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Sample records for plastic injection molding

  1. Manufacturing plastic injection optical molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, David

    2008-08-01

    ABCO Tool & Die, Inc. is a mold manufacturer specializing in the manufacturing of plastic injection molds for molded optical parts. The purpose of this presentation is to explain the concepts and procedures required to build a mold that produces precision optical parts. Optical molds can produce a variety of molded parts ranging from safety eyewear to sophisticated military lens parts, which must meet precise optical specifications. The manufacturing of these molds begins with the design engineering of precision optical components. The mold design and the related optical inserts are determined based upon the specific optical criteria and optical surface geometry. The mold manufacturing techniques will be based upon the optical surface geometry requirements and specific details. Manufacturing processes used will be specific to prescribed geometrical surface requirements of the molded part. The combined efforts result in a robust optical mold which can produce molded parts that meet the most precise optical specifications.

  2. Effects of process parameters in plastic, metal, and ceramic injection molding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shi W.; Ahn, Seokyoung; Whang, Chul Jin; Park, Seong Jin; Atre, Sundar V.; Kim, Jookwon; German, Randall M.

    2011-09-01

    Plastic injection molding has been widely used in the past and is a dominant forming approach today. As the customer demands require materials with better engineering properties that were not feasible with polymers, powder injection molding with metal and ceramic powders has received considerable attention in recent decades. To better understand the differences in the plastic injection molding, metal injection molding, and ceramic injection molding, the effects of the core process parameters on the process performances has been studied using the state-of-the-art computer-aided engineering (CAE) design tool, PIMSolver® The design of experiments has been conducted using the Taguchi method to obtain the relative contributions of various process parameters onto the successful operations.

  3. Design and Checking Analysis of Injection Mold for a Plastic Cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuebing

    2018-03-01

    A special injection mold was designed for the structural characteristics of a plastic cup part. The mold was simulated by Moldflow software and verified by calculating the stripping force, the pulling force and the clamping force of the mold so that to determine the appropriate injection parameters. It has been proved that the injection mold is effective and practical in the actual producing and can meet the quality requirements during the course of using it, which solved some problems for injection molding of this kind of parts and can provide some reference for the production of other products in the same industry.

  4. Applications of nanocomposites and woodfiber plastics for microcellular injection molding

    Treesearch

    Lih-Sheng Turng; Mingjun Yuan; Hrishikesh Kharbas; Herman Winata; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews the processing advantages and challenges of microcellular injection molding and presents recent research results on applications of nanocomposites and woodfiber-plastic composites as well as new process develop for the microcellular injection molding process. In particular, two types of polyamide (PA-6) neat resins and their filled counterparts, such...

  5. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  6. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  7. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  8. A feasible injection molding technique for the manufacturing of large diameter aspheric plastic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Wang, Luke K.; Ke, Shih-Ying

    2010-07-01

    A computer aided engineering (CAE) tool-assisted technique, using Moldex3D and aspheric analysis utility (AAU) software in a polycarbonate injection molding design, is proposed to manufacture large diameter aspheric plastic lenses. An experiment is conducted to verify the applicability/feasibility of the proposed technique. Using the preceding two software tools, these crucial process parameters associated with the surface profile errors and birefringence of a molded lens can be attainable. The strategy adopted here is to use the actual quantity of shrinkage after an injection molding trial of an aspherical plastic lens as a reference to perform the core shaping job while keeping the coefficients of aspheric surface, radius, and conic constant unchanged. The design philosophy is characterized by using the CAE tool as a guideline to pursue the best symmetry condition, followed by injection molding trials, to accelerate a product’s developmental time. The advantages are less design complexity and shorter developmental time for a product.

  9. Intelligent methods for the process parameter determination of plastic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huang; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Xundao; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely used material processing methods in producing plastic products with complex geometries and high precision. The determination of process parameters is important in obtaining qualified products and maintaining product quality. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of the intelligent methods applied in the process parameter determination of injection molding. These intelligent methods are classified into three categories: Case-based reasoning methods, expert system- based methods, and data fitting and optimization methods. A framework of process parameter determination is proposed after comprehensive discussions. Finally, the conclusions and future research topics are discussed.

  10. 3D Fiber Orientation Simulation for Plastic Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Baojiu; Jin, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Rong; Costa, Franco S.; Fan, Zhiliang

    2004-06-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in the products made using injection molding processing. The distribution of fiber orientation inside plastic parts has direct effects on quality of molded parts. Using computer simulation to predict fiber orientation distribution is one of most efficient ways to assist engineers to do warpage analysis and to find a good design solution to produce high quality plastic parts. Fiber orientation simulation software based on 2-1/2D (midplane /Dual domain mesh) techniques has been used in industry for a decade. However, the 2-1/2D technique is based on the planar Hele-Shaw approximation and it is not suitable when the geometry has complex three-dimensional features which cannot be well approximated by 2D shells. Recently, a full 3D simulation software for fiber orientation has been developed and integrated into Moldflow Plastics Insight 3D simulation software. The theory for this new 3D fiber orientation calculation module is described in this paper. Several examples are also presented to show the benefit in using 3D fiber orientation simulation.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for plastic injection-compression molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Yu, Wenjie; Liang, Junjie; Lang, Jianlin; Li, Dequn

    2018-03-01

    Compared with conventional injection molding, injection-compression molding can mold optical parts with higher precision and lower flow residual stress. However, the melt flow process in a closed cavity becomes more complex because of the moving cavity boundary during compression and the nonlinear problems caused by non-Newtonian polymer melt. In this study, a 3D simulation method was developed for injection-compression molding. In this method, arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian was introduced to model the moving-boundary flow problem in the compression stage. The non-Newtonian characteristics and compressibility of the polymer melt were considered. The melt flow and pressure distribution in the cavity were investigated by using the proposed simulation method and compared with those of injection molding. Results reveal that the fountain flow effect becomes significant when the cavity thickness increases during compression. The back flow also plays an important role in the flow pattern and redistribution of cavity pressure. The discrepancy in pressures at different points along the flow path is complicated rather than monotonically decreased in injection molding.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Process Parameters for Evaluating Shrinkage Problems During Plastic Injection Molding of a DVD-ROM Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öktem, H.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic injection molding plays a key role in the production of high-quality plastic parts. Shrinkage is one of the most significant problems of a plastic part in terms of quality in the plastic injection molding. This article focuses on the study of the modeling and analysis of the effects of process parameters on the shrinkage by evaluating the quality of the plastic part of a DVD-ROM cover made with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) polymer material. An effective regression model was developed to determine the mathematical relationship between the process parameters (mold temperature, melt temperature, injection pressure, injection time, and cooling time) and the volumetric shrinkage by utilizing the analysis data. Finite element (FE) analyses designed by Taguchi (L27) orthogonal arrays were run in the Moldflow simulation program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then performed to check the adequacy of the regression model and to determine the effect of the process parameters on the shrinkage. Experiments were conducted to control the accuracy of the regression model with the FE analyses obtained from Moldflow. The results show that the regression model agrees very well with the FE analyses and the experiments. From this, it can be concluded that this study succeeded in modeling the shrinkage problem in our application.

  13. Digital Twin concept for smart injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liau, Y.; Lee, H.; Ryu, K.

    2018-03-01

    Injection molding industry has evolved over decades and became the most common method to manufacture plastic parts. Monitoring and improvement in the injection molding industry are usually performed separately in each stage, i.e. mold design, mold making and injection molding process. However, in order to make a breakthrough and survive in the industrial revolution, all the stages in injection molding need to be linked and communicated with each other. Any changes in one stage will cause a certain effect in other stage because there is a correlation between each other. Hence, the simulation should not only based on the input of historical data, but it also needs to include the current condition of equipment and prediction of future events in other stages to make the responsive decision. This can be achieved by implementing the concept of Digital Twin that models the entire process as a virtual model and enables bidirectional control with the physical process. This paper presented types of data and technology required to build the Digital Twin for the injection molding industry. The concept includes Digital Twin of each stage and integration of these Digital Twin model as a thoroughgoing model of the injection molding industry.

  14. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offersmore » an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.« less

  15. High-performance genetic analysis on microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis plastic chips fabricated by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fuquan; Tabata, Osamu; Kurokawa, Masaya; Ewis, Ashraf A; Zhang, Lihua; Yamaoka, Yoshihisa; Shinohara, Shouji; Shinohara, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a novel technique for mass production of microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (mu-CAE) plastic chips for high-speed, high-throughput genetic analysis. The mu-CAE chips, containing 10 individual separation channels of 50-microm width, 50-microm depth, and a 100-microm lane-to-lane spacing at the detection region and a sacrificial channel network, were fabricated on a poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate by injection molding and then bonded manually using a pressure-sensitive sealing tape within several seconds at room temperature. The conditions for injection molding and bonding were carefully characterized to yield mu-CAE chips with well-defined channel and injection structures. A CCD camera equipped with an image intensifier was used to monitor simultaneously the separation in a 10-channel array with laser-induced fluorescence detection. High-performance electrophoretic separations of phiX174 HaeIII DNA restriction fragments and PCR products related to the human beta-globin gene and SP-B gene (the surfactant protein B) have been demonstrated on mu-CAE plastic chips using a methylcellulose sieving matrix in individual channels. The current work demonstrated greatly simplified the fabrication process as well as a detection scheme for mu-CAE chips and will bring the low-cost mass production and application of mu-CAE plastic chips for genetic analysis.

  16. Particle Image Velocimetry During Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bress, Thomas; Dowling, David

    2012-11-01

    Injection molding involves the unsteady non-isothermal flow of a non-Newtonian polymer melt. An optical-access mold has been used to perform particle image velocimetry (PIV) on molten polystyrene during injection molding. Velocimetry data of the mold-filling flow will be presented. Statistical assessments of the velocimetry data and scaled residuals of the continuity equation suggest that PIV can be conducted in molten plastics with an uncertainty of +/-2 percent. Simulations are often used to model polymer flow during injection molding to design molds and select processing parameters but it is difficult to determine the accuracy of these simulations due to a lack of in-mold velocimetry and melt-front progression data. Moldflow was used to simulate the filling of the optical-access mold, and these simulated results are compared to the appropriately-averaged time-varying velocity field measurements. Simulated results for melt-front progression are also compared with the experimentally observed flow fronts. The ratio of the experimentally measured average velocity magnitudes to the simulation magnitudes was found on average to be 0.99 with a standard deviation of 0.25, and the difference in velocity orientations was found to be 0.9 degree with a standard deviation of 3.2 degrees. formerly at the University of Michigan.

  17. [Determination of acrylonitrile in injection molding process: data analysis and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Zhong, X P; Chen, Z R; Zhu, Z L

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate whether the identification of acrylonitrile, an occupational hazard factor for the industry of injection molding and plastic products, reported in literature is reasonable, and to put forward some recommendations. Methods: Professional articles published from 1990 to 2016 were searched, and an analysis was performed for the data on the determination of acrylonitrile in the industry of injection molding and plastic products from 2003 to 2016 in Longhua Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Shenzhen. Results: According to the literature, the detection rate of acrylonitrile was 10.7%, and the detection results did not exceed the limit. Conclusion: At present, acrylonitrile may not be used as a routine test item for the industry of injection molding and plastic products, in order to save manpower and material resources.

  18. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  19. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has beenmore » implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.« less

  20. Color measurement of plastics - From compounding via pelletizing, up to injection molding and extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botos, J.; Murail, N.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Ulmer, B.; Zentgraf, T.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    The typical offline color measurement on injection molded or pressed specimens is a very expensive and time-consuming process. In order to optimize the productivity and quality, it is desirable to measure the color already during the production. Therefore several systems have been developed to monitor the color e.g. on melts, strands, pellets, the extrudate or injection molded part already during the process. Different kinds of inline, online and atline methods with their respective advantages and disadvantages will be compared. The criteria are e.g. the testing time, which ranges from real-time to some minutes, the required calibration procedure, the spectral resolution and the final measuring precision. The latter ranges between 0.05 to 0.5 in the CIE L*a*b* system depending on the particular measurement system. Due to the high temperatures in typical plastics processes thermochromism of polymers and dyes has to be taken into account. This effect can influence the color value in the magnitude of some 10% and is barely understood so far. Different suitable methods to compensate thermochromic effects during compounding or injection molding by using calibration curves or artificial neural networks are presented. Furthermore it is even possible to control the color during extrusion and compounding almost in real-time. The goal is a specific developed software for adjusting the color recipe automatically with the final objective of a closed-loop control.

  1. An in-mold packaging process for plastic fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Y E; Lee, K H; Je, T J; Choi, D S; Kim, S K

    2011-01-01

    Micro or nanofluidic devices have many channel shapes to deliver chemical solutions, body fluids or any fluids. The channels in these devices should be covered to prevent the fluids from overflowing or leaking. A typical method to fabricate an enclosed channel is to bond or weld a cover plate to a channel plate. This solid-to-solid bonding process, however, takes a considerable amount of time for mass production. In this study, a new process for molding a cover layer that can enclose open micro or nanochannels without solid-to-solid bonding is proposed and its feasibility is estimated. First, based on the design of a model microchannel, a brass microchannel master core was machined and a plastic microchannel platform was injection-molded. Using this molded platform, a series of experiments was performed for four process or mold design parameters. Some feasible conditions were successfully found to enclosed channels without filling the microchannels for the injection molding of a cover layer over the plastic microchannel platform. In addition, the bond strength and seal performance were estimated in a comparison with those done by conventional bonding or welding processes.

  2. Occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in a plastic injection molding factory in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Wided; Thannimalay, Letchumi; Soon, Chen Sau; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia. Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis. Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p < 0.01). Our findings provide the first evidence that workers in a molding factory in Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. FPGA-based multiprocessor system for injection molding control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P; Osornio-Rios, Roque A

    2012-10-18

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  4. Investigation of injection molding of orthogonal fluidic connector for microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Cao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Song, Man-cang; Liu, Jun-shan

    2017-02-01

    Orthogonal fluidic connections are essential for developing multilayered microfluidic devices. At present, most orthogonal connectors are realized by a horizontal channel and a vertical channel in different plates. Therefore, some extra alignment and adhesion processes for precise plate assembly are required. In this paper, the method of injection molding is proposed to make a one-body-type orthogonal connector in a single plastic plate. The connector was composed of a cantilevered tube and the other in the substrate. An injection mold was developed in which a side core-pulling mechanism and an ejection mechanism of push-pipes were combined to form the mold for an orthogonal connector. Both the type and the location of gate were optimized for the mold. The results showed that the fan gate in the middle position of the plate was the most suitable in term of both defect control and practicability. The effect of melt temperature was numerically investigated and then verified experimentally. With the optimized parameters, the relative length and the relative wall thickness of a cantilevered tube in the plastic part can reach 98.89% and 99.80%, respectively. Furthermore, using the plastic part as a cover plate, a three-layer plastic microfluidic device was conveniently fabricated for electrochemical detection.

  5. Injection molded plastic helical gear filled with carbon powder made from rice hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen Chu; Itagaki, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Mikio

    2017-07-01

    Natural materials are focused on the ecological responsibility, all over the world. The rice-hull contains natural silica about 20 wt.%. Therefore, a carbonized rice-hull; Rice-Hull-Silica-Carbon (RHSC) is focused as effective utilization of the discarded rice hull. In this study, test plastic helical gears were made form polyacetal copolymer filled with RHSC powder by injection molding. Test helical gears were operated on endurance test. The bulk temperature and noise of test gears were measured during gears operation. Then, the tooth damage of test gears were investigated by using optical microscope. It is clarified that difference of tooth damage by kind of test gears. Moreover, the transition of gear bulk temperature and noise during operation are investigated. Based on these results, the effect of RHSC powder is discussed. From the discussions, it seems reasonable to conclude : (1) The heat resistance of plastic gear is improved by adding the RHSC powder. (2) The fatigue life of plastic gear is improved by adding suitable amount of the RHSC powder. (3) The sound pressure level of plastic gear is reduced by adding the smaller median grain diameter of RHSC powder.

  6. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Barron, Benigno; Morales-Velazquez, Luis; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Benitez-Rangel, Juan P.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.

    2012-01-01

    The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected. PMID:23202036

  7. Innovative use of wood-plastic-composites (WPC) as a core material in the sandwich injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Martin, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The demand for materials based on renewable raw materials has risen steadily in recent years. With society's increasing interest for climate protection and sustainability, natural-based materials such as wood-plastic-composites (WPC) have gained market share thanks to their positive reputation. Due to advantages over unreinforced plastics such as cost reduction and weight savings it is possible to use WPC in a wide area of application. Additionally, an increase in mechanical properties such as rigidity and strength is achieved by the fibers compared to unreinforced polymers. The combination of plastic and wood combines the positive properties of both components in an innovative material. Despite the many positive properties of wood-plastic-composite, there are also negative characteristics that prevent the use of WPC in many product areas, such as automotive interiors. In particular, increased water intake, which may result in swelling of near-surface particles, increased odor emissions, poor surface textures and distortion of the components are unacceptable for many applications. The sandwich injection molding process can improve this situation by eliminating the negative properties of WPC by enclosing it with a pure polymer. In this case, a layered structure of skin and core material is produced, wherein the core component is completely enclosed by the skin component. The suitability of WPC as the core component in the sandwich injection molding has not yet been investigated. In this study the possibilities and limitations of the use of WPC are presented. The consideration of different fiber types, fiber contents, skin materials and its effect on the filling behavior are the focus of the presented analysis.

  8. Castable plastic mold with electroplatable base

    DOEpatents

    Domeier, Linda A.; Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela G.; Keifer, Patrick M.

    2004-01-20

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided as are methods of making such a mold via the infusion of a castable liquid formulation through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale master mold. Upon casting and demolding, the porous metal substrate is embedded within the cast formulation and projects a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. The plastic structure provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate, which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved, leaving the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  9. Influence of melt mixer on injection molding of thermoset elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, Arif; Zahra, Keith

    2016-10-01

    One of the drawbacks in injection molding is that the plasticizing screw is short such that polymers having high concentrations of additives, such as thermoset elastomers, might not mix homogeneously within the short period of time during the plasticizing stage. In this study, various melt mixers inside the nozzle chamber, together forming a mixing nozzle, were developed. Three different materials were investigated, namely nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), ethylene propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM). The use of these melt mixers resulted in better homogeneity and properties of the molded parts despite a curing time reduction of 10 s. This was due to the increase in mixing and shearing introduced a higher rate of crosslinking formation in the molded parts.

  10. In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristen; Chidley, Matthew; Sung, Kung-Bin; Descour, Michael; Gillenwater, Ann; Follen, Michele; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2005-04-01

    For in vivo optical diagnostic technologies to be distributed to the developed and developing worlds, optical imaging systems must be constructed of inexpensive components. We present a fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with a cost-effective injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens for in vivo imaging of human tissues in near real time. The measured lateral resolution is less than 2.2 microm, and the measured axial resolution is 10 microm. Confocal images of ex vivo cervical tissue biopsies and in vivo human lip taken at 15 frames/s demonstrate the microscope's capability of imaging cell morphology and tissue architecture.

  11. Process influences and correction possibilities for high precision injection molded freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Modern injection molding processes offer a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high volume applications. Besides form deviation of molded freeform optics, internal material stress is a relevant influencing factor for the functionality of a freeform optics in an optical system. This paper illustrates dominant influence parameters of an injection molding process relating to form deviation and internal material stress based on a freeform demonstrator geometry. Furthermore, a deterministic and efficient way for 3D mold correcting of systematic, asymmetrical shrinkage errors is shown to reach micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm. In a second case, a stress-optimized parameter combination using unusual molding conditions was 3D corrected to reach high precision and low stress freeform polymer optics.

  12. Injection Molding and its application to drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2012-05-10

    Injection Molding (IM) consists in the injection, under high pressure conditions, of heat-induced softened materials into a mold cavity where they are shaped. The advantages the technique may offer in the development of drug products concern both production costs (no need for water or other solvents, continuous manufacturing, scalability, patentability) and technological/biopharmaceutical characteristics of the molded items (versatility of the design and composition, possibility of obtaining solid molecular dispersions/solutions of the active ingredient). In this article, process steps and formulation aspects relevant to IM are discussed, with emphasis on the issues and advantages connected with the transfer of this technique from the plastics industry to the production of conventional and controlled-release dosage forms. Moreover, its pharmaceutical applications thus far proposed in the primary literature, intended as either alternative manufacturing strategies for existing products or innovative systems with improved design and performance characteristics, are critically reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sacrificial plastic mold with electroplatable base

    DOEpatents

    Domeier, Linda A.; Hruby, Jill M.; Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided. One embodiment consists of the infusion of a softened or molten thermoplastic through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale molding tool contacting the porous metal substrate. Upon demolding, the porous metal substrate will be embedded within the thermoplastic and will project a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. This plastic structure, in turn, provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved to leave the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  14. Sacrificial Plastic Mold With Electroplatable Base

    DOEpatents

    Domeier, Linda A.; Hruby, Jill M.; Morales, Alfredo M.

    2005-08-16

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided. One embodiment consists of the infusion of a softened or molten thermoplastic through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale molding tool contacting the porous metal substrate. Upon demolding, the porous metal substrate will be embedded within the thermoplastic and will project a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. This plastic structure, in turn, provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved to leave the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  15. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  16. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (<0.5 mm thickness) with lower pressures by promoting wall slip. The second application consists of a new approach to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of

  17. CAE for Injection Molding — Past, Present and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo K.

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that injection molding is the most effective process for mass-producing discrete plastic parts of complex shape to the highest precision at the lowest cost. However, due to the complex property of polymeric materials undergoing a transient non-isothermal process, it is equally well recognized that the quality of final products is often difficult to be assured. This is particularly true when a new mold or material is encountered. As a result, injection molding has often been viewed as an art than a science. During the past few decades, numerical simulation of injection molding process based on analytic models has become feasible for practical use as computers became faster and cheaper continually. A research effort was initiated at the Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) in 1974 under a grant from the National Science Foundation. Over a quarter of the century, CIMP has established some scientific bases ranging from materials characterization, flow analysis, to prediction of part quality. Use of such CAE tools has become common place today in industry. Present effort has been primarily aimed at refinements of many aspects of the process. Computational efficiency and user-interface have been main thrusts by commercial software developers. Extension to 3-dimensional flow analysis for certain parts has drawn some attention. Research activities are continuing on molding of fiber-filled materials and reactive polymers. Expanded molding processes such as gas-assisted, co-injection, micro-molding and many others are continually being investigated. In the future, improvements in simulation accuracy and efficiency will continue. This will include in-depth studies on materials characterization. Intelligent on-line process control may draw more attention in order to achieve higher degree of automation. As Internet technology continues to evolve, Web-based CAE tools for design, production, remote process monitoring and control can come to path. The CAE

  18. Computer-aided injection molding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. K.; Shen, S. F.; Cohen, C.; Hieber, C. A.; Isayev, A. I.

    1982-10-01

    Achievements are reported in cavity-filling simulation, modeling viscoelastic effects, measuring and predicting frozen-in birefringence in molded parts, measuring residual stresses and associated mechanical properties of molded parts, and developing an interactive mold-assembly design program and an automatic NC maching data generation and verification program. The Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) consortium is discussed as are computer user manuals that have been published by the consortium. Major tasks which should be addressed in future efforts are listed, including: (1) predict and experimentally determine the post-fillin behavior of thermoplastics; (2) simulate and experimentally investigate the injection molding of thermosets and filled materials; and (3) further investigate residual stresses, orientation and mechanical properties.

  19. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  20. Study on In-mold Punching during PPS/GF Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inuzuka, Takayuki; Fujita, Akihiro; Nakai, Asami; Hamada, Hiroyuki

    The influence of the punching condition on strength and the amount of shear droop was investigated to optimize the processing condition for punching in the mold during glass fiber reinforced polyphenylenesulfide (PPS/GF) injection molding. For in-mold punching part during cooling process, the tensile strength was constant because the pressure loss by the punch did not occur. The amount of the shear droop decreased in line with the increase in delay time because the rigidity of injection molded part in the mold increased when the resin was cooled. Moreover, when the resin temperature lowered more than the glass transition temperature, the amount of the shear droop was constant because the rigidity became constant. It is necessary to begin punching when the resin temperature lowers more than the glass transition temperature after holding pressure process is completed, to secure high strength and to assume 0.05 mm or less, at which level the shear droop cannot be visually recognized. The shortest delay time for PPS/GF is 8 sec. The delay time to minimize the amount of the shear droop can be guessed by analyzing the temperature change of the resin in the mold by injection molding CAE.

  1. Production and evaluation of measuring equipment for share viscosity of polymer melts included nanofiller with injection molding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Takao; Sugino, Naoto; Takei, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Shear viscosity measurement device was produced to evaluate the injection molding workability for high-performance resins. Observation was possible in shear rate from 10 to 10000 [1/sec] that were higher than rotary rheometer by measuring with a plasticization cylinder of the injection molding machine. The result of measurements extrapolated result of a measurement of the rotary rheometer.

  2. Adaptive temporal refinement in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyofylli, Violeta; Schmitz, Mauritius; Hopmann, Christian; Behr, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Mold filling is an injection molding stage of great significance, because many defects of the plastic components (e.g. weld lines, burrs or insufficient filling) can occur during this process step. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the quality of the produced parts. Our goal is the temporal refinement in the vicinity of the evolving melt front, in the context of 4D simplex-type space-time grids [1, 2]. This novel discretization method has an inherent flexibility to employ completely unstructured meshes with varying levels of resolution both in spatial dimensions and in the time dimension, thus allowing the use of local time-stepping during the simulations. This can lead to a higher simulation precision, while preserving calculation efficiency. A 3D benchmark case, which concerns the filling of a plate-shaped geometry, is used for verifying our numerical approach [3]. The simulation results obtained with the fully unstructured space-time discretization are compared to those obtained with the standard space-time method and to Moldflow simulation results. This example also serves for providing reliable timing measurements and the efficiency aspects of the filling simulation of complex 3D molds while applying adaptive temporal refinement.

  3. Fabrication of Composite Material Using Gettou Fiber by Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setsuda, Roy; Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of composite using gettou (shell ginger) fiber as reinforcement fabricated from injection molding. Gettou fiber is a natural fiber made from gettou, a subtropical plant that is largely abundant in Okinawa, Japan. We used the stem part of gettou plant and made the gettou fiber by crushing the stem. The composite using gettou fiber contributed to low shrinkage ratio, high bending strength and high flexural modulus. The mechanical strength of composite using long gettou fiber showed higher value than composite using short gettou fiber. Next, because gettou is particularly known for its anti-mold characteristic, we investigated the characteristic in gettou plastic composite. The composite was tested against two molds: aspergillius niger and penicillium funiculosum. The 60% gettou fiber plastic composite was found to satisfy the JISZ2801 criterion. Finally, in order to predict the flexural modulus of composite using gettou fiber by Halpin-Tsai equation, the tensile elastic modulus of single gettou fiber was measured. The tendency of the experimental results of composite using gettou fiber was in good agreement with Halpin-Tsai equation.

  4. Determination of injection molding process windows for optical lenses using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Ming; Wang, He-Yi

    2014-08-20

    This study focuses on injection molding process window determination for obtaining optimal imaging optical properties, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration using plastic lenses. The Taguchi experimental method was first used to identify the optimized combination of parameters and significant factors affecting the imaging optical properties of the lens. Full factorial experiments were then implemented based on the significant factors to build the response surface models. The injection molding process windows for lenses with optimized optical properties were determined based on the surface models, and confirmation experiments were performed to verify their validity. The results indicated that the significant factors affecting the optical properties of lenses are mold temperature, melt temperature, and cooling time. According to experimental data for the significant factors, the oblique ovals for different optical properties on the injection molding process windows based on melt temperature and cooling time can be obtained using the curve fitting approach. The confirmation experiments revealed that the average errors for astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration are 3.44%, 5.62%, and 5.69%, respectively. The results indicated that the process windows proposed are highly reliable.

  5. Molding apparatus. [for thermosetting plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus for compression molding of thermosetting plastics compositions including interfitting hollow male and female components is reported. The components are adapted to be compressed to form a rocket nozzle in a cavity. A thermal jacket is provided exteriorly adjacent to the female component for circulating a thermal transfer fluid to effect curing of a thermosetting plastics material being molded. Each of the male and female components is provided with suitable inlets and outlets for circulating a thermal transfer fluid.

  6. In-line polariscopic checking of plastic molded-injected lenses: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, J.; Mayershofer, D.; Romero, J.

    2015-05-01

    Plastic injection molded lenses have improved its performance and, nowadays, are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, the manufacturing process induces the surface generation and the material transformation in the same stage. Moreover, the process also includes an annealing stage to remove the internal stress with temperature cycles but only works up to a certain level and not beyond, leaving relevant traces for high values. During the manufacturing process of a plastic lens, a liquid-solid phase transformation occurs, and in this transition not all the volume of the lens achieves the same density. This change of density is translated into a local change of refractive index that can be expressed as a retardation phase plane using the Jones Matrix notation. The detection and measurement of the value of the retardation of the phase plane is thus the clue to manufacture good and controlled quality plastic lenses. We have tested an in-line polariscopic arrangement to obtain a 2D map of the tension distribution in the bulk of the lens. This test is performed in the first 30 seconds after the injection molding process for two main reasons: first the stress values are still high because the lenses do not have enough time to relax the internal tensions and obtain the final shape, and second, we can remove the wrong lenses in the first moments and introduce only the good lenses in the annealing stage. The proposed instrument is based in a transmission polariscopic arrangement. A collimated light beam is used to illuminate the sample, once the light crosses the sample, it is collected with an afocal system and the image is recorded in a CMOS sensor. Selecting an afocal system to capture the image is a useful decision because the lateral magnification can be maintained when small changes in the sample position are introduced. However the produced lenses can vary their focal lengths from on series to another. To avoid problems with the change of the

  7. Predicting shrinkage and warpage in injection molding: Towards automatized mold design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicke, Florian; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2017-10-01

    It is an inevitable part of any plastics molding process that the material undergoes some shrinkage during solidification. Mainly due to unavoidable inhomogeneities in the cooling process, the overall shrinkage cannot be assumed as homogeneous in all volumetric directions. The direct consequence is warpage. The accurate prediction of such shrinkage and warpage effects has been the subject of a considerable amount of research, but it is important to note that this behavior depends greatly on the type of material that is used as well as the process details. Without limiting ourselves to any specific properties of certain materials or process designs, we aim to develop a method for the automatized design of a mold cavity that will produce correctly shaped moldings after solidification. Essentially, this can be stated as a shape optimization problem, where the cavity shape is optimized to fulfill some objective function that measures defects in the molding shape. In order to be able to develop and evaluate such a method, we first require simulation methods for the diffierent steps involved in the injection molding process that can represent the phenomena responsible for shrinkage and warpage ina sufficiently accurate manner. As a starting point, we consider the solidification of purely amorphous materials. In this case, the material slowly transitions from fluid-like to solid-like behavior as it cools down. This behavior is modeled using adjusted viscoelastic material models. Once the material has passed a certain temperature threshold during cooling, any viscous effects are neglected and the behavior is assumed to be fully elastic. Non-linear elastic laws are used to predict shrinkage and warpage that occur after this point. We will present the current state of these simulation methods and show some first approaches towards optimizing the mold cavity shape based on these methods.

  8. Using Direct Metal Deposition to Fabricate Mold Plates for an Injection Mold Machine Allowing for the Evaluation of Cost Effective Near-Sourcing Opportunities in Larger, High Volume Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Groh, Bill

    2014-10-31

    ORNL collaborated with Radio Systems Corporation to investigate additive manufacturing (AM) of mold plates for plastic injection molding by direct metal deposition. The team s modelling effort identified a 100% improvement in heat transfer through use of conformal cooling lines that could be built into the mold using a revolutionary design enabled by additive manufacturing. Using the newly installed laser deposition system at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) a stainless steel mold core was printed.

  9. The Influence of Injection Molding Parameter on Properties of Thermally Conductive Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizah Azis, N.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Sa'ude, Nasuha; Rafai, N.; Yusof, M. S.; Tobi, ALM; Sharif, ZM; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Ismail, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Thermally conductive plastic is the composite between metal-plastic material that is becoming popular because if it special characteristic. Injection moulding was regarded as the best process for mass manufacturing of the plastic composite due to its low production cost. The objective of this research is to find the best combination of the injection parameter setting and to find the most significant factor that effect the strength and thermal conductivity of the composite. Several parameter such as the volume percentage of copper powder, nozzle temperature and injection pressure of injection moulding machine were investigated. The analysis was done using Design Expert Software by implementing design of experiment method. From the analysis, the significant effects were determined and mathematical models of only significant effect were established. In order to ensure the validity of the model, confirmation run was done and percentage errors were calculated. It was found that the best combination parameter setting to maximize the value of tensile strength is volume percentage of copper powder of 3.00%, the nozzle temperature of 195°C and the injection pressure of 65%, and the best combination parameter settings to maximize the value of thermal conductivity is volume percentage of copper powder of 7.00%, the nozzle temperature of 195°C and the injection pressure of 65% as recommended..

  10. Study of injection molded microcellular polyamide-6 nanocomposites

    Treesearch

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt; Rick Spindler

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The microcellular nanocomposite processing was performed on an injection-molding machine equipped with a commercially available supercritical fluid (SCF) system. The molded samples produced based on the Design of Experiments (...

  11. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwangho; Heo, Youngmoo; Park, Hyungpil; Chang, Sungho; Rhee, Byungohk

    2013-12-12

    In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP) resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  12. Microcellular nanocomposite injection molding process

    Treesearch

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Rick Spindler; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical...

  13. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V

    2007-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  14. Injection molded polymer optics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beich, William S.

    2005-08-01

    Precision polymer optics, manufactured by injection molding techniques, has been a key enabling technology for several decades now. The technology, which can be thought of as a subset of the wider field of precision optics manufacturing, was pioneered in the United States by companies such as Eastman Kodak, US Precision Lens, and Polaroid. In addition to suppliers in the U.S. there are several companies worldwide that design and manufacture precision polymer optics, for example Philips High Tech Plastics in Europe and Fujinon in Japan. Designers who are considering using polymer optics need a fundamental understanding of exactly how the optics are created. This paper will survey the technology and processes that are employed in the successful implementation of a polymer optic solution from a manufacturer's perspective. Special emphasis will be paid to the unique relationship between the molds and the optics that they produce. We will discuss the key elements of production: molding resins, molds and molding equipment, and metrology. Finally we will offer a case study to illustrate just how the optics designer carries a design concept through to production. The underlying theme throughout the discussion of polymer optics is the need for the design team to work closely with an experienced polymer optics manufacturer with a solid track record of success in molded optics. As will be seen shortly, the complex interaction between thermoplastics, molds, and molding machines dictates the need for working closely with a supplier who has the critical knowledge needed to manage all aspects of the program.

  15. Fundamentals of rapid injection molding for microfluidic cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ulri N; Su, Xiaojing; Guckenberger, David J; Dostie, Ashley M; Zhang, Tianzi; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B

    2018-01-30

    Microscale cell-based assays have demonstrated unique capabilities in reproducing important cellular behaviors for diagnostics and basic biological research. As these assays move beyond the prototyping stage and into biological and clinical research environments, there is a need to produce microscale culture platforms more rapidly, cost-effectively, and reproducibly. 'Rapid' injection molding is poised to meet this need as it enables some of the benefits of traditional high volume injection molding at a fraction of the cost. However, rapid injection molding has limitations due to the material and methods used for mold fabrication. Here, we characterize advantages and limitations of rapid injection molding for microfluidic device fabrication through measurement of key features for cell culture applications including channel geometry, feature consistency, floor thickness, and surface polishing. We demonstrate phase contrast and fluorescence imaging of cells grown in rapid injection molded devices and provide design recommendations to successfully utilize rapid injection molding methods for microscale cell-based assay development in academic laboratory settings.

  16. Effects of mold geometry on fiber orientation of powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Aslam, Muhammad, E-mail: klaira73@gmail.com; Altaf, Khurram, E-mail: khurram.altaf@petronas.com.my

    2015-07-22

    Fiber orientations in metal matrix composites have significant effect on improving tensile properties. Control of fiber orientations in metal injection molded metal composites is a difficult task. In this study, two mold cavities of dimensions 6x6x90 mm and 10x20x180 mm were used for comparison of fiber orientation in injection molded metal composites test parts. In both mold cavities, convergent and divergent flows were developed by modifying the sprue dimensions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the fiber orientations within the test samples. The results showed highly aligned fiber in injection molded test bars developed from the convergent melt flow. Randommore » orientation of fibers was noted in the composites test bars produced from divergent melt flow.« less

  17. Failure strengths of denture teeth fabricated on injection molded or compression molded denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Robison, Nathan E; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Cagna, David R

    2016-08-01

    Denture tooth fracture or debonding remains a common problem in removable prosthodontics. The purpose of this in vitro study was to explore factors determining failure strengths for combinations of different denture tooth designs (shape, materials) and injection or compression molded denture base resins. Three central incisor denture tooth designs were tested: nanohybrid composite (NHC; Ivoclar Phonares II), interpenetrating network (IPN; Dentsply Portrait), and microfiller reinforced polyacrylic (MRP; VITA Physiodens). Denture teeth of each type were processed on an injection molded resin (IvoBase HI; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) or a compression molded resin (Lucitone 199; Dentsply Intl) (n=11 or 12). The denture teeth were loaded at 45 degrees on the incisal edge. The failure load was recorded and analyzed with 2-way ANOVA (α=.05), and the fracture mode was categorized from observed fracture surfaces as cohesive, adhesive, or mixed failure. The following failure loads (mean ±SD) were recorded: NHC/injection molded 280 ±52 N; IPN/injection molded 331 ±41 N; MRP/injection molded 247 ±23 N; NHC/compression molded 204 ±31 N; IPN/compression molded 184 ±17 N; MRP/compression molded 201 ±16 N. Injection molded resin yielded significantly higher failure strength for all denture teeth (P<.001), among which IPN had the highest strength. Failure was predominantly cohesive in the teeth, with the exception of mixed mode for the IPN/compression group. When good bonding was achieved, the strength of the structure (denture tooth/base resin combination) was determined by the strength of the denture teeth, which may be affected by the processing technique. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of medical devices using 3D printed molds for liquid injection molding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E; Liu, Jonathan A; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-06-27

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.

  19. Quality Control of Injection Molded Eyewear by Non-Contact Deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, A.; Zelzer, B.; Langenbucher, A.; Eppig, T.

    2014-07-01

    Occupational eye wear such as safety spectacles are manufactured by injection molding techniques. Testing of the assembled safety spectacle lenses in transmission is state of the art, but there is a lack of surface measurement systems for occupational safety lenses. The purpose of this work was to validate a deflectometric setup for topography measurement, detection of defects and visualization of the polishing quality, e.g. casting indentations or impressions, for the production process of safety spectacles. The setup is based on a customized stereo phase measuring deflectometer (PMD), equipped with 3 cameras with f'1,2 = 16 mm and f'3 = 8.5 mm and a specified measurement uncertainty of ± 3 μm. Sixteen plastic lenses and 8 corresponding injection molds from 4 parallel cavities were used for validation of the deflectometer. For comparison an interferometric method and a reference standard (< λ/10 super polished) was used. The accuracy and bias with a spherical safety spectacle sample was below 1 μm, according to DIN ISO 5725-2.2002-12. The repeatability was 2.1 μm and 35.7 μm for a blind radius fit. In conclusion, the PMD technique is an appropriate tool for characterizing occupational safety spectacle and injections mold surfaces. With the presented setup we were able to quantify the surface quality. This can be useful and may optimize the quality of the end product, in addition to standardized measuring systems in transmission.

  20. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding.

    PubMed

    German, Randall M

    2013-08-20

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM) that must be simultaneously satisfied-density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  1. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    German, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM) that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors. PMID:28811458

  2. Evacuated, displacement compression mold. [of tubular bodies from thermosetting plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of molding long thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described wherein the tubular body lengths may be several times the diameters. The process is accomplished by loading a predetermined quantity of molding compound into a female mold cavity closed at one end by a force mandrel. After closing the other end of the female mold with a balance mandrel, the loaded cavity is evacuated by applying a vacuum of from one-to-five mm pressure for a period of fifteen-to-thirty minutes. The mold temperature is raised to the minimum temperature at which the resin constituent of the compound will soften or plasticize and a pressure of 2500 psi is applied.

  3. Rapid control of mold temperature during injection molding process

    SciTech Connect

    Liparoti, Sara; Titomanlio, Giuseppe; Hunag, Tsang Min

    2015-05-22

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that determines surface morphology and its dimension in thickness direction. It can also affect the frozen molecular orientation and the mold surface replicability in injection molded products. In this work, thin thermally active films were used to quickly control the mold surface temperature. In particular, an active high electrical conductivity carbon black loaded polyimide composites sandwiched between two insulating thin polymeric layers was used to condition the mold surface. By controlling the heating time, it was possible to control precisely the temporal variation of the mold temperature surface during themore » entire cycle. The surface heating rate was about 40°C/s and upon contact with the polymer the surface temperature decreased back to 40°C within about 5 s; the overall cycle time increased only slightly. The effect on cross section sample morphology of samples of iPP were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the recorded temperature evolution.« less

  4. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Process

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwangho; Heo, Youngmoo; Park, Hyungpil; Chang, Sungho; Rhee, Byungohk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM) process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)) and polypropylene (PP) resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made. PMID:28788427

  5. Applying simulation to optimize plastic molded optical parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Matthew; Bakharev, Alexander; Costa, Franco; Friedl, Chris

    2012-10-01

    Optical injection molded parts are used in many different industries including electronics, consumer, medical and automotive due to their cost and performance advantages compared to alternative materials such as glass. The injection molding process, however, induces elastic (residual stress) and viscoelastic (flow orientation stress) deformation into the molded article which alters the material's refractive index to be anisotropic in different directions. Being able to predict and correct optical performance issues associated with birefringence early in the design phase is a huge competitive advantage. This paper reviews how to apply simulation analysis of the entire molding process to optimize manufacturability and part performance.

  6. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  7. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  8. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  9. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  10. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  11. Rheological study of copper and copper grapheme feedstock for powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaman, N. Emira Binti; Rafi Raza, M.; Muhamad, N.; Niaz Akhtar, M.; Bakar Sulong, A.

    2017-01-01

    Heatsink is one of the solution to optimize the performance of smart electronic devices. Copper and its composites are helping the electronic industry to solve the heating problem. Copper-graphene heat sink material with enhanced thermal conductivity is the ultimate goal.Powder injection molding (PIM) has advantages of high precision and production rate, complex shape, low cost and suitabality for metal and cremics.PIM consists of four sub sequential steps; feedstock preparation, molding, debinding and sintering. Feedstock preparation is a critical step in PIM process. Any deficiency at this stage cannot be recovered at latter stages. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the injectability of copper and copper graphene composite using PIM. PEG based multicomponent binder system was used and the powder loading was upto 7vol.% less than the critical powder loading was used to provide the wettability of the copper powder and graphene nanoplatelets (GNps). Corpper-graphene feedstock contained 0.5vol.% of GNps . To ensure the homogeneity of GNps within feedstock a unique technique was addopted. The microscopic results showed that the feedstock is homogeneous and ready for injection. The viscosity-shear rate relationship was determined and results showed that the addition of 0.5vol.% of GNps in copper has increased the viscosity upto 64.9% at 140˚C than that of pure copper feedstock. This attribute may be due to the large surface area of GNps. On the other hand, by increasing the temperature, viscosity of the feedstock was decreased, which was recommended for PIM. The overall viscosity and share rate lies within the range recommended for PIM process. It is clear that both feedstocks showed pseudo plastic behaviour which is suitable for PIM process. In the pseudo plastic behaviour, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate. It may be due to change in the structure of the solid particles or the binder. The molding results showed that both copper

  12. Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Ottoson, Paige E.; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications. PMID:24998993

  13. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-01-20

    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of sinterable silicon nitride by injection molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, C. L.; French, K.; Neil, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Transformation of structural ceramics from the laboratory to production requires development of near net shape fabrication techniques which minimize finish grinding. One potential technique for producing large quantities of complex-shaped parts at a low cost, and microstructure of sintered silicon nitride fabricated by injection molding is discussed and compared to data generated from isostatically dry-pressed material. Binder selection methodology, compounding of ceramic and binder components, injection molding techniques, and problems in binder removal are discussed. Strength, oxidation resistance, and microstructure of sintered silicon nitride fabricated by injection molding is discussed and compared to data generated from isostatically dry-pressed material.

  15. Optimization and Simulation of Plastic Injection Process using Genetic Algorithm and Moldflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martowibowo, Sigit Yoewono; Kaswadi, Agung

    2017-03-01

    The use of plastic-based products is continuously increasing. The increasing demands for thinner products, lower production costs, yet higher product quality has triggered an increase in the number of research projects on plastic molding processes. An important branch of such research is focused on mold cooling system. Conventional cooling systems are most widely used because they are easy to make by using conventional machining processes. However, the non-uniform cooling processes are considered as one of their weaknesses. Apart from the conventional systems, there are also conformal cooling systems that are designed for faster and more uniform plastic mold cooling. In this study, the conformal cooling system is applied for the production of bowl-shaped product made of PP AZ564. Optimization is conducted to initiate machine setup parameters, namely, the melting temperature, injection pressure, holding pressure and holding time. The genetic algorithm method and Moldflow were used to optimize the injection process parameters at a minimum cycle time. It is found that, an optimum injection molding processes could be obtained by setting the parameters to the following values: T M = 180 °C; P inj = 20 MPa; P hold = 16 MPa and t hold = 8 s, with a cycle time of 14.11 s. Experiments using the conformal cooling system yielded an average cycle time of 14.19 s. The studied conformal cooling system yielded a volumetric shrinkage of 5.61% and the wall shear stress was found at 0.17 MPa. The difference between the cycle time obtained through simulations and experiments using the conformal cooling system was insignificant (below 1%). Thus, combining process parameters optimization and simulations by using genetic algorithm method with Moldflow can be considered as valid.

