Sorice, Sarah C; Li, Alexander Y; Gilstrap, Jarom; Canales, Francisco L; Furnas, Heather J
Many plastic surgeons use social media as a marketing tool to attract and retain patients, but information about how patients use social media and their preferred types of plastic surgery posts have been lacking. To investigate patients' preferred social media networks and the type of posts they wished to see, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a single aesthetic practice of two plastic surgeons by surveying 100 consecutive patients. The age of the patients averaged 44.4 years (range, 17 to 78 years). Facebook had the greatest patient use and engagement, with YouTube second in use, and Instagram second in number of engaged users. Over half used Pinterest, but with little daily engagement. Only one-fourth used Snapchat, but the percentage of users who were highly engaged was second only to Facebook. The least popular network was Twitter, with the fewest patient users and least engagement. Social media played a minor role compared with the practice's Web site in both influencing patients to choose the practice and providing information on the day of the appointment. Patients most wanted to see posts on a plastic surgeon's social media platform related to practice information, before-and-after photographs, and contests. Articles about plastic surgery held the least interest. Among five types of Web site content, patients expressed most interest in before-and-after photographs. This study is the first to articulate the plastic surgery patient perspective regarding social media. The findings aim to help plastic surgeons maximize their influence on their target audience.
Chu, Michael W; Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Momeni, Arash
Patient education is essential in enhancing the physician-patient therapeutic alliance, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The American Medical Association and National Institute of Health recommend that information be written at a 6th-grade reading level, but online resources often exceed patient literacy. The purpose of this study is to assess readability of online material for facial plastics procedures presented on academic plastic surgery and otolaryngology websites.An Internet search was performed of all academic institutions that had both plastic surgery and otolaryngology training programs who offered patient information on facial plastic surgery procedures. National society websites for both plastic surgery and otolaryngology were also analyzed. All procedural information was compiled and readability analyses were performed. A 2-tailed Z-test was used to compare scores, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Sixty-three programs were identified; 42 had educational material. The overall average readability for all information was at a 10th-grade reading level. The national plastic surgery website had a significantly higher word count and number of syllables per word compared to the national otolaryngology website (P < 0.001, P = 0.04).The complexity of written resources represents an obstacle to online patient education and efforts to improve readability could benefit patients seeking medical information online. Current online education materials are a potential hindrance to patient education, satisfaction, and decision making. Healthcare institutions should consider writing new materials with simpler language that would be accessible to patients.
Lazzati, Andrea; Katsahian, Sandrine; Maladry, David; Gerard, Emma; Gaucher, Sonia
Bariatric patients are often candidates for plastic surgery. However, the rate of postbariatric procedures is not known. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of plastic surgery, and factors related to surgery, in bariatric patients. University hospital, France. This was a cohort study based on administrative data. All adult patients who received bariatric surgery in France between 2007 and 2013 were included to estimate the rate of plastic surgery and related predictive factors. Data are reported according to the reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected data guidelines for observational studies on administrative data. Among the 183,514 patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the study period, 23,120 plastic surgeries were performed on 17,695 patients, including abdominoplasty (62%), dermolipectomy of the upper or lower limbs (25%), and reconstruction of the breast (14%). The rates of plastic surgery were 13%, 18%, and 21% at 3, 5, and 7 years post-bariatric surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients who had a biliopancreatic diversion or a gastric bypass had a hazard ratio of 2.67 and 2.67 for subsequent plastic surgery, respectively, compared with patients who had adjustable gastric banding. Women had a 2-fold probability of surgery compared with men (hazard ratio 2.02). Important variability in the rate of surgery was found among different hospitals; rates ranged from 6.1% to 41.3% at 5 years. This study showed that 21% of bariatric patients undergo plastic surgery. Large variability exists among hospitals, suggesting that several unmeasured factors may limit access to contouring surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
de Runz, Antoine; Boccara, David; Chaouat, Marc; Locatelli, Katia; Bertheuil, Nicolas; Claudot, Frédérique; Bekara, Farid; Mimoun, Maurice
The use of a patient's image in plastic surgery is common today. Thus, plastic surgeons should master the use of the image and be aware of the implications of the patients' perception of themselves. The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon in which a person tends to rate things more positively merely because (s)he is familiar with them. Faces are asymmetric, so faces in photos are different from those observed in mirrors. The main objective of this study was to assess whether patients within a plastic surgery population, particularly those undergoing facial aesthetic surgery, preferred standard photographs or mirror-reversed photographs of themselves. A prospective study was conducted in a plastic surgery department, which included women who were admitted to the hospital the day before their procedures. The patients were separated into the following two groups: Group 1 was composed of patients who were undergoing facial aesthetic surgeries, and Group 2 consisted of other patients who presented to the plastic surgery department for surgery. The patients were required to rate their appreciation of their own faces and to choose between standard and mirror-reversed photos of themselves. A total of 214 patients participated. The median age was 47.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36.4-60.6), and the median face appreciation was 5 (IQR: 5-7). The preference for the mirror-reversed photograph was significantly different from chance (p < 0.001, binomial (214, 156, 0.5)); 73% of the patients preferred the mirror-reversed photographs. The proportions of patients who preferred the mirror-reversed photograph differed significantly (p = 0.047) between Groups 1 (84%) and 2 (70%). Plastic surgery patients have a significant preference for mirror-reversed photographs of themselves over standard photographs. This preference is even more pronounced among patients who are undergoing facial aesthetic surgery. III. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic
Patel, Nirav; Pierson, Justine; Lee, Timothy; Mast, Bruce; Lee, Bernard T; Estores, Irene; Singhal, Dhruv
Integrative medicine (IM) is currently used by 40% of Americans. Our objective is to examine the prevalence and perception of IM utilization in patients being evaluated for elective plastic surgery. In July 2014, 402 consecutive patients presenting to plastic surgery clinics at the University of Florida, Veterans Affairs (VA), and Private Practices in Gainesville, Florida were requested to complete a survey regarding utilization of and attitudes towards IM. The survey completion rate was 75.5% (n = 331). The respondents' mean age was 48.5 years, and they were primarily white (75%), married (48%), and educated with at least a college degree (58%). The respondents were distributed between the university (74%), VA (15%), and private practice (11%). There was an equal mix of reconstructive (52%) and cosmetic (48%) visits. Overall IM utilization was 80.0%. Integrative medicine use correlated with having a college degree (P = 0.0002) and being middle age (40-64 years, P < 0.005). A higher utilization rate of IM in the private sector (87.0%) compared with the university (76.1%) and VA (71.0%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). Similarly, higher IM utilization in cosmetic patients compared with reconstructive patients (81% vs 74%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). The majority of patients stated a strong belief in self-healing techniques (71%, P < 0.005), and they desired (61%) that their physician should be familiar with these techniques (P < 0.005). The IM utilization is highly prevalent among plastic surgery patients regardless of reason for visit (cosmetic versus reconstruction) or practice setting (private versus academic versus VA). Increasing awareness of IM usage and potential impact on outcomes is especially important for academic and VA plastic surgeons. Moreover, an opportunity exists to study how certain aspects of IM can positively impact plastic surgery care.
