sinapic acid. Elicitor type and concentration affected the synthesis of these compounds. Chitosan stimulated the synthesis of quercetin, sinapic acid and morine, whereas methyl jasmonate stimulated the synthesis of luteoline. Sodium selenate had no effect on polyphenols synthesis. The exposure of broccoli to the elicitors produced changes in the phenolic compounds profile of broccoli sprouts. Besides, the stimulation of phenolic compounds synthesis was elicitor-specific, thus opening the possibility of managing culture conditions to increase the content of a specific phenolic compound. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Two pathogenesis-related peroxidases in greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) leaves and cultured cells induced by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. and its elicitor.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, A; Vidhyasekaran, P; Samiyappan, R

    2001-01-01

    An elicitor has been isolated from Macrophomina phaseolina, the root rot and leaf blight pathogen of greengram. Suspension-cultured cells of greengram were established which responded to the fungal elicitor. When greengram leaves were inoculated with M. phaseolina two new peroxidases appeared. Similarly, two new peroxidases could be detected in suspension-cultured greengram cells when treated with the fungal elicitor. These peroxidases were purified by column chromatography and their molecular masses were 27 and 38 kDa. The new peroxidases detected in both leaves and cultured cells appear to be similar with the same molecular weights.

  20. Erwinia carotovora elicitors and Botrytis cinerea activate defense responses in Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Ponce de León, Inés; Oliver, Juan Pablo; Castro, Alexandra; Gaggero, Carina; Bentancor, Marcel; Vidal, Sabina

    2007-01-01

    Background Vascular plants respond to pathogens by activating a diverse array of defense mechanisms. Studies with these plants have provided a wealth of information on pathogen recognition, signal transduction and the activation of defense responses. However, very little is known about the infection and defense responses of the bryophyte, Physcomitrella patens, to well-studied phytopathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine: i) whether two representative broad host range pathogens, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E.c. carotovora) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea), could infect Physcomitrella, and ii) whether B. cinerea, elicitors of a harpin (HrpN) producing E.c. carotovora strain (SCC1) or a HrpN-negative strain (SCC3193), could cause disease symptoms and induce defense responses in Physcomitrella. Results B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora were found to readily infect Physcomitrella gametophytic tissues and cause disease symptoms. Treatments with B. cinerea spores or cell-free culture filtrates from E.c. carotovoraSCC1 (CF(SCC1)), resulted in disease development with severe maceration of Physcomitrella tissues, while CF(SCC3193) produced only mild maceration. Although increased cell death was observed with either the CFs or B. cinerea, the occurrence of cytoplasmic shrinkage was only visible in Evans blue stained protonemal cells treated with CF(SCC1) or inoculated with B. cinerea. Most cells showing cytoplasmic shrinkage accumulated autofluorescent compounds and brown chloroplasts were evident in a high proportion of these cells. CF treatments and B. cinerea inoculation induced the expression of the defense-related genes: PR-1, PAL, CHS and LOX. Conclusion B. cinerea and E.c. carotovora elicitors induce a defense response in Physcomitrella, as evidenced by enhanced expression of conserved plant defense-related genes. Since cytoplasmic shrinkage is the most common morphological change observed in plant PCD, and that harpins and B. cinerea induce this

  1. Yeast elicitor-induced stomatal closure and peroxidase-mediated ROS production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Uraji, Misugi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2010-11-01

    Yeast elicitor (YEL) induces stomatal closure. We investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) oscillations to clarify YEL signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. YEL induced ROS accumulation in guard cells. A peroxidase inhibitor [salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)] inhibited the stomatal closure and the ROS accumulation, but neither the atrbohD atrbohF mutation nor an NADPH oxidase inhibitor [diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI)] had any effect. An NO scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO)] inhibited the YEL-induced stomatal closure and SHAM abolished NO production. YEL-elicited [Ca(2+)](cyt) oscillations were inhibited by SHAM but not by the atrbohD atrbohF mutation. These results indicate that YEL induces stomatal closure accompanied by ROS production mediated by peroxidases and NO production.

  2. Plant defense induced in in vitro propagated banana (Musa paradisiaca) plantlets by Fusarium derived elicitors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Miral; Kothari, I L; Mohan, J S S

    2004-07-01

    Perception of microbial signal molecules is part of the strategy evolved by plants to survive attacks by potential pathogens. To gain a more complete understanding of the early signaling events involved in these responses, we used fungal components of Fusarium under in vitro condition and checked the rise in signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA), and marker enzymes in defense reactions against the pathogen. SA level increased by 21 folds in elicitor treated plantlets as compared to that of control plantlets and there was marked increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), peroxidase(POX), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) along with higher total phenolic content. Present results indicated that use of fungal components had successfully induced systemic resistance in in vitro cultured banana plantlets.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a protein elicitor Sm1 gene from Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rachel Silveira; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique Soller; de Siqueira, Saulo José Linhares; Noronha, Eliane Ferreira; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2014-04-01

    A small protein, cysteine-rich, designated SM1, produced by Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride, acts as elicitor for triggering plant defense reactions. We analyzed Sm1 gene expression of eight different strains of Trichoderma spp. grown on glucose, seeds or roots of beans. Regardless of the carbon source, T37 strain had significantly higher Sm1 expression and was chosen for further studies. When grown on different carbon sources, Sm1 expression was highest on galactose, bean seed, glucose and starch. Sm1 gene from T37 strain was cloned; it had a single exon, and encoded a protein of 138 amino acids, showing high sequence identity with some proteins belonging to the cerato-platanin family.

  4. Preharvest Application of Methyl Jasmonate as Elicitor Improves Yield and Phenolic Content of Artichoke.

    PubMed

    Martínez Esplá, Alejandra; Valero, Daniel; Martinez-Romero, Domingo; Castillo, Salvador; Giménez, María José; García-Pastor, María Emma; Serrano, Maria; Zapata, Pedro Javier

    2017-09-29

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment, as elicitor, of artichoke plants [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], on yield and quality attributes of artichokes, especially those related with individual phenolic content and antioxidant activity, at two harvest dates and along storage, were analyzed in this research. Plants treated gave higher yield of artichokes in comparison to control plants, with 0.55 kg more per plant. MeJa treatment also increased artichoke quality and phenolic content in the edible fraction at harvest and during storage at 2 °C for 28 days, due to accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids and luteolin derivatives. In addition, antioxidant activity was enhanced by MeJa treatment and correlated with total phenolic content. Results suggest that MeJa foliar application could be a simple and practice tool to improve yield and phytochemical content on artichokes, being elicitation a cheap and environmental friendly procedure to improve the health beneficial effects of artichoke consumption.

  5. Elicitors used as a tool to increase stilbenes in grapes and wines.

    PubMed

    Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Fernández-Fernández, José Ignacio; Crespo-Villegas, Oscar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2017-08-01

    Two preharvest treatments (methyl jasmonate or cell wall yeast) of grapevines (Monastrell and Tempranillo) were applied during two vintages (2014 and 2015) to check whether these elicitors enhanced stilbene accumulation in berries at the moment of harvest and in the corresponding wines elaborated with them. The main objective was checking the effect of treatment, variety and year on stilbene composition due to the interesting health-related properties of these compounds in both grapes and wines. The results pointed to inter-varietal and inter-annual differences, and that the treatments generally enhanced the stilbene composition of grapes and, particularly, of wines. The increase was more evident in Monastrell variety than in Tempranillo variety and in their wines more than their grapes during 2014 vintage but not during 2015 vintage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of nitric oxide signaling functions in tobacco cells challenged by the elicitor cryptogein.

    PubMed

    Lamotte, Olivier; Gould, Kevin; Lecourieux, David; Sequeira-Legrand, Anabelle; Lebrun-Garcia, Angela; Durner, Jörg; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David

    2004-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently emerged as an important cellular mediator in plant defense responses. However, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which NO participates in this signaling pathway is still in its infancy. We previously demonstrated that cryptogein, an elicitor of tobacco defense responses, triggers a NO burst within minutes in epidermal sections from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi). Here, we investigate the signaling events that mediate NO production, and analyze NO signaling activities in the cryptogein transduction pathway. Using flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry, we observed that cryptogein-induced NO production in tobacco cell suspensions is sensitive to nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and may be catalyzed by variant P, a recently identified pathogen-inducible plant nitric oxide synthase. NO synthesis is tightly regulated by a signaling cascade involving Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation events. Using tobacco cells constitutively expressing the Ca2+ reporter apoaequorin in the cytosol, we have shown that NO participates in the cryptogein-mediated elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ through the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The NO donor diethylamine NONOate promoted an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, which was sensitive to intracellular Ca2+ channel inhibitors. Moreover, NO appears to be involved in the pathway(s) leading to the accumulation of transcripts encoding the heat shock protein TLHS-1, the ethylene-forming enzyme cEFE-26, and cell death. In contrast, NO does not act upstream of the elicitor-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, the opening of anion channels, nor expression of GST, LOX-1, PAL, and PR-3 genes. Collectively, our data indicate that NO is intimately involved in the signal transduction processes leading to cryptogein-induced defense responses.

  7. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Bonasera, Jean M; Kim, Jihyun F; Beer, Steven V

    2006-01-01

    Background In the past decade, much work has been done to dissect the molecular basis of the defence signalling pathway in plants known as Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR). Most of the work has been carried out in model species such as Arabidopsis, with little attention paid to woody plants. However within the range of species examined, components of the pathway seem to be highly conserved. In this study, we attempted to identify downstream components of the SAR pathway in apple to serve as markers for its activation. Results We identified three pathogenesis related (PR) genes from apple, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8, which are induced in response to inoculation with the apple pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, but they are not induced in young apple shoots by treatment with known elicitors of SAR in herbaceous plants. We also identified three PR-1-like genes from apple, PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c, based solely on sequence similarity to known PR-1 genes of model (intensively researched) herbaceous plants. The PR-1-like genes were not induced in response to inoculation with E. amylovora or by treatment with elicitors; however, each showed a distinct pattern of expression. Conclusion Four PR genes from apple were partially characterized. PR-1a, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8 from apple are not markers for SAR in young apple shoots. Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank. PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c are not involved in defence response or SAR in young apple shoots; this conclusion differs from that reported previously for young apple seedlings. PMID:17029637

  8. Analysis of Nitric Oxide Signaling Functions in Tobacco Cells Challenged by the Elicitor Cryptogein1

    PubMed Central

    Lamotte, Olivier; Gould, Kevin; Lecourieux, David; Sequeira-Legrand, Anabelle; Lebrun-Garcia, Angela; Durner, Jörg; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently emerged as an important cellular mediator in plant defense responses. However, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which NO participates in this signaling pathway is still in its infancy. We previously demonstrated that cryptogein, an elicitor of tobacco defense responses, triggers a NO burst within minutes in epidermal sections from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi). Here, we investigate the signaling events that mediate NO production, and analyze NO signaling activities in the cryptogein transduction pathway. Using flow cytometry and spectrofluorometry, we observed that cryptogein-induced NO production in tobacco cell suspensions is sensitive to nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and may be catalyzed by variant P, a recently identified pathogen-inducible plant nitric oxide synthase. NO synthesis is tightly regulated by a signaling cascade involving Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation events. Using tobacco cells constitutively expressing the Ca2+ reporter apoaequorin in the cytosol, we have shown that NO participates in the cryptogein-mediated elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ through the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The NO donor diethylamine NONOate promoted an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, which was sensitive to intracellular Ca2+ channel inhibitors. Moreover, NO appears to be involved in the pathway(s) leading to the accumulation of transcripts encoding the heat shock protein TLHS-1, the ethylene-forming enzyme cEFE-26, and cell death. In contrast, NO does not act upstream of the elicitor-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, the opening of anion channels, nor expression of GST, LOX-1, PAL, and PR-3 genes. Collectively, our data indicate that NO is intimately involved in the signal transduction processes leading to cryptogein-induced defense responses. PMID:15122020

  9. Transcriptional Analysis of Distant Signaling Induced by Insect Elicitors and Mechanical Wounding in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Jurgen; Contreras, Claudia Fabiola; Viswanathan, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    When plants are under insect herbivore attack defensive measures are activated not only locally, but also in distant and systemic tissues. While insect elicitors (IE) abundant in the oral secretions of the attacking herbivore are essential in the regulation of induced defenses, little is known about their effects on systemic defense signaling in maize (Zea mays). The goal of this study was therefore to identify genetic markers that can be used to further characterize local and systemic signaling events induced by IE or mechanical wounding (MW). We selected genes for this study based on their putative involvement in signaling (allene oxide synthase), regulation of gene expression (transcription factor MYC7), and in direct defenses (ribosome inactivating protein) and analyzed their expression in different sections of the treated leaf as well as in systemic parts of the same plant. We found the most significant transcript accumulation of the selected genes after treatment with insect elicitors in those parts with increased JA levels. Additionally, treatment with IE did also induce the accumulation of MYC7 transcripts in basal parts of the treated leaf and systemically. MW, in contrast, did induce RIP and AOS only locally, but not MYC7. This local suppression of MYC7 was further studied by adding glutathione (GSH) as an electron donor to MW plants to quench putative α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, which build up to significant levels around the damage site. Indeed, GSH-treated MW plants accumulated MYC7 at the damage site and also produced more volatiles, suggesting a putative redox-regulatory element being involved in the suppression of MYC7. The results presented herein provide evidence for the specific induction of distant signaling events triggered by IE, most likely through electric signaling. Additionally, a putative role for MW-induced α, β-unsaturated carbonyls in the transcriptional regulation of defense genes was discovered. PMID:22511969

  10. Effects of elicitors on the production of resveratrol and viniferins in cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv Italia.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; Mulinacci, Nadia; Valletta, Alessio; Innocenti, Marzia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2011-09-14

    Methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid and chitosan were tested as elicitors on cell suspension cultures obtained from Vitis vinifera cv Italia to investigate their effect on stilbene production. Stilbene accumulation in the callus, grown under nonelicited conditions, was also investigated. Calli and cell suspensions were obtained in a B5 culture medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA and 1 mg L(-1) KIN. Stilbene determination was achieved by HPLC/DAD/MS. Whereas callus biosynthesized only piceid, cell suspensions elicited with jasmonates produced several stilbenes, mainly viniferins. In suspended cells, methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid were the most effective in stimulating stilbene biosynthesis, whereas chitosan was less effective; in fact, the amount of stilbenes obtained with this elicitor was not significantly different from that obtained for the control cells. The maximum production of total stilbenes was at day 20 of culture with 0.970 and 1.023 mg g(-1) DW for MeJA and JA, respectively.

  11. Catalase and alternative oxidase cooperatively regulate programmed cell death induced by beta-glucan elicitor in potato suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masashi; Tada, Yasuomi; Uchii, Kimitaka; Kawakami, Sachiko; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2005-04-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) suspension cells, the expression of the gene encoding alternative oxidase (AOX) and H2O2 accumulation were induced by treatment with beta-glucan elicitor. The inhibition of catalase activity enhanced both AOX mRNA expression and the production of H2O2, whereas the ascorbate peroxidase inhibitor did not have any effect on these responses. Simultaneous inhibition of catalase and AOX activities in elicited cells dramatically increased H2O2 accumulation, leading to the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and programmed cell death (PCD). The results demonstrate, for the first time, that not only AOX but also catalase plays a central role in the suppression of mitochondrial deltapsi(m) breakdown and PCD induced by beta-glucan elicitor.

  12. Secretome analysis of differentially induced proteins in rice suspension-cultured cells triggered by rice blast fungus and elicitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Tae; Kang, Young Hyun; Wang, Yiming; Wu, Jingni; Park, Zee Yong; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Kyu Young

    2009-03-01

    Secreted proteins were investigated in rice suspension-cultured cells treated with rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and its elicitor using biochemical and 2-DE coupled with MS analyses followed by their in planta mRNA expression analysis. M. grisea and elicitor successfully interacted with suspension-cultured cells and prepared secreted proteins from these cultures were essentially intracellular proteins free. Comparative 2-D gel analyses identified 21 differential protein spots due to M. grisea and/or elicitor over control. MALDI-TOF-MS and microLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of these protein spots revealed that most of assigned proteins were involved in defense such as nine chitinases, two germin A/oxalate oxidases, five domain unknown function 26 (DUF 26) secretory proteins, and beta-expansin. One chitin binding chitinase protein was isolated using chitin binding beads and strong enzymatic activity was identified in an in-gel assay. Interestingly, their protein abundance correlated well at transcript levels in elicitor-treated cultures as judged by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Each identified differentially expressed protein group was compared at transcript levels in rice leaves inoculated with incompatible (KJ401) and compatible (KJ301) races of M. grisea. Time-course profiling revealed their inductions were stronger and earlier in incompatible than compatible interactions. Identified secreted proteins and their expression correlation at transcript level in suspension-cultured cells and also in planta suggest that suspension-cultured cells can be useful to investigate the secretome of rice blast-pathogen interactions.

  13. A Novel Protein Elicitor (PeBA1) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NC6 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningbo; Liu, Mengjie; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Here we reported a novel protein elicitor from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NC6 induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco. The purification was executed by ion-exchange chromatography, native-page extraction and HPLC, and the amino acid sequence was identified by mass spectrometry. This recombinant elicitor protein, expressed in Escherichia coli by an E1 expression vector, had good thermal stability, and the elicitor caused a clearly defined hypersensitive response (HR) necrosis in tobacco leaves. It could also trigger early defence events, including generation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2-) and phenolic-compound accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) results indicated that several plant defence genes, including the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive PR1a, PR1b, PR5, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive PDF1.2 and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), were all up-regulated. Moreover, infiltration conferred systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. PMID:27194952

  14. Directed Proteomics Identifies a Plant-Specific Protein Rapidly Phosphorylated in Response to Bacterial and Fungal Elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Scott C.; Nühse, Thomas S.; Hess, Daniel; Iglesias, Alejandro; Meins, Fred; Boller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The perception of microbial signal molecules is part of the strategy evolved by plants to survive attacks by potential pathogens. To gain a more complete understanding of the early signaling events involved in these responses, we used radioactive orthophosphate to pulse-label suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis in conjunction with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are phosphorylated rapidly in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors. One of these proteins, AtPhos43, and related proteins in tomato and rice, are phosphorylated within minutes after treatment with flagellin or chitin fragments. By measuring 32P incorporation into AtPhos43 immunoprecipitated from extracts of elicitor-treated hormone and defense-response mutants, we found that phosphorylation of AtPhos43 after flagellin treatment but not chitin treatment is dependent on FLS2, a receptor-like kinase involved in flagellin perception. Induction by both elicitors is not dependent on salicylic acid or EDS1, a putative lipase involved in defense signaling. PMID:11402173

  15. A Novel Protein Elicitor (PeBA1) from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NC6 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningbo; Liu, Mengjie; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Here we reported a novel protein elicitor from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NC6 induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco. The purification was executed by ion-exchange chromatography, native-page extraction and HPLC, and the amino acid sequence was identified by mass spectrometry. This recombinant elicitor protein, expressed in Escherichia coli by an E1 expression vector, had good thermal stability, and the elicitor caused a clearly defined hypersensitive response (HR) necrosis in tobacco leaves. It could also trigger early defence events, including generation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2 (-)) and phenolic-compound accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) results indicated that several plant defence genes, including the salicylic acid (SA)-responsive PR1a, PR1b, PR5, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive PDF1.2 and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), were all up-regulated. Moreover, infiltration conferred systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

  16. Metabolic changes in elicitor-treated bean cells. Selectivity of enzyme induction in relation to phytoalexin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M P; Bolwell, G P; Dixon, R A

    1985-05-02

    Treatment of cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris c.v. Immuna with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid accumulation of the prenylated 5-hydroxyisoflavanone phytoalexin kievitone followed by later accumulation of the pterocarpan-derived phytoalexin phaseollin. Kievitone formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. The extractable activities of 15 enzymes were measured in the cell cultures during the period of kievitone accumulation. The results suggest a highly selective induction of enzymes associated directly with the phytoalexin pathway. No induction of enzymes of pathways diverging from or providing substrates for the phenylpropanoid----isoflavonoid pathway was observed. The increase in glutamate dehydrogenase activity in control cultures was prevented by elicitor application. A comparison of enzyme activities in control and Colletotrichum-infected bean hypocotyls provided further evidence of the selective induction of enzymes of phytoalexin synthesis, although peroxidase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase activities were higher in infected than in healthy hypocotyls. It is concluded that the major enzymic changes occurring in elicitor-treated bean cells are probably those directly associated with defence mechanisms such as the formation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins (this paper) or accumulation of phenolic compounds and hydroxyproline-protein in the cell walls [Bolwell, G. P. et al. (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 148, 571-578].

  17. Elevated yield of monacolin K in Monascus purpureus by fungal elicitor and mutagenesis of UV and LiCl.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Long; Zou, Xiao; Liu, Ai-Ying; Xiao, Tang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    In China, Monascus spp., a traditional fungus used in fermentation, is used as a natural food additive. Monascus spp. can produce a secondary metabolite, monacolin K namely, which is proven to be a cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive agent. Hence, recently, many researchers have begun focusing on how to increase the production of monacolin K by Monascus purpureus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the fungal elicitor and the mutagenesis of UV & LiCl on the amount of monacolin K produced by Monascus purpureus. The fugal elicitor, Sporobolomyces huaxiensis, was isolated from tea leaves and its filtrate was added into the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus during growth to induct the production of monacolin K. The results showed that the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the liquid fermentation was 446.92 mg/mL, which was produced after the fungal elicitor was added to the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus on the day 4; this amount was approximately 6 times greater than that of the control culture filtrate, whereas the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the mutated strain was 3 times greater than the control culture after the irradiation of UV light in the presence of 1.0 % LiCl in the medium.

  18. The bacterial elicitor flagellin activates its receptor in tomato cells according to the address-message concept.

    PubMed

    Meindl, T; Boller, T; Felix, G

    2000-09-01

    flg22, a peptide corresponding to the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin, acts as a potent elicitor in plants. Here, we have used an iodinated derivative of flg22 ((125)I-labeled Tyr-flg22) as a molecular probe for the flagellin receptor in tomato cells. This radioligand showed rapid binding to a single class of specific, saturable, high-affinity receptor sites in intact cells and membrane preparations. Binding, although essentially nonreversible under physiological conditions, was not covalent, and chemical cross-linking was required to specifically label a single polypeptide of 115 kD. Intact flagellin and elicitor-active flagellin peptides but not biologically inactive analogs efficiently competed for binding of radioligand. Peptides lacking the C terminus of the conserved domain, previously found to act as competitive antagonists of elicitor action in tomato cells, also competed for binding of radioligand. Thus, this novel, high-affinity binding site exhibited all the characteristics expected of a functional receptor of bacterial flagellin. For a model of receptor activation, we propose a two-step mechanism according to the address-message concept, in which binding of the N terminus (address) is the first step and activation of responses with the C terminus (message) is the second step.

  19. Evaluation of Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo grape stilbene content after field applications of elicitors and nitrogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Portu, J; López, R; Ewald, P; Santamaría, P; Winterhalter, P; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-08

    Stilbenes have a significant biological activity and are one of the most important non-flavonoid contributors to grape and wine health-related properties. The accumulation of this class of compounds could be favored by viticultural practices like the application of biostimulants. However, stilbenes concentration also depends on several factors, including e.g. grape variety. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar treatments carried out with elicitors (methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a commercial foliar spray (YD)) and nitrogen compounds (phenylalanine and urea) on the grape stilbene composition of three varieties: Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo. An UHPLC methodology was validated for stilbenes determination. Results showed that, despite the huge influence of the grape variety, YD significantly improved stilbene composition in Grenache and Graciano while MeJ increased the stilbene content in Graciano and Tempranillo. As for the nitrogen treatments, phenylalanine significantly increased the stilbenes concentration in Graciano, while urea treatment increased it in Tempranillo. However, the application of elicitors had a greater effect than the nitrogen compounds. Overall, the foliar application of the elicitors could be a suitable practice for increasing the amount of stilbenes in grape and therefore, its nutraceutical properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Rice C2-domain proteins are induced and translocated to the plasma membrane in response to a fungal elicitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cha Young; Koo, Yoon Duck; Jin, Jing Bo; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Sun Tae; Park, Byung Ouk; Lee, So Young; Kim, Man Lyang; Hwang, Inhwan; Kang, Kyu Young; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je

    2003-10-14

    Hundreds of proteins involved in signaling pathways contain a Ca(2+)-dependent membrane-binding motif called the C2-domain. However, no small C2-domain proteins consisting of a single C2-domain have been reported in animal cells. We have isolated two cDNA clones, OsERG1a and OsERG1b, that encode two small C2-domain proteins of 156 and 159 amino acids, respectively, from a fungal elicitor-treated rice cDNA library. The clones are believed to have originated from a single gene by alternative splicing. Transcript levels of the OsERG1 gene are dramatically elevated by a fungal elicitor prepared from Magnaporthe grisea or by Ca(2+) ions. The OsERG1 protein produced in Escherichia coli binds to phospholipid vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and is translocated to the plasma membrane of plant cells by treatment with either a fungal elicitor or a Ca(2+) ionophore. These results suggest that OsERG1 proteins containing a single C2-domain are involved in plant defense signaling systems.

  1. Regulation of expression of rice thaumatin-like protein: inducibility by elicitor requires promoter W-box elements.

    PubMed

    Hiroyuki, Kanzaki; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2008-09-01

    Rice thaumatin-like protein (Rtlp1) is a high-molecular-weight antimicrobial pathogenesis-related protein that plays a role in plant stress response. This study examines transcriptional regulation of Rtlp1 using wild type and transgenic rice plants carrying a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven by the Rtlp1 promoter (pRtlp1GUS). The Rtlp1 promoter is induced within 6 h after infection with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). The Rtlp1 promoter is also induced by salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), wounding or an elicitor from rice blast fungus. The function of the pRtlp1GUS reporter gene was analyzed by deletion mapping and transient expression assays in cell culture. A 120 bp truncated fusion construct with six W-boxes (5'-TGAC-3') demonstrated a strong dose-dependent elicitor-response. These results suggest that W-box elements are required for the response of the Rtlp1 promoter to fungal elicitors.

  2. A Novel Protein Elicitor (PaNie) from Pythium aphanidermatum Induces Multiple Defense Responses in Carrot, Arabidopsis, and Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Stefan; Wörle, Jörg Manfred; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Koch, Wolfgang; Seitz, Hanns Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    A novel protein elicitor (PaNie234) from Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cDNA was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. The heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (PaNie213) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota). Programmed cell death was determined using the tetrazolium assay and DNA laddering. Infiltration of PaNie213 into the intercellular space of leaves of Arabidopsis (Columbia-0, wild type) resulted in necroses and deposition of callose on the cell walls of spongy parenchyma cells surrounding the necrotic mesophyll cells. Necroses were also formed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin W38, wild type) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) but not in maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and Tradescantia zebrina (Bosse), indicating that monocotyledonous plants are unable to perceive the signal. The reactions observed after treatment with the purified PaNie213 were identical to responses measured after treatment with a crude elicitor preparation from the culture medium of P. aphanidermatum, described previously. The availability of the pure protein offers the possibility to isolate the corresponding receptor and its connection to downstream signaling-inducing defense reactions. PMID:11706166

  3. Stimulation of betacyanin synthesis through exogenous methyl jasmonate and other elicitors in suspension-cultured cells of Portulaca.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Nazmul H; Adachi, Taiji

    2003-09-01

    Betacyanin production in suspension-cultured cells of Portulaca was significantly enhanced by both abiotic and biotic elicitors. Betacyanin levels increased 1.3 and 1.5-fold over the controls in the presence of two abiotic elicitors (20 mumol/L CuSO4 and 100 mumol/L FeEDTA) and increased 1.8 and 1.6-fold in the presence of two biotic elicitors (0.5 mg/L beta-glucan and 0.5 mg/L chitosan). Maximum betacyanin synthesis with the two most effective elicitors was obtained when cultures were treated on day 1 and day 0 by beta-glucan and FeEDTA, respectively. A concentration-dependent response was exhibited by cultures treated with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJ). MJ alone at 0.1 mumol/L caused a 2.6-fold increase in betacyanin synthesis when administered to the suspension culture on day 3. However, no additive effect on betacyanin accumulation was observed in treatments, which combined MJ and beta-glucan or FeEDTA. Treatment with ibuprofen (IB), an inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis, reduced the level of betacyanin in cells cultured in standard medium at all concentrations tested (25, 50, 100 mumol/L). The effect of IB on betacyanin synthesis in the cells treated with MJ or beta-glucan, however, differed with the IB concentration applied. The two higher concentrations (50 and 100 mumol/L) of IB significantly reduced the betacyanin content while the lower concentration (25 mumol/L) did not show an adverse effect on the betacyanin enhancement triggered by MJ or beta-glucan. Our findings suggest that, in suspension-cultured cells of Portulaca, an MJ-mediated signal transduction pathway prominently exists in betacyanin synthesis. This pathway seems to act antagonistically towards beta-glucan-mediated signaling. As far as we know this is the first report on the elevation of betacyanin level by jasmonate or other elicitors in cell suspension cultures.

  4. New Synthetic Pyrazine Carboxamide Derivatives as Potential Elicitors in Production of Secondary Metabolite in In vitro Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Doležal, Martin; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Kubeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silymarin, an active polyphenolic fraction of Silybum marianum, and high flavonoid content of Fagopyrum possess various interesting biological activities. The substituted pyrazine-2-carboxamides were previously used as effective elicitors of studied secondary metabolites. Objective: To study the effect of new synthetic pyrazine carboxamide derivatives, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and 3-(3-((trifluoromethyl) benzyl) amino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), on flavonolignan and flavonoid production in S. marianum and Fagopyrumes culentum in vitro cultures. Materials and Methods: Callus and suspension cultures were cultured on MS medium containing α-naphtaleneacetic acid or 2,4-D. Three elicitor concentrations for different exposure times were tested. Dried and powdered samples of callus and suspension cultures were extracted with methanol and analyzed by DAD-HPLC. Results: Compound 1 showed as a good elicitor of taxifolin production. The effect on silymarin complex was less visible with a maximum between 24 and 48 h after 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. The detailed analysis showed that silychristin was the most abundant. Compound 2 was effective in rutin production only in callus culture with maximum 24 h and 168 h after application of 3.3756 ×10−3 mol/L concentration and 48 and 72 h after 3.3756 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. Conclusion: From the results of the performed experiments, it can be concluded that compound 1 shows to be suitable elicitor for enhanced production of taxifolin and silychristin in S. marianum, mainly when 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration was used, and compound 2 is suitable for increase rutin production in callus cultures and less appropriate for suspension cultures of F. esculentum. SUMMARY The influence of two new synthetic pyrazine-2-carboxamidesderivatives on secondary metabolite content of Silybum marianum and Fagopyrum esculentum in vitro cultures was tested.In S. marianum, the derivate N-(4

  5. New Synthetic Pyrazine Carboxamide Derivatives as Potential Elicitors in Production of Secondary Metabolite in In vitro Cultures.

    PubMed

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Doležal, Martin; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Kubeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, an active polyphenolic fraction of Silybum marianum, and high flavonoid content of Fagopyrum possess various interesting biological activities. The substituted pyrazine-2-carboxamides were previously used as effective elicitors of studied secondary metabolites. To study the effect of new synthetic pyrazine carboxamide derivatives, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and 3-(3-((trifluoromethyl) benzyl) amino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), on flavonolignan and flavonoid production in S. marianum and Fagopyrumes culentum in vitro cultures. Callus and suspension cultures were cultured on MS medium containing α-naphtaleneacetic acid or 2,4-D. Three elicitor concentrations for different exposure times were tested. Dried and powdered samples of callus and suspension cultures were extracted with methanol and analyzed by DAD-HPLC. Compound 1 showed as a good elicitor of taxifolin production. The effect on silymarin complex was less visible with a maximum between 24 and 48 h after 3.292 ×10(-4) mol/L concentration. The detailed analysis showed that silychristin was the most abundant. Compound 2 was effective in rutin production only in callus culture with maximum 24 h and 168 h after application of 3.3756 ×10(-3) mol/L concentration and 48 and 72 h after 3.3756 ×10(-4) mol/L concentration. From the results of the performed experiments, it can be concluded that compound 1 shows to be suitable elicitor for enhanced production of taxifolin and silychristin in S. marianum, mainly when 3.292 ×10(-4) mol/L concentration was used, and compound 2 is suitable for increase rutin production in callus cultures and less appropriate for suspension cultures of F. esculentum. The influence of two new synthetic pyrazine-2-carboxamidesderivatives on secondary metabolite content of Silybum marianum and Fagopyrum esculentum in vitro cultures was tested.In S. marianum, the derivate N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide showed as a good elicitor

  6. Use of meteorological radar to estimate leaf wetness as data input for application of territorial epidemiological model (downy mildew—Plasmopara viticola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicogna, A.; Dietrich, S.; Gani, M.; Giovanardi, R.; Sandra, M.

    The grapevine downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola) represents the most important disease of the grapevine in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (Italy). The development of this disease depends from the meteorological conditions and particularly by air humidity, rain and leaf wetness (LW here after). Forecast models can help the technicians of the extension services to predict the timing and the best technique to use in operative programs. Unfortunately these models require data, coming from meteorological stations which are often variable in space (e.g. rain, leaf wetness) and hardly spatializable. In the first part of this work, a case study is presented to show the great difference between maps of daily rain duration, obtained by radar, and those created by spatialization of data and obtained by weather stations. Then the possibility to use the radar rain maps appears very interesting to estimate LW over a large area. LW and daily rain measurements, obtained by 14 weather stations of Friuli-Venezia Giulia plain (Italy), are compared with rain maps obtained by polarimetric radar GPM-500 placed in Fossalon di Grado (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy). The reference measurements are made during two periods: from 1/4/2000 to 30/9/2000 and from 1/4/2001 to 30/9/2001. From radar maps rain measurements estimated are extracted above each weather station and these data are integrated for every hour. These radar data of hourly rain are compared to the corresponding measurementes of LW and rain obtained by weather stations. From this analysis it appears that there is a good correlation between the number of rain hours estimated by radar and the number of LW hours measured by stations: in the observed cases, the error found is lower than 2%; then radar has a good precision to estimate LW due to rain. Therefore the use of Radar is foretold to give meteorological inputs in simulation models that can work to evaluate the development of fungal diseases. In the second part a model to daily

  7. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  8. Accumulation of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs in response to fungal elicitor and infection.

    PubMed

    Showalter, A M; Bell, J N; Cramer, C L; Bailey, J A; Varner, J E; Lamb, C J

    1985-10-01

    Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are important structural components of plant cell walls and also accumulate in response to infection as an apparent defense mechanism. Accumulation of HRGP mRNA in biologically stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cells was monitored by blot hybridization with (32)P-labeled tomato genomic HRGP sequences. Elicitor treatment of suspension-cultured cells caused a marked increase in hybridizable HRGP mRNA. The response was less rapid but more prolonged than that observed for mRNAs encoding enzymes of phytoalexin biosynthesis. HRGP mRNA also accumulated during race:cultivar-specific interactions between bean hypocotyls and the partially biotrophic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose. In an incompatible interaction (host resistant) there was an early increase in HRGP mRNA correlated with expression of hypersensitive resistance; whereas, in a compatible interaction (host susceptible), marked accumulation of HRGP mRNA occurred as a delayed response at the onset of lesion formation. In both interactions, mRNA accumulation was observed in uninfected cells distant from the site of fungal inoculation, indicating intercellular transmission of an elicitation signal.

  9. The AVR4 elicitor protein of Cladosporium fulvum binds to fungal components with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Westerink, Nienke; Roth, Ronelle; Van den Burg, Harrold A; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2002-12-01

    The interaction between tomato and the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum complies with the gene-for-gene system. Strains of C. fulvum that produce race-specific elicitor AVR4 induce a hypersensitive response, leading to resistance, in tomato plants that carry the Cf-4 resistance gene. The mechanism of AVR4 perception was examined by performing binding studies with 125I-AVR4 on microsomal membranes of tomato plants. We identified an AVR4 high-affinity binding site (KD = 0.05 nM) which exhibited all the characteristics expected for ligand-receptor interactions, such as saturability, reversibility, and specificity. Surprisingly, the AVR4 high-affinity binding site appeared to originate from fungi present on infected tomato plants rather than from the tomato plants themselves. Detailed analysis showed that this fungus-derived, AVR4-specific binding site is heat- and proteinase K-resistant. Affinity crosslinking demonstrated that AVR4 specifically binds to a component of approximately 75 kDa that is of fungal origin. Our data suggest that binding of AVR4 to a fungal component or components is related to the intrinsic virulence function of AVR4 for C. fulvum.