  16. Effect of cross sectional geometry on PDMS micro peristaltic pump performance: comparison of SU-8 replica molding vs. micro injection molding.

    PubMed

    Graf, Neil J; Bowser, Michael T

    2013-10-07

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM). The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold's bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold's bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries.

  17. Investigation of micro-injection molding based on longitudinal ultrasonic vibration core.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Hui; Gao, Shan; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-10-01

    An ultrasound-assisted micro-injection molding method is proposed to improve the rheological behavior of the polymer melt radically, and a micro-injection molding system based on a longitudinal ultrasonic vibration core is developed and employed in the micro-injection molding process of Fresnel lenses. The verification experiments show that the filling mold area of the polymer melt is increased by 6.08% to 19.12%, and the symmetric deviation of the Fresnel lens is improved 15.62% on average. This method improved the filling performance and replication quality of the polymer melt in the injection molding process effectively.

  18. Injection Molding Parameters Calculations by Using Visual Basic (VB) Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tony, B. Jain A. R.; Karthikeyen, S.; Alex, B. Jeslin A. R.; Hasan, Z. Jahid Ali

    2018-03-01

    Now a day’s manufacturing industry plays a vital role in production sectors. To fabricate a component lot of design calculation has to be done. There is a chance of human errors occurs during design calculations. The aim of this project is to create a special module using visual basic (VB) programming to calculate injection molding parameters to avoid human errors. To create an injection mold for a spur gear component the following parameters have to be calculated such as Cooling Capacity, Cooling Channel Diameter, and Cooling Channel Length, Runner Length and Runner Diameter, Gate Diameter and Gate Pressure. To calculate the above injection molding parameters a separate module has been created using Visual Basic (VB) Programming to reduce the human errors. The outcome of the module dimensions is the injection molding components such as mold cavity and core design, ejector plate design.

  19. Effect of Cross Sectional Geometry on PDMS Micro Peristaltic Pump Performance: Comparison of SU-8 Replica Molding vs. Micro Injection Molding

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Two different fabrication methods were employed to fabricate micropumps with different cross-sectional channel geometries. The first was to fabricate rectangular cross-sectional microchannel geometries using the well known fabrication method of replica molding (REM).1 The second, and far less utilized fabrication technique, was to create microchannel molds using an in-house fabricated handheld micro injection molding apparatus. The injection mold apparatus was designed for use with elastomeric room temperature vulcanization (RTV) polymers, as opposed to most other injection molding machines, which are designed for use with thermoplastic polymers. The injection mold’s bottom plate was used as a microchannel molding template. The molding template was created by threading a small-diameter wire (150 μm or less) through the injection mold’s bottom plate, with subsequent adhesion and smoothing of a thin piece of aluminum foil over the wire-raised injection mold template. When molded against, the template produced a rounded/Gaussian-shaped PDMS microchannel. The design of the injection mold will be presented, along with a direct comparison for micropump performance metrics such as flow rate, valving characteristics, and maximum backpressures attainable for each of the respective micropump channel geometries. PMID:23917263

  20. Topology optimization applied to the design of cooling channels for plastic injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, D. A.; Arango, J. P.; González, C.; Puerto, E.; Garzón, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, topology optimization is applied to design cooling channels in a mold of structural steel. The problem was implemented in COMSOL multiphysics, where two physics were coupled, heat transfer and solid mechanics. The optimization objective is to maximize the conduction heat flux in the mold and minimize the deformations when the plastic is injected. In order to find an optimal geometry for this objective, a density-based method was implemented into the nonlinear program (NLP) for which feasible results were found.

  1. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  2. The technology and commercial status of powder-injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Animesh

    1995-08-01

    The process of powder-injection molding (PIM) is a viable and competitive commercial technique that is being used to process complex-shaped parts of various materials in moderate to high volumes. The hey advantage of the process is its unique ability to combine materials selection flexibility with the complex shape-forming ability of plastics. Although the PIM process has been discussed in the open literature for more than quarter of a century, it has become a commercial reality only during the last decade or so. Currently, there is a tremendous interest in this unique technology throughout the world. As a result, the PIM industry is poised for significant growth.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the process of filling a mold during injection molding of ceramic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkov, S. N.; Korobenkov, M. V.; Bragin, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    Using the software package Fluent it have been predicted of the filling of a mold in injection molding of ceramic products is of great importance, because the strength of the final product is directly related to the presence of voids in the molding, making possible early prediction of inaccuracies in the mold prior to manufacturing. The calculations were performed in the formulation of mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic turbulent process of filling a predetermined volume of a viscous liquid. The model used to determine the filling forms evaluated the influence of density and viscosity of the feedstock, and the injection pressure on the mold filling process to predict the formation of voids in the area caused by the shape defect geometry.

  4. Localized mold heating with the aid of selective induction for injection molding of high aspect ratio micro-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Lee, Sang-Ik

    2010-03-01

    High-frequency induction is an efficient, non-contact means of heating the surface of an injection mold through electromagnetic induction. Because the procedure allows for the rapid heating and cooling of mold surfaces, it has been recently applied to the injection molding of thin-walled parts or micro/nano-structures. The present study proposes a localized heating method involving the selective use of mold materials to enhance the heating efficiency of high-frequency induction heating. For localized induction heating, a composite injection mold of ferromagnetic material and paramagnetic material is used. The feasibility of the proposed heating method is investigated through numerical analyses in terms of its heating efficiency for localized mold surfaces and in terms of the structural safety of the composite mold. The moldability of high aspect ratio micro-features is then experimentally compared under a variety of induction heating conditions.

  5. Powder Injection Molding of Ceramic Engine Components for Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Juergen; Enneti, Ravi K.; Onbattuvelli, Valmikanathan; Kate, Kunal; Martin, Renee; Atre, Sundar

    2012-03-01

    Silicon nitride has been the favored material for manufacturing high-efficiency engine components for transportation due to its high temperature stability, good wear resistance, excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and low density. The use of silicon nitride in engine components greatly depends on the ability to fabricate near net-shape components economically. The absence of a material database for design and simulation has further restricted the engineering community in developing parts from silicon nitride. In this paper, the design and manufacturability of silicon nitride engine rotors for unmanned aerial vehicles by the injection molding process are discussed. The feedstock material property data obtained from experiments were used to simulate the flow of the material during injection molding. The areas susceptible to the formation of defects during the injection molding process of the engine component were identified from the simulations. A test sample was successfully injection molded using the feedstock and sintered to 99% density without formation of significant observable defects.

  6. Compact surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing an injection-molded prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chen, Chih-Han; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at a low cost and accessible diagnostic device in clinical practice, a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with a large dynamic range in high sensitivity is designed to satisfy commercial needs in food safety, environmental bio-pollution monitoring, and fast clinical diagnosis. The core component integrates an optical coupler, a sample-loading plate, and angle-tuning reflectors is injection-molded as a free-from prism made of plastic optics. This design makes a matching-oil-free operation during operation. The disposability of this low-cost component ensures testing or diagnosis without cross contamination in bio-samples.

  7. Metal injection molding of titanium for medical and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharvogel, Matthias; Winkelmueller, Wendelin

    2011-02-01

    Mixing of titanium powder and thermoplastic binders creates a feedstock that is injection molded similar to plastic, has a chemical and thermal debinding process, and then is sintered to form a net-shape or near-net shape part. TiJet Medizintechnik GmbH (TiJet) developed and uses its own feedstock and powder processing technology to achieve desired mechanical properties. This paper explains the theory of the process and the possibilities that result from the development of this new powder processing technology, such as new alloys, design possibilities, etc. Discussed will be the microstructure, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts.

  8. Hydrogen silsesquioxane mold coatings for improved replication of nanopatterns by injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobæk, Thor Christian; Matschuk, Maria; Kafka, Jan; Pranov, Henrik J.; Larsen, Niels B.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the replication of nanosized pillars in polymer (cyclic olefin copolymer) by injection molding using nanostructured thermally cured hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) ceramic coatings on stainless steel mold inserts with mold nanostructures produced by a simple embossing process. At isothermal mold conditions, the average pillar height increases by up to 100% and a more uniform height distribution is observed compared to a traditional metal mold insert. Thermal heat transfer simulations predict that the HSQ film retards the cooling of the polymer melt during the initial stages of replication, thus allowing more time to fill the nanoscale cavities compared to standard metal molds. A monolayer of a fluorinated silane (heptadecafluorotrichlorosilane) deposited on the mold surface reduces the mold/polymer interfacial energy to support demolding of the polymer replica. The mechanical stability of thermally cured HSQ makes it a promising material for nanopattern replication on an industrial scale without the need for slow and energy intensive variotherm processes.

  9. Investigation of the adhesion interface obtained through two-component injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetecau, Catalin; Stan, Felicia; Dobrea, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the interface strength obtained through two-component (2C) injection molding of LDPE-HDPE polymers. First, numerical simulation of the over-molding process is carried out using Moldflow technology. Second, butt-joint specimens were produced by over-molding under different process condition, and tested. Two injection sequences were considered, injection of LDPE on HDPE polymer, and HDLE on LDPE, respectively. To investigate the effects of the mold surface roughness on the polymers adhesion at interface, different inserts with different roughness are employed.

  10. Production application of injection-molded diffractive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter P.; Chao, Yvonne Y.; Hines, Kevin P.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate that transmission kinoforms for visible light applications can be injection molded in acrylic in production volumes. A camera is described that employs molded Fresnel lenses to change the convergence of a projection ranging system. Kinoform surfaces are used in the projection system to achromatize the Fresnel lenses.

  11. Testing of molded high temperature plastic actuator road seals for use in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, A. W.; Huxford, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Molded high temperature plastic first and second stage rod seal elements were evaluated in seal assemblies to determine performance characteristics. These characteristics were compared with the performance of machined seal elements. The 6.35 cm second stage Chevron seal assembly was tested using molded Chevrons fabricated from five molding materials. Impulse screening tests conducted over a range of 311 K to 478 K revealed thermal setting deficiencies in the aromatic polyimide molding materials. Seal elements fabricated from aromatic copolyester materials structurally failed during impulse cycle calibration. Endurance testing of 3.85 million cycles at 450 K using MIL-H-83283 fluid showed poorer seal performance with the unfilled aromatic polyimide material than had been attained with seals machined from Vespel SP-21 material. The 6.35 cm first stage step-cut compression loaded seal ring fabricated from copolyester injection molding material failed structurally during impulse cycle calibration. Molding of complex shape rod seals was shown to be a potentially controllable technique, but additional molding material property testing is recommended.

  12. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Sessa, Nino, E-mail: ninosessa.ns@gmail.com; De Santis, Felice, E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it; Pantani, Roberto, E-mail: rpantani@unisa.it

    2015-12-17

    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the in-mold coating process for injection-molded thermoplastic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu

    In-Mold Coating (IMC) has been successfully used for many years for exterior body panels made from compression molded Sheet Molding Compound (SMC). The coating material is a single component reactive fluid, designed to improve the surface quality of SMC moldings in terms of functional and cosmetic properties. When injected onto a cured SMC part, IMC cures and bonds to provide a pain-like surface. Because of its distinct advantages, IMC is being considered for application to injection molded thermoplastic parts. For a successful in mold coating operation, there are two key issues related to the flow of the coating. First, the injection nozzle should be located such that the thermoplastic substrate is totally covered and the potential for air trapping is minimized. The selected location should be cosmetically acceptable since it most likely will leave a mark on the coated surface. The nozzle location also needs to be accessible for easy of maintenance. Secondly, the hydraulic force generated by the coating injection pressure should not exceed the available clamping tonnage. If the clamping force is exceeded, coating leakage will occur. In this study, mathematical models for IMC flow on the compressible thermoplastic substrate have been developed. Finite Difference Method (FDM) is first used to solve the 1 dimensional (1D) IMC flow problem. In order to investigate the application of Control Volume based Finite Element Method (CV/FEM) to more complicated two dimensional IMC flow, that method is first evaluated by solving the 1D IMC flow problem. An analytical solution, which can be obtained when a linear relationship between the coating thickness and coating injection pressure is assumed, is used to verify the numerical results. The mathematical models for the 2 dimensional (2D) IMC flow are based on the generalized Hele-Shaw approximation. It has been found experimentally that the power law viscosity model adequately predicts the rheological behavior of the coating

  14. Fabrication of injection molded sintered alpha SiC turbine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R. S.; Ohnsorg, R. W.; Frechette, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of a sintered alpha silicon carbide turbine blade by injection molding is described. An extensive process variation matrix was carried out to define the optimum fabrication conditions. Variation of molding parameters had a significant impact on yield. Turbine blades were produced in a reasonable yield which met a rigid quality and dimensional specification. Application of injection molding technology to more complex components such as integral rotors is also described.

  15. Residual stresses in injection molded shape memory polymer parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmer, Sukran; Esen, Huseyin; Karatas, Cetin

    2016-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are materials which have shape memory effect (SME). SME is a property which has the ability to change shape when induced by a stimulator such as temperature, moisture, pH, electric current, magnetic field, light, etc. A process, known as programming, is applied to SMP parts in order to alter them from their permanent shape to their temporary shape. In this study we investigated effects of injection molding and programming processes on residual stresses in molded thermoplastic polyurethane shape memory polymer, experimentally. The residual stresses were measured by layer removal method. The study shows that injection molding and programming process conditions have significantly influence on residual stresses in molded shape memory polyurethane parts.

  16. CONVERSION OF WIND POWER TO HYDROGEN FUEL: DESIGN OF AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SYSTEM FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection molding plants are large consumers of electricity. At its current level of operations, Harbec Plastics (Ontario, NY) uses about 2,000,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year. Based on the US average fuel mix, approximately 1.5 pounds of CO2

  17. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOEpatents

    Kazmer, David O.

    1996-09-17

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  18. Improved molding process ensures plastic parts of higher tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.

    1968-01-01

    Single molding process ensures that plastic parts /of a given mechanical design/ produced from a conventional thermosetting molding compound will have a maximum tensile strength. The process can also be used for other thermosetting compounds to produce parts with improved physical properties.

  19. Applications of polyamide/cellulose fiber/wollastonite composites for microcellular injection molding

    Treesearch

    Herman Winata; Lih-Sheng Turng; Daniel F. Caulfield; Tom Kuster; Rick Spindler; Rod Jacobson

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a cellulose-fiber-reinforced Polyamide-6 (PA-6) composite, a hybrid composite (PA-6/cellulose/Wollastonite), and the neat PA-6 resin were injection molded into ASTM test–bar samples with conventional and microcellular injection molding. The impact and tensile strengths of molded samples were measured and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were...

  20. Nonlinear core deflection in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poungthong, P.; Giacomin, A. J.; Saengow, C.; Kolitawong, C.; Liao, H.-C.; Tseng, S.-C.

    2018-05-01

    Injection molding of thin slender parts is often complicated by core deflection. This deflection is caused by molten plastics race tracking through the slit between the core and the rigid cavity wall. The pressure of this liquid exerts a lateral force of the slender core causing the core to bend, and this bending is governed by a nonlinear fifth order ordinary differential equation for the deflection that is not directly in the position along the core. Here we subject this differential equation to 6 sets of boundary conditions, corresponding to 6 commercial core constraints. For each such set of boundary conditions, we develop an explicit approximate analytical solution, including both a linear term and a nonlinear term. By comparison with finite difference solutions, we find our new analytical solutions to be accurate. We then use these solutions to derive explicit analytical approximations for maximum deflections and for the core position of these maximum deflections. Our experiments on the base-gated free-tip boundary condition agree closely with our new explicit approximate analytical solution.

  1. An investigation into the injection molding of PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaluca, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemorheological behavior of the PRM-15 molding compounds were characterized, the range of suitable processing parameters for injection molding in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine was determined, and the effects of the injection molding processing parameters on the mechanical properties of molded PMR-15 parts were studied. The apparatus and procedures for measuring viscosity and for determining the physical response of the material during heating are described. Results show that capillary rheometry can be effectively used with thermosets if the equipment is designed to overcome some of the inherent problems of these materials. A uniform temperature was provided in the barrel by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods can provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature, and time. Process conditions resulting in complete imidization should be carefully defined. Specification of controlled oven temperature is inadequate and can result in incomplete imidization. For completely imidized PMR-15 heat at 15 C/min melt flow without gas evolution occurs in the temperature range of 325 C to 400 C.

  2. Toolpath Strategy and Optimum Combination of Machining Parameter during Pocket Mill Process of Plastic Mold Steels Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Y. T.; Baskoro, S. Y.; Manurung, V. A. T.

    2018-02-01

    Plastic based products spread all over the world in many aspects of life. The ability to substitute other materials is getting stronger and wider. The use of plastic materials increases and become unavoidable. Plastic based mass production requires injection process as well Mold. The milling process of plastic mold steel material was done using HSS End Mill cutting tool that is widely used in a small and medium enterprise for the reason of its ability to be re sharpened and relatively inexpensive. Study on the effect of the geometry tool states that it has an important effect on the quality improvement. Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and radii are input parameters beside to the tool path strategy. This paper aims to investigate input parameter and cutting tools behaviors within some different tool path strategy. For the reason of experiments efficiency Taguchi method and ANOVA were used. Response studied is surface roughness and cutting behaviors. By achieving the expected quality, no more additional process is required. Finally, the optimal combination of machining parameters will deliver the expected roughness and of course totally reduced cutting time. However actually, SMEs do not optimally use this data for cost reduction.

  3. Processing study of injection molding of silicon nitride for engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorabaugh, M. E.; Yeh, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The high hardness of silicon nitride, which is currently under consideration as a structural material for such hot engine components as turbine blades, renders machining of the material prohibitively costly; the near net shape forming technique of injection molding is accordingly favored as a means for component fabrication. Attention is presently given to the relationships between injection molding processing parameters and the resulting microstructural and mechanical properties of the resulting engine parts. An experimental program has been conducted under NASA sponsorship which tests the quality of injection molded bars of silicon nitride at various stages of processing.

  4. Demonstration of pharmaceutical tablet coating process by injection molding technology.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Harinath, Eranda; Martinez, Alexander R; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Braatz, Richard D; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-15

    We demonstrate the coating of tablets using an injection molding (IM) process that has advantage of being solvent free and can provide precision coat features. The selected core tablets comprising 10% w/w griseofulvin were prepared by an integrated hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM) process. Coating trials were conducted on a vertical injection mold machine. Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide based hot melt extruded coat compositions were used. Tablet coating process feasibility was successfully demonstrated using different coating mold designs (with both overlapping and non-overlapping coatings at the weld) and coat thicknesses of 150 and 300 μm. The resultant coated tablets had acceptable appearance, seal at the weld, and immediate drug release profile (with an acceptable lag time). Since IM is a continuous process, this study opens opportunities to develop HME-IM continuous processes for transforming powder to coated tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  6. Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites: From Process Modeling to Prediction of Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Jin, Xiaoshi

    2013-12-18

    This article illustrates the predictive capabilities for long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites that first simulate the injection molding of LFT structures by Autodesk® Simulation Moldflow® Insight (ASMI) to accurately predict fiber orientation and length distributions in these structures. After validating fiber orientation and length predictions against the experimental data, the predicted results are used by ASMI to compute distributions of elastic properties in the molded structures. In addition, local stress-strain responses and damage accumulation under tensile loading are predicted by an elastic-plastic damage model of EMTA-NLA, a nonlinear analysis tool implemented in ABAQUS® via user-subroutines using an incremental Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach. Predictedmore » stress-strain responses up to failure and damage accumulations are compared to the experimental results to validate the model.« less

  7. Development of integrated control system for smart factory in the injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M. J.; Kim, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we proposed integrated control system for automation of injection molding process required for construction of smart factory. The injection molding process consists of heating, tool close, injection, cooling, tool open, and take-out. Take-out robot controller, image processing module, and process data acquisition interface module are developed and assembled to integrated control system. By adoption of integrated control system, the injection molding process can be simplified and the cost for construction of smart factory can be inexpensive.

  8. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Plastics Molding Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the plastics molding industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State Board of Education, Illinois Community…

  9. Numerical prediction of flow induced fibers orientation in injection molded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, A. N.; Hamidi, N. M.; Mat Sahat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Since the filling stage of injection molding process has important effect on the determination of the orientation state of the fibers, accurate analysis of the flow field for the mold filling stage becomes a necessity. The aim of the paper is to characterize the flow induced orientation state of short fibers in injection molding cavities. A dog-bone shaped model is considered for the simulation and experiment. The numerical model for determination of the fibers orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software called MoldFlow. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that two different regions (or three layers of orientation structures) across the thickness of the specimen could be found: a shell region which is near to the mold cavity wall, and a core region at the middle of the cross section. The simulation results support the experimental observations that for thin plates the probability of fiber alignment to the flow direction near the mold cavity walls is high but low at the core region. It is apparent that the results of this study could assist in decisions regarding short fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  10. Microcellular injection molding process for producing lightweight thermoplastic polyurethane with customizable properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingham, Thomas; Kharbas, Hrishikesh; Manitiu, Mihai; Scholz, Guenter; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    A three-stage molding process involving microcellular injection molding with core retraction and an "out-of-mold" expansion was developed to manufacture thermoplastic polyurethane into lightweight foams of varying local densities, microstructures, and mechanical properties in the same microcellular injection molded part. Two stages of cavity expansion through sequential core retractions and a third expansion in a separate mold at an elevated temperature were carried out. The densities varied from 0.25 to 0.42 g/cm3 (77% to 62% weight reduction). The mechanical properties varied as well. Cyclic compressive strengths and hysteresis loss ratios, together with the microstructures, were characterized and reported.

  11. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  12. Organic materials for ceramic molding processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramic molding processes are examined. Binders, wetting agents, lubricants, plasticizers, surface active agents, dispersants, etc., for pressing, rubber pressing, sip casting, injection casting, taping, extrusion, etc., are described, together with forming machines.

  13. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes. Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  14. An apparatus for in situ x-ray scattering measurements during polymer injection molding.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Stanley; Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R; Bubeck, Robert A

    2009-04-01

    We report a novel instrument for synchrotron-based in situ x-ray scattering measurements during injection molding processing. It allows direct, real-time monitoring of molecular-scale structural evolution in polymer materials undergoing a complex processing operation. The instrument is based on a laboratory-scale injection molding machine, and employs customized mold tools designed to allow x-ray access during mold filling and subsequent solidification, while providing sufficient robustness to withstand high injection pressures. The use of high energy, high flux synchrotron radiation, and a fast detector allows sufficiently rapid data acquisition to resolve time-dependent orientation dynamics in this transient process. Simultaneous monitoring of temperature and pressure signals allows transient scattering data to be referenced to various stages of the injection molding cycle. Representative data on a commercial liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra(R) B950, are presented to demonstrate the features of this apparatus; however, it may find application in a wide range of polymeric materials such as nanocomposites, semicrystalline polymers and fiber-reinforced thermoplastics.

  15. Evaluation of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding for continuous manufacturing of immediate-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Melocchi, Alice; Loreti, Giulia; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    The exploitation of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding for the manufacturing of immediate-release (IR) tablets was preliminarily investigated in view of their special suitability for continuous manufacturing, which represents a current goal of pharmaceutical production because of its possible advantages in terms of improved sustainability. Tablet-forming agents were initially screened based on processability by single-screw extruder and micromolding machine as well as disintegration/dissolution behavior of extruded/molded prototypes. Various polymers, such as low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, various sodium starch glycolate grades (e.g., Explotab(®) CLV) that could be processed with no need for technological aids, except for a plasticizer, were identified. Furthermore, the feasibility of both extruded and molded IR tablets from low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose or Explotab(®) CLV was assessed. Explotab(®) CLV, in particular, showed thermoplastic properties and a very good aptitude as a tablet-forming agent, starting from which disintegrating tablets were successfully obtained by either techniques. Prototypes containing a poorly soluble model drug (furosemide), based on both a simple formulation (Explotab(®) CLV and water/glycerol as plasticizers) and formulations including dissolution/disintegration adjuvants (soluble and effervescent excipients) were shown to fulfill the USP 37 dissolution requirements for furosemide tablets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Foam injection molding of poly(lactic acid) with physical blowing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantani, R.; Sorrentino, A.; Volpe, V.; Titomanlio, G.

    2014-05-01

    Foam injection molding uses environmental friendly blowing agents under high pressure and temperature to produce parts having a cellular core and a compact solid skin (the so-called "structural foam"). The addition of a supercritical gas reduces the part weight and at the same time improves some physical properties of the material through the promotion of a faster crystallization; it also leads to the reduction of both the viscosity and the glass transition temperature of the polymer melt, which therefore can be injection molded adopting lower temperatures and pressures. These aspects are of extreme interest for biodegradable polymers, which often present a very narrow processing window, with the suitable processing temperatures close to the degradation conditions. In this work, foam injection molding was carried out by an instrumented molding machine, able to measure the pressure evolution in different positions along the flow-path. The material adopted was a biodegradable polymer, namely the Poly(lactic acid), PLA. The effect of a physical blowing agent (PBA) on the viscosity was measured. The density reduction and the morphology of parts obtained by different molding conditions was assessed.

  17. Ultrasound - Aided ejection in micro injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masato, D.; Sorgato, M.; Lucchetta, G.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an ultrasound-aided ejection system was designed and tested for different polymers (PS, COC and POM) and mold topographies. The proposed solution aims at reducing the ejection friction by decreasing the adhesion component of the frictional force, which is controlled by the contact area developed during the filling stage of the injection molding process. The experimental results indicate a positive effect of ultrasound vibration on the friction force values, with a maximum reduction of 16. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ultrasound effect is strictly related to both polymer selection and mold roughness. The combined effect on the ejection force of mold surface roughness, melt viscosity during filling and polymer elastic modulus at ejection was modeled to the experimental data, in order to demonstrate that the effect of ultrasound vibration on the ejection friction reduction is due to the heating of the contact interface and the consequent reduction of the polymer elastic modulus.

  18. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  19. Dimensional Changes of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases: Conventional Versus Injection-Molding Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and Methods: SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results: After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding. PMID:25584050

  20. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines. I - Process development for injection molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Trela, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Alternate processing methods have been investigated as a means of improving the mechanical properties of injection-molded SiC. Various mixing processes (dry, high-sheer, and fluid) were evaluated along with the morphology and particle size of the starting beta-SiC powder. Statistically-designed experiments were used to determine significant effects and interactions of variables in the mixing, injection molding, and binder removal process steps. Improvements in mechanical strength can be correlated with the reduction in flaw size observed in the injection molded green bodies obtained with improved processing methods.

  1. Foam injection molding of thermoplastic elastomers: Blowing agents, foaming process and characterization of structural foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, S.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer foams play an important role caused by the steadily increasing demand to light weight design. In case of soft polymers, like thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), the haptic feeling of the surface is affected by the inner foam structure. Foam injection molding of TPEs leads to so called structural foam, consisting of two compact skin layers and a cellular core. The properties of soft structural foams like soft-touch, elastic and plastic behavior are affected by the resulting foam structure, e.g. thickness of the compact skins and the foam core or density. This inner structure can considerably be influenced by different processing parameters and the chosen blowing agent. This paper is focused on the selection and characterization of suitable blowing agents for foam injection molding of a TPE-blend. The aim was a high density reduction and a decent inner structure. Therefore DSC and TGA measurements were performed on different blowing agents to find out which one is appropriate for the used TPE. Moreover a new analyzing method for the description of processing characteristics by temperature dependent expansion measurements was developed. After choosing suitable blowing agents structural foams were molded with different types of blowing agents and combinations and with the breathing mold technology in order to get lower densities. The foam structure was analyzed to show the influence of the different blowing agents and combinations. Finally compression tests were performed to estimate the influence of the used blowing agent and the density reduction on the compression modulus.

  2. A novel injection-molded capsular device for oral pulsatile delivery based on swellable/erodible polymers.

    PubMed

    Gazzaniga, Andrea; Cerea, Matteo; Cozzi, Alberto; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Zema, Lucia

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of injection molding was explored in the preparation of a novel capsular device for oral pulsatile/delayed delivery based on swellable/erodible polymers. For this purpose, a mold intended to be coupled with a bench-top injection-molding press was designed. This was expected to enable the preparation of matching capsule cap and body items within a single manufacturing cycle and the selection of differing shell thicknesses (300, 600, and 900 μm). Hydroxypropylcellulose (Klucel(®) EF, LF, and GF) was employed as the release-controlling polymer in admixture with polyethylene glycol 1500 (10%, w/w) as the plasticizer. After preliminary trials aimed at the setup of operating conditions, Klucel(®) EF and LF capsule shells with satisfactory technological properties were manufactured. The performance of capsular devices filled with a tracer drug powder was studied by means of a modified USP31 disintegration apparatus. Typical in vitro delayed release patterns were thereby obtained, with lag time increasing as a function of the wall thickness. A good correlation was found between the latter parameter and t (10%), i.e., the time to 10% release, for both polymer grades employed. On the basis of the overall results, the investigated technique was proven suitable for the manufacturing of an innovative pulsatile release platform. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  3. Study of the injection molding of a polarizing beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Jose de Carvalho, Edson; Braga, Edmundo da Silva; Cescato, Lucila H

    2006-01-01

    We describe the replication of a relief grating that behaves like a polarizing beam splitter by injection molding. Measurements of the grating master, nickel shim, and replica, performed by atomic force microscopy, allow establishing a limit for the injection molding technique (currently used in CD fabrication) to aspect ratios of approximately 0.15. Although this limit strongly reduces the diffraction efficiency of the elements as well as their polarizing properties, extinction ratios of approximately 10:1 were measured for the replicas in a large range of wavelengths.

  4. Dimensional change in complete dentures fabricated by injection molding and microwave processing.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Phillip L J; Radford, David R; Clark, Robert K F

    2003-01-01

    Acrylic resin complete dentures undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Techniques with injection molding and polymerization and microwave polymerization are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve clinical fit. These dimensional changes need to be quantified. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in dimensional changes of simulated maxillary complete dentures during polymerization and storage in water after injection molding and conventional polymerization, or microwave polymerization against a control of conventionally packed and polymerized simulated maxillary complete dentures. Forty identical maxillary denture bases were prepared in dental wax with anatomic teeth. They were invested and the wax eliminated from the molds. Ten specimens each were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Group 1 was compression molded and conventionally polymerized; group 2 was injection molded and conventionally polymerized (Success); group 3 was injection molded and microwave polymerized (Acron MC); and group 4 was injection molded and microwave polymerized (Microbase). Intermolar width and changes in vertical dimension of occlusion, were determined after polymerization and after storage in water for 28 days. Measurements in triplicate were made between points scribed on the second molar teeth with a traveling microscope (accurate to 0.005 mm). Vertical dimension of occlusion was measured between points scribed on the upper and lower members of an articulator by use of an internal micrometer (accurate to 0.05 mm). Data were analyzed by use of a 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey post-hoc contrasts (P <.05). Polymerization contractions (intermolar widths) for each group were: group 1, -0.24%; group 2, -0.27%; group 3, -0.35%; and group 4, -0.37%. The Microbase specimens had greater shrinkage than conventionally polymerized specimens, but there were no significant differences between the groups. All injection methods had less

  5. Method for compression molding of thermosetting plastics utilizing a temperature gradient across the plastic to cure the article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for compression molding of thermosetting plastics composition. Heat is applied to the compressed load in a mold cavity and adjusted to hold molding temperature at the interface of the cavity surface and the compressed compound to produce a thermal front. This thermal front advances into the evacuated compound at mean right angles to the compression load and toward a thermal fence formed at the opposite surface of the compressed compound.

  6. The reflectivity, wettability and scratch durability of microsurface features molded in the injection molding process using a dynamic tool tempering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Sascha; Burr, August; Kübler, Michael; Deckert, Matthias; Bleesen, Christoph

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the replication qualities of periodically and randomly arranged micro-features molded in the injection molding process and their effects on surface properties are studied. The features are molded in PC, PMMA and PP at different mold wall temperatures in order to point out the necessity and profitability of a variotherm mold wall temperature control system. A one-dimensional heat conduction model is proposed to predict the cycle times of the variotherm injection molding processes. With regard to these processes, the molding results are compared to the molded surface feature heights using an atomic force microscope. In addition, the effects of the molded surface features on macroscopic surfaces are characterized in terms of light reflection using a spectrometer and in terms of water wettability by measuring the static contact angle. Furthermore, due to the sensitivity of the surface features on the molded parts, their durability is compared in a scratch test with a diamond tip. This leads to successful implementation in applications in which the optical appearance, in terms of gloss and reflection, and the water repellence, in terms of drag flow and adhesion, are of importance.

  7. FIBER ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDED LONG CARBON FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Mathur, Raj N.

    2015-03-23

    A set of edge-gated and center-gated plaques were injection molded with long carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, and the fiber orientation was measured at different locations of the plaques. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) software was used to simulate the injection molding of these plaques and to predict the fiber orientation, using the anisotropic rotary diffusion and the reduced strain closure models. The phenomenological parameters of the orientation models were carefully identified by fitting to the measured orientation data. The fiber orientation predictions show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Deflectometric analysis of high volume injection molds for production of occupational eye wear.

    PubMed

    Speck, Alexis; Zelzer, Benedikt; Speich, Marco; Börret, Rainer; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Most of the protective eye wear devices currently on the market are manufactured on simple polycarbonate shields, produced by injection molding techniques. Despite high importance of optical quality, injection molds are rarely inspected for surface quality before or during the manufacturing process. Quality degradation is mainly monitored by optical testing of the molded parts. The purpose of this work was to validate a non-contact deflectometric measurement technique for surface and shape analysis of injection molds to facilitate deterministic surface quality control and to monitor minor conformity of the injection mold with the design data. The system is based on phase-measuring deflectometry with a operating measurement field of 80×80 mm(2) (±18° slope), a lateral resolution of 60μm and a local sensitivity of some nanometers. The calibration was tested with a calibration normal and a reference sphere. The results were crosschecked against a measurement of the same object with a tactile coordinate measuring machine. Eight injection molds for production of safety goggles with radii of +58mm (convex) and -60mm (concave) were measured in this study. The molds were separated into two groups (cavity 1 and 2 of the tool with different polishing techniques) and measured to test whether the measurement tool could extract differences. The analysis was performed on difference height between the measured surface and the spherical model. The device could derive the surface change due to polishing and discriminate between both polishing techniques, on the basis of the measured data. The concave nozzle sides of the first group (cavity 1) showed good shape conformity. In comparison, the nozzle sides of the second group (cavity 2) showed local deviations from design data up to 14.4μm. Local form variations of about 5μm occurred in the field of view. All convex ejector sides of both groups (cavity 1 and 2) showed rotational symmetric errors and the molds were measured in

  9. Metal Injection Molding of Thin-Walled Titanium Glasses Arms: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shulong; Mo, Wei; Lv, Yonghu; Li, Xia; Kwok, Chi Tat; Yu, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V arms for a new brand of augmented reality smart glasses, which are over 170 mm in length, with thin wall structures and extremely complex surfaces, have been successfully fabricated via metal injection molding. After sintering, both the metal injection-molded (MIMed) CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V can reach relative densities of over 95% with an oxygen content 2200 ppm, thus imparting mechanical properties comparable to cast alloys. The ductility of the MIMed CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V are about 15% and 8%, respectively. This is a good example of applying metal injection molding to mass production of precise Ti alloy parts with complicated shapes.

  10. Injection molded composites from kenaf and recycled plastic

    Treesearch

    Poo Chow; Dilpreet S. Bajwa; Wen-da Lu; John A. Youngquist; Nicole M. Stark; Qiang Li; Brent English

    1998-01-01

    Kenaf-based thermoplastic composites were developed and evaluated in this study. The kenaf stems were collected from farms in central Illinois. The kenaf fibers were blended with commercial virgin plastic or polypropylene and with recycled plastics or low-cost polyethylene in form of post-consumer film wastes and shrink wraps. Investigations on the fiber properties and...

  11. Electrical and dielectric properties of foam injection-molded polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli, A.; Nofar, M.; Saniei, M.

    A combination of high dielectric permittivity (ε′) and low dielectric loss (tan δ) is required for charge storage applications. In percolative systems such as conductive polymer composites, however, obtaining high ε′ and low tan δ is very challenging due to the sharp insulation-conduction transition near the threshold region. Due to the particular arrangement of conductive fillers induced by both foaming and injection molding processes, they may address this issue. Therefore, this work evaluates the application of foam injection molding process in fabricating polymer nanocomposites for energy storage. Polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWCNT) composites were prepared by melt mixing and foamed inmore » an injection molding process. Electrical conductivity (σ), ε′ and tan δ were then characterized. Also, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the carbon nanotube’s arrangement as well as cellular morphology. The results showed that foam injection-molded composites exhibited highly superior dielectric properties to those of solid counterparts. For instance, foamed samples had ε′=68.3 and tan δ =0.05 (at 1.25 vol.% MWCNT), as opposed to ε′=17.8 and tan δ=0.04 in solid samples (at 2.56 vol.% MWCNT). The results of this work reveal that high performance dielectric nanocomposites can be developed using foam injection molding technologies for charge storage applications.« less

  12. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (<700MPa Young's modulus, >35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neodymium: YAG laser damage threshold. A comparison of injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S E; Brubaker, R F

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that injection-molded intraocular lenses (IOLs) with imperfections called iridescent clefts could have a decreased threshold to neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser-induced damage was investigated. Thresholds for Nd:YAG laser-induced damage were determined for injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate lenses. When aimed at a membrane in contact with a posterior convex surface, the average thresholds were 0.96 +/- 0.18 mJ (Standard deviation [SD]) and 1.80 +/- 0.55 mJ, respectively. The difference was significant at P = 0.001. When injection-molding polymethylmethacrylate was used to make lathe-cut IOLs, very few iridescent clefts were present, and the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage was 0.94 +/- 0.25 mJ. Iridescent clefts are therefore produced during the injection-molding process but they do not lower the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage. Rather, the reduced threshold in injection-molded lenses is most probably a result of the polymethylmethacrylate used in their manufacture. Clinically, iridescent clefts in a lens suggest that it has been manufactured by an injection-molding process and that Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy must be performed at the lowest possible energy level to avoid damage.

  14. The effect of cycling deflection on the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo Vj; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cycling deflection on the flexural behavior of injection-molded thermoplastic resins. Six injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethyl methacrylate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized denture based polymer of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used in this study. The cyclic constant magnitude (1.0 mm) of 5000 cycles was applied using a universal testing machine to demonstrate plasticization of the polymer. Loading was carried out in water at 23ºC with eight specimens per group (n = 8). Cycling load (N) and deformation (mm) were measured. Force required to deflect the specimens during the first loading cycle and final loading cycle was statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) with one polyamide based polymer (Valplast) and PMMA based polymers (Acrytone and Acron). The other polyamide based polymer (LucitoneFRS), polyester based polymers (EstheShot and EstheShotBright) and polycarbonate based polymer (ReigningN) did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). None of the materials fractured during the loading test. One polyamide based polymer (Valplast) displayed the highest deformation and PMMA based polymers (Acrytone and Acron) exhibited the second highest deformation among the denture base materials. It can be concluded that there were considerable differences in the flexural behavior of denture base polymers. This may contribute to the fatigue resistance of the materials.

  15. Design and thermal analysis of a mold used in the injection of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekiri, Nasser; Canto, Cécile; Madec, Yannick; Mousseau, Pierre; Plot, Christophe; Sarda, Alain

    2017-10-01

    In the process of injection molding of elastomers, improving the energy efficiency of the tools is a current challenge for industry in terms of energy consumption, productivity and product quality. In the rubber industry, 20% of the energy consumed by capital goods comes from heating processes; more than 50% of heat losses are linked to insufficient control and thermal insulation of Molds. The design of the tooling evolves in particular towards the reduction of the heated mass and the thermal insulation of the molds. In this paper, we present a complex tool composed, on one hand, of a multi-cavity mold designed by reducing the heated mass and equipped with independent control zones placed closest to each molding cavity and, on the other hand, of a regulated channel block (RCB) which makes it possible to limit the waste of rubber during the injection. The originality of this tool lies in thermally isolating the regulated channel block from the mold and the cavities between them in order to better control the temperature field in the material which is transformed. We present the design and the instrumentation of the experimental set-up. Experimental measurements allow us to understand the thermal of the tool and to show the thermal heterogeneities on the surface of the mold and in the various cavities. Tests of injection molding of the rubber and a thermal balance on the energy consumption of the tool are carried out.

  16. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Heo, Young-Moo; Yoon, Gil-Sang; Shin, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gun-Hee; Cho, Myeong-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for microfluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

  17. Real-time parameter optimization based on neural network for smart injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Liau, Y.; Ryu, K.

    2018-03-01

    The manufacturing industry has been facing several challenges, including sustainability, performance and quality of production. Manufacturers attempt to enhance the competitiveness of companies by implementing CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems) through the convergence of IoT(Internet of Things) and ICT(Information & Communication Technology) in the manufacturing process level. Injection molding process has a short cycle time and high productivity. This features have been making it suitable for mass production. In addition, this process is used to produce precise parts in various industry fields such as automobiles, optics and medical devices. Injection molding process has a mixture of discrete and continuous variables. In order to optimized the quality, variables that is generated in the injection molding process must be considered. Furthermore, Optimal parameter setting is time-consuming work to predict the optimum quality of the product. Since the process parameter cannot be easily corrected during the process execution. In this research, we propose a neural network based real-time process parameter optimization methodology that sets optimal process parameters by using mold data, molding machine data, and response data. This paper is expected to have academic contribution as a novel study of parameter optimization during production compare with pre - production parameter optimization in typical studies.

  18. A Review of Metal Injection Molding- Process, Optimization, Defects and Microwave Sintering on WC-Co Cemented Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbudin, S. N. A.; Othman, M. H.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-08-01

    This article is about a review of optimization of metal injection molding and microwave sintering process on tungsten cemented carbide produce by metal injection molding process. In this study, the process parameters for the metal injection molding were optimized using Taguchi method. Taguchi methods have been used widely in engineering analysis to optimize the performance characteristics through the setting of design parameters. Microwave sintering is a process generally being used in powder metallurgy over the conventional method. It has typical characteristics such as accelerated heating rate, shortened processing cycle, high energy efficiency, fine and homogeneous microstructure, and enhanced mechanical performance, which is beneficial to prepare nanostructured cemented carbides in metal injection molding. Besides that, with an advanced and promising technology, metal injection molding has proven that can produce cemented carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been used widely in various applications due to its desirable combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Moreover, areas of study include common defects in metal injection molding and application of microwave sintering itself has been discussed in this paper.

  19. Design and fabrication of optical homogenizer with micro structure by injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C. A.; Chang, S.-W.; Weng, C.-J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper is to design and fabricate an optical homogenizer with hybrid design of collimator, toroidal lens array, and projection lens for beam shaping of Gaussian beam into uniform cylindrical beam. TracePro software was used to design the geometry of homogenizer and simulation of injection molding was preceded by Moldflow MPI to evaluate the mold design for injection molding process. The optical homogenizer is a cylindrical part with thickness 8.03 mm and diameter 5 mm. The micro structure of toroidal array has groove height designed from 12 μm to 99 μm. An electrical injection molding machine and PMMA (n= 1.4747) were selected to perform the experiment. Experimental results show that the optics homogenizer has achieved the transfer ratio of grooves (TRG) as 88.98% and also the optical uniformity as 68% with optical efficiency as 91.88%. Future study focuses on development of an optical homogenizer for LED light source.

  20. Simulation on Effect of Preform Diameter in Injection Stretch Blow Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z. Q.; Rosli, Nurrina; Oktaviandri, Muchamad

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the most common material of resin for manufacturing plastic bottle by injection stretch blow molding due to its excellent properties. As various issues of health and environmental hazards due to the PET use have risen, PET bottle manufacture may be improved by minimizing the wall thickness to reduce the PET use. One of the critical qualifications of the manufacturing process which lead to the wall thickness distribution is the initial preform diameter. In this project, we used the ANSYS Polyflow with aim to evaluate the wall thickness distribution of PET bottle for different diameter of initial preform. As a result, only 4 mm preform diameter presented wall thickness below than 1 mm. On the other hand, at least 6 mm preform diameter can permit the wall thickness 1.3 mm i.e. at the shoulder area.

  1. Mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, one polyethylene terephthalate, one polycarbonate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were used in this study. The flexural strength at the proportional limit (FS-PL), the elastic modulus, and the Charpy impact strength of the denture base resins were measured according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1567 and ISO 1567:1999/Amd 1:2003. The descending order of the FS-PL was: conventional PMMA > polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate > two polyamides. The descending order of the elastic moduli was: conventional PMMA > polycarbonate > polyethylene terephthalate > two polyamides. The descending order of the Charpy impact strength was: polyamide (Nylon PACM12) > polycarbonate > polyamide (Nylon 12), polyethylene terephthalate > conventional PMMA. All of the injection-molded thermoplastic resins had significantly lower FS-PL, lower elastic moduli, and higher or similar impact strength compared to the conventional PMMA. The polyamide denture base resins had low FS-PL and low elastic moduli; one of them possessed very high impact strength, and the other had low impact strength. The polyethylene terephthalate denture base resin showed a moderately high FS-PL, moderate elastic modulus, and low impact strength. The polycarbonate denture base resin had a moderately high FS-PL, moderately high elastic modulus, and moderate impact strength.