Garcia, Ryan M; Cassinelli, Ezequiel H; Hultman, C Scott; Erdmann, Detlev
Public perception on physician reimbursement may be that considerable payments are received for procedures: a direct contrast to the actual decline. We aim to investigate patient perceptions toward plastic surgeon reimbursements from insurance companies. A survey of 4 common, single-staged procedures was administered to 140 patients. Patients were asked for their opinion on current insurance company reimbursement fees and what they believed the reimbursement fee should be. Eighty-four patients completed the survey. Patients estimated physician's reimbursements at 472% to 1061% more for breast reduction, 347% to 770% for abdominal hernia reconstruction, 372% to 787% for panniculectomy, and 290% to 628% for mandibular fracture repair. Despite these perceived higher-than-actual-fee payments, 87% of patients thought reimbursements should still be higher. Patients surveyed overestimated plastic surgery procedure fees by 290% to 1061%. Patients should be informed and educated regarding current fee schedules to plastic surgeons to correct current misconceptions.
Sanan, Akshay; Quinn, Candace; Spiegel, Jeffrey H
Plastic surgeons are competing for their share of a growing but still limited market, thus making advertising an important component in a successful plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate the variables, characteristics, and presentation features that make print advertisements most effectively pique the interest of individuals selecting a plastic surgeon. An online survey was administered to 404 individuals with active interest in plastic surgery from 10 major metropolitan areas. Participants were presented with 5 different advertisements from plastic surgeons throughout the country and were asked a series of both closed- and open-ended questions to assess verity, quality, and marketability of each advertisement. Reponses to open-ended questions were analyzed using the Wordle program (www.wordle.net). The most frequent themes identified for all 5 ads were "Being beautiful is possible" (41%), "I could be beautiful" (24%), "Some people need surgery to be beautiful" (16%), and "Being beautiful is important" (14%). Advertisement 1-featuring 3 women and no pre- or posttreatment photography, no physician photography, and a listing of the 3 physicians' credentials but not a list of the services provided-received the highest overall preference rating. Factors including emotions felt while reading, unique qualities of the advertisement, list of procedures performed, use of models versus actual patients, and pictures of the plastic surgeons were found to contribute to the respondents' overall perception of advertisements used to market a plastic surgery practice.
de Blacam, Catherine; Kilmartin, Darren; Mc Dermott, Clodagh; Kelly, Jack
Public perception of Plastic Surgery is strongly influenced by the media and may not reflect the broad scope of work within the speciality. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the general public's perception of plastic surgical practice and to report the perceived importance of Plastic Surgery relative to other specialities working within a large tertiary referral centre. 899 members of the public who attended our Emergency Department completed a questionnaire where they matched eight surgical specialities with 30 operative procedures and ranked the importance of 30 different hospital specialities using a Likert scale. The majority of respondents correctly identified plastic surgeons as performing each of the cosmetic procedures listed (abdominoplasty 63.7%; breast augmentation 59.1%; facelift 61.35%; liposuction 59.7%). Plastic Surgery was identified as the primary speciality involved in breast reconstruction (49.3%) and burns surgery (43.0%). There was poor understanding of the role of plastic surgeons in hand surgery, with only 4.7% of respondents attributing tendon repair to plastic surgeons. Plastic Surgery ranked lowest of 30 specialities in terms of importance in providing care for patients within the hospital. Plastic Surgery is often misunderstood within the wider community and misconceptions reflect the influence of the media in highlighting certain aspects of the speciality. It behoves our professional organisations to highlight the importance of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery within major tertiary referral centres. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galanis, Charles; Sanchez, Ivan S; Roostaeian, Jason; Crisera, Christopher
Understanding patient interest in cosmetic surgery is an important tool in delineating the current market for aesthetic surgeons. Similarly, defining those factors that most influence surgeon selection is vital for optimizing marketing strategies. The authors evaluate a general population sample's interest in cosmetic surgery and investigate which factors patients value when selecting their surgeon. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 96 individuals in waiting rooms in nonsurgical clinics. Respondents were questioned on their ability to differentiate between a "plastic" surgeon and a "cosmetic" surgeon, their interest in having plastic surgery, and factors affecting surgeon and practice selection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to define any significant correlative relationships. Respondents consisted of 15 men and 81 women. Median age was 34.5 (range, 18-67) years. Overall, 20% were currently considering plastic surgery and 78% stated they would consider it in the future. The most common area of interest was a procedure for the face. The most important factors in selecting a surgeon were surgeon reputation and board certification. The least important were quality of advertising and surgeon age. The most cited factor preventing individuals from pursuing plastic surgery was fear of a poor result. Most (60%) patients would choose a private surgicenter-based practice. The level of importance for each studied attribute can help plastic surgeons understand the market for cosmetic surgery as well as what patients look for when selecting their surgeon. This study helps to define those attributes in a sample population.
Bartlett, Erica L; Zavlin, Dmitry; Friedman, Jeffrey D; Abdollahi, Aariane; Rappaport, Norman H
With a focus on providing high quality care and reducing facility based expenses there has been an evolution in perioperative care by way of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). ERAS allows for a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to perioperative care which not only expedites recovery but maximizes patient outcomes. This paradigm shift has been generally accepted by most surgical specialties, including plastic surgery. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of ERAS on outcomes in cosmetic plastic surgery. A prospective study consisting of phone call questionnaires was designed where patients from two senior plastic surgeons (N.H.R. and J.D.F.) were followed. The treatment group (n = 10) followed an ERAS protocol while the control group (n = 12) followed the traditional recovery after surgery which included narcotic usage. Patients were contacted on postoperative days (POD) 0 through 7+ and surveyed about a number of outcomes measures. The ERAS group demonstrated a significant reduction in postoperative pain on POD 0, 1, 2, and 3 (all P < 0.01). There was also statistically less nausea/vomiting, fatigue/drowsiness, constipation, and hindrance on ambulation compared to the control group (all P < 0.05). Significance was achieved for reduction in fatigue/drowsiness on POD 0 and 1 (P < 0.01), as well as ability to ambulate on POD 0 and 3 (P = 0.044). Lastly, opioid use (P < 0.001) and constipation (P = 0.003) were decreased. ERAS protocols have demonstrated their importance within multiple surgical fields, including cosmetic plastic surgery. The utility lies in the ability to expedite patient's recovery while still providing quality care. This study showed a reduction in postoperative complaints by avoiding narcotics without an increase in complications. Our findings signify the importance of ERAS protocols within cosmetic plastic surgery. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ismagilov, A K; Khasanov, R S; Navrusov, S N; Beknazarov, Z P
This population based study aimed to use reconstructive-plastic surgery with autologous tissue as a treatment of patients with stage III breast cancer. We identified women (374) diagnosed with stage III breast cancer between 2000 and 2009 years. We compared radical operations with and without a plastic step, where 29 patients underwent the surgery in combination with an immediate radical resection with LD-flap replacement, mastectomy concurrently to TRAM-flap reconstruction in 103 patients. We examined the immediate and remote results of therapy. In data analysis, there were higher summarized indices of physical and mental health rates in patients who underwent the reconstruction plastic surgery compared to patients with mastectomy. All treated women 5 -year survival rate was 77.4+3.6 %, 63.5+3.2% and 40.1+3.1 % in stages IIIa, IIIb, IIIc respectively. In the control group, the rates were 78.6+3.4 %, 64.0+3.3 %, and 39.3+3.1 % (p<0.05) respectively. Our results showed that women with stage III breast cancer who underwent reconstructive-plastic surgeries had a chance to improve their quality of life, and did not increase the frequency, neither did reduce 5 year survival (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 19). Full Text in free PDF www.bmj.sk.