  10. Enhanced bacoside production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri under the influence of abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish; Ahuja, Ashok; Gupta, Rajinder; Mallubhotla, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different abiotic elicitors [jasmonic acid, copper sulphate (CuSO4) and salicyclic acid] at varying concentrations on the stimulation of biomass and bacoside production in in vitro Bacopa monnieri shoot culture was studied. A systematic study conducted over a period of 35 days indicated that the maximum bacoside production (6.74 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) was obtained after a lag of 7 days and thereafter, the content decreased gradually to again increase at 28 days (5.91 mg g(-1) DW). Therefore, elicitation experiments were carried out over a period of 3, 6 and 9 days. The shoot cultures treated with 45 mg L(-1) of CuSO4 exhibited the highest bacoside content of 8.73 mg g(-1) DW (∼1.42-fold higher) than in control cultures (6.14 mg g(-1) DW). This study indicates the effectiveness of abiotic elicitation on bacoside production in in vitro shoot cultures of this medicinally important herb known for its memory-enhancing properties.

  11. Improvement of pseudojujubogenin glycosides production from regenerated Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and enhanced yield by elicitors.

    PubMed

    Kamonwannasit, Sirilak; Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2008-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. was studied for shoot induction and regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators. Stem explants cultured on medium containing 0.1 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) resulted in the highest number of shoots (117 shoots/explant). Regenerated plants from medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ contained the highest level of pseudojujubogenin glycosides [(30.62 +/- 1.29) mg/g dry wt] which was 2-fold higher than that of in vitro grown plants of the same age [(16.96 +/- 1.49) mg/g dry wt]. Plantlets regenerated from 0.1 mg/l TDZ also showed a high level of pseudojujubogenin glycosides [(27.94 +/- 1.19) mg/g dry wt]. The effect of elicitor on pseudojujubogenin glycosides accumulation in B. monnieri whole plant cultures was investigated. Chitosan at 150 mg/l and yeast extract at 2 mg/ml increased the pseudojujubogenin glycosides production [(40.83 +/- 2.24) mg/g dry wt and (40.05 +/- 2.37) mg/g dry wt, respectively] after 7 days, which was 6-fold higher than in the control cultures.

  12. Effects on grape amino acid concentration through foliar application of three different elicitors.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Portu, J; Santamaría, P; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    Elicitors play an important role in the defense against pathogens as an alternative to chemical pesticides by increasing secondary metabolites. Their effect on grape amino acid has been little investigated. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ), chitosan (CHT), and a yeast extract (YE) on grape amino acid composition, through foliar applications to grapevines. The must amino acid concentration was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that CHT and YE treatments decreased the must concentration of several amino acids, affecting total amino acid content (from 2364 to 1961, and 1818mg/L, respectively). However, MeJ treatment had a slight effect on grape amino acid content, increasing the concentration of Met (from 8.95 to 12.13mg/L) and Phe (from 7.96 to 9.29mg/L). It seems to be that, the resistance induction through CHT and YE treatments results in physiological costs to grapevines associated with a decrease on grape amino acid concentration. Consequently, MeJ applications, as a viticultural practice, could be a better tool than CHT and YE treatments, because did not affect grape amino acid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual variability in herbivore-specific elicitors from the plant's perspective.

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Halitschke, Rayko; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-08-01

    Lepidopteran larvae oral secretions and regurgitant (R), which contain a plethora of potential elicitors, are known to dramatically change a plant's wound response. We demonstrate, with a detailed microarray and secondary metabolite analysis, that the two most abundant fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the R of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) can account for all measured direct (trypsin proteinase inhibitor: TPI) and indirect (cis-alpha-bergamotene) defences, the endogenous jasmonic acid burst that elicits them, and 86% of the induced transcriptional changes (89% up and 83% down) in its native host Nicotiana attenuata and hence are necessary and sufficient for the Manduca-specific modulation of the wound response. FACs were not found in eggs, but detected in larvae of all instars after their first meal. FACs were found in all regions of the alimentary canal and in the frass, but did not occur in salivary or mandibular glands, extracts of which were not active in any assay. Individual larvae differed substantially in their FAC composition and two FAC chemotypes were discernible: N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine biased R and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamate biased R. We created synthetic blends of FACs to mimic these chemical phenotypes and determined whether plants respond differently to the different R chemotypes. Micorarray and TPI analysis revealed that plants do not differentiate. N. attenuata plants use FACs from feeding caterpillars to tailor their wound responses but do not use the variability in FAC ratios to recognize attack from an individual caterpillar.

  14. Enzymatic decomposition of elicitors of plant volatiles in Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Alborn, H T.; Teal, P E.A.; Tumlinson, J H.

    2001-07-01

    Feeding by larvae of Heliothis virescens induces cotton, corn and tobacco plants to release blends of volatile organic compounds that differ in constituent proportions from blends released when Helicoverpa zea larvae feed on the same plant species. The same elicitors (and analogs) of plant biosynthesis and release of volatiles, originally identified in oral secretions of Spodoptera exigua larvae, were also found in oral secretions of H. virescens and H. zea. However, relative amounts of these compounds, particularly N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine (volicitin), 17-hydroxylinolenic acid, and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, varied among batches of oral secretions, more so in H. virescens than in H. zea. This variation was due to cleavage of the amide bond of the fatty acid-amino acid conjugates by an enzyme, or enzymes, originating in the midgut. The enzymatic activity in guts of H. virescens was significantly greater than that found in guts of H. zea. Furthermore, H. zea frass contains N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in more than 0.1% wet weight, while this conjugate comprises only 0.003% wet weight in H. virescens frass. These results indicated that physiological differences between these two species affect the proportions of volicitin and its analogs in the caterpillars. Whether this causes different proportions of volatiles to be released by plants damaged by each caterpillar species is yet to be determined.

  15. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase-driven phytoalexin biosynthesis in elicitor-treated Pyrus pyrifolia cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Saini, Shashank Sagar; Teotia, Deepa; Gaid, Mariam; Thakur, Anirudh; Beerhues, Ludger; Sircar, Debabrata

    2017-08-01

    Pyrus pyrifolia (Asian pear) cell cultures respond to yeast extract (YE) treatment by accumulating benzoate-derived biphenyl phytoalexins, namely, noraucuparin and aucuparin. Biphenyl phytoalexins are defense-marker metabolites of the sub-tribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. The substrates for biphenyl biosynthesis are benzoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, which combine in the presence of biphenyl synthase (BIS) to produce 3,5-dihydroxybiphneyl. In the non-β-oxidative pathway, benzoyl-CoA is directly derived from benzoic acid in a reaction catalyzed by benzoate-CoA ligase (BZL). Although the core β-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid biosynthesis is well-understood, the complete cascade of enzymes and genes involved in the non-β-oxidative pathway at the molecular level is poorly understood. In this study, we report the detection of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BD) activity in YE-treated cell cultures of P. pyrifolia. BD catalyzes the conversion of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid. BD and BIS activities were coordinately induced by elicitor treatment, suggesting their involvement in biphenyl metabolism. Changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity preceded the increases in BD and BIS activities. Benzaldehyde was the preferred substrate for BD (Km=52.0μM), with NAD(+) being the preferred co-factor (Km=64μM). Our observations indicate the contribution of BD towards biphenyl phytoalexin biosynthesis in the Asian pear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbivore- and Elicitor- Induced Resistance in Groundnut to Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Induced defense was studied in three groundnut genotypes ICGV 86699 (resistant), NCAc 343 (resistant) and TMV 2 (susceptible) in response to Spodoptera litura infestation and jasmonic acid (JA) application. The activity of the oxidative enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and the amounts other host plant defense components [total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein content] were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in JA pretreated (one day before) plants and infested with S. litura, and JA application and simultaneous infestation with S. litura to understand the defense response of groundnut genotypes against S. litura damage. Data on plant damage, larval survival and larval weights were also recorded. There was a rapid increase in the activities of POD and PPO and in the quantities of total phenols, H2O2, MDA and protein content in the JA pretreated + S. litura infested plants. All the three genotypes showed quick response to JA application and S. litura infestation by increasing the defensive compounds. Among all the genotypes, higher induction was recorded in ICGV 86699 in most of the parameters. Reduced plant damage, low larval survival and larval weights were observed in JA pretreated plants. It suggests that pretreatment with elicitors, such as JA could provide more opportunity for plant defense against herbivores. PMID:22042128

  17. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significantly shorter and fresh weights and plant heights were significantly higher than those in the WT line. A transcriptomics study using digital gene expression profiling (DGE) was performed in transgenic and WT Arabidopsis. One hundred and thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified. In transgenic Arabidopsis, three critical regulators of JA biosynthesis were up-regulated and JA levels were slightly increased. Three important repressors of the ABA-responsive pathway were up-regulated, indicating that ABA signal transduction may be suppressed. One CML and two WRKY TFs involved in Ca2+-responsive pathways were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway may have been triggered. In conclusion, we show that PevD1 is involved in regulating several plant endogenous signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks to enhance resistance and promote growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:27489497

  18. Open Stomata 1 Kinase is Essential for Yeast Elicitor-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Adachi, Yuji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that yeast elicitor (YEL)-induced stomatal closure requires a Ca(2+)-dependent kinase, CPK6. A Ca(2+)-independent kinase, Open Stomata 1 (OST1), is involved in stomatal closure induced by various stimuli including ABA. In the present study, we investigated the role of OST1 in YEL-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis using a knock-out mutant, ost1-3, and a kinase-deficient mutant, ost1-2. YEL did not induce stomatal closure or activation of guard cell S-type anion channels in the ost1 mutants unlike in wild-type plants. However, YEL did not increase OST1 kinase activity in wild-type guard cells. The YEL-induced stomatal closure and activation of S-type anion channels were also impaired in a gain-of-function mutant of a clade A type 2C protein phosphatase (ABA INSENSITIVE 1), abi1-1C. In the ost1 mutants like in the wild type, YEL induced H2O2 accumulation, activation of non-selective Ca(2+)-permeable cation (ICa) channels and transient elevations in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) in guard cells. These results suggest that OST1 kinase is essential for stomatal closure and activation of S-type anion channels induced by YEL and that OST1 is not involved in H2O2 accumulation, ICa channel activation or [Ca(2+)]cyt elevations in guard cells induced by YEL.

  19. Elicitor-stimulated ion fluxes and O2− from the oxidative burst are essential components in triggering defense gene activation and phytoalexin synthesis in parsley

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Thorsten; Tschöpe, Markus; Colling, Christiane; Hahlbrock, Klaus; Scheel, Dierk

    1997-01-01

    Fungal elicitor stimulates a multicomponent defense response in cultured parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum). Early elements of this receptor-mediated response are ion fluxes across the plasma membrane and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), sequentially followed by defense gene activation and phytoalexin accumulation. Omission of Ca2+ from the culture medium or inhibition of elicitor-stimulated ion fluxes by ion channel blockers prevented the latter three reactions, all of which were triggered in the absence of elicitor by amphotericin B-induced ion fluxes. Inhibition of elicitor-stimulated ROS production using diphenylene iodonium blocked defense gene activation and phytoalexin accumulation. O2− but not H2O2 stimulated phytoalexin accumulation, without inducing proton fluxes. These results demonstrate a causal relationship between early and late reactions of parsley cells to the elicitor and indicate a sequence of signaling events from receptor-mediated activation of ion channels via ROS production and defense gene activation to phytoalexin synthesis. Within this sequence, O2− rather than H2O2 appears to trigger the subsequent reactions. PMID:9114072

  20. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  1. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  2. Rapid Activation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Elicitor-Treated Hybrid Poplar (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) Suspension-Cultured Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Mário Moniz; Subramaniam, Rajgopal; Williams, Frank E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    1992-01-01

    Elicitor induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism was investigated in suspension-cultured cells of the fast-growing poplar hybrid (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × Populus deltoides Marsh) H11-11. Treatment of cells with polygalacturonic acid lyase or two fungal elicitors resulted in rapid and transient increases in extractable l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities. The substrate specificity of the inducible 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity appeared to differ from substrate specificity of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity in untreated control cells. Large and transient increases in the accumulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase mRNAs preceded the increases in enzyme activities and were detectable by 30 minutes after the start of elicitor treatment. Chalcone synthase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferin β-glucosidase enzyme activities were unaffected by the elicitors, but a large and transient increase in β-glucosidase activity capable of hydrolyzing 4-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside was observed. Subsequent to increases in l-phenylalanine ammonialyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activities, cell wall-bound thioglycolic acid-extractable compounds accumulated in elicitor-treated cultures, and these cells exhibited strong staining with phloroglucinol, suggesting the accumulation of wall-bound phenolic compounds. ImagesFigure 7Figure 9 PMID:16668702

  3. Stimulation of de novo synthesis of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in relation to phytoalexin accumulation in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J

    1979-09-03

    (1) The regulation of the accumulation of the isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexin phaseollin in cell suspension cultures of Dwarf French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris/ has been investigated. (2) An elicitor preparation from cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of French bean, caused a marked accumulation of phaseollin in the cultures. The elicitor induced phaseollin accumulation to a level of 60% that obtained with the artificial elicitor autoclaved ribonuclease A and was maximally active at a concentration (weight basis) of at least 50 times lower than required for maximal response to ribonuclease. (3) Elicitor preparations from cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a fungal pathogen of soybean, and Botrytis cinerea, the common grey mould, were much less effective than the C. lindemuthianum wall-released elicitor. (4) There was a marked but transient increase in the extractable activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, the enzyme catalysing the first reaction in the biosynthesis of phaseollin from L-phenylalanine, in response to the elicitor from C. lindemuthianum. (5) Comparative density labelling with 2H from 2H2O indicated that the elicitor stimulates de novo synthesis of phenylalanine ammonie findings provide the basis of a scheme for elicitor induction of phytoalexin accumulation.

  4. Interfacing whispering gallery mode optical microresonator biosensors with the plant defense elicitor chitin.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Jeremy L; Yang, Yongqiang; Greenlief, C Michael; Stacey, Gary; Hunt, Heather K

    2014-10-01

    The biomaterial class of chitooligosaccharides (chitin), commonly found in insects and fungi, is one of the most abundant on earth. Substantial evidence implicates chitin in mediating a diverse array of plant cellular signaling events, including the induction of plant defense mechanisms against invading pests. However, these recognition and mediation mechanisms, including the binding kinetics between chitin and their plant recognition receptors, are not fully understood. Therefore, the creation of a platform capable of both interfacing with chitin and plant cell receptors, and monitoring their interactions, would significantly advance our understanding of this plant defense elicitor. Recently, a label-free, highly sensitive biosensor platform, based on Whispering Gallery Mode optical microresonators, has been developed to study such biomolecular interactions. Here, we demonstrate how this unique platform can be interfaced with chitin using simple carbohydrate chemistry. The surface chemistry is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, optical profilometry, ellipsometry, and contact angle measurements. The resulting surface is uniform, with an average surface roughness of 1.25nm, and is active toward chitin recognition elements. Optical loss measurements using standard quantitative cavity analysis techniques demonstrate that the bioconjugated platforms maintain the high performance (Q>10(6)) required to track binding interactions in this system. The platform is able to detect lectin, which binds COs, at 10μg/mL concentration. This biosensor platform's unique capabilities for label-free, high sensitivity biodetection, when properly interfaced with the biomaterials of interest, could provide the basis for a robust analytical technique to probe the binding dynamics of chitin-plant cell receptors.

  5. Phosphoproteome analysis of B. cinerea in response to different plant-based elicitors.

    PubMed

    Liñeiro, Eva; Chiva, Cristina; Cantoral, Jesús M; Sabido, Eduard; Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-29

    The phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea is a ubiquitous fungus with a high capacity to adapt its metabolism to different hosts and environmental conditions in order to deploy a variety of virulence and pathogenicity factors and develop a successful plant infection. Here we report the first comparative phosphoproteomic study of B. cinerea, aimed to analyze the phosphoprotein composition of the fungus and its changes under different phenotypical conditions induced by two different carbon sources as plant based elicitors: glucose and deproteinized tomato cell wall (TCW). A total of 2854 and 2269 different phosphosites (2883 and 1137 phosphopeptides) were identified in glucose and TCW respectively, which map to 1338 phosphoproteins in glucose and 733 in TCW. Out of the identified phosphoproteins, 173 were exclusively found when glucose was the only carbon source and 11 when the carbon source was TCW. Differences in the pattern of phosphorylation-sites were also detected according to the carbon source. Gene ontology classification of the identified phosphoproteins showed that most of the characteristic proteins of the different carbon sources were related to signalling and transmembrane transport, thus highlighting the importance of these processes in the fungal adaptation to the surrounding conditions. The characterization of the B. cinerea phosphoproteome under different induction conditions reported here is the first comparative phosphoproteomic approach in this model phytopathogenic fungus. The identified phosphopeptides contribute to expand the map of known phosphoproteins in this pathogen and the observed changes according to the used carbon source contribute to understand the adaptation of the fungus to the environment changes. This knowledge improves the understanding of the adaptation mechanism, defines the role of the phosphoproteins involved in this process, and enables the advance in the design of novel strategies against the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  6. Aphid antixenosis in cotton is activated by the natural plant defence elicitor cis-jasmone.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Caulfield, John C; Mayon, Patrick; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Upon insect herbivory, plants can release blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that modify herbivore and natural enemy behaviour. We have shown recently that cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, emits a blend of defence VOCs that repels the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, upon herbivory by this notorious crop pest, including (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT). In this study, we investigated changes in the defence VOC profile of G. hirsutum induced by the naturally-occurring plant elicitor cis-jasmone (CJ) and whether these changes modify the behaviour of A. gossypii. In four-arm olfactometer assays, VOCs from untreated plants were significantly attractive (P<0.05), whilst VOCs from CJ-treated plants were significantly repellent (P<0.05). The VOCs induced by CJ appeared to comprise (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, DMNT, methyl salicylate and TMTT. In quantitative VOC collection studies, sustained release of DMNT and TMTT was observed in CJ-treated plants over a period of five days, with levels becoming statistically significantly higher than for control treated plants on the fifth day in most cases. Despite earlier indications, no statistically significant differences were observed in levels of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate or methyl salicylate between CJ and control treatments on any day. Furthermore, DMNT and TMTT emissions from CJ-treated plants were further enhanced by subsequent addition of A. gossypii. CJ treatment induced statistically significantly higher DMNT and TMTT expression levels as early as day three, when A. gossypii was present. The results in this study show that CJ can induce the production of A. gossypii-induced VOCs from G. hirsutum, with potential for deployment in novel crop protection strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a pine multigene family containing elicitor-responsive stilbene synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Preisig-Müller, R; Schwekendiek, A; Brehm, I; Reif, H J; Kindl, H

    1999-01-01

    Young pine seedlings respond to environmental stress by induced synthesis of pinosylvin, a stilbene phytoalexin. Heartwood of pine trees is characterized by a high content of pinosylvin. The formation of pinosylvin from cinnamoyl-CoA and three molecules malonyl-CoA catalysed by pinosylvin synthase is typical of the genus Pinus. Its enzyme activity not detectable in unstressed seedlings is substantially increased upon application of stimuli like UV-light or infection with the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. A genomic DNA library was screened with pinosylvin synthase cDNA pSP-54 as a probe. Ten clones were isolated and grouped into five subclasses according to the size of their introns. After subcloning into plasmid T7T3, four different members of the five gene subclasses were characterized by sequencing. Emphasis was put on isolating various promoters and analyzing and comparing their responsiveness. The amino acid sequences deduced from genes PST-1, PST-2, PST-3 and PST-5 shared an overall identity of more than 95%. In gene PST-5, the putative translation start site ATG was replaced by CTG. While promoter regions near the TATAA box were almost identical PST-1, PST-2 and PST-3, further upstream sequences differed substantially. Differences in promoter strength were analysed both in transgenic tobacco plants and by transient expression in tobacco protoplasts. Constructs used contained the bacterial beta-glucuronidase under the control of the promoters of pine genes PST-1, PST-2 and PST-3. Upon treatment with UV light or fungal elicitor, the promoter of PST-1 showed highest responsiveness and led to tissue-specific expression in vascular bundles. The data suggest that in pine the gene product of PST-1 is responsible for both the stress response in seedlings and pinosylvin formation in the heartwood.

  8. Enhancement of folate content and its stability using food grade elicitors in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Folate (vitamin B₉) content was evaluated in 10 varieties of coriander with the aim of enhancing its concentration and stability, because of three reasons: 1) coriander is among a few widely used greens in the world and suits many cuisines, 2) folate deficiency is prevalent in developing countries causing anaemia, infant mortality and neural tube closure defects, and 3) natural folate is preferred due to doubts about health risks associated with the synthetic form. In C. sativum, the highest folate content of 1,577 μg/100 g DW was found in var. GS4 Multicut foliage of mature plants (marketable stage) with an insignificantly higher content (1,599.74 μg/100 g DW) at flowering, which is a stage not preferred in markets. In callus cultures treated with plant growth regulators (GRs) (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and abscisic acid) substantial increase in folate occurred after 6 h, whereas elicitors (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) caused rapid 2-fold increase of folate, particularly in response to salicylic acid. Based on these observations, foliar applications were done for in vivo plants, where salicylic acid (250 μM, 24 h) also enhanced folate level by 2-folds (3,112.33 μg/100 g DW), although the content varied with diurnal rhythms. Stability of folates in treated coriander foliage was 10 % higher than in untreated foliage when stored at 25 °C and 4 °C. This study has established for the first time that coriander foliage is rich in folates, which can be doubled by elicitation and impart 10 % more stability than control during processing and storage.

  9. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  10. The Synthetic Elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) Triggers Strong Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Tomato.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Schroeder, Mercedes; Gomez, Adilene; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. They can protect plants from diseases by activating host immune responses and can serve as tools for the dissection of the plant immune system as well as leads for the development of environmentally-safe pesticide alternatives. By high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate expression of the pathogen-responsive CaBP22(-333)::GUS reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), 33 of which are [(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (PMP) derivatives or PMP-related compounds. Here we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol (DPMP). DPMP strongly triggers disease resistance of Arabidopsis against bacterial and oomycete pathogens. By mRNA-seq analysis we found transcriptional profiles triggered by DPMP to resemble typical defense-related responses.

  11. Differences in the biochemical compositions and elicitor activity of extracellular components produced by three races of a fungal plant pathogen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A J

    1980-12-01

    High molecular weight products from the alpha, beta, and gamma races of Colletotrichum lin- differed in their carbohydrate and protein compositions and in their abilities to elicit symptoms of a hypersensitive response in dark red kidney bean. The neutral sugar composition of the products varied in their proportions of rhamnose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the protein components to be more numerous in the beta race products than in the alpha or gamma race products. Each protein band co-stained for carbohydrate. Highest elicitor activity was observed in the products from the alpha race, a race avirulent on dark red kidney. The products from the weakly virulent gamma race were about 10-fold less active as elicitors than those of the alpha race. With the beta race, a race highly virulent on dark red kidney, elicitor activity was 100-fold less than that of the alpha race.

  12. Light and Fungal Elicitor Induce 3-Deoxy-d-arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase mRNA in Suspension Cultured Cells of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Henstrand, John M.; McCue, Kent F.; Brink, Kent; Handa, Avtar K.; Herrmann, Klaus M.; Conn, Eric E.

    1992-01-01

    Light and fungal elicitor induce mRNA encoding 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase in suspension cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.). The kinetics and dose response of mRNA accumulation were similar for DAHP synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Six micrograms of elicitor from Phytophthora megasperma f. glycinia gave a detectable induction within 1 hour. Induction of DAHP synthase and PAL mRNAs by light was transient, reaching maximal levels at 4 hours and returning to pretreatment levels after 24 hours. Our data suggest that either light or fungal elicitor transcriptionally activate DAHP synthase. A coordinate regulation for key enzymes in the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites is indicated. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668708

  13. The Synthetic Elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) Triggers Strong Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Schroeder, Mercedes; Gomez, Adilene; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. They can protect plants from diseases by activating host immune responses and can serve as tools for the dissection of the plant immune system as well as leads for the development of environmentally-safe pesticide alternatives. By high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate expression of the pathogen-responsive CaBP22−333::GUS reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), 33 of which are [(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (PMP) derivatives or PMP-related compounds. Here we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol (DPMP). DPMP strongly triggers disease resistance of Arabidopsis against bacterial and oomycete pathogens. By mRNA-seq analysis we found transcriptional profiles triggered by DPMP to resemble typical defense-related responses. PMID:27412821

  14. The Synthetic Elicitor 2-(5-Bromo-2-Hydroxy-Phenyl)-Thiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid Links Plant Immunity to Hormesis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Bektas, Yasemin; Schroeder, Mercedes; Knoth, Colleen; Vu, Trang; Roberts, Philip; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that induce plant immune responses but are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. Using high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate the expression of a pathogen-responsive reporter gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (BHTC). BHTC induces disease resistance of plants against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogens and has a unique mode of action and structure. Surprisingly, we found that low doses of BHTC enhanced root growth in Arabidopsis, while high doses of this compound inhibited root growth, besides inducing defense. These effects are reminiscent of the hormetic response, which is characterized by low-dose stimulatory effects of a wide range of agents that are toxic or inhibitory at higher doses. Like its effects on defense, BHTC-induced hormesis in Arabidopsis roots is partially dependent on the WRKY70 transcription factor. Interestingly, BHTC-induced root hormesis is also affected in the auxin-response mutants axr1-3 and slr-1. By messenger RNA sequencing, we uncovered a dramatic difference between transcriptional profiles triggered by low and high doses of BHTC. Only high levels of BHTC induce typical defense-related transcriptional changes. Instead, low BHTC levels trigger a coordinated intercompartmental transcriptional response manifested in the suppression of photosynthesis- and respiration-related genes in the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria as well as the induction of development-related nuclear genes. Taken together, our functional characterization of BHTC links defense regulation to hormesis and provides a hypothetical transcriptional scenario for the induction of hormetic root growth.

  15. Metabolic changes in elicitor-treated bean cells. Enzymic responses associated with rapid changes in cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, G P; Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A

    1985-05-02

    Treatment of cell suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris c.v. Immuna) with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid changes in the composition of the bean cell walls. These consisted of (a) increases in phenolic material bound to the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions of the wall, (b) loss of material (mainly glucose) from the hemicellulosic fraction and (c) an increase in wall-associated hydroxyproline. The increases in wall-bound phenolics were preceded by (a) rapid decreases in the intracellular levels of free hydroxycinnamic acids and (b) transient increases in the extractable activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. 4-Hydroxycinnamic acid 3-hydroxylase activity was present at a high level in control cultures and was not induced by elicitor. Changes in the levels of cytochrome P-450, as determined by dot blot assays utilising an anti-(P-450) monoclonal antibody, paralleled the changes in cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase activity. The accumulation of cell wall hydroxyproline was associated with rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of proline 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase and a protein arabinosyl transferase. An hydroxyproline-rich acceptor protein of Mr 42 500 was the major protein to incorporate [3H]arabinose following elicitation of the bean cells, and the kinetics of the extent of labelling of this protein paralleled the accumulation of hydroxyproline protein in the endomembrane system. The above metabolic changes associated with cell wall components followed rapid kinetics similar to those involved in the formation of the phytoalexin kievitone in the elicited cultures [Robbins, M. P. et al. (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 148, 563-569]. It is therefore concluded that increased 5-hydroxy-substituted isoflavonoid biosynthesis, wall-bound phenolic synthesis and synthesis of arabinosylated hydroxyproline-rich protein

  16. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, John W.; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  19. Cowpea Chloroplastic ATP Synthase Is the Source of Multiple Plant Defense Elicitors during Insect Herbivory12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Eric A.; LeClere, Sherry; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Teal, Peter E.A.

    2007-01-01

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory and oral secretions (OS) elicit phytohormone production and volatile emission due to inceptin [Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA−], a peptide derived from chloroplastic ATP synthase γ-subunit (cATPC) proteins. Elicitor-induced plant volatiles can function as attractants for natural enemies of insect herbivores. We hypothesized that inceptins are gut proteolysis products and that larval OS should contain a mixture of related peptides. In this study, we identified three additional cATPC fragments, namely Vu-GE+In [+GEICDINGVCVDA−], Vu-E+In [+EICDINGVCVDA−], and Vu-In−A [+ICDINGVCVD−]. Leaf bioassays for induced ethylene (E) production demonstrated similar effective concentration50 values of 68, 45, and 87 fmol leaf−1 for Vu-In, Vu-E+In, and Vu-GE+In, respectively; however, Vu-In−A proved inactive. Shortly following ingestion of recombinant proteins harboring cATPC sequences, larval OS revealed similar concentrations of the three elicitors with 80% of the potential inceptin-related peptides recovered. Rapidly shifting peptide ratios over time were consistent with continued proteolysis and preferential stability of inceptin. Likewise, larvae ingesting host plants with inceptin precursors containing an internal trypsin cleavage site rapidly lost OS-based elicitor activity. OS containing inceptin elicited a rapid and sequential induction of defense-related phytohormones jasmonic acid, E, and salicylic acid at 30, 120, and 240 min, respectively, and also the volatile (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Similar to established peptide signals such as systemin and flg22, amino acid substitutions of Vu-In demonstrate an essential role for aspartic acid residues and an unaltered C terminus. In cowpea, insect gut proteolysis following herbivory generates inappropriate fragments of an essential metabolic enzyme enabling plant non-self-recognition. PMID:17369425

  20. Constitutive expression of clathrin hub hinders elicitor-induced clathrin-mediated endocytosis and defense gene expression in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Adam, T; Bouhidel, K; Der, C; Robert, F; Najid, A; Simon-Plas, F; Leborgne-Castel, N

    2012-09-21

    Endocytosis has been recently implicated in the signaling network associated with the recognition of microbes by plants. In a previous study, we showed that the elicitor cryptogein was able to induce clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in tobacco suspension cells. Herein, we investigate further the induced CME by means of a GFP-tagged clathrin light chain and a CME inhibitor, the hub domain of clathrin heavy chain. Hub constitutive expression does affect neither cell growth nor constitutive endocytosis but abolishes cryptogein-induced CME. Such an inhibition has no impact on early events in the cryptogein signaling pathway but reduces the expression of defense-associated genes.

  1. Nitric Oxide Synthase-Mediated Phytoalexin Accumulation in Soybean Cotyledons in Response to the Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis Elicitor1

    PubMed Central

    Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Braga, Márcia Regina; Salgado, Ione

    2002-01-01

    Phytoalexin biosynthesis is part of the defense mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) plants against attack by the fungus Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm), the causal agent of stem canker disease. The treatment of soybean cotyledons with Dpm elicitor or with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, resulted in a high accumulation of phytoalexins. This response did not occur when SNP was replaced by ferricyanide, a structural analog of SNP devoid of the NO moiety. Phytoalexin accumulation induced by the fungal elicitor, but not by SNP, was prevented when cotyledons were pretreated with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The Dpm elicitor also induced NOS activity in soybean tissues proximal to the site of inoculation. The induced NOS activity was Ca2+- and NADPH-dependent and was sensitive to the NOS inhibitors NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, aminoguanidine, and l-N6-(iminoethyl) lysine. NOS activity was not observed in SNP-elicited tissues. An antibody to brain NOS labeled a 166-kD protein in elicited and nonelicited cotyledons. Isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), pterocarpans (glyceollins), and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) were identified after exposure to the elicitor or SNP, although the accumulation of glyceollins and apigenin was limited in SNP-elicited compared with fungal-elicited cotyledons. NOS activity preceded the accumulation of these flavonoids in tissues treated with the Dpm elicitor. The accumulation of these metabolites was faster in SNP-elicited than in fungal-elicited cotyledons. We conclude that the response of soybean cotyledons to Dpm elicitor involves NO formation via a constitutive NOS-like enzyme that triggers the biosynthesis of antimicrobial flavonoids. PMID:12427995

  2. Molecular sensing of bacteria in plants. The highly conserved RNA-binding motif RNP-1 of bacterial cold shock proteins is recognized as an elicitor signal in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Felix, Georg; Boller, Thomas

    2003-02-21

    To detect microbial infection multicellular organisms have evolved sensing systems for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Here, we identify bacterial cold shock protein (CSP) as a new such PAMP that acts as a highly active elicitor of defense responses in tobacco. Tobacco cells perceive a conserved domain of CSP and synthetic peptides representing 15 amino acids of this domain-induced responses at subnanomolar concentrations. Central to the elicitor-active domain is the RNP-1 motif KGFGFITP, a motif conserved also in many RNA- and DNA-binding proteins of eukaryotes. Csp15-Nsyl, a peptide representing the domain with highest homology to csp15 in a protein of Nicotiana sylvestris exhibited only weak activity in tobacco cells. Crystallographic and genetic data from the literature show that the RNP-1 domain of bacterial CSPs resides on a protruding loop and exposes a series of aromatic and basic side chains to the surface that are essential for the nucleotide-binding activity of CSPs. Similarly, these side chains were also essential for elicitor activity and replacement of single residues in csp15 with Ala strongly reduced or abolished activity. Most strikingly, csp15-Ala10, a peptide with the RNP-1 motif modified to KGAGFITP, lacked elicitor activity but acted as a competitive antagonist for CSP-related elicitors. Bacteria commonly have a small family of CSP-like proteins including both cold-inducible and noninducible members, and Csp-related elicitor activity was detected in extracts from all bacteria tested. Thus, the CSP domain containing the RNP-1 motif provides a structure characteristic for bacteria in general, and tobacco plants have evolved a highly sensitive chemoperception system to detect this bacterial PAMP.

  3. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression in the response of rice plants to fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Baldrich, Patricia; Campo, Sonia; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Liu, Tze-Tze; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; San Segundo, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have important regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress. Increasing evidence also supports that plant miRNAs contribute to immune responses to pathogens. Here, we used deep sequencing of small RNA libraries for global identification of rice miRNAs that are regulated by fungal elicitors. We also describe 9 previously uncharacterized miRNAs in rice. Combined small RNA and degradome analyses revealed regulatory networks enriched in elicitor-regulated miRNAs supported by the identification of their corresponding target genes. Specifically, we identified an important number of miRNA/target gene pairs involved in small RNA pathways, including miRNA, heterochromatic and trans-acting siRNA pathways. We present evidence for miRNA/target gene pairs implicated in hormone signaling and cross-talk among hormone pathways having great potential in regulating rice immunity. Furthermore, we describe miRNA-mediated regulation of Conserved-Peptide upstream Open Reading Frame (CPuORF)-containing genes in rice, which suggests the existence of a novel regulatory network that integrates miRNA and CPuORF functions in plants. The knowledge gained in this study will help in understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in rice immunity and develop appropriate strategies for rice protection.

  4. Chalcone isomerase cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor, wounding and infection.

    PubMed

    Mehdy, M C; Lamb, C J

    1987-06-01

    The environmentally regulated synthesis of phenylpropanoid natural products was studied by examining the expression of the gene encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI). This enzyme catalyzes a step common to the synthesis of flavonoid pigments and isoflavonoid phytoalexins. A lambdagt11 library was constructed using mRNA from cell cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) treated with fungal elicitor. Two positive clones were obtained by screening 10 recombinants with an antiserum to purified bean CHI. The identity of the cloned sequences was confirmed by hybrid-select translation and the production of antigenic polypeptides from transcripts synthesized in vitro. Addition of elicitor to cell cultures resulted in the rapid accumulation of CHI mRNA, with maximum levels achieved 3-4 h after elicitation. CHI mRNA also accumulated during the natural infection of hypocotyls with the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and in mechanically wounded hypocotyls. The kinetics of accumulation of CHI mRNA in response to these environmental signals were strikingly similar to those of mRNAs encoding two other phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes, phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase. In contrast to the multi-gene families encoding these two enzymes, chalcone isomerase is encoded by a single gene which is regulated by several environmental stimuli.