  2. A Model for Fiber Length Attrition in Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    TuckerIII, Charles L.; Phelps, Jay H; El-Rahman, Ahmed Abd

    2013-01-01

    Long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites consist of an engineering thermoplastic matrix with glass or carbon reinforcing fibers that are initially 10 to 13 mm long. When an LFT is injection molded, flow during mold filling orients the fibers and degrades the fiber length. Fiber orientation models for injection molding are well developed, and special orientation models for LFTs have been developed. Here we present a detailed quantitative model for fiber length attrition in a flowing fiber suspension. The model tracks a discrete fiber length distribution (FLD) at each spatial node. Key equations are a conservation equation for total fiber length, andmore » a breakage rate equation. The breakage rate is based on buckling of fibers due to hydrodynamic forces, when the fibers are in unfavorable orientations. The FLD model is combined with a mold filling simulation to predict spatial and temporal variations in fiber length distribution in a mold cavity during filling. The predictions compare well to experiments on a glassfiber/ PP LFT molding. Fiber length distributions predicted by the model are easily incorporated into micromechanics models to predict the stress-strain behavior of molded LFT materials. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; electronic mail: ctucker@illinois.edu 1« less

  3. Dimensional Precision Research of Wax Molding Rapid Prototyping based on Droplet Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingji, Huang; Geng, Wu; yan, Shan

    2017-11-01

    The traditional casting process is complex, the mold is essential products, mold quality directly affect the quality of the product. With the method of rapid prototyping 3D printing to produce mold prototype. The utility wax model has the advantages of high speed, low cost and complex structure. Using the orthogonal experiment as the main method, analysis each factors of size precision. The purpose is to obtain the optimal process parameters, to improve the dimensional accuracy of production based on droplet injection molding.

  4. Implications of diamond-turned versus diamond-ground mold fabrication techniques on precision-molded optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertus, Lou; Symmons, Alan

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the trend within the molded optics community has been an overall advancement in the capability to diamond grind molds using a variety of grinding techniques. Improvements in grinding equipment, materials and tooling have enabled higher quality ceramic and carbide molds and thereby lenses. Diamond turned molds from ductile metals are still used prevalently throughout the molding industry. Each technology presents a unique set of advantages and disadvantages whether used for precision injection molding of plastic optics or precision glass molding. This paper reviews the manufacturing techniques for each approach and applicable molding process. The advantages and disadvantages of each are compared and analyzed. The subtle differences that exist in optics molded from each technique and the impact they have on the performance in various applications is reviewed. Differences stemming from tooling material properties, material-specific minor defects, as well as cutting and grinding process-induced artifacts are described in detail as well as their influence on the roughness, waviness, and form errors present on the molded surface. A comparison with results between similar surfaces for both diamond grinding and diamond turning is presented.

  5. Bio-inspired piezoelectric artificial hair cell sensor fabricated by powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun Sae; Oh, Keun Ha; Moon, Won Kyu; Kim, Kyungseop; Joh, Cheeyoung; Seo, Hee Seon; Bollina, Ravi; Park, Seong Jin

    2015-12-01

    A piezoelectric artificial hair cell sensor was fabricated by the powder injection molding process in order to make an acoustic vector hydrophone. The entire process of powder injection molding was developed and optimized for PMN-PZT ceramic powder. The artificial hair cell sensor, which consists of high aspect ratio hair cell and three rectangular mechanoreceptors, was precisely fabricated through the developed powder injection molding process. The density and the dielectric property of the fabricated sensor shows 98% of the theoretical density and 85% of reference dielectric property of PMN-PZT ceramic powder. With regard to homogeneity, three rectangular mechanoreceptors have the same dimensions, with 3 μm of tolerance with 8% of deviation of dielectric property. Packaged vector hydrophones measure the underwater acoustic signals from 500 to 800 Hz with -212 dB of sensitivity. Directivity of vector hydrophone was acquired at 600 Hz as analyzing phase differences of electric signals.

  6. Optimization of the injection molding process for development of high performance calcium oxide -based ceramic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, P. P.; Wu, G. Q.; Tao, Y.; Cheng, X.; Zhao, J. Q.; Nan, H.

    2018-02-01

    The binder composition used for ceramic injection molding plays a crucial role on the final properties of sintered ceramic and to avoid defects on green parts. In this study, the effects of binder compositions on the rheological, microstructures and the mechanical properties of CaO based ceramic cores were investigated. It was found that the optimized formulation for dispersant, solid loading was 1.5 wt% and 84 wt%, respectively. The microstructures, such as porosity, pore size distribution and grain boundary density were closely related to the plasticizer contents. The decrease of plasticizer contents can enhance the strength of the ceramic cores but with decreased shrinkage. Meanwhile, the creep resistance of ceramic cores was enhanced by decreasing of plasticizer contents. The flexural strength of the core was found to decrease with the increase of the porosity, the improvement of creep resistance is closely related to the decrease of porosity and grain boundary density.

  7. Numerical-experimental investigation of PE/EVA foam injection molded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Roberto

    The main objective of the presented work is to propose a robust framework to test foaming injection molded parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the evaluation of a new foam material based on numerical and experimental results. The research purpose is to assess parameters influencing several aspects, such as foam morphology and compression behavior, using useful suggestions from finite element analysis. The investigated polymeric blend consisted of a mixture of low density polyethylenes (LDPEs), a high-density polyethylene (HDPE), an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and an azodicarbonamide (ADC). The thermal, rheological and compression properties of the blend are fully described, as well as the numerical models and the parameters of the injection molding process.

  8. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  9. All plastic ultra-small size imaging lens unit fabrication and evaluation for endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Kenta; Okamoto, Dai; Ushio, Makoto; Tai, Hidetoshi; Nishihara, Atsuhiko; Tokuda, Kimio; Kawai, Shinsuke; Kitagawa, Seiichiro

    2017-02-01

    There is demand for small-size lens units for endoscope and industrial applications. Polished glass lenses with a diameter of 1 - 2mm exist, however plastic lenses similar in size are not commonplace. For low-cost, light-weight, and mass production, plastic lens fabrication is extremely beneficial. Especially, in the medical field, there is strong demand for disposable lens unit for endoscopes which prevent contamination due to reuse of the lens. Therefore, high mass producible and low cost becomes increasingly important. This paper reports our findings on injection-molded ultra-small size plastic lens units with a diameter of 1.3mm and total thickness of 1.4mm. We performed optical design, injection molding, and lens unit assembly for injection moldable, high imaging performance ultra-small sized lens units. We prioritize a robust product design, considering injection molding properties and lens unit assembly, with feedback from molding simulations reflected into the optical design. A mold capable of high precision lens positioning is used to fabricate the lenses and decrease the variability of the assembly. The geometric dimensions of the resulting lenses, are measured and used in the optical simulation to validate the optical performance, and a high agreement is reported. The injection molding of the lens and the assembly of the lens unit is performed with high precision, and results in high optical performance.

  10. Modeling injection molding of net-shape active ceramic components.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas; Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary

    2006-11-01

    To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of lead-based active ceramic components, an injection molding process is being investigated to replace the current machining process. Here, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles are suspended in a thermoplastic resin and are injected into a mold and allowed to cool. The part is then bisque fired and sintered to complete the densification process. To help design this new process we use a finite element model to describe the injection molding of the ceramic paste. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element based, Newton-Raphson numerical method based on themore » GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. Thermal, rheological, and wetting properties of the PZT paste are measured for use as input to the model. The viscosity of the PZT is highly dependent both on temperature and shear rate. One challenge in modeling the injection process is coming up with appropriate constitutive equations that capture relevant phenomenology without being too computationally complex. For this reason we model the material as a Carreau fluid and a WLF temperature dependence. Two-dimensional (2D) modeling is performed to explore the effects of the shear in isothermal conditions. Results indicate that very low viscosity regions exist near walls and that these results look similar in terms of meniscus shape and fill times to a simple Newtonian constitutive equation at the shear-thinned viscosity for the paste. These results allow us to pick a representative viscosity to use in fully three-dimensional (3D) simulation, which because of numerical complexities are restricted to using a Newtonian constitutive equation. Further 2D modeling at nonisothermal conditions shows that the

  11. Serial corneal endothelial cell loss with lathe-cut and injection-molded posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Kraff, M C; Sanders, D R; Lieberman, H L

    1983-01-01

    We compared endothelial cell loss of patients implanted with lathe-cut posterior chamber lenses and those implanted with injection-molded lenses over a three-year postoperative period. Results were based on more than 2,500 measurements of corneal endothelial density. Although the technique of cataract extraction (anterior chamber phacoemulsification, posterior chamber phacoemulsification, or planned extracapsular extraction) significantly affected cell loss (P less than .01), the type of implant (lathe-cut or injection-molded) did not. Significant continuing endothelial cell loss did not occur during the first three postoperative years with injection-molded lenses. There was, however, a statistically significant 7% to 15% additional cell loss after surgery over the first two to three postoperative years with lathe-cut implants. There have been no cases of corneal endothelial decompensation developing after implantation of injection-molded or lathe-cut lenses. Because a standard field clinical specular microscope was used in this study, cell counting errors cannot be ruled out as a cause of these findings.

  12. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks.

    PubMed

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2008-05-06

    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  13. Characterization of curing behavior of UV-curable LSR for LED embedded injection mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tae, Joon-Sung; Yim, Kyung-Gyu; Rhee, Byung-Ohk; Kwak, Jae B.

    2016-11-01

    For many applications, liquid silicone rubber (LSR) injection molding is widely used for their great design flexibility and high productivity. In particular, a sealing part for a mobile device such as smartphone and watch has been produced by injection molding. While thermally curable LSR causes deformation problem due to a high mold temperature, UV-curable LSR can be molded at room temperature, which has advantages for over-molding with inserts of temperature-sensitive materials. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have advantages such as a longer service life, a lower heat dissipation, and smaller size to equip into the mold than conventional halogen or mercury UV lamps. In this work, rheological behavior of UV-curable LSR during curing process was analyzed by UV LEDs available in the market. UV-LEDs of various wave lengths and intensities were tested. The steady shear test was applied to find the starting time of curing and the SAOS was applied to find the ending time of curing to estimate processing time. In addition, the hardness change with irradiation energy was compared with the rheological data to confirm the reliability of the rheological test.

  14. Comparison of glare in YAG-damaged intraocular lenses: injection-molded versus lathe-cut.

    PubMed

    Bath, P E; Dang, Y; Martin, W H

    1986-11-01

    A comparative analysis of YAG laser intraocular lens (IOL) damage was undertaken on injection-molded and lathe-cut IOLs. Damage sites were evaluated with polarized light. A consistent positive polarization was observed in the damage sites of lathe-cut IOLs. A consistent negative polarization was observed in the damage sites of injection-molded IOLs. The presence of positive polarization in IOL damage sites may be correlated with increased potential for glare. Results and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Ion channel recordings on an injection-molded polymer chip.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Simone; Matteucci, Marco; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Friis, Søren; Christensen, Mette Thylstrup; Garnaes, Joergen; Wilson, Sandra; Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Taboryski, Rafael

    2013-12-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate recordings of the ion channel activity across the cell membrane in a biological cell by employing the so-called patch clamping technique on an injection-molded polymer microfluidic device. The findings will allow direct recordings of ion channel activity to be made using the cheapest materials and production platform to date and with the potential for very high throughput. The employment of cornered apertures for cell capture allowed the fabrication of devices without through holes and via a scheme comprising master origination by dry etching in a silicon substrate, electroplating in nickel and injection molding of the final part. The most critical device parameters were identified as the length of the patching capillary and the very low surface roughness on the inside of the capillary. The cross-sectional shape of the orifice was found to be less critical, as both rectangular and semicircular profiles seemed to have almost the same ability to form tight seals with cells with negligible leak currents. The devices were functionally tested using human embryonic kidney cells expressing voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav1.7) and benchmarked against a commercial state-of-the-art system for automated ion channel recordings. These experiments considered current-voltage (IV) relationships for activation and inactivation of the Nav1.7 channels and their sensitivity to a local anesthetic, lidocaine. Both IVs and lidocaine dose-response curves obtained from the injection-molded polymer device were in good agreement with data obtained from the commercial system.

  16. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  17. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents. PMID:28809248

  18. Influence of injection molding process parameters on fiber concentration distribution in long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scantamburlo, Andrea; Gazzola, Luca; Sorgato, Marco; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    In parts manufactured by injection molding of long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene, the local fiber orientation, fiber concentration and fiber length distribution varies along both the thickness direction and the flow path. This heterogeneous microstructure significantly influences the mechanical properties variability in the molded parts. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the matrix viscosity, the injection speed and the mold geometry on the fiber concentration distribution. In particular, the factors involved in fiber-matrix separation and fiber pull-out during the injection phases were analyzed in order to understand the phenomenon.

  19. Validation of New Process Models for Large Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin

    2012-02-23

    This report describes the work conducted under the CRADA Nr. PNNL/304 between Battelle PNNL and Autodesk whose objective is to validate the new process models developed under the previous CRADA for large injection-molded LFT composite structures. To this end, the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models implemented in the 2013 research version of Moldflow was used to simulate the injection molding of 600-mm x 600-mm x 3-mm plaques from 40% glass/polypropylene (Dow Chemical DLGF9411.00) and 40% glass/polyamide 6,6 (DuPont Zytel 75LG40HSL BK031) materials. The injection molding was performed by Injection Technologies, Inc. at Windsor, Ontario (under a subcontract by Oakmore » Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL) using the mold offered by the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC). Two fill speeds under the same back pressure were used to produce plaques under slow-fill and fast-fill conditions. Also, two gating options were used to achieve the following desired flow patterns: flows in edge-gated plaques and in center-gated plaques. After molding, ORNL performed measurements of fiber orientation and length distributions for process model validations. The structure of this report is as follows. After the Introduction (Section 1), Section 2 provides a summary of the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models. A summary of model implementations in the latest research version of Moldflow is given in Section 3. Section 4 provides the key processing conditions and parameters for molding of the ACC plaques. The validations of the ARD-RSC and fiber length attrition models are presented and discussed in Section 5. The conclusions will be drawn in Section 6.« less

  20. Investigation of compression behavior of PE/EVA foam injection molded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the presented work is to evaluate the compression behavior of a polymeric foam blend by using a robust framework for the testing sequence of foaming injection molded parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the evaluation of new matrix material. The research purpose is to assess parameters influencing compression behavior and give useful suggestions for the implementation of a finite element analysis. The polymeric blend consisted of a mixture of low density polyethylenes (LDPEs), a high-density polyethylene (HDPE), an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and an azodicarbonamide (ADC). The thermal, rheological and compression properties of the blend are fully described, as well as the injection molding process for two specimen types.

  1. Properties of high density polyethylene – Paulownia wood flour composites via injection molding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paulownia wood (PW) flour is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of PW, and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding followed by injection molding. Molded test composite...

  2. Injection molding lens metrology using software configurable optical test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Cheng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Optical plastic lens produced by injection molding machine possesses numerous advantages of light quality, impact resistance, low cost, etc. The measuring methods in the optical shop are mainly interferometry, profile meter. However, these instruments are not only expensive, but also difficult to alignment. The software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) is based on the geometry of the fringe refection and phase measuring deflectometry method (PMD), which can be used to measure large diameter mirror, aspheric and freeform surface rapidly, robustly, and accurately. In addition to the conventional phase shifting method, we propose another data collection method called as dots matrix projection. We also use the Zernike polynomials to correct the camera distortion. This polynomials fitting mapping distortion method has not only simple operation, but also high conversion precision. We simulate this test system to measure the concave surface using CODE V and MATLAB. The simulation results show that the dots matrix projection method has high accuracy and SCOTS has important significance for on-line detection in optical shop.

  3. Automatic design of conformal cooling channels in injection molding tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingming; Hou, Binkui; Wang, Qian; Li, Yang; Huang, Zhigao

    2018-02-01

    The generation of cooling system plays an important role in injection molding design. A conformal cooling system can effectively improve molding efficiency and product quality. This paper provides a generic approach for building conformal cooling channels. The centrelines of these channels are generated in two steps. First, we extract conformal loops based on geometric information of product. Second, centrelines in spiral shape are built by blending these loops. We devise algorithms to implement the entire design process. A case study verifies the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Investigations on injection molded, glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 6 integral foams using breathing mold technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, A.; Kehret, L.; Huber, T.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2015-05-01

    Investigations on PA6-GF50 integral foams have been carried out using different material systems: longfiber- and shortfiber-reinforced PA6 as well as unreinforced PA6 as a reference material. Both chemical and physical blowing agents were applied. Breathing mold technology (decompression of the mold) was selected for the foaming process. The integral foam design, which can be conceived as a sandwich structure, helps to save material in the neutral axis area and maintains a distance between load-bearing, unfoamed skin layers. For all test series an initial mold gap of 2.5 mm was chosen and the same amount of material was injected. In order to realize different density reductions, the mold opening stroke was varied. The experiments showed that, at a constant mass per unit area, integral polyamide 6 foams have a significantly higher bending stiffness than compact components, due to their higher area moment of inertia after foaming. At a constant surface weight the bending stiffness in these experiments could be increased by up to 600 %. Both shortfiber- and longfiber-reinforced polyamide 6 showed an increase in energy absorption during foaming.

  5. Transferability of glass lens molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Masahide

    2006-02-01

    Sphere lenses have been used for long time. But it is well known that sphere lenses theoretically have spherical aberration, coma and so on. And, aspheric lenses attract attention recently. Plastic lenses are molded easily with injection machines, and are relatively low cost. They are suitable for mass production. On the other hand, glass lenses have several excellent features such as high refractive index, heat resistance and so on. Many aspheric glass lenses came to be used for the latest digital camera and mobile phone camera module. It is very difficult to produce aspheric glass lenses by conventional process of curve generating and polishing. For the solution of this problem, Glass Molding Machine was developed and is spreading through the market. High precision mold is necessary to mold glass lenses with Glass Molding Machine. The mold core is ground or turned by high precision NC aspheric generator. To obtain higher transferability of the mold core, the function of the molding machine and the conditions of molding are very important. But because of high molding temperature, there are factors of thermal expansion and contraction of the mold and glass material. And it is hard to avoid the factors. In this session, I introduce following items. [1] Technology of glass molding and the machine is introduced. [2] The transferability of glass molding is analyzed with some data of glass lenses molded. [3] Compensation of molding shape error is discussed with examples.

  6. Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding By Using Grey Relational Grade

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Muhamad, N.

    2011-01-17

    Micro metal injection molding ({mu}MIM) which is a variant of MIM process is a promising method towards near net-shape of metallic micro components of complex geometry. In this paper, {mu}MIM is applied to produce 316L stainless steel micro components. Due to highly stringent characteristic of {mu}MIM properties, the study has been emphasized on optimization of process parameter where Taguchi method associated with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) will be implemented as it represents novel approach towards investigation of multiple performance characteristics. Basic idea of GRA is to find a grey relational grade (GRG) which can be used for the optimization conversionmore » from multi objectives case which are density and strength to a single objective case. After considering the form 'the larger the better', results show that the injection time(D) is the most significant followed by injection pressure(A), holding time(E), mold temperature(C) and injection temperature(B). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to strengthen the significant of each parameter involved in this study.« less

  7. Modeling of magnetic particle orientation in magnetic powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo Jung, Im; Kang, Tae Gon; Seul Shin, Da; Park, Seong Jin

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic micro powder orientation under viscous shear flow has been analytically understood and characterized into a new analytical orientation model for a powder injection molding process. The effects of hydrodynamic force from the viscous flow, external magnetic force and internal dipole-dipole interaction were considered to predict the orientation under given process conditions. Comparative studies with a finite element method proved the calculation validity with a partial differential form of the model. The angular motion, agglomeration and magnetic chain formation have been simulated, which shows that the effect of dipole-dipole interaction among powders on the orientation state becomes negligible at a high Mason number condition and at a low λ condition (the ratio of external magnetic field strength and internal magnetic moment of powder). Our developed model can be very usefully employed in the process analysis and design of magnetic powder injection molding.

  8. Application of Rapid Prototyping and Wire Arc Spray to the Fabrication of Injection Mold Tools (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a layer-by-layer-based additive manufacturing process for constructing three-dimensional representations of a computer design from a wax, plastic, or similar material. Wire arc spray (WAS) is a metal spray forming technique, which deposits thin layers of metal onto a substrate or pattern. Marshall Space Flight Center currently has both capabilities in-house, and this project proposed merging the two processes into an innovative manufacturing technique, in which intermediate injection molding tool halves were to be fabricated with RP and WAS metal forming.

  9. Forehead augmentation with a methyl methacrylate onlay implant using an injection-molding technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Kwon; Song, Ingook; Lee, Jin Hyo; You, Young June

    2013-09-01

    The forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the major determinants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentation of the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate (MMA) is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have used an injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results. Under local anesthesia with intravenous (IV) sedation, an incision was made on the scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMA monomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, and manual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated for patients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Every patient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. We judged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfaction of the patients and complications. During a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA. With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positioned close to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone. The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible. Only 28 patients (5.4%) underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance. The injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal method for the augmentation of the forehead.

  10. Forehead Augmentation with a Methyl Methacrylate Onlay Implant Using an Injection-Molding Technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Kwon; Song, Ingook; Lee, Jin Hyo

    2013-01-01

    Background The forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the major determinants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentation of the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate (MMA) is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have used an injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results. Methods Under local anesthesia with intravenous (IV) sedation, an incision was made on the scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMA monomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, and manual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated for patients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Every patient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. We judged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfaction of the patients and complications. Results During a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA. With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positioned close to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone. The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible. Only 28 patients (5.4%) underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance. Conclusions The injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal method for the augmentation of the forehead. PMID:24086816

  11. Investigation of interfacial fracture behavior on injection molded parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Matthieu; Ausias, Gilles; Kuehnert, Ines

    2016-03-01

    In this study the interfacial morphology of different polymers joined by various assembly injection molding (AIM) technologies were discussed. Melt streams were injected successively using tools with core-back or rotation techniques. To compare bulk specimen strength and weld line strength, the fracture behavior of different specimen scales and thin sections were investigated. An in-situ SEM tensile test and a new thin section testing device which is used in polarized (transmitted) light microscopy were used to observe specimen failure. The effects of processing on spherulitic structures were linked to bonding strength and mechanical properties.

  12. Increasing in the wear resistance of injection molds made of 1.2343 steel using Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN:a-C/nc-TiC:a-C/a-C nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupetsov, Velko; Mishev, Georgi; Dishliev, Stefan; Kopanov, Viktor; Chitanov, Vassiliy; Kolaklieva, Lilyana; Pashinski, Chavdar

    2017-02-01

    Injection molds used in production of plastic components are subject of heavy abrasion wear. The increase of their wear resistance significantly reduces the production cost. In the current work are presented research results of the wear resistance of injection molds made of steel 1.2343, coated with Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN: a-C/nc-TiC:a -C/a-C. The study of the wear rate was done using the volumetric method and the influence of the trace length was investigated. The coating thickness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and adhesion were also tested. The coating was applied on unhardened ground specimens, hardened ground specimens and hardened polished specimens.

  13. Design and fabrication of label-free biochip using a guided mode resonance filter with nano grating structures by injection molding process.

    PubMed

    Cho, E; Kim, B; Choi, S; Han, J; Jin, J; Han, J; Lim, J; Heo, Y; Kim, S; Sung, G Y; Kang, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces technology to fabricate a guided mode resonance filter biochip using injection molding. Of the various nanofabrication processes that exist, injection molding is the most suitable for the mass production of polymer nanostructures. Fabrication of a nanograting pattern for guided mode resonance filters by injection molding requires a durable metal stamp, because of the high injection temperature and pressure. Careful consideration of the optimized process parameters is also required to achieve uniform sub-wavelength gratings with high fidelity. In this study, a metallic nanostructure pattern to be used as the stamp for the injection molding process was fabricated using electron beam lithography, a UV nanoimprinting process, and an electroforming process. A one-dimensional nanograting substrate was replicated by injection molding, during which the process parameters were controlled. To evaluate the geometric quality of the injection molded nanograting patterns, the surface profile of the fabricated nanograting for different processing conditions was analyzed using an atomic force microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process for fabricating guided mode resonance filter biochips, a high-refractive-index material was deposited on the polymer nanograting and its guided mode resonance characteristics were analyzed.

  14. Influence of Mold Surface Treatments on Flow of Polymer in Injection Moulding. Application to Weldlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailly, M.; Charmeau, J.-Y.; Bereaux, Y.; Monasse, B.

    2007-04-01

    Due to increasing expectations from the market, the aspect of molded parts has to be improved constantly. Some of the defects observed on these parts such as weldlines are related to the filling stage. To limit this, we investigated the influence on weldlines using various surface deposits on the mold surface, mainly PVD and PACVD deposits : Chromium nitride (CrN), Titanium nitride (TiN), Diamond like Carbon (DLC), Chromium and polished steel (PG) on an instrumented plate mold. Injection campaign was led on three polymers which differ in terms of nature (amorphous, semi-crystalline, copolymers). We studied the evolution of the dimensions of weldlines appearing on the plate using the same injection parameters for a given polymer, but with various deposits and thicknesses. Another aspect that had been investigated is the morphology of the weldline through the thickness of the part, depending on polymer nature. Adhesion of polymer at the flow front with the mold surface proved to change. The modification of the initial contact in the filling stage and thus the thermal resistance at the mold implied a change in the process, increasing or reducing the pressure loss in the flow and differential shrinkage in the final part. The induced impact on dimensions of the weldlines allowed to distinguish which surface treatments were able to reduce the defect. A complementary study was led on both polymers in molten state and deposits in terms of wetting using a sessile drop method to confirm the adhesion at the polymer/mold interface. This study proved the influence of the use of surface treatments has clearly an impact on the filling stage of the injection molding process, and it is necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between physical adhesion, tribology of polymer/mold contact, and thermal properties of the coatings and their impact on solidification of the polymer.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Injection Molding of Ti-6Al-4V Powders for High-Performance Titanium Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongguo; Kang, Tae Gon; Han, Jun Sae; Park, Seong Jin; Chung, Seong Taek; Kwon, Young-Sam

    2018-02-01

    Both experimental and numerical analysis of powder injection molding (PIM) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to prepare a defect-free high-performance Ti-6Al-4V part with low carbon/oxygen contents. The prepared feedstock was characterized with specific experiments to identify its viscosity, pressure-volume-temperature and thermal properties to simulate its injection molding process. A finite-element-based numerical scheme was employed to simulate the thermomechanical process during the injection molding. In addition, the injection molding, debinding, sintering and hot isostatic pressing processes were performed in sequence to prepare the PIMed parts. With optimized processing conditions, the PIMed Ti-6Al-4V part exhibits excellent physical and mechanical properties, showing a final density of 99.8%, tensile strength of 973 MPa and elongation of 16%.

  16. Molecular orientation distributions during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers: Ex situ investigation of partially filled moldings

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Bubeck, Robert A.

    The development of molecular orientation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) during injection molding has been investigated using two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering coordinated with numerical computations employing the Larson-Doi polydomain model. Orientation distributions were measured in 'short shot' moldings to characterize structural evolution prior to completion of mold filling, in both thin and thick rectangular plaques. Distinct orientation patterns are observed near the filling front. In particular, strong extension at the melt front results in nearly transverse molecular alignment. Far away from the flow front shear competes with extension to produce complex spatial distributions of orientation. The relative influence ofmore » shear is stronger in the thin plaque, producing orientation along the filling direction. Exploiting an analogy between the Larson-Doi model and a fiber orientation model, we test the ability of process simulation tools to predict TLCP orientation distributions during molding. Substantial discrepancies between model predictions and experimental measurements are found near the flow front in partially filled short shots, attributed to the limits of the Hele-Shaw approximation used in the computations. Much of the flow front effect is however 'washed out' by subsequent shear flow as mold filling progresses, leading to improved agreement between experiment and corresponding numerical predictions.« less

  17. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and lowmore » residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.« less

  18. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing amore » phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.« less

  19. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  20. Foam injection molding of elastomers with iron microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Valentina; D'Auria, Marco; Sorrentino, Luigi; Davino, Daniele; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a preliminary study of foam injection molding of a thermoplastic elastomer, Engage 8445, and its microcomposite loaded with iron particles was carried out, in order to evaluate the effect of the iron microparticles on the foaming process. In particular, reinforced samples have been prepared by using nanoparticles at 2% by volume. Nitrogen has been used as physical blowing agent. Foamed specimens consisting of neat and filled elastomer were characterized by density measurements and morphological analysis. While neat Engage has shown a well developed cellular morphology far from the injection point, the addition of iron microparticles considerably increased the homogeneity of the cellular morphology. Engage/iron foamed samples exhibited a reduction in density greater than 32%, with a good and homogeneous cellular morphology, both in the transition and in the core zones, starting from small distances from the injection point.

  1. Interfacial crystalline structures in injection over-molded polypropylene and bond strength.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bowen; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Genjie; Guo, Shaoyun; Huang, Jian

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes interfacial crystalline structures found in injection overmolded polypropylene components and the relationship of these structures to bond strength between the components. The combined effects of the development of hierarchical gradient structures and the particular thermomechanical environment near the interface on the interfacial crystalline structures were investigated in detail by PLM, SEM, DSC, WAXD, and infrared dichroism spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that during molding there was competitive formation of interfacial crystalline structures consisted of "shish-kebab" layer (SKL) and a transcrystalline layers (TCL). Variation in shear stress (controlled by injection pressure and injection speed) plays an important role in the formation of the SKL. The formation of TCL is influenced by the thermal environment, namely melt temperature and mold temperature. Increasing within certain limits, interfacial temperature and the thermal gradient near the interface promotes β-iPP growth. The relationship between interfacial crystalline structures and interfacial bond strength was established by lap shear measurement. The interfacial bond strength is improved by enhancing the formation of TCL, but reduced if SKL predominates.

  2. Characterization of polymeric binders for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames, Juan M.

    The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process is an economically attractive method of producing large amounts of small and complex metallic parts. This is achieved by combining the productivity of injection molding with the versatility of sintering of metal particulates. In MIM, the powdered metal is blended with a plastic binder to obtain the feedstock. The binder imparts flowability to the blend at injection molding conditions and strength at ambient conditions. After molding, the binder is removed in a sequence of steps that usually involves solvent-extraction and polymer burn-out. Once the binder is removed, the metal particles are sintered. In this research several topics of the MIM process were studied to understand how the polymeric binder, similar to the one used in the sponsoring company, works. This was done by examining the compounding and water debinding processes, the rheological and thermal properties, and the microstructure of the binder/metal composite at different processing stages. The factors studied included the metal contents, the composition of the binder and the processing conditions. The three binders prepared during the course of this research were blends of a polyolefin, polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM) and a water-soluble polymer (WSP). The polyolefin resins included polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). The powdered metal in the feedstocks was 316 L stainless steel. The compounding studies were completed in an internal mixer under different conditions of temperature, rotational speed and feedstock composition. It was found that the metal concentration was the most important factor in determining the torque evolution curves. The observation of microstructure with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different stages during compounding revealed that the metal particles neither agglomerate nor touch each other. The liquid extraction of the water-soluble polymer (WSP) from the molded

  3. An injection molding process for manufacturing highly porous and interconnected biodegradable polymer matrices for use as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kramschuster, Adam; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2010-02-01

    In this research, injection molding was combined with a novel material combination, supercritical fluid processing, and particulate leaching techniques to produce highly porous and interconnected structures that have the potential to act as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The foamed structures, molded with polylactide (PLA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) with salt as the particulate, were processed without the aid of organic solvents, which can be detrimental to tissue growth. The pore size in the scaffolds is controlled by salt particulates and interconnectivity is achieved by the co-continuous blending morphology of biodegradable PLA matrix with water-soluble PVOH. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) at the supercritical state is used to serve as a plasticizer, thereby imparting moldability of blends even with an ultra high salt particulate content, and allows the use of low processing temperatures, which are desirable for temperature-sensitive biodegradable polymers. Interconnected pores of approximately 200 microm in diameter and porosities of approximately 75% are reported and discussed.

  4. Metal Injection Molding for Superalloy Jet Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    single vanes. The vanes are subject to high vibration stresses and thus require reliable fatigue strength. Therefore the quality of the material must meet...Injection Molding for Superalloy Jet Engine Components 9 - 12 RTO-MP-AVT-139 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED MTU AeroEngines copyright...Sikorski Max Kraus Dr. Claus Müller MTU Aero Engines GmbH Munich, Germany 15.05. - 17.05.2006 MTU AeroEngines copyright ©2 AVT – 139 on “Cost Effective

  5. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Eduardo Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures. PMID:29056968

  6. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Liliane Pimenta; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Fancello, Eduardo Alberto; Roesler, Carlos Rodrigo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  7. Local mechanical properties of LFT injection molded parts: Numerical simulations versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, F.; Soete, K.; Bonte, H.; Debrabandere, E.

    2014-05-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length < 15mm) this investigation concentrates on the prediction of the local mechanical properties of an injection molded part. To realize this, the Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight 2014 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm for the polymer flow inside the mold is available. Using well known micro mechanic formulas allow to combine the local fiber length with the local orientation into local mechanical properties. Different experiments were performed using a commercially available glass fiber filled compound to compare the measured data with the numerical simulation results. In this investigation, tensile tests and 3 point bending tests are considered. To characterize the fiber length distribution of the polymer melt entering the mold (necessary for the numerical simulations), air shots were performed. For those air shots, similar homogenization conditions were used as during the injection molding tests. The fiber length distribution is characterized using automated optical method on samples for which the matrix material is burned away. Using the appropriate settings for the different experiments, good predictions of the local mechanical properties are obtained.

  8. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  9. Study of soft magnetic iron cobalt based alloys processed by powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Aline; Lozano, Jaime A.; Machado, Ricardo; Escobar, Jairo A.; Wendhausen, Paulo A. P.

    As a near net shape process, powder injection molding (PIM) opens new possibilities to process Fe-Co alloys for magnetic applications. Due to the fact that PIM does not involve plastic deformation of the material during processing, we envisioned the possibility of eliminating vanadium (V), which is generally added to Fe-Co alloys to improve the ductility in order to enable its further shaping by conventional processes such as forging and cold rolling. In our investigation we have found out two main futures related to the elimination of V, which lead to a cost-benefit gain in manufacturing small magnetic components where high-saturation induction is needed at low frequencies. Firstly, the elimination of V enables the achievement of much better magnetic properties when alloys are processed by PIM. Secondly, a lower sintering temperature can be used when the alloy is processed starting with elemental Fe and Co powders without the addition of V.

  10. Design of Revolute Joints for In-Mold Assembly Using Insert Molding.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Arvind; Ehrlich, Leicester; Desai, Jaydev P; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2011-12-01

    Creating highly articulated miniature structures requires assembling a large number of small parts. This is a very challenging task and increases cost of mechanical assemblies. Insert molding presents the possibility of creating a highly articulated structure in a single molding step. This can be accomplished by placing multiple metallic bearings in the mold and injecting plastic on top of them. In theory, this idea can generate a multi degree of freedom structures in just one processing step without requiring any post molding assembly operations. However, the polymer material has a tendency to shrink on top of the metal bearings and hence jam the joints. Hence, until now insert molding has not been used to create articulated structures. This paper presents a theoretical model for estimating the extent of joint jamming that occurs due to the shrinkage of the polymer on top of the metal bearings. The level of joint jamming is seen as the effective torque needed to overcome the friction in the revolute joints formed by insert molding. We then use this model to select the optimum design parameters which can be used to fabricate functional, highly articulating assemblies while meeting manufacturing constraints. Our analysis shows that the strength of weld-lines formed during the in-mold assembly process play a significant role in determining the minimum joint dimensions necessary for fabricating functional revolute joints. We have used the models and methods described in this paper to successfully fabricate the structure for a minimally invasive medical robot prototype with potential applications in neurosurgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of building an articulated structure with multiple degrees of freedom using insert molding.

  11. Structural Reorganization of CNC in Injection-Molded CNC/PBAT Materials under Thermal Annealing.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-04

    Composite materials were prepared by extrusion and injection molding from polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) and high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from capim dourado fibers. Three CNC contents were used, corresponding to 0.5, 1, and 2 times the theoretical percolation threshold. Small-amplitude oscillary shear (SAOS) experiments show that as the CNC content increases, a more elastic behavior is observed but no percolating network can form within the polymeric matrix as a result of the high shear rates involved during the injection-molding process. Annealing of the samples at 170 °C was performed, and the possible reorganization of the nanofiller was investigated. This reorganization was further elucidated using 2D-SAOS and creep experiments.

  12. High-rate production of micro- and nanostructured surfaces: Injection molding and novel process for metal tooling manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Vega, Marisely

    Devices containing micro and nanostructured surfaces are developing and constantly finding new applications, especially for medical diagnostics, point-of-care applications, and microneedles. They are also employed in the functionalization of surfaces for superhydrophobicity, drag reduction, or reversible adhesion by mimicking bio-inspired surfaces. This research provides a thorough investigation on the effects of different polymeric materials and processing conditions on the replication of micro and nanostructured surfaces via injection molding. In addition, this dissertation also presents a novel approach for the production of durable microstructured metal tooling to be used for the production of surfaces with microchannels via injection molding. Materials such as thermoplastic vulcanizates are substituting regular thermoplastic materials and vulcanized elastomers in many applications due to their outstanding properties and ease of processability. These material properties broaden the scope of applications for microstructured surfaces. However, there is a need for understanding how these materials behave in microinjection molding since thermoplastic elastomers' behavior during injection molding have been shown to differ from that of the widely understood behavior of thermoplastics. Replication of microstructured surfaces using thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) was studied in the first part of this thesis. TPVs with different hardness's were molded using microinjection molding with various processing conditions and the replication and surface details of 20 microm pillars (aspect ratio of 1:1) were characterized. In the second part of this research liquid silicone rubber (LSR) was studied as a material for the production of micro and nanostructured surfaces. LSR is a silicone based material such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is widely used for research and development of micro and nanostructured devices, and thus provides all the benefits of PDMS but can be

  13. Optimizing Injection Molding Parameters of Different Halloysites Type-Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites via Taguchi Complemented with ANOVA

    PubMed Central

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Nassir, Mohamed H.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes-thermoplastic polyurethane (HNTs-TPU) nanocomposites are attractive products due to increasing demands for specialized materials. This study attempts to optimize the parameters for injection just before marketing. The study shows the importance of the preparation of the samples and how well these parameters play their roles in the injection. The control parameters for injection are carefully determined to examine the mechanical properties and the density of the HNTs-TPU nanocomposites. Three types of modified HNTs were used as untreated HNTs (uHNTs), sulfuric acid treated (aHNTs) and a combined treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-malonic acid (MA) (treatment (mHNTs)). It was found that mHNTs have the most influential effect of producing HNTs-TPU nanocomposites with the best qualities. One possible reason for this extraordinary result is the effect of SDS as a disperser and MA as a crosslinker between HNTs and PVA. For the highest tensile strength, the control parameters are demonstrated at 150 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 30 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and mHNT (HNTs type). Meanwhile, the optimized combination of the levels for all six control parameters that provide the highest Young’s modulus and highest density was found to be 150 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 32 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 3 wt % (HNTs loading) and mHNT (HNTs type). For the best tensile strain, the six control parameters are found to be 160 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 32 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and mHNT (HNTs type). For the highest hardness, the best parameters are 140 °C (injection temperature), 6 bar (injection pressure), 30 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and mHNT (HNTs type). The analyses are carried out by

  14. Optimizing Injection Molding Parameters of Different Halloysites Type-Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites via Taguchi Complemented with ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Nassir, Mohamed H; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2016-11-22

    Halloysite nanotubes-thermoplastic polyurethane (HNTs-TPU) nanocomposites are attractive products due to increasing demands for specialized materials. This study attempts to optimize the parameters for injection just before marketing. The study shows the importance of the preparation of the samples and how well these parameters play their roles in the injection. The control parameters for injection are carefully determined to examine the mechanical properties and the density of the HNTs-TPU nanocomposites. Three types of modified HNTs were used as untreated HNTs ( u HNTs), sulfuric acid treated ( a HNTs) and a combined treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-malonic acid (MA) (treatment ( m HNTs)). It was found that m HNTs have the most influential effect of producing HNTs-TPU nanocomposites with the best qualities. One possible reason for this extraordinary result is the effect of SDS as a disperser and MA as a crosslinker between HNTs and PVA. For the highest tensile strength, the control parameters are demonstrated at 150 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 30 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and m HNT (HNTs type). Meanwhile, the optimized combination of the levels for all six control parameters that provide the highest Young's modulus and highest density was found to be 150 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 32 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 3 wt % (HNTs loading) and m HNT (HNTs type). For the best tensile strain, the six control parameters are found to be 160 °C (injection temperature), 8 bar (injection pressure), 32 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and m HNT (HNTs type). For the highest hardness, the best parameters are 140 °C (injection temperature), 6 bar (injection pressure), 30 °C (mold temperature), 8 min (injection time), 2 wt % (HNTs loading) and m HNT (HNTs type). The analyses are carried

  15. Improved compression molding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.

    1967-01-01

    Modified compression molding process produces plastic molding compounds that are strong, homogeneous, free of residual stresses, and have improved ablative characteristics. The conventional method is modified by applying a vacuum to the mold during the molding cycle, using a volatile sink, and exercising precise control of the mold closure limits.

  16. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  17. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  18. Particle morphology influence on mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti alloy powder.

    PubMed

    Gülsoy, H Özkan; Gülsoy, Nagihan; Calışıcı, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Titanium and Titanium alloys exhibits properties that are excellent for various bio-applications. Metal injection molding is a processing route that offers reduction in costs, with the added advantage of near net-shape components. Different physical properties of Titanium alloy powders, shaped and processed via injection molding can achieve high complexity of part geometry with mechanical and bioactivity properties, similar or superior to wrought material. This study describes that the effect of particle morphology on the microstructural, mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy powder for biomaterials applications. Ti64 powders irregular and spherical in shape were injection molded with wax based binder. Binder debinding was performed in solvent and thermal method. After debinding the samples were sintered under high vacuum. Metallographic studies were determined to densification and the corresponding microstructural changes. Sintered samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with elemental concentrations that were comparable to those of human blood plasma for a total period of 15 days. Both materials were implanted in fibroblast culture for biocompatibility evaluations were carried out. The results show that spherical and irregular powder could be sintered to a maximum theoretical density. Maximum tensile strength was obtained for spherical shape powder sintered. The tensile strength of the irregular shape powder sintered at the same temperature was lower due to higher porosity. Finally, mechanical tests show that the irregular shape powder has lower mechanical properties than spherical shape powder. The sintered irregular Ti64 powder exhibited better biocompatibility than sintered spherical Ti64 powder. Results of study showed that sintered spherical and irregular Ti64 powders exhibited high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility properties.

  19. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt.

  20. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limitsmore » due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.« less

  1. Integrated hot-melt extrusion - injection molding continuous tablet manufacturing platform: Effects of critical process parameters and formulation attributes on product robustness and dimensional stability.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind M; Hogan, Rachael C; Brancazio, David; Puri, Vibha; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-05

    This study provides a framework for robust tablet development using an integrated hot-melt extrusion-injection molding (IM) continuous manufacturing platform. Griseofulvin, maltodextrin, xylitol and lactose were employed as drug, carrier, plasticizer and reinforcing agent respectively. A pre-blended drug-excipient mixture was fed from a loss-in-weight feeder to a twin-screw extruder. The extrudate was subsequently injected directly into the integrated IM unit and molded into tablets. Tablets were stored in different storage conditions up to 20 weeks to monitor physical stability and were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, DSC, SEM, XRD and dissolution analysis. Optimized injection pressure provided robust tablet formulations. Tablets manufactured at low and high injection pressures exhibited the flaws of sink marks and flashing respectively. Higher solidification temperature during IM process reduced the thermal induced residual stress and prevented chipping and cracking issues. Polarized light microscopy revealed a homogeneous dispersion of crystalline griseofulvin in an amorphous matrix. DSC underpinned the effect of high tablet residual moisture on maltodextrin-xylitol phase separation that resulted in dimensional instability. Tablets with low residual moisture demonstrated long term dimensional stability. This study serves as a model for IM tablet formulations for mechanistic understanding of critical process parameters and formulation attributes required for optimal product performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and performance of injection molded poly(methylmethacrylate) microchips for capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Nikcevic, Irena; Lee, Se Hwan; Piruska, Aigars; Ahn, Chong H.; Ridgway, Thomas H.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Wehmeyer, K. R.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Injection molded poly(methylmethacrylate) (IM-PMMA), chips were evaluated as potential candidates for capillary electrophoresis disposable chip applications. Mass production and usage of plastic microchips depends on chip-to-chip reproducibility and on analysis accuracy. Several important properties of IM-PMMA chips were considered: fabrication quality evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscope imaging, surface quality measurements, selected thermal/electrical properties as indicated by measurement of the current versus applied voltage (I–V) characteristic, and the influence of channel surface treatments. Electroosmotic flow was also evaluated for untreated and O2 reactive ion etching (RIE) treated surface microchips. The performance characteristics of single lane plastic microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) separations were evaluated using a mixture of two dyes - fluorescein (FL) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). To overcome non-wettability of the native IM-PMMA surface, a modifier, polyethylene oxide was added to the buffer as a dynamic coating. Chip performance reproducibility was studied for chips with and without surface modification via the process of RIE with O2 and by varying the hole position for the reservoir in the cover plate or on the pattern side of the chip. Additionally, the importance of reconditioning steps to achieve optimal performance reproducibility was also examined. It was found that more reproducible quantitative results were obtained when normalized values of migration time, peak area and peak height of FL and FITC were used instead of actual measured parameters PMID:17477932

  3. Development of a statistically proven injection molding method for reaction bonded silicon nitride, sintering reaction bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias

    A statistically proven, series injection molding technique for ceramic components was developed for the construction of engines and gas turbines. The flow behavior of silicon injection-molding materials was characterized and improved. Hot-isostatic-pressing reaction bonded silicon nitride (HIPRBSN) was developed. A nondestructive component evaluation method was developed. An injection molding line for HIPRBSN engine components precombustion chamber, flame spreader, and valve guide was developed. This line allows the production of small series for engine tests.