The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.
Mioton, Lauren M; Buck, Donald W; Rambachan, Aksharananda; Ver Halen, Jon; Dumanian, Gregory A; Kim, John Y S
Hospital readmissions have become a topic of focus for quality care measures and cost-reduction efforts. However, no comparative multi-institutional data on plastic surgery outpatient readmission rates currently exist. The authors endeavored to investigate hospital readmission rates and predictors of readmission following outpatient plastic surgery. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for all outpatient procedures. Unplanned readmission rates were calculated for all 10 tracked surgical specialties (i.e., general, thoracic, vascular, cardiac, orthopedics, otolaryngology, plastics, gynecology, urology, and neurosurgery). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for plastic surgery. A total of 7005 outpatient plastic surgery procedures were isolated. Outpatient plastic surgery had a low associated readmission rate (1.94 percent) compared with other specialties. Seventy-five patients were readmitted with a complication. Multivariate regression analysis revealed obesity (body mass index ≥ 30), wound infection within 30 days of the index surgery, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status as significant predictors for unplanned readmission. Unplanned readmission after outpatient plastic surgery is infrequent and compares favorably to rates of readmission among other specialties. Obesity, wound infection within 30 days of the index operation, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 physical status are independent predictors of readmission. As procedures continue to transition into outpatient settings and the drive to improve patient care persists, these findings will serve to optimize outpatient surgery use.
Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
The authors sought to review the various types of patients with psychological abnormalities who may present to the plastic surgeon and the psychological impact of various plastic surgery procedures on these patients. After systematically searching the Embase and PubMed databases and following further refinement (based on the authors' inclusion and exclusion criteria), the authors identified 65 studies. In addition, the authors felt that important information was contained in four textbooks, two press releases, and one Internet database. The inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the psychological outcomes, background, and personality types of patients seeking specific plastic surgery procedures. In addition, studies that addressed the impact of plastic surgery on patients' psychological status and quality of life were also included. The authors excluded studies with fewer than 30 patients, studies that did not pertain to the particular plastic surgery procedures, and studies that addressed psychological sequelae of revision operations. Narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders and body dysmorphic disorder are the three most common psychiatric conditions encountered in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Overall, plastic surgery not only restores the appearance and function of the disfigured body unit but also alleviates psychological distress. Identifying the psychologically challenging patient before surgical intervention will allow the patient to obtain the appropriate psychological assistance and may result in a healthier individual with or without associated plastic surgery procedures.
Sieffert, Michelle R; Fox, Justin P; Abbott, Lindsay E; Johnson, R Michael
Obesity is associated with greater rates of surgical complications. To address these complications after outpatient plastic surgery, obese patients may seek care in the emergency department and potentially require admission to the hospital, which could result in greater health care charges. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of obesity, postdischarge hospital-based acute care, and hospital charges within 30 days of outpatient plastic surgery. From state ambulatory surgery center databases in four states, all discharges for adult patients who underwent liposuction, abdominoplasty, breast reduction, and blepharoplasty were identified. Patients were grouped by the presence or absence of obesity. Multivariable regression models were used to compare the frequency of hospital-based acute care, serious adverse events, and hospital charges within 30 days between groups while controlling for confounding variables. The final sample included 47,741 discharges, with 2052 of these discharges (4.3 percent) being obese. Obese patients more frequently had a hospital-based acute care encounter [7.3 percent versus 3.9 percent; adjusted OR, 1.35 (95% CI,1.13 to 1.61)] or serious adverse event [3.2 percent versus 0.9 percent; adjusted OR, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.30 to 2.29)] within 30 days of surgery. Obese patients had adjusted hospital charges that were, on average, $3917, $7412, and $7059 greater (p < 0.01) than those of nonobese patients after liposuction, abdominoplasty, and breast reduction, respectively. Obese patients who undergo common outpatient plastic surgery procedures incur substantially greater health care charges, in part attributable to more frequent adverse events and hospital-based health care within 30 days of surgery. Risk, II.
Lunger, Alexander; Ismail, Tarek; Sarraf, Namita; Epple, Christian; Schaefer, Kristin Marit; Schaefer, Dirk J
The Swiss Plastic Surgery Association (https://plasticsurgery.ch/en/) decided to produce a corporate video to illustrate the concept of "plastic surgery of confidence" to the public. We show the diversity of specializations and the vast range of tasks that surgeons passionately handle day in and day out. We wanted to convey 2 main messages: first, that plastic surgery is more than just cosmetic surgery, and second, that plastic surgery in Switzerland is synonymous with quality and confidence. We selected 17 topics that we felt had good filmic potential and would best explain to the public what plastic surgery is about. This included the selection of appropriate patients, experts, and locations from all over the country. We thought it crucial to show the initial preoperative situation, as only in this case would the achievement of reconstruction be evident and comprehensive to the layman audience. The actual production was filmed in 5 different locations and took 5 days of shooting. We recorded 17 surgeons, 9 patients, and about 30 voluntary background actors. From 23 hours of footage, we created a 7 minute, 22 second corporate video, recorded in 3 of the Swiss national languages. The video was presented to the public online in June 2016, on the same day as the National Open Day of Plastic Surgery in Switzerland. The video is available online. We evaluated the impact of the video using a questionnaire for lay people and observed that it could substantially improve the perception of our specialty, especially regarding the reconstructive aspect. We feel that a freely available corporate video is a very useful means to promote plastic surgery and help patients better understand what it is all about.
Ismail, Tarek; Sarraf, Namita; Epple, Christian; Schaefer, Kristin Marit; Schaefer, Dirk J.