  5. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors on Secondary Metabolite Production and Antioxidant Response in Hypericum perforatum L. Shoot Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gadzovska Simic, Sonja; Maury, Stéphane; Delaunay, Alain; Joseph, Claude; Hagège, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of polysaccharide elicitors such as chitin, pectin, and dextran on the production of phenylpropanoids (phenolics and flavonoids) and naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin) in Hypericum perforatum shoot cultures were studied. Nonenzymatic antioxidant properties (NEAOP) and peroxidase (POD) activity were also observed in shoot extracts. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHFI) were monitored to estimate channeling in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways of elicited shoot cultures. A significant suppression of the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was observed in elicited shoots from day 14 to day 21 of postelicitation. This inhibition of phenylpropanoid production was probably due to the decrease in CHFI activity in elicited shoots. Pectin and dextran promoted accumulation of naphtodianthrones, particularly pseudohypericin, within 21 days of postelicitation. The enhanced accumulation of naphtodianthrones was positively correlated with an increase of PAL activity in elicited shoots. All tested elicitors induced NEAOP at day 7, while chitin and pectin showed increase in POD activity within the entire period of postelicitation. The POD activity was in significantly positive correlation with flavonoid and hypericin contents, suggesting a strong perturbation of the cell redox system and activation of defense responses in polysaccharide-elicited H. perforatum shoot cultures. PMID:25574489

  6. Effects of polysaccharide elicitors on secondary metabolite production and antioxidant response in Hypericum perforatum L. shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Gadzovska Simic, Sonja; Tusevski, Oliver; Maury, Stéphane; Delaunay, Alain; Joseph, Claude; Hagège, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of polysaccharide elicitors such as chitin, pectin, and dextran on the production of phenylpropanoids (phenolics and flavonoids) and naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin) in Hypericum perforatum shoot cultures were studied. Nonenzymatic antioxidant properties (NEAOP) and peroxidase (POD) activity were also observed in shoot extracts. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHFI) were monitored to estimate channeling in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways of elicited shoot cultures. A significant suppression of the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was observed in elicited shoots from day 14 to day 21 of postelicitation. This inhibition of phenylpropanoid production was probably due to the decrease in CHFI activity in elicited shoots. Pectin and dextran promoted accumulation of naphtodianthrones, particularly pseudohypericin, within 21 days of postelicitation. The enhanced accumulation of naphtodianthrones was positively correlated with an increase of PAL activity in elicited shoots. All tested elicitors induced NEAOP at day 7, while chitin and pectin showed increase in POD activity within the entire period of postelicitation. The POD activity was in significantly positive correlation with flavonoid and hypericin contents, suggesting a strong perturbation of the cell redox system and activation of defense responses in polysaccharide-elicited H. perforatum shoot cultures.

  7. Identification and characterization of two new members of the GRAS gene family in rice responsive to N-acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor.

    PubMed

    Day, R Bradley; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi

    2003-02-20

    We identified two new members of the GRAS gene family from rice, CIGR1 and CIGR2, which are rapidly induced upon N-acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor perception. The predicated proteins encoded by CIGR1 and CIGR2 possess significant sequence similarity with previously identified members of the GRAS family, such as Arabidopsis SCARECROW, GAI, RGA, tomato Lateral suppressor, and rice SLR1, all of which have VHIID regions, likely to play a role in cellular signaling. Fusions of CIGR1 and CIGR2 with Green Fluorescent Protein were detected exclusively in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. The expression of CIGR1 and CIGR2 was dependent on the structure of N-acetylchitooligosaccharides, which parallels the structural specificity for chitin binding to the plasma membrane-localized chitin-binding protein, and independent of de novo protein synthesis. Co-cultivation of rice cells with rice blast fungus strongly induced the expression of CIGR1 and CIGR2, whereas inoculation of suspension cells with phytopathogenic bacteria did not. We hypothesize that CIGR1 and CIGR2 act as transcriptional regulators in the early events of the elicitor-induced defense response in rice.

  8. Induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Capsicum annuum by a Fusarium crude elicitor fraction, free of proteins.

    PubMed

    Veloso, J; Díaz, J

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) induces resistance in pepper against the airborne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae. However, its practical use is limited due to its pathogenicity to other crops. In this study we tested several fractions of a heat-sterilised crude FOL-elicitor preparation to protect pepper against B. cinerea and V. dahliae. Only the protein-free insoluble fraction of the preparation reduced B. cinerea infection. However, none of the fractions reduce V. dahliae symptoms. The insoluble protein-free fraction induced expression of defence genes in the plant, namely a chitinase (CACHI2), a peroxidase (CAPO1), a sesquiterpene cyclase (CASC1) and a basic PR1 (CABPR1). Even though the CASC1 gene was not induced directly after treatment with the insoluble fraction in the leaves, it was induced after B. cinerea inoculation, showing a priming effect. The insoluble protein-free FOL-elicitor protected pepper against the airborne pathogen through a mechanism that involves induced responses in the plant, but different to the living FOL. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Novel Rosaceae plant elicitor peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cristina; Nadal, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2017-01-05

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, whose control is based on preventative treatments using compounds of limited efficacy and negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. The plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs). Although they have been described in various angiosperms, scarce information is available on Rosaceae species. Here, we identified the Pep precursor (PROPEP), Pep and PEPR orthologues of 10 Rosaceae species and confirmed the presence of the Pep/PEPR system in this family. We showed the perception and elicitor activity of Rosaceae Peps using the Prunus-Xap pathosystem as proof-of-concept. Treatment with nanomolar doses of Peps induced the corresponding PROPEP and a set of defence-related genes in Prunus leaves, and enhanced resistance against Xap. Peps from the same species had the highest efficiencies. Rosaceae Peps could potentially be used to develop natural, targeted and environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the resistance of Prunus species against biotic attackers.

  10. A gene encoding a protein elicitor of Phytophthora infestans is down-regulated during infection of potato.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, S; van West, P; de Jong, A J; de Groot, K E; Vleeshouwers, V G; Govers, F

    1997-01-01

    Most species of the genus Phytophthora produce 10-kDa extracellular protein elicitors, collectively termed elicitins. Elicitins induce hypersensitive response in a restricted number of plants, particularly in the genus Nicotiana within the Solanaceae family. A cDNA encoding INF1, the major secreted elicitin of Phytophthora infestans, a pathogen of solanaceous plants, was isolated and characterized. The expression of the corresponding inf1 gene during the disease cycle of P. infestans was analyzed. inf1 was shown to be expressed in mycelium grown in various culture media, whereas it was not expressed in sporangiospores, zoospores, cysts, and germinating cysts. In planta, during infection of potato, particularly during the biotrophic stage, expression of inf1 was down-regulated compared to in vitro. The highest levels of expression of inf1 were observed in in vitro grown mycelium and in late stages of infection when profuse sporulation and leaf necrosis occur. The potential role of INF1 as an elicitor in interactions between P. infestans and Solanum species was investigated. Nineteen lines, representing nine solanaceous species with various levels of resistance to P. infestans, were tested for response to an Escherichia coli expressed INF1. Within the genus Solanum, resistance to P. infestans did not appear to be mediated by a defense response elicited by INF1. However, INF1 recognition could be a component of nonhost resistance of tobacco to P. infestans.

  11. Structural Characterization of Oligochitosan Elicitor from Fusarium sambucinum and Its Elicitation of Defensive Responses in Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqin; Linhardt, Robert J.; Cao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Oligosaccharide elicitors from pathogens have been shown to play major roles in host plant defense responses involving plant–pathogen chemoperception and interaction. In the present study, chitosan and oligochitosan were prepared from pathogen Fusarium sambucinum, and their effects on infection of Zanthoxylum bungeanum stems were investigated. Results showed that oligochitosan inhibited the infection of the pathogen, and that the oligochitosan fraction with a degree of polymerization (DP) between 5 and 6 showed the optimal effect. Oligochitosan DP5 was purified from fraction DP5-6 and was structurally characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Oligochitosan DP5 showed significant inhibition against the infection of the pathogenic fungi on host plant stems. An investigation of the mechanism underlying this effect showed that oligochitosan DP5 increased the activities of defensive enzymes and accumulation of phenolics in host Z. bungeanum. These results suggest that oligochitosan from pathogenic fungi can mediate the infection of host plants with a pathogen by acting as an elicitor that triggers the defense system of a plant. This information will be valuable for further exploration of the interactions between the pathogen F. sambucinum and host plant Z. bungeanum. PMID:27973408

  12. Influence of the application of three different elicitors on soybean plants on the concentrations of several isoflavones in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin; Horax, Ronny; Cornelious, Brian; Zhu, Danhua

    2006-07-26

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a rich source of isoflavones that are often affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of three natural elicitors applied at different soybean growth stages on isoflavone content and to compare the efficiency of several solvent systems in isoflavone extraction and quantification. The isoflavones extracted from R96-3444 soybean using eight solvent systems were separated, identified, and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. The soybean plants were sprayed with salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, or ethyl acetate at 0, 10(-6), 10(-3), and 10(-1) M at R1 (blooming) or R4 (full pods) growth stage. Results showed that 10(-3) M ethyl acetate sprayed at the R1 stage significantly increased total isoflavone content and the levels of some individual isoflavones in soybean seeds. With all the elicitors that were tested, concentration was a more important factor than application time with respect to isoflavone content with lower concentrations being more effective on most isoflavones. A 53% acetonitrile solvent system was the best solvent system for extracting total isoflavone, malonyl glucosides, genistein, glycitin, genistin, acetyl-daidzin, and acetyl-genistin. The results of this study will be useful for increasing the isoflavone content in desirable soybean varieties and improving isoflavone concentration during extraction.

  13. Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Smita P; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Nikam, Tukaram D

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of plant growth hormones, incubation period, biotic (Trametes versicolor, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarium oxysporum) and abiotic (NaCl, MgSO(4), FeSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeCl(3)) elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment (red and yellow) productions in Carthamus tinctorius cell cultures. The cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment contents improved significantly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium containing 50.0 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 2.5 μM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) at 28 days of incubation period. Incorporation of T. versicolor (50 mg l(-1)) significantly enhanced the production of α-tocopherol (12.7-fold) and red pigment (4.24-fold). Similarly, supplementation of 30 mg l(-1) T. versicolor (7.54-fold) and 70 mg l(-1) Mucor sp. (7.40-fold) significantly increased the production of yellow pigment. Among abiotic elicitors, NaCl (50-70 mg l(-1)) and MgSO(4) (10-30 mg l(-1)) significantly improved production of α-tocopherol (1.24-fold) and red pigment (20-fold), whereas yellow pigment content increased considerably by all the abiotic elicitor treatments. Taken together, the present study reports improved productions of α-tocopherol and the pigment as a stress response of safflower cell cultures exposed to these elicitors.

  14. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zulak, Katherine G; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which generate secondary

  15. Inducible De Novo Biosynthesis of Isoflavonoids in Soybean Leaves by Spodoptera litura Derived Elicitors: Tracer Techniques Aided by High Resolution LCMS.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ryu; Kimura, Yuki; Aoki, Kenta; Yoshinaga, Naoko; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Mori, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Isoflavonoids are a characteristic family of natural products in legumes known to mediate a range of plant-biotic interactions. For example, in soybean (Glycine max: Fabaceae) multiple isoflavones are induced and accumulate in leaves following attack by Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. To quantitatively examine patterns of activated de novo biosynthesis, soybean (Var. Enrei) leaves were treated with a combination of plant defense elicitors present in S. litura gut content extracts and L-α-[(13)C9, (15)N]phenylalanine as a traceable isoflavonoid precursor. Combined treatments promoted significant increases in (13)C-labeled isoflavone aglycones (daidzein, formononetin, and genistein), (13)C-labeled isoflavone 7-O-glucosides (daidzin, ononin, and genistin), and (13)C-labeled isoflavone 7-O-(6″-O-malonyl-β-glucosides) (malonyldaidzin, malonylononin, and malonylgenistin). In contrast levels of (13)C-labeled flavones and flavonol (4',7-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, and apigenin) were not significantly altered. Curiously, application of fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors present in S. litura gut contents, namely N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine, both promoted the induced accumulation of isoflavone 7-O-glucosides and isoflavone 7-O-(6″-O-malonyl-β-glucosides), but not isoflavone aglycones in the leaves. These results demonstrate that at least two separate reactions are involved in elicitor-induced soybean leaf responses to the S. litura gut contents: one is the de novo biosynthesis of isoflavone conjugates induced by FACs, and the other is the hydrolysis of the isoflavone conjugates to yield isoflavone aglycones. Gut content extracts alone displayed no hydrolytic activity. The quantitative analysis of isoflavone de novo biosynthesis, with respect to both aglycones and conjugates, affords a useful bioassay system for the discovery of additional plant defense elicitor(s) in S. litura gut contents that specifically

  16. Enhanced germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using chitooligosaccharide as an elicitor in seed priming to improve malt quality.

    PubMed

    Lan, Weiqiu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Zhimin; Qin, Yanxia; Luan, Jing; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-11-01

    To study enhanced barley germination by chitooligosaccharide as an elicitor for improving the quality of malt. Barley germination for both radical and leaf sprouts was enhanced when chitooligosaccharide was added to the steeping water in the first steeping cycle. The activities of hydrolases (α-/β-amylase, proteinase and β-glucanase) and antioxidases (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the resultant malt were increased in a dose-dependent manner when chitooligosaccharide was supplemented in the steeping water. Maximal promotion was at 1 mg chitooligosaccharide/l for α-/β-amylase and proteinase, and at 10 mg/l for β-glucanase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Malt quality, including free α-amino nitrogen content, Kolbach index, malt extract content, diastatic power, wort viscosity and the ratio of glucose, maltose and maltotriose, was significantly improved by chitooligosaccharide in seed priming at 1 mg/l. Application of chitooligosaccharide in the steeping water promotes barley germination and improves the quality of malt.

  17. Elicitor Activity of a Fungal Endopolygalacturonase in Tobacco Requires a Functional Catalytic Site and Cell Wall Localization

    PubMed Central

    Boudart, Georges; Charpentier, Myriam; Lafitte, Claude; Martinez, Yves; Jauneau, Alain; Gaulin, Elodie; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    CLPG1, an endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) gene of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient delivery system. The following four constructs were prepared: CLPG1, with or without its signal peptide (SP; PG1, PG1ΔSP); CLPG1 with the tobacco expansin1 SP instead of its own SP (Exp::PG1ΔSP); and a mutated version of the latter on two amino acids potentially involved in the catalytic site of CLPG1 (D202N/D203N). Chlorotic and necrotic lesions appeared 5 to 7 d postinfiltration, exclusively in response to CLPG1 fused to the expansin SP. The lesions were correlated to the production of an active enzyme. Necrosis-inducing activity, as well as endoPG activity, were completely abolished by site-directed mutagenesis. Ultrastructural immunocytolocalization experiments indicated that the expansin SP addressed CLPG1 to the cell wall. Staining of parenchyma cells revealed the progressive degradation of pectic material in junction zones and middle lamella as a function of time after infiltration, ultimately leading to cell separation. A 30% decrease in the GalUA content of the cell walls was simultaneously recorded, thereby confirming the hydrolytic effect of CLPG1 on pectic polysaccharides, in planta. The elicitor activity of CLPG1 was further illustrated by the induction of defense responses comprising active oxygen species and β-1,3-glucanase activity, before leaf necrosis. Altogether, the data demonstrate that an appropriate SP and a functional catalytic site are required for the proper expression and elicitor activity of the fungal endoPG CLPG1 in tobacco. PMID:12529518

  18. "Fungal elicitors combined with a sucrose feed significantly enhance triterpene production of a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension".

    PubMed

    Kümmritz, Sibylle; Louis, Marilena; Haas, Christiane; Oehmichen, Franz; Gantz, Stephanie; Delenk, Hubertus; Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2016-08-01

    Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are plant secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological properties. To reach reasonable productivities with plant cell suspension cultures, elicitation is a widely used strategy. Within the presented work, the effects of different elicitors on growth and production of OA and UA in a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension culture were examined. Beside commonly used elicitors like jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract, the influence of medium filtrates of the endophytic fungi Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens was investigated. The best eliciting effects were achieved with JA and fungal medium filtrates. Both increased the triterpene content by approximately 70 %. Since JA showed significant growth inhibition, the volumetric triterpene yield did not increase. But, adding fungal filtrates increased the volumetric triterpene yield by approximately 70 % to 32.6 mgOA l(-1) and 65.9 mgUA l(-1) for T. virens compared to the control with 19.4 mgOA l(-1) and 33.3 mgUA l(-1). An elicitation strategy combining fungal medium filtrate of T. virens with sucrose feeding significantly enhanced cell dry weight concentration to 22.2 g l(-1) as well as triterpene content by approximately 140 %. In total, this led to an approximately 500 % increase of volumetric triterpene yield referring to the control with final values of 112.9 mgOA l(-1) and 210.4 mgUA l(-1). Despite the doubled cultivation duration, productivities of 6.7 mgOA l(-1) day(-1) and 12.4 mgUA l(-1) day(-1) were reached. These results demonstrate methods by which increased productivities of triterpenes can be achieved to attain yields competing with intact plants.

  19. The HERBIVORE ELICITOR-REGULATED1 gene enhances abscisic acid levels and defenses against herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata plants.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2013-08-01

    Nicotiana attenuata plants can distinguish the damage caused by herbivore feeding from other types of damage by perceiving herbivore-associated elicitors, such as the fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in oral secretions (OS) of Manduca sexta larvae, which are introduced into wounds during feeding. However, the transduction of FAC signals into downstream plant defense responses is still not well established. We identified a novel FAC-regulated protein in N. attenuata (NaHER1; for herbivore elicitor regulated) and show that it is an indispensable part of the OS signal transduction pathway. N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaHER1 by RNA interference (irHER1) were unable to amplify their defenses beyond basal, wound-induced levels in response to OS elicitation. M. sexta larvae performed 2-fold better when reared on irHER1 plants, which released less volatile organic compounds (indirect defense) and had strongly reduced levels of several direct defense metabolites, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors, 17-hydroxygeranyllinallool diterpene glycosides, and caffeoylputrescine, after real and/or simulated herbivore attack. In parallel to impaired jasmonate signaling and metabolism, irHER1 plants were more drought sensitive and showed reduced levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaves, suggesting that silencing of NaHER1 interfered with ABA metabolism. Because treatment of irHER1 plants with ABA results in both the accumulation of significantly more ABA catabolites and the complete restoration of normal wild-type levels of OS-induced defense metabolites, we conclude that NaHER1 acts as a natural suppressor of ABA catabolism after herbivore attack, which, in turn, activates the full defense profile and resistance against herbivores.

  20. Application of chitin and chitosan as elicitors of coumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids in Ruta graveolens L. (common rue).

    PubMed

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Malinski, Edmund; Kumirska, Jolanta; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Łojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-10-01

    Common rue (Ruta graveolens L.) accumulates various types of secondary metabolites, such as coumarins furanocoumarins, acridone and quinolone alkaloids and flavonoids. Elicitation is a tool extensively used for enhancing secondary-metabolite yields. Chitin and chitosan are examples of elicitors inducing phytoalexin accumulation in plant tissue. The present paper describes the application of chitin and chitosan as potential elicitors of secondary-metabolite accumulation in R. graveolens shoots cultivated in vitro. The simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins and fluoroquinolone alkaloids biosynthesized in the presence of chitin and chitosan were isolated, separated and identified. There was a significant increase in the growth rate of R. graveolens shoots in the presence of either chitin or chitosan. Moreover, the results of the elicitation of coumarins and alkaloids accumulated by R. graveolens shoots in the presence of chitin and chitosan show that both compounds induced a significant increase in the concentrations of nearly all the metabolites. Adding 0.01% chitin caused the increase in the quantity (microg/g dry weight) of coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7, rutacultin up to 287.0, bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5 and rutamarin up to 133.7). The higher concentration of chitosan (0.1%) induced production of simple coumarins (pinnarin up to 116.7 and rutacultin up to 287.0), furanocoumarins (bergapten up to 904.3, isopimpinelin up to 490.0, psoralen up to 522.2, xanhotoxin up to 1531.5) and dihydrofuranocoumarins (chalepin up to 18 and rutamarin up to 133.7). Such a dramatic increase in the production of nearly all metabolites suggests that these compounds may be participating in the natural resistance mechanisms of R. graveolens. The application of chitin- and chitosan-containing media may be considered a promising prospect in the biotechnological production of xanthotoxin

  1. Elicitor-Induced Biochemical and Molecular Manifestations to Improve Drought Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) through Seed-Priming

    PubMed Central

    Samota, Mahesh K.; Sasi, Minnu; Awana, Monika; Yadav, Om P.; Amitha Mithra, S. V.; Tyagi, Aruna; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major grain cereals of the Indian subcontinent which face water-deficit stress for their cultivation. Seed-priming has been reported to be a useful approach to complement stress responses in plants. In the present study, seed-priming with hormonal or chemical elicitor [viz. methyl jasmonate (MJ), salicylic acid (SA), paclobutrazol (PB)] showed significant increase in total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and expression of Rice Drought-responsive (RD1 and RD2) genes (of AP2/ERF family) in contrasting rice genotypes (Nagina-22, drought-tolerant and Pusa Sugandh-5, drought-sensitive) under drought stress. However, decrease in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was observed not only under the stress but also under control condition in the plants raised from primed seeds. Expression analyses of RD1 and RD2 genes showed upregulated expression in the plants raised from primed seeds under drought stress. Moreover, the RD2 gene and the drought-sensitive genotype showed better response than that of the RD1 gene and the drought-tolerant genotype in combating the effects of drought stress. Among the elicitors, MJ was found to be the most effective for seed-priming, followed by PB and SA. Growth and development of the plants raised from primed seeds were found to be better under control and drought stress conditions compared to that of the plants raised from unprimed seeds under the stress. The present study suggests that seed-priming could be one of the useful approaches to be explored toward the development of simple, cost-effective and farmer-friendly technology to enhance rice yield in rainfed areas. PMID:28634483

  2. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine. PMID:26442029

  3. Phenylpropanoids, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidases in elicitor-challenged cassava (Manihot esculenta) suspension cells and leaves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vásquez, Rocío; Day, Robert; Buschmann, Holger; Randles, Sophie; Beeching, John R; Cooper, Richard M

    2004-07-01

    Control of diseases in the key tropical staple, cassava, is dependent on resistant genotypes, but the innate mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to study phenylpropanoids and associated enzymes as possible defence components. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), phenylpropanoids and peroxidases (POD) were investigated in elicited cassava suspension cells and leaves. Yeast elicitor was the most effective of several microbial and endogenous elicitors. Fungitoxicity was determined against the cassava pathogens Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and the saprotroph Trichoderma harzianum. A single and rapid (> or =2-3 min) oxidative burst, measured as hydrogen peroxide, occurred in elicited cells. PAL activity was induced maximally at 15 h and was preceded by PAL mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 9 h. Symplasmic POD activity increased four-fold in cells, 48 h post-elicitation. POD isoforms (2-7 isoforms, pI 3.1-8.8) were detected in elicited and unelicited cells, extracellular medium and leaves but two extracellular isoforms were enhanced post-elicitation. Also expression of a cassava peroxidase gene MecPOD1 increased in elicited cells. Only anionic forms oxidized scopoletin, with highest activity by isoform pI 3.6, present in all samples. Unidentified phenolics and possibly scopolin increased post-elicitation, but there was no enhancement of scopoletin, rutin or kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside concentration. Fungal germ tube elongation was inhibited more than germination by esculetin, ferulic acid, quercetin and scopoletin. T. harzianum was generally more sensitive than the pathogens and was inhibited by > or =50 microg mL(-1) of ferulic acid and quercetin and > or =10 microg mL(-1) of scopoletin. Phenolic levels in cells were not enhanced and were, theoretically, too low to be inhibitory. However, in combination and when oxidized they may contribute to defence, because oxidation of esculetin and scopoletin by peroxidase and of esculetin by tyrosinase enhanced their fungitoxicity

  4. A proteinaceous elicitor Sm1 from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma virens is required for induced systemic resistance in maize.

    PubMed

    Djonovic, Slavica; Vargas, Walter A; Kolomiets, Michael V; Horndeski, Michelle; Wiest, Aric; Kenerley, Charles M

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that the beneficial filamentous fungus Trichoderma virens secretes the highly effective hydrophobin-like elicitor Sm1 that induces systemic disease resistance in the dicot cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study we tested whether colonization of roots by T. virens can induce systemic protection against a foliar pathogen in the monocot maize (Zea mays), and we further demonstrated the importance of Sm1 during maize-fungal interactions using a functional genomics approach. Maize seedlings were inoculated with T. virens Gv29-8 wild type and transformants in which SM1 was disrupted or constitutively overexpressed in a hydroponic system or in soil-grown maize seedlings challenged with the pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We show that similar to dicot plants, colonization of maize roots by T. virens induces systemic protection of the leaves inoculated with C. graminicola. This protection was associated with notable induction of jasmonic acid- and green leaf volatile-biosynthetic genes. Neither deletion nor overexpression of SM1 affected normal growth or development of T. virens, conidial germination, production of gliotoxin, hyphal coiling, hydrophobicity, or the ability to colonize maize roots. Plant bioassays showed that maize grown with SM1-deletion strains exhibited the same levels of systemic protection as non-Trichoderma-treated plants. Moreover, deletion and overexpression of SM1 resulted in significantly reduced and enhanced levels of disease protection, respectively, compared to the wild type. These data together indicate that T. virens is able to effectively activate systemic disease protection in maize and that the functional Sm1 elicitor is required for this activity.

  5. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Hypersensitive Response-Inducing Elicitor from Magnaporthe oryzae that Triggers Defense Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjia; Zeng, Hongmei; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen; Shi, Huaixing; Zhou, Tingting; Zhao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus, might secrete certain proteins related to plant-fungal pathogen interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein elicitor (MoHrip1) secreted by M. oryzae. The protein fraction was purified and identified by de novo sequencing, and the sequence matched the genomic sequence of a putative protein from M. oryzae strain 70-15 (GenBank accession No. XP_366602.1). The elicitor-encoding gene mohrip1 was isolated; it consisted of a 429 bp cDNA, which encodes a polypeptide of 142 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14.322 kDa and a pI of 4.53. The deduced protein, MoHrip1, was expressed in E. coli. And the expression protein collected from bacterium also forms necrotic lesions in tobacco. MoHrip1 could induce the early events of the defense response, including hydrogen peroxide production, callose deposition, and alkalization of the extracellular medium, in tobacco. Moreover, MoHrip1-treated rice seedlings possessed significantly enhanced systemic resistance to M. oryzae compared to the control seedlings. The real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of some pathogenesis-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction could also be induced by MoHrip1. Conclusion/Significance The results demonstrate that MoHrip1 triggers defense responses in rice and could be used for controlling rice blast disease. PMID:22624059

  6. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  7. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis of Natural-Product-like Libraries Containing a 3-Methylbenzofuran Moiety for the Discovery of New Chemical Elicitors.

    PubMed

    He, Xingrui; Chen, Xia; Lin, Songbo; Mo, Xiaochang; Zhou, Pengyong; Zhang, Zhihao; Lu, Yaoyao; Yang, Yu; Gu, Haining; Shang, Zhicai; Lou, Yonggen; Wu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Natural products are a major source of biological molecules. The 3-methylfuran scaffold is found in a variety of plant secondary metabolite chemical elicitors that confer host-plant resistance against insect pests. Herein, the diversity-oriented synthesis of a natural-product-like library is reported, in which the 3-methylfuran core is fused in an angular attachment to six common natural product scaffolds-coumarin, chalcone, flavone, flavonol, isoflavone and isoquinolinone. The structural diversity of this library is assessed computationally using cheminformatic analysis. Phenotypic high-throughput screening of β-glucuronidase activity uncovers several hits. Further in vivo screening confirms that these hits can induce resistance in rice to nymphs of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. This work validates the combination of diversity-oriented synthesis and high-throughput screening of β-glucuronidase activity as a strategy for discovering new chemical elicitors.

  8. Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis of Natural‐Product‐like Libraries Containing a 3‐Methylbenzofuran Moiety for the Discovery of New Chemical Elicitors

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingrui; Chen, Xia; Lin, Songbo; Mo, Xiaochang; Zhou, Pengyong; Zhang, Zhihao; Lu, Yaoyao; Yang, Yu; Gu, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products are a major source of biological molecules. The 3‐methylfuran scaffold is found in a variety of plant secondary metabolite chemical elicitors that confer host‐plant resistance against insect pests. Herein, the diversity‐oriented synthesis of a natural‐product‐like library is reported, in which the 3‐methylfuran core is fused in an angular attachment to six common natural product scaffolds—coumarin, chalcone, flavone, flavonol, isoflavone and isoquinolinone. The structural diversity of this library is assessed computationally using cheminformatic analysis. Phenotypic high‐throughput screening of β‐glucuronidase activity uncovers several hits. Further in vivo screening confirms that these hits can induce resistance in rice to nymphs of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. This work validates the combination of diversity‐oriented synthesis and high‐throughput screening of β‐glucuronidase activity as a strategy for discovering new chemical elicitors. PMID:28168155

  9. Membrane-bound hydroxylases in elicitor-treated bean cells. Rapid induction of the synthesis of prolyl hydroxylase and a putative cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, G P; Dixon, R A

    1986-08-15

    Treatment of cell-suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder) with an elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resulted in rapid changes in the activities of two microsomal oxygenases, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, involved in accumulation of wall-bound phenolics and phytoalexins, and proline 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (prolyl hydroxylase) involved in the post-translational modification of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. An anti-(cytochrome P-450) monoclonal antibody, originally raised against rat cytochrome P-450 isoform c, has been shown to bind to bean microsomes and recognise in Western blots an Mr-48,000 polypeptide, which comigrates with a haeme-containing protein on SDS/polyacrylamide gel analysis and which has been tentatively identified as a cytochrome P-450 capable of the hydroxylation of cinnamic acid. A preparation of proline 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase purified to homogeneity was used to immunise rabbits for the production of antiserum. An elicitor-induced polypeptide of Mr 65,000 was identified as prolyl hydroxylase while an antigenically related polypeptide of Mr 60,000 was also immunoprecipitated but not induced by elicitor treatment. Use of the two antibodies has demonstrated rapid transient increases in the synthesis of the Mr 48,000 and Mr 65,000 oxygenases in vivo and for mRNAs as measured in in vitro translations, particularly for the putative cytochrome P-450. These increases slightly precede corresponding changes in the synthesis of the soluble enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, in common with which these oxygenases probably share a mechanism of gene activation underlying the increased activities seen in response to elicitor treatment.

  10. Structure and elicitor or u.v.-light-stimulated expression of two 4-coumarate:CoA ligase genes in parsley

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Carl; Hoffmann, Heidi; Schulz, Wolfgang; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated genomic clones encoding 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), a key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism, and have analysed the structure and regulation of the genes contained on these clones. Restriction enzyme and sequence analysis indicated that two distinct 4CL genes, Pc4CL-1 and Pc4CL-2, are represented on the clones and that additional 4CL genes are not present in parsley. Two lines of evidence suggest that each gene is transcriptionally activated by both elicitor and u.v. irradiation: cDNA clones corresponding to each gene were found in cDNA libraries made with RNA from both elicitor-treated and u.v-irradiated cells, and run-off transcripts homologous to a Pc4CL-2-specific intron probe were induced by both treatments. This induction was about half of the induction measured using probes homologous to both genes. The transcription initiation sites of both genes were determined. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the two genes 5' to these sites showed that they are highly homologous for several hundred base pairs and that they contain features potentially involved in regulation by elicitor and u.v. irradiation. ImagesFig. 2;Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453765

  11. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco. Molecular cloning and gene expression during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus and the response to a fungal elicitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, L; Rohfritsch, O; Fritig, B; Legrand, M

    1994-01-01

    A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) cDNA clone coding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library made from polyadenylated RNA purified from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected leaves. Southern analysis indicated that, in tobacco, PAL is encoded by a small family of two to four unclustered genes. Northern analysis showed that PAL genes are weakly expressed under normal physiological conditions, they are moderately and transiently expressed after wounding, but they are strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction to TMV or to a fungal elicitor. Ribonuclease protection experiments confirmed this evidence and showed the occurrence of two highly homologous PAL messengers originating from a single gene or from two tightly co-regulated genes. By in situ RNA-RNA hybridization PAL transcripts were shown to accumulate in a narrow zone of leaf tissue surrounding necrotic lesions caused by TMV infection or treatment with the fungal elicitor. In this zone, no cell specificity was observed and there was a decreasing gradient of labeling from the edge of necrosis. Some labeling was also found in various cell types of young, healthy stems and was shown to accumulate in large amounts in the same cell types after the deposition of an elicitor solution at the top of the decapitated plant. PMID:7824656

  13. Integration of Bioinformatics and Synthetic Promoters Leads to the Discovery of Novel Elicitor-Responsive cis-Regulatory Sequences in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J.; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  14. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lingyun; Niu, Bei; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jianglin

    2016-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS), and exo-polysaccharide (EPS) obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS) species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts), 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts), 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts), and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  15. Induction of Defense-Related Responses in Cf9 Tomato Cells by the AVR9 Elicitor Peptide of Cladosporium fulvum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Honée, Guy; Buitink, Julia; Jabs, Thorsten; De Kloe, José; Sijbolts, Fred; Apotheker, Marion; Weide, Rob; Sijen, Titia; Stuiver, Maarten; De Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The AVR9 elicitor from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum induces defense-related responses, including cell death, specifically in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene. To study biochemical mechanisms of resistance in detail, suspension cultures of tomato cells that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene were initiated. Treatment of cells with various elicitors, except AVR9, induced an oxidative burst, ion fluxes, and expression of defense-related genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cf9 tomato leaf discs with Avr9-containing constructs resulted efficiently in transgenic callus formation. Although transgenic callus tissue showed normal regeneration capacity, transgenic plants expressing both the Cf-9 and the Avr9 genes were never obtained. Transgenic F1 seedlings that were generated from crosses between tomato plants expressing the Avr9 gene and wild-type Cf9 plants died within a few weeks. However, callus cultures that were initiated on cotyledons from these seedlings could be maintained for at least 3 months and developed similarly to callus cultures that contained only the Cf-9 or the Avr9 gene. It is concluded, therefore, that induction of defense responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor is developmentally regulated and is absent in callus tissue and cell-suspension cultures, which consists of undifferentiated cells. These results are significant for the use of suspension-cultured cells to investigate signal transduction cascades. PMID:9662523

  16. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  17. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (Vitis sp.) cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments.

    PubMed

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoit; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor purified from Botrytis cinerea strongly and rapidly induced the accumulation of nsLTP mRNAs. Jasmonic acid, cholesterol, and sitosterol also promoted nsLTPs mRNA accumulation, although to a lesser extent, whereas salicylic acid had no effect. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the amounts of three LTP isoforms (previously named P1, P2, and P4) were increased by ergosterol. None of the four isoforms displayed any significant antifungal properties, with the exception of the P4 isoform, which reduced Botrytis mycelium growth in vitro, but only in calcium-free medium. The results are discussed in the context of plant-pathogen interactions.

  18. Molecular analysis of poplar defense against herbivory: comparison of wound- and insect elicitor-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter

    2006-01-01

    In order to characterize defense responses of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpax P. deltoides), we profiled leaf transcript patterns elicited by wounding and by regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar (FTC; Malacosoma disstria), a Lepidopteran defoliator of poplars. Macroarrays were used to compare transcript profiles. Both FTC-regurgitant (FTC-R) and mechanical wounding with pliers elicited expression of a variety of genes, and for these genes our analysis indicated that these treatments induced qualitatively similar responses. Similarly, a comparison of responses of directly treated and systemically induced leaves indicated extensive overlap in the sets of induced genes. FTC-R was found to contain the insect-derived elicitor volicitin. The simulated herbivory treatments resulted in the induction of genes involved in poplar defense and secondary metabolism. We also identified wound-responsive genes with roles in primary metabolism, including a putative invertase, lipase, and acyl-activating enzyme; some of these genes may have roles in defense signaling. In addition, we found three unknown genes containing a ZIM motif which may represent novel transcription factors.