  4. Development of polylactide (PLA) and PLA nanocomposite foams in injection molding for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi Chaloupli, Naqi

    Plastic materials are extensively used in automotive structures since they make cars more energy efficient. Recently, the automotive industry is searching for bio-based and renewable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Among polymers originating from renewable sources, polylactide (PLA) has attracted significant interest. The use of this polymer in durable industries is promising. Fuel-efficient automobiles are nowadays demanded due to the increasing concerns about environmental and fuel issues. The automobile fuel efficiency can be improved by using a lightweight material and, thereby, reducing the automobile weight. A potential method to achieve this objective is the use of the foaming technology. Foam is a material where a gas phase is encapsulated by a solid phase. Foaming technology helps to manufacture lightweight parts with superior properties in comparison with their solid counterparts. The basic mechanisms of foaming process normally consists of gas implementation, formation of uniform polymer-gas solution, cell nucleation, cell growth and, finally, cell stabilization. PLA foaming has, however, proved to be difficult mainly due to poor rheological properties, small processing window, and slow crystallization kinetics. The ultimate purpose of this work is to reduce by 30 % the weight of polylactide (PLA)-clay based nanocomposites by manufacturing injection-molded foamed parts. To use standard processing equipment, a chemical blowing agent (CBA) was employed. The injection molding technique was utilized in this project because it is the most widely used fabrication process in industry that can produce complex shaped articles. This process, however, is more challenging than other foaming processes since it deals with many additional controlling parameters. In the first part of this project, we illustrated how long chain branching (LCB) and molecular structure impact the melt rheology, crystallization and batch

  5. Design and development of an injection-molded demultiplexer for optical communication systems in the visible range.

    PubMed

    Höll, S; Haupt, M; Fischer, U H P

    2013-06-20

    Optical simulation software based on the ray-tracing method offers easy and fast results in imaging optics. This method can also be applied in other fields of light propagation. For short distance communications, polymer optical fibers (POFs) are gradually gaining importance. This kind of fiber offers a larger core diameter, e.g., the step index POF features a core diameter of 980 μm. Consequently, POFs have a large number of modes (>3 million modes) in the visible range, and ray tracing could be used to simulate the propagation of light. This simulation method is applicable not only for the fiber itself but also for the key components of a complete POF network, e.g., couplers or other key elements of the transmission line. In this paper a demultiplexer designed and developed by means of ray tracing is presented. Compared to the classical optical design, requirements for optimal design differ particularly with regard to minimizing the insertion loss (IL). The basis of the presented key element is a WDM device using a Rowland spectrometer setup. In this approach the input fiber carries multiple wavelengths, which will be divided into multiple output fibers that transmit only one wavelength. To adapt the basic setup to POF, the guidance of light in this element has to be changed fundamentally. Here, a monolithic approach is presented with a blazed grating using an aspheric mirror to minimize most of the aberrations. In the simulations the POF is represented by an area light source, while the grating is analyzed for different orders and the highest possible efficiency. In general, the element should be designed in a way that it can be produced with a mass production technology like injection molding in order to offer a reasonable price. However, designing the elements with regard to injection molding leads to some inherent challenges. The microstructure of an optical grating and the thick-walled 3D molded parts both result in high demands on the injection molding

  6. Effects of powder characteristics on injection molding and burnout cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, G.; French, K.W.

    Silicon nitride particle size and size distributions were varied widely to determine their effects on burnout cracking of injection-molded test parts containing thick and thin sections. Elimination of internal cracking required significant burnout shrinkage, which did not occur by changes of particle size and size distribution. However, isopressing of test parts after burnout provided the dimensional shrinkage necessary for producing crack-free components.

  7. Fabrication of tissue engineered tympanic membrane patches using computer-aided design and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Hott, Morgan E; Megerian, Cliff A; Beane, Rich; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to use computer-aided design and injection molding technologies to tissue engineer precisely shaped cartilage in the shape of butterfly tympanic membrane patches out of chondrocyte-seeded calcium alginate gels. Molds were designed on SolidWorks 2000 and built out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) using fused deposition modeling (FDM). Tympanic membrane patches were fabricated using bovine articular chondrocytes seeded at 50 x 10 cells/mL in 2% calcium alginate gels. Molded patches were cultured in vitro for up to 10 weeks and assessed biochemically, morphologically, and histologically. Unmolded patches demonstrated outstanding dimensional fidelity, with a volumetric precision of at least 3 microL, and maintained their shape well for up to 10 weeks of in vitro culture. Glycosaminoglycan and collagen content increased steadily over 10 weeks in culture, demonstrating continual deposition of new extracellular matrix consistent with new tissue development. The use of computer-aided design and injection molding technologies allows for the fabrication of very small, precisely shaped chondrocyte-seeded calcium alginate structures that faithfully maintain their shape during in vitro culture. In vitro fabrication of tympanic membrane patches with a precisely controlled geometry may have the potential to provide a minimally invasive alternative to traditional methods for the repair of chronic tympanic membrane perforations.

  8. A study on the development of engineering plastic piston used in the shock absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Bae, Won-Byong; Lim, Dong-Ju; Suh, Yun-Soo

    1998-08-01

    A piston is an important component of the shock absorber which determines comfortable riding and handling. Conventional piston is made of metal powder that is pressed in a mold, and then sintered at high temperatures below the melting point before machining processes such as drilling, sizing and teflon banding. This study aims at cutting down cost and weight, and improving the process by replacing the traditional sintering process used for manufacturing the shock absorber with the injection molding process adopting engineering plastics as raw material. To analyze the injection molding process, we used the commercial program, MOLDFLOW, and obtained an optimal combination of the process parameters. In addition, by comparing the engineering plastic piston with the metal powder piston through the formability and the performance experiments, we confirmed the availability of this alternative process suggested.

  9. Magnesium Powder Injection Molding (MIM) of Orthopedic Implants for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Schaper, J. G.; Suckert, M. R.; Dahms, M.; Ebel, T.; Willumeit-Römer, R.; Klassen, T.

    2016-04-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) has a high potential for the economic near-net-shape mass production of small-sized and complex-shaped parts. The motivation for launching Mg into the MIM processing chain for manufacturing biodegradable medical implants is related to its compatibility with human bone and its degradation in a non-toxic matter. It has been recognized that the load-bearing capacity of MIM Mg parts is superior to that of biodegradable polymeric components. However, the choice of appropriate polymeric binder components and alloying elements enabling defect-free injection molding and sintering is a major challenge for the use of MIM Mg parts. This study considered the full processing chain for MIM of Mg-Ca alloys to achieve ultimate tensile strength of up to 141 MPa with tensile yield strength of 73 MPa, elongation at fracture Af of 7% and a Young's modulus of 38 GPa. To achieve these mechanical properties, a thermal debinding study was performed to determine optimal furnace and atmosphere conditions, sintering temperature, heating rates, sintering time and pressure.

  10. Hot Runner Mold Design of Fan Diverter Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, D. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we discuss the case of plastic parts for the production of fan steering gear shaft parts injection molding, and use POM plastic steel to produce plastic parts from traditional cold runners. Because of the parts have a hole, which need side slide. The runner produce more waste after plastic parts injection make the runner waste account for the cost is relatively high, the cost of stock preparation is relatively increased when the product quantity demanded is great. After the crushing treatment of the waste, the backfill will affect the quality, and in the crushing process, the volume generated will make the operator to withstand up to 130 dB of noise. The actual test results show that the production cycle reduce 6.25%, while the production yield increase by about 5% and material costs reduced by 2% . It can be recovered within a year, not to mention the increase of the quality and reduction the noise on the staff of the benefit is impossible to estimate.

  11. Inexpensive 3dB coupler for POF communication by injection-molding production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2011-01-01

    POFs (polymer optical fibers) gradually replace traditional communication media such as copper and glass within short distance communication systems. Primarily, this is due to their cost-effectiveness and easy handling. POFs are used in various fields of optical communication, e.g. the automotive sector or in-house communication. So far, however, only a few key components for a POF communication network are available. Even basic components, such as splices and couplers, are fabricated manually. Therefore, these circumstances result in high costs and fluctuations in components' performance. Available couplers have high insertion losses due to their manufacturing method. This can only be compensated by higher power budgets. In order to produce couplers with higher performances new fabrication methods are indispensable. A cheap and effective way to produce couplers for POF communication systems is injection molding. The paper gives an overview of couplers available on market, compares their performances, and shows a way to produce couplers by means of injection molding.

  12. Characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel artificial articular cartilage prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Oka, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a hip hemi-arthroplasty using polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel (PVA-H) as the treatment for hip joint disorders in which the lesion is limited to the joint surface. In previous studies, we characterized the biocompatibility and the mechanical properties of PVA-H as an arthroplasty material. To fix PVA-H firmly to the bone, we have devised an implant composed of PVA-H and porous titanium fiber mesh (TFM). However, because of poor infiltration of the PVA solution into the pores of the TFM when using the low temperature crystallization method, the strength of the PVA-H-TFM interface was insufficient. Consequently, the infiltration method was improved by adopting high-pressure injection molding. With this improved method, the bonding strength of the interface increased remarkably. However, as this injection molding requires high temperature, various mechanical properties of the PVA-H might change with this treatment in comparison with the previous method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high temperature treatment on the mechanical properties of PVA-H as artificial articular cartilage, the tensile test and friction test were performed about new PVA-H. The results showed no significant mechanical deterioration of the PVA-H. This certified that the injection-molding method did not induce the change of the mechanical properties of PVA-H and indicated the potential of hemi-arthroplasty using PVA-H by this method in the future.

  13. Simulation-based process windows simultaneously considering two and three conflicting criteria in injection molding

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Alicia Berenice; Méndez-Vázquez, Yaileen

    2014-01-01

    Process windows in injection molding are habitually built with only one performance measure in mind. In reality, a more realistic picture can be obtained when considering multiple performance measures at a time, especially in the presence of conflict. In this work, the construction of process windows for injection molding (IM) is undertaken considering two and three performance measures in conflict simultaneously. The best compromises between the criteria involved are identified through the direct application of the concept of Pareto-dominance in multiple criteria optimization. The aim is to provide a formal and realistic strategy to set processing conditions in IM operations. The resulting optimization approach is easily implementable in MS Excel. The solutions are presented graphically to facilitate their use in manufacturing plants. PMID:25530927

  14. Simulation-based process windows simultaneously considering two and three conflicting criteria in injection molding.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Alicia Berenice; Méndez-Vázquez, Yaileen; Cabrera-Ríos, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Process windows in injection molding are habitually built with only one performance measure in mind. In reality, a more realistic picture can be obtained when considering multiple performance measures at a time, especially in the presence of conflict. In this work, the construction of process windows for injection molding (IM) is undertaken considering two and three performance measures in conflict simultaneously. The best compromises between the criteria involved are identified through the direct application of the concept of Pareto-dominance in multiple criteria optimization. The aim is to provide a formal and realistic strategy to set processing conditions in IM operations. The resulting optimization approach is easily implementable in MS Excel. The solutions are presented graphically to facilitate their use in manufacturing plants.

  15. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1990-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  16. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1988-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  17. Development of porous lamellar poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds by conventional injection molding process.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Satyabrata; Viana, Júlio C; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2008-07-01

    A novel fabrication technique is proposed for the preparation of unidirectionally oriented, porous scaffolds by selective polymer leaching from lamellar structures created by conventional injection molding. The proof of the concept is implemented using a 50/50 wt.% poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA/PEO) blend. With this composition, the PLLA and PEO blend is biphasic, containing a homogeneous PLLA/PEO phase and a PEO-rich phase. The two phases were structured using injection molding into well-defined alternating layers of homogeneous PLLA/PEO phase and PEO-rich phase. Leaching of water-soluble PEO from the PEO-rich phase produces macropores, and leaching of phase-separated PEO from the initially homogeneous PLLA/PEO phase produces micropores in the lamellae. Thus, scaffolds with a macroporous lamellar architecture with microporous walls can be produced. The lamellae are continuous along the flow direction, and a continuous lamellar thickness of less than 1 microm could be achieved. Porosities of 57-74% and pore sizes of around 50-100 microm can be obtained using this process. The tensile elastic moduli of the porous constructs were between 580 and 800 MPa. We propose that this organic-solvent-free method of preparing lamellar scaffolds with good mechanical properties, and the reproducibility associated with the injection molding technique, holds promise for a wide range of guided tissue engineering applications.

  18. Simulations of the heat exchange in thermoplastic injection molds manufactured by additive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daldoul, Wafa; Toulorge, Thomas; Vincent, Michel

    2017-10-01

    The cost and quality of complex parts manufactured by thermoplastic injection is traditionally limited by design constraints on the cooling system of the mold. A possible solution is to create the mold by additive manufacturing, which makes it possible to freely design the cooling channels. Such molds normally contain hollow parts (alveoli) in order to decrease their cost. However, the complex geometry of the cooling channels and the alveoli makes it difficult to predict the performance of the cooling system. This work aims to compute the heat exchanges between the polymer, the mold and the cooling channels with complex geometries. An Immersed Volume approach is taken, where the different parts of the domain (i.e. the polymer, the cooling channels, the alveoli and the mold) are represented by level-sets and the thermo-mechanical properties of the materials vary smoothly at the interface between the parts. The energy and momentum equations are solved by a stabilized Finite Element method. In order to accurately resolve the large variations of material properties and the steep temperature gradients at interfaces, state-of-the art anisotropic mesh refinement techniques are employed. The filling stage of the process is neglected. In a first step, only the heat equation is solved, so that the packing stage is also disregarded. In a second step, thermo-mechanical effects occurring in the polymer during the packing stage are taken into account, which results in the injection of an additional amount of polymer that significantly influences the temperature evolution. The method is validated on the simple geometry of a center-gated disk and compared with experimental measurements. The agreement is very good. Simulations are performed on an industrial case which illustrates the ability of the method to deal with complex geometries.

  19. Volume-change indicator for molding plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heler, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Monitor consisting of two concentric disks measures change in volume of charge during compression/displacement molding. Device enables operator to decide whether process pressure and temperature are set properly or whether sufficient material has been placed in mold.

  20. Interface conditions of two-shot molded parts

    SciTech Connect

    Kisslinger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kisslinger@pccl.at; Bruckmoser, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.bruckmoser@unileoben.ac.at; Resch, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.resch@unileoben.ac.at

    2014-05-15

    The focus of this work is on interfaces of two-shot molded parts. It is well known that e.g. material combination, process parameters and contact area structures show significant effects on the bond strength of multi-component injection molded parts. To get information about the bond strength at various process parameter settings and material combinations a test mold with core back technology was used to produce two-component injection molded tensile test specimens. At the core back process the different materials are injected consecutively, so each component runs through the whole injection molding cycle (two-shot process). Due to this consecutive injection molding processes,more » a cold interface is generated. This is defined as overmolding of a second melt to a solidified polymer preform. Strong interest lies in the way the interface conditions change during the adhesion formation between the individual components. Hence the interface conditions were investigated by computed tomography and Raman spectroscopy. By analyzing these conditions the understanding of the adhesion development during the multi-component injection molding was improved.« less

  1. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Injection molding of silicon carbide capable of being sintered without pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller-Zell, A.; Schwarzmeier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The most suitable SiC mass for injection molding of SiC articles (for subsequent pressureless sintering) consisted of beta SiC 84, a wax mixture 8, and polyethylene or polystyrene 8 parts. The most effective method for adding the binders was by dissolving them in a solvent and subsequent evaporation. The sequence of component addition was significant, and all parameters were optimized together rather than individually.

  3. Tensile Characterization of Injection-Molded Fuzzy Glass Fiber/Nylon Composite Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    enhanced reinforcement ( CER ) in a nylon matrix. A majority of the masterbatch CER material research is focused on electromagnetic shielding applications...however, the CER system, with the CNT network fixed to the host fiber, provides a novel approach of minimizing CNT agglomeration. Tensile specimens are...injection molded with varying weight percentages of CER to evaluate effect of the reinforcement on the mechanical properties. Tension testing showed

  4. Linear and volumetric dimensional changes of injection-molded PMMA denture base resins.

    PubMed

    El Bahra, Shadi; Ludwig, Klaus; Samran, Abdulaziz; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Kern, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the linear and volumetric dimensional changes of six denture base resins processed by their corresponding injection-molding systems at 3 time intervals of water storage. Two heat-curing (SR Ivocap Hi Impact and Lucitone 199) and four auto-curing (IvoBase Hybrid, IvoBase Hi Impact, PalaXpress, and Futura Gen) acrylic resins were used with their specific injection-molding technique to fabricate 6 specimens of each material. Linear and volumetric dimensional changes were determined by means of a digital caliper and an electronic hydrostatic balance, respectively, after water storage of 1, 30, or 90 days. Means and standard deviations of linear and volumetric dimensional changes were calculated in percentage (%). Statistical analysis was done using Student's and Welch's t tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in linear dimensional changes between resins were demonstrated at all three time intervals of water immersion (p≤0.05), with exception of the following comparisons which showed no significant difference: IvoBase Hi Impact/SR Ivocap Hi Impact and PalaXpress/Lucitone 199 after 1 day, Futura Gen/PalaXpress and PalaXpress/Lucitone 199 after 30 days, and IvoBase Hybrid/IvoBase Hi Impact after 90 days. Also, statistically significant differences in volumetric dimensional changes between resins were found at all three time intervals of water immersion (p≤0.05), with exception of the comparison between PalaXpress and Futura Gen. Denture base resins (IvoBase Hybrid and IvoBase Hi Impact) processed by the new injection-molding system (IvoBase), revealed superior dimensional precision. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z. J.; Ma, Z.; Gao, S.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-needle array, which is used in medical applications, is a kind of typical injection molded products with microstructures. Due to its tiny micro-features size and high aspect ratios, it is more likely to produce short shots defects, leading to poor molding quality. The injection molding process of the micro-needle array was studied in this paper to find the effects of the process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array and to provide theoretical guidance for practical production of high-quality products. With the shrinkage ratio and warpage of micro needles as the evaluation indices of the molding quality, the orthogonal experiment was conducted and the analysis of variance was carried out. According to the results, the contribution rates were calculated to determine the influence of various process parameters on molding quality. The single parameter method was used to analyse the main process parameter. It was found that the contribution rate of the holding pressure on shrinkage ratio and warpage reached 83.55% and 94.71% respectively, far higher than that of the other parameters. The study revealed that the holding pressure is the main factor which affects the molding quality of micro-needle array so that it should be focused on in order to obtain plastic parts with high quality in the practical production.

  6. Image-guided tissue engineering of anatomically shaped implants via MRI and micro-CT using injection molding.

    PubMed

    Ballyns, Jeffery J; Gleghorn, Jason P; Niebrzydowski, Vicki; Rawlinson, Jeremy J; Potter, Hollis G; Maher, Suzanne A; Wright, Timothy M; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-07-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time the development of engineered tissues based on anatomic geometries derived from widely used medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computer-aided design and tissue injection molding techniques have demonstrated the ability to generate living implants of complex geometry. Due to its complex geometry, the meniscus of the knee was used as an example of this technique's capabilities. MRI and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were used to design custom-printed molds that enabled the generation of anatomically shaped constructs that retained shape throughout 8 weeks of culture. Engineered constructs showed progressive tissue formation indicated by increases in extracellular matrix content and mechanical properties. The paradigm of interfacing tissue injection molding technology can be applied to other medical imaging techniques that render 3D models of anatomy, demonstrating the potential to apply the current technique to engineering of many tissues and organs.

  7. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  8. Development and Design of Binder Systems for Titanium Metal Injection Molding: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guian; Cao, Peng; Gabbitas, Brian; Zhang, Deliang; Edmonds, Neil

    2013-03-01

    Titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) has been practiced since the late 1980s. Logically, the Ti-MIM practice follows the similar processes developed for the antecedent materials such as stainless steel and ceramics. Although Ti-MIM is a favorite research topic today, the issue of convincing the designers to use Ti injection-molded parts still exists. This is mainly because of the concern about contamination which seems unavoidable during the Ti-MIM process. Much information about the binder formulation, powder requirements, debinding, and sintering is available in the literature. There are several powder vendors and feedstock suppliers. However, most of the binders in the feedstock are proprietarily protected. The disclosed information on the binders used for formulating powder feedstock is very limited, which in turn discourages their adoption by engineering designers. This overview intends to discuss some of major binder systems for Ti-MIM available in the literature. It serves to provide a guideline for the Ti-MIM practitioners to choose a suitable powder feedstock.

  9. Anisotropic mechanical behavior of an injection molded short fiber reinforced thermoplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Delphine; Thuillier, Sandrine; Bessières, Nicolas; Grohens, Yves

    2016-10-01

    A short fiber reinforced thermoplastic was injected into a rectangular mold, in order to prepare samples to characterize the mechanical behavior of the material. The injection process was simulated with Moldflow and a cutting pattern was deduced from the predicted fiber orientation, leading to samples with several well-defined orientations with respect to the injection direction. Monotonic tensile tests up to rupture, as well as complex cycles made of loading steps followed by relaxation steps at different strain levels were performed, in order to check the reproducibility for a given orientation. Moreover, the fiber orientation in the central part of the tensile samples was also analyzed with X-ray tomography. The results show that the mechanical behavior for each orientation (among 6) was rather reproducible, thus validating the cutting pattern.

  10. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanopillars and micro/nano combined structures with hydrophobic surface characteristics by injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mingyong; Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Bingyan; Weng, Can

    2018-01-01

    Polymer products with micro/nano-structures have excellent mechanical and optical properties, chemical resistance, and other advantages. Injection molding is one of the most potential techniques to fabricate polymer products with micro/nano-structures artificially in large numbers. In this study, a surface approach to fabricate high aspect ratio nanopillars and micro/nano combined structures was presented. Mold insert with micropillar arrays and nanopillars on its surface was prepared by combing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and etched plate. Anti-sticking modification was done on the template to realize a better demolding quality. The influences of mold temperature and polymer material on the final replication quality were investigated. The results showed that the final replication quality of high aspect ratio nanopillars was greatly improved as compared with the unprocessed template. Polymer with low elongation at break was not suitable to fabricate structures with high aspect ratio via injection molding. For polypropylene surface, the experimental results of static contact angles were almost consistent with Cassie-Baxter equation. When the mold temperature reached 178 °C, hair-like polycarbonate nanopillars were observed, resulting in an excellent hydrophobic characteristic.

  11. Studies on the injection molding of polyvinyl chloride: Analysis of viscous heating and degradation in simple geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Jose Luis

    2000-10-01

    In injection molding processes, computer aided engineering (CAE) allows processors to evaluate different process parameters in order to achieve complete filling of a cavity and, in some cases, it predicts shrinkage and warpage. However, because commercial computational packages are used to design complex geometries, detail in the thickness direction is limited. Approximations in the thickness direction lead to the solution of a 2½-D problem instead of a 3-D problem. These simplifications drastically reduce computational times and memory requirements. However, these approximations hinder the ability to predict thermal and/or mechanical degradation. The goal of this study was to determine the degree of degradation during PVC injection molding and to compare the results with a computational model. Instead of analyzing degradation in complex geometries, the computational analysis and injection molding trials were performed on typical sections found in complex geometries, such as flow in a tube, flow in a rectangular channel, and radial flow. This simplification reduces the flow problem to a 1-D problem and allows one to develop a computational model with a higher level of detail in the thickness direction, essential for the determination of degradation. Two different geometries were examined in this study: a spiral mold, in order to approximate the rectangular channel, and a center gated plate for the radial flow. Injection speed, melt temperature, and shot size were varied. Parts varying in degree of degradation, from no to severe degradation, were produced to determine possible transition points. Furthermore, two different PVC materials were used, low and high viscosity, M3800 and M4200, respectively (The Geon Company, Avon Lake, OH), to correlate the degree of degradation with the viscous heating observed during injection. It was found that a good agreement between experimental and computational results was obtained only if the reaction was assumed to be more

  12. Predictive engineering tools for injection-molded long-carbon-fiber thermoplastic composites - FY 2015 third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Mori, Steven

    During the third quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) Magna oversaw the tool build and prepared the molding plan for the complex part of Phase II. 2) PlastiComp hosted a visit by Magna and Toyota on April 23rd to finalize the molding scope and schedule. The plan for molding trials including selection of molding parameters for both LFT and D-LFT for the U-shape complex part was established. 3) Toyota shipped the U-shape complex part tool to Magna on May 28th, 2015. 4) Plasticomp provided 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 compounded pelletsmore » to Magna for molding the complex part. 5) Magna performed preliminary molding trials on June 2nd, 2015 to validate wall thickness, fill profile, tool temperature and shot size requirements for the complex part. 6) Magna performed the first complex part run on June 16th and 17th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Centre of Excellence in Concord, ON, Canada. Dale Roland of Plasticomp, and Umesh Gandhi of Toyota also attended the molding. 7) Magna discussed and finalized the plan with PNNL and the team for cutting samples from molded parts at selected locations for fiber orientation and length measurements. 8) Magna provided the computer-aided design (CAD) files of the complex parts with and without ribs to PNNL and Autodesk to build the corresponding ASMI models for injection molding simulations. Magna also provided the actual parameters used. 9) Plasticomp’s provided knowledge and experience of molding LCF materials essential to the successful molding of the parts including optimization of fill speed, tool temperatures, and plasticizing conditions for the 30wt% LCF/PP and 30wt% LCF/PA66 materials in both rib and non-rib versions. 10) Magna molded additional parts for evaluation of mechanical property testing including torsional stiffness on June 29th and 30th, 2015 at Magna’s Composite Center of Excellence. 11) Toyota began preparation for the torsion test of the

  13. Optimal Design of Material and Process Parameters in Powder Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, G.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J.; Liu, B.

    2007-04-01

    The paper is concerned with optimization and parametric identification for the different stages in Powder Injection Molding process that consists first in injection of powder mixture with polymer binder and then to the sintering of the resulting powders part by solid state diffusion. In the first part, one describes an original methodology to optimize the process and geometry parameters in injection stage based on the combination of design of experiments and an adaptive Response Surface Modeling. Then the second part of the paper describes the identification strategy that one proposes for the sintering stage, using the identification of sintering parameters from dilatometeric curves followed by the optimization of the sintering process. The proposed approaches are applied to the optimization of material and process parameters for manufacturing a ceramic femoral implant. One demonstrates that the proposed approach give satisfactory results.

  14. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    SciTech Connect

    Bloß, P., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S., E-mail: bloss@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: jacob@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: michaelis@kuz-leipzig.de, E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de

    2014-05-15

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved.more » Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.« less

  15. CE chips fabricated by injection molding and polyethylene/thermoplastic elastomer film packaging methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Yih-Far; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This study presents a new packaging method using a polyethylene/thermoplastic elastomer (PE/TPE) film to seal an injection-molded CE chip made of either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or polycarbonate (PC) materials. The packaging is performed at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature, which is a fast, easy, and reliable bonding method to form a sealed CE chip for chemical analysis and biomedical applications. The fabrication of PMMA and PC microfluidic channels is accomplished by using an injection-molding process, which could be mass-produced for commercial applications. In addition to microfluidic CE channels, 3-D reservoirs for storing biosamples, and CE buffers are also formed during this injection-molding process. With this approach, a commercial CE chip can be of low cost and disposable. Finally, the functionality of the mass-produced CE chip is demonstrated through its successful separation of phiX174 DNA/HaeIII markers. Experimental data show that the S/N for the CE chips using the PE/TPE film has a value of 5.34, when utilizing DNA markers with a concentration of 2 ng/microL and a CE buffer of 2% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) in Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) with 1% YO-PRO-1 fluorescent dye. Thus, the detection limit of the developed chips is improved. Lastly, the developed CE chips are used for the separation and detection of PCR products. A mixture of an amplified antibiotic gene for Streptococcus pneumoniae and phiX174 DNA/HaeIII markers was successfully separated and detected by using the proposed CE chips. Experimental data show that these DNA samples were separated within 2 min. The study proposed a promising method for the development of mass-produced CE chips.

  16. On the use of topology optimization for improving heat transfer in molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agazzi, A.; LeGoff, R.; Truc-Vu, C.

    2016-10-01

    In the plastic industry, one of the key factor is to control heat transfer. One way to achieve that goal is to design an effective cooling system. But in some area of the mold, where it is not possible to design cooling system, the use of a highly conductive material, such as copper pin, is often used. Most of the time, the location, the size and the quantity of the copper pin are made by empirical considerations, without using optimization procedures. In this article, it is proposed to use topology optimization, in order to improve transient conductive heat transfer in an injection/blowing mold. Two methodologies are applied and compared. Finally, the optimal distribution of cooper pin in the mold is given.

  17. Experimental validation of analytical models for a rapid determination of cycle parameters in thermoplastic injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Sobotka, Vincent; Boyard, Nicolas; Delaunay, Didier

    2017-10-01

    Two different analytical models were presented to determine cycle parameters of thermoplastics injection process. The aim of these models was to provide quickly a first set of data for mold temperature and cooling time. The first model is specific to amorphous polymers and the second one is dedicated to semi-crystalline polymers taking the crystallization into account. In both cases, the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold could be considered as perfect or not (thermal contact resistance was considered). Results from models are compared with experimental data obtained with an instrumented mold for an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and a polypropylene (PP). Good agreements were obtained for mold temperature variation and for heat flux. In the case of the PP, the analytical crystallization times were compared with those given by a coupled model between heat transfer and crystallization kinetics.

  18. Injection molding as a one-step process for the direct production of pharmaceutical dosage forms from primary powders.

    PubMed

    Eggenreich, K; Windhab, S; Schrank, S; Treffer, D; Juster, H; Steinbichler, G; Laske, S; Koscher, G; Roblegg, E; Khinast, J G

    2016-05-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a one-step process for the production of tablets directly from primary powder by means of injection molding (IM), to create solid-dispersion based tablets. Fenofibrate was used as the model API, a polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer served as a matrix system. Formulations were injection-molded into tablets using state-of-the-art IM equipment. The resulting tablets were physico-chemically characterized and the drug release kinetics and mechanism were determined. Comparison tablets were produced, either directly from powder or from pre-processed pellets prepared via hot melt extrusion (HME). The content of the model drug in the formulations was 10% (w/w), 20% (w/w) and 30% (w/w), respectively. After 120min, both powder-based and pellet-based injection-molded tablets exhibited a drug release of 60% independent of the processing route. Content uniformity analysis demonstrated that the model drug was homogeneously distributed. Moreover, analysis of single dose uniformity also revealed geometric drug homogeneity between tablets of one shot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation for injection molding flow of short fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liping; Lu, Gang; Chen, Dachuan; Li, Wenjun; Lu, Chunsheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the three-dimensional (3D) injection molding flow of short fiber-reinforced polymer composites using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation method. The polymer melt was modeled as a power law fluid and the fibers were considered as rigid cylindrical bodies. The filling details and fiber orientation in the injection-molding process were studied. The results indicated that the SPH method could effectively predict the order of filling, fiber accumulation, and heterogeneous distribution of fibers. The SPH simulation also showed that fibers were mainly aligned to the flow direction in the skin layer and inclined to the flow direction in the core layer. Additionally, the fiber-orientation state in the simulation was quantitatively analyzed and found to be consistent with the results calculated by conventional tensor methods.

  20. A "room-temperature" injection molding/particulate leaching approach for fabrication of biodegradable three-dimensional porous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linbo; Jing, Dianying; Ding, Jiandong

    2006-01-01

    A "room-temperature" injection molding approach combined with particulate leaching (RTIM/PL) has been, for the first time, developed in this work to fabricate three-dimensional porous scaffolds composed of biodegradable polyesters for tissue engineering. In this approach, a "wet" composite of particulate/polymer/solvent was used in processing, and thus the injection was not performed at melting state. Appropriate viscosity and flowability were facilely obtained at a certain solvent content so that the composite was able to be injected into a mould under low pressure at room temperature, which was very beneficial for avoiding thermal degradation of polyesters. As a demonstration, tubular and ear-shaped porous scaffolds were fabricated from biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by this technology. Porosities of the resulting scaffolds were as high as 94%. The pores were well interconnected. Besides the well-known characteristics of injection molding to be suitable for automatization of a fabrication process with high repeatability and precision, this RTIM/PL approach is much suitable for tailoring highly porous foams with its advantages flexible for shaping complicated scaffolds, free of thermal degradation and high-pressure machine, etc.

  1. Method for encapsulating hazardous wastes using a staged mold

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1989-01-01

    A staged mold and method for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  2. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Materials and Method: Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×108 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×103) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×103) were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis. PMID:28280761

  3. Comparison of Candida Albicans Adherence to Conventional Acrylic Denture Base Materials and Injection Molding Acrylic Materials.

    PubMed

    Aslanimehr, Masoomeh; Rezvani, Shirin; Mahmoudi, Ali; Moosavi, Najmeh

    2017-03-01

    Candida species are believed to play an important role in initiation and progression of denture stomatitis. The type of the denture material also influences the adhesion of candida and development of stomatitis. The aim of this study was comparing the adherence of candida albicans to the conventional and injection molding acrylic denture base materials. Twenty injection molding and 20 conventional pressure pack acrylic discs (10×10×2 mm) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions. Immediately before the study, samples were placed in sterile water for 3 days to remove residual monomers. The samples were then sterilized using an ultraviolet light unit for 10 minutes. 1×10 8 Cfu/ml suspension of candida albicans ATCC-10231 was prepared from 48 h cultured organism on sabouraud dextrose agar plates incubated at 37oC. 100 μL of this suspension was placed on the surface of each disk. After being incubated at 37oC for 1 hour, the samples were washed with normal saline to remove non-adherent cells. Attached cells were counted using the colony count method after shaking at 3000 rmp for 20 seconds. Finally, each group was tested for 108 times and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Quantitative analysis revealed that differences in colony count average of candida albicans adherence to conventional acrylic materials (8.3×10 3 ) comparing to injection molding acrylic resins (6×10 3 ) were statistically significant ( p <0.001). Significant reduction of candida albicans adherence to the injection acrylic resin materials makes them valuable for patients with high risk of denture stomatitis.

  4. [Correlation between physical characteristics of sticks and quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills prepared by plastic molded method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xian, Jiechen; Hong, Yanlong; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the physical characteristics of sticks of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) honeyed pills prepared by the plastic molded method and the correlation of adhesiveness and plasticity-related parameters of sticks and quality of pills, in order to find major parameters and the appropriate range impacting pill quality. Sticks were detected by texture analyzer for their physical characteristic parameters such as hardness and compression action, and pills were observed by visual evaluation for their quality. The correlation of both data was determined by the stepwise discriminant analysis. Stick physical characteristic parameter l(CD) can exactly depict the adhesiveness, with the discriminant equation of Y0 - Y1 = 6.415 - 41.594l(CD). When Y0 < Y1, pills were scattered well; when Y0 > Y1, pills were adhesive with each other. Pills' physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr can exactly depict smoothness of pills, with the discriminant equation of Z0 - Z1 = -195.318 + 78.79l(AC) - 3 258. 982Ar + 3437.935Tr. When Z0 < Z1, pills were smooth on surface. When Z0 > Z1, pills were rough on surface. The stepwise discriminant analysis is made to show the obvious correlation between key physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr of sticks and appearance quality of pills, defining the molding process for preparing pills by the plastic molded and qualifying ranges of key physical characteristic parameters characterizing intermediate sticks, in order to provide theoretical basis for prescription screening and technical parameter adjustment for pills.

  5. Enteric-coating of pulsatile-release HPC capsules prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Macchi, E; Zema, L; Maroni, A; Gazzaniga, A; Felton, L A

    2015-04-05

    Capsular devices based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel® LF) intended for pulsatile release were prepared by injection molding (IM). In the present work, the possibility of exploiting such capsules for the development of colonic delivery systems based on a time-dependent approach was evaluated. For this purpose, it was necessary to demonstrate the ability of molded cores to undergo a coating process and that coated systems yield the desired performance (gastric resistance). Although no information was available on the coating of IM substrates, some issues relevant to that of commercially-available capsules are known. Thus, preliminary studies were conducted on molded disks for screening purposes prior to the spray-coating of HPC capsular cores with Eudragit® L 30 D 55. The ability of the polymeric suspension to wet the substrate, spread, start penetrating and initiate hydration/swelling, as well as to provide a gastroresistant barrier was demonstrated. The coating of prototype HPC capsules was carried out successfully, leading to coated systems with good technological properties and able to withstand the acidic medium with no need for sealing at the cap/body joint. Such systems maintained the original pulsatile release performance after dissolution of the enteric film in pH 6.8 fluid. Therefore, they appeared potentially suitable for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time-dependent approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of thermal shock on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of thermal shock on the mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, one polyethylene terephthalate, one polycarbonate) and, as a control, a conventional heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 and were either thermocycled or not thermocycled (n = 10). The flexural strength at the proportional limit (FS-PL), the elastic modulus and the Charpy impact strength of the denture base materials were estimated. Thermocycling significantly decreased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides and the PMMA and it significantly increased the FS-PL of one of the polyamides. In addition, thermocycling significantly decreased the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and significantly increased the elastic moduli of one of the polyamides, the polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate and PMMA. Thermocycling significantly decreased the impact strength of one of the polyamides and the polycarbonate. The mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after themocycling.

  7. Numerical simulation of fiber interaction in short-fiber injection-molded composite using different cavity geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen, E-mail: nttbinh@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, Atsushi, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Hamanaka, Senji

    The theoretical fiber-interaction model for calculating the fiber orientation in the injection molded short fiber/thermoplastic composite parts was proposed. The proposed model included the fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain an equation of the global interaction coefficient and accurate estimate of the fiber interacts at all orientation states. The steps to derive the equation for this coefficient in short fiber suspension as a function of the fiber aspect ratio, volume fraction and general shear rate are delineated. Simultaneously, the high-resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α was used to observe fiber distribution of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide specimens using different cavitymore » geometries. The fiber orientation tensor components are then calculated. Experimental orientation measurements of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide is used to check the ability of present theory for predicting orientation. The experiments and predictions show a quantitative agreement and confirm the basic understanding of fiber orientation in injection-molded composites.« less

  8. Numerical simulation of fiber interaction in short-fiber injection-molded composite using different cavity geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2016-03-01

    The theoretical fiber-interaction model for calculating the fiber orientation in the injection molded short fiber/thermoplastic composite parts was proposed. The proposed model included the fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain an equation of the global interaction coefficient and accurate estimate of the fiber interacts at all orientation states. The steps to derive the equation for this coefficient in short fiber suspension as a function of the fiber aspect ratio, volume fraction and general shear rate are delineated. Simultaneously, the high-resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α was used to observe fiber distribution of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide specimens using different cavity geometries. The fiber orientation tensor components are then calculated. Experimental orientation measurements of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide is used to check the ability of present theory for predicting orientation. The experiments and predictions show a quantitative agreement and confirm the basic understanding of fiber orientation in injection-molded composites.

  9. High-density optical disk readout using a blue laser diode and a transparent plastic substrate with 0.3-mm thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Chan; Lee, TaekSoo; Kim, Hyung-Nam; Jeong, SeongYun; Ahn, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Ji-Byung; Lee, SeongWon; Lee, Dong C.; Asai, Ikuo

    2000-09-01

    We prepared and tested a disc that has a transparent plastic substrate of 0.3 mm thickness to confirm the readout capability using a blue laser diode. And the test results of injection molding for the plastic substrate of 0.3 mm thickness are shown.

  10. Performance Stability of Silicone Oxide-Coated Plastic Parenteral Vials.

    PubMed

    Weikart, Christopher M; Pantano, Carlo G; Shallenberger, Jeff R

    2017-01-01

    A new packaging system was developed for parenteral pharmaceuticals that combines the best attributes of plastic and glass without their respective drawbacks. This technological advancement is based on the synergy between high-precision injection-molded plastics and plasma coating technology. The result is a shatter-resistant, optically clear, low-particulate, and chemically durable packaging system. The demand for this product is driven by the expanding market, regulatory constraints, and product recalls for injectable drugs and biologics packaged in traditional glass materials. It is shown that this new packaging system meets or exceeds the important performance characteristics of glass, especially in eliminating the glass delamination and breakage that has been observed in many products. The new packaging system is an engineered, multilayer, glass-coated plastic composite that provides a chemically stable contact surface and oxygen barrier performance that exceeds a 2 year shelf life requirement. Evaluation of the coating system characteristics and performance stability to chemical, temperature, and mechanical extremes are reported herein. LAY ABSTRACT: A new packaging system for parenteral pharmaceuticals was developed that combines the best attributes of plastic and glass without their respective drawbacks. This technological advancement is based on the synergy between high-precision injection-molded plastics and plasma coating technology. The result is a shatter-resistant, optically clear, low-particulate, and chemically durable packaging system. It is shown that this new packaging system meets or exceeds the important performance characteristics of glass, especially in eliminating the glass delamination and breakage that has been observed in many products. The new packaging system is an engineered, multilayer, glass-coated plastic composite that provides a chemically stable contact surface and oxygen barrier performance that exceeds a 2 year shelf life

  11. Investigation of sample preparation on the moldability of ceramic injection molding feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Jared

    Ceramic injection molding is a desirable option for those who are looking to make ceramic parts with complex geometries. Formulating the feedstock needed to produce ideal parts is a difficult process. In this research a series of feedstock blends will be evaluated for moldability. This was done by investigating their viscosity, and how certain components affect the overall ability to flow. These feedstocks varied waxes, surfactants, and solids loading. A capillary rheometer was used to characterize some of the materials, which led to one batch being selected for molding trials. The parts were sintered and further refinements were made to the feedstock. Solids loading was increased from 77.5% to 82%, which required different ratios of organics to flow. Finally, the ceramic powders were treated to lower their specific surface area before being compounded, which resulted in materials that would process easily through an extruder and exhibit properties suitable for CIM.

  12. Effect of rheological parameters on curing rate during NBR injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyas, Kamil; Stanek, Michal; Manas, David; Skrobak, Adam

    2013-04-01

    In this work, non-isothermal injection molding process for NBR rubber mixture considering Isayev-Deng curing kinetic model, generalized Newtonian model with Carreau-WLF viscosity was modeled by using finite element method in order to understand the effect of volume flow rate, index of non-Newtonian behavior and relaxation time on the temperature profile and curing rate. It was found that for specific geometry and processing conditions, increase in relaxation time or in the index of non-Newtonian behavior increases the curing rate due to viscous dissipation taking place at the flow domain walls.

  13. Evacuated displacement compression molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process for molding long, thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described. The tubular bodies produced may have body lengths several times the diameters. The application of the process for manufacturing rocket engine cases and nozzles is discussed. The advantages of the system over other methods of circular tube manufacture are analyzed.

  14. Preparation of artificial kidney stones of reproducible size, shape, and mass by precision injection molding.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert I; Kyle, Christopher C; Carey, Donna L; Leveillee, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    To prepare artificial kidney stones of defined shape, size, mass, and material composition via precision injection molding of Ultracal 30 cement slurries into an inexpensive biodegradable mold. A calcium alginate and silica-based mold was used to prepare casts of varying shapes in a reproducible manner. Ultracal 30 cement slurries mixed 1:1 with water were injected into these casts and allowed to harden. The artificial stones were recovered and their physical properties determined. Ex-vivo and in-vivo responses to holmium laser lithotripsy were examined. Spheres, half spheres, cylinders, cubes, tapered conical structures, and flat angulated structures were prepared with high precision without post-molding manipulations. Large spheres of average mass 0.661 g (+/- 0.037), small spheres of average mass 0.046 g (+/- 0.0026), and hexagons of average mass 0.752 g (+/- 0.0180) were found to have densities (1610-1687 kg/m(3)) within the expected range for Ultracal 30 cement stones. Ex-vivo holmium laser lithotripsy of small spheres in saline showed uniformly reproducible efficiencies of comminution. Implantation of a tapered conical stone into the ureter of a porcine model demonstrated stone comminution in vivo consistent with that seen in the ex-vivo models. We present an environmentally safe, technically simple procedure for the formation of artificial kidney stones of predetermined size and shape. The technique does not require the use of hazardous solvents or postprocedural processing of the stones. These stones are intended for use in standardized experiments of lithotripsy efficiency in which the shape of the stone as well as the mass can be predetermined and precisely controlled.

  15. Plastic Injection Quality Controlling Using the Lean Six Sigma and FMEA Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, A.; Mu'alim; Sunaryo

    2016-01-01

    PT. Yogya Presisi Teknikatama Industri (PT. YPTI) is a mold, precision part, and plastic injection maker company. One of the obstacles faced by the company is the high level of nonconformity on its production results. The waste on production process can be identified and classified into four types, i.e.: a). during the process of injection molding machines, b). finishing and cutting processes, c). quality control process and d). the packaging process. The objectives of this research are minimizing the defective goods and reducing the waste using Lean Six Sigma and FMEA approaches, especially for Bush product. From the analysis result, defective types on Bush product can be classified into bubble, speckle, short shoot, sunken, sink mark, over-cut, flashing, and discolor. Based on the attributes data on Bush product, the DPMO score is 988.42 or the sigma level is 4.6, While the DPMO score on the variable data on each dimension i.e.: a). Slit width on the bottom side has DPMO score of 30119 (sigma level 3.37), b). Diameter of the circle on the top side has DPMO score of 392294 (sigma level 1.77), c). Product thickness on the top side has DPMO score of 70474 (sigma level 2.97), d). Product height has DPMO score of 82107 (sigma level 2.89), product thickness on the bottom side has DPMO score of 24448 (sigma level 3.47), and f). Diameter of the circle on the bottom side has DPMO score of 24448 (sigma level 3.47). The highest RPN score on the dominant types of product defects which needs improvement are the defective goods of bubble type has RPN score of 729, flashing and the molten material out on the heating channel has RPN score of 384, over cutting has RPN score of 324 and sink mark has RPN score of 270. The recommendations for improvement that can be given from this research are making checklist for maintenance and production monitoring, enhancing work supervision and inspection, as well as improving the environment and work stations.

  16. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B.; Yokoyama, A.; Ota, K.; Kodama, K.; Yamashita, K.; Isogai, Y.; Furuichi, K.; Nonomura, C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Wwww of... - Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Existing Open Molding Sources, New Open Molding Sources Emitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Open Molding Sources, New Open Molding Sources Emitting Less Than 100 TPY of HAP, and New and... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites... Existing Open Molding Sources, New Open Molding Sources Emitting Less Than 100 TPY of HAP, and New and...