Summary: The Swiss Plastic Surgery Association (https://plasticsurgery.ch/en/) decided to produce a corporate video to illustrate the concept of "plastic surgery of confidence" to the public. We show the diversity of specializations and the vast range of tasks that surgeons passionately handle day in and day out. We wanted to convey 2 main messages: first, that plastic surgery is more than just cosmetic surgery, and second, that plastic surgery in Switzerland is synonymous with quality and confidence. We selected 17 topics that we felt had good filmic potential and would best explain to the public what plastic surgery is about. This included the selection of appropriate patients, experts, and locations from all over the country. We thought it crucial to show the initial preoperative situation, as only in this case would the achievement of reconstruction be evident and comprehensive to the layman audience. The actual production was filmed in 5 different locations and took 5 days of shooting. We recorded 17 surgeons, 9 patients, and about 30 voluntary background actors. From 23 hours of footage, we created a 7 minute, 22 second corporate video, recorded in 3 of the Swiss national languages. The video was presented to the public online in June 2016, on the same day as the National Open Day of Plastic Surgery in Switzerland. The video is available online. We evaluated the impact of the video using a questionnaire for lay people and observed that it could substantially improve the perception of our specialty, especially regarding the reconstructive aspect. We feel that a freely available corporate video is a very useful means to promote plastic surgery and help patients better understand what it is all about. PMID:29062635
Wagenblast, Anne Lene; Laessoe, Line; Printzlau, Andreas
In the affluent part of the world, there is an increasing occurrence of obesity with Body Mass Index (BMI) above 40, which has resulted in an increasing number of operations such as gastric bypass (GB). After massive weight loss there will often be a need for subsequent plastic surgical correction, since some of the patients will experience problems due to excess skin. Foreign studies estimate that ∼30% of all bariatric surgery patients will at some point seek plastic surgical correction of excess skin. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the GB patients themselves consider plastic surgery for removal of excess skin, and their reasons and motivations for this. The investigation was performed as an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 150 patients at the 1-year standard consultation for GB patients at a private hospital. The questionnaire contained information about demographic data, patient habits, earlier or present comorbidity, physical problems, psychological problems, and cosmetic problems due to excess skin. Also, it contained information about what anatomical area bothered the patient the most. One hundred and thirty-eight patients responded to the questionnaire, and the investigation showed that 89.9% of the patients had a wish for plastic surgery for several different reasons. This patient demand showed to have no correlation to age, gender, smoking habits, or earlier comorbidity.
Reid, A J; Malone, P S C
The media play a vital role in public education. The predominant image they portray of plastic and reconstructive surgery is that of cosmetic surgery, whilst the specialty's true scope is often misrepresented. The aim was to evaluate portrayal of plastic surgery in the national newspapers. LexisNexis Professional search engine was used to retrieve articles from all UK newspapers published in 2006 that contained the term 'plastic surgery' and each article was analysed. Of 1191 articles, 89% used the term 'plastic surgery' in the context of cosmetic surgery and only 10% referred to reconstructive work. There were 197 feature articles on cosmetic surgery and 52% of them included a quote from the medical profession. If the quoted doctor was on the UK General Medical Council (GMC) specialist register for plastic surgery, it was significantly more likely that a potential problem or complication associated with cosmetic surgery would be mentioned (p= 0.015). The vast majority of newspaper articles refer only to the cosmetic component of plastic surgery. When quoted, doctors on the GMC specialist register for plastic surgery provide a more balanced view of cosmetic surgery. Further initiative is needed to portray the full scope of plastic and reconstructive surgery to the general public.
Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a preoccupation with some aspect of one's appearance. In cosmetic surgery, this preoccupation can be overlooked by practitioners resulting in a discrepancy between expected and realistic outcome. Identifying the characteristics of this disorder may be crucial to the practitioner-patient relationship in the plastic surgery setting.
Mornet, O; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I; Bekara, F; Herlin, C; Chaput, B
The objective of this study is to describe plastic surgery publications in terms of methodology, level of evidence, approval by institutional review board, method of consent, and subspecialty. The 8 top-ranked plastic surgery journals were selected. We manually reviewed the last 40 original articles in each plastic surgery journal, to represent more than 2 months of publications for all journals (range: 3-17 months). Only clinical original articles on human subjects were included. Each article was read at least twice by two different reviewers to ensure accurate data transcription, and then graded by written criteria. One of the senior authors was asked to make a final decision in case of doubt. Among the articles reviewed, 320 were analyzed. The geographical origin of these publications were Asia (32.5%), Europe (30%), US (28.4%), South America (5.6%), Africa (2.5%), and finally Oceania (1%). Reconstructive surgery remains the specialty area most represented in the journals with almost half of the publications, followed by breast surgery (24%) and plastic surgery (19%). A total of 75.6% were retrospective studies. Nearly 80% of the studies were of low level of evidence. Only 3.5% were randomized trials. Less than 40% of the publications mentioned approval by an institutional committee, and 22.6% a patient's informed consent. This study aimed to analyze the quality of plastic surgery publications, taking into account the criteria of Evidence Based Medicine. This work showed that more than half of the studies did not mention an institutional review board approval (Ethics Committee), and that three quarter of the studies did not indicate the presence of patient's informed consent. Ultimately, over 80% of the studies were of low level of evidence. The top-ranked journals have already imposed guidelines corresponding to the methodology requirements to publish clinical studies in their pages, such as EQUATOR criteria for the PRS journal. Efforts are therefore to be done
Fernandes, Julio Wilson; Metka, Susanne
The roots of science and art of plastic surgery are very antique. Anatomy, drawing, painting, and sculpting have been very important to the surgery and medicine development over the centuries. Artistic skills besides shape, volume, and lines perception can be a practical aid to the plastic surgeons' daily work. An overview about the interactions between art and plastic surgery is presented, with a few applications to rhinoplasty, cleft lip, and other reconstructive plastic surgeries. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Ovadia, Steven A; Gishen, Kriya; Desai, Urmen; Garcia, Alejandro M; Thaller, Seth R
Entrepreneurial skills are important for physicians, especially plastic surgeons. Nevertheless, these skills are not typically emphasized during residency training. Evaluate the extent of business training at plastic surgery residency programs as well as means of enhancing business training. A 6-question online survey was sent to plastic surgery program directors for distribution to plastic surgery residents. Responses from residents at the PGY2 level and above were included for analysis. Tables were prepared to present survey results. Hundred and sixty-six residents including 147 PGY2 and above residents responded to our survey. Only 43.5% reported inclusion of business training in their plastic surgery residency. A majority of residents reported they do not expect on graduation to be prepared for the business aspects of plastic surgery. Additionally, a majority of residents feel establishment of a formal lecture series on the business of plastic surgery would be beneficial. Results from our survey indicate limited training at plastic surgery programs in necessary business skills. Plastic surgery residency programs should consider incorporating or enhancing elements of business training in their curriculum. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Background: According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points' (acupoints) locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry” (OA). Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS). Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO) of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures) over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (%) terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients' opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS). Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5%) obtained “good” results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results “excellent”, and 2.8% found them “fair”. Discussion and Conclusion: The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries. PMID:19753249
Marinescu, S; Florescu, IP; Jecan, C
Pressure sores–a constant problem for plegic patients and a permanent challenge for plastic surgery Pressure sores can be defined as lesions caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of the underlying tissue. They represent a common problem in the pathology of plegic patients and, plastic surgery has a significant role in their treatment. Pressure sores occur over bony prominences and so, they are most commonly seen at the sacrum and trochanters in paralyzed patients and at ischium for the patients who sit in a wheelchair for a long time. For these patients, surgical treatment is very important because on one hand, it stops the loss of nutrients and proteins at the site of the pressure sore, and on the other hand, it permits the initiation of neuromuscular recuperation treatment much faster. PMID:20968200
Goodman, Michael P