  19. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, C W; Ito, Y; Singer, D; Albersheim, P; Darvill, A G; Benhamou, N; Nuss, L; Salvi, G; Cervone, F; De Lorenzo, G

    1994-05-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a cell wall-associated protein that specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of fungal endopolygalacturonases. The Phaseolus vulgaris gene encoding PGIP has been cloned and characterized. Using a fragment of the cloned pgip gene as a probe in Northern blot experiments, it is demonstrated that the pgip mRNA accumulates in suspension-cultured bean cells following addition of elicitor-active oligogalacturonides or fungal glucan to the medium. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific for PGIP were generated against a synthetic peptide designed from the N-terminal region of PGIP; the antigenicity of the peptide was enhanced by coupling to KLH. Using the antibodies and the cloned pgip gene fragment as probes in Western and Northern blot experiments, respectively, it is shown that the levels of PGIP and its mRNA are increased in P. vulgaris hypocotyls in response to wounding or treatment with salicylic acid. Using gold-labeled goat-anti-rabbit secondary antibodies in EM studies, it has also been demonstrated that, in bean hypocotyls infected with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the level of PGIP preferentially increases in those cells immediately surrounding the infection site. The data support the hypothesis that synthesis of PGIP constitutes an active defense mechanism of plants that is elicited by signal molecules known to induce plant defense genes.

  20. Structure of a rice beta-glucanase gene regulated by ethylene, cytokinin, wounding, salicylic acid and fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Simmons, C R; Litts, J C; Huang, N; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-01-01

    A rice beta-glucanase gene was sequenced and its expression analyzed at the level of mRNA accumulation. This gene (Gns1) is expressed at relatively low levels in germinating seeds, shoots, leaves, panicles and callus, but it is expressed at higher levels in roots. Expression in the roots appears to be constitutive. Shoots express Gns1 at much higher levels when treated with ethylene, cytokinin, salicylic acid, and fungal elicitors derived from the pathogen Sclerotium oryzae or from the non-pathogen Saccharomyces cereviseae. Shoots also express Gns1 at higher levels in response to wounding. Expression in the shoots is not significantly affected by auxin, gibberellic acid or abscisic acid. The beta-glucanase shows 82% amino acid similarity to the barley 1,3;1,4-beta-D-glucanases, and from hybridization studies it is the beta-glucanase gene in the rice genome closest to the barley 1,3;1,4-beta-glucanase EI gene. The mature peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 32 kDa. The gene has a large 3145 bp intron in the codon for the 25th amino acid of the signal peptide. The gene exhibits a very strong codon bias of 99% G + C in the third position of the codon in the mature peptide coding region, but only 61% G + C in the signal peptide region.

  1. Sm1, a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens induces plant defense responses and systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Djonović, Slavica; Pozo, Maria J; Dangott, Lawrence J; Howell, Charles R; Kenerley, Charles M

    2006-08-01

    The soilborne filamentous fungus Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol agent with a well-known ability to produce antibiotics, parasitize pathogenic fungi, and induce systemic resistance in plants. Even though a plant-mediated response has been confirmed as a component of bioprotection by Trichoderma spp., the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification, purification, and characterization of an elicitor secreted by T. virens, a small protein designated Sm1 (small protein 1). Sm1 lacks toxic activity against plants and microbes. Instead, native, purified Sm1 triggers production of reactive oxygen species in monocot and dicot seedlings, rice, and cotton, and induces the expression of defense-related genes both locally and systemically in cotton. Gene expression analysis revealed that SM1 is expressed throughout fungal development under different nutrient conditions and in the presence of a host plant. Using an axenic hydroponic system, we show that SM1 expression and secretion of the protein is significantly higher in the presence of the plant. Pretreatment of cotton cotyledons with Sm1 provided high levels of protection to the foliar pathogen Colletotrichum sp. These results indicate that Sm1 is involved in the induction of resistance by Trichoderma spp. through the activation of plant defense mechanisms.

  2. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Martina; van Verk, Marcel C.; Hander, Tim; Schatowitz, Hendrik; Klauser, Dominik; Flury, Pascale; Gehring, Christoph A.; Boller, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologues in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail. Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility. PMID:26002971

  3. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  4. Positional specificity of a phospholipase A activity induced by wounding, systemin, and oligosaccharide elicitors in tomato leaves

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez-Vasquez, J; Florin-Christensen, J; Ryan, CA

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase A (PLA) activity, as measured by the accumulation of (14)C-lysophosphatidylcholine in leaves of tomato plants, increased rapidly and systemically in response to wounding. The increase in PLA activity in the systemic unwounded leaves was biphasic in wild-type tomato plants, peaking at 15 min and again at 60 min, but the second peak of activity was absent in transgenic prosystemin antisense plants. Supplying young excised tomato plants with the polypeptide hormone systemin also caused (14)C-lysophosphatidylcholine to increase to levels similar to those induced by wounding, but the increase in activity persisted for >2 hr. Antagonists of systemin blocked both the release of (14)C-lysophosphatidylcholine and the accumulation of defense proteins in response to systemin. (14)C-lysophosphatidylcholine levels did not increase in response to jasmonic acid. Chemical acylation of the lysophosphatidylcholine produced by wounding, systemin, and oligosaccharide elicitors followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with lipases of known specificities demostrated that the lysophosphatidylcholine is generated by a PLA with specificity for the sn-2 position. PMID:10559447

  5. Oligosaccharide elicitor prepared from Salecan triggers the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col0 against Botrytis cinerea infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyang; Li, Jing; Wang, Shiming; Xu, Linxiang; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Jianfa

    2017-08-17

    Oligosaccharides from the water-soluble β-glucan, Salecan, were investigated to evaluate the activation effect on the defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col0. Salecan oligosaccharides (ScOs, DP 5-10) were prepared at first by acid hydrolysis and gel filtration chromatography and then employed for foliar spray on Arabidopsis seedlings and plants. After ScOs treatment, increase of hydrogen peroxide was histologically and analytically detected in leaves. Transcription levels of several indicator genes which correspond to the signaling pathways and pathogenesis-related proteins were up-regulated at different time by means of quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Importantly, the sequential activation of salicylic acid-mediated and jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway was observed in leaves. Furthermore, pot test and antimicrobial test gave the fact that pretreatment with ScOs restrained the leaf lesions caused by infection of Botrytis cinerea Bc0510 via the enhancement of defense responses of A. thaliana. In conclusion, Salecan oligosaccharides serve as an elicitor which can be used for biological control of plant pathogen.

  6. 2-DE proteomic approach to the Botrytis cinerea secretome induced with different carbon sources and plant-based elicitors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier; Colby, Thomas; Harzen, Anne; Carbú, Maria; Wieneke, Ursula; Cantoral, Jesús Manuel; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2010-06-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting a number of crops (tomatoes, grapes and strawberries), which has been adopted as a model system in molecular phytopathology. B. cinerea uses a wide variety of infection strategies, which are mediated by a set of genes/proteins called pathogenicity/virulence factors. Many of these factors have been described as secreted proteins, and thus the study of this sub-proteome, the secretome, under changing circumstances can help us to understand the roles of these factors, possibly revealing new loci for the fight against the pathogen. A 2-DE, MALDI TOF/TOF-based approach has been developed to establish the proteins secreted to culture media supplemented with different carbon sources and plant-based elicitors (in this study: glucose, cellulose, starch, pectin and tomato cell walls). Secreted proteins were obtained from the culture media by deoxycholate-trichloroacetic acid/phenol extraction, and 76 spots were identified, yielding 95 positive hits that correspond to 56 unique proteins, including several known virulence factors (i.e. pectin methyl esterases, xylanases and proteases). The observed increases in secretion of proteins with established virulence-related functions indicate that this in vitro-induction/proteome-mining approach is a promising strategy for discovering new pathogenicity factors and dissecting infection mechanisms in a discrete fashion.

  7. Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Esteso, M J; Sellés-Marchart, S; Vera-Urbina, J C; Pedreño, M A; Bru-Martinez, R

    2009-12-01

    In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell suspension in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Twenty-five of the 39 spots differentially expressed in 2-D gels were identified and found to be encoded by 10 different genes: three secretory peroxidases, chitinase-III, beta-1,3-glucanase, thaumatin-like, SGNH plant lipase-like, NtPR27-like, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and subtilisin-like protease. Most of them belong to the pathogenesis-related type proteins. A new class III secretory basic peroxidase and chitinase III were strongly induced in cultures treated with MBCD alone or combined with MeJA, while cultures treated with MeJA alone displayed a general repression of most of the extracellular proteins. Some of the proteins induced in grapevine cell cultures by MBCD are induced in other species by activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a form of plant immunity. Collectively, the results suggest that treatment with MBCD resembles the effect of SAR induction agents in cell cultures.

  8. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Islam S; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-05

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to 'boost their vigour, resilience and performance'. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach.

  9. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants. PMID:27703209

  10. Structural determination of elicitors in Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) that induce Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) to produce an ovicidal substance against S. furcifera eggs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Oh; Nakayama, Naoya; Toda, Kyohei; Tebayashi, Shinichi; Kim, Chul-Sa

    2014-01-01

    Certain Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) show resistance to the eggs of the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) by the formation of watery lesions and production of benzyl benzoate, an active ovicidal compound. Benzyl benzoate results in high ovicidal activity of S. furcifera eggs and reduces egg hatchability. The production of benzyl benzoate by the rice plants is only induced by an unknown elicitor(s) from the female S. furcifera. Therefore, we tried to isolate and identify these elicitors. An active 80% MeOH extract of S. furcifera was separated on a reverse-phase ODS MPLC, and the elicitor(s) was eluted in 100% MeOH and 100% EtOH fractions. Further separation of the active 100% MeOH fraction using a HPLC led to the isolation of four active compounds. The structures of each compound were determined by using NMR, LC-MS, and GC-MS spectra. The compounds were 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-X-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.

  11. Systemic disease protection elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains: relationship between metabolic responses, systemic disease protection, and biotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Ramos Solano, B; Barriuso Maicas, J; Pereyra de la Iglesia, M T; Domenech, J; Gutiérrez Mañero, F J

    2008-04-01

    A study of plant defensive systemic responses induced by three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Arabidopsis thaliana Col 0 against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 at the biochemical and transcriptional levels is reported in this paper. All three strains decreased disease severity when applied to A. thaliana prior to pathogen inoculation. At the biochemical level, each of the three strains induced ethylene (ET) when incubated with 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) production in the plant. Plants treated with each of the three strains were also reduced in salicylic acid production after pathogen challenge compared to untreated controls. This effect was more marked in plants treated with Chryseobacterium balustinum AUR9, the strain most effective in decreasing disease severity. The expression level of PR1, a transcriptional marker of the SA-dependent pathway in C. balustinum AUR9-treated plants, is fourfold that of controls while the expression of PDF1.2, a transcriptional marker for the SA-independent pathway, is not induced. C. balustinum cell wall lipopolysaccharides, being putative bacterial elicitor molecules, are able to reproduce this systemic induction effect at low doses. From these observations, we hypothesize that certain PGPR strains are capable of stimulating different systemic responses in host plants. With C. balustinum AUR9, the SA-dependent pathway is stimulated first, as indicated by increases in SA levels and PR1 expression, followed by induction of the SA-independent pathway, as indicated by the increases in ET concentrations. The effects of both pathways combined with respect to disease suppression appear to be additive.

  12. The chills as a psychological construct: content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Maruskin, Laura A; Thrash, Todd M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    We examined the content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences of "the chills." In Study 1, participants described what it means to get the chills. A second sample sorted all references to physical sensations based on similarity. Cluster analysis identified 4 lower order clusters (goosebumps, tingling, coldness, shivers) and 2 higher order clusters ("goosetingles," "coldshivers"). In Study 2, factor analysis of questionnaire data supported a model with lower and higher order factors that corresponded to the Study 1 clusters. Goosetingles and coldshivers were predicted by approach-related traits (e.g., extraversion) and avoidance-related traits (e.g., neuroticism), respectively. In Study 3, analysis of narrative data replicated the goosetingles-coldshivers structure. Relative to coldshivers, goosetingles involved greater awe, surprise, and enjoyment and less disgust, fear, and sadness. In Study 4, analysis of diary data extended the goosetingles-coldshivers structure to between- and within-person levels of analysis. Goosetingles involved positive affects and was elicited by approach-related stimuli, whereas coldshivers involved negative affects and was elicited by avoidance-related stimuli. In Study 5, manipulation of exposure to self-actualization and self-annihilation elicited goosetingles and coldshivers, respectively. Goosetingles and coldshivers had positive and negative effects, respectively, on interpersonal closeness. In sum, diverse forms of evidence converge to indicate that the chills encompasses distinct approach- and avoidance-related constructs. Failure to distinguish these constructs explains null and inconsistent findings in the nascent literature. Goosetingles and coldshivers are posited to serve the function of signaling that an event in the environment is pertinent to one's most deep-seated hopes or fears. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Purification and characterization of two isoforms of isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase from elicitor-treated Cinchona robusta cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Valdivia, A C; van der Heijden, R; Verpoorte, R; Camara, B

    1997-10-01

    In Cinchona robusta (Rubiaceae) cell suspension cultures, the activity of the enzyme isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase (isopentenyl-POP isomerase) is transiently induced after addition of a homogenate of the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. The enzyme catalyses the interconversion of isopentenyl-POP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (dimethylallyl-POP) and may be involved in the biosynthesis of anthraquinone phytoalexins that accumulate rapidly after elicitation of Cinchona cells. From elicitor-treated C. robusta cells, two isoforms of isopentenyl-POP isomerase have been purified to apparent homogeneity in four chromatographic steps. The purified forms are monomeric enzymes of 34 kDa (isoform I) and 29 kDa (isoform II), with Km values for isopentenyl-POP of 5.1 microM and 1.0 microM, respectively. Both isoforms require Mn2+ or Mg2+ as cofactor, isoform II showing a preference for Mn2+ with maximum activity at 1.5-2 mM. Isoform I was most active in the presence of 0.5-1.5 mM Mg2+ or in the presence of 0.5 mM Mn2+. A pH optimum of 7-7.8 was found for both forms and both were competitively inhibited by geranyl diphosphate (Ki 96 microM for isoform I) and the transition state analogue 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl diphosphate. Rechromatography of purified isoforms did not indicate any interconversion of both forms. Western blot analysis, using antibodies raised against isopentenyl-POP isomerase purified from Capsicum annuum, showed the presence of both isoforms in the crude protein extracts from C. robusta cells. Isoform II was specifically induced by elicitation, non-treated cells contained low activity of this isoform. The possible role of isopentenyl-POP isomerase in the biosynthesis of anthraquinones is discussed.

  14. Plant cell death caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral elicitors: protective effect of mitochondria-targeted quinones.

    PubMed

    Kiselevsky, D B; Frolova, O Yu; Solovyev, A G; Dorokhov, Yu L; Morozov, S Yu; Samuilov, V D

    2014-12-01

    Chitosan (partially deacetylated chitin), a component of fungal cell walls, caused epidermal cell (EC) death in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and tobacco Nicotiana tabacum or Nicotiana benthamiana detected by destruction of cell nuclei. The mitochondria-targeted quinone SkQ1 prevented the destruction of EC nuclei induced by chitosan. Chitosan increased and SkQ1 suppressed the activity of protein kinases in N. benthamiana and P. sativum and eliminated the effect of chitosan. Chitosan induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the guard cells (GC) of pea plants. Treatment with chitosan or H2O2 did not cause destruction of GC nuclei; however, it resulted in disruption of the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane detected by propidium iodide fluorescence. Treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide but not peptidoglycan caused destruction of pea EC nuclei, which was prevented by SkQ1. Leaves of tobacco plants containing the N gene responsible for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. These cells contained a genetic construct with the gene of the helicase domain of TMV replicase (p50); its protein product p50 is a target for the N-gene product. As a result, the hypersensitive response (HR) was initiated. The HR manifested itself in the death of leaves and was suppressed by SkQ3. Treatment of tobacco epidermal peels with the A. tumefaciens cells for the p50 gene expression stimulated the destruction of EC nuclei, which was inhibited by SkQ1 or SkQ3. The p50-lacking A. tumefaciens cells did not induce the destruction of EC nuclei. The protective effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants SkQ1 and SkQ3 demonstrates the involvement of mitochondria and their ROS in programmed cell death caused by pathogen elicitors.

  15. Patterns of coral ecological immunology: variation in the responses of Caribbean corals to elevated temperature and a pathogen elicitor.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Caroline V; McGinty, Elizabeth S; Cummings, David J; Smith, Stephanie M; Bartels, Erich; Mydlarz, Laura D

    2011-12-15

    Disease epizootics are increasing with climatic shifts, yet within each system only a subset of species are identified as the most vulnerable. Understanding ecological immunology patterns as well as environmental influences on immune defenses will provide insight into the persistence of a functional system through adverse conditions. Amongst the most threatened ecosystems are coral reefs, with coral disease epizootics and thermal stress jeopardizing their survival. Immune defenses were investigated within three Caribbean corals, Montastraea faveolata, Stephanocoenia intersepta and Porites astreoides, which represent a range of disease and bleaching susceptibilities. Levels of several immune parameters were measured in response to elevated water temperature and the presence of a commercial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - as an elicitor of the innate immune response. Immune parameters included prophenoloxidase (PPO) activity, melanin concentration, bactericidal activity, the antioxidants peroxidase and catalase, and fluorescent protein (FP) concentration. LPS induced an immune response in all three corals, although each species responded differently to the experimental treatments. For example, M. faveolata, a disease-susceptible species, experienced significant decreases in bactericidal activity and melanin concentration after exposure to LPS and elevated temperature alone. Porites astreoides, a disease-resistant species, showed increased levels of enzymatic antioxidants upon exposure to LPS independently and increased PPO activity in response to the combination of LPS and elevated water temperature. This study demonstrates the ability of reef-building corals to induce immune responses in the presence of PAMPs, indicating activation of PAMP receptors and the transduction of appropriate signals leading to immune effector responses. Furthermore, these data address the emerging field of ecological immunology by highlighting

  16. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity.

  17. ZmPep1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis elicitor peptide 1, regulates maize innate immunity and enhances disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Huffaker, Alisa; Dafoe, Nicole J; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-03-01

    ZmPep1 is a bioactive peptide encoded by a previously uncharacterized maize (Zea mays) gene, ZmPROPEP1. ZmPROPEP1 was identified by sequence similarity as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtPROPEP1 gene, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its receptors, AtPEPR1 and AtPEPR2, AtPep1 functions to activate and amplify innate immune responses in Arabidopsis and enhances resistance to both Pythium irregulare and Pseudomonas syringae. Candidate orthologs to the AtPROPEP1 gene have been identified from a variety of crop species; however, prior to this study, activities of the respective peptides encoded by these orthologs were unknown. Expression of the ZmPROPEP1 gene is induced by fungal infection and treatment with jasmonic acid or ZmPep1. ZmPep1 activates de novo synthesis of the hormones jasmonic acid and ethylene and induces the expression of genes encoding the defense proteins endochitinase A, PR-4, PRms, and SerPIN. ZmPep1 also stimulates the expression of Benzoxazineless1, a gene required for the biosynthesis of benzoxazinoid defenses, and the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside in leaves. To ascertain whether ZmPep1-induced defenses affect resistance, maize plants were pretreated with the peptide prior to infection with fungal pathogens. Based on cell death and lesion severity, ZmPep1 pretreatment was found to enhance resistance to both southern leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot caused by Cochliobolis heterostrophus and Colletotrichum graminicola, respectively. We present evidence that peptides belonging to the Pep family have a conserved function across plant species as endogenous regulators of innate immunity and may have potential for enhancing disease resistance in crops.

  18. A consortium of rhizobacterial strains and biochemical growth elicitors improve cold and drought stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kakar, K U; Ren, X-L; Nawaz, Z; Cui, Z-Q; Li, B; Xie, G-L; Hassan, M A; Ali, E; Sun, G-C

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, a consortium of two rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bk7 and Brevibacillus laterosporus B4, termed 'BB', biochemical elicitors salicylic acid and β-aminobutyric acid (SB) and their mixture (BBSB) were investigated for cold and drought stress tolerance in rice plants. After withholding water for 16 days, rice plants treated with BBSB showed 100% survival, improved seedling height (35.4 cm), shoot number (6.12), and showed minimum symptoms of chlorosis (19%), wilting (4%), necrosis (6%) and rolling of leaves. Similarly, BB inoculation enhanced plant growth and reduced overall symptoms in rice seedlings subjected to 0 ± 5 °C for 24 h. Our results imply several mechanisms underlying BB- and BBSB-elicited stress tolerance. In contrast to the control, both treatments significantly decreased leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, and increased leaf proline and cholorophyll content. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased 3.0- and 3.6-fold, respectively. Moreover, expression of OsMYB3R-2, OsDIL, OsDREB1A and OsCDPK13 genes was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that these genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of rice. In addition, bacterial strains Bk7 and B4 were able to produce high amounts of IAA and siderophores, and colonise the plant roots, while only strain Bk7 exhibited the capability to form biofilms and solubilise inorganic phosphate. This study indicates that the BB and BBSB bio-formulations can be used to confer induced systematic tolerance and improve the health of rice plants subject to chilling and drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Convergence and Divergence of Signaling Events in Guard Cells during Stomatal Closure by Plant Hormones or Microbial Elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Agurla, Srinivas; Raghavendra, Agepati S.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of stomatal aperture is essential for plants to optimize water use and CO2 uptake. Stomatal opening or closure is accompanied by the modulation of guard cell turgor. Among the events leading to stomatal closure by plant hormones or microbial elicitors, three signaling components stand out as the major converging points. These are reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytosolic free Ca2+, and ion channels. Once formed, the ROS and free Ca2+ of guard cells regulate both downstream and upstream events. A major influence of ROS is to increase the levels of NO and cytosolic free Ca2+ in guard cells. Although the rise in NO is an important event during stomatal closure, the available evidences do not support the description of NO as the point of convergence. The rise in ROS and NO would cause an increase of free Ca2+ and modulate ion channels, through a network of events, in such a way that the guard cells lose K+/Cl−/anions. The efflux of these ions decreases the turgor of guard cells and leads to stomatal closure. Thus, ROS, NO, and cytosolic free Ca2+ act as points of divergence. The other guard cell components, which are modulated during stomatal closure are G-proteins, cytosolic pH, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. However, the current information on the role of these components is not convincing so as to assign them as the points of convergence or divergence. The interrelationships and interactions of ROS, NO, cytosolic pH, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. Our review is an attempt to critically assess the current status of information on guard cells, while emphasizing the convergence and divergence of signaling components during stomatal closure. The existing gaps in our knowledge are identified to stimulate further research. PMID:27605934

  20. Differential induction and suppression of potato 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase genes in response to Phytophthora infestans and to its elicitor arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, D; Ward, B L; Bostock, R M

    1992-01-01

    Induction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is essential for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins and steroid derivatives in Solanaceous plants following stresses imposed by wounding and pathogen infection. To better understand this complex step in stress-responsive isoprenoid synthesis, we isolated three classes of cDNAS encoding HMGR (hmg1, hmg2, and hmg3) from a potato tuber library using a probe derived from an Arabidopsis HMGR cDNA. The potato cDNAs had extensive homology in portions of the protein coding regions but had low homology in the 3' untranslated regions. RNA gel blot analyses using gene-specific probes showed that hmg1 was strongly induced in tuber tissue by wounding, but the wound induction was strongly suppressed by treatment of the tissue with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid or by inoculation with an incompatible or compatible race of the fungal pathogen Phytophtora infestans. The hmg2 and hmg3 mRNAs also accumulated in response to wounding, but in contrast to hmg1, these mRNAs were strongly enhanced by arachidonic acid or inoculation. Inoculation with a compatible race of P. infestans resulted in similar patterns in HMGR gene expression of hmg2 and hmg3 except that the magnitude and rate of the changes in mRNA levels were reduced relative to the incompatible interaction. The differential regulation of members of the HMGR gene family may explain in part the previously reported changes in HMGR enzyme activities following wounding and elicitor treatment. The suppression of hmg1 and the enhancement of hmg2 and hmg3 transcript levels following elicitor treatment or inoculation with the incompatible race parallel the suppression in steroid and stimulation of sesquiterpenoid accumulations observed in earlier investigations. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that there are discrete organizational channels for sterol and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in potato and other Solanaceous species. PMID

  1. The Synthetic Elicitor 2-(5-Bromo-2-Hydroxy-Phenyl)-Thiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid Links Plant Immunity to Hormesis1

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Bektas, Yasemin; Schroeder, Mercedes; Knoth, Colleen; Vu, Trang; Roberts, Philip; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that induce plant immune responses but are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. Using high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate the expression of a pathogen-responsive reporter gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (BHTC). BHTC induces disease resistance of plants against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal pathogens and has a unique mode of action and structure. Surprisingly, we found that low doses of BHTC enhanced root growth in Arabidopsis, while high doses of this compound inhibited root growth, besides inducing defense. These effects are reminiscent of the hormetic response, which is characterized by low-dose stimulatory effects of a wide range of agents that are toxic or inhibitory at higher doses. Like its effects on defense, BHTC-induced hormesis in Arabidopsis roots is partially dependent on the WRKY70 transcription factor. Interestingly, BHTC-induced root hormesis is also affected in the auxin-response mutants axr1-3 and slr-1. By messenger RNA sequencing, we uncovered a dramatic difference between transcriptional profiles triggered by low and high doses of BHTC. Only high levels of BHTC induce typical defense-related transcriptional changes. Instead, low BHTC levels trigger a coordinated intercompartmental transcriptional response manifested in the suppression of photosynthesis- and respiration-related genes in the nucleus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria as well as the induction of development-related nuclear genes. Taken together, our functional characterization of BHTC links defense regulation to hormesis and provides a hypothetical transcriptional scenario for the induction of hormetic root growth. PMID:26530314

  2. The influence of secretion elicitors and external pH on the kinetics of D-alanine uptake by the trap lobes of Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus's Flytrap).

    PubMed

    Rea, P A; Whatley, F R

    1983-08-01

    Simple kinetic techniques were used to examine the mechanism of D-alanine uptake by the adaxial surfaces of the trap lobes of Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus's Flytrap.) On the basis of these analyses, the uptake of D-alanine was found to depend on the time during which the trap lobes were inoculated with elicitors of secretion before excision and measurement of uptake. Disks taken from traps that had not been subjected to a preceding period of inoculation with secretion elicitors showed a low basal rate of uptake which was neither pH-dependent nor exhibited saturation with respect to external D-alanine concentration. Disks from preinoculated traps, on the other hand, displayed an enhanced rate of uptake which showed both pH-dependence and saturation with respect to external D-alanine concentration. The capacity for enhanced uptake was lost upon prolonged inoculation or when inoculation was stopped. Of the compounds tested, only elicitors of secretion caused an enhancement of uptake. The enhanced rate of D-alanine uptake is temperature-sensitive with a Q10 characteristic of a mediated process. Uncouplers cause an instantaneous abolition of uptake whereas the effects of terminal-oxidase inhibitors are time-dependent. The pH-dependence of uptake is inferred to result from an increased affinity of the carrier system for D-alanine at low pH values. Although the ionic state of D-alanine is relatively unaffected over the pH range examined, a decrease in the external pH from 6.0 to 3.8 decreases the apparent K m for uptake by four-fold but increases V max by only 30%. It is concluded that the acid secreted by the digestive glands of Dionaea plays a direct role in facilitating the uptake of amino acids from the trap cavity.

  3. The Elicitor Protein AsES Induces a Systemic Acquired Resistance Response Accompanied by Systemic Microbursts and Micro-Hypersensitive Responses in Fragaria ananassa.

    PubMed

    Hael-Conrad, Verónica; Perato, Silvia Marisa; Arias, Marta Eugenia; Martínez-Zamora, Martín Gustavo; Di Peto, Pía de Los Ángeles; Martos, Gustavo Gabriel; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Díaz-Ricci, Juan Carlos; Chalfoun, Nadia Regina

    2017-08-28

    The elicitor AsES (Acremonium strictum elicitor subtilisin) is a 34-kDa subtilisin-like protein secreted by the opportunistic fungus Acremonium strictum. AsES activates innate immunity and confers resistance against anthracnose and gray mold diseases in strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and the last disease also in Arabidopsis. In the present work, we show that, upon AsES recognition, a cascade of defense responses is activated, including: calcium influx, biphasic oxidative burst (O2(⋅-) and H2O2), hypersensitive cell-death response (HR), accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, cell-wall reinforcement with callose and lignin deposition, salicylic acid accumulation, and expression of defense-related genes, such as FaPR1, FaPG1, FaMYB30, FaRBOH-D, FaRBOH-F, FaCHI23, and FaFLS. All these responses occurred following a spatial and temporal program, first induced in infiltrated leaflets (local acquired resistance), spreading out to untreated lateral leaflets, and later, to distal leaves (systemic acquired resistance). After AsES treatment, macro-HR and macro-oxidative bursts were localized in infiltrated leaflets, while micro-HRs and microbursts occurred later in untreated leaves, being confined to a single cell or a cluster of a few epidermal cells that differentiated from the surrounding ones. The differentiated cells initiated a time-dependent series of physiological and anatomical changes, evolving to idioblasts accumulating H2O2 and autofluorescent compounds that blast, delivering its content into surrounding cells. This kind of systemic cell-death process in plants is described for the first time in response to a single elicitor. All data presented in this study suggest that AsES has the potential to activate a wide spectrum of biochemical and molecular defense responses in F. ananassa that may explain the induced protection toward pathogens of opposite lifestyle, like hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic fungi.

  4. Ascorbic acid, ultraviolet C rays, and glucose but not hyperthermia are elicitors of human β-defensin 1 mRNA in normal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz Díaz, Luis Antonio; Flores Miramontes, María Guadalupe; Chávez Hurtado, Paulina; Allen, Kirk; Gonzalez Ávila, Marisela; Prado Montes de Oca, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Hosts' innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs). Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA), and ultraviolet C rays (UVC) as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA) on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), cathelicidin (CAMP), and interferon-γ (IFNG) genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK). The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C) and hyperthermia (39°C) are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections.

  5. Tobacco rattle virus 29K movement protein is the elicitor of extreme and hypersensitive-like resistance in two cultivars of Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Ghazala, Walid; Varrelmann, Mark

    2007-11-01

    Leaf infection experiments were used to analyze the host responses of Solanum tuberosum cultivars known to be resistant or susceptible to natural, nematode-mediated infection of tubers and necrosis induction ("spraing") by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolate PpK20 (TRV-PpK20). Extreme and hypersensitive-like resistance (ER and HR-like, respectively) as well as spreading veinal necrosis and systemic infection were observed. Agroinfection of leaves with a DsRed-expressing TRV cDNA clone revealed ER to function on the single-cell level, inhibiting virus replication and possessing the potential to initiate a cell death response. HR-like necrosis was characterized by initial virus replication and cell-to-cell movement before the onset of necrosis. Transient agroexpression and Potato virus X (PVX)-mediated expression assays demonstrated that the 29K-PpK20 movement protein (MP) can elicit ER and HR-like cell-death. A TRV isolate, PpO85M, known to overcome the resistance to spraing in plants that are resistant to TRV-PpK20 encoded a variant 29K protein which did not elicit HR in PpK20-HR plants. Our results show that the TRV MP is the elicitor of both ER and HR-like cell-death, that no other TRV-encoded proteins or RNA replication are required for its elicitor activity, and that the host reactions are likely to be controlled by single dominant resistance genes.

  6. Isolation and gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of ATL2, an early elicitor-response RING-H2 zinc-finger gene.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Guzmán, Plinio

    2004-01-01

    Genes with unstable transcripts often encode proteins that play important regulatory roles. ATL2 is a member of a multigene family coding highly related RING-H2 zinc-finger proteins that may function as E3 ubiquitin ligases. ATL2 mRNA accumulation occurs rapidly and transiently after incubation with elicitors of pathogen response. We screened 50,000 M(2) families from a line that carries a fusion of pATL2 to the GUS reporter gene and isolated five mutants, which we named eca (expresión constitutiva de ATL2), that showed constitutive expression of the reporter gene. One mutant exhibits a drastic stunted phenotype while the other four grow similarly to wild type. Two early chitin-induced genes and known pathogenesis-related genes such as NPR1, PAL, and CHS are activated in all the mutants whereas members of the ATL family and PR-1 and PDF2.1, which are markers of the salicylic acid (SA) jasmonate (JA) defense-response pathways, display differential expression between the mutants. These observations indicate that the ECA gene products may function in the early steps of an elicitor-response pathway, although some of them may function at other stages on the SA or JA defense-response pathways. Likewise, the fact that ATL2 and other members of the ATL family are activated in eca mutants links the induction of this putative class of ubiquitin ligases to plant defense signaling pathways. PMID:15238540

  7. cDNA cloning and characterization of a putative 1,3-beta-D-glucanase transcript induced by fungal elicitor in bean cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Edington, B V; Lamb, C J; Dixon, R A

    1991-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides based on similarity between tobacco 1,3-beta-D-glucanase and barley 1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanase were used to prime the synthesis and amplification of a 162 bp bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) beta-glucanase cDNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR product was used to isolate a near full-length beta-glucanase cDNA corresponding to an approximately 1400 bp full-length transcript, from a library containing cDNA sequences complementary to mRNA from fungal elicitor-treated bean cells. At the amino acid level, the bean beta-glucanase cDNA was 59% similar to tobacco 1,3-beta-D-glucanase, 46% similar to barley 1,3-beta-D-glucanase and 46% similar to barley 1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanase. At the nucleotide level, the similarities were 65, 50 and 53% respectively. The beta-glucanase appeared to be encoded by a single gene with similar genomic organization in bean cultivars Canadian Wonder, Imuna and Saxa. On the basis of predicted Mr, isoelectric point, sequence similarity, and comparisons of rate of transcript appearance with induced enzyme activity, it was concluded that the cDNA encodes the basic bean endo-1,3-beta-D-glucanase. Glucanase transcripts were induced, from very low basal levels, with similar kinetics to chitinase transcripts in elicitor-treated bean cell suspension cultures.