  18. Effects of size reduction on deformation, microstructure, and surface roughness of micro components for micro metal injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Xin-da; Li, Xiang; Qi, Xiao-tong; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication of 17-4PH micro spool mandrils by micro metal injection molding was described here. The effects of size reduction on deformation, microstructure and surface roughness were studied by comparing a ϕ500 μm micro post and a ϕ1.7 mm cylinder after debinding and sintering. Experimental results show that slumping of the micro posts occurred due to a dramatic increase in outlet vapor pressure initiated at the thermal degradation onset temperature and the moment of gravity. Asymmetrical stress distribution within the micro component formed during the cooling stage may cause warping. Prior solvent debinding and adjustment in a thermal debinding scheme were useful for preventing the deformation of the micro components. Smaller grain size and higher micro hardness due to impeded grain growth were observed for the micro posts compared with the ϕ1.7 mm cylinder. Surface roughness increased with distance from the gate of the micro spool mandril due to melt front advancement during mold filling and the ensuing pressure distribution. At each position, surface roughness was dictated by injection molding and increased slightly after sintering.

  19. Design, assembly, and optical bench testing of a high-numerical-aperture miniature injection-molded objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chidley, Matthew D; Carlson, Kristen D; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Descour, Michael R

    2006-04-10

    The design, analysis, assembly methods, and optical-bench test results for a miniature injection-molded plastic objective lens used in a fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope are presented. The five-lens plastic objective was tested as a stand-alone optical system before its integration into a confocal microscope for in vivo imaging of cells and tissue. Changing the spacing and rotation of the individual optical elements can compensate for fabrication inaccuracies and improve performance. The system performance of the miniature objective lens is measured by use of an industry-accepted slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) metric. An estimated Strehl ratio of 0.61 and a MTF value of 0.66 at the fiber-optic bundle Nyquist frequency have been obtained. The optical bench testing system is configured to permit interactive optical alignment during testing to optimize performance. These results are part of an effort to demonstrate the manufacturability of low-cost, high-performance biomedical optics for high-resolution in vivo imaging. Disposable endoscopic microscope objectives could help in vivo confocal microscopy technology mature to permit wide-scale clinical screening and detection of early cancers and precancerous lesions.

  20. Friction behavior of ceramic injection-molded (CIM) brackets.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Susanne; Bourauel, Christoph; Weber, Anna; Dirk, Cornelius; Lietz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Bracket material, bracket design, archwire material, and ligature type are critical modifiers of friction behavior during archwire-guided movement of teeth. We designed this in vitro study to compare the friction losses of ceramic injection-molded (CIM) versus pressed-ceramic (PC) and metal injection-molded (MIM) brackets-used with different ligatures and archwires-during archwire-guided retraction of a canine. Nine bracket systems were compared, including five CIM (Clarity™ and Clarity™ ADVANCED, both by 3M Unitek; discovery(®) pearl by Dentaurum; Glam by Forestadent; InVu by TP Orthodontics), two PC (Inspire Ice by Ormco; Mystique by DENTSPLY GAC), and two MIM (discovery(®) and discovery(®) smart, both by Dentaurum) systems. All of these were combined with archwires made of either stainless steel or fiberglass-reinforced resin (remanium(®) ideal arch or Translucent pearl ideal arch, both by Dentaurum) and with elastic ligatures or uncoated or coated stainless steel (all by Dentaurum). Archwire-guided retraction of a canine was simulated with a force of 0.5 N in the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Friction loss was determined by subtracting the effective orthodontic forces from the applied forces. Based on five repeated measurements performed on five brackets each, weighted means were calculated and evaluated by analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test with a significance level of 0.05. Friction losses were significantly (p < 0.05) higher (58-79 versus 20-30 %) for the combinations involving the steel versus the resin archwire in conjunction with the elastic ligature. The uncoated steel ligatures were associated with the lowest friction losses with Clarity™ (13 %) and discovery(®) pearl (16 %) on the resin archwire and the highest friction losses with Clarity™ ADVANCED (53 %) and Mystique (63 %) on the steel archwire. The coated steel ligatures were associated with friction losses similar to the uncoated steel

  1. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior and Morphology of Injection Molded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) 85:15

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Eduardo Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Two groups of PLGA specimens with different geometries (notched and unnotched) were injection molded under two melting temperatures and flow rates. The mechanical properties, morphology at the fracture surface, and residual stresses were evaluated for both processing conditions. The morphology of the fractured surfaces for both specimens showed brittle and smooth fracture features for the majority of the specimens. Fracture images of the notched specimens suggest that the surface failure mechanisms are different from the core failure. Polarized light techniques indicated birefringence in all specimens, especially those molded with lower temperature, which suggests residual stress due to rapid solidification. DSC analysis confirmed the existence of residual stress in all PLGA specimens. The specimens molded using the lower injection temperature and the low flow rate presented lower loss tangent values according to the DMA and higher residual stress as shown by DSC, and the photoelastic analysis showed extensive birefringence. PMID:28848605

  2. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  3. Experimental analysis for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio piezoelectric ceramic structure by micro-powder injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun Sae; Gal, Chang Woo; Park, Jae Man; Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Seong Jin

    2018-04-01

    Aspect ratio effects in the micro-powder injection molding process were experimentally analyzed for fabrication of high-aspect-ratio piezoelectric ceramic structure. The mechanisms of critical defects have been studied according to individual manufacturing steps. In the molding process, incomplete filling phenomenon determines the critical aspect ratios of a micro pattern. According to mold temperature, an incomplete filling phenomenon has been analyzed with respect to different pattern sizes and aspect ratio. In demolding and drying process, the capillary behavior of sacrificial polymeric mold insert determines the critical aspect ratio of a micro pattern. With respect to pattern dimensions, slumping behavior has been analyzed. Based on our current systems, micro PZT feature has stability when it has lower aspect ratio than 5. Under optimized processing conditions, 20 μm and 40 μm ceramic rod array feature which has 5 of aspect ratio were successfully fabricated by the developed process. Further modification points to fabricate the smaller and higher feature were specifically addressed.

  4. Effect of boron addition on injection molded 316L stainless steel: mechanical, corrosion properties and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Bayraktaroglu, Esra; Gulsoy, H Ozkan; Gulsoy, Nagihan; Er, Ozay; Kilic, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The research was investigated the effect of boron additions on sintering characteristics, mechanical, corrosion properties and biocompatibility of injection molded austenitic grade 316L stainless steel. Addition of boron is promoted to get high density of sintered 316L stainless steels. The amount of boron plays a role in determining the sintered microstructure and all properties. In this study, 316L stainless steel powders have been used with the elemental NiB powders. A feedstock containing 62.5 wt% powders loading was molded at different injection molded temperature. The binders were completely removed from molded components by solvent and thermal debinding at different temperature. The debinded samples were sintered at different temperature for 60 min. Mechanical property, microstructural characterization and electrochemical property of the sintered samples were performed using tensile testing, hardness, optical, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical corrosion experiments. Sintered samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with elemental concentrations that were comparable to those of human blood plasma for a total period of 15 days. Both materials were implanted in fibroblast culture for biocompatibility evaluations were carried out. Results of study showed that sintered 316L and 316L with NiB addition samples exhibited high mechanical and corrosion properties in a physiological environment. Especially, 316L with NiB addition can be used in some bioapplications.

  5. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, whichmore » is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.« less

  6. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites. Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Wang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    This project aimed to integrate, optimize, and validate the fiber orientation and length distribution models previously developed and implemented in the Autodesk® Simulation Moldflow® Insight (ASMI) software package for injection-molded long-carbon-fiber (LCF) thermoplastic composite structures. The project was organized into two phases. Phase 1 demonstrated the ability of the advanced ASMI package to predict fiber orientation and length distributions in LCF/polypropylene (PP) and LCF/polyamide-6, 6 (PA66) plaques within 15% of experimental results. Phase 2 validated the advanced ASMI package by predicting fiber orientation and length distributions within 15% of experimental results for a complex three-dimensional (3D) Toyota automotive part injection-moldedmore » from LCF/PP and LCF/PA66 materials. Work under Phase 2 also included estimate of weight savings and cost impacts for a vehicle system using ASMI and structural analyses of the complex part. The present report summarizes the completion of Phases 1 and 2 work activities and accomplishments achieved by the team comprising Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Purdue University (Purdue); Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Autodesk, Inc. (Autodesk); PlastiComp, Inc. (PlastiComp); Toyota Research Institute North America (Toyota); Magna Exteriors and Interiors Corp. (Magna); and University of Illinois. Figure 1 illustrates the technical approach adopted in this project that progressed from compounding LCF/PP and LCF/PA66 materials, to process model improvement and implementation, to molding and modeling LCF/PP and LCF/PA66 plaques. The lessons learned from the plaque study and the successful validation of improved process models for fiber orientation and length distributions for these plaques enabled the project to go to Phase 2 to mold, model, and optimize the 3D complex part.« less

  7. Selective etching of injection molded zirconia-toughened alumina: Towards osseointegrated and antibacterial ceramic implants.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Quentin; Caravaca, Carlos; Meille, Sylvain; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme; Biotteau-Deheuvels, Katia; Kuntz, Meinhard; Chandrawati, Rona; Herrmann, Inge K; Spicer, Christopher D; Stevens, Molly M; Anglada, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds. In this work, we developed an integrated strategy aiming to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces. The micro-topography was controlled by injection molding. Meanwhile a novel process involving the selective dissolution of zirconia (selective etching) was used to produce nano-roughness and interconnected nanoporosity. Potential utilization of the porosity for loading and delivery of antibiotic molecules was demonstrated, and the impact of selective etching on mechanical properties and hydrothermal stability was shown to be limited. The combination of injection molding and selective etching thus appears promising for fabricating a new generation of ZTA components implantable in direct contact with bone. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is the current gold standard for the fabrication of orthopedic ceramic components. In the present work, we propose an innovative strategy to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces: we demonstrate that injection molding allows a flexible design of surface micro-topography and can be combined with selective etching, a novel process that induces nano-roughness and surface interconnected porosity without the need for coating, avoiding reliability issues. These surface modifications have the

  8. Static Mixer for Heat Transfer Enhancement for Mold Cooling Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Rodolfo; Barbosa, Raul; Lee, Kye-Hwan; Park, Younggil

    Injection molding is the process by which a material is melted in a barrel and then it is injected through a nozzle in the mold cavity. When it cools down, the material solidifies into the shape of the cavity. Typical injection mold has cooling channels to maintain constant mold temperature during injection molding process. Even and constant temperature throughout the mold are very critical for a part quality and productivity. Conformal cooling improves the quality and productivity of injection molding process through the implementation of cooling channels that ``conform'' to the shape of the molded part. Recent years, the use of conformal cooling increases with advance of 3D printing technology such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it maximizes cooling, material and dimension limitations make SLM methods highly expensive. An alternative is the addition of static mixers in the molds with integrated cooling channels. A static mixer is a motionless mixing device that enhances heat transfer by producing improved flow mixing in the pipeline. In this study, the performance of the cooling channels will be evaluated with and without static mixers, by measuring temperature, pressure drop, and flow rate. The following question is addressed: Can a static mixer effectively enhance heat transfer for mold cooling application processes? This will provide insight on the development of design methods and guidelines that can be used to increase cooling efficiency at a lower cost.

  9. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - Fourth FY 2015 Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Wollan, Eric J.

    2015-11-13

    During the last quarter of FY 2015, the following technical progress has been made toward project milestones: 1) PlastiComp used the PlastiComp direct in-line (D-LFT) Pushtrusion system to injection mold 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts with ribs, 40 30wt% LCF/PP parts without ribs, 10 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts with ribs, and 35 30wt% LCF/PA66 parts without ribs. In addition, purge materials from the injection molding nozzle were obtained for fiber length analysis, and molding parameters were sent to PNNL for process modeling. 2) Magna cut samples at four selected locations (named A, B, C and D) from the non-ribbed Magna-molded parts basedmore » on a plan discussed with PNNL and the team and shipped these samples to Virginia Tech for fiber orientation and length measurements. 3) Virginia Tech started fiber orientation and length measurements for the samples taken from the complex parts using Virginia Tech’s established procedure. 4) PNNL and Autodesk built ASMI models for the complex parts with and without ribs, reviewed process datasheets and performed preliminary analyses of these complex parts using the actual molding parameters received from Magna and PlastiComp to compare predicted to experimental mold filling patterns. 5) Autodesk assisted PNNL in developing the workflow to use Moldflow fiber orientation and length results in ABAQUS® simulations. 6) Autodesk advised the team on the practicality and difficulty of material viscosity characterization from the D-LFT process. 7) PNNL developed a procedure to import fiber orientation and length results from a 3D ASMI analysis to a 3D ABAQUS® model for structural analyses of the complex part for later weight reduction study. 8) In discussion with PNNL and Magna, Toyota developed mechanical test setups and built fixtures for three-point bending and torsion tests of the complex parts. 9) Toyota built a finite element model for the complex parts subjected to torsion loading. 10) PNNL built the 3D ABAQUS® model of the complex

  10. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  11. Bimodal metal micro-nanopowders for powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervikov, Aleksandr; Rodkevich, Nikolay; Glazkova, Elena; Lerner, Marat

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies a bimodal metal powder composition designed to prepare feedstock for powder injection molding, as well as microstructure and porosity of sintered pats. Two kinds of metal powder compositions are used, in particular, a mixture of micro- and nanopowders and a bimodal powder prepared with dispersion of steel wire. The feedstock is prepared by mixing a bimodal metal powder composition with acetylacetone and paraffin wax. The microstructure of the debound parts is observed by scanning electron microscopy. The sintered parts are characterized by density measurements and metallographic analysis. The technique of the metal powder composition proves to affect the characteristics of sintered parts. Nanoparticles are shown in the interstitial spaces among the microparticles upon mixing micro- and nanopowders, but the regular distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of microparticles is observed in the bimodal powder providing the reduction of the porosity of sintered parts and increasing the density to the proper density of steel.

  12. Epoxy-resin patterns speed shell-molding of aluminum parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Half patterns cast from commercial epoxy resin containing aluminum powder are used for shell-molding of aluminum parts. The half patterns are cast in plastic molds of the original wooden pattern. Ten serviceable sand resin molds are made from each epoxy pattern.

  13. Antifriction basalt-plastics based on polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    A study is made of the dependence of the mechanical and friction-engineering properties of polypropylene reinforced with basalt fibers on the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It is established that the main factors that determine the mechanical properties of the plastics are the quality of impregnation of the fibers by the binder and the residual length of the reinforcing filler in the composite after extrusion and injection molding. The material that was developed has a low friction coefficient and low rate of wear within a relatively brood range of friction conditions. The basalt-plastics can be used in the rubbing parts of machines and mechanisms subjected to dry friction.

  14. Effect of Zr, Nb and Ti addition on injection molded 316L stainless steel for bio-applications: Mechanical, electrochemical and biocompatibility properties.

    PubMed

    Gulsoy, H Ozkan; Pazarlioglu, Serdar; Gulsoy, Nagihan; Gundede, Busra; Mutlu, Ozal

    2015-11-01

    The research investigated the effect of Zr, Nb and Ti additions on mechanical, electrochemical properties and biocompatibility of injection molded 316L stainless steel. Addition of elemental powder is promoted to get high performance of sintered 316L stainless steels. The amount of additive powder plays a role in determining the sintered microstructure and all properties. In this study, 316L stainless steel powders used with the elemental Zr, Nb and Ti powders. A feedstock containing 62.5 wt% powders loading was molded at different injection molded temperature. The binders were completely removed from molded components by solvent and thermal debinding at different temperatures. The debinded samples were sintered at 1350°C for 60 min. Mechanical, electrochemical property and biocompatibility of the sintered samples were performed mechanical, electrochemical, SBF immersion tests and cell culture experiments. Results of study showed that sintered 316L and 316L with additives samples exhibited high corrosion properties and biocompatibility in a physiological environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of mechanical behavior and optimization of simulated injection molding process for PLA based antibacterial composite and nanocomposite bone screws using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad Shiroud; Oliaei, Erfan; Shayesteh, Hadi; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Hejazi, Iman; Seyfi, Javad; Bahrami, Mozhgan; Rashedi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this study, injection molding of three poly lactic acid (PLA) based bone screws was simulated and optimized through minimizing the shrinkage and warpage of the bone screws. The optimization was carried out by investigating the process factors such as coolant temperature, mold temperature, melt temperature, packing time, injection time, and packing pressure. A response surface methodology (RSM), based on the central composite design (CCD), was used to determine the effects of the process factors on the PLA based bone screws. Upon applying the method of maximizing the desirability function, optimization of the factors gave the lowest warpage and shrinkage for nanocomposite PLA bone screw (PLA9). Moreover, PLA9 has the greatest desirability among the selected materials for bone screw injection molding. Meanwhile, a finite element analysis (FE analysis) was also performed to determine the force values and concentration points which cause yielding of the screws under certain conditions. The Von-Mises stress distribution showed that PLA9 screw is more resistant against the highest loads as compared to the other ones. Finally, according to the results of injection molding simulations, the design of experiments (DOE) and structural analysis, PLA9 screw is recommended as the best candidate for the production of biomedical materials among all the three types of screws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wavefront measurement of plastic lenses for mobile-phone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Chung-Yen; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2016-08-01

    In camera lenses for mobile-phone applications, all lens elements have been designed with aspheric surfaces because of the requirements in minimal total track length of the lenses. Due to the diffraction-limited optics design with precision assembly procedures, element inspection and lens performance measurement have become cumbersome in the production of mobile-phone cameras. Recently, wavefront measurements based on Shack-Hartmann sensors have been successfully implemented on injection-molded plastic lens with aspheric surfaces. However, the applications of wavefront measurement on small-sized plastic lenses have yet to be studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, both an in-house-built and a commercial wavefront measurement system configured on two optics structures have been investigated with measurement of wavefront aberrations on two lens elements from a mobile-phone camera. First, the wet-cell method has been employed for verifications of aberrations due to residual birefringence in an injection-molded lens. Then, two lens elements of a mobile-phone camera with large positive and negative power have been measured with aberrations expressed in Zernike polynomial to illustrate the effectiveness in wavefront measurement for troubleshooting defects in optical performance.

  17. A senior manufacturing laboratory for determining injection molding process capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Plocinski, David

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This subject material is directed at an upper level undergraduate/graduate student in an Engineering or Engineering Technology program. It is assumed that the student has a thorough understanding of the process and quality control. The format of this laboratory does not follow that which is normally recommended because of the nature of process capability and that of the injection molding equipment and tooling. This laboratory is instead developed to be used as a point of departure for determining process capability for any process in either a quality control laboratory or a manufacturing environment where control charts, process capability, and experimental or product design are considered important topics.

  18. Surface wettability enhancement of silicone hydrogel lenses by processing with polar plastic molds.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y C; Friends, G D

    1997-06-05

    In the quest for hydrogel contact lenses with improved extended wear capability, the use of siloxane moieties in the lens materials was investigated. However, the introduction of hydrophobic siloxane groups gave rise to wettability and lipidlike deposit problems. It was found that when polysiloxane-based compositions for hydrogels were processed with polar plastic molds, such as those fabricated from an acrylonitrile-based polymer, the hydrogel lenses fabricated were wettable, with minimized lipidlike deposits. These findings were supported by the wettability of silicone hydrogel films, silicon, and nitrogen element contents near lens surfaces, as well as the results from clinical assessment of silicone hydrogel lenses.

  19. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  20. Brightness field distributions of microlens arrays using micro molding.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Lin, Yi; Shen, Yung-Kang

    2010-12-20

    This study describes the brightness field distributions of microlens arrays fabricated by micro injection molding (μIM) and micro injection-compression molding (μICM). The process for fabricating microlens arrays used room-temperature imprint lithography, photoresist reflow, electroforming, μIM, μICM, and optical properties measurement. Analytical results indicate that the brightness field distribution of the molded microlens arrays generated by μICM is better than those made using μIM. Our results further demonstrate that mold temperature is the most important processing parameter for brightness field distribution of molded microlens arrays made by μIM or μICM.

  1. Peri-implant bone formation and surface characteristics of rough surface zirconia implants manufactured by powder injection molding technique in rabbit tibiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Seok; Chung, Shin-Hye; Shon, Won-Jun

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate osseointegration in rabbit tibiae and to investigate surface characteristics of novel zirconia implants made by powder injection molding (PIM) technique, using molds with and without roughened inner surfaces. A total of 20 rabbits received three types of external hex implants with identical geometry on the tibiae: machined titanium implants, PIM zirconia implants without mold etching, and PIM zirconia implants with mold etching. Surface characteristics of the three types of implant were evaluated. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined titanium implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined titanium implants (P < 0.001). The PIM zirconia implants using roughened mold showed significantly higher removal torque values than PIM zirconia implants without using roughened mold (P < 0.001). It is concluded that the osseointegration of PIM zirconia implant is promising and PIM using roughened mold etching technique can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molded composite pyrogen igniter for rocket motors. [solid propellant ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.; Lucy, M. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A lightweight pyrogen igniter assembly including an elongated molded plastic tube adapted to contain a pyrogen charge was designed for insertion into a rocket motor casing for ignition of the rocket motor charge. A molded plastic closure cap provided for the elongated tube includes an ignition charge for igniting the pyrogen charge and an electrically actuated ignition squib for igniting the ignition charge. The ignition charge is contained within a portion of the closure cap, and it is retained therein by a noncorrosive ignition pellet retainer or screen which is adapted to rest on a shoulder of the elongated tube when the closure cap and tube are assembled together. A circumferentially disposed metal ring is provided along the external circumference of the closure cap and is molded or captured within the plastic cap in the molding process to provide, along with O-ring seals, a leakproof rotary joint.

  4. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Taguchi Methodology and Shainin System DoE in the Optimization of Injection Molding Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavekar, Rajendra; Vasudevan, Hari, Dr.; Modi, Bhavik

    2017-08-01

    Two well-known Design of Experiments (DoE) methodologies, such as Taguchi Methods (TM) and Shainin Systems (SS) are compared and analyzed in this study through their implementation in a plastic injection molding unit. Experiments were performed at a perfume bottle cap manufacturing company (made by acrylic material) using TM and SS to find out the root cause of defects and to optimize the process parameters for minimum rejection. Experiments obtained the rejection rate to be 8.57% from 40% (appx.) during trial runs, which is quiet low, representing successful implementation of these DoE methods. The comparison showed that both methodologies gave same set of variables as critical for defect reduction, but with change in their significance order. Also, Taguchi methods require more number of experiments and consume more time compared to the Shainin System. Shainin system is less complicated and is easy to implement, whereas Taguchi methods is statistically more reliable for optimization of process parameters. Finally, experimentations implied that DoE methods are strong and reliable in implementation, as organizations attempt to improve the quality through optimization.

  6. Bidirectional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Tatsuya; Abe, Tomiya; Hirano, Kouki; Itoh, Yuzo

    2005-05-20

    We have developed a low-loss bidirectional optical coupler for high-speed optical communication with plastic optical fibers (POFs). The coupler, which is fabricated by an injection molding method that uses poly (methyl methacrylate), has an antisymmetric tapered shape. We show that the coupler has low insertion and branching losses. The tapered shape of the receiving branch reduces beam diameter and increases detection efficiency coupling to a photodetector, whose area is smaller than that of the plastic optical fiber. The possibility of more than 15-m bidirectional transmission with a signaling bit rate up to 500 Mbits/s for simplex step-index POFs is demonstrated.

  7. Chemorheology of in-mold coating for compression molded SMC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seunghyun; Straus, Elliott J.; Castro, Jose M.

    2015-05-01

    In-mold coating (IMC) is applied to compression molded sheet molding compound (SMC) exterior automotive or truck body panels as an environmentally friendly alternative to make the surface conductive for subsequent electrostatic painting operations. The coating is a thermosetting liquid that when injected onto the surface of the part cures and bonds to provide a smooth conductive surface. In order to optimize the IMC process, it is essential to predict the time available for flow, that is the time before the thermosetting reaction starts (inhibition time) as well as the time when the coating has enough structural integrity so that the mold can be opened without damaging the part surface (cure time). To predict both the inhibition time and the cure time, it is critical to study the chemorheology of IMC. In this paper, we study the chemorheology for a typical commercial IMC system, and show its relevance to both the flow and cure time for the IMC stage during SMC compression molding.

  8. Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Li, Likai; Naples, Neil J.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Yi, Allen Y.

    2017-06-01

    Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

  9. 3D Molding of Veneers by Mechanical and Pneumatic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gaff, Milan; Gašparík, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of selected methods (mechanical and pneumatic) as well as various factors (wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing) on 3D molding of veneers. 3D molding was evaluated on the basis of maximum deflection of birch and beech veneers. Cracks and warping edges were also evaluated in selected groups of mechanical molding. Mechanical methods tested veneers with various treatments (steaming, water and ammonia plasticizing and lamination). The pneumatic method was based on veneer shaping using air pressure. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. The differences between the mechanical and pneumatic methods were not considerable. The most suitable method for mechanical 3D molding was the veneer lamination by polyethylene foils with thicknesses of 80 and 125 μm, inasmuch as these achieved better results than veneer plasticized by steam. The occurrence of cracks was more frequent in beech veneers, whereas, edge warping occurred at similar rates for both wood species and depends rather on holding method during 3D molding. Use of the ammonia solution is more suitable and there occurs no marked increase in moisture as happens when soaking in water. PMID:28772684

  10. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  11. Modeling and control of flow during impregnation of heterogeneous porous media, with application to composite mold-filling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickerton, Simon

    Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) encompasses a growing list of composite material manufacturing techniques. These processes have provided the promise for complex fiber reinforced plastics parts, manufactured from a single molding step. In recent years a significant research effort has been invested in development of process simulations, providing tools that have advanced current LCM technology and broadened the range of applications. The requirement for manufacture of larger, more complex parts has motivated investigation of active control of LCM processes. Due to the unlimited variety of part geometries that can be produced, finite element based process simulations will be used to some extent in design of actively controlled processes. Ongoing efforts are being made to improve material parameter specification for process simulations, increasing their value as design tools. Several phenomena occurring during mold filling have been addressed through flow visualization experimentation and analysis of manufactured composite parts. The influence of well defined air channels within a mold cavity is investigated, incorporating their effects within existing filling simulations. Three different flow configurations have been addressed, testing the application of 'equivalent permeabilities', effectively approximating air channels as representative porous media. LCM parts having doubly curved regions require preform fabrics to undergo significant, and varying deformation throughout a mold cavity. Existing methods for predicting preform deformation, and the resulting permeability distribution have been applied to a conical mold geometry. Comparisons between experiment and simulation are promising, while the geometry studied has required large deformation over much of the part, shearing the preform fabric beyond the scope of the models applied. An investigational study was performed to determine the magnitude of effect, if any, on mold filling caused by corners within LCM mold

  12. [Effects of different excipients on properties of Tongsaimai mixture and pellet molding].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Lv, Zhiyang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Di, Liuqing; Dong, Yu; Cai, Baochang

    2011-01-01

    To study preliminarily on the relationship between properties of the mixture composed of Tongsaimai extract and different excipients and pellet molding. The multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the correlation of different mixture and pellet molding by measuring the cohesion, liquid-plastic limit of mixture, and the powder properties of pellets. The weighted coefficients of the powder properties were determined by analytic hierarchy process combined with criteria importance through intercriteria correlation. The results showed that liquid-plastic limit seemed to be a major factor, which had positive correlation with pellet molding, while cohesion had negative correlation with pellet molding in the measured range. The physical properties of the mixture has marked influence on pellet molding.

  13. Exposures to nanoparticles and fibers during injection molding and recycling of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites.

    PubMed

    Boonruksa, Pongsit; Bello, Dhimiter; Zhang, Jinde; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Mead, Joey L; Woskie, Susan R

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the characteristics of airborne particles generated during injection molding and grinding processes of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites (CNT-PC) were investigated. Particle number concentration, size distribution, and morphology of particles emitted from the processes were determined using real-time particle sizers and transmission electron microscopy. The air samples near the operator's breathing zone were collected on filters and analyzed using scanning electron microscope for particle morphology and respirable fiber count. Processing and grinding during recycling of CNT-PC released airborne nanoparticles (NPs) with a geometric mean (GM) particle concentration from 4.7 × 10 3 to 1.7 × 10 6 particles/cm 3 . The ratios of the GM particle concentration measured during the injection molding process with exhaust ventilation relative to background were up to 1.3 (loading), 1.9 (melting), and 1.4 (molding), and 101.4 for grinding process without exhaust ventilation, suggesting substantial NP exposures during these processes. The estimated mass concentration was in the range of 1.6-95.2 μg/m 3 . Diverse particle morphologies, including NPs, NP agglomerates, particles with embedded or protruding CNTs and fibers, were observed. No free CNTs were found during any of the investigated processes. The breathing zone respirable fiber concentration during the grinding process ranged from non-detectable to 0.13 fiber/cm 3 . No evidence was found that the emissions were affected by the number of recycling cycles. Institution of exposure controls is recommended during these processes to limit exposures to airborne NPs and CNT-containing fibers.

  14. Numerical simulation of stress distribution in Inconel 718 components realized by metal injection molding during supercritical debinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agne, Aboubakry; Barrière, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) is a process combining advantages of thermoplastic injection molding and powder metallurgy process in order to manufacture components with complex and near net-shape geometries. The debinding of a green component can be performed in two steps, first by using solvent debinding in order to extract the organic part of the binder and then by thermal degradation of the rest of the binder. A shorter and innovative method for extracting an organic binder involves the use of supercritical fluid instead of a regular solvent. The debinding via a supercritical fluid was recently investigated to extract organic binders contained in components obtained by Metal Injection Molding. It consists to put the component in an enclosure subjected to high pressure and temperature. The supercritical fluid has various properties depending on these two conditions, e.g., density and viscosity. The high-pressure combined with the high temperature during the process affect the component structure. Three mechanisms contributing to the deformation of the component can been differentiated: thermal expansion, binder extraction and supercritical fluid effect on the outer surfaces of the component. If one supposes that, the deformation due to binder extraction is negligible, thermal expansion and the fluid effect are probably the main mechanisms that can produce several stress. A finite-element model, which couples fluid-structures interaction and structural mechanics, has been developed and performed on the Comsol Multiphysics® finite-element software platform allowed to estimate the stress distribution during the supercritical debinding of MIM component composed of Inconel 718 powders, polypropylene, polyethylene glycol and stearic acid as binder. The proposed numerical simulations allow the estimation of the stress distribution with respect to the processing parameters for MIM components during the supercritical debinding process using a stationary solver.

  15. Acoustic emission detection of macro-cracks on engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle using PZT sensors.

    PubMed

    Svečko, Rajko; Kusić, Dragan; Kek, Tomaž; Sarjaš, Andrej; Hančič, Aleš; Grum, Janez

    2013-05-14

    This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals' peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

  16. Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Svečko, Rajko; Kusić, Dragan; Kek, Tomaž; Sarjaš, Andrej; Hančič, Aleš; Grum, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals' peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process. PMID:23673677

  17. Characterization of weathered wood-plastic composite surfaces using FTIR spectroscopy, contact angle, and XPS

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

    2007-01-01

    Much of the current growth of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) is due to increased penetration into the decking market; therefore it has become imperative to understand the durability of WPCs in outdoor applications. In this study, wood flour filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were manufactured through either injection molding or extrusion. A set of...

  18. The effect of aging treatment on the fracture toughness and impact strength of injection molded Ni-625 superalloy parts

    SciTech Connect

    Özgün, Özgür, E-mail: oozgun@bingol.edu.tr; Yılmaz, Ramazan; Özkan Gülsoy, H.

    In this study, the effect of aging heat treatment on fracture toughness and impact strength of Ni-625 superalloy fabricated by using powder injection molding (PIM) method was examined. After a feedstock was prepared by mixing the prealloyed Ni-625 superalloy powder, which was fabricated by gas atomisation, with a polymeric binder system and then it was granulated, it was shaped through the use of injection. The molded specimens were sintered at 1300 °C for 3 h after a two-stage debinding process. Once the sintered specimens were treated in the solution at 1150 °C for 2 h, they were quenched. Aging treatmentmore » was performed by keeping specimens at 745 °C for 22 h. Fracture toughness and impact tests were performed on sintered and aged specimens. Microstructure examinations were performed by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The results revealed that aging heat treatment led to the formation of some carbides and intermetallic phases in the microstructure. While the hardness of the aged specimens increased due to these phases, their fracture toughness and impact strength values decreased. - Highlights: • Ni-625 superalloy components were produced by means of powder injection molding. • The produced components were subjected to aging treatment. • Aging process provided approximately 50% increase in the hardness of components. • Intermetallic precipitates, carbides and TCP phases occurred within the aged parts. • Fracture toughness and impact strength values decreased due to the hard phases.« less

  19. Assessment of Current Process Modeling Approaches to Determine Their Limitations, Applicability and Developments Needed for Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Injection Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Holbery, Jim; Smith, Mark T.

    2006-11-30

    This report describes the status of the current process modeling approaches to predict the behavior and flow of fiber-filled thermoplastics under injection molding conditions. Previously, models have been developed to simulate the injection molding of short-fiber thermoplastics, and an as-formed composite part or component can then be predicted that contains a microstructure resulting from the constituents’ material properties and characteristics as well as the processing parameters. Our objective is to assess these models in order to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). First, the concentration regimes are summarized to facilitate the understandingmore » of different types of fiber-fiber interaction that can occur for a given fiber volume fraction. After the formulation of the fiber suspension flow problem and the simplification leading to the Hele-Shaw approach, the interaction mechanisms are discussed. Next, the establishment of the rheological constitutive equation is presented that reflects the coupled flow/orientation nature. The decoupled flow/orientation approach is also discussed which constitutes a good simplification for many applications involving flows in thin cavities. Finally, before outlining the necessary developments for LFTs, some applications of the current orientation model and the so-called modified Folgar-Tucker model are illustrated through the fiber orientation predictions for selected LFT samples.« less

  20. Numerical simulation of transport processes in injection mold-filling during production of a cylindrical object under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Ghoshdastidar, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation of injection mold-filling during the production of a cylindrical object under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions is presented. The material of the object is low density polyethylene (LDPE) following power-law viscosity model for non-zero shear rate zone. However, where shear rate becomes zero, zero-shear viscosity value has been used. Three cases have been considered, namely (1) Isothermal filling at constant injection pressure, (2) Isothermal filling at constant flow rate, and (3) Non-isothermal filling at constant flow rate. For the case-(3), the viscosity of LDPE is also a function of temperature. The material of the mold ismore » steel. For the non-isothermal filling, the concept of melt-mold thermal contact resistance coefficient has been incorporated in the model. The length and diameter of the body in all three cases have been taken as 0.254 m and 0.00508 m respectively. The finite-difference method has been used to solve the governing differential equations for the processes. The results show excellent agreement with the corresponding equations for the processes. The results show excellent agreement with the corresponding analytical solutions for the first two cases showing the correctness of the numerical method. The simulation results for non-isothermal filling show physically realistic trends and lend insight into various important aspects of mold-filling including frozen skin layer.« less

  1. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  2. An Integrated Approach Linking Process to Structural Modeling With Microstructural Characterization for Injections-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Smith, Mark T.

    2008-09-01

    The objective of our work is to enable the optimum design of lightweight automotive structural components using injection-molded long fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). To this end, an integrated approach that links process modeling to structural analysis with experimental microstructural characterization and validation is developed. First, process models for LFTs are developed and implemented into processing codes (e.g. ORIENT, Moldflow) to predict the microstructure of the as-formed composite (i.e. fiber length and orientation distributions). In parallel, characterization and testing methods are developed to obtain necessary microstructural data to validate process modeling predictions. Second, the predicted LFT composite microstructure is imported into amore » structural finite element analysis by ABAQUS to determine the response of the as-formed composite to given boundary conditions. At this stage, constitutive models accounting for the composite microstructure are developed to predict various types of behaviors (i.e. thermoelastic, viscoelastic, elastic-plastic, damage, fatigue, and impact) of LFTs. Experimental methods are also developed to determine material parameters and to validate constitutive models. Such a process-linked-structural modeling approach allows an LFT composite structure to be designed with confidence through numerical simulations. Some recent results of our collaborative research will be illustrated to show the usefulness and applications of this integrated approach.« less

  3. Extruded/injection-molded composites containing unripe plantain flour, ethylene vinyl-alcohol and glycerol: Evaluation of color, mechanical property and biodegradability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extruded/injection-molded composites were produced from plantain flour blended with ethylene vinyl-alcohol (EVA) and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy showed composites had a smooth surface and excellent compatibility between plantain flour, EVA and glycerol. The impact of increased plantain fl...

  4. Injection moulding of plastic parts with laser textured surfaces with optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina-Estany, J.; García-Granada, A. A.; Corull-Massana, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to manufacture micro and nanotextured surfaces on plastic injection moulds with the aim of replicating them and obtaining plastic parts with optical applications. Different patterns are manufactured with nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in order to obtain three different optical applications: (i) homogeneous light diffusion (ii) 1D light directionality and (iii) 2D light directionality. Induction heating is used in the injections in order to improve the textures degree of replication. The steel mould and the plastic parts are analyzed with a confocal/focus variation microscope and with a surface roughness tester. A mock-up and a luminance camera are used to evaluate the homogeneity and luminance of the homogeneous light diffusion application in comparison with the current industrial solutions.

  5. A Fully Coupled Simulation and Optimization Scheme for the Design of 3D Powder Injection Molding Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, G.; Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Liu, B.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The paper is concerned with optimization and parametric identification of Powder Injection Molding process that consists first in injection of powder mixture with polymer binder and then to the sintering of the resulting powders parts by solid state diffusion. In the first part, one describes an original methodology to optimize the injection stage based on the combination of Design Of Experiments and an adaptive Response Surface Modeling. Then the second part of the paper describes the identification strategy that one proposes for the sintering stage, using the identification of sintering parameters from dilatometer curves followed by the optimization of the sintering process. The proposed approaches are applied to the optimization for manufacturing of a ceramic femoral implant. One demonstrates that the proposed approach give satisfactory results.

  6. Botulinum Toxin Injections Reduce Associative Plasticity in Patients with Primary Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kojovic, Maja; Caronni, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Rothwell, John C.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Edwards, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin injections ameliorate dystonic symptoms by blocking the neuromuscular junction and weakening dystonic contractions. We asked if botulinum toxin injections in dystonia patients might also affect the integrity of sensorimotor cortical plasticity, one of the key pathophysiological features of dystonia. We applied a paired associative stimulation protocol, known to induce long-term potentiation–like changes in the primary motor cortex hand area to 12 patients with cervical dystonia before and 1 and 3 months after botulinum toxin injections to the neck muscles. Primary motor cortex excitability was probed by measuring transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked motor evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation. We also measured the input–output curve, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, short afferent inhibition, and long afferent inhibition in hand muscles and the clinical severity of dystonia. Before botulinum toxin injections, paired associative stimulation significantly facilitated motor evoked potentials in hand muscles. One month after injections, this effect was abolished, with partial recovery after 3 months. There were significant positive correlations between the facilitation produced by paired associative stimulation and (1) the time elapsed since botulinum toxin injections and (2) the clinical dystonia score. One effect of botulinum toxin injection treatment is to modulate afferent input from the neck. We propose that subsequent reorganization of the motor cortex representation of hand muscles may explain the effect of botulinum toxin on motor cortical plasticity. PMID:21469207

  7. A Case of Occupational Asthma in a Plastic Injection Process Worker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We report a case of death due to asthma attack in a plastic injection process worker with a history of asthma. Methods To assess task relevance, personal history including occupational history and medical records were reviewed. Samples of the substances utilized in the injection process were collected by visiting the patient’s workplace. The work environment with the actual process was reproduced in the laboratory, and the released substances were evaluated. Results The medical records confirmed that the patient’s conventional asthma was in remission. The analysis of the resins discharged from the injection process simulation revealed styrene, which causes occupational asthma, and benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-, and octadecyl ester. Even though it was not the case in the present study, various harmful substances capable of inducing asthma such as formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetic acid are released during resin processing. Conclusion A worker was likely to occur occupational asthma as a result of the exposure to the harmful substances generated during the plastic injection process. PMID:24472161

  8. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Third Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Sanborn, Scott E.; Mathur, Raj N.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the technical progresses made during the third quarter of FY 2014: 1) Autodesk introduced the options for fiber inlet condition to the 3D solver. These options are already available in the mid-plane/dual domain solver. 2) Autodesk improved the accuracy of 3D fiber orientation calculation around the gate. 3) Autodesk received consultant services from Prof. C.L. Tucker at the University of Illinois on the implementation of the reduced order model for fiber length, and discussed with Prof. Tucker the methods to reduce memory usage. 4) PlastiComp delivered to PNNL center-gated and edge-fan-gated 20-wt% to 30-wt% LCF/PP and LCF/PA66more » (7”x7”x1/8”) plaques molded by the in-line direct injection molding (D-LFT) process. 5) PlastiComp molded ASTM tensile, flexural and impact bars under the same D-LFT processing conditions used for plaques for Certification of Assessment and ascertaining the resultant mechanical properties. 6) Purdue developed a new polishing routine, utilizing the automated polishing machine, to reduce fiber damage during surface preparation. 7) Purdue used a marker-based watershed segmentation routine, in conjunction with a hysteresis thresholding technique, for fiber segmentation during fiber orientation measurement. 8) Purdue validated Purdue’s fiber orientation measurement method using the previous fiber orientation data obtained from the Leeds machine and manually measured data by the University of Illinois. 9) PNNL conducted ASMI mid-plane analyses for a 30wt% LCF/PP plaque and compared the predicted fiber orientations with the measured data provided by Purdue University at the selected locations on this plaque. 10) PNNL put together the DOE 2014 Annual Merit Review (AMR) presentation with the team and presented it at the AMR meetings on June 17, 2014. 11) PNNL built ASMI dual domain models for the Toyota complex part and commenced mold filling analyses of the complex part with different wall thicknesses in order

  9. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique and made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implant were evaluated. Sixteeen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, machined zirconia implants and PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (P < 0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. PMID:26235717

  10. Injection Molding and Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Polymer Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Botta, Luigi; Morreale, Marco; Rifici, Sebastiano; Ceraulo, Manuela; La Mantia, Francesco Paolo

    2018-04-17

    The use of biodegradable/bio-based polymers is of great importance in addressing several issues related to environmental protection, public health, and new, stricter legislation. Yet some applications require improved properties (such as barrier or mechanical properties), suggesting the use of nanosized fillers in order to obtain bio-based polymer nanocomposites. In this work, bionanocomposites based on two different biodegradable polymers (coming from the Bioflex and MaterBi families) and two different nanosized fillers (organo-modified clay and hydrophobic-coated precipitated calcium carbonate) were prepared and compared with traditional nanocomposites with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as matrix. In particular, the injection molding processability, as well as the mechanical and rheological properties of the so-obtained bionanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the processability of the two biodegradable polymers and the related nanocomposites can be compared to that of the HDPE-based systems and that, in general, the bio-based systems can be taken into account as suitable alternatives.

  11. Injection Molding and Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Rifici, Sebastiano; Ceraulo, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    The use of biodegradable/bio-based polymers is of great importance in addressing several issues related to environmental protection, public health, and new, stricter legislation. Yet some applications require improved properties (such as barrier or mechanical properties), suggesting the use of nanosized fillers in order to obtain bio-based polymer nanocomposites. In this work, bionanocomposites based on two different biodegradable polymers (coming from the Bioflex and MaterBi families) and two different nanosized fillers (organo-modified clay and hydrophobic-coated precipitated calcium carbonate) were prepared and compared with traditional nanocomposites with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as matrix. In particular, the injection molding processability, as well as the mechanical and rheological properties of the so-obtained bionanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the processability of the two biodegradable polymers and the related nanocomposites can be compared to that of the HDPE-based systems and that, in general, the bio-based systems can be taken into account as suitable alternatives. PMID:29673143

  12. Plastic masters-rigid templates for soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Desai, Salil P; Freeman, Dennis M; Voldman, Joel

    2009-06-07

    We demonstrate a simple process for the fabrication of rigid plastic master molds for soft lithography directly from (poly)dimethysiloxane devices. Plastics masters (PMs) provide a cost-effective alternative to silicon-based masters and can be easily replicated without the need for cleanroom facilities. We have successfully demonstrated the use of plastics micromolding to generate both single and dual-layer plastic structures, and have characterized the fidelity of the molding process. Using the PM fabrication technique, world-to-chip connections can be integrated directly into the master enabling devices with robust, well-aligned fluidic ports directly after molding. PMs provide an easy technique for the fabrication of microfluidic devices and a simple route for the scaling-up of fabrication of robust masters for soft lithography.

  13. Plasmonic gold nanostars as optical nano-additives for injection molded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyne, Devon A.; Orlicki, Joshua A.; Walck, Scott D.; Savage, Alice M.; Li, Thomas; Griep, Mark H.

    2017-10-01

    Nanoscale engineering of noble metal particles has provided numerous material configurations to selectively confine and manipulate light across the electromagnetic spectrum. Transitioning these materials to a composite form while maintaining the desired resonance properties has proven challenging. In this work, the successful integration of plasmon-focusing gold nanostars (GNSs) into polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is demonstrated. Tailored GNSs are produced with over a 90% yield and methods to control the branching structures are shown. A protective silica capping shell is employed on the nanomaterials to facilitate survivability in the high temperate/high shear processing parameters to create optically-tuned injection molded PNCs. The developed GNS PNCs possess dichroic scattering and absorption behavior, opening up potential applications in the fields of holographic imaging, optical filtering and photovoltaics.

  14. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Stevenson, Paige; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers advantages of low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semi-rigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers.

  15. Optimization of Gate, Runner and Sprue in Two-Plate Family Plastic Injection Mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A.; Hadzley, M.; Amri, S.; Izamshah, R.; Hassan, A.; Samsi, S.; Shahir, K.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the optimization size of gate, runner and sprue in two-plate family plastic injection mould. An Electronic Cash Register (ECR) plastic product was used in this study, which there are three components in electronic cast register plastic product consist of top casing, bottom casing and paper holder. The objectives of this paper are to find out the optimum size of gate, runner and sprue, to locate the optimum layout of cavities and to recognize the defect problems due to the wrong size of gate, runner and sprue. Three types of software were used in this study, which Unigraphics software as CAD tool was used to design 3D modeling, Rhinoceros software as post processing tool was used to design gate, runner and sprue and Moldex software as simulation tool was used to analyze the plastic flow. As result, some modifications were made on size of feeding system and location of cavity to eliminate the short- shot, over filling and welding line problems in two-plate family plastic injection mould.