This review studies rationale and outcome of vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery. Discuss procedures designed to alter genital appearance and function; investigate sexual, philosophical, and ethical issues; examine outcomes. (i) Medline search of the existing literature utilizing terms labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, hymenoplasty (HP), vaginoplasty (VP), perineoplasty (PP), female genital surgery, sexual satisfaction/body image, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy; (ii) references from bibliographies of papers found through the literature search and in the author's reading of available literature. (i) Demographics and psychosexual dynamics of women requesting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery; (ii) overall and sexual satisfaction of subjects undergoing these procedures. The majority of studies regarding patient satisfaction and sexual function after vaginal aesthetic and functional plastic procedures report beneficial results, with overall patient satisfaction in the 90-95% range, sexual satisfaction over 80-85%. These data are supported by outcome data from nonelective vaginal support procedures. Complications appear minor and acceptable to patients. There are little data available regarding outcomes and satisfaction of HP, or function during the rigors of subsequent vaginal childbirth, although the literature contains no case reports of labiaplasty disruption during parturition. Women requesting labiaplasty and reduction of their clitoral hoods do so for both cosmetic and functional (chafing, interference with coitus, interference with athletic activities, etc.) reasons, while patients requesting VP and/or PP do so in order to increase friction and sexual satisfaction, occasionally for aesthetic reasons. Patients appear generally happy with outcomes. The majority of patients undergoing genital plastic surgery report overall satisfaction and subjective enhancement of sexual function and body image, but the literature is retrospective. Female genital plastic
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U.S. Census for comparison with plastic surgery. Interspecialty differences and temporal trends in racial composition were analyzed with chi-square tests. From 1995 to 2014, Asian and Hispanic plastic surgery residents increased nearly 3-fold (7.4%-21.7%, p < 0.001) and 2-fold (4.6%-7.9%, p < 0.001), respectively. African American plastic surgery residents did not increase significantly (3.0%-3.5%, p = 0.129). Relative to the U.S. population, Hispanics (range: 0.1-0.5-fold) and African Americans (range: 0.1-0.4-fold) were underrepresented, whereas Asians (range: 2.2-5.3-fold) were overrepresented in plastic surgery. A "bottleneck" existed in the pipeline of African American and Hispanic plastic surgery residents. Significant differences in racial composition existed between plastic surgery and other surgical disciplines, which varied over time. The percentage of Hispanic (10.6% vs 7.0%, p = 0.402) and African American (6.4% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001) plastic surgery residency applicants exceeded those in residency. Hispanics and African Americans are underrepresented in plastic surgery residency relative to whites and Asians. This study underscores the need for greater initiatives to increase diversity in plastic surgery residency. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Correia, N; Binet, A; Caliot, J; Poli Merol, M-L; Bodin, F; François-Fiquet, C
Balneology can be part of the plastic surgery care sector. The objectives of this study were firstly to the state of knowledge about the hydrotherapy and specify the place reserved for hydrotherapy by surgeons as an adjunct in plastic and reconstructive surgery (adult and child). Multicentric national study by poll (Google Drive®) focused at plastic and/or pediatric surgeons. The following information was analyzed: frequency, timing of prescription, indications, the surgeon's feelings towards hydrotherapy and the differences between adult's and children's prescriptions. Fifty-four teams were contacted: 22 responses were received (15 "adult" plastic surgeons, 9 "pediatric" plastic surgeons, 6 pediatric surgeons, with 12 out of 22 working with burnt patients). Eighteen out of 22 prescribed hydrotherapy. Twenty out of 22 thought that hydrotherapy had a role as adjuvant therapy in plastic surgery. The indications were: burns (11/20), skin-graft hypertrophy (10/20), inflammatory and pruritic scar and cutaneous trophic disorders (9/20), psychological (3/20), retractions (2/20), weight loss and smoking (1/20). The timing of the prescription was: < 3 months (2/20), < 6 months (7/20), > 6 months and < 1 year (15/20), > 1 year (8/20) after surgery/trauma. Twenty out of 22 found a beneficial effect: physical (19/20): reduction of inflammatory signs, pruritus and pain, scar maturation, skin thinning improvement; psychological (14/20): positive for patient/family. Five out of 17 made the difference between child/adult, 10/17 made no difference but only treated adults or children. The respondents in the study are probably more sensitive to the effects of hydrotherapy that non-respondents. It is difficult to assess the real impact of hydrotherapy in plastic surgery because distinguishing spontaneous favorable evolution of a scar from one only due to the hydrotherapy or multidisciplinary management is difficult. However, hydrotherapy seems to have its role among multidisciplinary
Davison, Steven P.; Hayes, Kylie D.
Background: Psychoactive drug use is on the rise in the United States, with plastic surgery patients a potentially susceptible group. This study aimed to determine the incidence of cosmetic and reconstructive patients in our practice taking psychoactive drugs and to compare those values with the national average. Furthermore, we discuss the patient safety concerns when patients withhold their medical history information over the course of their treatment. Methods: Urban private plastic practice patients who underwent surgery in a closed practice from 2009 to 2016 were divided into cosmetic and reconstructive cohorts. Review for drug use was medical scripts, history, and Surescripts drug reporting. Extracted information includes age, race, procedure, psychoactive medications, and whether or not they stated a mental health diagnosis on their medical history forms. Only patients with complete records were included. Results: A total of 830 patients were included in statistical analysis. Due to minimal cohort number, 70 men were excluded, as there were no comparative national data. Our analysis found that 33.6% cosmetic patients and 46.3% reconstructive patients used at least one psychoactive drug. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference between psychoactive drug use at our practice compared with the general population and a significantly larger percentage of reconstructive patients taking drugs compared with the cosmetic cohort. PMID:28458985
Wu, Cindy; Scott Hultman, C; Diegidio, Paul; Hermiz, Steven; Garimella, Roja; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Lee, Clara N
What do patients want when looking for an aesthetic surgeon? When faced with attributes like reputation, years in practice, testimonials, photos, and pricing, which is more valuable? Moreover, are attributes procedure-specific? Currently, inadequate evidence exists on which attributes are most important to patients, and to our knowledge, none on procedure-specific preferences. First, to determine the most important attributes to breast augmentation, combined breast/abdominal surgery, and facelift patients using conjoint analysis. Second, to test the conjoint using an internet crowdsourcing service (Amazon Mechanical Turk [MTurk]). Anonymous university members were asked, via mass electronic survey, to pick a surgeon for facelift surgery based on five attributes. Attribute importance and preference was calculated. Once pre-tested, the facelift, breast augmentation and combined breast/abdominal surgery surveys were administered worldwide to MTurk. The university facelift cohort valued testimonials (33.9%) as the most important, followed by photos (31.6%), reputation (18.2%), pricing (14.4%), and practice years (1.9%). MTurk breast augmentation participants valued photos (35.3%), then testimonials (33.9%), reputation (15.7%), pricing (12.2%), and practice years (3%). MTurk combined breast/abdominal surgery and facelift participants valued testimonials (38.3% and 38.1%, respectively), then photos (27.9%, 29.4%), reputation (17.5%, 15.8%), pricing (13.9%, 13.9%), practice years (2.4%, 2.8%). Breast augmentation patients placed higher importance on photos; combined breast/abdominal surgery and facelift patients valued testimonials. Conjoint analysis has had limited application in plastic surgery. To our knowledge, internet crowdsourcing is a novel participant recruitment method in plastic surgery. Its unique benefits include broad, diverse and anonymous participant pools, low-cost, rapid data collection, and high completion rate. © 2016 The American Society for
Zhu, Victor Zhang; Tuggle, Charles Thompson; Au, Alexander Francis
The use of "Big Data" in plastic surgery outcomes research has increased dramatically in the last 5 years. This article addresses some of the benefits and limitations of such research. This is a narrative review of large database studies in plastic surgery. There are several benefits to database research as compared with traditional forms of research, such as randomized controlled studies and cohort studies. These include the ease in patient recruitment, reduction in selection bias, and increased generalizability. As such, the types of outcomes research that are particularly suited for database studies include determination of geographic variations in practice, volume outcome analysis, evaluation of how sociodemographic factors affect access to health care, and trend analyses over time. The limitations of database research include data which are limited only to what was captured in the database, high power which can cause clinically insignificant differences to achieve statistical significance, and fishing which can lead to increased type I errors. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project is an important general surgery database that may be useful for plastic surgeons because it is validated and has a large number of patients after over a decade of collecting data. The Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is a newer database specific to plastic surgery. Databases are a powerful tool for plastic surgery outcomes research. It is critically important to understand their benefits and limitations when designing research projects or interpreting studies whose data have been drawn from them. For plastic surgeons, National Surgical Quality Improvement Project has a greater number of publications, but Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons Program is the most applicable database for plastic surgery research.