  8. Chemical Elicitor-Induced Modulation of Antioxidant Metabolism and Enhancement of Secondary Metabolite Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Scrophularia kakudensis Franch

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Scrophularia kakudensis is an important medicinal plant with pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. To develop a sustainable source of naturaceuticals with vital therapeutic importance, a cell suspension culture was established in S. kakudensis for the first time. Friable calli were induced from the leaf explants cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3.0 mg·L−1 6-benzyladenine (BA) in a combination with 2 mg·L−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). From the callus cultures, a cell suspension culture was initiated and the cellular differentiation was investigated. In addition, the effect of biotic elicitors such as methyl jasmonate (MeJa), salicylic acid (SA), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant properties was demonstrated. Among the elicitors, the MeJa elicited the accumulation of total phenols, flavonoids, and acacetin, a flavonoid compound with multiple pharmaceutical values. Similarly, the higher concentrations of the MeJa significantly modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced the scavenging potentials of free radicals of cell suspension extracts. Overall, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for the large scale production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from S. kakudensis through cell suspension cultures. PMID:26999126

  9. Ascorbic Acid, Ultraviolet C Rays, and Glucose but not Hyperthermia Are Elicitors of Human β-Defensin 1 mRNA in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Díaz, Luis Antonio; Flores Miramontes, María Guadalupe; Allen, Kirk; Gonzalez Ávila, Marisela; Prado Montes de Oca, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Hosts' innate defense systems are upregulated by antimicrobial peptide elicitors (APEs). Our aim was to investigate the effects of hyperthermia, ultraviolet A rays (UVA), and ultraviolet C rays (UVC) as well as glucose and ascorbic acid (AA) on the regulation of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1), cathelicidin (CAMP), and interferon-γ (IFNG) genes in normal human keratinocytes (NHK). The indirect in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes of these potential APEs was tested. We found that AA is a more potent APE for DEFB1 than glucose in NHK. Glucose but not AA is an APE for CAMP. Mild hypo- (35°C) and hyperthermia (39°C) are not APEs in NHK. AA-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. UVC upregulates CAMP and DEFB1 genes but UVA only upregulates the DEFB1 gene. UVC is a previously unrecognized APE in human cells. Our results suggest that glucose upregulates CAMP in an IFN-γ-independent manner. AA is an elicitor of innate immunity that will challenge the current concept of late activation of adaptive immunity of this vitamin. These results could be useful in designing new potential drugs and devices to combat skin infections. PMID:25815330

  10. Exonic sequences are required for elicitor and light activation of a plant defense gene, but promoter sequences are sufficient for tissue specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, C J; Hauffe, K D; Ites-Morales, M E; Ellard, M; Paszkowski, U; Hahlbrock, K; Dangl, J L

    1991-01-01

    The parsley 4CL-1 gene encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, a key enzyme of general phenylpropanoid metabolism. As well as being transcriptionally activated by such stresses as pathogen infection, UV-irradiation, and wounding, expression of 4CL-1 is developmentally regulated. In this paper we present evidence that 4CL-1 cis-acting elements which control stress-induced and developmental expression are physically separated. The ability of a series of 4CL gene constructions to respond to elicitor and light in stably or transiently transformed parsley cells was tested. While inducible expression was observed from all templates in which the 4CL-1 structural gene was fused to the 4CL-1 promoter, fusions of the promoter to the GUS reporter gene were completely unresponsive. The element(s) required for responsiveness appear to be exonic, since 4CL-1 introns and 3' flanking DNA had no effect on inducibility. Furthermore, this unconventional regulatory mode operates in transgenic tobacco plants, where we show that a 4CL-1 promoter fragment specifies correct cell-specific expression when fused to GUS yet is unresponsive to elicitor and light. Images PMID:2050114

  11. Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takeo; Nakano, Takuto; Takamizawa, Daisuke; Desaki, Yoshitake; Ishii-Minami, Naoko; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    Chitin is a major molecular pattern for various fungi, and its fragments, chitin oligosaccharides, are known to induce various defense responses in plant cells. A plasma membrane glycoprotein, CEBiP (chitin elicitor binding protein) and a receptor kinase, CERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase) (also known as LysM-RLK1), were identified as critical components for chitin signaling in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, it is not known whether each plant species requires both of these two types of molecules for chitin signaling, nor the relationships between these molecules in membrane signaling. We report here that rice cells require a LysM receptor-like kinase, OsCERK1, in addition to CEBiP, for chitin signaling. Knockdown of OsCERK1 resulted in marked suppression of the defense responses induced by chitin oligosaccharides, indicating that OsCERK1 is essential for chitin signaling in rice. The results of a yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that both CEBiP and OsCERK1 have the potential to form hetero- or homo-oligomers. Immunoprecipitation using a membrane preparation from rice cells treated with chitin oligosaccharides suggested the ligand-induced formation of a receptor complex containing both CEBiP and OsCERK1. Blue native PAGE and chemical cross-linking experiments also suggested that a major portion of CEBiP exists as homo-oligomers even in the absence of chitin oligosaccharides. PMID:21070404

  12. Purification of novel protein elicitor from Botrytis cinerea that induces disease resistance and drought tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhua; Yang, Xiufen; Liu, Quan; Qiu, Dewen; Zhang, Yuliang; Zeng, Hongmei; Yuan, Jingjing; Mao, Jianjun

    2010-02-28

    PebC1, a novel protein elicitor was isolated and purified from the mycelium of gray mold fungus, Botrytis cinerea strain BC-4-2-2-1. The protein was eluted through HiTrap DEAE FF and RESOURCE Q anion exchange chromatography and displayed as a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 36 kDa on silver staining sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The pI of the purified protein PebC1 was determined by 2-DE and was 4.85. Three peptide segments were obtained by MALDI-TOF. Similarity, the homology matching using protein BLAST search found that two proteins, viz. XP_001593856 and XP_001551609 were having high score and covered sequence of the three peptides. Protein XP_001551609, a deduced protein nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha-polypeptide, was more authentic because it was from Botryotinia fuckeliana that is better known as its anamorph, B.cinerea and showed 95% homology with the three polypeptides. The full cDNA sequence encoding for pebC1 (Genbank accession number FJ748868) was amplified from B. cinerea and consists of 639bp, which is same as a registered gene of XM_001551559, a nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha-polypeptide partial mRNA. The gene encode a hypothetical protein speculated from an annotated genomic sequence from B. fuckeliana B05.10 (NW_001814507) and there is no publication about the gene. The PebC1 protein significantly promoted wheat seedling growth with an optimum protein concentration of 5 microg/mL. Root systemic activity of wheat with 4-5 leaves increased by 1.29 fold, and the wheat seedling drought resistance integrated index increased from 36.53 to 57.08 under two cycles of drought stress after treatment of PebC1. PebC1 protein at the optimum concentration of 10 microg/mL induced 69.19% disease resistance against gray mold fungus in tomato. Furthermore, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxides (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) related to plant resistance metabolism were also

  13. Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    PubMed

    Randhir, Reena; Lin, Yuan-Tong; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP) was stimulated in fenugreek sprouts through the pentose phosphate and shikimate pathway, by natural elicitors such as Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH), Lactoferrin (LF) and Oregano Extract (OE). Among treatments 0.5 ml/L FPH elicited fenugreek sprouts had the highest phenolic content of 0.75 mg/g FW on day 3 of germination which was approximately 25 % higher than control on the same day. The antioxidant activity estimated by beta-carotene assay was highest for LF and OE elicited sprouts on day 2 and 4, respectively with an antioxidant protection factor (APF) of 1.47 for both. In all treatments and control, higher antioxidant activity was observed during early germination, which correlates to higher phenolic content, suggesting that initially phenolics are antioxidant in nature. This increased activity also correlates with high guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity indicating that the polymerized phenolics required for lignification with growth have antioxidant function. The antioxidant activity as estimated by beta-carotene and 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays indicate that fenugreek sprout extract can quench the superoxide free radical and also possibly scavenge the hydrogen peroxide generated in the reaction mix. OE elicited the highest levo dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA) synthesis of 1.59 mg/g FW, followed by FPH with 1.56 mg/g FW and LF 1.5 mg/g FW all on day 2 which was 24.5%, 23 % and 20 % higher than control, respectively. Higher L-DOPA content was observed in the elicited fenugreek sprouts during early germination, correlating to high phenolics and antioxidant activity, suggesting that L-DOPA also contributes to the high antioxidant activity. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was higher during early germination (day 1-4) and gradually decreased during later stages (day 5-8) for all treatments and control. The early increase is possibly due to the carbohydrate mobilization from the cotyledons

  14. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Nam, Jiryun; Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Moon; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Jang, Chan-Yong; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hong Gi; Roh, Mark; Hammond, John

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  15. The HERBIVORE ELICITOR-REGULATED1 Gene Enhances Abscisic Acid Levels and Defenses against Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata Plants1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata plants can distinguish the damage caused by herbivore feeding from other types of damage by perceiving herbivore-associated elicitors, such as the fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in oral secretions (OS) of Manduca sexta larvae, which are introduced into wounds during feeding. However, the transduction of FAC signals into downstream plant defense responses is still not well established. We identified a novel FAC-regulated protein in N. attenuata (NaHER1; for herbivore elicitor regulated) and show that it is an indispensable part of the OS signal transduction pathway. N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaHER1 by RNA interference (irHER1) were unable to amplify their defenses beyond basal, wound-induced levels in response to OS elicitation. M. sexta larvae performed 2-fold better when reared on irHER1 plants, which released less volatile organic compounds (indirect defense) and had strongly reduced levels of several direct defense metabolites, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors, 17-hydroxygeranyllinallool diterpene glycosides, and caffeoylputrescine, after real and/or simulated herbivore attack. In parallel to impaired jasmonate signaling and metabolism, irHER1 plants were more drought sensitive and showed reduced levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaves, suggesting that silencing of NaHER1 interfered with ABA metabolism. Because treatment of irHER1 plants with ABA results in both the accumulation of significantly more ABA catabolites and the complete restoration of normal wild-type levels of OS-induced defense metabolites, we conclude that NaHER1 acts as a natural suppressor of ABA catabolism after herbivore attack, which, in turn, activates the full defense profile and resistance against herbivores. PMID:23784463

  16. Enhancement of growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L.cv. Lucknow local) under the influence of fungal elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bais, H P; Govindaswamy, S; Ravishankar, G A

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the possible production of coumarins in hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus L.cv. Lucknow local under the influence of microbial agents. Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytopthora parasitica var. nicotiana were cultured and their mycelial and medium filtrate were used for the elicitation of coumarin production. The media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v added to the MS basal medium led to the maximum growth of hairy roots of C. intybus, which was 1.57-fold higher than the untreated control on the 28th day of culture, along with maximum esculin and esculetin yields which were 4.06- and 3.71-fold higher than the control on the 28th day. The yields of esculin and esculetin in hairy root cultures of chicory strongly correlated with growth. To check the effect of these fungal elicitors on endogenous polyamine metabolism, titers of total endogenous polyamines were analyzed. It was confirmed that the media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration resulted in maximum accumulation of total endogenous polyamines, wherein endogenous spermine titers were found to be maximum as compared to endogenous spermidine and putrescine titers on the 28th day. Total endogenous spermine in the case of 1.0% MF v/v P. parasitica was 1.3-fold higher than that of the control on the 28th day of culture. Maximum growth index with greater length of primary root (17.61+/-0.18 cm) and greater number of secondary and tertiary roots was recorded for the medium filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration. This study also provided an insight into the morphological changes in terms of branching patterns, occurring in roots under the influence of these fungal elicitors.

  17. Two LysM receptor molecules, CEBiP and OsCERK1, cooperatively regulate chitin elicitor signaling in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeo; Nakano, Takuto; Takamizawa, Daisuke; Desaki, Yoshitake; Ishii-Minami, Naoko; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto

    2010-10-01

    Chitin is a major molecular pattern for various fungi, and its fragments, chitin oligosaccharides, are known to induce various defense responses in plant cells. A plasma membrane glycoprotein, CEBiP (chitin elicitor binding protein) and a receptor kinase, CERK1 (chitin elicitor receptor kinase) (also known as LysM-RLK1), were identified as critical components for chitin signaling in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, it is not known whether each plant species requires both of these two types of molecules for chitin signaling, nor the relationships between these molecules in membrane signaling. We report here that rice cells require a LysM receptor-like kinase, OsCERK1, in addition to CEBiP, for chitin signaling. Knockdown of OsCERK1 resulted in marked suppression of the defense responses induced by chitin oligosaccharides, indicating that OsCERK1 is essential for chitin signaling in rice. The results of a yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that both CEBiP and OsCERK1 have the potential to form hetero- or homo-oligomers. Immunoprecipitation using a membrane preparation from rice cells treated with chitin oligosaccharides suggested the ligand-induced formation of a receptor complex containing both CEBiP and OsCERK1. Blue native PAGE and chemical cross-linking experiments also suggested that a major portion of CEBiP exists as homo-oligomers even in the absence of chitin oligosaccharides. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Involvement of PPS3 Phosphorylated by Elicitor-Responsive Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Regulation of Plant Cell Death1

    PubMed Central

    Katou, Shinpei; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Rowland, Owen; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Mori, Hitoshi; Doke, Noriyuki

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play pivotal roles in plant innate immunity. Overexpression of StMEK1DD, a constitutively active MAPK kinase that activates salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), provokes hypersensitive response-like cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here we purified a 51-kD MAPK, which was activated in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers treated with hyphal wall elicitor of a plant pathogen, and isolated the cDNA designated StMPK1. The deduced amino acid sequence of the StMPK1 showed strong similarity to stress-responsive MAPKs, such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SIPK and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtMPK6. To investigate the downstream signaling of StMPK1, we identified several proteins phosphorylated by StMPK1 (PPSs) using an in vitro expression cloning method. To dissect the biological function of PPSs in the plant defense, we employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in N. benthamiana. VIGS of NbPPS3 significantly delayed cell death induced by the transient expression of StMEK1DD and treatment with hyphal wall elicitor. Furthermore, the mobility shift of NbPPS3 on SDS-polyacrylamide gel was induced by transient expression of StMEK1DD. The mobility shift of NbPPS3 induced by StMEK1DD was not compromised by VIGS of WIPK or SIPK alone, but drastically reduced by the silencing of both WIPK and SIPK. This work strongly supports the idea that PPS3 is a physiological substrate of StMPK1 and is involved in cell death activated by a MAPK cascade. PMID:16306147

  19. Convergence of Signaling Pathways Induced by Systemin, Oligosaccharide Elicitors, and Ultraviolet-B Radiation at the Level of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Lycopersicon peruvianum Suspension-Cultured Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Susan R.; Yalamanchili, Roopa D.; Moura, Daniel S.; Ryan, Clarence A.; Stratmann, Johannes W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested whether signaling pathways induced by systemin, oligosaccharide elicitors (OEs), and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation share common components in Lycopersicon peruvianum suspension-cultured cells. These stress signals all induce mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. In desensitization assays, we found that pretreatment with systemin and OEs transiently reduced the MAPK response to a subsequent treatment with the same or a different elicitor. In contrast, MAPK activity in response to UV-B increased after pretreatment with systemin and OEs. These experiments demonstrate the presence of signaling components that are shared by systemin, OEs, and UV-B. Based on desensitization assays, it is not clear if the same or different MAPKs are activated by different stress signals. To identify specific stress-responsive MAPKs, we cloned three MAPKs from a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaf cDNA library, generated member-specific antibodies, and performed immunocomplex kinase assays with extracts from elicited L. peruvianum cells. Two highly homologous MAPKs, LeMPK1 and LeMPK2, were activated in response to systemin, four different OEs, and UV-B radiation. An additional MAPK, LeMPK3, was only activated by UV-B radiation. The common activation of LeMPK1 and LeMPK2 by many stress signals is consistent with the desensitization assays and may account for substantial overlaps among stress responses. On the other hand, MAPK activation kinetics in response to elicitors and UV-B differed substantially, and UV-B activated a different set of LeMPKs than the elicitors. These differences may account for UV-B-specific responses. PMID:12913131

  20. Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Karre, Shailesh; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2017-02-01

    We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831

  1. L-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Phaseolus vulgaris. Characterisation and differential induction of multiple forms from elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Bolwell, G P; Bell, J N; Cramer, C L; Schuch, W; Lamb, C J; Dixon, R A

    1985-06-03

    L-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) has been purified over 200-fold from cell cultures of bean (phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to elicitor heat-released from the cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Four forms of the enzyme, with identical Mr but differing apparent pI values of 5.4, 5.2, 5.05 and 4.85, were observed following the final chromatofocussing stage of the purification. A preparation (purified 43-fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography) containing all four forms exhibited apparent negative rate cooperativity with respect to substrates. However, the individual forms displayed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with Km values of 0.077 mM, 0.122 mM, 0.256 mM and 0.302 mM in order of decreasing apparent pI value. A preparation purified 200-fold and containing all four forms was used to immunise rabbits for the production of anti-(phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) serum. The antiserum was characterised by: immunotitration experiments; solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; comparison of immunoprecipitates of 35S-labelled phenylalanine ammonia-lyase subunits (synthesized both in vivo and in vitro) on both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels after immunoprecipitation with the bean antiserum or antisera raised against pea and parsley phenylalanine ammonia-lyase preparations and immune blotting. SDS/polyacrylamide gels and SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immune blotting, indicated that the Mr of newly synthesized (in vivo and in vitro) bean phenylalanine ammonia-lyase subunits is 77000; a 70000-Mr form is readily generated as a partial degradation product during purification. Immunoprecipitates of bean phenylalanine ammonia-lyase synthesized both in vivo and in vitro showed the presence of multiple subunit types of identical Mr but differing in pI. Furthermore, treatment of bean cultures with Colletotrichum elicitor resulted in a 10

  2. A review on possible elicitor molecules of cyanobacteria: their role in improving plant growth and providing tolerance against biotic or abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are prominent inhabitants of many agricultural soils, where they potentially contribute towards biological nitrogen fixation, help in phosphate solubilization and mineral release to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. However, beside naturally fertilizing and balancing mineral nutrition in the soil, many cyanobacteria are known to release various kinds of biologically active substances like proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, polysaccharides and phytohormones that function as elicitor molecules to promote plant growth and help them to fight against biotic and abiotic stress. These metabolites produced by the cyanobacteria affect the gene expression of the host plants and thereby bring about qualitative and quantitative changes in the phytochemical composition of the plants. Experiments carried out with live inoculum or with the extracts of cyanobacterial strains on several plant species, such as rice, wheat, maize, cotton etc., have demonstrated the synthesis of signalling metabolites. Thus, in view of its beneficial effect, this paper reviews the role of cyanobacteria in triggering the growth and development of plants and hence its utilization in agriculture. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A Novel WRKY transcription factor is required for induction of PR-1a gene expression by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors.

    PubMed

    van Verk, Marcel C; Pappaioannou, Dimitri; Neeleman, Lyda; Bol, John F; Linthorst, Huub J M

    2008-04-01

    PR-1a is a salicylic acid-inducible defense gene of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). One-hybrid screens identified a novel tobacco WRKY transcription factor (NtWRKY12) with specific binding sites in the PR-1a promoter at positions -564 (box WK(1)) and -859 (box WK(2)). NtWRKY12 belongs to the class of transcription factors in which the WRKY sequence is followed by a GKK rather than a GQK sequence. The binding sequence of NtWRKY12 (WK box TTTTCCAC) deviated significantly from the consensus sequence (W box TTGAC[C/T]) shown to be recognized by WRKY factors with the GQK sequence. Mutation of the GKK sequence in NtWRKY12 into GQK or GEK abolished binding to the WK box. The WK(1) box is in close proximity to binding sites in the PR-1a promoter for transcription factors TGA1a (as-1 box) and Myb1 (MBSII box). Expression studies with PR-1a promoterbeta-glucuronidase (GUS) genes in stably and transiently transformed tobacco indicated that NtWRKY12 and TGA1a act synergistically in PR-1a expression induced by salicylic acid and bacterial elicitors. Cotransfection of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts with 35SNtWRKY12 and PR-1aGUS promoter fusions showed that overexpression of NtWRKY12 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression, which required functional WK boxes in the PR-1a promoter.

  4. Novel extracellular chitinases rapidly and specifically induced by general bacterial elicitors and suppressed by virulent bacteria as a marker of early basal resistance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ott, Péter G; Varga, Gabriella J; Szatmári, Agnes; Bozsó, Zoltan; Klement, Eva; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Besenyei, Eszter; Czelleng, Arnold; Klement, Zoltán

    2006-02-01

    Early basal resistance (EBR, formerly known as early induced resistance) is triggered by general bacterial elicitors. EBR has been suggested to inhibit or retard expression of the type III secretion system of pathogenic bacteria and may also prevent nonpathogenic bacteria from colonizing the plant tissue. The quickness of EBR here plays a crucial role, compensating for a low bactericidal efficacy. This inhibitory activity should take place in the cell wall, as bacteria do not enter living plant cells. We found several soluble proteins in the intercellular fluid of tobacco leaf parenchyma that coincided with EBR under different environmental (light and temperature) conditions known to affect EBR. The two most prominent proteins proved to be novel chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) that were transcriptionally induced before and during EBR development. Their expression in the apoplast was fast and not stress-regulated as opposed to many pathogenesis-related proteins. Nonpathogenic, saprophytic, and avirulent bacteria all induced EBR and the chitinases. Studies using these chitinases as EBR markers revealed that the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, being sensitive to EBR, must suppress it while suppressing the chitinases. EBR, the chitinases, as well as their suppression are quantitatively related, implying a delicate balance determining the outcome of an infection.

  5. Effect of chemical elicitors on peppermint (Mentha piperita) plants and their impact on the metabolite profile and antioxidant capacity of resulting infusions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa Pérez, Marely G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-08-01

    Infusions are widely consumed all over the world and are a source of dietary antioxidants, which can be improved in plants using elicitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) (0.5, 1 and 2mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5mM) on peppermint (Mentha piperita) plants and its effect on the metabolite profile and antioxidant capacity of resulting infusions. Whereas 2mM SA treatment improved plant growth parameters and metabolite profile (carbohydrates and amino acids), 0.5 and 1mM SA treatments increased phenolic compound concentration. Sinapic acid, rutin and naringin were detected only in SA treatments; antioxidant capacity was also improved. Regarding H2O2 treatments, no differences in plant growth parameters, metabolite profile or antioxidant capacity were found. Therefore, the application of SA to peppermint is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of infusions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The synthetic elicitor 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid induces NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent mechanisms of disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Knoth, Colleen; Salus, Melinda S; Girke, Thomas; Eulgem, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Immune responses of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are at least partially mediated by coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of plant defense genes, such as the Late/sustained Up-regulation in Response to Hyaloperonospora parasitica (LURP) cluster. We found a defined region in the promoter of the LURP member CaBP22 to be important for this response. Using a CaBP22 promoter-reporter fusion, we have established a robust and specific high-throughput screening system for synthetic defense elicitors that can be used to trigger defined subsets of plant immune responses. Screening a collection of 42,000 diversity-oriented molecules, we identified 114 candidate LURP inducers. One representative, 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA), efficiently induced defense reactions to the phytopathogens H. parasitica and Pseudomonas syringae. In contrast to known salicylic acid analogs, such as 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), which exhibit a long-lasting defense-inducing activity and are fully dependent on the transcriptional cofactor NPR1 (for Nonexpresser of Pathogenesis-Related genes1), DCA acts transiently and is only partially dependent on NPR1. Microarray analyses revealed a cluster of 142 DCA- and INA-responsive genes that show a pattern of differential expression coinciding with the kinetics of DCA-mediated disease resistance. These ACID genes (for Associated with Chemically Induced Defense) constitute a core gene set associated with chemically induced disease resistance, many of which appear to encode components of the natural immune system of Arabidopsis.

  7. Acetic acid acts as an elicitor exerting a chitosan-like effect on xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum L. root cultures.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Alessio; De Angelis, Giulia; Badiali, Camilla; Brasili, Elisa; Miccheli, Alfredo; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid acts as a signal molecule, strongly enhancing xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum root cultures. This activity is specific, as demonstrated by the comparison with other short-chain monocarboxylic acids. We have recently demonstrated that Hypericum perforatum root cultures constitutively produce xanthones at higher levels than the root of the plant and that they respond to chitosan (CHIT) elicitation with a noteworthy increase in xanthone production. In the present study, CHIT was administered to H. perforatum root cultures using three different elicitation protocols, and the increase in xanthone production was evaluated. The best results (550 % xanthone increase) were obtained by subjecting the roots to a single elicitation with 200 mg l(-1) CHIT and maintaining the elicitor in the culture medium for 7 days. To discriminate the effect of CHIT from that of the solvent, control experiments were performed by administering AcOH alone at the same concentration used for CHIT solubilization. Unexpectedly, AcOH caused an increase in xanthone production comparable to that observed in response to CHIT. Feeding experiments with (13)C-labeled AcOH demonstrated that this compound was not incorporated into the xanthone skeleton. Other short-chain monocarboxylic acids (i.e., propionic and butyric acid) have little or no effect on the production of xanthones. These results indicate that AcOH acts as a specific signal molecule, able to greatly enhance xanthone biosynthesis in H. perforatum root cultures.

  8. The Synthetic Elicitor 3,5-Dichloroanthranilic Acid Induces NPR1-Dependent and NPR1-Independent Mechanisms of Disease Resistance in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Knoth, Colleen; Salus, Melinda S.; Girke, Thomas; Eulgem, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Immune responses of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are at least partially mediated by coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of plant defense genes, such as the Late/sustained Up-regulation in Response to Hyaloperonospora parasitica (LURP) cluster. We found a defined region in the promoter of the LURP member CaBP22 to be important for this response. Using a CaBP22 promoter-reporter fusion, we have established a robust and specific high-throughput screening system for synthetic defense elicitors that can be used to trigger defined subsets of plant immune responses. Screening a collection of 42,000 diversity-oriented molecules, we identified 114 candidate LURP inducers. One representative, 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA), efficiently induced defense reactions to the phytopathogens H. parasitica and Pseudomonas syringae. In contrast to known salicylic acid analogs, such as 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), which exhibit a long-lasting defense-inducing activity and are fully dependent on the transcriptional cofactor NPR1 (for Nonexpresser of Pathogenesis-Related genes1), DCA acts transiently and is only partially dependent on NPR1. Microarray analyses revealed a cluster of 142 DCA- and INA-responsive genes that show a pattern of differential expression coinciding with the kinetics of DCA-mediated disease resistance. These ACID genes (for Associated with Chemically Induced Defense) constitute a core gene set associated with chemically induced disease resistance, many of which appear to encode components of the natural immune system of Arabidopsis. PMID:19304930

  9. A High-Affinity Binding Site for the AVR9 Peptide Elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum Is Present on Plasma Membranes of Tomato and Other Solanaceous Plants.

    PubMed

    Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Honee, G.; Bonnema, G.; De Wit, PJGM.

    1996-05-01

    The race-specific Cladosporium fulvum peptide elicitor AVR9, which specifically induces a hypersensitive response in tomato genotypes carrying the Cf-9 resistance gene, was labeled with iodine-125 at the N-terminal tyrosine residue and used in binding studies. 125I-AVR9 showed specific, saturable, and reversible binding to plasma membranes isolated from leaves of tomato cultivar Moneymaker without Cf resistance genes (MM-Cf0) or from a near-isogenic genotype with the Cf-9 resistance gene (MM-Cf9). The dissociation constant was found to be 0.07 nM, and the receptor concentration was 0.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein. Binding was highly influenced by pH and the ionic strength of the binding buffer and by temperature, indicating the involvement of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Binding kinetics and binding capacity were similar for membranes of the MM-Cf0 and MM-Cf9 genotypes. In all solanaceous plant species tested, an AVR9 binding site was present, whereas in the nonsolanaceous species that were analyzed, such a binding site could not be identified. The ability of membranes isolated from different solanaceous plant species to bind AVR9 seems to correlate with the presence of members of the Cf-9 gene family, but whether this correlation is functional remains to be determined.

  10. Waterborne Signaling Primes the Expression of Elicitor-Induced Genes and Buffers the Oxidative Responses in the Brown Alga Laminaria digitata

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, François; Cosse, Audrey; Goulitquer, Sophie; Raimund, Stefan; Morin, Pascal; Valero, Myriam; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata) and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H2O2 and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants. PMID:21731761

  11. Waterborne signaling primes the expression of elicitor-induced genes and buffers the oxidative responses in the brown alga Laminaria digitata.

    PubMed

    Thomas, François; Cosse, Audrey; Goulitquer, Sophie; Raimund, Stefan; Morin, Pascal; Valero, Myriam; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As marine sessile organisms, seaweeds must respond efficiently to biotic and abiotic challenges in their natural environment to reduce the fitness consequences of wounds and oxidative stress. This study explores the early steps of the defense responses of a large marine brown alga (the tangle kelp Laminaria digitata) and investigates its ability to transmit a warning message to neighboring conspecifics. We compared the early responses to elicitation with oligoguluronates in laboratory-grown and harvested wild individuals of L. digitata. We followed the release of H₂O₂ and the concomitant production of volatile organic compounds. We also monitored the kinetics of expression of defense-related genes following the oxidative burst. Laboratory-grown algae were transplanted in kelp habitats to further evaluate their responses to elicitation after a transient immersion in natural seawater. In addition, a novel conditioning procedure was established to mimic field conditions in the laboratory. Our experiments showed that L. digitata integrates waterborne cues present in the kelp bed and/or released from elicited neighboring plants. Indeed, the exposure to elicited conspecifics changes the patterns of oxidative burst and volatile emissions and potentiates this kelp for faster induction of genes specifically regulated in response to oligoguluronates. Thus, waterborne signals shape the elicitor-induced responses of kelps through a yet unknown mechanism reminiscent of priming in land plants.

  12. Phosphorylation of a member of the MBF1 transcriptional co-activator family, StMBF1, is stimulated in potato cell suspensions upon fungal elicitor challenge.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Casalongué, Claudia Anahí

    2003-02-01

    StMBF1 (Solanum tuberosum multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a plant member of the MBF1 family of transcriptional co-activators. Previously, it has been described as being up-regulated at the transcriptional level by fungal and abiotic stress. To understand whether StMBF1 is also regulated at the post-translational level, in vitro as well as in vivo phosphorylation assays were performed. StMBF1 is phosphorylated under both experimental conditions and [(32)P] incorporation into StMBF1 increases after treatment of potato cells with hyphal cell wall components (HWC) derived from Phytophthora infestans. The StMBF1-phosphorylating activity is strongly inhibited by the calcium-chelator EGTA and partially inhibited by calmodulin antagonists. Using bacterial purified StMBF1 as a substrate, a 57 kDa calcium-dependent protein kinase (p57) that is able to phosphorylate StMBF1 was detected. The StMBF1 kinase activity of p57 was higher in elicited than in non-treated cells. The role of the elicitor-dependent phosphorylation of StMBF1 is discussed.

  13. Rhizophagus irregularis as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid and antioxidant production by transformed roots of Ocimum basilicum in an in vitro co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites. To fully understand mycorrhizal ontogenesis and its effect on root morphology, root biomass, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production under in vitro conditions, a co-culture was developed between three Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived, elite-transformed root lines of Ocimum basilicum and Rhizophagus irregularis. We found that mycorrhizal ontogenesis in transformed roots was similar to mycorrhizal roots obtained from an in planta system. Mycorrhizal establishment was also found to be transformed root line-specific. Colonization of transformed roots increased the concentration of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production while no effect was observed on root morphological traits and biomass. Enhancement of total phenolics and rosmarinic acid in the three mycorrhizal transformed root lines was found to be transformed root line-specific and age dependent. We reveal the potential of R. irregularis as a biotic elicitor in vitro and propose its incorporation into commercial in vitro secondary metabolite production via transformed roots.

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Rice Treated with MoHrip1 Reveal the Function of Protein Elicitor in Enhancement of Disease Resistance and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shun; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based digital gene expression (DGE) profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors, and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA) pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly. PMID:27990152

  15. Insect elicitors and exposure to green leafy volatiles differentially upregulate major octadecanoids and transcripts of 12-oxo phytodienoic acid reductases in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Engelberth, Jürgen; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Schultz, Jack C; Tumlinson, James H

    2007-06-01

    The induction of jasmonic acid (JA) is one of the major signaling events in plants in response to insect herbivore damage and leads to the activation of direct and indirect defensive measures. Green leafy volatiles, which constitute a major portion of volatile organic compounds, often are released in response to insect herbivore attack and have been shown to significantly activate JA production in exposed corn (Zea mays) seedlings, thereby priming these plants specifically against subsequent herbivore attack. To explore the factors determining the specificity of the octadecanoid signaling pathway in corn, we analyzed qualitative and quantitative changes in major octadecanoids. The time course and the amount of induced JA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid levels in corn seedlings were strikingly different after wounding, application of caterpillar regurgitant, or treatment with cis-3-hexenyl acetate (Z-3-6:AC). Exposure to Z-3-6:AC induced accumulation of transcripts encoded by three putative 12-oxophytodienoate10,11-reductase genes (ZmOPR1/2, ZmOPR5, and ZmOPR8). Although changes in ZmOPR5 RNAs were detected only after exposure to Z-3-6:AC, ZmOPR1/2 RNAs and ZmOPR8 RNAs also were abundant after treatment with crude regurgitant elicitor or mechanical damage. The physiological implications of these findings in the context of plant-insect interactions are discussed.

  16. Ion Channel-Forming Alamethicin Is a Potent Elicitor of Volatile Biosynthesis and Tendril Coiling. Cross Talk between Jasmonate and Salicylate Signaling in Lima Bean1

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Jürgen; Koch, Thomas; Schüler, Göde; Bachmann, Nadine; Rechtenbach, Jana; Boland, Wilhelm

    2001-01-01

    Alamethicin (ALA), a voltage-gated, ion channel-forming peptide mixture from Trichoderma viride, is a potent elicitor of the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Unlike elicitation with jasmonic acid or herbivore damage, the blend of substances emitted comprises only the two homoterpenes, 4,11-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene and 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene, and methyl salicylate. Inhibition of octadecanoid signaling by aristolochic acid and phenidone as well as mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous jasmonate demonstrate that ALA induces the biosynthesis of volatile compounds principally via the octadecanoid-signaling pathway (20-fold increase of jasmonic acid). ALA also up-regulates salicylate biosynthesis, and the time course of the production of endogenous salicylate correlates well with the appearance of the methyl ester in the gas phase. The massive up-regulation of the SA-pathway (90-fold) interferes with steps in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of 12-oxophytodienoic acid and thereby reduces the pattern of emitted volatiles to compounds previously shown to be induced by early octadecanoids. ALA also induces tendril coiling in various species like Pisum, Lathyrus, and Bryonia, but the response appears to be independent from octadecanoid biosynthesis, because inhibitors of lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 do not prevent the coiling reaction. PMID:11154344

  17. PeBL1, a novel protein elicitor from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60, activates defense responses and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoqian; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Qiu, Dewen

    2015-04-01

    We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60.

  18. PeBL1, a Novel Protein Elicitor from Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain A60, Activates Defense Responses and Systemic Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoqian; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–Q-TOF–MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60. PMID:25662975

  19. Membrane-bound guaiacol peroxidases from maize (Zea mays L.) roots are regulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and pathogen elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Angela; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Hopff, David; Lüthje, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Plant peroxidases are involved in numerous cellular processes in plant development and stress responses. Four plasma membrane-bound peroxidases have been identified and characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) roots. In the present study, maize seedlings were treated with different stresses and signal compounds, and a functional analysis of these membrane-bound class III peroxidases (pmPOX1, pmPOX2a, pmPOX2b, and pmPOX3) was carried out. Total guaiacol peroxidase activities from soluble and microsomal fractions of maize roots were compared and showed weak changes. By contrast, total plasma membrane and washed plasma membrane peroxidase activities, representing peripheral and integral membrane proteins, revealed strong changes after all of the stresses applied. A proteomic approach using 2D-PAGE analysis showed that pmPOX3 was the most abundant class III peroxidase at plasma membranes of control plants, followed by pmPOX2a >pmPOX2b >pmPOX1. The molecular mass (63 kDa) and the isoelectric point (9.5) of the pmPOX2a monomer were identified for the first time. The protein levels of all four enzymes changed in response to multiple stresses. While pmPOX2b was the only membrane peroxidase down-regulated by wounding, all four enzymes were differentially but strongly stimulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and elicitors (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum extracts, and chitosan) indicating their function in pathogen defence. Oxidative stress applied as H2O2 treatment up-regulated pmPOX2b >pmPOX2a, while pmPOX3 was down-regulated. Treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor chantharidin resulted in distinct responses. PMID:20032108

  20. Identification of the pepper SAR8.2 gene as a molecular marker for pathogen infection, abiotic elicitors and environmental stresses in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2003-01-01

    Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) SAR8.2 genes, designated CASAR82A, B and C, which are induced by all the biotic and abiotic stresses, were isolated from a pepper cDNA library constructed with the mRNAs from pepper plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The pepper CASAR82A, B and C gene products, which are very similar to each other in amino acid sequences, have 43-50% homology with those of tobacco SAR8.2 genes. The CASAR8.2 genes were not constitutively expressed in any of the organs of healthy pepper plants. In contrast, the CASAR82A gene was locally or systemically induced in pepper plants infected by X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, Colletotrichum coccodes or Phytophthora capsici. Strong induction of the CASAR82A gene also was found in pepper leaves treated with ethylene, methyl jasmonate, indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, benzothiadiazole, DL-beta- n-amino butyric acid or hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the transcription of the CASAR82A gene was rapidly triggered by high salinity, drought or low-temperature stresses, but not by mechanical wounding. In situ hybridization results revealed that the CASAR82A mRNAs were localized in phloem and epidermal cells of pepper leaf and stem tissues infected by C. coccodes and P. capsici, or treated with salicylic acid. These results thus suggest that pepper SAR8.2 genes may be valuable as a molecular marker for the detection of various pathogen infections, abiotic elicitors and environmental stresses.