  16. Comparison of mechanical properties for polyamide 12 composite-based biomaterials fabricated by fused filament fabrication and injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Tuan Noraihan Azila Tuan; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Akil, Hazizan Md; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of 3D printing technology known as fused filament fabrication (FFF) has offered the possibility of producing an anatomically accurate, patient specific implant with more affordable prices. The only weakness of this technology is related to incompatibility and lack of properties of current material to be applied in biomedical. Therefore, this study aims to develop a new, polymer composite-based biomaterial that exhibits a high processability using FFF technique, strong enough and shows acceptable biocompatibility, and safe for biomedical use. Polyamide 12 (PA12), which meets all these requirements was incorporated with two bioceramic fillers, zirconia and hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical and bioactivity properties. The obtained mechanical properties were compared with injection-molded specimens and also a commercial biomedical product, HAPEXTM which is composed of hydroxyapatite and polyethylene. The yield strength and modulus of the PA12 composites increased steadily with increasing filler loading. Although the strength of printed PA12 composites were reduced compared with injection molded specimen, but still higher than HAPEXTM material. The higher surface roughness obtained by printed PA12 was expected to enhance the cell adhesion and provide better implant fixation.

  17. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tsz Wai; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management. PMID:29617339

  18. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haoxiang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Wong, Jonathan Wc; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-04-04

    Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  19. From micro- to nano-scale molding of metals : size effect during molding of single crystal Al with rectangular strip punches.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Meng, W. J.; Mei, F.

    2011-02-01

    A single crystal Al specimen was molded at room temperature with long, rectangular, strip diamond punches. Quantitative molding response curves were obtained at a series of punch widths, ranging from 5 {micro}m to 550 nm. A significant size effect was observed, manifesting itself in terms of significantly increasing characteristic molding pressure as the punch width decreases to 1.5 {micro}m and below. A detailed comparison of the present strip punch molding results was made with Berkovich pyramidal indentation on the same single crystal Al specimen. The comparison reveals distinctly different dependence of the characteristic pressure on corresponding characteristic length. The presentmore » results show the feasibility of micro-/nano-scale compression molding as a micro-/nano-fabrication technique, and offer an experimental test case for size-dependent plasticity theories.« less

  20. Multiple-Step Injection Molding for Fibrin-Based Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Miriam; Gonzalez de Torre, Israel; Moreira, Ricardo; Frese, Julia; Oedekoven, Caroline; Alonso, Matilde; Rodriguez Cabello, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart valves are elaborate and highly heterogeneous structures of the circulatory system. Despite the well accepted relationship between the structural and mechanical anisotropy and the optimal function of the valves, most approaches to create tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) do not try to mimic this complexity and rely on one homogenous combination of cells and materials for the whole construct. The aim of this study was to establish an easy and versatile method to introduce spatial diversity into a heart valve fibrin scaffold. We developed a multiple-step injection molding process that enables the fabrication of TEHVs with heterogeneous composition (cell/scaffold material) of wall and leaflets without the need of gluing or suturing components together, with the leaflets firmly connected to the wall. The integrity of the valves and their functionality was proved by either opening/closing cycles in a bioreactor (proof of principle without cells) or with continuous stimulation over 2 weeks. We demonstrated the potential of the method by the two-step molding of the wall and the leaflets containing different cell lines. Immunohistology after stimulation confirmed tissue formation and demonstrated the localization of the different cell types. Furthermore, we showed the proof of principle fabrication of valves using different materials for wall (fibrin) and leaflets (hybrid gel of fibrin/elastin-like recombinamer) and with layered leaflets. The method is easy to implement, does not require special facilities, and can be reproduced in any tissue-engineering lab. While it has been demonstrated here with fibrin, it can easily be extended to other hydrogels. PMID:25654448

  1. Multiple-Step Injection Molding for Fibrin-Based Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves.

    PubMed

    Weber, Miriam; Gonzalez de Torre, Israel; Moreira, Ricardo; Frese, Julia; Oedekoven, Caroline; Alonso, Matilde; Rodriguez Cabello, Carlos J; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Mela, Petra

    2015-08-01

    Heart valves are elaborate and highly heterogeneous structures of the circulatory system. Despite the well accepted relationship between the structural and mechanical anisotropy and the optimal function of the valves, most approaches to create tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) do not try to mimic this complexity and rely on one homogenous combination of cells and materials for the whole construct. The aim of this study was to establish an easy and versatile method to introduce spatial diversity into a heart valve fibrin scaffold. We developed a multiple-step injection molding process that enables the fabrication of TEHVs with heterogeneous composition (cell/scaffold material) of wall and leaflets without the need of gluing or suturing components together, with the leaflets firmly connected to the wall. The integrity of the valves and their functionality was proved by either opening/closing cycles in a bioreactor (proof of principle without cells) or with continuous stimulation over 2 weeks. We demonstrated the potential of the method by the two-step molding of the wall and the leaflets containing different cell lines. Immunohistology after stimulation confirmed tissue formation and demonstrated the localization of the different cell types. Furthermore, we showed the proof of principle fabrication of valves using different materials for wall (fibrin) and leaflets (hybrid gel of fibrin/elastin-like recombinamer) and with layered leaflets. The method is easy to implement, does not require special facilities, and can be reproduced in any tissue-engineering lab. While it has been demonstrated here with fibrin, it can easily be extended to other hydrogels.

  2. Ultrasonically-assisted Polymer Molding: An Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moles, Matthew; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    Energy reduction in extrusion and injection molding processes can be achieved by the introduction of ultrasonic energy. Polymer flow can be enhanced on application of ultrasonic vibration, which can reduce the thermal and pressure input requirements to produce the same molding; higher productivity may also be achieved. In this paper, a design of an ultrasound-assisted injection mold machine is explored. An extrusion-die design was augmented with a commercial 1.5 kW ultrasonic transducer and sonotrode designed to resonate close to 20 kHz with up to 100 μm vibration amplitude. The design was evaluated with modal and thermal analysis using finite-element analysis software. The use of numerical techniques, including computational fluid dynamics, fluid-structure interaction and coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian method, to predict the effect of ultrasound on polymer flow was considered. A sonotrode design utilizing ceramic to enhance thermal isolation was also explored.

  3. Distortion-free foamed-plastic parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Jackson, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    In process for molding foamed-plastic products, gases that are formed as byproducts of foaming reaction escape through perforated die. Thus, volatiles are not trapped in pockets that can deform and weaken the molded part.

  4. Multi-layer plastic/glass microfluidic systems containing electrical and mechanical functionality.

    PubMed

    Han, Arum; Wang, Olivia; Graff, Mason; Mohanty, Swomitra K; Edwards, Thayne L; Han, Ki-Ho; Bruno Frazier, A

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes an approach for fabricating multi-layer microfluidic systems from a combination of glass and plastic materials. Methods and characterization results for the microfabrication technologies underlying the process flow are presented. The approach is used to fabricate and characterize multi-layer plastic/glass microfluidic systems containing electrical and mechanical functionality. Hot embossing, heat staking of plastics, injection molding, microstenciling of electrodes, and stereolithography were combined with conventional MEMS fabrication techniques to realize the multi-layer systems. The approach enabled the integration of multiple plastic/glass materials into a single monolithic system, provided a solution for the integration of electrical functionality throughout the system, provided a mechanism for the inclusion of microactuators such as micropumps/valves, and provided an interconnect technology for interfacing fluids and electrical components between the micro system and the macro world.

  5. Wafer-scale fabrication of polymer-based microdevices via injection molding and photolithographic micropatterning protocols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Yang, Haesik; Chung, Kwang-Hyo; Pyo, Hyeon-Bong

    2005-08-15

    Because of their broad applications in biomedical analysis, integrated, polymer-based microdevices incorporating micropatterned metallic and insulating layers are significant in contemporary research. In this study, micropatterns for temperature sensing and microelectrode sets for electroanalysis have been implemented on an injection-molded thin polymer membrane by employing conventional semiconductor processing techniques (i.e., standard photolithographic methods). Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is chosen as the polymer substrate because of its high chemical and thermal stability. A COC 5-in. wafer (1-mm thickness) is manufactured using an injection molding method, in which polymer membranes (approximately 130 microm thick and 3 mm x 6 mm in area) are implemented simultaneously in order to reduce local thermal mass around micropatterned heaters and temperature sensors. The highly polished surface (approximately 4 nm within 40 microm x 40 microm area) of the fabricated COC wafer as well as its good resistance to typical process chemicals makes it possible to use the standard photolithographic and etching protocols on the COC wafer. Gold micropatterns with a minimum 5-microm line width are fabricated for making microheaters, temperature sensors, and microelectrodes. An insulating layer of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is prepared at a COC-endurable low temperature (approximately 120 degrees C) by using atomic layer deposition and micropatterning for the electrode contacts. The fabricated microdevice for heating and temperature sensing shows improved performance of thermal isolation, and microelectrodes display good electrochemical performances for electrochemical sensors. Thus, this novel 5-in. wafer-level microfabrication method is a simple and cost-effective protocol to prepare polymer substrate and demonstrates good potential for application to highly integrated and miniaturized biomedical devices.

  6. Dimensional stability of wood-plastic composites reinforced with potassium methyl siliconate modified fiber and sawdust made from beetle-killed trees

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Montezun

    2014-01-01

    Wood fromtwovarieties of beetle-killed trees was used to fabricate wood–plastic composites. Loblolly pine and lodgepole pine beetle-killed trees were defibrated mechanically and thermomechanically, respectively, into fiber. Fiber and sawdust produced from the trees were modified with potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) and injection-molded into fiber/sawdust reinforced...

  7. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  8. An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers.

    PubMed

    Raut, Anjana; Rao, Polsani Laxman; Vikas, B V J; Ravindranath, T; Paradkar, Archana; Malakondaiah, G

    2013-01-01

    Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate) and Pyrax (compression molded, control group). Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa) was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa). The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa). The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.

  9. Powder Injection Molding for mass production of He-cooled divertor parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, S.; Norajitra, P.; Piotter, V.; Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.-J.

    2011-10-01

    A He-cooled divertor for future fusion power plants has been developed at KIT. Tungsten and tungsten alloys are presently considered the most promising materials for functional and structural divertor components. The advantages of tungsten materials lie, e.g. in the high melting point, and low activation, the disadvantages are high hardness and brittleness. The machinig of tungsten, e.g. milling, is very complex and cost-intensive. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) is a method for cost effective mass production of near-net-shape parts with high precision. The complete W-PIM process route is outlined and, results of product examination discussed. A binary tungsten powder feedstock with a grain size distribution in the range 0.7-1.7 μm FSSS, and a solid load of 50 vol.% was developed. After heat treatment, the successfully finished samples showed promising results, i.e. 97.6% theoretical density, a grain size of approximately 5 μm, and a hardness of 457 HV0.1.

  10. Experimental investigation on flexure and impact properties of injection molded polypropylene-nylon 6-glass fiber polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N. M.; Chowdhury, M. A.; Rahman, N. A. N. A.; Oumer, A. N.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.; Ismail, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, glass fiber (GF) reinforced polypropylene (PP)-nylon 6 (PA6) polymer blend composites were prepared using injection molding process. Specimens of four different compositions such as 80%PP+20%PA6, 80%PP+18%PA6+2%GF, 80%PP+16%PA6+4%GF and 80%PP+14%PA6+6%GF were prepared. In the injection molding process, suitable process parameters were selected depending on the type of composite specimen in producing defects free dog bone shaped specimens. Flexure and impact tests were carried out according to ASTM standard. The important flexure properties such as flexural modulus, flexural yield strength, flexural strength and flexural strain were investigated. The obtained results revealed that flexural modulus of 80%PP+20%PA6 polymer blend is the lowest and the polymer blend composite shows steadily improved modulus as the glass fiber content is increased. Results also showed that flexural strength of pure polymer blend is the lowest but it improves gradually when the glass fiber content is increased. Impact test results revealed that impact strength of 80%PP+20%PA6 polymer blend is the highest whereas all the composites show reduced impact strength or toughness. It is noticed that 80%PP+14%PA6+6%GF composite exhibits the lowest impact strength.

  11. Analysis of batch-related influences on injection molding processes viewed in the context of electro plating quality demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, Jens P.; Wortberg, Johannes; Heinzler, Felix A.

    2016-03-01

    The injection molding process is mandatorily influenced by the viscosity of the material. By varying the material batch the viscosity of the polymer changes. For the process and part quality the initial conditions of the material in addition to the processing parameters define the process and product quality. A high percentage of technical polymers processed in injection molding is refined in a follow-up production step, for example electro plating. Processing optimized for electro plating often requires avoiding high shear stresses by using low injection speed and pressure conditions. Therefore differences in the material charges' viscosity occur especially in the quality related low shear rate area. These differences and quality related influences can be investigated by high detail rheological analysis and process simulation based on adapted material describing models. Differences in viscosity between batches can be detected by measurements with high-pressure-capillary-rheometers or oscillatory rheometers for low shear rates. A combination of both measurement techniques is possible by the Cox-Merz-Relation. The detected differences in the rheological behavior of both charges are summarized in two material behavior describing model approaches and added to the simulation. In this paper the results of processing-simulations with standard filling parameters are presented with two ABS charges. Part quality defining quantities such as temperature, pressure and shear stress are investigated and the influence of charge variations is pointed out with respect to electro plating quality demands. Furthermore, the results of simulations with a new quality related process control are presented and compared to the standard processing.

  12. Compensating additional optical power in the central zone of a multifocal contact lens forminimization of the shrinkage error of the shell mold in the injection molding process.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to develop a compensating method to minimize the shrinkage error of the shell mold (SM) in the injection molding (IM) process to obtain uniform optical power in the central optical zone of soft axial symmetric multifocal contact lenses (CL). The Z-shrinkage error along the Z axis or axial axis of the anterior SM corresponding to the anterior surface of a dry contact lens in the IM process can be minimized by optimizing IM process parameters and then by compensating for additional (Add) powers in the central zone of the original lens design. First, the shrinkage error is minimized by optimizing three levels of four IM parameters, including mold temperature, injection velocity, packing pressure, and cooling time in 18 IM simulations based on an orthogonal array L 18 (2 1 ×3 4 ). Then, based on the Z-shrinkage error from IM simulation, three new contact lens designs are obtained by increasing the Add power in the central zone of the original multifocal CL design to compensate for the optical power errors. Results obtained from IM process simulations and the optical simulations show that the new CL design with 0.1 D increasing in Add power has the closest shrinkage profile to the original anterior SM profile with percentage of reduction in absolute Z-shrinkage error of 55% and more uniform power in the central zone than in the other two cases. Moreover, actual experiments of IM of SM for casting soft multifocal CLs have been performed. The final product of wet CLs has been completed for the original design and the new design. Results of the optical performance have verified the improvement of the compensated design of CLs. The feasibility of this compensating method has been proven based on the measurement results of the produced soft multifocal CLs of the new design. Results of this study can be further applied to predict or compensate for the total optical power errors of the soft multifocal CLs.

  13. Accurate polarimeter with multicapture fitting for plastic lens evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Noemí; Mayershofer, Daniel; Garcia, Cristina; Arasa, Josep

    2016-02-01

    Due to their manufacturing process, plastic injection molded lenses do not achieve a constant density throughout their volume. This change of density introduces tensions in the material, inducing local birefringence, which in turn is translated into a variation of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices that can be expressed as a retardation phase plane using the Jones matrix notation. The detection and measurement of the value of the retardation of the phase plane are therefore very useful ways to evaluate the quality of plastic lenses. We introduce a polariscopic device to obtain two-dimensional maps of the tension distribution in the bulk of a lens, based on detection of the local birefringence. In addition to a description of the device and the mathematical approach used, a set of initial measurements is presented that confirms the validity of the developed system for the testing of the uniformity of plastic lenses.

  14. Effect of injection parameters on mechanical and physical properties of super ultra-thin wall propylene packaging by Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginghtong, Thatchanok; Nakpathomkun, Natthapon; Pechyen, Chiravoot

    2018-06-01

    The parameters of the plastic injection molding process have been investigated for the manufacture of a 64 oz. ultra-thin polypropylene bucket. The 3 main parameters, such as injection speed, melting temperature, holding pressure, were investigated to study their effect on the physical appearance and compressive strength. The orthogonal array of Taguchi's L9 (33) was used to carry out the experimental plan. The physical properties were measured and the compressive strength was determined using linear regression analysis. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to analyze the crystalline structure of the product. The optimization results show that the proposed approach can help engineers identify optimal process parameters and achieve competitive advantages of energy consumption and product quality. In addition, the injection molding of the product includes 24 mm of shot stroke, 1.47 mm position transfer, 268 rpm screw speed, injection speed 100 mm/s, 172 ton clamping force, 800 kgf holding pressure, 0.9 s holding time and 1.4 s cooling time, make the products in the shape and proportion of the product satisfactory. The parameters of influence are injection speed 71.07%, melting temperature 23.31% and holding pressure 5.62%, respectively. The compressive strength of the product was able to withstand a pressure of up to 839 N before the product became plastic. The low melting temperature was caused by the superior crystalline structure of the super-ultra-thin wall product which leads to a lower compressive strength.

  15. Optimization simulated injection molding process for ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene nanocomposite hip liner using response surface methodology and simulation of mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad Shiroud; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Moghaddam, Amin Hedayati; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Iman; Sahraeian, Razi; Rashedi, Hamid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, injection molding process of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) reinforced with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) was simulated and optimized through minimizing the shrinkage and warpage of the hip liners as an essential part of a hip prosthesis. Fractional factorial design (FFD) was applied to the design of the experiment, modeling, and optimizing the shrinkage and warpage of UHMWPE/nHA composite liners. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to find the importance of operative parameters and their effects. In this experiment, seven input parameters were surveyed, including mold temperature (A), melt temperature (B), injection time (C), packing time (D), packing pressure (E), coolant temperature (F), and type of liner (G). Two models were capable of predicting warpage and volumetric shrinkage (%) in different conditions with R 2 of 0.9949 and 0.9989, respectively. According to the models, the optimized values of warpage and volumetric shrinkage are 0.287222 mm and 13.6613%, respectively. Meanwhile, a finite element analysis (FE analysis) was also carried out to examine the stress distribution in liners under the force values of demanding and daily activities. The Von-Mises stress distribution showed that both of the liners can be applied to all activities with no failure. However, UHMWPE/nHA liner is more resistant to the highest loads than UHMWPE liner due to the effect of nHA in the nanocomposite. Finally, according to the results of injection molding simulations, optimization, structural analysis as well as the tensile strength and wear resistance, UHMWPE/nHA liner is recommended for the production of a hip prosthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of 99Tcm-MAG3: no confirmation that sodium chloride injections from plastic containers affect radiochemical purity.

    PubMed

    Millar, A M; O'Brien, L M

    1998-05-01

    Reports have suggested that when sodium chloride injections from a plastic ampoule are used during the preparation of 99Tcm-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99Tcm-MAG3), the radiochemical purity of the final product might be reduced. A study was therefore undertaken to examine the effect of sodium chloride injections from five manufacturers on the radiochemical purity and stability of 99Tcm-MAG3. One sodium chloride injection was supplied in a glass vial, three in plastic ampoules and one in a plastic infusion bag. Three batches of sodium chloride injections from each manufacturer were tested. The radiopharmaceutical was prepared at a radioactive concentration of 1.1 GBq in 10 ml according to the instructions of the manufacturer of TechneScan MAG3. Analysis of radiochemical purity was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately after preparation and 6 h later. Using 95% as the minimum acceptable radiochemical purity, all the products were satisfactory over the 6 h test period. No manufacturer's sodium chloride injection was found to have a statistically significant effect on the radiochemical purity. Based on the 15 batches of sodium chloride injection tested, this study cannot confirm that sodium chloride injections from a plastic container affect the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-MAG3. However, in view of the known sensitivity of some 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals to external influences, it is probably good practice to test radiochemical purity when new batches of ancillary materials, such as sodium chloride injections, are introduced.

  17. Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites - FY 2014 Fourth Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Fifield, Leonard S.; Mathur, Raj N.

    2014-09-30

    to extract machine purgings (purge materials) from Magna’s 200-Ton Injection Molding machine targeted to mold the complex part. 11) Toyota and Magna discussed with PNNL tool modification for molding the complex part.« less

  18. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerlein, K. R.; Adriano, L.; Heymann, M.; Kirian, R.; Knoška, J.; Wilde, F.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.

  19. Simulation of Orientation in Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Particle Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez-García, Gregorio M.; Ortman, Kevin C.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Wapperom, Peter; Baird, Donald G.

    2008-07-01

    A 2D coupled Hele-Shaw flow approximation for predicting the flow-induced orientation of high aspect ratio particles in injection molded composite parts is presented. For a highly concentrated short glass fiber PBT suspension, the impact of inter-particle interactions and the orientation at the gate is investigated for a center-gated disk using material parameters determined from rheometry. Experimental orientation is determined from confocal laser micrographs using the methods of ellipses. The constitutive equations are discretized using discontinuous Galerkin Finite Elements. Model predictions are significantly improved by using a localized orientation measured experimentally at the gate region instead of random or averaged gapwise measured orientation assumed in previous studies. The predicted profile in different radial positions can be related to the layered structure along the gapwise direction. Model modifications including interactions have lower impact than the initial conditions.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metal injection molded Ti-Nb binary alloys as biomedical material.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Chang, Keke; Ebel, Thomas; Qian, Ma; Willumeit, Regine; Yan, Ming; Pyczak, Florian

    2013-12-01

    The application of titanium (Ti) based biomedical materials which are widely used at present, such as commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V, are limited by the mismatch of Young's modulus between the implant and the bones, the high costs of products, and the difficulty of producing complex shapes of materials by conventional methods. Niobium (Nb) is a non-toxic element with strong β stabilizing effect in Ti alloys, which makes Ti-Nb based alloys attractive for implant application. Metal injection molding (MIM) is a cost-efficient near-net shape process. Thus, it attracts growing interest for the processing of Ti and Ti alloys as biomaterial. In this investigation, metal injection molding was applied to the fabrication of a series of Ti-Nb binary alloys with niobium content ranging from 10wt% to 22wt%, and CP-Ti for comparison. Specimens were characterized by melt extraction, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Titanium carbide formation was observed in all the as-sintered Ti-Nb binary alloys but not in the as-sintered CP-Ti. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the carbides are Ti2C. It was found that with increasing niobium content from 0% to 22%, the porosity increased from about 1.6% to 5.8%, and the carbide area fraction increased from 0% to about 1.8% in the as-sintered samples. The effects of niobium content, porosity and titanium carbides on mechanical properties have been discussed. The as-sintered Ti-Nb specimens exhibited an excellent combination of high tensile strength and low Young's modulus, but relatively low ductility. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Composite materials molding simulation for purpose of automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ł.; Baier, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2016-08-01

    Composite materials loom large increasingly important role in the overall industry. Composite material have a special role in the ever-evolving automotive industry. Every year the composite materials are used in a growing number of elements included in the cars construction. Development requires the search for ever new applications of composite materials in areas where previously were used only metal materials. Requirements for modern solutions, such as reducing the weight of vehicles, the required strength and vibration damping characteristics go hand in hand with the properties of modern composite materials. The designers faced the challenge of the use of modern composite materials in the construction of bodies of power steering systems in vehicles. The initial choice of method for producing composite bodies was the method of molding injection of composite material. Molding injection of polymeric materials is a widely known and used for many years, but the molding injection of composite materials is a relatively new issue, innovative, it is not very common and is characterized by different conditions, parameters and properties in relation to the classical method. Therefore, for the purpose of selecting the appropriate composite material for injection for the body of power steering system computer analysis using Siemens NX 10.0 environment, including Moldex 3d and EasyFill Advanced tool to simulate the injection of materials from the group of possible solutions were carried out. Analyses were carried out on a model of a modernized wheel case of power steering system. During analysis, input parameters, such as temperature, pressure injectors, temperature charts have been analysed. An important part of the analysis was to analyse the propagation of material inside the mold during injection, so that allowed to determine the shape formability and the existence of possible imperfections of shapes and locations air traps. A very important parameter received from

  2. A programmable nanoreplica molding for the fabrication of nanophotonic devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longju; Zhang, Jingxiang; Badshah, Mohsin Ali; Dong, Liang; Li, Jingjing; Kim, Seok-min; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    The ability to fabricate periodic structures with sub-wavelength features has a great potential for impact on integrated optics, optical sensors, and photovoltaic devices. Here, we report a programmable nanoreplica molding process to fabricate a variety of sub-micrometer periodic patterns using a single mold. The process utilizes a stretchable mold to produce the desired periodic structure in a photopolymer on glass or plastic substrates. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to the mold and results in changes of the periodic structure, which resides on the surface of the mold. Direction and magnitude of the force determine the array geometry, including the lattice constant and arrangement. By stretching the mold, 2D arrays with square, rectangular, and triangular lattice structures can be fabricated. As one example, we present a plasmonic crystal device with surface plasmon resonances determined by the force applied during molding. In addition, photonic crystal slabs with different array patterns are fabricated and characterized. This unique process offers the capability of generating various periodic nanostructures rapidly and inexpensively.

  3. A programmable nanoreplica molding for the fabrication of nanophotonic devices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longju; Zhang, Jingxiang; Badshah, Mohsin Ali; Dong, Liang; Li, Jingjing; Kim, Seok-min; Lu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The ability to fabricate periodic structures with sub-wavelength features has a great potential for impact on integrated optics, optical sensors, and photovoltaic devices. Here, we report a programmable nanoreplica molding process to fabricate a variety of sub-micrometer periodic patterns using a single mold. The process utilizes a stretchable mold to produce the desired periodic structure in a photopolymer on glass or plastic substrates. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to the mold and results in changes of the periodic structure, which resides on the surface of the mold. Direction and magnitude of the force determine the array geometry, including the lattice constant and arrangement. By stretching the mold, 2D arrays with square, rectangular, and triangular lattice structures can be fabricated. As one example, we present a plasmonic crystal device with surface plasmon resonances determined by the force applied during molding. In addition, photonic crystal slabs with different array patterns are fabricated and characterized. This unique process offers the capability of generating various periodic nanostructures rapidly and inexpensively. PMID:26925828

  4. Stability of total nutrient admixtures with lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F; Silvestri, Anthony P; Bistrian, Bruce R; Mikrut, Bernard A

    2007-02-15

    The physical stability of two emulsions compounded as part of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) was studied in lipids packaged in either glass or plastic containers. Five weight-based adult TNA formulations that were designed to meet the full nutritional needs of adults with body weights between 40 and 80 kg were studied. Triplicate preparations of each TNA were assessed over 30 hours at room temperature by applying currently proposed United States Pharmacopeia (USP) criteria for mean droplet diameter, large-diameter tail, and globule-size distribution (GSD) for lipid injectable emulsions. In accordance with conditions set forth in USP chapter 729, the higher levels of volume-weighted percent of fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)) should not exceed 0.05% of the total lipid concentration. Significant differences were noted among TNA admixtures based on whether the lipid emulsion product was manufactured in glass or plastic. The plastic-contained TNAs failed the proposed USP methods for large-diameter fat globules in all formulations from the outset, and 60% had significant growth in large-diameter fat globules over time. In contrast, glass-contained TNAs were stable throughout and in all cases would have passed proposed USP limits. Certain lipid injectable emulsions packaged in plastic containers have baseline abnormal GSD profiles compared with those packaged in glass containers. When used to compound TNAs, the abnormal profile worsens and produces less stable TNAs than those compounded with lipid injectable emulsions packaged in glass containers.

  5. Microstructure and High Temperature Oxidation Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Powder Injection Molding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Yeun-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation property of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding process. Observations of initial microstructure showed a unique structure where α-Fe and (Cr, Fe)2B form a continuous three-dimensional network. High temperature oxidation tests were performed at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, for 24 h, and the oxidation weight gain according to each temperature condition was 0.13, 0.84 and 6.4 mg/cm2, respectively. The oxidation results according to time at 900 and 1000 °C conditions represented parabolic curves, and at 1100 °C condition formed a rectilinear curve. Observation and phase analysis results of the oxides identified Cr2O3 and SiO2 at 900 and 1000 °C. In addition to Cr2O3 and SiO2, CrBO3 and FeCr2O4 formed due to phase decomposition of boride were identified at 1100 °C. Based on the findings above, this study suggested the high temperature oxidation mechanism of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding, and the possibility of its application as a high temperature component material was also discussed.

  6. Environmental and Economic Implications of Distributed Additive Manufacturing: The Case of Injection Mold Tooling: Environmental Implications of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew E.; Graziano, Diane

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potentials in enabling superior engineering functionality, streamlining supply chains, and reducing life cycle impacts compared to conventional manufacturing (CM). This study estimates the net changes in supply-chain lead time, life cycle primary energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and life cycle costs (LCC) associated with AM technologies for the case of injection molding, to shed light on the environmental and economic advantages of a shift from international or onshore CM to AM in the United States. A systems modeling framework is developed, with integrations of lead-time analysis, life cycle inventory analysis, LCC model, and scenariosmore » considering design differences, supply-chain options, productions, maintenance, and AM technological developments. AM yields a reduction potential of 3% to 5% primary energy, 4% to 7% GHG emissions, 12% to 60% lead time, and 15% to 35% cost over 1 million cycles of the injection molding production depending on the AM technology advancement in future. The economic advantages indicate the significant role of AM technology in raising global manufacturing competitiveness of local producers, while the relatively small environmental benefits highlight the necessity of considering trade-offs and balance techniques between environmental and economic performances when AM is adopted in the tooling industry. The results also help pinpoint the technological innovations in AM that could lead to broader benefits in future.« less

  7. Environmental and Economic Implications of Distributed Additive Manufacturing: The Case of Injection Mold Tooling: Environmental Implications of Additive Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew E.; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2017-08-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potentials in enabling superior engineering functionality, streamlining supply chains, and reducing life cycle impacts compared to conventional manufacturing (CM). This study estimates the net changes in supply-chain lead time, life cycle primary energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and life cycle costs (LCC) associated with AM technologies for the case of injection molding, to shed light on the environmental and economic advantages of a shift from international or onshore CM to AM in the United States. A systems modeling framework is developed, with integrations of lead-time analysis, life cycle inventory analysis, LCC model, and scenariosmore » considering design differences, supply-chain options, productions, maintenance, and AM technological developments. AM yields a reduction potential of 3% to 5% primary energy, 4% to 7% GHG emissions, 12% to 60% lead time, and 15% to 35% cost over 1 million cycles of the injection molding production depending on the AM technology advancement in future. The economic advantages indicate the significant role of AM technology in raising global manufacturing competitiveness of local producers, while the relatively small environmental benefits highlight the necessity of considering trade-offs and balance techniques between environmental and economic performances when AM is adopted in the tooling industry. The results also help pinpoint the technological innovations in AM that could lead to broader benefits in future.« less

  8. Flow behavior in liquid molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunston, D.; Phelan, F.; Parnas, R.

    1992-01-01

    The liquid molding (LM) process for manufacturing polymer composites with structural properties has the potential to significantly lower fabrication costs and increase production rates. LM includes both resin transfer molding and structural reaction injection molding. To achieve this potential, however, the underlying science base must be improved to facilitate effective process optimization and implementation of on-line process control. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a major program in LM that includes materials characterization, process simulation models, on-line process monitoring and control, and the fabrication of test specimens. The results of this program are applied to real parts through cooperative projects with industry. The key feature in the effort is a comprehensive and integrated approach to the processing science aspects of LM. This paper briefly outlines the NIST program and uses several examples to illustrate the work.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix - Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC Manufacturing Operations Where the Standards Are... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites..., Table 5 Alternative Organic HAP Emissions Limits for Open Molding, Centrifugal Casting, and SMC...

  10. Microengineering of Metals and Ceramics: Part I: Design, Tooling and Injection Molding; Volume 3: Advanced Micro & Nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Brand, Oliver; Fedder, Gary K.; Hierold, Christofer; Korvink, Jan G.; Tabata, Osamu; Löhe, Detlef; Haußelt, Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Microstructures, electronics, nanotechnology - these vast fields of research are growing together as the size gap narrows and many different materials are combined. Current research, engineering sucesses and newly commercialized products hint at the immense innovative potentials and future applications that open up once mankind controls shape and function from the atomic level right up to the visible world without any gaps. In this volume, authors from three major competence centres for microengineering illustrate step by step the process from designing and simulating microcomponents of metallic and ceramic materials to replicating micro-scale components by injection molding.

  11. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines. II - Pressureless sintering and mechanical properties of injection molded silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Baer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence on density and strength of pressureless sintering in vacuum and argon environments has been evaluated with injection molded SiC materials. Main effects and two factor interactions of sintering (cycle variables temperature, time, heating rate, and atmosphere) were assessed. An improved understanding of the influence of the processing flaws and sintering conditions has been obtained. Strength and density have improved from a baseline level of 299 MPa (43.3 Ksi) and 94 pct of theoretical density to values greater than 483 MPa (70 Ksi) and 97 pct.

  12. Study of micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding.

    PubMed

    Tirta, Andy; Prasetyo, Yus; Baek, Eung-Ryul; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The nanopowder was mixed with a binder that was based on wax to produce a feedstock composed of 45% powder and binder (the powder load). Initially, the fit and proper test was done before the micropart was made by making some bars of green samples, which the properties were examined after the sintering process. The examination involved the mechanical properties such as the porosity, hardness, and some of metallurgical aspects, such as the second-phase formation and the final compound after the sintering. The results showed that utilizing 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder is promising for micropart fabrication since it can form a nearly full-density sintered sample with a low porosity and good toughness, and can provide a smooth surface finish. After this, the investigations followed with the injection of the feedstock into the PDMS micromold that was formed by the nickel pattern from the X-Ray LIGA process. The green samples successfully produced a high-aspect-ratio sample with a thickness of up to 1 mm and an aspect ratio of 15 in the microchannel part. Then the green samples were sintered at 1,300 degrees C for 2 h, since from the initial test, they showed optimum parameters with nearly full density, low porosity, and a high degree of hardness. The research shows the excellent results of the application of the 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder to micropart fabrication.

  13. Grinding aspheric and freeform micro-optical molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohme, Yazid E.

    2007-02-01

    Fueled by the need for better performing optics, glass optics are now replacing plastic optics in many industrial and consumer electronic devices. One of these devices is the mobile phone camera. The optical sub-assembly in a mobile phone includes several micro lenses that are spherical and/or aspherical in shape and require form tolerances in the submicron range. These micro glass lenses are mass produced by a replication process known as glass press molding. The process entails the compression of a glass gob between two precise optical quality molds at an elevated temperature, usually near the transition temperature of the glass material. The elevated forces and temperatures required in the glass molding process limits the materials of the molds to very tough materials such as tungsten carbide or silicon carbide. These materials can withstand large pressing forces at high temperatures without any significant deformation. These materials offer great mechanical properties for glass press molding but they are also a challenge to machine to submicron accuracy. The work in this paper discusses a deterministic micro grinding manufacturing process referred to as wheel normal grinding, which is utilized to produce these optical quality molds. Wheel normal grinding is more accurate and more deterministic than most other grinding techniques and can produce molds to the form and finish tolerances required for optical molding. This method relies on the ability to recognize and compensate for grinding wheel wear and machine repeatable errors. Results will be presented to illustrate the accuracy of this micro grinding technique.

  14. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  15. Transfer of Wire Arc-Sprayed Metal Coatings onto Plastic Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Hopmann, Ch.; Ochotta, P.

    2018-01-01

    By means of In-Mold-Metal-Spraying (IMMS), metal coatings deposited by means of arc spraying process (ASP) can be transferred onto plastic parts during injection molding, thus realizing an efficient production of metallized plastic parts. Parts produced by means of IMMS can be used in electrical applications. In the current study, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied with different feedstock materials was determined. As a starting point, pressurized air is used as atomizing gas for ASP. In contrast to Zn coatings, Cu coatings applied with pressurized air exhibit a significantly higher electrical resistivity in comparison with massive material. One possible reason is the more pronounced oxidation of Cu particles during ASP. Therefore, N2 and a mixture of N2 and H2 were used as atomizing gas. As a result, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied by means of IMMS could be significantly reduced. Furthermore, standoff distance, current and pressure of the atomizing gas were varied to investigate the influence of these process parameters on the electrical resistivity of Zn coatings using a full factorial experiment design with center point. It can be observed that the electrical resistivity of the Zn coatings increases with decreasing current and increasing standoff distance and pressure.

  16. Transfer of Wire Arc-Sprayed Metal Coatings onto Plastic Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Hopmann, Ch.; Ochotta, P.

    2017-12-01

    By means of In-Mold-Metal-Spraying (IMMS), metal coatings deposited by means of arc spraying process (ASP) can be transferred onto plastic parts during injection molding, thus realizing an efficient production of metallized plastic parts. Parts produced by means of IMMS can be used in electrical applications. In the current study, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied with different feedstock materials was determined. As a starting point, pressurized air is used as atomizing gas for ASP. In contrast to Zn coatings, Cu coatings applied with pressurized air exhibit a significantly higher electrical resistivity in comparison with massive material. One possible reason is the more pronounced oxidation of Cu particles during ASP. Therefore, N2 and a mixture of N2 and H2 were used as atomizing gas. As a result, the electrical resistivity of coatings applied by means of IMMS could be significantly reduced. Furthermore, standoff distance, current and pressure of the atomizing gas were varied to investigate the influence of these process parameters on the electrical resistivity of Zn coatings using a full factorial experiment design with center point. It can be observed that the electrical resistivity of the Zn coatings increases with decreasing current and increasing standoff distance and pressure.

  17. Electron-Beam Vapor Deposition of Mold Inserts Final Report CRADA No. TSB-777-94

    SciTech Connect

    Shepp, T.; Feeley, T.

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and H.G.G. Laser Fare, Inc. studied the application of electron-beam vapor deposition technology to the production of mold inserts for use in an injection molding machine by Laser Fare. Laser Fare provided LLNL with the requirements of the mold inserts as well as sample inserts. LLNL replicated the mold insert(s) to Laser Fare for testing by Laser Fare.

  18. Fabrication of hierarchical polymer surfaces with superhydrophobicity by injection molding from nature and function-oriented design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Can; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Mingyong; Yang, Dongjiao; Jiang, Bingyan

    2018-04-01

    A comparison of processes and wettability characteristics was presented for injection molded superhydrophobic polypropylene surfaces from two fabricating strategies. One is the biomimetic replication of patterns from indocalamus leaf in nature. The contact angle of water sitting on this PP surface was measured as 152 ± 2°, with comparable wetting behavior to natural indocalamus leaf surface. The other strategy is the fabrication of superhydrophobic structure by combining methods that produce structures at different length scales. Regarding both the machinability of mold inserts and function-oriented design, three micro-quadrangular arrays and one hierarchical micro-nano cylinder array were designed with the goal of superhydrophobicity. Particularly, a simple approach to the fabrication of hierarchical structures was proposed by combining the anodized plate and the punching plate. The function-oriented design targets as superhydrophobicity were all reached for the designed four structures. The measured contact angles of droplet for these structures were almost consistent with the calculated equilibrium contact angles from thermodynamic analysis. Among them, the contact angle of droplet on the surface of designed hierarchical structure reached about 163° with the sliding angle of 5°, resulting in self-cleaning characteristic. The superhydrophobicity of function-oriented designed polymer surfaces could be modified and controlled, which is exactly the limitation of replicating from natural organisms.

  19. Frequency and amplitude dependences of molding accuracy in ultrasonic nanoimprint technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2009-12-01

    We use neither a heater nor ultraviolet lights, and are researching and developing an ultrasonic nanoimprint as a new nano-patterning technology. In our ultrasonic nanoimprint technology, ultrasonic vibration is not used as a heat generator instead of the heater. A mold is connected with an ultrasonic generator, and mold patterns are pushed down and pulled up at a high speed into a thermoplastic. Frictional heat is generated by ultrasonic vibration between mold patterns and thermoplastic patterns formed by an initial contact force. However, because frictional heat occurs locally, the whole mold is not heated. Therefore, a molding material can be comprehensively processed at room temperature. A magnetostriction actuator was built into our ultrasonic nanoimprint system as an ultrasonic generator, and the frequency and amplitude can be changed between dc-10 kHz and 0-4 µm, respectively. First, the ultrasonic nanoimprint was experimented by using this system on polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Tg = 69 °C), whose the glass transition temperature (Tg) is comparatively low in engineering plastics, and it was ascertained that the most suitable elastic material for this technique was an ethyl urethane rubber. In addition, we used a changeable frequency of the magnetostriction actuator, and nano-patterns in an electroformed-Ni mold were transferred to a 0.5 mm thick sheet of PET, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), which are typical engineering plastics, under variable molding conditions. The frequency and amplitude dependence of ultrasonic vibration to the molding accuracy were investigated by measuring depth and width of imprinted patterns. As a result, regardless of the molding material, the imprinted depth was changed drastically when the frequency exceeded 5 kHz. On the other hand, when the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration grew, the imprinted depth gradually deepened. Influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration was not observed

  20. Heat transfer analytical models for the rapid determination of cooling time in crystalline thermoplastic injection molding and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Delaunay; Baptiste, Pignon; Nicolas, Boyard; Vincent, Sobotka

    2018-05-01

    Heat transfer during the cooling of a thermoplastic injected part directly affects the solidification of the polymer and consequently the quality of the part in term of mechanical properties, geometric tolerance and surface aspect. This paper proposes to mold designers a methodology based on analytical models to provide quickly the time to reach the ejection temperature depending of the temperature and the position of cooling channels. The obtained cooling time is the first step of the thermal conception of the mold. The presented methodology is dedicated to the determination of solidification time of a semi-crystalline polymer slab. It allows the calculation of the crystallization time of the part and is based on the analytical solution of the Stefan problem in a semi-infinite medium. The crystallization is then considered as a phase change with an effective crystallization temperature, which is obtained from Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) results. The crystallization time is then corrected to take the finite thickness of the part into account. To check the accuracy of such approach, the solidification time is calculated by solving the heat conduction equation coupled to the crystallization kinetics of the polymer. The impact of the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold is evaluated. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) appears as significant parameter that needs to be taken into account in the cooling time calculation. The results of the simplified model including or not TCR are compared in the case of a polypropylene (PP) with experiments carried out with an instrumented mold. Then, the methodology is applied for a part made with PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK).

  1. Integrally cored ceramic investment casting mold fabricated by ceramic stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Chang-Jun

    Superalloy airfoils are produced by investment casting (IC), which uses ceramic cores and wax patterns with ceramic shell molds. Hollow cored superalloy airfoils in a gas turbine engine are an example of complex IC parts. The complex internal hollow cavities of the airfoil are designed to conduct cooling air through one or more passageways. These complex internal passageways have been fabricated by a lost wax process requiring several processing steps; core preparation, injection molding for wax pattern, and dipping process for ceramic shell molds. Several steps generate problems such as high cost and decreased accuracy of the ceramic mold. For example, costly tooling and production delay are required to produce mold dies for complex cores and wax patterns used in injection molding, resulting in a big obstacle for prototypes and smaller production runs. Rather than using separate cores, patterns, and shell molds, it would be advantageous to directly produce a mold that has the casting cavity and the ceramic core by one process. Ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA) can be used to directly fabricate the integrally cored ceramic casting mold (ICCM). CerSLA builds ceramic green objects from CAD files from many thin liquid layers of powder in monomer, which are solidified by polymerization with a UV laser, thereby "writing" the design for each slice. This dissertation addresses the integrally cored casting ceramic mold (ICCM), the ceramic core with a ceramic mold shell in a single patternless construction, fabricated by ceramic stereolithography (CerSLA). CerSLA is considered as an alternative method to replace lost wax processes, for small production runs or designs too complex for conventional cores and patterns. The main topic is the development of methods to successfully fabricate an ICCM by CerSLA from refractory silica, as well as related issues. The related issues are the segregation of coarse fused silica powders in a layer, the degree of segregation parameter to

  2. Orientation distribution and process modeling of thermotropic liquid crystalline copolyester (TLCP) injection-moldings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, Robert; Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley; Burgard, Susan; Fischer, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The influence of melt processing conditions upon mechanical properties and degrees of compound molecular orientation have been thoroughly studied for a series of well-defined injection molded samples fabricated from VECTRA (TM) A950 and 4,4'-dihydroxy-a-methylstilbene TLCPs. Fracture and tensile data were correlated with processing conditions, orientation, and molecular weight. Mechanical properties for both TLCPs were found to follow a ``universal'' Anisotropy Factor (AF) associated with the bimodal orientation states in the plaques determined from 2-D WAXS. Surface orientations were globally surveyed using Attenuated Total Reflectance -- Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and C K edge Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). The results derived from the two spectroscopy techniques confirmed each other well. These results along with those from 2-D WAXS in transmission were compared with the results of process modeling using a commercial program, MOLDFLOW(TM). The agreement between model predictions and the measured orientation states was gratifyingly good.

  3. Effects of POE-g-MAH on properties of PP-based binder in metal injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Duxin; Zhang, Chenming; Ding, Chuxiong; Pan, Donghua; Lu, Renwei; Yang, Zhongchen

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of maleic anhydride-grafted polyolefin elastomer (POE-g-MAH) on properties of polypropylene (PP)-based binder. The viscosity of feedstocks as well as properties of green parts, brown parts and sintered parts were investigated. Through the analysis of viscosity, the feedstock containing 8 vol% POE-g-MAH in binder was supposed to be more suitable for the injection molding. The impact absorbed energy at break increased with increasing POE-g-MAH content in binder while the bending strength decreased first and then increased. The introduction of POE-g-MAH improve the density distribution and increased the density of green parts. After debinding, most binder components were removed regardless of the POE-g-MAH content in binder. As for the parts after sintering, the carbon content decreased with an increase in POE-g-MAH content. The results suggest that POE-g-MAH act as a toughening agent as well as compatibilizer for PP-based binder/metal powder system. The mechanical properties of the green parts could be enhanced even after multiple injection and in addition the powder-binder separation trend could be decreased.