May, Deborah C.; Turnbull, Nancy
One hundred plastic surgeons responded to a survey on opinions toward facial plastic surgery for individuals with Down's syndrome. Twenty-four of the surgeons had performed the surgery. Surgeons indicated appropriate circumstances for the surgery, consent requirements, degree of understanding expected of the patient, and degree of discomfort…
(The) 3rd December 1952, 11 surgeons and other specialists found the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (SFCPR) which was officially published on (the) 28 September 1953. The first congress was during October 1953 and the first president as Maurice Aubry. The first secretary was Daniel Morel Fatio. The symposiums were after about three of four times each year and the thematic subjects were initially according the reconstructive surgery. The review "Annales de chirurgie plastique" was free in 1956. The members of the Society were about 30 initially, but their plastic surgery in the big hospitals at Paris and other big towns in France. The "specialty" of plastic surgery was created in 1971. On "syndicate", one French board of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, the increasing of departments of plastic surgery were the front of increasing of the plastic surgery in French and of the number of the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive surgery (580 in 2003). The French Society organized the International Congress of Plastic Surgery in 1975. The society SFCPR became the French Society of plastic reconstruction and Aesthetic Surgery (SFCPRE) in 1983 and the "logo" (front view) was in the 1994 SOF.CPRE.
Fu, Katherine J; Teichgraeber, John F; Greives, Matthew R
Botulinum toxin has increasingly become a prevalent treatment option for a wide range of conditions, many of which have their roots in plastic surgery and have been well studied. In adults, chronic headache, hyperhidrosis, and facial muscular hypertrophy have been effectively treated with botulinum toxin, and emerging studies have begun looking at its efficacy in children, as well. Successful treatment of spasticity and muscular contraction has allowed for the creation of safety profiles and dosage guidelines for botulinum toxin usage in children. The expanded indications for its use have since flourished in all arenas of pediatric care, including plastic surgery. Recent studies have described the use of botulinum toxin as an adjunct to the treatment of congenital torticollis and cleft lip. This review discusses the various applications of botulinum toxin for pediatric patients in the field of plastic surgery.
Papel, I D; Jiannetto, D F
Rapidly progressing computer technology, ever-increasing expectations of patients, and a confusing medicolegal environment requires a clarification of the role of computer imaging/applications. Advances in computer technology and its applications are reviewed. A brief historical discussion is included for perspective. Improvements in both hardware and software with the advent of digital imaging have allowed great increases in speed and accuracy in patient imaging. This facilitates doctor-patient communication and possibly realistic patient expectations. Patients seeking cosmetic surgery now often expect preoperative imaging. Although society in general has become more litigious, a literature search up to 1998 reveals no lawsuits directly involving computer imaging. It appears that conservative utilization of computer imaging by the facial plastic surgeon may actually reduce liability and promote communication. Recent advances have significantly enhanced the value of computer imaging in the practice of facial plastic surgery. These technological advances in computer imaging appear to contribute a useful technique for the practice of facial plastic surgery. Inclusion of computer imaging should be given serious consideration as an adjunct to clinical practice.
Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior
The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.
Garza, Rebecca M; Weston, Jane S; Furnas, Heather J
Combining pregnancy with plastic surgery residency has historically been difficult. Two decades ago, 36 percent of plastic surgery program directors surveyed actively discouraged pregnancy among residents, and 33 percent of women plastic surgeons suffered from infertility. Most alarmingly, 26 percent of plastic surgery trainees had had an elective abortion during residency. With increasing numbers of women training in plastic surgery, this historical lack of support for pregnancy deserves further attention. To explore the current accommodations made for the pregnant plastic surgery resident, an electronic survey was sent to 88 plastic surgery program directors in the United States. Fifty-four responded, for a response rate of 61.36 percent. On average, a director trained a total of 7.91 women among 17.28 residents trained over 8.19 years. Of the women residents, 1.43 were pregnant during a director's tenure, with 1.35 of those residents taking maternity leave. An average 1.75 male residents took paternity leave. Approximately one-third of programs had a formal maternity/paternity leave policy (36.54 percent) which, in most cases, was limited to defining allowed weeks of leave, time required to fulfill program requirements, and remuneration during leave. This survey of plastic surgery directors is a first step in defining the challenges training programs face in supporting the pregnant resident. Directors provided comments describing their challenges accommodating an absent resident in a small program and complying with the American Board of Plastic Surgery's required weeks of training per year. A discussion of these challenges is followed by suggested solutions.