  1. The coat protein of tobamovirus acts as elicitor of both L2 and L4 gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, P; García-Luque, I; Serra, M T

    2004-07-01

    In Capsicum, the resistance conferred by the L(2) gene is effective against all of the pepper-infecting tobamoviruses except Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), whereas that conferred by the L(4) gene is effective against them all. These resistances are expressed by a hypersensitive response, manifested through the formation of necrotic local lesions (NLLs) at the primary site of infection. The Capsicum L(2) gene confers resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV), while the L(4) gene is effective against both PaMMV and PMMoV. The PaMMV and PMMoV coat proteins (CPs) were expressed in Capsicum frutescens (L(2)L(2)) and Capsicum chacoense (L(4)L(4)) plants using the heterologous Potato virus X (PVX)-based expression system. In C. frutescens (L(2)L(2)) plants, the chimeric PVX virus containing the PaMMV CP was localized in the inoculated leaves and produced NLLs, whereas the chimeric PVX containing the PMMoV CP infected the plants systemically. Thus, the data indicated that the PaMMV CP is the only tobamovirus factor required for the induction of the host response mediated by the Capsicum L(2) resistance gene. In C. chacoense (L(4)L(4)) plants, both chimeric viruses were localized to the inoculated leaves and produced NLLs, indicating that either PaMMV or PMMoV CPs are required to elicit the L(4) gene-mediated host response. In addition, transient expression of PaMMV CP into C. frutescens (L(2)L(2)) leaves and PMMoV CP into C. chacoense (L(4)L(4)) leaves by biolistic co-bombardment with a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene led to the induction of cell death and the expression of host defence genes in both hosts. Thus, the tobamovirus CP is the elicitor of the Capsicum L(2) and L(4) gene-mediated hypersensitive response.

  2. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, G J; Markell, S G; Song, Q J; Qi, L L

    2017-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii occurring in the United States. The evaluation of 114 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross between HA 89 and PI 494578 against P. halstedii race 734 revealed that single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis conducted in the BC1F2 population indicated that the DM resistance gene derived from wild H. argophyllus PI 494578 is located on the upper end of the linkage group (LG) 8 of the sunflower genome, as was determined single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with DM resistance. Analysis of 11 additional SNP markers previously mapped to this region revealed that the resistance gene, named Pl 20 , co-segregated with four markers, SFW02745, SFW09076, S8_11272025, and S8_11272046, and is flanked by SFW04358 and S8_100385559 at an interval of 1.8 cM. The newly discovered P. halstedii resistance gene has been introgressed from wild species into cultivated sunflower to provide a novel gene with DM resistance. The homozygous resistant individuals were selected from BC2F2 progenies with the use of markers linked to the Pl 20 gene, and these lines should benefit the sunflower community for Helianthus improvement.

  3. An endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain DHV3-2 from diseased root as a potential biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae and growth elicitor in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Cao, Peng; Liu, Chongxi; Sun, Pengyu; Fu, Xuepeng; Wang, Shaoxian; Wu, Fengzhi; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-01

    agent against V. dahliae and growth elicitor in tomato.

  4. Selective inhibition of jasmonic acid accumulation by a small α, β-unsaturated carbonyl and phenidone reveals different modes of octadecanoid signalling activation in response to insect elicitors and green leaf volatiles in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plants often release a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in response to insect herbivore damage. Among those blends of VOC green leaf volatiles (GLV) have been demonstrated to function as defence signals between plants, thereby providing protection against impending herbivory. A problem in understanding the mode of action of these 6-carbon aldehydes, alcohols, and esters is caused by their structural diversity. Besides different degrees of oxidation, E-2- as well as Z-3-configured isomers are often released. This study was therefore initiated to determine the structural requirement necessary to exhibit biological activity measured as jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation in Zea mays seedlings. Findings The structure/function analysis of green leaf volatiles and related compounds revealed that an olefinic bond in position 2 or 3 and a size of 6-8 carbons is required for biological activity in maize. Also, it was found that the presence of an α, β-unsaturated carbonyl is not a prerequisite for activity. However, by treating plants first with volatile acrolein it was discovered that this smallest α, β-unsaturated carbonyl inhibits JA accumulation in response to insect elicitor treatment, but not after GLV exposure. This selective inhibitory effect was also found for phenidone, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases. These findings led to the discovery of a pool of protein-associated 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of JA, which appeared to be rapidly converted into JA upon exposure to GLV. Conclusions The structure/function analysis of GLV demonstrates a high degree of correlation between the compounds released by wounded plants in nature and their biological activity. The selective inhibitory effects of acrolein and phenidone on insect elicitor- and GLV-induced JA accumulation in maize led to the discovery of a pool of protein-associated precursor, which is rapidly activated and transformed to JA after exposure to GLV. This novel

  5. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  6. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    PubMed

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  7. The natural plant stress elicitor cis-jasmone causes cultivar-dependent reduction in growth of the stink bug, Euschistus heros and associated changes in flavonoid concentrations in soybean, Glycine max.

    PubMed

    da Graça, José P; Ueda, Tatiana E; Janegitz, Tatiani; Vieira, Simone S; Salvador, Mariana C; de Oliveira, Maria C N; Zingaretti, Sonia M; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the plant stress related elicitor cis-jasmone (cJ) provides protection in soybean pods against the seed-sucking stink bug pest, Euschistus heros, the growth of E. heros on cJ-treated pods was investigated using three soybean cultivars differing in insect susceptibility, i.e. BRS 134 (susceptible), IAC 100 (resistant) and Dowling (resistant). E. heros showed reduced weight gain when fed cJ-treated Dowling, whereas no effect on weight gain was observed when fed other treated cultivars. Using analysis of variance, a three factor (cultivar x treatment x time) interaction was observed with concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides daidzin and genistin, and their corresponding aglycones, daidzein and genistein. There were increases in genistein and genistin concentrations in cJ-treated Dowling at 144 and 120 h post treatment, respectively. Higher concentrations of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin in Dowling, compared to BRS 134 and IAC 100, were observed independently of time, the highest concentrations being observed in cJ-treated seeds. Levels of glycitin and malonylglycitin were higher in BRS 134 and IAC 100 compared to Dowling. Canonical variate analysis indicated daidzein (in the first two canonical variates) and genistein (in the first only) as important discriminatory variables. These results suggest that cJ treatment leads to an increase in the levels of potentially defensive isoflavonoids in immature soybean seeds, but the negative effect upon E. heros performance is cultivar-dependent.

  8. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (XXI. Activation of Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase Genes Does Not Contribute to Changes in Metabolite Accumulation in Elicitor-Treated Cell-Suspension Cultures).

    PubMed Central

    Ni, W.; Sewalt, VJH.; Korth, K. L.; Blount, J. W.; Ballance, G. M.; Dixon, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Transcription of genes encoding L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), enzymes involved in the synthesis of lignin and wall-esterified phenolic compounds, was strongly activated in elicitor-treated cell-suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). However, consequent changes in the extractable activities of COMT and CCOMT were small to nonexistent compared with a 15- to 16-fold increase in PAL activity. Only low levels of COMT and CCOMT transcripts were reflected in the total and polysomal RNA fractions compared with PAL transcripts. Elicited cell cultures did not accumulate lignin or the products of COMT and CCOMT in the soluble and wall-esterified phenolic fractions. In one alfalfa cell line in which elicitation resulted in very high PAL activity and increased deposition of methoxyl groups in the insoluble wall fraction, there was still no change in COMT and CCOMT activities. Overall, these results indicate that the initial gene transcription events in elicited cells may be less selective than the subsequent metabolic changes, highlighting the importance of posttranscriptional events in the control of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. PMID:12226420

  9. Molecular steps in the immune signaling pathway evoked by plant elicitor peptides: Ca2+-dependent protein kinases, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species are downstream from the early Ca2+ signal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhao, Yichen; Walker, Robin K; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2013-11-01

    Endogenous plant elicitor peptides (Peps) can act to facilitate immune signaling and pathogen defense responses. Binding of these peptides to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plasma membrane-localized Pep receptors (PEPRs) leads to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, an early event in a signaling cascade that activates immune responses. This immune response includes the amplification of signaling evoked by direct perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by plant cells under assault. Work included in this report further characterizes the Pep immune response and identifies new molecular steps in the signal transduction cascade. The PEPR coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 contributes to generation of the Pep-activated Ca(2+) signal and leads to increased defense gene expression and resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen. Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) decode the Ca(2+) signal, also facilitating defense gene expression and enhanced resistance to the pathogen. Nitric oxide and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation (due to the function of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog proteins D and F) are also involved downstream from the Ca(2+) signal in the Pep immune defense signal transduction cascade, as is the case with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 and CPK5, CPK6, and CPK11. These steps of the pathogen defense response are required for maximal Pep immune activation that limits growth of a virulent bacterial pathogen in the plant. We find a synergism between function of the PEPR and Flagellin Sensing2 receptors in terms of both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation. Presented results are also consistent with the involvement of the secondary messenger cyclic GMP and a cyclic GMP-activated Ca(2+)-conducting channel in the Pep immune signaling pathway.

  10. Expression of the 1-SST and 1-FFT genes and consequent fructan accumulation in Agave tequilana and A. inaequidens is differentially induced by diverse (a)biotic-stress related elicitors.

    PubMed

    Suárez-González, Edgar Martín; López, Mercedes G; Délano-Frier, John P; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio

    2014-02-15

    The expression of genes coding for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; EC 2.4.1.100), both fructan biosynthesizing enzymes, characterization by TLC and HPAEC-PAD, as well as the quantification of the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) accumulating in response to the exogenous application of sucrose, kinetin (cytokinin) or other plant hormones associated with (a)biotic stress responses were determined in two Agave species grown in vitro, domesticated Agave tequilana var. azul and wild A. inaequidens. It was found that elicitors such as salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA) had the strongest effect on fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) accumulation. The exogenous application of 1mM SA induced a 36-fold accumulation of FOS of various degrees of polymerization (DP) in stems of A. tequilana. Other treatments, such as 50mM abscisic acid (ABA), 8% Sucrose (Suc), and 1.0 mg L(-1) kinetin (KIN) also led to a significant accumulation of low and high DP FOS in this species. Conversely, treatment with 200 μM MeJA, which was toxic to A. tequilana, induced an 85-fold accumulation of FOS in the stems of A. inaequidens. Significant FOS accumulation in this species also occurred in response to treatments with 1mM SA, 8% Suc, and 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Maximum yields of 13.6 and 8.9 mg FOS per g FW were obtained in stems of A. tequilana and A. inaequidens, respectively. FOS accumulation in the above treatments was tightly associated with increased expression levels of either the 1-FFT or the 1-SST gene in tissues of both Agave species.

  11. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC1F2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC1F2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC2F3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  12. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-02-03

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  13. Chitosan and Laminarin as Alternatives to Copper for Plasmopara viticola Control: Effect on Grape Amino Acid.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, T; Mancini, V; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Servili, A; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Foglia, R; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Romanazzi, G

    2017-08-30

    Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids. Moreover, treatments that have mostly decreased these compounds are those with copper hydroxide, especially when applied individually. LamE applied individually or alternately with copper hydroxide had the least negative effect on grape amino acid content. These results provide further information about the negative effects of copper on grape quality, which can be reduced when it is used in strategy with LamE or chitosan in GDM control.

  14. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangjiu; Qin, Wentao; Huang, Xiaoqing; Kong, Fanfang; Schoen, Cor D.; Feng, Jie; Wang, Zhongyue; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A rapid LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) detection method was developed on the basis of the ITS sequence of P. viticola, the major causal agent of grape downy mildew. Among the 38 fungal and oomycete species tested, DNA isolated exclusively from P. viticola resulted in a specific product after LAMP amplification. This assay had high sensitivity and was able to detect the presence of less than 33 fg of genomic DNA per 25-μL reaction within 30 min. The infected leaves may produce sporangia that serve as a secondary inoculum. The developed LAMP assay is efficient for estimating the latent infection of grape leaves by P. viticola. When combined with the rapid and simple DNA extraction method, this assay’s total detection time is shortened to approximately one hour; therefore it is suitable for on-site detection of latent infection in the field. The sporangia levels in the air are strongly associated with disease severity. The LAMP method was also demonstrated to be able to estimate the level of sporangia released in the air in a certain period. This assay should make disease forecasting more accurate and rapid and should be helpful in decision-making regarding the control of grape downy mildew. PMID:27363943

  15. Functional analysis of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in sunflower under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Identification of two new genes of mitochondrial Mn-SOD.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ocaña, Ana; Chaki, Mounira; Luque, Francisco; Gómez-Rodríguez, María V; Carreras, Alfonso; Valderrama, Raquel; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Hernández, Luis E; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2011-07-15

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a family of metalloenzymes that catalyse the disproportionation of superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. In sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings, two new Mn-SOD isozymes, designated as I and II, were identified. However, no evidence for a Fe-SOD was found. Both Mn-SOD I and Mn-SOD II have a cleaved sequence of 14 residues that target the mitochondrion with a probability of 81% and 95%, respectively. The gene expression of these new mitochondrial Mn-SODs as well as the previously reported cytosolic and chloroplastic CuZnSODs was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. This was done in the main organs (roots, hypocotyls, and cotyledons) of sunflower seedlings and also under biotic (infection by the pathogen Plasmopara halstedii) and abiotic stress conditions, including high and low temperature and mechanical wounding. Both CuZn-SODs had a gene expression of 1000-fold higher than that of mitochondrial Mn-SODs. And the expression of the Mn-SOD I was approximately 12-fold higher than that of Mn-SOD II. The Mn-SOD I showed a significant modulation in response to the assayed biotic and abiotic stresses even when it had no apparent oxidative stress, such as low temperature. Thus, it is proposed that the mitochondrial Mn-SOD I gene could act as an early sensor of adverse conditions to prevent potential oxidative damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. ssRNA viruses from biotrophic Oomycetes form a new phylogenetic group between Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Spring, Otmar

    2017-02-02

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is one of the few characterized oomycete viruses. Although it is fully sequenced and well-studied in its genetic diversity, the exact classification and phylogenetic relationships of PhV remain uncertain. The only known virus with characteristics similar to PhV is the Sclerophthora macrospora Virus A (SmV-A). Both viruses infect obligate biotrophic oomycetes. While RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of oomycetes viruses have high similarity to the corresponding enzymes from viruses classified in the family Nodaviridae, the coat proteins (CP) seem to be completely different from those of other viruses of this family. In contrast, the coat proteins of PhV and SmV-A have high similarity to viruses classified in the Tombusviridae, Circoviridae and a new group of hybrid DNA-RNA viruses (so-called chimeric viruses or cruciviruses). Because phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of either RdRp or CP result in different affinities, an alternative, genome-based approach combining the sequences of both proteins was used. This analysis placed the two oomycete viruses together with Tombunodavirus UC1 in a new, independent group between families Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae.

  17. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    PubMed

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3 Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4 Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer.

  18. Elicitors aboveground: an alternative for control of a belowground pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation ...

  19. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  20. Elicitors of tansy volatiles from cotton leafworm larval oral secretion.

    PubMed

    Mack, Lienhard; Gros, Petra; Burkhardt, Jens; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2013-12-01

    The feeding of Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma caterpillars on tansy leaves led to a complete different release of volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and hexenyl alkanoates. Volatiles were collected from S. littoralis and A. gamma larvae damaged, mechanically wounded, and excised tansy leaves by closed loop stripping analysis. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the volatiles were done by GC-MS- and GC-measurements. The oligosaccharides sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose have been detected in oral secretion of the caterpillars of the cotton leafworm S. littoralis. When applied to damaged leaves of tansy plants, these oligosaccharides induce the tansy leaves to emit a similar volatile blend as the feeding of S. littoralis larvae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Oligogalacturonide Elicitors.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Mattei, Benedetta; Pontiggia, Daniela; Salvi, Gianni; Savatin, Daniel Valentin; Ferrari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments derived from the partial degradation of homogalacturonan in the plant cell wall and able to elicit plant defence responses. Recent methodological advances in the isolation of OGs from plant tissues and their characterization have confirmed their role as bona fide plant Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. Here, we describe the methods for the isolation of OGs from Arabidopsis leaf tissues and for the characterization of OG structure and biological activity.

  2. First report of impatiens downy mildew outbreaks caused by Plasmopara obducens throughout the Hawai'ian islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew of impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook.f.) was first reported from the continental U.S. in 2004. In 2011-2012, severe and widespread outbreaks across were documented across the U.S. mainland, resulting in considerable economic losses. On 05-May-2013, downy mildew disease symptoms wer...

  3. Candidate disease resistance genes in sunflower cloned using conserved nucleotide-binding site motifs: genetic mapping and linkage to the downy mildew resistance gene Pl1.

    PubMed

    Gedil, M A; Slabaugh, M B; Berry, S; Johnson, R; Michelmore, R; Miller, J; Gulya, T; Knapp, S J

    2001-04-01

    Disease resistance gene candidates (RGCs) belonging to the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) superfamily have been cloned from numerous crop plants using highly conserved DNA sequence motifs. The aims of this research were to (i) isolate genomic DNA clones for RGCs in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and (ii) map RGC markers and Pl1, a gene for resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. & de Toni) race 1. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers targeted to conserved NBS DNA sequence motifs were used to amplify RGC fragments from sunflower genomic DNA. PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and assigned to 11 groups. RFLP analyses mapped six RGC loci to three linkage groups. One of the RGCs (Ha-4W2) was linked to Pl1, a downy mildew resistance gene. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed for Ha-4W2 using gene-specific oligonucleotide primers. Downy mildew susceptible lines (HA89 and HA372) lacked a 276-bp Tsp5091 restriction fragment that was present in downy mildew resistant lines (HA370, 335, 336, 337, 338, and 339). HA370 x HA372 F2 progeny were genotyped for the Ha-4W2 CAPS marker and phenotyped for resistance to downy mildew race 1. The CAPS marker was linked to but did not completely cosegregate with Pl1 on linkage group 8. Ha-4W2 was found to comprise a gene family with at least five members. Although genetic markers for Ha-4W2 have utility for marker-assisted selection, the RGC detected by the CAPS marker has been ruled out as a candidate gene for Pl1. Three of the RGC probes were monomorphic between HA370 and HA372 and still need to be mapped and screened for linkage to disease resistance loci.

  4. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  5. The Effect of Chemical Systemic Acquired Resistance Elicitors on Oat Avenanthramide Biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract. Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed “avenanthramides”. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats. They are known to be potent antioxidants and have shown certain desirable nutritional characteristics such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and ...

  6. Effect of chemical systemic acquired resistance elicitors on avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed avenanthramides. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats and have shown some desirable nutritional characteristics, in experimental systems, such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and reducing inflammatory responses. ...

  7. Synthesis of the Caeliferins, elicitors of plant immune responses: accessing Lipophilic natural products via cross metathesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a cross metathesis- (CM-) based syn-thesis of the caeliferins, a family of sulfooxy fatty acids that elicit plant immune responses. Unexpectedly, detailed NMR-spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses of CM reaction mixtures revealed extensive isomerization and homologation of starting...

  8. The roles of callose, elicitors and ethylene in thigmomorphogenesis and gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    A correlation (both temporal and through the inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose) of callose deposition and ethylene evolution in mechanically perturbed (MP) bean or pine stems or in gravitationally stimulated corn shoots was demonstrated. It was suggested that the callose, which is deposited on the inside of the cell wall, and adjacent to the plasma membrane causes, in some way, the ethylene production. A hypothesis explaining the mechanism is discussed which states that there is a chemical activation of the enzyme system by the callose which is being deposited in apposition with it. Experimental data supporting the hypothesis are presented.

  9. Role of plant elicitor peptides and phytoalexins in enhancing maize resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize responds to pests and pathogens with complex defense responses. To facilitate effective breeding for pest and pathogen resistance, we’re elucidating cellular and molecular functions of regulatory and metabolic components of these maize defense responses. Our studies of regulatory components ha...

  10. Harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Yu, Guanghui; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zhong; Fu, Lin; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of natural products on plant growth and protection will underpin new product development for plant production. The isolation and characterization of a known secondary metabolite named harzianolide from Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T037 were described, and the bioactivity of the purified compound as well as the crude metabolite extract in plant growth promotion and systemic resistance induction was investigated in this study. The results showed that harzianolide significantly promoted tomato seedling growth by up to 2.5-fold (dry weight) at a concentration of 0.1 ppm compared with the control. The result of root scan suggested that Trichoderma secondary metabolites may influence the early stages of plant growth through better root development for the enhancement of root length and tips. Both of the purified harzianolide and crude metabolite extract increased the activity of some defense-related enzymes to response to oxidative stress. Examination of six defense-related gene expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that harzianolide induces the expression of genes involved in the salicylic acid (PR1 and GLU) and jasmonate/ethylene (JERF3) signaling pathways while crude metabolite extract inhibited some gene expression (CHI-II and PGIP) related to basal defense in tomato plants. Further experiment showed that a subsequent challenge of harzianolide-pretreated plants with the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in higher systemic resistance by the reduction of lesion size. These results indicate that secondary metabolites of Trichoderma spp., like harzianolide, may play a novel role in both plant growth regulation and plant defense responses.

  11. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of plant elicitor peptides (Pep) genes in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. In plant families, peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. Peps are conserved signals across diverse plant families regulating antiherbivore defenses and are likely to be the missing...

  12. How Alfalfa Root Hairs Discriminate between Nod Factors and Oligochitin Elicitors1

    PubMed Central

    Felle, Hubert H.; Kondorosi, Éva; Kondorosi, Ádam; Schultze, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Using ion-selective microelectrodes, the problem of how signals coming from symbiotic partners or from potential microbial intruders are distinguished was investigated on root hairs of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The Nod factor, NodRm-IV(C16:2,S), was used to trigger the symbiotic signal and (GlcNAc)8 was selected from (GlcNAc)4-8, to elicit defense-related reactions. To both compounds, root hairs responded with initial transient depolarizations and alkalinizations, which were followed by a hyperpolarization and external acidification in the presence of (GlcNAc)8. We propose that alfalfa recognizes tetrameric Nod factors and N-acetylchitooligosaccharides (n = 4–8) with separate perception sites: (a) (GlcNAc)4 and (GlcNAc)6 reduced the depolarization response to (GlcNAc)8, but not to NodRm-IV(C16:2,S); and (b) depolarization and external alkalization were enhanced when NodRm-IV(C16:2,S) and (GlcNAc)8 were added jointly without preincubation. We suggest further that changes in cytosolic pH and Ca2+ are key events in the transduction, as well as in the discrimination of signals leading to symbiotic responses or defense-related reactions. To (GlcNAc)8, cells responded with a cytosolic acidification, and they responded to NodRm-IV(C16:2,S) with a sustained alkalinization. When both agents were added jointly, the cytosol first alkalized and then acidified. (GlcNAc)8 and NodRm-IV(C16:2,S) transiently increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity, whereby the response to (GlcNAc)8 exceeded the one to NodRm-IV(C16:2,S) by at least a factor of two. PMID:11080312

  13. Enhancement of nutritionally significant constituents of black currant seeds by chemical elicitor application.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Black currant seeds are obtained as a residue during juice production. Black currant seed oil contains high amounts of nutritionally desirable constituents such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SA), as well as certain phenolic acids, which act as natural antioxidants. Fatty acids and phenolic acids of seeds from black currant cultivars after elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) were examined. GLA contents around 25% with respect to total fatty acid content were measured in seeds after pre-harvest treatment of black currants with 0.02mM MJ in 0.05% Tween-20. High GLA samples also exhibited high SA content (higher than 10% with respect to total fatty acid content); however, ALA dropped (from 16% to 10%). High GLA content seeds also showed increased contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. In particular, seeds from 0.02mM MJ treated Ben Hope black currants exerted contents of gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids of 201.4, 125.9, 201.3 and 112.5μgg(-1)vs 124.3, 58.6, 165.4 and 95.8μgg(-1) measured in seeds from untreated Ben Hope black currants. Comparable results were obtained for Ben Alder and Ben Gairn berries. Chemical elicitation with 0.02 MJ is proposed as an industrial practice in such a way that, after consideration of quality issues, it would be obtained high added value black currant seeds.

  14. Molecular design and synthesis of novel salicyl glycoconjugates as elicitors against plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zining; Ito, Jun; Dohi, Hirofumi; Amemiya, Yoshimiki; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A new series of salicyl glycoconjugates containing hydrazide and hydrazone moieties were designed and synthesized. The bioassay indicated that the novel compounds had no in vitro fungicidal activity but showed significant in vivo antifungal activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Some compounds even had superior activity than the commercial fungicides in greenhouse trial. The results of RT-PCR analysis showed that the designed salicyl glycoconjugates could induce the expression of LOX1 and Cs-AOS2, which are the specific marker genes of jasmonate signaling pathway, to trigger the plant defense resistance.

  15. Disulfooxy fatty acids from the American bird grasshopper Schistocerca americana, elicitors of plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new class of compounds has been isolated from the regurgitant of the grasshopper species Schistocerca americana. These compounds (named here caeliferins) are comprised of saturated and monounsaturated, sulfated alpha-hydroxy fatty acids in which the omega carbon is functionalized with either a su...

  16. Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Joo, Sung Chul; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kim, Se-Yeong; Jung, Seok-Kyu; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. Although a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo. Methods Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after 2 d of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides. Conclusion These findings indicate that the production of PPD-type and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles. PMID:25379007

  17. Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Martin; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Brütting, Christoph; Vanková, Radomira; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels. However, the response of the CK pathway to attack by chewing insect herbivores remains unclear. Here, we characterize the CK pathway of Nicotiana attenuata (Torr. ex S. Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs). We identified 44 genes involved in CK biosynthesis, inactivation, degradation, and signaling. Leaf wounding rapidly induced transcriptional changes in multiple genes throughout the pathway, as well as in the levels of CKs, including isopentenyladenosine and cis-zeatin riboside; perception of HAMPs present in the oral secretions (OS) of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta amplified these responses. The jasmonate pathway, which triggers many herbivore-induced processes, was not required for these HAMP-triggered changes, but rather suppressed the CK responses. Interestingly CK pathway changes were observed also in systemic leaves in response to wounding and OS application indicating a role of CKs in mediating long distance systemic processes in response to herbivory. Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species. PMID:24924599

  18. Age differences in managing response to sadness elicitors using attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated age differences in the use of attentional deployment, positive reappraisal, and suppression while regulating responses to sadness-eliciting content. We also tested to what extent these emotion regulation strategies were useful for each age group in managing response to age-relevant sad information. Forty-two young participants (Mage = 18.5, SE = .15) and 48 older participants (Mage = 71.42, SE = 1.15) watched four sadness-eliciting videos (about death/illness, 4–5 minutes long) under four conditions - no-regulation (no regulation instructions), attentional deployment (divert attention away), positive reappraisal (focus on positive outcomes), and suppression (conceal emotional expressions). We assessed negative emotional experience, expression, skin conductance level, and visual fixations while participants watched the emotional clips and followed the instructions for each condition. Results suggest that older adults were more successful than younger adults at implementing both attentional deployment and positive reappraisal. Ability to suppress emotions appears to remain stable with age. Within age-group comparisons suggested that for the older adults, positive reappraisal was a more useful emotion regulation strategy than the others, while the pattern among younger adults was less conclusive. Age-relevant differences in motivation and successful emotion regulatory efforts based on theoretical and empirical literatures are discussed. PMID:24206128

  19. Identification of Ruta graveolens L. metabolites accumulated in the presence of abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Orlita, Aleksandra; Sidwa-Gorycka, Matylda; Kumirska, Jolanta; Maliński, Edmund; Siedlecka, Ewa M; Gajdus, Jerzy; Lojkowska, Ewa; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effects of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and saccharin on the biosynthesis of simple coumarins, linear furanocoumarins, dihydrofuranocoumarins, and furoquinolone alkaloids in shoots of R. graveolens cultivated in vitro. The biosynthesized metabolites were analyzed and identified by GC-MS and by comparison of Kovats indices. Eight coumarin metabolites were identified: bergapten, chalepin, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, rutacultin, rutamarin, and xanthotoxin, and also four alkaloids: dictamnine, gamma-fagarine, skimmianine, and kokusaginine. Each of the tested BTH concentrations induced a significant production of furanocoumarins and furoquinolone alkaloids. The use of saccharin also increased the production of bergapten, isopimpinelin, pinnarin, psoralen, and xanthotoxin several times.

  20. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In th...

  1. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In the ...

  2. Arthropod-associated plant effectors (AAPEs):elicitors and suppressors of crop defense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In response to insect attack, many plants undergo a suite of rapid biochemical changes that serve to directly reduce subsequent feeding damage and also promote the attraction of predators and parasitoids, the natural enemies of crop pests. In many cases, these insect-induced plant defense responses ...

  3. Effect of chemical systemic acquired resistance elicitors on avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa).

    PubMed

    Wise, Mitchell L

    2011-07-13

    Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed avenanthramides. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats and have shown, in experimental systems, certain desirable nutritional characteristics such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and reducing inflammation. Avenanthramides occur in both the leaves and grain of oat. In the leaves they are expressed as phytoalexins in response to crown rust (Puccina coronata) infection. The experiments reported here demonstrate that avenanthramide levels in vegetative tissue can be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole (BTH), an agrochemical formulated to elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The response to BTH was dramatically stronger than those produced with salicylic acid treatment. The roots of BTH treated plants also showed a smaller but distinct increase in avenanthramides. The dynamics of the root avenanthramide increase was substantially slower than that observed in the leaves, suggesting that avenanthramides might be transported from the leaves.

  4. Differential expression of chitinases in Vitis vinifera L. responding to systemic acquired resistance activators or fungal challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Busam, G; Kassemeyer, H H; Matern, U

    1997-01-01

    The concept of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) enables a novel approach to crop protection, and particular pathogenesis-related proteins, i.e. an acidic chitinase, have been classified as markers of the SAR response. Basic class I (VCHIT1b) and a class III (VCH3) chitinase cDNAs were cloned from cultured Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir cells and used to probe the induction response of grapevine cells to salicylic acid or yeast elicitor. Furthermore, the cells were treated with the commercial SAR activators 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Elicitor or salicylic acid induced both VCHIT1b and VCH3 transcript abundances, whereas 2,6-dichloroiso-nicotinic acid or benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester enhanced exclusively the expression of VCH3. To assess the systemic sensation of chitinase expression, single leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir or Vitis rupestris plants were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola spore suspensions, and the VCH3 and VCHIT1b mRNA amounts in the infected versus the adjacent, healthy leaf were monitored. Two VCH3 mRNA maxima were observed 2 and 6 d postinoculation in the infected, susceptible V. vinifera tissue, whereas in the healthy leaf the transcript increased from low levels d 2 postinoculation to prominent levels d 6 to 8 postinoculation. The level of VCH3 mRNA increased also over 4 d in the inoculated, resistant V. rupestris tissue. However, necrotic spots rapidly limited the infection, and the VCH3 transcript was undetectable in the upper-stage, healthy leaf. The expression of VCHIT1b remained negligible under either experimental condition. Overall, the results suggest that the selective expression of VCH3 might be a reliable indicator of the SAR response in V. vinifera L. PMID:9390436

  5. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance.

  6. Real-time PCR assay to distinguish the four Phytophthora ramorum lineages using cellulose binding elicitor lectin (CBEL) locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora ramorum is a pathogenic oomycete responsible for causing sudden oak death in the Western United States and sudden larch death in the United Kingdom. This pathogen has so far caused extensive mortality of oak and tanoak in California and of Japanese larch in the United Kingdom. Until rec...

  7. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors.

    PubMed

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-12-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells." Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells.

  8. A chitin deacetylase from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. efficiently inactivates the elicitor activity of chitin oligomers in rice cells

    PubMed Central

    Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Melcher, Rebecca L. J.; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    To successfully survive in plants, endophytes need strategies to avoid being detected by the plant immune system, as the cell walls of endophytes contain easily detectible chitin. It is possible that endophytes “hide” this chitin from the plant immune system by modifying it, or oligomers derived from it, using chitin deacetylases (CDA). To explore this hypothesis, we identified and expressed a CDA from Pestalotiopsis sp. (PesCDA), an endophytic fungus, in E. coli and characterized this enzyme and its chitosan oligomer products. We found that when PesCDA modifies chitin oligomers, the products are partially deacetylated chitosan oligomers with a specific acetylation pattern: GlcNAc-GlcNAc-(GlcN)n-GlcNAc (n ≥ 1). Then, in a bioactivity assay where suspension-cultured rice cells were incubated with the PesCDA products (processed chitin hexamers), we found that, unlike the substrate hexamers, chitosan oligomer products no longer elicited the plant immune system. Thus, this endophytic enzyme can prevent the endophyte from being recognized by the plant immune system; this might represent a more general hypothesis for how certain fungi are able to live in or on their hosts. PMID:27901067

  9. Comprehensive assessment of the genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis from Withania somnifera: chemotype-specific and elicitor-responsive expression.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Gupta, Parul; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2017-03-11

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Family, Solanaceae), is among the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurveda owing to its rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. Withanolides are C28-steroidal lactones having a triterpenoidal metabolic origin synthesised via mevalonate (MVA) pathway and methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway involving metabolic intermediacy of 24-methylene (C30-terpenoid) cholesterol. Phytochemical studies suggest differences in the content and/or nature of withanolides in different tissues of different chemotypes. Though development of genomic resources has provided information about putative genes encoding enzymes for biosynthesis of intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone, not much is known about their regulation and response to elicitation. In this study, we generated detailed molecular information about genes catalysing key regulatory steps of withanolide biosynthetic pathway. The full-length sequences of genes encoding enzymes for intermediate steps of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis and their paralogs have been characterized for their functional and structural properties as well as phylogeny using bioinformatics approach. The expression analysis suggests that these genes are differentially expressed in different tissues (with maximal expression in young leaf), chemotypes and in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatments. Sub-cellular localization studies suggest that both paralogs of sterol ∆-7 reductase (WsDWF5-1 and WsDWF5-2) are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) thus supporting their indispensible role in withanolide biosynthesis. Comprehensive information developed, in this study, will lead to elucidation of chemotype- as well as tissue-specific withanolide biosynthesis and development of new tools for functional genomics in this important medicinal plant.

  10. Isolation, characterization and structure-elicitor activity relationships of hibernalin and its two oxidized forms from Phytophthora hibernalis Carne 1925.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Renato; Di Maro, Antimo; Cristinzio, Gennaro; De Martino, Antonio; Chambery, Angela; Daniele, Addolorata; Sannino, Filomena; Testa, Antonino; Parente, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    Three alpha-elicitins, named hibernalin1, hibernalin2 and hibernalin3 (hib1, hib2 and hib3, respectively), were isolated by reverse phase-low-pressure liquid chromatography from culture filtrates of Phytophthora hibernalis Carne 1925, the causal agent of citrus lemon brown rot. Hib1 proved to be identical to syringicin previously isolated from culture filtrates of Phytophthora syringae. Hib2 and hib3 shared the same primary structure with hib1, but contained, at position 50, Met sulphoxide or sulphone, respectively. By SDS-PAGE, the three proteins showed the same electrophoretic mobility, corresponding to about 10 kDa. Exact M(r) values were obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS (10,194.82 for hib1, 10,209.33 for hib2 and 10,223.80 for hib3), while by ESI-MS an M(r) value of 10,194.90 was found for hib1 and no results for hib2 and hib3. The hibernalin forms showed a high propensity to self-association, after exposure to acetonitrile. Hib1 showed to be active in both the hypersensitivity response and electrolytes leakage assays; the sample containing hib1 and hib2 was only weakly active in the first assay and inactive in the second assay, while the sample containing all three hibernalin forms proved to be inactive in both tests. It is proposed that the different activities of the three hibernalin samples could be very likely attributed to both Met50 oxidation and aggregation.