  4. Physical modeling of axisymmetric hydrofracturing by plastic material injection in elastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolykhalov, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the experimental and numerical investigation of hydraulic fracture propagation under injection of a plastic material near the free surface and the surface loaded by a die block to simulate the effect of an open fracture in the course of the multiple hydrofracturing. The experimental and calculated data are compared.

  5. Part weight verification between simulation and experiment of plastic part in injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, M. A. M.; Idayu, N.; Faizal, K. M.; Sanusi, M.; Izamshah, R.; Shahir, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the main objective is to determine the percentage difference of part weight between experimental and simulation work. The effect of process parameters on weight of plastic part is also investigated. The process parameters involved were mould temperature, melt temperature, injection time and cooling time. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow software was used to run the simulation of the plastic part. Taguchi method was selected as Design of Experiment to conduct the experiment. Then, the simulation result was validated with the experimental result. It was found that the minimum and maximum percentage of differential of part weight between simulation and experimental work are 0.35 % and 1.43 % respectively. In addition, the most significant parameter that affected part weight is the mould temperature, followed by melt temperature, injection time and cooling time.

  6. Development and characterization of a disposable plastic microarray printhead.

    PubMed

    Griessner, Matthias; Hartig, Dave; Christmann, Alexander; Pohl, Carsten; Schellhase, Michaela; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva

    2011-06-01

    During the last decade microarrays have become a powerful analytical tool. Commonly microarrays are produced in a non-contact manner using silicone printheads. However, silicone printheads are expensive and not able to be used as a disposable. Here, we show the development and functional characterization of 8-channel plastic microarray printheads that overcome both disadvantages of their conventional silicone counterparts. A combination of injection-molding and laser processing allows us to produce a high quantity of cheap, customizable and disposable microarray printheads. The use of plastics (e.g., polystyrene) minimizes the need for surface modifications required previously for proper printing results. Time-consuming regeneration processes, cleaning procedures and contaminations caused by residual samples are avoided. The utilization of plastic printheads for viscous liquids, such as cell suspensions or whole blood, is possible. Furthermore, functional parts within the plastic printhead (e.g., particle filters) can be included. Our printhead is compatible with commercially available TopSpot devices but provides additional economic and technical benefits as compared to conventional TopSpot printheads, while fulfilling all requirements demanded on the latter. All in all, this work describes how the field of traditional microarray spotting can be extended significantly by low cost plastic printheads.

  7. Thermal Molding of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Arrays on Curved Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kento; Ishimine, Hiroto; Okada, Yugo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sadamitsu, Yuichi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a thermal molding technique is proposed for the fabrication of plastic electronics on curved surfaces, enabling the preparation of plastic films with freely designed shapes. The induced strain distribution observed in poly(ethylene naphthalate) films when planar sheets were deformed into hemispherical surfaces clearly indicated that natural thermal contraction played an important role in the formation of the curved surface. A fingertip-shaped organic thin-film transistor array molded from a real human finger was fabricated, and slight deformation induced by touching an object was detected from the drain current response. This type of device will lead to the development of robot fingers equipped with a sensitive tactile sense for precision work such as palpation or surgery.

  8. Thermal Molding of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Arrays on Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kento; Ishimine, Hiroto; Okada, Yugo; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Sadamitsu, Yuichi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a thermal molding technique is proposed for the fabrication of plastic electronics on curved surfaces, enabling the preparation of plastic films with freely designed shapes. The induced strain distribution observed in poly(ethylene naphthalate) films when planar sheets were deformed into hemispherical surfaces clearly indicated that natural thermal contraction played an important role in the formation of the curved surface. A fingertip-shaped organic thin-film transistor array molded from a real human finger was fabricated, and slight deformation induced by touching an object was detected from the drain current response. This type of device will lead to the development of robot fingers equipped with a sensitive tactile sense for precision work such as palpation or surgery.

  9. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO₂ Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I

    2016-08-22

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO₂), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young's modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L₉ orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO₂, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO₂ nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  10. Thermo-mechanical simulation of liquid-supported stretch blow molding

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, J.; Stommel, M.

    2015-05-22

    Stretch blow molding is the well-established plastics forming method to produce Polyehtylene therephtalate (PET) bottles. An injection molded preform is heated up above the PET glass transition temperature (Tg∼85°C) and subsequently inflated by pressurized air into a closed cavity. In the follow-up filling process, the resulting bottle is filled with the final product. A recently developed modification of the process combines the blowing and filling stages by directly using the final liquid product to inflate the preform. In a previously published paper, a mechanical simulation and successful evaluation of this liquid-driven stretch blow molding process was presented. In this way,more » a realistic process parameter dependent simulation of the preform deformation throughout the forming process was enabled, whereas the preform temperature evolution during forming was neglected. However, the formability of the preform is highly reduced when the temperature sinks below Tg during forming. Experimental investigations show temperature-induced failure cases due to the fast heat transfer between hot preform and cold liquid. Therefore, in this paper, a process dependent simulation of the temperature evolution during processing to avoid preform failure is presented. For this purpose, the previously developed mechanical model is used to extract the time dependent thickness evolution. This information serves as input for the heat transfer simulation. The required material parameters are calibrated from preform cooling experiments recorded with an infrared-camera. Furthermore, the high deformation ratios during processing lead to strain induced crystallization. This exothermal reaction is included into the simulation by extracting data from preform measurements at different stages of deformation via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, the thermal simulation model is evaluated by free forming experiments, recorded by a high-speed infrared camera.« less

  11. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-11-01

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of plasma treatment under atmospheric pressure on surface chemistry and surface morphology of extruded and injection-molded wood-polymer composites (WPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hünnekens, Benedikt; Avramidis, Georg; Ohms, Gisela; Krause, Andreas; Viöl, Wolfgang; Militz, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The influence of plasma treatment performed at atmospheric pressure and ambient air as process gas by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the morphological and chemical surface characteristics of wood-polymer composites (WPC) was investigated by applying several surface-sensitive analytical methods. The surface free energy showed a distinct increase after plasma treatment for all tested materials. The analyzing methods for surface topography-laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-revealed a roughening induced by the treatment which is likely due to a degradation of the polymeric surface. This was accompanied by the formation of low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs), appearing as small globular structures. With increasing discharge time, the nodules increase in size and the material degradation proceeds. The surface degradation seems to be more serious for injection-molded samples, whereas the formation of nodules became more apparent and were evenly distributed on extruded surfaces. These phenomena could also be confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, differences between extruded and injection-molded surfaces could be observed. Besides the morphological changes, the chemical composition of the substrates' surfaces was affected by the plasma discharge. Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the formation of new oxygen containing polar groups on the modified surfaces.

  13. Shear flow and carbon nanotubes synergistically induced nonisothermal crystallization of poly(lactic acid) and its application in injection molding.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hu; Chen, Jing-Bin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jia-Zhuang; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-11-12

    The effect of shear flow and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), separately and together, on nonisothermal crystallization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at a relatively large cooling rate was investigated by time-resolved synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Unlike flexible-chain polymers such as polyethylene, and so on, whose crystallization kinetics are significantly accelerated by shear flow, neat PLA only exhibits an increase in onset crystallization temperature after experiencing a shear rate of 30 s(-1), whereas both the nucleation density and ultimate crystallinity are not changed too much because PLA chains are intrinsically semirigid and have relatively short length. The breaking down of shear-induced nuclei into point-like precursors (or random coil) probably becomes increasingly active after shear stops. Very interestingly, a marked synergistic effect of shear flow and CNTs exists in enhancing crystallization of PLA, leading to a remarkable increase of nucleation density in PLA/CNT nanocomposite. This synergistic effect is ascribed to extra nuclei, which are formed by the anchoring effect of CNTs' surfaces on the shear-induced nuclei and suppressing effect of CNTs on the relaxation of the shear-induced nuclei. Further, this interesting finding was deliberately applied to injection molding, aiming to improve the crystallinity of PLA products. As expected, a remarkable high crystallinity in the injection-molded PLA part has been achieved successfully by the combination of shear flow and CNTs, which offers a new method to fabricate PLA products with high crystallinity for specific applications.

  14. Development of a continuous roll-to-roll processing system for mass production of plastic optical film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a highly effective method for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern based on a continuous roll-to-roll film extrusion and roller embossing process. In this study, a thin steel mold with a micro-circular hole array pattern is fabricated by photolithography and a wet chemical etching process. The thin steel mold was then wrapped onto a metal cylinder to form an embossing roller mold. During the roll-to-roll process operation, a thermoplastic raw material (polycarbonate grains) was put into the barrel of the plastic extruder with a flat T-die. Then, the molten polymer film was extruded and immediately pressed against the surface of the embossing roller mold. Under the proper processing conditions, the molten polymer will just partially fill the micro-circular holes of the mold and due to surface tension form a convex lens surface. A continuous plastic optical film with a microlens array pattern was obtained. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of plastic microlens formation on the roll-to-roll process. Finally, the geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic optical film were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern.

  15. Molding of strength testing samples using modern PDCPD material for purpose of automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Sobek, M.

    2017-08-01

    The casting of metal materials is widely known but the molding of composite polymer materials is not well-known method still. The initial choice of method for producing composite bodies was the method of casting of PDCPD material. For purpose of performing casting of polymer composite material, a special mold was made. Firstly, the 3D printed, using PLA material, mold was used. After several attempts of casting PDCPD many problems were encountered. The second step was to use mold milled from a firm and dense isocyanate foam. After several attempts research shown that this solution is more resistant to high-temperature peak, but this material is too fragile to use it several times. This solution also prevents mold from using external heating, which can be necessary for performing correct molding process. The last process was to use the aluminum mold, which is dedicated to PDCPD polymer composite, because of low adhesiveness. This solution leads to perform correct PDCPD polymer composite material injection. After performing casting operation every PDCPD testing samples were tested. These results were compared together. The result of performed work was to archive correct properties of injection of composite material. Research and results were described in detail in this paper.

  16. Development of processes and techniques for molding thermally stable, fire-retardant, low-smoke-emitting polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, B.

    1979-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic thermally stable polymers were examined for the development of processes and techniques by compression molding, injection molding, or thermoforming cabin interior parts. Efforts were directed toward developing molding techniques of new polymers to economically produce usable nonmetallic molded parts. Data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were generated from pilot plant batches. Preliminary information on the molding characteristics of the various thermoplastic materials was obtained by producing actual parts.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Rapid Cooled FeCoB Based Alloys Produced by Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabialek, M.; Jeż, B.; Jeż, K.; Pietrusiewicz, P.; Gruszka, K.; Błoch, K.; Gondro, J.; Rzącki, J.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Sandu, A. V.; Szota, M.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of the structure and magnetic properties of massive rapid cooled Fe50-xCo20+xB20Cu1Nb9 alloys (where x = 0, 5). Massive alloys were made using the method of injecting a liquid alloy into a copper mold. Samples were obtained in the form of 0.5 mm thick plates. The structure of the obtained samples was examined using an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα lamp. The phase composition of the alloys formed was determined using the Match program. By using Sherrer’s dependence the grain sizes of the identified crystalline phases were estimated. Using the Faraday magnetic balance, the magnetization of samples as a function of temperature in the range from room temperature to 850K was measured. Magnetization of saturation and value of the coercive field for the prepared alloys were determined on the basis of magnetic hysteresis loop measurement using the LakeShore vibration magnetometer.

  18. Influence of injection temperatures and fiberglass compositions on mechanical properties of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keey, Tony Tiew Chun; Azuddin, M.

    2017-06-01

    Injection molding process appears to be one of the most suitable mass and cost efficiency manufacturing processes for polymeric parts nowadays due to its high efficiency of large scale production. When down-scaling the products and components, the limits of conventional injection molding process are reached. These constraints had initiated the development of conventional injection molding process into a new era of micro injection molding technology. In this study, fiberglass reinforced polypropylenes (PP) with various glass fiber percentage materials were used. The study start with fabrication of micro tensile specimens at three different injection temperature, 260°C, 270°C and 280°C for different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP. Then evaluate the effects of various injection temperatures on the tensile properties of micro tensile specimens. Different percentage by weight of fiberglass reinforced PP were tested as well and it was found that 20% fiberglass reinforced PP possessed the greatest percentage increase of tensile strength with increasing temperatures.

  19. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S.; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process. PMID:28773830

  20. Passive fiber alignment to single-mode plastic waveguides fabricated by injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, Guido; Lehmacher, Stefan; Rudolph, Stefan; Kalveram, Stefan; Joenck, Matthias; Neyer, Andreas

    1998-04-01

    Passive fibre-waveguide coupling is a promising alternative to expensive active coupling in single-mode fibre-optics. The idea to utilize replication techniques in transparent polymeric materials for waveguide and alignment structure fabrication has led to the SIGA-process (Silizium, Galvanik und Abformung) which allows a cost effective production of low loss polymer waveguides in the near IR. Major difficulties in passive fibre coupling are caused by the high lateral alignment accuracy (of about 1 micrometer) in fibre positioning. In the SIGA process, the exact position of the V- grooves relative to the waveguide trenches is defined by the etch mask for the silicon master wafer. The width of the V- grooves is determined by the KOH etching time. It is controlled precisely at various stages in the etching process by means of a microscope based piezo driven measurement system with a resolution better than 0.5 micrometer, thus allowing a final vertical precision of fibre positioning of 350 nm. In order to specify the capability of our technology we have measured the position of dozens of fibres glued into V- grooves. The result was that an amount of 55% of the fibre cores was closer than 1.5 micrometer to the waveguide centre. As the experience has shown, a two-step process for the fabrication of passively fibre coupled waveguides is necessary. First, the waveguides are produced by filling the waveguide trenches with an IR-transparent monomer and by polymerizing it using UV curing. The waveguides are inspected with visible and IR light by clamping a fibre ribbon mechanically into the integrated plastic V-grooves. In a second step the fibre ribbon is fixed irreversibly in the V- grooves. By that way we have reached an insertion loss of 3.5 dB at 1300nm and 1550nm for passively coupled 22mm single mode waveguides. Most of the losses are attributed to waveguide imperfections. More details concerning the coupling losses and the device performances will be reported at the

  1. Effects of mold design of aspheric projector lens for head up display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-Chang A.; Tang, Jyun-Cing; Teng, Lin-Ming

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates the mold design and related effects on an aspheric projector lens for Head Up Display (HUD) with injection molding process. Injection flow analysis with a commercial software, Moldex3D has been used to simulate this projector lens for filling, packing, shrinkage, and flow-induced residual stress. This projector lens contains of variant thickness due to different aspheric design on both surfaces. Defects may be induced as the melt front from the gate into the cavity with jet-flow phenomenon, short shot, weld line, and even shrinkage. Thus, this paper performs a gate design to find the significant parameters including injection velocity, melt temperature, and mold temperature. After simulation by the Moldex3D, gate design for the final assembly of Head Up Display (HUD) has been obtained and then experimental tests have been proceeded for verification of short-shot, weight variation, and flow-induced stress. Moreover, warpage analysis of the Head Up Display (HUD) can be integrated with the optical design specification in future work.

  2. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  3. Incidence of hypertriglyceridemia in critically ill neonates receiving lipid injectable emulsions in glass versus plastic containers: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Camilia R; Dumas, Gregory J; Shoaie, Claire; Zheng, Zheng; Mackinnon, Brenda; Al-Aweel, Issa; Bistrian, Bruce R; Pursley, DeWayne M; Driscoll, David F

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate plasma clearance of lipid injectable emulsions packaged in either glass or plastic containers in neonates from 2 7-month periods, 1 year apart. Clinical records from June 1 to December 31, 2003 (glass [G] period) and the same months in 2004 (plastic [P] period) were assessed. Neonates who received lipid injectable emulsions were studied. Lipid container (glass vs plastic) was the independent variable. Of the 197 patients studied, 122 (G, 50/81; P, 72/116) had evaluable triglyceride (TG) levels, for an overall rate of 62%. Only birth weight (G, 1.09 +/- 0.32 kg vs P, 1.23 +/- .45 kg) and birth length (G, 36.4 +/- 3.5 cm vs P, 37.9 +/- 3.5 cm) were significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .047 and .028, respectively). There were no differences in the day of life on which lipid injection was started, the lipid dose, or the timing of TG measurements. The incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in the P period (G, 3/50 vs P, 19/72; P = .004). Administration of the same lipid formulation in plastic bags compared with glass containers is associated with higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia. The poorer clearance of lipids could be due to a higher proportion of large-diameter fat globules in plastic bags compared with those in glass containers.

  4. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The warpage is often encountered which occur during injection moulding process of thin shell part depending the process condition. The statistical design of experiment method which are Integrating Finite Element (FE) Analysis, moldflow analysis and response surface methodology (RSM) are the stage of few ways in minimize the warpage values of x,y and z on thin shell plastic parts that were investigated. A battery cover of a remote controller is one of the thin shell plastic part that produced by using injection moulding process. The optimum process condition parameter were determined as to achieve the minimum warpage from being occur. Packing pressure, Cooling time, Melt temperature and Mould temperature are 4 parameters that considered in this study. A two full factorial experimental design was conducted in Design Expert of RSM analysis as to combine all these parameters study. FE analysis result gain from analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was the one of the important process parameters influenced warpage. By using RSM, a predictive response surface model for warpage data will be shown.

  5. Effect of low doses beta irradiation on micromechanical properties of surface layer of injection molded polypropylene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manas, David; Manas, Miroslav; Gajzlerova, Lenka; Ovsik, Martin; Kratky, Petr; Senkerik, Vojtěch; Skrobak, Adam; Danek, Michal; Manas, Martin

    2015-09-01

    The influence of beta radiation on the changes in the structure and selected properties (mechanical and thermal) was proved. Using low doses of beta radiation for 25% glass fiber filled polypropylene and its influence on the changes of micromechanical properties of surface layer has not been studied in detail so far. The specimens of 25% glass fiber filled PP were made by injection molding technology and irradiated by low doses of beta radiation (0, 15 and 33 kGy). The changes in the microstructure and micromechanical properties of surface layer were evaluated using FTIR, SEM, WAXS and instrumented microhardness test. The results of the measurements showed considerable increase in micromechanical properties (indentation hardness, indentation elastic modulus) when low doses of beta radiation are used.

  6. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  7. Curbing indoor mold growth with mold inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable mold inhibitors are needed to curb the growth of mold fungi in woodframe housing when moisture management measures fail. Excess indoor moisture can lead to rapid mold establishment which, in turn, can have deleterious affects on indoor air quality. Compounds with known mold inhibitory properties and low mammalian toxicity, such as food...

  8. Resin film infusion mold tooling and molding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Roger (Inventor); Grossheim, Brian (Inventor); Mouradian, Karbis (Inventor); Thrash, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A mold apparatus and method for resin film infusion molding including an outer mold tool having a facing sheet adapted to support a resin film and preform assembly. The facing sheet includes attachment features extending therefrom. An inner mold tool is positioned on the facing sheet to enclose the resin film and preform assembly for resin film infusion molding. The inner mold tool includes a plurality of mandrels positioned for engagement with the resin film and preform assembly. Each mandrel includes a slot formed therein. A plurality of locating bars cooperate with the slots and with the attachment features for locating the mandrels longitudinally on the outer mold tool.

  9. The influence of technological parameters on the dynamic behavior of "liquid wood" samples obtained by injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavanescu Mazurchevici, Simona; Carausu, Constantin; Comaneci, Radu; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    The plastic products contribute to environmental pollution. Replacing the plastic materials with biodegradable materials with superior properties is an absolute necessity and important research direction for the near future. The first steps in this regard were the creation of composite materials containing natural fibers with positive effects on the environment that have penetrated in different fields. The bioplastics and biocomposites made from natural fibers is a topical solution. The next step was made towards obtaining biodegradable and recyclable materials based on cellulose, lignin and no carcinogens. In this category fall the "liquid wood" with a use up to five times without affecting the mechanical properties. "Liquid wood" is a high quality thermoplastic biocomposite. "Liquid wood" is a biopolymer composite divided in three categories, ARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL®, which have differed composition in terms of lignin percentage, being delivered by Tecnaro, as granules, [1]. The paper's research was focus on Arboform L V3 Nature and Arboform L V3 Nature reinforced with aramid fiber. In the experimental plan were taken into account six parameters (Dinj - direction of injection [°]; Ttop - melting temperature [°C]; Pinj - injection pressure [MPa] Ss - speed [m/min]; tinj - injection time [s] and tc - cooling time [s]) each with two levels, research carried on by Taguchi methodology. Processing Taguchi method allowed both Taguchi setting work parameters influence on storage modulus and damping as the size and influence their ranking. Experimental research concerning the influence technological parameters on storage modulus of samples obtained by injection from Arboform L V3 Nature yielded an average of 6055MPa and descending order as follows: Trac, Ss, Pinj, Dinj and Ttop. The average of model for reinforced material was 6419MPa and descending order of parameters influence such as: Dinj, Trac, Ttop, tinj, Ss and Pinj.

  10. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores float ...

  11. Molds

    MedlinePlus

    Molds are fungi that can be found both outdoors and indoors. They grow best in warm, damp and humid conditions. If ... spots in your house, you will probably get mold. Molds can cause health problems. Inhaling or touching ...

  12. Surface quality of unsaturated polyester resin processed via continuous multi-shot rotational molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogila, K. O.; Yang, W.; Shao, M.; Tan, J.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated Polyester Resin is a versatile and cost efficient thermosetting plastic whose application in rotational molding is currently limited by its relatively high initial viscosity and heat of reaction. These material characteristics result in uneven material distribution, poor surface finish and imperfections in the moldings especially when large wall thicknesses are required. The current work attempts to remedy these shortcomings through the development of a continuous multi-shot system which adds predetermined loads of unsaturated polyester resin into a rotating mold at various intervals. As part of this system, a laboratory-scale uniaxial rotational molding machine was used to produce Unsaturated Polyester Resin moldings in single and double shots. Optimal processing conditions were determined through visual studies, three dimensional microscopic studies, thickness distribution analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Volume filling fractions of 0.049-0.065, second shot volumes of 0.5-0.75 from the first shot, rotational speeds of 15-20 rpm and temperatures of 30-50 °C resulted in moldings of suitable quality on both the inner and outer surfaces.

  13. Development of crayfish bio-based plastic materials processed by small-scale injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Cordobes, Felipe; Guerrero, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Protein has been investigated as a source for biodegradable polymeric materials. This work evaluates the development of plastic materials based on crayfish and glycerol blends, processed by injection moulding, as a fully biodegradable alternative to conventional polymer-based plastics. The effect of different additives, namely sodium sulfite or bisulfite as reducing agents, urea as denaturing agent and L-cysteine as cross-linking agent, is also analysed. The incorporation of any additive always yields an increase in energy efficiency at the mixing stage, but its effect on the mechanical properties of the bioplastics is not so clear, and even dampened. The additive developing a greater effect is L-cysteine, showing higher Young's modulus values and exhibiting a remnant thermosetting potential. Thus, processing at higher temperature yields a remarkable increase in extensibility. This work illustrates the feasibility of crayfish-based green biodegradable plastics, thereby contributing to the search for potential value-added applications for this by-product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Metallurgical characterization of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding (MIM).

    PubMed

    Zinelis, Spiros; Annousaki, Olga; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bonding base surface morphology, alloy type, microstructure, and hardness of four types of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding technology (Discovery, Extremo, Freedom, and Topic). The bonding base morphology of the brackets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Brackets from each manufacturer were embedded in epoxy resin, and after metallographic grinding, polishing and coating were analyzed by x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) microanalysis to assess their elemental composition. Then, the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal their metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness measurements. The results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The findings of SEM observations showed a great variability in the base morphology design among the brackets tested. The x-ray EDS analysis demonstrated that each bracket was manufactured from different ferrous or Co-based alloys. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a large grain size for the Discovery, Freedom, and Topic brackets and a much finer grain size for the Extremo bracket. Vickers hardness showed great variations among the brackets (Topic: 287 +/- 16, Freedom: 248 +/- 13, Discovery: 214 +/- 12, and Extremo: 154 +/- 9). The results of this study showed that there are significant differences in the base morphology, composition, microstructure, and microhardness among the brackets tested, which may anticipate significant clinical implications.

  15. Occupational styrene exposure for twelve product categories in the reinforced-plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, G K; Carson, A; Samuels, S J

    1985-08-01

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. This report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry and reports on the availability, collection and analysis of historical exposure information. Average exposure to styrene in most open-mold companies (24-82 ppm) was generally 2-3 times the exposure in press-mold companies (11-26 ppm). Manufacturers of smaller boats had mean styrene exposures of 82 ppm as compared to 37 ppm for yacht companies. There was considerable overlap in styrene exposure among job titles classified as directly exposed within open- and press-mold processing.

  16. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  17. Compression Molding of Composite of Recycled HDPE and Recycled Tire Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.; Chen, Zhengyu; Li, Yanze; Peng, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Plastic and rubber recycling is an effective means of reducing solid waste to the environment and preserving natural resources. A project aimed at developing a new composite material from recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled rubber is currently being conducted at Eastern Illinois University. The recycled plastic pellets with recycled rubber particles are extruded into some HDPE/rubber composite strands. The strand can be further cut into pellets that can be used to fabricate other material forms or products. This experiment was inspired by the above-mentioned research activity. In order to measure Durometer hardness of the extruded composite, a specimen with relatively large dimensions was needed. Thus, compression molding was used to form a cylindrical specimen of 1 in. diameter and 1 in. thickness. The initial poor quality of the molded specimen prompted a need to optimize the processing parameters such as temperature, holding time, and pressure. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to obtain optimum combination of the parameters.

  18. Physical and mechanical characterization of PLLA interference screws produced by two stage injection molding method.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Avalshahr, Ali Reza; Khorsand-Ghayeni, Mohammad; Nokhasteh, Samira; Molavi, Amir Mahdi; Sadeghi-Avalshahr, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce and evaluate different mechanical, physical and in vitro cell culture characteristics of poly(L-lactic) acid (PLLA) interference screws. This work will focus on evaluating the effect of two important parameters on operation of these screws, first the tunnel diameter which is one of the most important parameters during the operation and second the thermal behavior, the main effective characteristic in production process. In this work, PLLA screws were produced by a two-stage injection molding machine. For mechanical assessment of the produced screws, Polyurethane rigid foam was used as cancellous bone and polypropylene rope as synthetic graft to simulate bone and ligament in real situation. Different tunnel diameters including 7-10 mm were evaluated for fixation strength. When the tunnel diameter was changed from 10 to 9 mm, the pull-out force has increased to about 12 %, which is probably due to the aforementioned frictional forces, however, by reducing the tunnel diameter to 8 and 7 mm, the pull-out force reduced to 16 and 50 % for 8 and 7 mm tunnel diameter, respectively. The minimum and maximum pull-out force was obtained 160.57 and 506.86 N for 7 and 9 mm tunnel diameters, respectively. For physicochemical assay, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), degradation test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out. The crystallinity (Xc) of samples were decreased considerably from 64.3 % before injection to 32.95 % after injection with two different crystallographic forms α' and α. probably due to the fast cooling rate at room temperature. In addition, MTT and cell attachment assays were utilized by MG63 osteoblast cell line, to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the produced screws. The results revealed no cytotoxicity effect.

  19. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  20. Rapid fabrication of surface-relief plastic diffusers by ultrasonic embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Huang, Yu-Chin; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses an innovative and effective ultrasonic embossing process, which enables the rapid fabrication of surface-relief plastic diffusers. The metallic mold bearing the microstructures is fabricated using a tungsten carbide turning machine. A 1500-W ultrasonic vibrator with an output frequency of 20 kHz was used to replicate the microstructure onto 1-mm-thick PMMA plates in the experiments. During ultrasonic embossing, the ultrasonic energy is converted into heat through intermolecular friction at the master mold/plastic plate interface due to asperities to melt the thermoplastic at the interface and thereby to replicate the microstructure. Under the proper processing conditions, high-performance plastic diffusers have been successfully fabricated. The cycle time required to successfully fabricate a diffuser is less than 2 s. The experimental results suggest that ultrasonic embossing could provide an effective way of fabricating high-performance plastic diffusers with a high throughput.

  1. Effect of coal filler on the properties of soy protein plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.H.; Zhou, A.N.; Hu, M.B.

    2006-11-15

    The influence of ultrafine coal filler (UFC) content on tensile properties, water absorption, and biodegradability of soy protein plastics were investigated. The addition of UFC in the soy protein plastics, with different content of glycerol as a plasticizer, was at different ratio varying from 10:0 to 6:4. Blend sheets of the soy protein composites were prepared by the compression molding processing. The results show that, with 23.08 wt % glycerol, the tensile strength and elongation at break for the soy protein sheet with coal filler (range from 5 to 30 parts) can be enhanced as compared with nonfilled soy proteinmore » plastics. Water resistance of the soy protein plastics improves with the increase in UFC content. The derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves indicate a double-stage degradation process for defatted soy flour (SPF), while three-stage degradation process for soy plastics and the soy protein composites. FT-IR, XPS, and SEM were applied to study the interfacial interaction between coal macromolecules and soy protein molecules in UFC filled soy protein plastics. The results demonstrated that there is strong interfacial interaction in the soy protein plastics caused by the compression molding processing.« less

  2. Mold Flux Crystallization and Mold Thermal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Elizabeth Irene

    Mold flux plays a small but critical role in the continuous casting of steel. The carbon-coated powder is added at the top of the water-cooled copper mold, over time it melts and infiltrates the gap between the copper mold and the solidifying steel strand. Mold powders serve five primary functions: (1) chemical insulation, (2) thermal insulation, (3) lubrication between the steel strand and mold, (4) absorption of inclusions, and (5) promotion of even heat flux. All five functions are critical to slab casting, but surface defect prevention is primarily controlled through even heat flux. Glassy fluxes have high heat transfer and result in a thicker steel shell. Steels with large volumetric shrinkage on cooling must have a crystalline flux to reduce the radiative heat transfer and avoid the formation of cracks in the shell. Crystallinity plays a critical role in steel shell formation, therefore it is important to study the thermal conditions that promote each phase and its morphology. Laboratory tests were performed to generate continuous cooling transformation (CCT) and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams. Continuous cooling transformation tests were performed in an instrumented eight cell step chill mold. Results showed that cuspidine was the only phase formed in conventional fluxes and all observed structures were dendritic. An isothermal tin bath quench method was also developed to isothermally age glassy samples. Isothermal tests yielded different microstructures and different phases than those observed by continuous cooling. Comparison of aged tests with industrial flux films indicates similar faceted structures along the mold wall, suggesting that mold flux first solidifies as a glass along the mold wall, but the elevated temperature devitrifies the glassy structure forming crystals that cannot form by continuous cooling.

  3. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  4. Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) as matrix excipient for drug formulation by hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Bart; Vervaeck, Anouk; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

    2012-10-15

    Here we evaluate poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PEtOx) as a matrix excipient for the production of oral solid dosage forms by hot melt extrusion (HME) followed by injection molding (IM). Using metoprolol tartrate as a good water-soluble model drug we demonstrate that drug release can be delayed by HME/IM, with the release rate controlled by the molecular weight of the PEtOx. Using fenofibrate as a lipophilic model drug we demonstrate that relative to the pure drug the dissolution rate is strongly enhanced by formulation in HME/IM tablets. For both drug molecules we find that solid solutions, i.e. molecularly dissolved drug in a polymeric matrix, are obtained by HME/IM. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The algorithm of verification of welding process for plastic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzasinski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The study analyzes the process of butt welding of PE pipes in terms of proper selection of connector parameters. The process was oriented to the elements performed as a series of types of pipes. Polymeric materials commonly referred to as polymers or plastics, synthetic materials are produced from oil products in the polyreaction compounds of low molecular weight, called monomers. During the polyreactions monomers combine to build a macromolecule material monomer named with the prefix poly polypropylene, polyethylene or polyurethane, creating particles in solid state on the order of 0,2 to 0,4 mm. Finished products from polymers of virtually any shape and size are obtained by compression molding, injection molding, extrusion, laminating, centrifugal casting, etc. Weld can only be a thermoplastic that softens at an elevated temperature, and thus can be connected via a clamp. Depending on the source and method of supplying heat include the following welding processes: welding contact, radiant welding, friction welding, dielectric welding, ultrasonic welding. The analysis will be welding contact. In connection with the development of new generation of polyethylene, and the production of pipes with increasing dimensions (diameter, wall thickness) is important to select the correct process.

  6. Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding.

    PubMed

    Bruck, R; Melnik, E; Muellner, P; Hainberger, R; Lämmerhofer, M

    2011-05-15

    We report the development of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on a high index contrast polymer material system and the demonstration of label-free online measurement of biotin-streptavidin binding on the sensor surface. The surface of the polyimide waveguide core layer was functionalized with 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane and malemide tagged biotin. Several concentrations of Chromeon 642-streptavidin dissolved in phosphate buffered saline solution were rinsed over the functionalized sensor surface by means of a fluidic system and the biotin-streptavidin binding process was observed in the output signal of the interferometer at a wavelength of 1310 nm. Despite the large wavelength and the comparatively low surface sensitivity of the sensor system due to the low index contrast in polymer material systems compared to inorganic material systems, we were able to resolve streptavidin concentrations of down to 0.1 μg/ml. The polymer-based optical sensor design is fully compatible with cost-efficient mass production technologies such as injection molding and spin coating, which makes it an attractive alternative to inorganic optical sensors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methane Detector With Plastic Fresnel Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Laser detector for natural gas leaks modified by substitution of molded plastic lens for spherical mirror. By measuring relative attenuation at two wavelengths, detector used to check for methane escaping from pipelines above or below ground and from landfill.

  8. Microstructures, mechanical properties, and fracture behaviors of metal-injection molded 17-4PH stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Wei; Huang, Zeng-Kai; Tseng, Chun-Feng; Hwang, Kuen-Shyang

    2015-05-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) is a versatile technique for economically manufacturing various metal parts with complicated shapes and excellent properties. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of powder type (water-atomized and gas-atomized powders) and various heat treatments (sintering, solutioning, H900, and H1100) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and fracture behaviors of MIM 17-4PH stainless steels. The results showed that better mechanical properties of MIM 17-4PH can be achieved with gas-atomized powder than with water-atomized powder due mainly to the lower silicon and oxygen contents and fewer SiO2 inclusions in the steels. The presence of 10 vol% δ ferrite does not impair the UTS or elongation of MIM 17-4PH stainless steels. The δ ferrite did not fracture, even though the neighboring martensitic matrix was severely cracked. Moreover, H900 treatment produces the highest hardness and UTS, along with moderate elongation. H1100 treatment produces the best elongation, along with moderate hardness and UTS.

  9. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  10. 53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  11. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  12. 92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-53. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  13. Fiber optic strain monitoring of textile GFRP during RTM molding and fatigue tests by using embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Tatsuro; Osaka, Katsuhiko; Nakakita, Satoru; Fukuda, Takehito

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes cure and health monitoring of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) textile composites both during a resin transfer molding (RTM) process and in loading tests. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) textile composites also were used for a comparative study. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber optic sensors were embedded in FRP to monitor internal strain. From the results of cure monitoring, it was found that the embedded FBG sensors were useful to know when cured resin constrained fibers. It also appeared that specimens were subjected to friction stress resulted from difference of coefficient of thermal expansion between FRP and a stainless steel mold in cooling process of RTM molding. After the molding, tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The results of tensile tests showed that output of the embedded FBG sensors agreed well that of surface-bonded strain gauges despite deterioration of reflected spectra form the sensors. From the results of fatigue tests, the FBG sensors showed good status until 100,000 cycles when specimens had no damage. From these results, it can be concluded that embedded FBG sensors have good capability of monitoring internal strain in textile FRP both during RTM process and in service.

  14. Finger-powered microfluidic systems using multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Kosuke; Shih, Kuan Cheng; Lin, Xiao; Brubaker, Thomas A; Sochol, Ryan D; Lin, Liwei

    2014-10-07

    Point-of-care (POC) and disposable biomedical applications demand low-power microfluidic systems with pumping components that provide controlled pressure sources. Unfortunately, external pumps have hindered the implementation of such microfluidic systems due to limitations associated with portability and power requirements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a 'finger-powered' integrated pumping system as a modular element to provide pressure head for a variety of advanced microfluidic applications, including finger-powered on-chip microdroplet generation. By utilizing a human finger for the actuation force, electrical power sources that are typically needed to generate pressure head were obviated. Passive fluidic diodes were designed and implemented to enable distinct fluids from multiple inlet ports to be pumped using a single actuation source. Both multilayer soft lithography and injection molding processes were investigated for device fabrication and performance. Experimental results revealed that the pressure head generated from a human finger could be tuned based on the geometric characteristics of the pumping system, with a maximum observed pressure of 7.6 ± 0.1 kPa. In addition to the delivery of multiple, distinct fluids into microfluidic channels, we also employed the finger-powered pumping system to achieve the rapid formation of both water-in-oil droplets (106.9 ± 4.3 μm in diameter) and oil-in-water droplets (75.3 ± 12.6 μm in diameter) as well as the encapsulation of endothelial cells in droplets without using any external or electrical controllers.

  15. MOLD-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR: THE EMERGING STANDARD IN MOLD ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds can cause health problems like infections and allergies, destroy crops, and contaminate our food or pharmaceuticals. We can't avoid molds. Molds are essential players in the biological processes on earth, but we can now identify and quantify the molds that will be most pr...

  16. Mold and Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions) and irritants. Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.

  17. Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Mazhorova, Anna; Désévédavy, Frédéric; Rozé, Mathieu; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-06-21

    We report two novel fabrication techniques, as well as THz spectral transmission and propagation loss measurements of subwavelength plastic wires with highly porous (up to 86%) and non-porous transverse geometries. The two fabrication techniques we describe are based on the microstructured molding approach. In one technique the mold is made completely from silica by stacking and fusing silica capillaries to the bottom of a silica ampoule. The melted material is then poured into the silica mold to cast the microstructured preform. Another approach uses a microstructured mold made of a sacrificial plastic which is co-drawn with a cast preform. Material from the sacrificial mold is then dissolved after fi ber drawing. We also describe a novel THz-TDS setup with an easily adjustable optical path length, designed to perform cutback measurements using THz fibers of up to 50 cm in length. We fi nd that while both porous and non-porous subwavelength fibers of the same outside diameter have low propagation losses (alpha

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table... Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams ER25AU05.020 ER25AU05.021 [70 FR 50129, Aug...

  19. Micropattern array with gradient size (µPAGS) plastic surfaces fabricated by PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) mold-based hot embossing technique for investigation of cell-surface interaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jin; Park, Ju Young; Cha, Kyoung Je; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong Sung

    2012-12-01

    Recently, it was found that the variations of physical environment significantly affect cell behaviors including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Through a plastic surface with controlled mechanical properties such as stiffness, one can change the orientation and migration of cells in a particular direction, thereby determining cell behaviors. In this study, we demonstrate a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold-based hot embossing technique for rapid, simple and low-cost replication of polystyrene (PS) surfaces having micropatterns. The PDMS mold was fabricated by UV-photolithography followed by PDMS casting; the elastomeric properties of PDMS enabled us to obtain conformal contact of the PDMS mold to a PS surface and to create high transcription quality of micropatterns on the PS surface. Two different types of circular micropillar and microwell arrays were successfully replicated on the PS surfaces based on the suggested technique. The micropatterns were designed to have various diameters (2-150 µm), spacings (2-160 µm) and heights (1.4, 2.4, 8.2 and 14.9 µm), so as to generate the gradient of physical properties on the surface. Experimental parametric studies indicated that (1) the embossing temperature became a critical processing parameter as the aspect ratio of micropattern increased and (2) the PDMS mold-based hot embossing could successfully replicate micropatterns, even having an aspect ratio of 2.7 for micropattern diameter of 6 µm, with an optimal processing condition (embossing pressure and temperature of 0.4 MPa and 130 °C, respectively) in this study. We carried out cell experiments with adipose-derived stem cells on the replicated PS surface with the height of 1.4 µm to investigate cellular behaviors in response to the micropattern array with gradient size. Cellular experiment results showed that the micropillar-arrayed surface improved cell proliferation as compared with the microwell-arrayed surface. We could also estimate the

  20. Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.

    2017-11-01

    Laser cutting technology is a non-contact process that typically is used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cut quality is strongly influenced by the cutting processing parameters. In this research, CO2 laser cutting specifications have been investigated by using design of experiments (DOE) with considering laser cutting speed, laser power and focal plane position as process input parameters and kerf geometry dimensions (i.e. top and bottom kerf width, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, upper heat affected zone (HAZ)) and surface roughness of the kerf wall as process output responses. A 60 Watts CO2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2 mm. Results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will be decreased. Also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed. As a general result, locating the laser spot point in the depth of the workpiece the laser cutting quality increases. Minimum value of the responses (top kerf, heat affected zone, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, and surface roughness) are considered as optimization criteria. Validating the theoretical results using the experimental tests is carried out in order to analyze the results obtained via software.

  1. Abuse-deterrent features of an extended-release morphine drug product developed using a novel injection-molding technology for oral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Skak, Nikolaj; Elhauge, Torben; Dayno, Jeffrey M; Lindhardt, Karsten

    A novel technology platform (Guardian™ Technology, Egalet Corporation, Wayne, PA) was used to manufacture morphine abuse-deterrent (AD), extended-release (ER), injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT; ARYMO® ER [morphine sulfate] ER tablets; Egalet Corporation), a recently approved morphine product with AD labeling. The aim of this article is to highlight how the features of Guardian™ Technology are linked to the ER profile and AD characteristics of morphine-ADER-IMT. The ER profile of morphine-ADER-IMT is attributed to the precise release of morphine from the polymer matrix. The approved dosage strengths of morphine-ADER-IMT are bioequivalent to corresponding dosage strengths of morphine ER (MS Contin®; Purdue Pharma LP, Stamford, CT). Morphine-ADER-IMT was very resistant to physical manipulations intended to reduce particle size, with <10 percent of particles being reduced to <500µm, regarded by the US Food and Drug Administration as a relevant cutoff for potential insufflation in their generic solid oral AD opioid guidance. Furthermore, morphine was not readily extracted from the polymer matrix of morphine-ADER-IMT in small- or large-volume solvent extraction studies that evaluated the potential for intravenous and oral abuse. The ER profile and AD characteristics of morphine-ADER-IMT are a result of Guardian™ Technology. The combination of the polyethylene oxide matrix and the use of injection molding differentiate morphine-ADER-IMT from other approved AD opioids that deter abuse using physical and chemical barriers. The high degree of flexibility of the Guardian™ Technology enables the development of products that can be tailored to almost any desired release profile; as such, it is a technology platform that may be useful for the development of a wide range of pharmaceutical products.

  2. Shrink-induced superhydrophobic and antibacterial surfaces in consumer plastics.

    PubMed

    Freschauf, Lauren R; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces.

  3. Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic and Antibacterial Surfaces in Consumer Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Freschauf, Lauren R.; McLane, Jolie; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces have become particularly desirable as stable antibacterial surfaces. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties prohibit bacteria growth, structurally modified superhydrophobic surfaces obviate bacterial resistance common with chemical agents, and therefore a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. In this study, we present a rapid fabrication method for creating such superhydrophobic surfaces in consumer hard plastic materials with resulting antibacterial effects. To replace complex fabrication materials and techniques, the initial mold is made with commodity shrink-wrap film and is compatible with large plastic roll-to-roll manufacturing and scale-up techniques. This method involves a purely structural modification free of chemical additives leading to its inherent consistency over time and successive recasting from the same molds. Finally, antibacterial properties are demonstrated in polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and polyethylene (PE) by demonstrating the prevention of gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria growth on our structured plastic surfaces. PMID:22916100

  4. Wear properties of 10 vol.% silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum composite fabricated by powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patcharawit, T.; Ngeekoh, A.; Chuankrekkul, N.

    2017-09-01

    Wear properties of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particulate of 10 vol.% addition was investigated in as-sintered and heat-treated conditions under varying loads at -5, -25, -45 and -65N using a ball on flat type of wear test. The composite was fabricated by powder injection molding and sintering at 650 °C for 3 hours. Solution treatment was carried out at 550 °C for 2 hours followed by age-hardening at 160 °C for 6 hours. SEM and XRD results indicated Al and SiCp are present as matrix and reinforcement, while AlN, Al2Cu and Mg2Si were also detected. Further precipitation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si in heat-treated samples promoted maximum macro and micro Vickers hardness values, which were achieved at 161 and 157 Hv respectively. Wear weight loss increased with increasing minus load level. The coefficient of friction was found in the range of 0.042-0.048. Wear mechanisms were determined as the combination of abrasive, adhesion and oxidation.

  5. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  6. Fabrication of a Ti porous microneedle array by metal injection molding for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyu; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Yingying; Chen, Zhipeng; Jiang, Lelun; Yuan, Wei; Liang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Microneedle arrays (MA) have been extensively investigated in recent decades for transdermal drug delivery due to their pain-free delivery, minimal skin trauma, and reduced risk of infection. However, porous MA received relatively less attention due to their complex fabrication process and ease of fracturing. Here, we present a titanium porous microneedle array (TPMA) fabricated by modified metal injection molding (MIM) technology. The sintering process is simple and suitable for mass production. TPMA was sintered at a sintering temperature of 1250°C for 2 h. The porosity of TPMA was approximately 30.1% and its average pore diameter was about 1.3 μm. The elements distributed on the surface of TPMA were only Ti and O, which may guarantee the biocompatibility of TPMA. TPMA could easily penetrate the skin of a human forearm without fracture. TPMA could diffuse dry Rhodamine B stored in micropores into rabbit skin. The cumulative permeated flux of calcein across TPMA with punctured skin was 27 times greater than that across intact skin. Thus, TPMA can continually and efficiently deliver a liquid drug through open micropores in skin.