Bitar, George; Mullis, William; Jacobs, William; Matthews, David; Beasley, Michael; Smith, Kevin; Watterson, Paul; Getz, Stanley; Capizzi, Peter; Eaves, Felmont
Office-based surgery has several potential benefits over hospital-based surgery, including cost containment, ease of scheduling, and convenience to both patients and surgeons. Scrutiny of office-based surgery by regulators and state-licensing agencies has increased and must be addressed by improved documentation of safety and efficacy. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the authors' office-based plastic surgery, a review was undertaken of 3615 consecutive patients undergoing 4778 outpatient plastic surgery procedures under monitored anesthesia care/sedation in a single office. The charts of 3615 consecutive patients who had undergone office-based surgery with monitored anesthesia care/sedation between May of 1995 and May of 2000 were reviewed. In all cases, the anesthesia protocol used included sedation with midazolam, propofol, and a narcotic administered by a board-certified registered nurse anesthetist with local anesthesia provided by the surgeon. Charts were reviewed for patient profile, types of procedures, multiple procedures, duration of anesthesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and complications related to anesthesia. Outcomes measured included death, airway compromise, dyspnea, hypotension, venous thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, protracted nausea and vomiting lasting more than 24 hours, and unplanned hospital admissions. Statistical analyses were performed using the Microsoft Excel program and the SAS package. Results were as follows: 92.3 percent of the patients were female and 7.7 percent were male, with a mean age of 42.7 years (range, 3 to 83 years). Patients underwent aesthetic (95.6 percent) and reconstructive (4.4 percent) plastic surgery procedures. Same-session multiple procedures occurred in 24.8 percent of patients. The vast majority of patients were healthy: 84.3 percent of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists class I, 15.6 percent were class II, and 0.1 percent were class III. The operations required a mean of
Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Levin, Lawrence Scott; Chang, Benjamin
Efforts to standardize hand surgery training during plastic surgery residency remain challenging. We analyze the variability of operative hand experience at U.S. plastic surgery residency programs. Operative case logs of chief residents in accredited U.S. plastic surgery residency programs were analyzed (2011-2015). Trends in fold differences of hand surgery case volume between the 10th and 90th percentiles of residents were assessed graphically. Percentile data were used to calculate the number of residents achieving case minimums in hand surgery for 2015. Case logs from 818 plastic surgery residents were analyzed of which a minority were from integrated (35.7%) versus independent/combined (64.3%) residents. Trend analysis of fold differences in case volume demonstrated decreasing variability among procedure categories over time. By 2015, fold differences for hand reconstruction, tendon cases, nerve cases, arthroplasty/arthrodesis, amputation, arterial repair, Dupuytren release, and neoplasm cases were below 10-fold. Congenital deformity cases among independent/combined residents was the sole category that exceeded 10-fold by 2015. Percentile data suggested that approximately 10% of independent/combined residents did not meet case minimums for arterial repair and congenital deformity in 2015. Variable operative experience during plastic surgery residency may limit adequate exposure to hand surgery for certain residents. Future studies should establish empiric case minimums for plastic surgery residents to ensure hand surgery competency upon graduation. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This correspondence comments on the challenges of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery on the facial recognition algorithms employed by biometric passports. The limitations of facial recognition technology in patients who have undergone facial plastic surgery are also discussed. Finally, the advice of the UK HM passport office to people who undergo facial surgery is reported.
Iorio, Matthew L; Verma, Kapil; Ashktorab, Samaneh; Davison, Steven P
The goal of this review was to identify the safety and medical care issues that surround the management of patients who had previously undergone medical care through tourism medicine. Medical tourism in plastic surgery occurs via three main referral patterns: macrotourism, in which a patient receives treatments abroad; microtourism, in which a patient undergoes a procedure by a distant plastic surgeon but requires postoperative and/or long-term management by a local plastic surgeon; and specialty tourism, in which a patient receives plastic surgery from a non-plastic surgeon. The ethical practice guidelines of the American Medical Association, International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and American Board of Plastic Surgeons were reviewed with respect to patient care and the practice of medical tourism. Safe and responsible care should start prior to surgery, with communication and postoperative planning between the treating physician and the accepting physician. Complications can arise at any time; however, it is the duty and ethical responsibility of plastic surgeons to prevent unnecessary complications following tourism medicine by adequately counseling patients, defining perioperative treatment protocols, and reporting complications to regional and specialty-specific governing bodies. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Micai, Alessandro; Boriani, Filippo
Eumorphic Plastic Surgery aims at improving the severe psychosocial pain caused by a deformity. Dysmorphopathology is an increasingly relevant problem facing the plastic surgeon. The aim of this study is to describe the perioperative questionnaires created by the senior author and to present a cohort of plastic surgery patients suffering from dysmorphopathies. These patients were prospectively followed and evaluated with the proposed questionnaires through their surgical pathway to explore the degree of satisfaction or disappointment compared to expectations. All candidates for plastic surgery procedures between April 2011 and June 2013 were included in the study. Preoperatively, all patients completed the Patient Expectation Questionnaire (E-pgm). Twelve months postoperatively, they completed the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (S-pgm). The E-pgm and S-pgm were compared to evaluate the consistency between the patient's preoperative expectations and postoperative evaluations. A total of 158 patients were included in the study. Out of them, 79 % experienced an improvement or no variation between preoperative expectations and postoperative satisfaction. With regard to the motivation for undergoing surgery, 91 % showed that the surgical procedure met the motivation. An overall positive perioperative change in life was experienced by 93 % of patients. The E-pgm questionnaire proved to be a valid and reliable tool for the selection of suitable candidates for surgery and for identification of dysmorphophobic patients. Enhancing the doctor-patient relationship and communication can reduce ambiguity and avoid troublesome misunderstandings, litigation and other legal implications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Jain, Umang; Salgado, Christopher; Mioton, Lauren; Rambachan, Aksharananda
Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015), hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; P<0.001), bleeding disorders (OR, 1.70; CI, 1.01-2.87; P=0.046), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 or 4 (OR, 1.57; CI, 1.15-2.15; P=0.004), and obesity (body mass index ≥30) (OR, 1.43; CI, 1.09-1.88, P=0.011) to be significant predictors of readmission. Conclusions Inpatient plastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations. PMID:24665418
Sinno, Sammy; Lam, Gretl; Brownstone, Nicholas D; Steinbrech, Douglas S
The number of total cosmetic procedures performed yearly has increased by more than 274% between 1997 and 2014, according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. However, the vast majority of plastic surgery procedures are still targeted toward women, with little attention toward men. This study sought to quantify the extent of gender discrepancies observed in online plastic surgery marketing in this country. For the 48 contiguous United States, a systematic Google (Mountain View, CA) search was performed for "[state] plastic surgeon." The first 10 solo or group practice websites in each state were analyzed for the gender of the first 10 images featured, presence of a male services section, and which procedures were offered to men. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS Software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY). A total of 453 websites were analyzed, as 5 states did not have 10 unique solo or group practice websites. Of the 4239 images reviewed, 94.1% were of females, 5.0% were of males, and 0.9% were of a male and female together. A male services page was present in 22% of websites. The most common procedures marketed toward men were gynecomastia reduction (58%), liposuction (17%), blepharoplasty (13%), and facelift (10%). Less than 10% of all websites offered other procedures to males, with a total of 15 other aesthetic procedures identified. Many plastic surgeons choose to ignore or minimize male patients in their online marketing efforts. However, as the number of men seeking cosmetic procedures continues to grow, plastic surgeons will benefit from incorporating male patients into their practice model. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Parikh, Rajiv P; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Naidoo, Sybill; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Plastic Surgery Milestone Project has identified practice-based learning and improvement, which involves systematically analyzing current practices and implementing changes, as a core competency in residency education. In surgical care, complication reporting is an essential component of practice-based learning and improvement as complications are analyzed in morbidity and mortality conference for quality improvement. Unfortunately, current methods for capturing a comprehensive profile of complications may significantly underestimate the true occurrence of complications. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to evaluate an intervention for complication reporting and compare this to current practice, in a plastic surgery training program. This is a preintervention and postintervention study evaluating resident reporting of complications on a plastic surgery service. The intervention was an online event reporting system developed by department leadership and patient safety experts. The cohorts consisted of all patients undergoing surgery during two separate 3-month blocks bridged by an implementation period. A trained reviewer recorded complications, and this served as the reference standard. Fisher's exact test was used for binary comparisons. There were 32 complications detected in 219 patients from June to August of 2015 and 35 complications in 202 patients from October to December of 2015. The proportion of complications reported in the preintervention group was nine of 32 (28.1 percent). After the intervention, this significantly increased to 32 of 35 (91.4 percent) (p < 0.001). An intervention using an event reporting system, supported by departmental leadership, led to significant improvements in complication reporting by plastic surgery residents.