  11. Ralstonia solanacearum Extracellular Polysaccharide Is a Specific Elicitor of Defense Responses in Wilt-Resistant Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Milling, Annett; Babujee, Lavanya; Allen, Caitilyn

    2011-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of diverse plants, produces copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. The function of EPS in wilt disease is uncertain. Leading hypotheses are that EPS physically obstructs plant water transport, or that EPS cloaks the bacterium from host plant recognition and subsequent defense. Tomato plants infected with R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 upregulated genes in both the ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) defense signal transduction pathways. The horizontally wilt-resistant tomato line Hawaii7996 activated expression of these defense genes faster and to a greater degree in response to R. solanacearum infection than did susceptible cultivar Bonny Best. However, EPS played different roles in resistant and susceptible host responses to R. solanacearum. In susceptible plants the wild-type and eps− mutant strains induced generally similar defense responses. But in resistant Hawaii7996 tomato plants, the wild-type pathogens induced significantly greater defense responses than the eps− mutants, suggesting that the resistant host recognizes R. solanacearum EPS. Consistent with this idea, purified EPS triggered significant SA pathway defense gene expression in resistant, but not in susceptible, tomato plants. In addition, the eps− mutant triggered noticeably less production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species in resistant tomato stems and leaves, despite attaining similar cell densities in planta. Collectively, these data suggest that bacterial wilt-resistant plants can specifically recognize EPS from R. solanacearum. PMID:21253019

  12. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars ‘IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46’ under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection. PMID:27725719

  13. Cryptogein, a fungal elicitor, remodels the phenylpropanoid metabolism of tobacco cell suspension cultures in a calcium-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Nicolas; Carrouche, Audrey; Danoun, Saïda; Bourque, Stéphane; Haiech, Jacques; Pugin, Alain; Ranjeva, Raoul; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Mazars, Christian; Briere, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells use calcium-based signalling pathways to transduce biotic and/or abiotic stimuli into adaptive responses. However, little is known about the coupling between calcium signalling, transcriptional regulation and the downstream biochemical processes. To understand these relationships better, we challenged tobacco BY-2 cells with cryptogein and evaluated how calcium transients (monitored through the calcium sensor aequorin) impact (1) transcript levels of phenylpropanoid genes (assessed by RT-qPCR); and (2) derived-phenolic compounds (analysed by mass spectrometry). Most genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated by cryptogein and cell wall-bound phenolic compounds accumulated (mainly 5-hydroxyferulic acid). The accumulation of both transcripts and phenolics was calcium-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of phenylpropanoid genes was correlated in a non-linear manner with stimulus intensity and with components of the cryptogein-induced calcium signature. In addition, calmodulin inhibitors increased the sensitivity of cells to low concentrations of cryptogein. These results led us to propose a model of coupling between the cryptogein signal, calcium signalling and the transcriptional response, exerting control of transcription through the coordinated action of two decoding modules exerting opposite effects. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Identification and expression of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata hrpZ(Psa) gene which encodes an harpin elicitor.

    PubMed

    Musa, A R; Minard, P; Mazzucchi, U

    2001-01-01

    A sequence homologous to an internal fragment 0.75 kb BstXI of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae hrpZ gene was identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata NCPPB 2664, the causal agent of bacterial blight in sugar beet, lettuce and other plants. and in E. coli DH10B (pCCP1069) containing the P. syringae pv. aptata hrp gene cluster. PCR with oligonucleotides, based on the hrpZ(Pss) gene and used as primers with the total genomic DNA of P. syringae pv. aptata, amplified a 1 kb fragment that hybridized with the probe in highly stringent conditions. The amplicon was cloned into the pGEM-T plasmid vector, amplified in E. coli DH5alpha and sequenced. The sequence showed 95%, 83% and 61% identity with those of hrpZ(Pss), hrpZ(Psg and hrpZ(Pst) genes encoding the harpins of the P. syringae pv. syringae, glycinea and tomato, respectively. The amplicon was cloned into the pMAL expression system. The expressed protein, fused with maltose-binding protein, was cleaved with a specific protease factor Xa, and purified using affinity chromatography. On the basis of the amino acid sequence and its ability to induce HR in tobacco leaves, it was identified as a P. syringae pv. aptata harpin.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of novel amino acid derivatives as potential elicitors against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yufang; He, Shun; Geng, Qianqian; Duan, Yongheng; Guo, Mingcheng; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2015-12-01

    Disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) brings serious production losses of cultivated tomato worldwide. In our previous study, two novel amino acid derivatives exerted satisfactory antiviral activities against TYLCV. In this study, the variation of TYLCV, the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 and the enzyme activities of POD and PPO in tomato were monitored after treatment with two amino acid derivatives to illustrate the antiviral mechanism. The results showed the symptom severity caused by TYLCV was reduced significantly by two compounds and was associated with the inhibition of viral DNA level at the early stage. Among three levels of concentration, the highest inhibition rate of CNBF-His was 40.66% at 1000 mg/L, for CNBF-Asn, the highest inhibition rate was 36.26% at 2000 mg/L 30 days post-inoculation. Two compounds could also enhance the activities of PPO and POD and the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 which correlates with plant resistance in tomato. In the field test, two compounds increased the yields of tomato and the maximum increase of yield was 37.66%. This is the first report of novel amino acid derivatives inducing resistance in tomato plant against TYLCV. It is suggested that amino acid derivatives have the potential to be an effective approach against TYLCV in tomato plant.

  16. Perception of conserved pathogen elicitors at the plasma membrane leads to relocalization of the Arabidopsis PEN3 transporter

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, William; Somerville, Shauna C.

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis PENETRATION RESISTANCE 3 (PEN3) ATP binding cassette transporter participates in nonhost resistance to fungal and oomycete pathogens and is required for full penetration resistance to the barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. PEN3 resides in the plasma membrane and is recruited to sites of attempted penetration by invading fungal appressoria, where the transporter shows strong focal accumulation. We report that recruitment of PEN3 to sites of pathogen detection is triggered by perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as flagellin and chitin. PEN3 recruitment requires the corresponding pattern recognition receptors but does not require the BAK1 coreceptor. Pathogen- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-induced focal accumulation of PEN3 and the PENETRATION RESISTANCE 1 (PEN1) syntaxin show differential sensitivity to specific pharmacological inhibitors, indicating distinct mechanisms for recruitment of these defense-associated proteins to the host–pathogen interface. Focal accumulation of PEN3 requires actin but is not affected by inhibitors of microtubule polymerization, secretory trafficking, or protein synthesis, and plasmolysis experiments indicate that accumulation of PEN3 occurs outside of the plasma membrane within papillae. Our results implicate pattern recognition receptors in the recruitment of defense-related proteins to sites of pathogen detection. Additionally, the process through which PEN3 is recruited to the host–pathogen interface is independent of new protein synthesis and BFA-sensitive secretory trafficking events, suggesting that existing PEN3 is redirected through an unknown trafficking pathway to sites of pathogen detection for export into papillae. PMID:23836668

  17. Different Lepidopteran Elicitors Account for Cross-Talk in Herbivory-Induced Phytohormone Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Diezel, Celia; von Dahl, Caroline C.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2009-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and their interactions mediate plant responses to pathogen and herbivore attack. JA-SA and JA-ET cross-signaling are well studied, but little is known about SA-ET cross-signaling in plant-herbivore interactions. When the specialist herbivore tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) attacks Nicotiana attenuata, rapid and transient JA and ET bursts are elicited without significantly altering wound-induced SA levels. In contrast, attack from the generalist beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) results in comparatively lower JA and ET bursts, but amplified SA bursts. These phytohormone responses are mimicked when the species' larval oral secretions (OSSe and OSMs) are added to puncture wounds. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates elicit the JA and ET bursts, but not the SA burst. OSSe had enhanced glucose oxidase activity (but not β-glucosidase activity), which was sufficient to elicit the SA burst and attenuate the JA and ET levels. It is known that SA antagonizes JA; glucose oxidase activity and associated hydrogen peroxide also antagonizes the ET burst. We examined the OSMs-elicited SA burst in plants impaired in their ability to elicit JA (antisense [as]-lox3) and ET (inverted repeat [ir]-aco) bursts and perceive ET (35s-etr1b) after fatty acid-amino acid conjugate elicitation, which revealed that both ET and JA bursts antagonize the SA burst. Treating wild-type plants with ethephone and 1-methylcyclopropane confirmed these results and demonstrated the central role of the ET burst in suppressing the OSMs-elicited SA burst. By suppressing the SA burst, the ET burst likely facilitates unfettered JA-mediated defense activation in response to herbivores that otherwise would elicit SA. PMID:19458114

  18. A chitin deacetylase from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. efficiently inactivates the elicitor activity of chitin oligomers in rice cells.

    PubMed

    Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Melcher, Rebecca L J; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2016-11-30

    To successfully survive in plants, endophytes need strategies to avoid being detected by the plant immune system, as the cell walls of endophytes contain easily detectible chitin. It is possible that endophytes "hide" this chitin from the plant immune system by modifying it, or oligomers derived from it, using chitin deacetylases (CDA). To explore this hypothesis, we identified and expressed a CDA from Pestalotiopsis sp. (PesCDA), an endophytic fungus, in E. coli and characterized this enzyme and its chitosan oligomer products. We found that when PesCDA modifies chitin oligomers, the products are partially deacetylated chitosan oligomers with a specific acetylation pattern: GlcNAc-GlcNAc-(GlcN)n-GlcNAc (n ≥ 1). Then, in a bioactivity assay where suspension-cultured rice cells were incubated with the PesCDA products (processed chitin hexamers), we found that, unlike the substrate hexamers, chitosan oligomer products no longer elicited the plant immune system. Thus, this endophytic enzyme can prevent the endophyte from being recognized by the plant immune system; this might represent a more general hypothesis for how certain fungi are able to live in or on their hosts.

  19. Field application of safe chemical elicitors induced the expression of some resistance genes against grey mold and cottony rot diseases during snap bean pods storage.

    PubMed

    El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Rashid, Ismail A S; Abou-Ali, Rania M; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2016-01-15

    Phaseolus vulgaris is subjected to serious post-harvest diseases such as grey mold and cottony rot diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pythium aphanidermatum, respectively. In current study, potassium silicate (KSi), potassium thiosulfate (KTS) and potassium sulfate (KS) suppressed moderately the growth of B. cinerea and P. aphanidermatum in vitro. The applied treatments significantly suppressed grey mold and cottony rot of Xera and Valentino snap beans varieties' pods stored at 7 ± 1°C and 90-95% RH for 20 days. Ethylene responsive factor (ERF), polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP), phosphatase associated to defense (PA) and pathogenesis-related protein (PR1) defense genes were over-expressed in leaves tissue of both bean varieties responding positively to potassium salts field application. The expression of these genes was influenced by plant genotype and environment as it varied by snap bean varieties. Accumulation of ERF, GIP, PA and PR1 genes transcript under KTS at 4000 ppm treatment were the highest in Xera tissues (3.5-, 4.8-, 4- and 4.8-fold, respectively). In conclusion, pre-harvest potassium salt in vivo application could be used as effective safe alternatives to fungicides against grey mold and cottony rot diseases of snap beans during storage for up to 20 days at 7 ± 1°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as “border-like cells.” Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells. PMID:24130195

  1. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus) naturally infects several ornamental plants. Differences were previously noted between systemic symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by different isolates of AltMV, and by four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP. Virus accumulation was enhance...

  2. Capacity of purified peanut allergens to induce degranulation in a functional in vitro assay: Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are the most efficient elicitors.

    PubMed

    Blanc, F; Adel-Patient, K; Drumare, M-F; Paty, E; Wal, J-M; Bernard, H

    2009-08-01

    Peanut is a most common and potent food allergen. Many peanut allergens have been characterized using, in particular, IgE-binding studies. We optimized an in vitro functional assay to assess the capacity of peanut allergens to degranulate humanized rat basophilic leukaemia cells, RBL SX-38 cells, after sensitization by serum IgE from peanut-allergic patients. We thus compared the activity of the main peanut allergens, i.e. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, purified from roasted peanut. Sera of 12 peanut-allergic patients were collected and total and peanut-specific IgE were measured. They were used to sensitize RBL SX-38 cells and the degranulation was induced by incubation with ranging concentrations of a whole peanut protein extract or of purified peanut allergens. The mediator release was quantified by the determination of beta-hexosaminidase activity in the supernatant. The intensity of the degranulation was expressed as maximum release and as EC50, corresponding to the dose of allergen that induced 50% of the maximum release. For each serum, only 10 IU/mL of human IgE was necessary to sensitize the cells and obtain an optimal degranulation. With all the allergens, the release was positively correlated with the concentration of allergen-specific IgE in the serum used to sensitize the cells. The medians of EC50 obtained for Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were 2.1 and 2.8 pm, respectively, while they were much higher for Ara h 3 and Ara h 1 (65 and 150 pm, respectively). The RBL SX-38 release assay proved to be sensitive, specific and reproducible. It allowed the comparison of the degranulation potential of different peanut allergens. For all the sera tested, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were more potent than Ara h 1 or Ara h 3.

  3. Citrus MAF1, a Repressor of RNA Polymerase III, Binds the Xanthomonas citri Canker Elicitor PthA4 and Suppresses Citrus Canker Development1

    PubMed Central

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Abe, Valeria Yukari; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNAHis transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNAHis synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043

  4. Effects of polysaccharide elicitors from endophytic Fusarium oxysporium Dzf17 on growth and diosgenin production in cell suspension culture of Dioscorea zingiberensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqin; Mou, Yan; Shan, Tijiang; Xu, Jianmei; Li, Yan; Lu, Shiqiong; Zhou, Ligang

    2011-10-26

    Three polysaccharides, namely exopolysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) and sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (SPS), were prepared from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporium Dzf17 isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. The effects of the time of addition and polysaccharide concentration on the growth and diosgenin accumulation in cell suspension culture of D. zingiberensis were studied. Among them, WPS was found to be the most effective polysaccharide. When WPS was added to the medium at 20 mg/L on the 25th day of culture, the cell dry weight was increased 1.34-fold, diosgenin content 2.85-fold, and diosgenin yield 3.83-fold in comparison to those of control. EPS and SPS showed moderate and relatively weak enhancement effects on cell growth and diosgenin accumulation, respectively. The dynamics of cell growth and diosgenin accumulation when WPS was added to the medium at 20 mg/L on the 25th day of culture were investigated, and results showed that dry weight of cells reached a maximum value on day 30 but the maximum diosgenin content was achieved on day 31.

  5. Pepino mosaic virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase POL Domain Is a Hypersensitive Response-Like Elicitor Shared by Necrotic and Mild Isolates.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Raquel N; Gómez-Aix, Cristina; Ruíz-Ramón, Fabiola; Gómez, Pedro; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that represents a serious threat to tomato production worldwide. PepMV-induced diseases manifest with a wide range of symptoms, including systemic necrosis. Our results showed that PepMV accumulation depends on the virus isolate, tomato cultivar, and environmental conditions, and associates with the development of necrosis. Substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 67 in the triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein, previously described as a necrosis determinant, led to increased virus accumulation and was necessary but not sufficient to induce systemic necrosis. Systemic necrosis both in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana shared hypersensitive response (HR) features, allowing the assessment of the role of different genomic regions on necrosis induction. Overexpression of both TGB3 and the polymerase domain (POL) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) resulted in necrosis, although only local expression of POL triggered HR-like symptoms. Our results also indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity of POL resides in its highly conserved "palm" domain, and that necrosis was jasmonic acid-dependent but not salicylic acid-dependent. Altogether, our data suggest that the RdRp-POL domain plays an important role in PepMV necrosis induction, with necrosis development depending on the virus accumulation level, which can be modulated by the nature of TGB3, host genotype and environmental conditions.

  6. Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Benjamin; Hacquard, Stéphane; Duplessis, Sébastien; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis. PMID:24734035

  7. Dynamic changes in the subcellular distribution of the tobacco ROS-producing enzyme RBOHD in response to the oomycete elicitor cryptogein

    PubMed Central

    Noirot, Elodie; Der, Christophe; Lherminier, Jeannine; Robert, Franck; Moricova, Pavla; Kiêu, Kiên; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Bouhidel, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), have been identified as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during plant–microbe interactions. The subcellular localization of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ROS-producing enzyme RBOHD was examined in Bright Yellow-2 cells before and after elicitation with the oomycete protein cryptogein using electron and confocal microscopy. The plasma membrane (PM) localization of RBOHD was confirmed and immuno-electron microscopy on purified PM vesicles revealed its distribution in clusters. The presence of the protein fused to GFP was also seen in intracellular compartments, mainly Golgi cisternae. Cryptogein induced, within 1h, a 1.5-fold increase in RBOHD abundance at the PM and a concomitant decrease in the internal compartments. Use of cycloheximide revealed that most of the proteins targeted to the PM upon elicitation were not newly synthesized but may originate from the Golgi pool. ROS accumulation preceded RBOHD transcript- and protein-upregulation, indicating that ROS resulted from the activation of a PM-resident pool of enzymes, and that enzymes newly addressed to the PM were inactive. Taken together, the results indicate that control of RBOH abundance and subcellular localization may play a fundamental role in the mechanism of ROS production. PMID:24987013

  8. Myelin basic protein kinase activity in tomato leaves is induced systemically by wounding and increases in response to systemin and oligosaccharide elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Johannes W.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1997-01-01

    In response to wounding, a 48-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase is activated within 2 min, both locally and systemically, in leaves of young tomato plants. The activating signal is able to pass through a steam girdle on the stem, indicating that it moves through the xylem and does not require intact phloem tissue. A 48-kDa MBP kinase is also activated by the 18-amino acid polypeptide systemin, a potent wound signal for the synthesis of systemic wound response proteins (swrps). The kinase activation by systemin is strongly inhibited by a systemin analog having a Thr-17 → Ala-17 substitution, which is a powerful antagonist of systemin activation of swrp genes. A 48-kDa MBP kinase activity also increases in response to polygalacturonic acid and chitosan but not in response to jasmonic acid or phytodienoic acid. In def1, a mutant tomato line having a defective octadecanoid pathway, the 48-kDa MBP kinase is activated by wounding and systemin as in the wild-type plants. This indicates that MBP kinase functions between the perception of primary signals and the DEF1 gene product. In response to wounding, the MBP kinase is phosphorylated on phosphotyrosine residues, indicating a relationship to the mitogen-activated protein kinase family of protein kinases. PMID:9380763

  9. Novel quorum-sensing-controlled genes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: identification of a fungal elicitor homologue in a soft-rotting bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, C L; Whitehead, N A; Sebaihia, M; Bell, K S; Hyman, L J; Harris, S J; Matlin, A J; Robson, N D; Birch, P R J; Carr, J P; Toth, I K; Salmond, G P C

    2005-04-01

    Seven new genes controlled by the quorum-sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) have been identified in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Using TnphoA as a mutagen, we enriched for mutants defective in proteins that could play a role in the interaction between E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and its plant hosts, and identified NipEcc and its counterpart in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. These are members of a growing family of proteins related to Nep1 from Fusarium oxysporum which can induce necrotic responses in a variety of dicotyledonous plants. NipEcc produced necrosis in tobacco, NipEca affected potato stem rot, and both affected virulence in potato tubers. In E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, nip was shown to be subject to weak repression by the LuxR family regulator, EccR, and may be regulated by the negative global regulator RsmA.

  10. 21 CFR 520.1660a - Oxytetracycline and carbomycin in combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. (2) Carbomycin: The antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces halstedii or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other means. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in §...

  11. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  12. [The induced increase of chitinase activity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L) cells].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianov, V I; Dmitriev, A P

    2007-01-01

    The levels of chitinase activity induced with elicitors in tomato cells have been detected. It was shown that enzymatic activity depended on degree of polymerization and concentration of biotic elicitors.

  13. The 2S albumin allergens of Arachis hypogaea, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the major elicitors of anaphylaxis and can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Chen, Xueni; Lew, Jeanney; Wang, Qian; Patel, Ojas P.; Zhuang, Yonghua; Murray, Kerry S.; Duncan, Mark W.; Porterfield, Harry S.; Burks, A. Wesley; Dreskin, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, co-purified together in a 13-25 kD fraction (Ara h 2/6; 20 kD fraction) on gel filtration chromatography, account for the majority of effector activity in a crude peanut extract (CPE) when assayed with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from human peanut allergic sera. Objectives To determine if Ara h 2/6 are the primary peanut allergens responsible for allergic reactions in vivo and to determine if Ara h 2/6 would be sufficient to prevent allergic reactions to a complete CPE. Methods An oral sensitization mouse model of peanut allergy was used to assess the activity of Ara h 2/6 (20 kD) and CPE without the 20 kD fraction (CPE w/o 20 kD) for allergic provocation challenge and immunotherapy. The activity of these preparations was also tested in an assay of histamine release from human basophils in whole blood. Results Compared to mice challenged with control CPE, mice challenged with CPE w/o 20 kD experienced reduced symptoms (p<0.05) and a smaller decrease in body temperature (p<0.01). Results with the basophil histamine release assay corroborated these findings (p<0.01). The mouse model was also used to administer Ara h 2/6 (20 kD) in an immunotherapy protocol, in which peanut-allergic mice treated with the 20 kD fraction experienced significantly reduced symptoms, changes in body temperature, and mast cell protease (MMCP-1) release compared to placebo (p<0.01 for all parameters). Importantly, immunotherapy with the 20 kD fraction was just as effective as treatment with CPE, whereas CPE w/o 20 kD was significantly less effective for higher dose peanut challenges. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Ara h 2/6 are the most potent peanut allergens in vivo and can be used to desensitize peanut-allergic mice. These results have potential implications for clinical research in the areas of diagnosis and immunotherapy for peanut allergy. PMID:22288514

  14. The 2S albumin allergens of Arachis hypogaea, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the major elicitors of anaphylaxis and can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Kulis, M; Chen, X; Lew, J; Wang, Q; Patel, O P; Zhuang, Y; Murray, K S; Duncan, M W; Porterfield, H S; W Burks, A; Dreskin, S C

    2012-02-01

    Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, co-purified together in a 13-25 kD fraction (Ara h 2/6; 20 kD fraction) on gel filtration chromatography, account for the majority of effector activity in a crude peanut extract (CPE) when assayed with RBL SX-38 cells sensitized with IgE from human peanut allergic sera. To determine if Ara h 2/6 are the primary peanut allergens responsible for allergic reactions in vivo and to determine if Ara h 2/6 would be sufficient to prevent allergic reactions to a complete CPE. An oral sensitization mouse model of peanut allergy was used to assess the activity of Ara h 2/6 (20 kD) and CPE without the 20 kD fraction (CPE w/o 20 kD) for allergic provocation challenge and immunotherapy. The activity of these preparations was also tested in an assay of histamine release from human basophils in whole blood. Compared with mice challenged with control CPE, mice challenged with CPE w/o 20 kD experienced reduced symptoms (P < 0.05) and a smaller decrease in body temperature (P < 0.01). Results with the basophil histamine release assay corroborated these findings (P < 0.01). The mouse model was also used to administer Ara h 2/6 (20 kD) in an immunotherapy protocol, in which peanut-allergic mice treated with the 20 kD fraction experienced significantly reduced symptoms, changes in body temperature, and mast cell protease (MMCP-1) release compared with placebo (P < 0.01 for all parameters). Importantly, immunotherapy with the 20 kD fraction was just as effective as treatment with CPE, whereas CPE w/o 20 kD was significantly less effective for higher dose peanut challenges. Ara h 2/6 are the most potent peanut allergens in vivo and can be used to desensitize peanut-allergic mice. These results have potential implications for clinical research in the areas of diagnosis and immunotherapy for peanut allergy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Synthesis, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanase-binding ability, and phytoalexin-elicitor activity of a mixture of 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Liu, Man-Xi; Mei, Xin-Ya

    2004-06-01

    We describe a approach for the synthesis of a mixture of 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides. The particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan isolated from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recovered from the aqueous medium as water-insoluble particles by the spray drying (GS) method, and it was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The acid-solubilized (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides were prepared by partial acid hydrolysis of glucan particles, which were qualitatively analyzed by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The peracetylated 3-butenyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides were synthesized by treating peracetylated (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides with the 3-butenyl alcohols and a Lewis acid (SnCl4) catalyst. Epoxidation of the peracetylated 3-butenyl oligoglucosides took place with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA). NaOMe in dry methanol was used for the deacetylation of the blocked derivatives, to give the 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucoside mixture in an overall yield of 21%. The sample was analyzed by positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS). In a 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucoside-binding (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanase assay, we found that the (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanase was obviously inactivated by the 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides. At the same time, we found the 3,4-epoxybutyl (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucoside mixture was more active as compared to the underivatized oligoglucoside mixture in eliciting phytoalexin accumulation in tobacco cotyledon tissue. Furthermore, it could be kept for a longer time than a (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucoside mixture, which indicated it is much more stable than (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides.

  16. Race-Specific Elicitors of Cladosporium fulvum Induce Changes in Cell Morphology and the Synthesis of Ethylene and Salicylic Acid in Tomato Plants Carrying the Corresponding Cf Disease Resistance Gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond-Kosack, K. E.; Silverman, P.; Raskin, I.; Jones, JDG.

    1996-01-01

    Defense responses mediated by the genetically unlinked Cf-9 and Cf-2 genes were compared with those involving no Cf gene (Cf0). Compatible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-Cladosporium fulvum intercellular washing fluids were injected into tomato cotyledons, and the kinetics of responses was monitored under conditions of 70 and 98% relative humidity. The latter conditions suppressed the normal macroscopic responses. For the Cf-9-Avr9 interaction, stomatal opening was induced within 3 to 4 h and after 9 h mesophyll cell death commenced. A burst of ethylene production occurred between 9 and 12.5 h and remained elevated. Free salicylic acid levels increased after 12 h, peaked at 24 h, and thereafter declined. For the Cf-2-Avr2 interaction, stomata became plugged after 8 h, and salicylic acid and ethylene levels increased by 12 and 18 h, respectively, and thereafter declined. Host cell death commenced around vascular tissue by 24 h. Cell death in both incompatible interactions was frequently preceded by cell enlargement. For Cf0-injected plants, no significant responses were detected. High humidity delayed and reduced the Cf-Avr-gene-dependent cell death and ethylene synthesis, whereas induced salicylic acid levels were unaffected for Cf-2-Avr2 and reduced in magnitude only for Cf-9-Avr9. PMID:12226268

  17. Effect of detergent on the quantification of grapevine downy mildew Sporangia from leaf discs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapevine downy mildew (DM), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berlese & de Toni, is a major disease, especially in humid viticultural areas. Development of resistant cultivars is an important objective for grapevine breeding. In order to establish a reliable and inexpensive...

  18. Grapevine downy mildew control in organic farming.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Spera, G; Lolletti, D

    2005-01-01

    Cupric products at low dose and alternative compounds have been tested to control the downy mildew in an organic vineyard. It has found that copper compounds control downy mildew in a satisfactory way, reducing, at the same time, the dose of copper metal. The alternative products were not satisfactory to control Plasmopara viticola.

  19. Genetic modification of European winegrapes with genes from an American wild relative confers resistance to the major diseases powdery and downy mildew

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The two most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete, downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in t...

  20. Genetics of downy mildew resistance in two interspecific hybrid grapevine families

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to lack of co-evolution with Plasmopara viticola, the causal pathogen of grapevine downy mildew, nearly all cultivated grapevines are susceptible to downy mildew, whereas their wild relatives are frequently resistant. In order to find QTL for downy mildew resistance and susceptibility, we perfor...

  1. Host-Pathogen Interactions 1

    PubMed Central

    Nothnagel, Eugene A.; McNeil, Michael; Albersheim, Peter; Dell, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., cv Wayne) cotyledons were released from soybean cell walls and from citrus pectin by partial acid hydrolysis. These two hydrolysates yielded nearly identical distributions of elicitor activity when fractionated on anion-exchange columns. Chromatography of the pectin elicitor on gel filtration and high-pressure anion-exchange columns did not further purify the elicitor. Elicitor activity of the preparation was lost by treatment with either endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase or pectate lyase. Glycosyl residue compositions of the purified elicitors from cell walls and pectin were both found to be approximately 98% galacturonosyl residues. Linkage analysis of the pectin elicitor showed that most, if not all, of the galacturonosyl residues were α-1,4-linked. The high-mass molecular ions detected by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry of the most active elicitor fractions from cell walls and pectin both corresponded precisely to a molecule composed of 12 galacturonosyl residues. These results suggest that dodeca-α-1,4-d-galacturonide is the active elicitor, but the possibility remains that the active component could be a slightly modified oligogalacturonide present, but not detected, in the purified fractions. PMID:16662929

  2. The endogenous peptide signal, ZmPep1, regulates maize innate immunity and enhances disease resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ZmPep1 (Zea mays elicitor peptide 1) is a bioactive peptide signal encoded by a previously uncharacterized Zea mays gene. The gene, ZmPROPEP1, was identified as an ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPROPEP1, which encodes the precursor protein of elicitor peptide 1 (AtPep1). Together with its recep...

  3. Methanol extract of mycelia from Phytophthora infestans-induced resistance in potato.

    PubMed

    Monjil, Mohammad Shahjahan; Nozawa, Takeshi; Shibata, Yusuke; Takemoto, Daigo; Ojika, Makoto; Kawakita, Kazuhito

    2015-03-01

    Plants recognize certain microbial compounds as elicitors in their active defence mechanisms. It has been shown that a series of defence reactions are induced in potato plant cells after treatment with water-soluble hyphal wall components prepared from Phytophthora infestans. In this study, a methanol extract from mycelia of P. infestans (MEM), which contains lipophilic compounds, was used as another elicitor for the induction of the defence reactions in potato. MEM elicitor induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially O2(-) and H2O2 production, and nitric oxide (NO) generation in potato leaves and suspension-cultured cells. Hypersensitive cell death was detected in potato leaves within 6-8 h after MEM elicitor treatment. The accumulation of phytoalexins was detected by MEM elicitor treatment in potato tubers. In potato suspension-cultured cells, several defence-related genes were induced by MEM elicitors, namely Strboh, Sthsr203J, StPVS3, StPR1, and StNR5, which regulate various defence-related functions. Enhanced resistance against P. infestans was found in MEM-treated potato plants. These results suggested that MEM elicitor is recognized by host and enhances defence activities to produce substances inhibitory to pathogens.

  4. Enhanced production of L-DOPA in cell cultures of Mucuna pruriens L. and Mucuna prurita H.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, S; Kumar, V; Ramesh, C K; Khan, M H Moinuddin

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study on the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was carried out in cell cultures of two Mucuna species by elicitor treatment and precursor feeding. The influence of elicitors and the precursor molecule on L-DOPA production, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and tyrosinase activities was also studied. Callus cultures were initiated in Mucuna pruriens L. and Mucuna prurita H. on MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at different concentrations. Suspension cultures were established in MS liquid medium supplemented with BAP, IAA, the elicitors methyl jasmonate, chitin and pectin or the precursor L-tyrosine at different concentrations for L-DOPA production. Compared to the controls, several-fold increases in L-DOPA concentration were observed in elicitor-treated and precursor-fed suspension cultures of both plant species. L-DOPA concentrations were comparatively higher in precursor-fed cultures than those receiving elicitor treatments. A parallel increase in tyrosinase and PPO levels was also observed. Loss of cell viability was observed at high concentrations of elicitor-treated cultures, whereas L-tyrosine did not cause any cell death. Compared to elicitor treatments, precursor feeding resulted in higher concentrations of L-DOPA production and tyrosinase activity. The efficacy of L-DOPA production was found to be higher for suspension cultures of M. pruriens compared to M. prurita in all treatments.

  5. Methyl jasmonate-induction of cotton: a field test of the “attract and reward” strategy of conservation biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defense responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively impact herbivore survival, development, and fecundity. Indirect respons...

  6. Physiological function and ecological aspects of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates in insects.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2016-07-01

    In tritrophic interactions, plants recognize herbivore-produced elicitors and release a blend of volatile compounds (VOCs), which work as chemical cues for parasitoids or predators to locate their hosts. From detection of elicitors to VOC emissions, plants utilize sophisticated systems that resemble the plant-microbe interaction system. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), a class of insect elicitors, resemble compounds synthesized by microbes in nature. Recent evidence suggests that the recognition of insect elicitors by an ancestral microbe-associated defense system may be the origin of tritrophic interactions mediated by FACs. Here we discuss our findings in light of how plants have customized this defense to be effective against insect herbivores, and how some insects have successfully adapted to these defenses.

  7. Improved isoflavonoid production in Pueraria candollei hairy root cultures using elicitation.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2011-02-01

    The effect of abiotic and biotic elicitors (methyl jasmonate, chitosan, salicylic acid, Agrobacterium, and yeast extract) at various concentrations on total isoflavonoid accumulation was studied in the hairy root cultures of Pueraria candollei. All elicitors stimulated isoflavonoid production. Yeast extract (0.5 mg/ml) was the most efficient giving total isoflavonoids at 60 ± 1 mg/g dry wt, which was 4.5-fold higher than control hairy roots on day 3 of elicitation.

  8. Local mechanical stimulation induces components of the pathogen defense response in parsley

    PubMed Central

    Gus-Mayer, Sabine; Naton, Beatrix; Hahlbrock, Klaus; Schmelzer, Elmon

    1998-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) have previously been used as a suitable system for studies of the nonhost resistance response to Phytophthora sojae. In this study, we replaced the penetrating fungus by local mechanical stimulation by using a needle of the same diameter as a fungal hypha, by local application of a structurally defined fungus-derived elicitor, or by a combination of the two stimuli. Similar to the fungal infection hypha, the local mechanical stimulus alone induced the translocation of cytoplasm and nucleus to the site of stimulation, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and the expression of some, but not all, elicitor-responsive genes. When the elicitor was applied locally to the cell surface without mechanical stimulation, intracellular ROI also accumulated rapidly, but morphological changes were not detected. A combination of the mechanical stimulus with simultaneous application of low doses of elicitor closely simulated early reactions to fungal infection, including cytoplasmic aggregation, nuclear migration, and ROI accumulation. By contrast, cytoplasmic rearrangements were impaired at high elicitor concentrations. Neither papilla formation nor hypersensitive cell death occurred under the conditions tested. These results suggest that mechanical stimulation by the invading fungus is responsible for the observed intracellular rearrangements and may trigger some of the previously demonstrated changes in the activity of elicitor-responsive genes, whereas chemical stimulation is required for additional biochemical processes. As yet unidentified signals may be involved in papilla formation and hypersensitive cell death. PMID:9653198

  9. Host-Pathogen interactions. 25. Endopolygalacturonic acid lyase from Erwinia carotovora elicits phytoalexin accumulation by releasing plant cell wall fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Lyon, G.D.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heat-labile elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Wayne) were detected in culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora grown on a defined medium containing citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. The heat-labile elicitors were highly purified by cation-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex (C-50) column, followed by agarose-affinity chromatography on a Bio-Gel A-0.5m gel filtration column. The heat-labile elicitor activity co-purified with two ..cap alpha..-1,4-endopolygalacturonic acid lyases (EC 4 x 2 x 2 x 2). Endopolygalacturonic acid lyase activity appeared to be necessary for elicitor activity because heat-inactivated enzyme preparations did not elicit phytoalexins. The purified endopolygalacturonic acid lyases elicited pterocarpan phytoalexins at microbial-inhibitory concentrations in the soybean-cotyledon bioassay when applied at a concentration of 55 nanograms per milliliter (1 x 10/sup -9/ molar). One of these lyases released heat-stable elicitors from soybean cell walls, citrus pectin, and sodium polypectate. The heat-stable elicitor-active material solubilized from soybean cell walls by the lyase was composed of at least 90% (w/v) uronosyl residues. These results demonstrate that endopolygalacturonic acid lyase elicits phytoalexin accumulation by releasing fragments from pectic polysaccharides in plant cell walls.

  10. Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases.

    PubMed

    Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Wiggerich, Heinrich-Günter; Scheidle, Heiko; Sidhu, Vishaldeep Kaur; Mrozek, Kalina; Küster, Helge; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2012-10-19

    Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs), generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum). A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP). Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. To our knowledge, this is the second report on a DAMP generated

  11. Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs), generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. Results A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum). A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP). Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the

  12. Synthesis and anti-oomycete activity of novel quinazolin- and benzothiazol-6-yloxyacetamides: Potent aza-analogs and five-ring analogs of quinoline fungicides.

    PubMed

    Beaudegnies, Renaud; Quaranta, Laura; Murphy Kessabi, Fiona; Lamberth, Clemens; Knauf-Beiter, Gertrud; Fraser, Torquil

    2016-02-01

    Novel quinazolin- and benzothiazol-6-yloxyacetamides show excellent in vivo activity against the three economically most important Oomycete pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Plasmopara viticola and Pythium ultimum. They are polar analogs of known quinolin-6-yloxyacetamides, which are not active against the soil-borne damping-off disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The Bogert quinazoline synthesis, an almost forgotten heterocyclization technique, proved to be highly useful for the concise construction of required quinazolin-6-ol building blocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  15. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean : Intercellular Transmission of Elicitation in Cell Suspension Cultures and Hypocotyl Sections of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A; Dey, P M; Lawton, M A; Lamb, C J

    1983-02-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors.