  7. Fabrication of a Ti porous microneedle array by metal injection molding for transdermal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiyu; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Yingying; Chen, Zhipeng; Jiang, Lelun; Yuan, Wei; Liang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Microneedle arrays (MA) have been extensively investigated in recent decades for transdermal drug delivery due to their pain-free delivery, minimal skin trauma, and reduced risk of infection. However, porous MA received relatively less attention due to their complex fabrication process and ease of fracturing. Here, we present a titanium porous microneedle array (TPMA) fabricated by modified metal injection molding (MIM) technology. The sintering process is simple and suitable for mass production. TPMA was sintered at a sintering temperature of 1250°C for 2 h. The porosity of TPMA was approximately 30.1% and its average pore diameter was about 1.3 μm. The elements distributed on the surface of TPMA were only Ti and O, which may guarantee the biocompatibility of TPMA. TPMA could easily penetrate the skin of a human forearm without fracture. TPMA could diffuse dry Rhodamine B stored in micropores into rabbit skin. The cumulative permeated flux of calcein across TPMA with punctured skin was 27 times greater than that across intact skin. Thus, TPMA can continually and efficiently deliver a liquid drug through open micropores in skin. PMID:28187179

  8. Challenges in mold manufacturing for high precision molded diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongs, Guido; Bresseler, Bernd; Schweizer, Klaus; Bergs, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal precision glass molding of imaging optics is the key technology for mass production of precise optical elements. Especially for numerous consumer applications (e.g. digital cameras, smart phones, …), high precision glass molding is applied for the manufacturing of aspherical lenses. The usage of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can help to further reduce the number of lenses in the optical systems which will lead to a reduced weight of hand-held optical devices. But today the application of molded glass DOEs is limited due to the technological challenges in structuring the mold surfaces. Depending on the application submicrometer structures are required on the mold surface. Furthermore these structures have to be replicated very precisely to the glass lens surface. Especially the micro structuring of hard and brittle mold materials such as Tungsten Carbide is very difficult and not established. Thus a multitude of innovative approaches using diffractive optical elements cannot be realized. Aixtooling has investigated in different mold materials and different suitable machining technologies for the micro- and sub-micrometer structuring of mold surfaces. The focus of the work lays on ultra-precision grinding to generate the diffractive pattern on the mold surfaces. This paper presents the latest achievements in diffractive structuring of Tungsten Carbide mold surfaces by ultra-precision grinding.

  9. Development and Demonstration of Adanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. McHugh; Enrique J. Lavernia

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes research results in the project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Tooling Alloys for Molds and Dies. Molds, dies and related tooling are used to manufacture most of the plastic and metal products we use every day. Conventional fabrication of molds and dies involves a multiplicity of machining, benching and heat treatment unit operations. This approach is very expensive and time consuming. Rapid Solidifcation Process (RSP) Tooling is a spray-forming technology tailored for producing molds and dies. The appraoch combines rapid solidifcation processing and net-shape materials processing in a single step. An atomized spray of a tool-forming alloy,more » typically a tool steel, is deposited onto an easy-to-form tool pattern to replicate the pattern's shape and surface features. By so doing, the approach eliminates many machining operations in conventional mold making, significantly reducing cost, lead time and energy. Moreover, rapid solidification creates unique microstructural features by suppressing carbide precipitation and growth, and creating metastable phases. This can result in unique material properties following heat treatment. Spray-formed and aged tool steel dies have exhibited extended life compared to conventional dies in many forming operations such as forging, extrusion and die casting. RSP Tooling technolocy was commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC in Solon, Oh.« less

  10. Verification of a three-dimensional resin transfer molding process simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fingerson, John C.; Loos, Alfred C.; Dexter, H. Benson

    1995-01-01

    Experimental evidence was obtained to complete the verification of the parameters needed for input to a three-dimensional finite element model simulating the resin flow and cure through an orthotropic fabric preform. The material characterizations completed include resin kinetics and viscosity models, as well as preform permeability and compaction models. The steady-state and advancing front permeability measurement methods are compared. The results indicate that both methods yield similar permeabilities for a plain weave, bi-axial fiberglass fabric. Also, a method to determine principal directions and permeabilities is discussed and results are shown for a multi-axial warp knit preform. The flow of resin through a blade-stiffened preform was modeled and experiments were completed to verify the results. The predicted inlet pressure was approximately 65% of the measured value. A parametric study was performed to explain differences in measured and predicted flow front advancement and inlet pressures. Furthermore, PR-500 epoxy resin/IM7 8HS carbon fabric flat panels were fabricated by the Resin Transfer Molding process. Tests were completed utilizing both perimeter injection and center-port injection as resin inlet boundary conditions. The mold was instrumented with FDEMS sensors, pressure transducers, and thermocouples to monitor the process conditions. Results include a comparison of predicted and measured inlet pressures and flow front position. For the perimeter injection case, the measured inlet pressure and flow front results compared well to the predicted results. The results of the center-port injection case showed that the predicted inlet pressure was approximately 50% of the measured inlet pressure. Also, measured flow front position data did not agree well with the predicted results. Possible reasons for error include fiber deformation at the resin inlet and a lag in FDEMS sensor wet-out due to low mold pressures.

  11. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    MedlinePlus

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  12. Electroforming of optical tooling in high-strength Ni-Co alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Berl

    2003-05-01

    Plastic optics are often mass produced by injection, compression or injection-compression molding. Optical quality molds can be directly machined in appropriate materials (tool steels, electroless nickel, aluminum, etc.), but much greater cost efficiency can be achieved with electroformed modl inserts. Traditionally, electroforming of optical quality mold inserts has been carried out in nickel, a material much softer than tool steels which, when hardened to 45 - 50 HRc usually exhibit high wear resistance and long service life (hundreds of thousands of impressions per mold). Because of their low hardness (< 20 HRc), nickel molds can produce only tens of thousands of parts before they are scrapped due to wear or accidental damage. This drawback prevented their wider usage in general plastic and optical mold making. Recently, NiCoForm has developed a proprietary Ni-CO electroforming bath combining the high strength and wear resistance of the alloy with the low stress and high replication fidelity typical of pure nickel electroforming. This paper will outline the approach to electroforming of optical quality tooling in low stress, high strength Ni-Co alloy and present several examples of electroformed NiColoy mold inserts.

  13. Engineering Design Handbook Short Fiber Plastic Base Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-31

    ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK N ’~rttl SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES l ,.. HEADQUARTERS, US ARrm MAlERIEL COIVMAND JULY 1975 DEPARTMENT OF...HANDBOOK SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES TABLE OF CONTENTS 31 July 1975 Paragraph Page 1-1 1-2 1-2.1 1-2.2 1-3 1-3.1 1-3.2 1-3.3 1...General ............................... . Molding Short Fiber Compounds ........... . Classification of Polymer Based Composites

  14. The newborn butterfly project: a shortened treatment protocol for ear molding.

    PubMed

    Doft, Melissa A; Goodkind, Alison B; Diamond, Shawn; DiPace, Jennifer I; Kacker, Ashutosh; LaBruna, Anthony N

    2015-03-01

    Secondary to circulating maternal estrogens, a baby's ear cartilage is unusually plastic during the first few weeks of life, providing an opportunity to correct ear deformities by molding. If molding is initiated during the first days of life with a more rigid molding system than previously described in the literature, the authors hypothesized that treatment time would be reduced and the correction rate would increase. An interdisciplinary team identified and assessed all infants born with ear deformities at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The authors conducted a prospective, institutional review board-approved study on the first consecutive 100 infants identified. Parents were surveyed initially, immediately after treatment, and at 6 and 12 months. One hundred fifty-eight ears in 96 patients underwent ear molding using the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System. Eighty-two percent of the children had the device placed in the newborn nursery and 95 percent had it placed before 2 weeks of life. Average treatment time was 14 days, and 96 percent of the deformities were corrected. Complications were limited to mild pressure ulcerations. Ninety-nine percent of parents stated that they would have the procedure repeated. The molding period can be reduced from 6 to 8 weeks to 2 weeks by initiating molding during the first weeks of life and using a more secure and rigid device. Through an interdisciplinary approach, the authors were able to identify patients and to correct the deformity earlier and faster than has been previously published, eliminating the need for surgical correction in many children. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Miniature injection-molded optics for fiber-optic, in vivo confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Liang, Chen; Descour, Michael R.; Sung, Kung-Bin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gillenwater, Ann

    2002-12-01

    In collaboration with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin and the UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system has been designed and tested for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. This system along with specially developed diagnosis algorithms and techniques can achieve an unprecedented specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of pre-cancers in epithelial tissue. The FCRM imaging system consists of an NdYAG laser (1064 nm), scanning mirrors/optics, precision pinhole, detector, and an endoscopic probe (the objective). The objective is connected to the rest of the imaging system via a fiber bundle. The fiber bundle allows the rest of the system to be remotely positioned in a convenient location. Only the objective comes into contact with the patient. It is our intent that inexpensive mass-produced disposable endoscopic probes would be produced for large clinical trials. This paper touches on the general design process of developing a miniature, high numerical aperture, injection-molded (IM) objective. These IM optical designs are evaluated and modified based on manufacturing and application constraints. Based on these driving criteria, one specific optical design was chosen and a detailed tolerance analysis was conducted. The tolerance analysis was custom built to create a realistic statistical analysis for integrated IM lens elements that can be stacked one on top of another using micro-spheres resting in tiny circular grooves. These configurations allow each lens element to be rotated and possibly help compensate for predicted manufacturing errors. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (RO1 CA82880). Special thanks go to Applied Image Group/Optics for the numerous fabrication meetings concerning the miniature IM objective.

  16. Electrical Resistivity of Wire Arc Sprayed Zn and Cu Coatings for In-Mold-Metal-Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Liao, X.; Hopmann, Ch; Ochotta, P.

    2018-06-01

    Electrical functionalities can be integrated into plastic parts by integrating thermally sprayed metal coatings into the non-conductive base material. Thermally sprayed conducting tracks for power and signal transmission are one example. In this case, the electrical resistance or resistivity of the coatings should be investigated. Therefore, the electrical resistivity of wire arc sprayed Zn and Cu coatings has been investigated. In case of Zn coatings, spray distance, gas pressure and wire diameter could be identified as significant influencing parameters on the electrical resistivity. In contrast, process gas, gas pressure and voltage do have a significant influence on the electrical resistivity of Cu coatings. Through the use of the In-Mold-Metal-Spraying method (IMMS), thermal degradation can be avoided by transferring thermally sprayed coating from a mold insert onto the plastic part. Therefore, the influence of the transfer process on the electrical resistance of the coatings has also been investigated.

  17. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  18. Effect of processing method on the mechanical and thermal of Silvergrass/HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Jin, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuying

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of compression and injection molding methods on properties of Silvergrass-HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) composites, with respect to mechanical behaviors. Maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was added in the composite and improved the mechanical property of the composite. The research founds MAPE can improve the mechanical property because it improved the interfacial compatibility as a coupling agent. When added a content of 8% of MAPE, Silvergrass-HDPE composites made from compression molding shows a better mechanical performance in tensile strength and flexural strength than that made from injection molding, with increasing Silvergrass fiber content from 30% to 50%. However, the WPCs (wood plastics composites) made from injection molding had a lower degree of crystallinity with or without MAPE treatment.

  19. Effect of mold designs on molten metal behaviour in high-pressure die casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Khan, A. A.; Mohamad, M. R.; Suffian, M. S. Z. M.; Yunos, Y. S.; Wong, L. K.; Mohtar, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a research study conducted in a local automotive component manufacturer that produces aluminium alloy steering housing local and global markets. This study is to investigate the effect of design modification of mold in die casting as to improve the production rate. Design modification is carried out on the casting shot of the mold. Computer flow simulation was carried out to study the flow of molten metal in the mold with respect to the mold design modification. The design parameters of injection speed, die temperature and clamping force has been included in the study. The result of the simulation showed that modifications of casting shot give significant impact towards the molten flow behaviour in casting process. The capabilities and limitations of die casting process simulation to conduct defect analysis had been optimized. This research will enhance the efficiency of the mass production of the industry of die casting with the understanding of defect analysis, which lies on the modification of the mold design, a way early in its stages of production.

  20. Recent technology and usage of plastic lenses in image taking objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Susumu; Sato, Hiroshi; Mori, Nobuyoshi; Kiriki, Toshihiko

    2005-09-01

    Recently, plastic lenses produced by injection molding are widely used in image taking objectives for digital cameras, camcorders, and mobile phone cameras, because of their suitability for volume production and ease of obtaining an advantage of aspherical surfaces. For digital camera and camcorder objectives, it is desirable that there is no image point variation with the temperature change in spite of employing several plastic lenses. At the same time, due to the shrinking pixel size of solid-state image sensor, there is now a requirement to assemble lenses with high accuracy. In order to satisfy these requirements, we have developed 16 times compact zoom objective for camcorder and 3 times class folded zoom objectives for digital camera, incorporating cemented plastic doublet consisting of a positive lens and a negative lens. Over the last few years, production volumes of camera-equipped mobile phones have increased substantially. Therefore, for mobile phone cameras, the consideration of productivity is more important than ever. For this application, we have developed a 1.3-mega pixels compact camera module with macro function utilizing the advantage of a plastic lens that can be given mechanically functional shape to outer flange part. Its objective consists of three plastic lenses and all critical dimensions related to optical performance can be determined by high precise optical elements. Therefore this camera module is manufactured without optical adjustment in automatic assembling line, and achieves both high productivity and high performance. Reported here are the constructions and the technical topics of image taking objectives described above.

  1. [Development of injection containers for patient and medical staff].

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yoichi; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a transition from glass to plastic injection containers in Japan. In our previous study, we suggested that plastic containers had less impurity contamination than glass containers. However, the use of some plasticizers has been limited because of their endocrine disrupting effects. Therefore, contamination has been a concern due to chemicals in injection solution packed with plastic containers. Indeed, in our recent study, photoinitiators were detected in an injection solution coming from plastic containers. Photoinitiators mainly exist in ink. We therefore speculated that ink originating from a photoinitiator directly printing on plastic containers had migrated into the injection solutions. In a clinical setting, plastic containers are very tractable because they are lightweight and less breakable. On the other hand, from a safety view point, these containers may be hazardous because of permeation by steam, ambient air or photoinitiators. In the present symposium, we will discuss the risk of photoinitiators leaking into injection solution packed with plastic containers, and countermeasures to avoid this risk.

  2. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  3. Plastic Organic Scintillator Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightwell, C. R.; Temanson, E. S.; Febbraro, M. T.

    2017-09-01

    Due to their high light output, quick decay time, affordability, durability and ability to be molded, plastic organic scintillators are increasingly becoming a more viable method of particle detection. Since the plastic is composed entirely of single molecular chains with repeating units, scintillating properties remain stable despite changes in experimental conditions. Different scintillating plastics can be modified and tailored to suit specific experiments depending on a variety of requirements such as light output, scintillating wavelength, and PMT compatibility. The synthesis chemistry of a recent but well-known scintillating polyester, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) will be presented to demonstrate how plastic organic scintillators can be modified for different particle detection experiments. PEN has been successfully synthesized at ORNL, and procedures are currently being investigated to modify PEN using different reactants and catalysts. The goal is to achieve a transparent scintillating plastic with an incorporated wavelength shifter in the chain that scintillates with a wavelength around 440 nm. The status of this project will be presented. This research is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

  4. Hydrophilic thermoplastic polyurethanes for the manufacturing of highly dosed oral sustained release matrices via hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, G; Van Renterghem, J; Van Bockstal, P J; Kasmi, S; De Geest, B G; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    Hydrophilic aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane (Tecophilic™ grades) matrices for high drug loaded oral sustained release dosage forms were formulated via hot melt extrusion/injection molding (HME/IM). Drugs with different aqueous solubility (diprophylline, theophylline and acetaminophen) were processed and their influence on the release kinetics was investigated. Moreover, the effect of Tecophilic™ grade, HME/IM process temperature, extrusion speed, drug load, injection pressure and post-injection pressure on in vitro release kinetics was evaluated for all model drugs. (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated that all grades have different soft segment/hard segment ratios, allowing different water uptake capacities and thus different release kinetics. Processing temperature of the different Tecophilic™ grades was successfully predicted by using SEC and rheology. Tecophilic™ grades SP60D60, SP93A100 and TG2000 had a lower processing temperature than other grades and were further evaluated for the production of IM tablets. During HME/IM drug loads up to 70% (w/w) were achieved. In addition, Raman mapping and (M)DSC results confirmed the homogenous distribution of mainly crystalline API in all polymer matrices. Besides, hydrophilic TPU based formulations allowed complete and sustained release kinetics without using release modifiers. As release kinetics were mainly affected by drug load and the length of the PEO soft segment, this polymer platform offers a versatile formulation strategy to adjust the release rate of drugs with different aqueous solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies to improve electrode positioning and safety in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Rebscher, S J; Heilmann, M; Bruszewski, W; Talbot, N H; Snyder, R L; Merzenich, M M

    1999-03-01

    An injection-molded internal supporting rib has been produced to control the flexibility of silicone rubber encapsulated electrodes designed to electrically stimulate the auditory nerve in human subjects with severe to profound hearing loss. The rib molding dies, and molds for silicone rubber encapsulation of the electrode, were designed and machined using AutoCad and MasterCam software packages in a PC environment. After molding, the prototype plastic ribs were iteratively modified based on observations of the performance of the rib/silicone composite insert in a clear plastic model of the human scala tympani cavity. The rib-based electrodes were reliably inserted farther into these models, required less insertion force and were positioned closer to the target auditory neural elements than currently available cochlear implant electrodes. With further design improvements the injection-molded rib may also function to accurately support metal stimulating contacts and wire leads during assembly to significantly increase the manufacturing efficiency of these devices. This method to reliably control the mechanical properties of miniature implantable devices with multiple electrical leads may be valuable in other areas of biomedical device design.

  6. Rotational molding of bio-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  7. Intelligent process development of foam molding for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the space shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharwani, S. S.; Walls, J. T.; Jackson, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge based system to assist process engineers in evaluating the processability and moldability of poly-isocyanurate (PIR) formulations for the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) is discussed. The Reaction Injection Molding- Process Development Advisor (RIM-PDA) is a coupled system which takes advantage of both symbolic and numeric processing techniques. This system will aid the process engineer in identifying a startup set of mold schedules and in refining the mold schedules to remedy specific process problems diagnosed by the system.

  8. Mold Testing or Sampling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  9. The evaluation of physical properties of injection molded systems based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).

    PubMed

    Pajander, Jari; Rensonnet, Alexia; Hietala, Sami; Rantanen, Jukka; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2017-02-25

    The effect of product design parameters on the formation and properties of an injection molded solid dosage form consisting of poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO) and two different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was studied. The product design parameters explored were melting temperature and the duration of melting, API loading degree and the molecular weight (M w ) of PEO. The solid form composition of the model APIs, theophylline and carbamazepine, was of specific interest, and its possible impact on the in vitro drug release behavior. M w of PEO had the greatest impact on the release rate of both APIs. High M w resulted in slower API release rate. Process temperature had two-fold effect with PEO 300,000g/mol. Firstly, higher process temperature transformed the crystalline part of the polymer into metastable folded form (more folded crystalline regions) and less into the more stable extended form (more extended crystalline regions), which lead to enhanced theophylline release rate. Secondly, the higher process temperature seemed to induce carbamazepine polymorphic transformation from p-monoclinic form III (carbamazepine (M)) into trigonal form II (carbamazepine (T)). The results indicated that the actual content of carbamazepine (T) affected drug release behavior more than the magnitude of transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the power law index on the fiber breakage during injection molding by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Six, Wim; Bonte, Hilde; Debrabandere, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In predictive engineering for polymer processes, the proper prediction of material microstructure from known processing conditions and constituent material properties is a critical step forward properly predicting bulk properties in the finished composite. Operating within the context of long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT, length > 15mm) this investigation concentrates on the influence of the power law index on the final fiber length distribution within the injection molded part. To realize this, the Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight Scandium 2013 software has been used. In this software, a fiber breakage algorithm is available from this release on. Using virtual material data with realistic viscosity levels allows to separate the influence of the power law index on the fiber breakage from the other material and process parameters. Applying standard settings for the fiber breakage parameters results in an obvious influence on the fiber length distribution through the thickness of the part and also as function of position in the part. Finally, the influence of the shear rate constant within the fiber breakage model has been investigated illustrating the possibility to fit the virtual fiber length distribution to the possible experimentally available data.

  11. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  12. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  13. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emissions u...

  14. Liquid-solid phase transition alloy as reversible and rapid molding bone cement.

    PubMed

    Yi, Liting; Jin, Chao; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-01

    Acrylic bone cement has been an essential non-metallic implant used as fixing agent in the cemented total joint arthroplasty (THA). However, the currently available materials based mainly on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still encounter certain limitations, such as time-consuming polymerization, thermal and chemical necrosis and troublesome revision procedure. Here from an alternative way, we proposed for the first time to adopt the injectable alloy cement to address such tough issues through introducing its unique liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. A typical cement along this way is thus made of an alloy Bi/In/Sn/Zn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5 °C, which enables its rapid molding into various desired shapes with high plasticity and ultimate metallic behaviors. The fundamental characteristics including the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and phase transition-induced thermal effects have been clarified to demonstrate the importance of such alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. In addition, we also disclosed its advantage as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging on the bone interior structure which is highly beneficial for guiding the surgery and monitoring the therapeutic effects. Particularly, the proposed alloy cement with reversible phase transition feature significantly simplifies the revision of the cement and prosthesis. This study opens the way for employing the injectable alloy materials as reversible bone cement to fulfill diverse clinical needs in the coming time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of New Laser Protective Dyes. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DYE LASERS, PROTECTION, LASERS, DYES , HAZARDS, SYNTHESIS, EYE SAFETY, OPTICAL MATERIALS, PLASTICS, LENSES, THERMAL STABILITY, CYANINE DYES , POLYCARBONATES, INJECTION MOLDING, NEAR INFRARED RADIATION, FLUORENES.

  16. Mold-Resistant Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that one of the surest ways to prevent indoor air quality and mold issues is to use preventive construction materials, discussing typical resistance to dealing with mold problems (usually budget-related) and describing mold-resistant construction, which uses concrete masonry, brick, and stone and is intended to withstand inevitable…

  17. Estimation of state and material properties during heat-curing molding of composite materials using data assimilation: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Tachikawa, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Junya

    2018-03-01

    Accurate simulations of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) molding are vital for the development of high-quality products. However, such simulations are challenging and previous attempts to improve the accuracy of simulations by incorporating the data acquired from mold monitoring have not been completely successful. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a method to accurately predict various CFRP thermoset molding characteristics based on data assimilation, a process that combines theoretical and experimental values. The degree of cure as well as temperature and thermal conductivity distributions during the molding process were estimated using both temperature data and numerical simulations. An initial numerical experiment demonstrated that the internal mold state could be determined solely from the surface temperature values. A subsequent numerical experiment to validate this method showed that estimations based on surface temperatures were highly accurate in the case of degree of cure and internal temperature, although predictions of thermal conductivity were more difficult.

  18. Development of bio-sourced binder to metal injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Alexandre; Barrière, Thierry; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    In the MIM process the binder play the most important role. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture for injection molding and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part, must be easy to be removed from the molded part, and must be the recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical ones. The goal of this study is to develop a binder environmentally friendly. For this, a study of formulation based on polyethylene glycol, because of is water debinding properties, was made. Polylactic acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates were investigated as bio sourced polymers. The chemical, miscibility and rheological behavior of the binder formulation were investigated.

  19. Natural Fiber Composite Retting, Preform Manufacture and Molding (Project 18988/Agreement 16313)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Howe, Daniel T.; Laddha, Sachin

    2009-12-31

    Plant-based natural fibers can be used in place of glass in fiber reinforced automotive composites to reduce weight, cost and provide environmental benefits. Current automotive applications use natural fibers in injection molded thermoplastics for interior, non-structural applications. Compression molded natural fiber reinforced thermosets have the opportunity to extend natural fiber composite applications to structural and semi-structural parts and exterior parts realizing further vehicle weight savings. The development of low cost molding and fiber processing techniques for large volumes of natural fibers has helped in understanding the barriers of non-aqueous retting. The retting process has a significant effect on the fibermore » quality and its processing ability that is related to the natural fiber composite mechanical properties. PNNL has developed a compression molded fiber reinforced composite system of which is the basis for future preforming activities and fiber treatment. We are using this process to develop preforming techniques and to validate fiber treatment methods relative to OEM provided application specifications. It is anticipated for next fiscal year that demonstration of larger quantities of SMC materials and molding of larger, more complex components with a more complete testing regimen in coordination with Tier suppliers under OEM guidance.« less

  20. Numerical study on injection parameters optimization of thin wall and biodegradable polymers parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C.; Mendes, A.; Carreira, P.; Mateus, A.; Malça, C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the molds industry searches new markets, with diversified and added value products. The concept associated to the production of thin walled and biodegradable parts mostly manufactured by injection process has assumed a relevant importance due to environmental and economic factors. The growth of a global consciousness about the harmful effects of the conventional polymers in our life quality associated with the legislation imposed, become key factors for the choice of a particular product by the consumer. The target of this work is to provide an integrated solution for the injection of parts with thin walls and manufactured using biodegradable materials. This integrated solution includes the design and manufacture processes of the mold as well as to find the optimum values for the injection parameters in order to become the process effective and competitive. For this, the Moldflow software was used. It was demonstrated that this computational tool provides an effective responsiveness and it can constitute an important tool in supporting the injection molding of thin-walled and biodegradable parts.

  1. Simulation of imperfections in plastic lenses - transferring local refractive index changes into surface shape modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carles; Blanco, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Injection molded plastic lenses have continuously improved their performance regarding optical quality and nowadays are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, during the manufacturing process unavoidable fluctuations in material density occur, resulting in local changes in the distribution of refractive index, which degrade the imaging properties of the polymer lens. Such material density fluctuations correlate to phase delays, which opens a path for their mapping. However, it is difficult to transfer the measured variations in refractive index into conventional optical simulation tool. Thus, we propose a method to convert the local variations in refractive index into local changes of one surface of the lens, which can then be described as a free-form surface, easy to introduce in conventional simulation tools. The proposed method was tested on a commercial gradient index (GRIN) lens for a set of six different object positions, using the MTF sagittal and tangential cuts to compare the differences between the real lens and a lens with homogenous refractive index, and the last surface converted into a free-form shape containing the internal refractive index changes. The same procedure was used to reproduce the local refractive index changes of an injected plastic lens with local index changes measured using an in-house built polariscopic arrangement, showing the capability of the method to provide successful results.

  2. Silicon micro-mold

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M [Livermore, CA

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  3. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISIONS FROM OPEN CONTACT MOLDING PROCESSES - VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate several pollution prevention techniques that could be used to reduce styrene emissions from open molding processes in the fiberglass-reinforced
    plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building industries. Styrene emission...

  4. Mold Charlatans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Offers a primer on toxic mold and its removal, warning against ignorant or unethical mold remediation companies and offering five considerations (checking references, considering the big picture, sampling more than the air, considering release, and considering the source) when hiring such services. (EV)

  5. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  6. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  7. Microstructures and mechanical properties of powder injection molded Ti-6Al-4V/HA powder.

    PubMed

    Thian, E S; Loh, N H; Khor, K A; Tor, S B

    2002-07-01

    Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array was employed to investigate the sintered properties of Ti-6Al-4V/HA tensile bars produced by powder injection molding. The effects of sintering factors at the 90% significance level: sintering temperature (1050 degrees C, 1100 degrees C and 1150 degrees C), heating rate (5 degrees C/min, 7.5 degrees C/min and 10 degrees C/min), holding time (30, 45 and 60 min) and cooling rate (5 degrees C/min, 20 degrees C/min and 40 degrees C/min) were investigated. Results showed that sintering temperature, heating rate and cooling rate have significant effects on sintered properties, whereas the influence of holding time was insignificant. It was found that a sintering temperature of 1100 degrees C, a heating rate of 7.5 degrees C/min and a cooling rate of 5 degrees C/min increased the relative density, Vicker's microhardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus. However, a further increment of sintering temperature to 1150 degrees C did not show any discernable improvement in the relative density and Vicker's microhardness, but there was a slight increase of 0.6% and 0.9% in the flexural strength and flexural modulus, respectively. Mechanically strong Ti-6Al-4V/HA parts with an open porosity of around 50% were developed.

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of conventional and microcellular injection molded poly (lactic acid)/poly (ε-caprolactone) blends.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haibin; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-01-01

    In view of their complementary properties, blending polylactide (PLA) with poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) becomes a good choice to improve PLA's properties without compromising its biodegradability. A series of blends of biodegradable PLA and PCL with different mass fraction were prepared by melt mixing. Standard tensile bars were produced by both conventional and microcellular injection molding to study their mechanical and thermal properties. With the increase in PCL content, the blend showed decreased tensile strength and modulus; however, elongation was dramatically increased. With the addition of PCL, the failure mode changed from brittle fracture of the neat PLA to ductile fracture of the blend as demonstrated by tensile test. Various theoretical models based on dispersion and interface adhesion were used to predict the Young's modulus and the results shows the experimental data are consistent with the predictions of the foam model and Kerner-Uemura-Takayangi model. The thermal behavior of the blends was investigated by DSC and TGA. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL in the PLA/PCL did not significantly change with the PCL content increasing in the whole range of blends composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molds in the Environment

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Mold Cleanup & Remediation Homeowner’s and Renter’s Guide to Mold Cleanup After ... Home or Building with Mold Damage Prevention and Remediation Strategies for the Control and Removal of Fungal ...

  10. Investigation of CFRP in aerospace field and improvement of the molding accuracy by using autoclave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, Takunori

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) has come to be used in a wide range of industries such as sporting goods, fishing tackle and cars because it has a large number of advantages. In this situation, even the passenger aircraft industry also pays attention to the material. CFRP is an ideal material for airplanes because it has a lot of advantages such as light weight and strong, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. Generally, autoclave is used for molding CFRP in the field of aerospace engineering. Autoclave is a machine that can mold a product by heating and pressurizing material in an evacuated bag. What is examined in this paper is an observation on handmade CFRP by a polarizing microscope. In addition, mechanical characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, an improvement of accuracy in CFRP molding using an autoclave is suggested from viewpoint of thermodynamics.

  11. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R; Crone, Wendy C; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  12. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold’s microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. PMID:24094186

  13. Molded Magnetic Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A molded magnetic article and fabrication method are provided. Particles of ferromagnetic material embedded in a polymer binder are molded under heat and pressure into a geometric shape. Each particle is an oblate spheroid having a radius-to-thickness aspect ratio approximately in the range of 15-30. Each oblate spheroid has flattened poles that are substantially in perpendicular alignment to a direction of the molding pressure throughout the geometric shape.

  14. Comparative evaluation of border molding using two different techniques in maxillary edentulous arches: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Qanungo, Anchal; Aras, Meena Ajay; Chitre, Vidya; Coutinho, Ivy; Rajagopal, Praveen; Mysore, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the single-step border molding technique using injectable heavy viscosity addition silicone with sectional border molding technique using low fusing impression compound by evaluating the retention of heat cure trial denture bases. Materials and Methods: Ten completely edentulous patients in need of prostheses were included in this study. Two border molding techniques, single-step (Group 1) and sectional (Group 2), were compared for retention. Both border molding techniques were performed in each patient. In both techniques, definitive wash impression was made with light viscosity addition silicone. The final results were analyzed using paired t-test to determine whether significant differences existed between the groups. Results: The t-value (3.031) infers that there was a significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 (P = 0.014). The retention obtained in Group 2 (mean = 9.05 kgf) was significantly higher than that of Group 1 (mean = 8.26 kgf). Conclusion: Sectional border molding technique proved to be more retentive as compared to single-step border molding although clinically the retention appeared comparable. PMID:27746597

  15. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liparoti, Sara; Sorrentino, Andrea; Guzman, Gustavo; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micro structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.

  16. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Liparoti, Sara; Sorrentino, Andrea; Guzman, Gustavo

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micromore » structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.« less

  17. Fabrication and characterization of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds with controlled pore structures using 3-dimensional printing and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Shanfeng; Lu, Lichun; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Currier, Bradford L; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) is an injectable, biodegradable polymer that has been used for fabricating preformed scaffolds in tissue engineering applications because of in situ crosslinking characteristics. Aiming for understanding the effects of pore structure parameters on bone tissue ingrowth, 3-dimensional (3D) PPF scaffolds with controlled pore architecture have been produced in this study from computer-aided design (CAD) models. We have created original scaffold models with 3 pore sizes (300, 600, and 900 microm) and randomly closed 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% of total pores from the original models in 3 planes. PPF scaffolds were fabricated by a series steps involving 3D printing of support/build constructs, dissolving build materials, injecting PPF, and dissolving support materials. To investigate the effects of controlled pore size and interconnectivity on scaffolds, we compared the porosities between the models and PPF scaffolds fabricated thereby, examined pore morphologies in surface and cross-section using scanning electron microscopy, and measured permeability using the falling head conductivity test. The thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds as well as uncrosslinked PPF were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Average pore sizes and pore shapes of PPF scaffolds with 600- and 900-microm pores were similar to those of CAD models, but they depended on directions in those with 300-microm pores. Porosity and permeability of PPF scaffolds decreased as the number of closed pores in original models increased, particularly when the pore size was 300 microm as the result of low porosity and pore occlusion. These results show that 3D printing and injection molding technique can be applied to crosslinkable polymers to fabricate 3D porous scaffolds with controlled pore structures, porosity, and permeability using their CAD models.

  18. Interactive Mold House Tour

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  19. Finite element analysis and simulation of rheological properties of bulk molding compound (BMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, M. Fatih; Aydin, Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Bulk molding compound (BMC) is one of the important composite materials with various engineering applications. BMC is a thermoset plastic resin blend of various inert fillers, fiber reinforcements, catalysts, stabilizers and pigments that form a viscous, molding compound. Depending on the end-use application, bulk molding compounds are formulated to achieve close dimensional control, flame and scratch resistance, electrical insulation, corrosion and stain resistance, superior mechanical properties, low shrink and color stability. Its excellent flow characteristics, dielectric properties, and flame resistance make this thermoset material well-suited to a wide variety of applications requiring precision in detail and dimensions as well as high performance. When a BMC is used for these purposes, the rheological behavior and properties of the BMC is the main concern. In this paper, finite element analysis of rheological properties of bulk molding composite material was studied. For this purpose, standard samples of composite material were obtained by means of uniaxial hot pressing. 3 point flexural tests were then carried out by using a universal testing machine. Finite element analyses were then performed with defined material properties within a specific constitutive material behavior. Experimental and numerical results were then compared. Good correlation between the numerical simulation and the experimental results was obtained. It was expected with this study that effects of various process parameters and boundary conditions on the rheological behavior of bulk molding compounds could be determined by means of numerical analysis without detailed experimental work.

  20. Characterization of plastic blends made from mixed plastics waste of different sources.

    PubMed

    Turku, Irina; Kärki, Timo; Rinne, Kimmo; Puurtinen, Ari

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies the recyclability of construction and household plastic waste collected from local landfills. Samples were processed from mixed plastic waste by injection moulding. In addition, blends of pure plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene were processed as a reference set. Reference samples with known plastic ratio were used as the calibration set for quantitative analysis of plastic fractions in recycled blends. The samples were tested for the tensile properties; scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis of the blend surfaces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used for the quantification of plastics contents.

  1. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  2. Microstructure and High Temperature Mechanical Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kee-Ahn; Gwon, Jin-Han; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and the room and high temperature mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-B alloy manufactured by metal injection molding. In addition, hot isostatic pressing was performed to increase the density of the material, and a comparison of properties was made. Microstructural observation confirmed a bi-continuous structure composed of a three-dimensional network of α-Fe phase and (Cr,Fe)2B phase. The HIPed specimen featured a well-formed adhesion between the α-Fe phase and boride, and the number of fine pores was significantly reduced. The tensile results confirmed that the HIPed specimen (RT to 900 °C) had higher strengths compared to the as-sintered specimen, and the change of elongation starting from 700 °C was significantly greater in the HIPed specimen. Fractography suggested that cracks propagated mostly along the interface between the α-Fe matrix and boride in the as-sintered specimen, while direct fracture of boride was observed in addition to interface separation in the HIPed specimen.

  3. Incipient flocculation molding: A new ceramic-forming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrasmith, Steven Reade

    Incipient Flocculation Molding (IFM) was conceived as a new near-net-shape forming technique for ceramic components. It was hypothesized that the development of a temperature-dependent deflocculant would result in a forming technique that is flexible, efficient, and capable of producing a superior microstructure with improved mechanical properties from highly reactive, submicron ceramic powders. IFM utilizes a concentrated, nonaqueous, sterically stabilized ceramic powder and/or colloidal suspension which is injected into a non-porous mold. The suspension is then flocculated by destabilizing the suspension by lowering the temperature. Flocculation is both rapid and reversible. Cooling to -20°C produces a green body with sufficient strength for removal from the mold. The solvent is removed from the green body by evaporation. The dried green body is subsequently sintered to form a dense ceramic monolith. This is the first ceramic forming method based upon the manipulation of a sterically-stabilized suspension. To demonstrate IFM, the process of grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG), with molecular weights from 600 to 8000, to alumina powders was investigated. The maximum grafted amounts were achieved by the technique of dispersing the alumina powders in molten polymer at 195°C. The ungrafted PEG was then removed by repeated centrifuging and redispersion in fresh distilled water. The rheological behavior of suspensions of the PEG-grafted powders in water, 2-propanol and 2-butanol were characterized. All of the aqueous suspensions were shear thinning. The PEG 4600-grafted alumina powder aqueous suspensions were the most fluid. Sample rods and bars were molded from 52 vol% PEG-grafted alumina suspensions in 2-butanol. The best results were obtained with a preheated aluminum mold lubricated with a fluorinated oil mold-release. The samples were dried, sintered, and their microstructure and density were compared with sintered samples dry pressed from the same alumina powder

  4. The pharmacopeial evolution of intralipid injectable emulsion in plastic containers: from a coarse to a fine dispersion.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F

    2009-02-23

    On December 1, 2007, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) adopted Chapter 729 entitled Globule Size Distribution in Lipid Injectable Emulsions that contains two globule sizing methods and criteria to measure the mean droplet diameter (MDD) and the large-diameter tail of the globule size distribution to meet pharmacopeial specifications. The first of these measures, as the intensity-weighted MDD expressed in nanometers, must be less than 500 nm. The second measure, as the volume-weighted percentage of fat greater than 5 microm or PFAT(5), must be less than 0.05%. These limits were first suggested in 2001 based on an analysis of 16 lipid injectable emulsions available worldwide. In 2004, the packaging of the innovator lipid emulsion product Intralipid was changed from conventional glass bottles to plastic containers in the U.S. A subsequent analysis of the emulsion in its new container showed it to be more coarse than its previous glass counterpart and now failed the PFAT(5) limit. In 2007, it was announced that Intralipid in plastic containers was reformulated to meet the pharmacopeial limits. To track the time course of its transition from a coarse to a fine dispersion, 31 lots of Intralipid with expiration dates spanning five years were investigated.

  5. Tribological and mechanical performance evaluation of metal prosthesis components manufactured via metal injection molding.

    PubMed

    Melli, Virginia; Juszczyk, Mateusz; Sandrini, Enrico; Bolelli, Giovanni; Bonferroni, Benedetta; Lusvarghi, Luca; Cigada, Alberto; Manfredini, Tiziano; De Nardo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of total joint replacements, in particular for the knee joint, has a growing impact on the healthcare system costs. New cost-saving manufacturing technologies are being explored nowadays. Metal injection molding (MIM) has already demonstrated its suitability for the production of CoCrMo alloy tibial trays, with a significant reduction in production costs, by holding both corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. In this work, mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated on tibial trays obtained via MIM and conventional investment casting. Surface hardness and wear properties were evaluated through Vickers hardness, scratch and pin on disk tests. The MIM and cast finished tibial trays were then subjected to a fatigue test campaign in order to obtain their fatigue load limit at 5 millions cycles following ISO 14879-1 directions. CoCrMo cast alloy exhibited 514 HV hardness compared to 335 HV of MIM alloy, furthermore it developed narrower scratches with a higher tendency towards microploughing than microcutting, in comparison to MIM CoCrMo. The observed fatigue limits were (1,766 ± 52) N for cast tibial trays and (1,625 ± 44) N for MIM ones. Fracture morphologies pointed out to a more brittle behavior of MIM microstructure. These aspects were attributed to the absence of a fine toughening and surface hardening carbide dispersion in MIM grains. Nevertheless, MIM tibial trays exhibited a fatigue limit far beyond the 900 N of maximum load prescribed by ISO and ASTM standards for the clinical application of these devices.

  6. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  7. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pintiaux, Thibaud; Viet, David; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Rigal, Luc; Rouilly, Antoine

    2013-05-30

    Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young's Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations.

  8. Grinding technoloy of aspheric molds for glass-molding; Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoichi

    2005-05-01

    We introduce the method of precisely grinding of axis-symmetric aspherical glass-molding dies by using a diamond wheel. Those show how to select vertical-grinding or slant-grinding, how to grind molds with high accuracy and actual grinding results.

  9. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  10. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  11. Morphology Evolution of Polymer Blends under Intense Shear During High Speed Thin-Wall Injection Molding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Fu, Qiang

    2017-06-29

    The morphology evolution under shear during different processing is indeed an important issue regarding the phase morphology control as well as final physical properties of immiscible polymer blends. High-speed thin wall injection molding (HSTWIM) has recently been demonstrated as an effective method to prepare alternating multilayered structure. To understand the formation mechanism better and explore possible phase morphology for different blends under HSTWIM, the relationship between the morphology evolution of polymer blends based on polypropylene (PP) under HSTWIM and some intrinsic properties of polymer blends, including viscosity ratio, interfacial tension, and melt elasticity, is systematically investigated in this study. Blends based on PP containing polyethylene (PE), ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and polylactic acid (PLA) are used as examples. Compatibilizer has also been added into respective blends to alter their interfacial interaction. It is demonstrated that dispersed phase can be deformed into a layered-like structure if interfacial tension, viscosity ratio, and melt elasticity are relatively small. While some of these values are relatively large, these dispersed droplets are not easily deformed under HSTWIM, forming ellipsoidal or fiber-like structure. The addition of a moderate amount of compatibilizer into these blends is shown to be able to reduce interfacial tension and the size of dispersed phase, thus, allowing more deformation on the dispersed phase. Such a study could provide some guidelines on phase morphology control of immiscible polymer blends under shear during various processing methods.

  12. Project Future Workplace Literacy Project. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY.

    Project Future was a 3-year project begun in 1994 as a partnership between the Jefferson County Public Schools and Futura Plastics and Engineering, Inc., Louisville, Kentucky. The project targeted the workplace basic skills of plastic injection molding production workers. The skills classes improved the general education of the workers with…

  13. Effecting aging time of epoxy molding compound to molding process for integrated circuit packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachapitunsuk, Jirayu; Ugsornrat, Kessararat; Srisuwitthanon, Warayoot; Thonglor, Panakamon

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about effecting aging time of epoxy molding compound (EMC) that effect to reliability performance of integrated circuit (IC) package in molding process. Molding process is so important of IC packaging process for protecting IC chip (or die) from temperature and humidity environment using encapsulated EMC. For general molding process, EMC are stored in the frozen at 5°C and left at room temperature at 25 °C for aging time on self before molding of die onto lead frame is 24 hours. The aging time effect to reliability performance of IC package due to different temperature and humidity inside the package. In experiment, aging time of EMC were varied from 0 to 24 hours for molding process of SOIC-8L packages. For analysis, these packages were tested by x-ray and scanning acoustic microscope to analyze properties of EMC with an aging time and also analyzed delamination, internal void, and wire sweep inside the packages with different aging time. The results revealed that different aging time of EMC effect to properties and reliability performance of molding process.

  14. Optimization and evaluation of metal injection molding by using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shidi; Zhang, Ruijie; Qu, Xuanhui, E-mail: quxh@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    6061 aluminum alloy and 316L stainless steel green bodies were obtained by using different injection parameters (injection pressure, speed and temperature). After injection process, the green bodies were scanned by X-ray tomography. The projection and reconstruction images show the different kinds of defects obtained by the improper injection parameters. Then, 3D rendering of the Al alloy green bodies was used to demonstrate the spatial morphology characteristics of the serious defects. Based on the scanned and calculated results, it is convenient to obtain the proper injection parameters for the Al alloy. Then, reasons of the defect formation were discussed. During moldmore » filling, the serious defects mainly formed in the case of low injection temperature and high injection speed. According to the gray value distribution of projection image, a threshold gray value was obtained to evaluate whether the quality of green body can meet the desired standard. The proper injection parameters of 316L stainless steel can be obtained efficiently by using the method of analyzing the Al alloy injection. - Highlights: • Different types of defects in green bodies were scanned by using X-ray tomography. • Reasons of the defect formation were discussed. • Optimization of the injection parameters can be simplified greatly by the way of X-ray tomography. • Evaluation standard of the injection process can be obtained by using the gray value distribution of projection image.« less

  15. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  16. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications.

  17. Feasibility of using saltcedar as a filler in injection-molded polyethylene composites

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Nicole M. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) was investigated for use as a filler in wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mineral content, water-soluble extractive content, and thermal stability of saltcedar flour were compared with those of a commercial pine wood flour. The wood flours were compounded with plastic, and the viscosities of the composite melts containing the two...

  18. MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR: THE EMERGING STANDARD IN MOLD ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today I will talk about the use of quantitative or Real time PCR for the standardized identification and quantification of molds. There are probably at least 100,000 species of molds or fungi. But there are actually about 100 typically found indoors. Some pose a threat to human...

  19. Mold Allergy: Proper Humidifier Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Conditions Allergy Allergy Overview Allergy Allergens Mold Allergy Proper Humidifier Care Proper Humidifier Care Make ... neglected humidifier can be a major source of mold and mold spores. Learn how to keep a ...

  20. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pintiaux, Thibaud; Viet, David; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Rigal, Luc; Rouilly, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young’s Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations. PMID:28809271