  16. Biochemical basis of improvement of defense in tomato plant against Fusarium wilt by CaCl2.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Chandra, Swarnendu; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of calcium chloride (CaCl2), as potential elicitor, on tomato plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Foliar application of CaCl2 showed significant reduction of wilt incidence after challenge inoculation. Increased production of defense and antioxidant enzymes was observed in elicitor treated sets over control. Simultaneously, altered amount of phenolic acids were analyzed spectrophotometrically and by using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant induction of defense-related genes expressions was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Greater lignifications by microscopic analysis were also recorded in elicitor treated plants. Simultaneously, generation of nitric oxide (NO) in elicitor treated plants was confirmed by spectrophotometrically and microscopically by using membrane permeable fluorescent dye. Furthermore, plants treated with potential NO donor and NO modulators showed significant alteration of all those aforesaid defense molecules. Transcript analysis of nitrate reductase and calmodulin gene showed positive correlation with elicitor treatment. Furthermore, CaCl2 treatment showed greater seedling vigor index, mean trichome density etc. The result suggests that CaCl2 have tremendous potential to elicit defense responses as well as plant growth in co-relation with NO, which ultimately leads to resistance against the wilt pathogen.

  17. Improvement of the nutraceutical quality of broccoli sprouts by elicitation.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Maldini, Mariateresa; Nardini, Mirella; Azzini, Elena; Foddai, Maria Stella; Giusti, Anna Maria; Baima, Simona; Morelli, Giorgio; Scaccini, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between Brassica consumption and chronic diseases. Phytochemicals are thought to be beneficial for human health and therefore responsible for this protective effect. Increasing their levels into Brassica food is considered an expedient nutritional strategy that can be achieved through the manipulation of growth conditions by elicitors. In this work we systematically evaluated the influence of treatment with different elicitors (sucrose, mannitol, NaCl, 1-aminocyclopropane-L-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate) on the phytochemical composition of broccoli sprouts. The content of total and single glucosinolates, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, vitamin C and E and β-carotene was assessed. The exposure to different elicitors produced concentration- and elicitor-dependent specific changes in the content of all the phytochemicals considered. Sucrose, identified as the most effective elicitor by principal component analysis, induced a significant increase of total and specific glucosinolates, vitamin C, total anthocyanins and polyphenols. Sucrose is likely to represent an effective tool to increase the nutritional value of broccoli sprouts.

  18. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (II. G-Protein-Mediated Changes in Host Plasma Membrane Redox Reactions).

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from races 4 and 2.3 of Cladosporium fulvum, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells containing the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate the involvement of redox processes in the production of active oxygen species associated with the plant response to the fungal elicitors. Here we demonstrate that certain race-specific elicitors of C. fulvum induced an increase in ferricyanide reduction in enriched plasma membrane fractions of tomato cells. The addition of elicitors to plasma membranes also induced increases in NADH oxidase and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase activities, whereas ascorbate peroxidase activity was decreased. These results suggest that changes in the host plasma membrane redox processes, transferring electrons from reducing agents to oxygen, could be involved in the increased production of active oxygen species by the race-specific elicitors. Our results also show that the dephosphorylation of enzymes involved in redox reactions is responsible for the race-specific induced redox activity. The effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the activation of plasma membrane redox reactions support the role of GTP-binding proteins in the transduction of signals leading to the activation of the defense response mechanisms of tomato against fungal pathogens. PMID:12232307

  19. Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway.

  20. Analysis of PAMP-Triggered ROS Burst in Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuying; Macho, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the measurement of elicitor-triggered ROS burst in a simple, fast, and easy manner.

  1. Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2014-09-01

    Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin), abiotic (chemical or physical origin) elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods.

  2. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  3. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity.

  4. Elicitation of Diterpene Biosynthesis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Chitin 1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yue-Ying; West, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of UV-irradiated rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves have a much greater capacity for the synthesis from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate of diterpene hydrocarbons, including the putative precursors of rice phytoalexins, than extracts of unstressed leaves (KA Wickham, CA West [1992] Arch Biochem Biophys 293: 320-332). An elicitor bioassay was developed on the basis of these observations in which 6-day-old rice cell suspension cultures were incubated for 40 hours with the substance to be tested, and an enzyme extract of the treated cells was assayed for its diterpene hydrocarbon synthesis activity as a measure of the response to elicitor. Four types of cell wall polysaccharides and oligosaccharide fragments that have elicitor activity for other plants were tested. Of these, polymeric chitin was the most active; a suspension concentration of approximately 7 micrograms per milliliter gave 50% of the maximum response in the bioassay. Chitosan and a branched β-1,3-glucan fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea cell walls were only weakly active, and a mixture of oligogalacturonides was only slightly active. A crude mycelial cell wall preparation from the rice pathogen, Fusarium moniliforme, gave a response comparable to that of chitin, and this activity was sensitive to predigestion of the cell wall material with chitinase before the elicitor assay. N-Acetylglucosamine, chitobiose, chitotriose, and chitotetrose were inactive as elicitors, whereas a mixture of chitin fragments solubilized from insoluble chitin by partial acid hydrolysis was highly active. Constitutive chitinase activity was detected in the culture filtrate and enzyme extract of cells from a 6-day-old rice cell culture; the amount of chitinase activity increased markedly in both the culture filtrate and cell extracts after treatment of the culture with chitin. We propose on the basis of these results that soluble chitin fragments released from fungal cell walls through the action

  5. Silicon induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable integrated disease management for gray leaf spot of perennial ryegrass may involve use of plant defense elicitors with compatible traditional fungicides to reduce disease incidence and severity. Silicon (Si) is a potential inducer or modulator of plant defenses against different pathogen...

  6. Alternativen beim Pflanzenschutz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendgen, Kurt

    1983-05-01

    The control of plant diseases may be improved by influencing the development of a parasite in its host. The role of elicitors and inducers for the induction of the plant's defense reactions and the use of hyperparasites is discussed as a part of an integrated pest management system of rust fungi.

  7. Comparative biochemistry of the oxidative burst produced by rose and french bean cells reveals two distinct mechanisms

    PubMed

    Bolwell; Davies; Gerrish; Auh; Murphy

    1998-04-01

    Cultured cells of rose (Rosa damascena) treated with an elicitor derived from Phytophthora spp. and suspension-cultured cells of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) treated with an elicitor derived from the cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum both produced H2O2. It has been hypothesized that in rose cells H2O2 is produced by a plasma membrane NAD(P)H oxidase (superoxide synthase), whereas in bean cells H2O2 is derived directly from cell wall peroxidases following extracellular alkalinization and the appearance of a reductant. In the rose/Phytophthora spp. system treated with N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate, superoxide was detected by a N, N'-dimethyl-9,9'-biacridium dinitrate-dependent chemiluminescence; in contrast, in the bean/C. lindemuthianum system, no superoxide was detected, with or without N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate. When rose cells were washed free of medium (containing cell wall peroxidase) and then treated with Phytophthora spp. elicitor, they accumulated a higher maximum concentration of H2O2 than when treated without the washing procedure. In contrast, a washing treatment reduced the H2O2 accumulated by French bean cells treated with C. lindemuthianum elicitor. Rose cells produced reductant capable of stimulating horseradish (Armoracia lapathifolia) peroxidase to form H2O2 but did not have a peroxidase capable of forming H2O2 in the presence of reductant. Rose and French bean cells thus appear to be responding by different mechanisms to generate the oxidative burst.

  8. Comparative Biochemistry of the Oxidative Burst Produced by Rose and French Bean Cells Reveals Two Distinct Mechanisms1

    PubMed Central

    Bolwell, G. Paul; Davies, Dewi R.; Gerrish, Chris; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Murphy, Terence M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultured cells of rose (Rosa damascena) treated with an elicitor derived from Phytophthora spp. and suspension-cultured cells of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) treated with an elicitor derived from the cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum both produced H2O2. It has been hypothesized that in rose cells H2O2 is produced by a plasma membrane NAD(P)H oxidase (superoxide synthase), whereas in bean cells H2O2 is derived directly from cell wall peroxidases following extracellular alkalinization and the appearance of a reductant. In the rose/Phytophthora spp. system treated with N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, superoxide was detected by a N,N′-dimethyl-9,9′-biacridium dinitrate-dependent chemiluminescence; in contrast, in the bean/C. lindemuthianum system, no superoxide was detected, with or without N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate. When rose cells were washed free of medium (containing cell wall peroxidase) and then treated with Phytophthora spp. elicitor, they accumulated a higher maximum concentration of H2O2 than when treated without the washing procedure. In contrast, a washing treatment reduced the H2O2 accumulated by French bean cells treated with C. lindemuthianum elicitor. Rose cells produced reductant capable of stimulating horseradish (Armoracia lapathifolia) peroxidase to form H2O2 but did not have a peroxidase capable of forming H2O2 in the presence of reductant. Rose and French bean cells thus appear to be responding by different mechanisms to generate the oxidative burst. PMID:9536055

  9. Expression of the 12-oxophytodienoic acid 10,11-reductase gene in the compatible interaction between pea and fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Funato, Akiko; Tachiki, Tomoyuki; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Yamada, Tetsuji; Ichinose, Yuki

    2002-10-01

    Suppressors produced by Mycosphaerella pinodes are glycopeptides to block pea defense responses induced by elicitors. A clone, S64, was isolated as cDNA for suppressor-inducible gene from pea epicotyls. The treatment of pea epicotyls with suppressor alone induced an increase of S64 mRNA within 1 h, and it reached a maximum level at 3 h after treatment. The induction was not affected by application of the elicitor, indicating that the suppressor has a dominant action to regulate S64 gene expression. S64 was also induced by inoculation with a virulent pathogen, M. pinodes, but not by inoculation with a non-pathogen, Ascochyta rabiei, nor by treatment with fungal elicitor. The deduced structure of S64 showed high homology to 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. A recombinant protein derived from S64 had OPR activity, suggesting compatibility-specific activation of the octadecanoid pathway in plants. Treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or methyl jasmonic acid, end products of the octadecanoid pathway, inhibited the elicitor-induced accumulation of PAL mRNA in pea. These results indicate that the suppressor-induced S64 gene expression leads to the production of JA or related compounds, which might contribute to the establishment of compatibility by inhibiting the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway.

  10. The structures and functions of oligosaccharins

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.

    1990-08-01

    Abstracts of papers published or in press reporting work supported by this grant proposal during the past year are given here to describe the progress we have made in this research project. Topics include morphogenesis regulation by cell wall oligosaccharins; regulation of pectic enzymes, pathogen interactions with cell wall constituents; oligosaccharins as regulatory molecules; and characterization of oligosaccharide elicitors.

  11. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  12. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  13. Assessment of Middle Ear Function during the Acoustic Reflex Using Laser-Doppler Vibrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-07

    Knowledge gained from this study indicates the need for updates to hearing health hazard assessments, and increases our understanding of the potential for...stimulus presentation and experimental paradigm ............................................4 3. Stimulus paradigm and data analysis...response to the probe tone) following the presentation of the elicitor. Figure 2. Visualization of stimulus presentation and experimental paradigm . A

  14. Establishment and characterization of American elm cell suspension cultures

    Treesearch

    Steven M. Eshita; Joseph C. Kamalay; Vicki M. Gingas; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2000-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Dutch elm disease (DED)-tolerant and DED-susceptible American elms clones have been established and characterized as prerequisites for contrasts of cellular responses to pathogen-derived elicitors. Characteristics of cultured elm cell growth were monitored by A700 and media conductivity. Combined cell growth data for all experiments within a...

  15. Perception, signaling and molecular basis of oviposition-mediated plant responses.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Eggs deposited on plants by herbivorous insects represent a threat as they develop into feeding larvae. Plants are not a passive substrate and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to detect eggs and induce direct and indirect defenses. Recent years have seen exciting development in molecular aspects of egg-induced responses. Some egg-associated elicitors have been identified, and signaling pathways and egg-induced expression profiles are being uncovered. Depending on the mode of oviposition, both the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways seem to play a role in the induction of defense responses. An emerging concept is that eggs are recognized like microbial pathogens and innate immune responses are triggered. In addition, some eggs contain elicitors that induce highly specific defenses in plants. Examples of egg-induced suppression of defense or, on the contrary, egg-induced resistance highlight the complexity of plant-egg interactions in an on-going arms race between herbivores and their hosts. A major challenge is to identify plant receptors for egg-associated elicitors, to assess the specificity of these elicitors and to identify molecular components that underlie various responses to oviposition.

  16. Superoxide generation in extracts from isolated plant cell walls is regulated by fungal signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Kiba, A; Miyake, C; Toyoda, K; Ichinose, Y; Yamada, T; Shiraishi, T

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT Fractions solubilized with NaCl from cell walls of pea and cowpea plants catalyzed the formation of blue formazan from nitroblue tetrazolium. Because superoxide dismutase decreased formazan production by over 90%, superoxide anion (O(2) ) may participate in the formation of formazan in the solubilized cell wall fractions. The formazan formation in the fractions solubilized from pea and cowpea cell walls was markedly reduced by exclusion of NAD(P)H, manganese ion, or p-coumaric acid from the reaction mixture. The formazan formation was severely inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid and catalase, but not by imidazole, pyridine, quinacrine, and diphenyleneiodonium. An elicitor preparation from the pea pathogen Mycosphaerella pinodes enhanced the activities of formazan formation nonspecifically in both pea and cowpea fractions. The suppressor preparation from M. pinodes inhibited the activity in the pea fraction in the presence or absence of the elicitor. In the cowpea fraction, however, the suppressor did not inhibit the elicitor-enhanced activity, and the suppressor alone stimulated formazan formation. These results indicated that O(2) generation in the fractions solubilized from pea and cowpea cell walls seems to be catalyzed by cell wall-bound peroxidase(s) and that the plant cell walls alone are able to respond to the elicitor non-specifically and to the suppressor in a species-specific manner, suggesting the plant cell walls may play an important role in determination of plant-fungal pathogen specificity.

  17. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jorrin, Jesus; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    l-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase has been purified from elicitor-treated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cell suspension cultures using two protocols based on different sequences of chromatofocusing and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Three distinct forms of the intact enzyme were separated on the basis of affinity for Octyl-Sepharose, with isoelectric points in the range pH 5.1 to 5.4. The native enzyme was a tetramer of Mr 311,000; the intact subunit Mr was about 79,000, although polypeptides of Mr 71,000, 67,000 and 56,000, probably arising from degradation of the intact subunit, were observed in all preparations. Two-dimensional gel analysis revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of differing isoelectric points. The purified isoforms of the native enzyme had different Km values for l-phenylalanine in the range 40 to 110 micromolar, although mixtures of the forms in crude preparations exhibited apparent negative rate cooperativity. The enzyme activity was induced approximately 16-fold within 6 hours of exposure of alfalfa cells to a fungal elicitor or yeast extract. Analysis by hydrophobic interaction chromatography revealed different proportions of the different active enzyme isoforms, depending upon either time after elicitation or the elicitor used. The elicitor-induced increase in enzyme activity was associated with increased translatable phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA activity in the polysomal fraction. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16667296

  18. Differential induction of redox sensitive extracellular phenolic amides in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focuses on the differential induction of extracellular phenolic amides that accumulate in potato cell suspensions during the first few hours of the interaction between these plant cells and bacterial pathogens or pathogen-related elicitors. Using suspension cells of Solanum tuberosum we ...

  19. PEPR2 is a second receptor for the Pep1 and Pep2 peptides and contributes to defense responses in arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 23-amino acid peptide, AtPep1, and its homologues are endogenous elicitors in Arabidopsis, inducing defense related genes. AtPep1 enhances resistance to a root pathogen, Pythium irregulare, through the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways. AtPep...

  20. Elucidating induced plant defenses: the use of targeted metabolomics as a bridge from elicitation to response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dynamic plant defense responses to biotic attack involve the perception of specific biochemical elicitors associated with the offending agent, activation of signaling cascades, and the production of small molecules with complex protective roles. Chemical analyses are essential empirical tools for el...

  1. Function and evolutionary diversity of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) in regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1 were initially identified as plant volatile elicitors and research has been focused on this apparent ecological disadvantage rather than on possible benefit for the caterpillar itself. Recently, we demonstrated that...

  2. L-Alanine augments rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, K S; Paul, D; Kim, J S; Park, J W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1 is a proven biotic elicitor of systemic resistance in many crops against various pathogens. L: -Alanine (Ala) was tested in cucumber as a chemical elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Colletotrichum orbiculare. In the greenhouse, both Ala and EXTN-1 induced significant levels of disease suppression in cucumber against anthracnose. When cucumber plants were treated with EXTN-1 and Ala together, augmentative disease suppression was observed. Experiments with transgenic tobacco plants carrying pathogenesis-related genes fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reported gene (PR-1a::GUS & PDF 1.2::GUS) showed an enhanced activation of both PR-1a and PDF 1.2 genes upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1. RT-PCR analysis with transgenic (PR-1a or PDF 1.2 over expressing) Arabidopsis plant showed more enhanced expression of resistance genes PR-1a and PDF 1.2 upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1 than either alone. An augmentative ISR effect, when the bacterial elicitor and chemical elicitor were combined together, was confirmed.

  3. Induction of linalool as a pharmaceutical and medicinal metabolite via cell suspension culture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    PubMed

    Kazemi, N; Kahrizi, D; Mansouri, M; Karim, H; Vaziri, S; Zargooshi, J; Khanahmadi, M; Shokrinia, M; Mohammadi, N

    2016-05-30

    Cumin is an important medicinal plant in Iran. Plant cell suspension culture is a method for the production of medicinal and secondary metabolites. The linalool is a plant secondary metabolite that has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid elicitor on induction of linalool in cell suspension culture of cumin. For this purpose, the cumin seeds were prepared, to obtain sterile seedling, were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and alcohol, and were cultured on MS basal medium. This research was conducted in two separate experiments including callus induction and suspension cultures. Leaf explants were prepared from sterile seedlings and used to produce callus on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BAP. In order to establish suspension culture, the appropriate calli were transferred to liquid medium. Then cell cultures were treated with elicitors. The effects of elicitor on the production of linalool secondary metabolite and cell viability were assessed by GC-Mass and tetrazolium test respectively. For this purpose, the salicylic acid (at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/l) was used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results of cell culture and GC-Mass analysis showed that salicylic acid had significant effects on the linalool production (<0.01). At all concentrations of salicylic acid, viability of the cells in suspension culture experiments was lower than control. Increasing the elicitor concentrations lead to reduction in cell survival. In conclusion it is possible to produce linalool as a secondary metabolite and pharmaceutical agent in cell culture of cumin. It is necessary to determine the best combination of medium and elicitor.

  4. Regulation of CDPKs, including identification of PAL kinase, in biotically stressed cells of French bean.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Ellen G; Davies, Dewi R; Gerrish, Chris; Bolwell, G Paul

    2002-07-01

    Changes in protein kinase activity have been investigated during the early response of suspension cultured cells of French bean to fungal elicitor. One of the kinases activated has a known target, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), which has an important role in plant defence responses, and was purified. Kinase acivity during purification was monitored for both the PAL-derived peptide and syntide-2, which it also phosphorylated. The kinase had an Mr of 55,000 on the basis of gel migration, 45Ca2+ binding, autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of various substrates using in-gel assays. The kinase has been characterised with respect to kinetics and other properties in vitro and appears to be a CDPK. In-gel assays were also used to show that this kinase and a number of other CDPKs of similar Mr showed complex changes in elicitor-treated suspension-cultured cells of French bean. An activation was observed within 10 min and was maintained for up to 4 h. The time course of activation was different from MAP kinase and casein kinase assayed in the same extracts. However, at 5 min after addition of elicitor there is a transient inactivation of the CDPKs before activation. This inactivation can be mimicked by adding forskolin to the cells 30 min before elicitation, which brings about changes in the cellular pH. Forskolin potentiates the oxidative burst when elicitor is subsequently added while the CDPK cannot be activated by elicitor upon forskolin treatment. In contrast, intracellular acidification brought about by forskolin brings about slight activation of MAPkinase.

  5. Enantioselective Resolution of (R,S)-Carvedilol to (S)-(-)-Carvedilol by Biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ettireddy, Swetha; Chandupatla, Vijitha; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2017-02-01

    Among the microorganisms employed in the study, Aspergillus niger (GUFCC5443), Escherichia coli (ATCC9637), Streptomyces halstedii (CKM-2), Pseudomonas putida (NCIB9494), Cunninghamella elegans (NCIM689) and Sphingomonas paucimobilis (NCTC11030) were capable for the enantioselective conversion of racemic Carvedilol. Immobilization technique enhanced the enantioselectivity of microorganisms and thus increased the enantiomeric purity of the drug. Excellent enantiomeric ratios (E) were found in reactions catalyzed by immobilized A. niger and E. coli with values 174.44 and 104.26, respectively. Triacylglycerol lipase from Aspergillus niger was also employed in this study as a biocatalyst which resulted in the product with 83.35% enantiomeric excess (ee) and E of 11.34 while the enzyme on immobilization has yielded 99.08% ee and 216.39 E. The conversion yield (C%) of the drug by free-enzyme was 57.42%, which was enhanced by immobilization to 90.51%. Hence, our results suggest that immobilized triacylglycerol lipase from A. niger (Lipase AP6) could be an efficient biocatalyst for the enantioselective resolution of racemic Carvedilol to (S)-(-)-Carvedilol with high enantiomeric purity followed by immobilized cultures of A. niger and E. coli.

  6. Stabilization by multipoint covalent attachment of a biocatalyst with polygalacturonase activity used for juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Tapias, Yuly A; Rivero, Cintia W; Gallego, Fernando López; Guisán, José M; Trelles, Jorge A

    2016-10-01

    Derivatized-agarose supports are suitable for enzyme immobilization by different methods, taking advantage of different physical, chemical and biological conditions of the protein and the support. In this study, agarose particles were modified with MANAE, PEI and glyoxyl groups and evaluated to stabilize polygalacturonase from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897. A new immobilized biocatalyst was developed using glyoxyl-agarose as support; it exhibited high performance in degrading polygalacturonic acid and releasing oligogalacturonides. Maximal enzyme activity was detected at 5h of reaction using 0.05g/mL of immobilized biocatalyst, which released 3mg/mL of reducing sugars and allowed the highest product yield conversion and increased stability. These results are very favorable for pectin degradation with reusability up to 18 successive reactions (90h) and application in juice clarification. Plum (4.7°Bx) and grape (10.6°Bx) juices were successfully clarified, increasing reducing sugars content and markedly decreasing turbidity and viscosity.

  7. Emerging oomycete threats to plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Derevnina, Lida; Petre, Benjamin; Kellner, Ronny; Dagdas, Yasin F; Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; Giannakopoulou, Artemis; De la Concepcion, Juan Carlos; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pennington, Helen G; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-12-05

    Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Determination and imaging of metabolites from Vitis vinifera leaves by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Gregory; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Maunit, Benoît; Frache, Gilles; Merdinoglu, Didier; Muller, Jean-François

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of grapevine phytoalexins at the surface of Vitis vinifera leaves has been achieved by laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-ToFMS) without matrix deposition. This simple and rapid sampling method was successfully applied to map small organic compounds at the surface of grapevine leaves. It was also demonstrated that the laser wavelength is a highly critical parameter. Both 266 and 337 nm laser wavelengths were used but the 266 nm wavelength gave increased spatial resolution and better sensitivity for the detection of the targeted metabolites (resveratrol and linked stilbene compounds). Mass spectrometry imaging of grapevine Cabernet Sauvignon leaves revealed specific locations with respect to Plasmopara viticola pathogen infection or light illumination.

  9. Induction of defence mechanisms in grapevine leaves by emodin- and anthraquinone-rich plant extracts and their conferred resistance to downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Godard, Sophie; Slacanin, Ivan; Viret, Olivier; Gindro, Katia

    2009-09-01

    The ability of two plant extracts, Rheum palmatum root extract (RPRE) and Frangula alnus bark extract (FABE), to protect Vitis vinifera leaves from Plasmopara viticola infection was evaluated. These natural products are toxic to the pathogen and induce defence reactions in a susceptible cultivar of V. vinifera (V. vinifera cv. Chasselas), including stilbenic phytoalexin accumulation, enhanced peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activity, and a hypersensitive reaction. Inhibition of the first stage of biotrophic hyphal development of P. Viticola by the two plant extracts was observed. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis showed that these two natural extracts contain many phenolic compounds belonging to the anthraquinone family, such as rhein, frangulin A, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion. Emodin alone is able to impair P. viticola development and to stimulate viniferins and the accumulation of pterostilbene.

  10. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field.

  11. Toward the Identification of Two Glycoproteins Involved in the Stomatal Deregulation of Downy Mildew-Infected Grapevine Leaves.

    PubMed

    Guillier, Christelle; Gamm, Magdalena; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pecqueur, Delphine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2015-11-01

    Stomata remain abnormally opened and unresponsive to abscisic acid in grapevine leaves infected by downy mildew. This deregulation occurs from 3 days postinoculation and increases concomitantly with leaf colonization by the pathogen. Using epidermal peels, we demonstrated that the active compound involved in this deregulation is located in the apoplast. Biochemical assays showed that the active compound present in the apoplastic fluids isolated from Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves (IAF) is a CysCys bridge-independent, thermostable and glycosylated protein. Fractionation guided assays based on chromatography coupled to stomatal response and proteomic analysis allowed the identification of both plant and pathogen proteins in the active fraction obtained from IAF. Further in silico analysis and discriminant filtrations based on the comparison between predictions and experimental indications lead to the identification of two Vitis vinifera proteins as candidates for the observed stomatal deregulation.

  12. Generation of Antifungal Stilbenes Using the Enzymatic Secretome of Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Gindro, Katia; Schnee, Sylvain; Righi, Davide; Marcourt, Laurence; Nejad Ebrahimi, Samad; Codina, Josep Massana; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira

    2017-04-28

    The protein secretome of Botrytis cinerea was used to perform the biotransformation of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and a mixture of both. Metabolite profiling by UHPLC-HRMS revealed the presence of compounds with unusual molecular formula, suggesting the existence of new products. To isolate these products, the reactions were scaled-up, and 21 analogues were isolated and fully characterized by NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The reaction with pterostilbene afforded five new compounds, while the reaction with a mixture of pterostilbene and resveratrol afforded seven unusual stilbene dimers. The antifungal properties of these compounds were evaluated using in vitro bioassays against Plasmopara viticola. The cytological effects of the isolated antifungal compounds on the ultrastructure of P. viticola were also evaluated.

  13. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging for the simultaneous location of resveratrol, pterostilbene and viniferins on grapevine leaves.

    PubMed

    Becker, Loïc; Carré, Vincent; Poutaraud, Anne; Merdinoglu, Didier; Chaimbault, Patrick

    2014-07-21

    To investigate the in-situ response to a stress, grapevine leaves have been subjected to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) experiments. The Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) approach using different matrices has been evaluated. Among all the tested matrices, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found to be the most efficient matrix allowing a broader range of detected stilbene phytoalexins. Resveratrol, but also more toxic compounds against fungi such as pterostilbene and viniferins, were identified and mapped. Their spatial distributions on grapevine leaves irradiated by UV show their specific colocation around the veins. Moreover, MALDI MSI reveals that resveratrol (and piceids) and viniferins are not specifically located on the same area when leaves are infected by Plasmopara viticola. Results obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging demonstrate that this technique would be essential to improve the level of knowledge concerning the role of the stilbene phytoalexins involved in a stress event.

  14. The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Sophien; Furzer, Oliver; Jones, Jonathan D G; Judelson, Howard S; Ali, Gul Shad; Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Roy, Sanjoy Guha; Schena, Leonardo; Zambounis, Antonios; Panabières, Franck; Cahill, David; Ruocco, Michelina; Figueiredo, Andreia; Chen, Xiao-Ren; Hulvey, Jon; Stam, Remco; Lamour, Kurt; Gijzen, Mark; Tyler, Brett M; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Tomé, Daniel F A; Tör, Mahmut; Van Den Ackerveken, Guido; McDowell, John; Daayf, Fouad; Fry, William E; Lindqvist-Kreuze, Hannele; Meijer, Harold J G; Petre, Benjamin; Ristaino, Jean; Yoshida, Kentaro; Birch, Paul R J; Govers, Francine

    2015-05-01

    Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens which threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant-pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. This article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research.

  15. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    PubMed

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quantitative trait locus analysis of fungal disease resistance factors on a molecular map of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B M; Salakhutdinov, I; Akkurt, M; Eibach, R; Edwards, K J; Töpfer, R; Zyprian, E M

    2004-02-01

    A full-sibling F1 population comprising 153 individuals from the cross of 'Regent' x 'Lemberger' was employed to construct a genetic map based on 429 molecular markers. The newly-bred red grapevine variety 'Regent' has multiple field-resistance to fungal diseases inherited as polygenic traits, while 'Lemberger' is a traditional fungus-susceptible cultivar. The progeny segregate quantitatively for resistances to Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator, fungal pathogens that threaten viticulture in temperate areas. A double pseudo-testcross strategy was employed to construct the two parental maps under high statistical stringency for linkage to obtain a robust marker frame for subsequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. In total, 185 amplified fragment length polymorphism, 137 random amplified polymorphic DNA, 85 single sequence repeat and 22 sequence characterized amplified region or cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were mapped. The maps were aligned by co-dominant or doubly heterozygous dominant anchor markers. Twelve pairs of homologous linkage groups could be integrated into consensus linkage groups. Resistance phenotypes and segregating characteristics were scored as quantitative traits in three or four growing seasons. Interval mapping reproducibly localized genetic factors that correlated with fungal disease resistances to specific regions on three linkage groups of the maternal 'Regent' map. A QTL for resistance to Uncinula necator was identified on linkage group 16, and QTLs for endurance to Plasmopara viticola on linkage groups 9 and 10 of 'Regent'. Additional QTLs for the onset of berry ripening ("veraison"), berry size and axillary shoot growth were identified. Berry color segregated as a simple trait in this cross of two red varieties and was mapped as a morphological marker. Six markers derived from functional genes could be localized. This dissection of polygenic fungus disease resistance in grapevine allows the development of

  17. A wound- and systemin-inducible polygalacturonase in tomato leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Daniel R.; Orozco-Cardenas, Martha; de Moura, Daniel S.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1999-01-01

    Oligogalacturonide fragments that activate defensive genes in plant leaves heretofore have been thought to be generated only by pathogen-derived pectin-degrading enzymes, because polygalacturonase (PG) activity has not been reported in leaves. Here, we report that mRNAs encoding a PG catalytic subunit protein and its regulatory (β-subunit) protein are expressed in tomato leaves in response to wounding, systemin, and oligosaccharide elicitors. Synthesis of the two subunits in response to wounding is systemic and is accompanied by an increase in PG activity in extracts from both wounded and unwounded leaves. The finding that PG subunit mRNAs and PG enzyme activity are induced by wounding indicates that herbivore attacks can produce endogenous oligogalacturonide elicitors that may be involved in the local and systemic activation of defense responses against both herbivores and pathogens. PMID:9990097

  18. The role of vacuolar processing enzymes in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2010-12-01

    Proteases play important roles in plant innate immunity. In this mini-review, we describe the current view on the role of a plant protease, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), and the first identified plant caspase-1-like protein, in plant immunity. In the past several years, VPEs were determined to play important roles in various types of cell death in plants. Early studies demonstrated the identification of VPE as a vacuolar hydrolytic protein responsible for maturation of vacuolar proteins. Later, Nicotiana benthamiana VPE was reported to mediate virus-induced hypersensitive response by regulating membrane collapse. The ortholog of VPE in Arabidopsis is also suggested to be involved in both mycotoxin-induced cell death and developmental cell death. However, the role of VPE in elicitor-signaling is still unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated the involvement of VPE in elicitor signal transduction to induce stomatal closure and defense responses, including defense gene expression and hypersensitive cell death.

  19. Insect regurgitant and wounding elicit similar defense responses in poplar leaves: not something to spit at?

    PubMed

    Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-01-01

    How plants perceive insect attacks is an area of active research. Numerous studies have shown that regurgitant from feeding insects elicits a defense response in plants, which is often assumed to be distinct from a wound response. We have characterized the inducible defense response in hybrid poplar and found it to be qualitatively similar between wounding and application of regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar. We suggest that this is likely attributable to our wounding treatment which is much more intense compared to most other studies. These overlapping responses appear to be activated via jasmonic acid signaling, and we speculate that they are both triggered by elicitors of plant origin. Wounding would release such elicitor molecules when leaf cells are disrupted, and regurgitant may contain them in a modified or processed form. This hypothesis could explain why some other necrosis-inducing stresses also induce herbivore defense genes.

  20. Analysis of expression pathways alterations of Arabidopsis thaliana induced by a Necrosis- and Ethylene-inducing protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigaglia, Marialva; Castro, Mauro A. A.; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Pereira, Gonçalo A. G.; Mombach, José C. M.

    2009-10-01

    A major goal in post-genomic biology is the description of physiological functions in terms of gene pathway behavior. In this work, we present the first investigation of expression alterations in ninety-three pathways representing physiological functions of the plant A. thaliana induced by a P. parasitica elicitor (NLPpp) using microarray data publicly available at the AtGenExpress database. Using a novel statistical analysis developed to detect pathway alterations, we identified the gene pathways, hereby called groups of functionally associated genes (defined according to the TAIR/Gene Ontology and other databases), that are significantly altered in response to the elicitor. Instead of looking at individual gene responses, our analysis allowed a detailed characterization of the time ordering of pathways alterations in response to the NLPpp, their physiological implications and specificity. We also observed the activation of genes associated with vesicle trafficking and ROS production implying the initiation of the senescence of the wounded plant tissue.

  1. Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR

    PubMed Central

    Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin derivative, behaves like a general elicitor, inducing a non-host resistance and priming a systemic acquired immunity. The defence responses elicited by chitosan include rising of cytosolic H+ and Ca2+, activation of MAP-kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response (HR), synthesis of abscissic acid (ABA), jasmonate, phytoalexins and pathogenesis related (PR) proteins. Putative receptors for chitosan are a chitosan-binding protein, recently isolated, and possibly the chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP). Nevertheless, it must be pointed out that biological activity of chitosan, besides the plant model, strictly depends on its physicochemical properties (deacetylation degree, molecular weight and viscosity), and that there is a threshold for chitosan concentration able to switch the induction of a cell death programme into necrotic cell death (cytotoxicity). PMID:19704712

  2. Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin derivative, behaves like a general elicitor, inducing a non-host resistance and priming a systemic acquired immunity. The defence responses elicited by chitosan include rising of cytosolic H(+) and Ca(2+), activation of MAP-kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response (HR), synthesis of abscissic acid (ABA), jasmonate, phytoalexins and pathogenesis related (PR) proteins. Putative receptors for chitosan are a chitosan-binding protein, recently isolated, and possibly the chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP). Nevertheless, it must be pointed out that biological activity of chitosan, besides the plant model, strictly depends on its physicochemical properties (deacetylation degree, molecular weight and viscosity), and that there is a threshold for chitosan concentration able to switch the induction of a cell death programme into necrotic cell death (cytotoxicity).

  3. The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FLS2 binds flg22 and determines the specificity of flagellin perception.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Delphine; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Regenass, Martin; Boller, Thomas; Felix, Georg

    2006-02-01

    Flagellin, the main building block of the bacterial flagellum, acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern triggering the innate immune response in animals and plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Leu-rich repeat transmembrane receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE2 (FLS2) is essential for flagellin perception. Here, we demonstrate the specific interaction of the elicitor-active epitope flg22 with the FLS2 protein by chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation. The functionality of this receptor was further tested by heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis FLS2 gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells. The perception of flg22 in tomato differs characteristically from that in Arabidopsis. Expression of Arabidopsis FLS2 conferred an additional flg22-perception system on the cells of tomato, which showed all of the properties characteristic of the perception of this elicitor in Arabidopsis. In summary, these results show that FLS2 constitutes the pattern-recognition receptor that determines the specificity of flagellin perception.