Hoppe, Ian C; Ahuja, Naveen K; Ingargiola, Michael J; Granick, Mark S
When an elective procedure is under consideration, the Internet may often be the first resource utilized by a patient. The goal of the present study was to examine the comprehension of readily available online educational material by the patient population in a single plastic surgery clinic. Two 5-question surveys were constructed: 1 for breast augmentation and 1 for rhinoplasty, each based on explanatory passages from patient education sections of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) websites. Demographic data were also collected. One hundred patients who presented to the University Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, completed the survey. Mean patient age was 38.8 years. Mean number of completed educational years was 11.7. Across all groups, the mean score recorded was 3.41 out of a possible 5, with 1 point being assigned for each correct answer. The mean score was 3.54 for the ASPS website and 3.28 for the ASAPS website. The mean score was 3.26 for the breast augmentation survey and 3.56 for rhinoplasty. Neither difference was significant. No significant difference in scores was noted between websites or procedures. Patients understood the majority of the information presented in the passage provided to them. It is unrealistic to expect a patient to answer all questions correctly, although 23% of participants did. Patients appear to understand the material and are able to subsequently apply this knowledge to an objective measure of comprehension.
İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet
Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.
Sieffert, Michelle R; Johnson, R Michael; Fox, Justin P
A history of smoking confers additional risk of complications following plastic surgical procedures, which may require hospital-based care to address. To determine if patients with a smoking history experience higher rates of complications leading to higher hospital-based care utilization, and therefore greater healthcare charges, after common outpatient plastic surgeries. Using ambulatory surgery data from California, Florida, Nebraska, and New York, we identified adult patients who underwent common facial, breast, or abdominal contouring procedures from January 2009 to November 2013. Our primary outcomes were hospital-based, acute care (hospital admissions and emergency department visits), serious adverse events, and cumulative healthcare charges within 30 days of discharge. Multivariable regression models were used to compare outcomes between patients with and without a smoking history. The final sample included 214,761 patients, of which 10,426 (4.9%) had a smoking history. Compared to patients without, those with a smoking history were more likely to have a hospital-based, acute care encounter (3.4% vs 7.1%; AOR = 1.36 [1.25-1.48]) or serious adverse event (0.9% vs 2.2%; AOR = 1.38 [1.18-1.60]) within 30 days. On average, these events added $1826 per patient with a smoking history. These findings were consistent when stratified by specific procedure and controlled for patient factors. Patients undergoing common outpatient plastic surgery procedures who have a history of smoking are at risk for more frequent complications, and incur higher healthcare charges than patients who are nonsmokers. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Madsen, Christopher; Lough, Denver; Lim, Alan; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kumar, Anand R
Military pediatric plastic surgery humanitarian missions in the Western Hemisphere have been initiated and developed since the early 1990 s using the Medical Readiness Education and Training Exercise (MEDRETE) concept. Despite its initial training mission status, the MEDRETE has developed into the most common and advanced low level medical mission platform currently in use. The objective of this study is to report cleft- and craniofacial-related patient outcomes after initiation and evolution of a standardized treatment protocol highlighting lessons learned which apply to civilian plastic surgery missions. A review of the MEDRETE database for pediatric plastic surgery/cleft and craniofacial missions to the Dominican Republic from 2005 to 2009 was performed. A multidisciplinary team including a craniofacial surgeon evaluated all patients with a cleft/craniofacial and/or pediatric plastic condition. A standardized mission time line included predeployment site survey and predeployment checklist, operational brief, and postdeployment after action report. Deployment data collection, remote patient follow-up, and coordination with larger land/amphibious military operations was used to increase patient follow-up data. Data collected included sex, age, diagnosis, date and type of procedure, surgical outcomes including speech scores, surgical morbidity, and mortality. Five hundred ninety-four patients with cleft/craniofacial abnormalities were screened by a multidisciplinary team including craniofacial surgeons over 4 years. Two hundred twenty-three patients underwent 330 surgical procedures (cleft lip, 53; cleft palate, 73; revision cleft lip/nose, 73; rhinoplasty, 15; speech surgery, 24; orthognathic/distraction, 21; general pediatric plastic surgery, 58; fistula repair, 12). Average follow-up was 30 months (range, 1-60). The complication rate was 6% (n = 13) (palate fistula, lip revision, dental/alveolar loss, revision speech surgery rate). The average pre
Taub, Peter J; Matarasso, Alan
The use of tobacco-based products, most notably cigarettes, is related directly to wound healing problems and poorer outcomes in plastic surgery. Current abstracts have highlighted the potential complications from nicotine, specifically following plastic surgery in patients who choose to smoke. Recently, products that use electricity to vaporize liquid nitrogen have been gaining popularity. New rules were recently proposed that would give the federal government authority over electronic cigarettes. However, the health-related issues surrounding e-cigarettes are still largely unknown or misunderstood. These issues also extend to their impact on surgical procedures, notably their effect on plastic surgical procedures that rely heavily on the vascularity of either the host wound bed or the replacement tissue.
Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila
BACKGROUND Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. METHODS A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. RESULTS A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). CONCLUSION Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery. PMID:25489513
Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila
Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery.
Kordahi, Anthony M; Hoppe, Ian C; Lee, Edward S
Reduction mammoplasty is an often-performed procedure by plastic surgeons and increasingly by general surgeons. The question has been posed in both general surgical literature and plastic surgical literature as to whether this procedure should remain the domain of surgical specialists. Some general surgeons are trained in breast reductions, whereas all plastic surgeons receive training in this procedure. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project provides a unique opportunity to compare the 2 surgical specialties in an unbiased manner in terms of preoperative comorbidities and 30-day postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried for the years 2005-2012. Patients were identified as having undergone a reduction mammoplasty by Current Procedural Terminology codes. RESULTS were refined to include only females with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 611.1 (hypertrophy of breasts). Information was collected regarding age, surgical specialty performing procedure, body mass index, and other preoperative variables. The outcomes utilized were presence of superficial surgical site infection, presence of deep surgical site infection, presence of wound dehiscence, postoperative respiratory compromise, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, perioperative transfusion, operative time, reintubation, reoperation, and length of hospital stay. During this time period, there were 6239 reduction mammaplasties performed within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database: 339 by general surgery and 5900 by plastic surgery. No statistical differences were detected between the 2 groups with regard to superficial wound infections, deep wound infections, organ space infections, or wound dehiscence. There were no significant differences noted between within groups with regard to systemic postoperative complications. Patients undergoing a procedure by general surgery were more likely
Nellis, Jason C.; Ishii, Masaru; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Dey, Jacob K.; Ishii, Lisa E.
IMPORTANCE Though anecdotally linked, few studies have investigated the impact of facial paralysis on depression and quality of life (QOL). OBJECTIVE To measure the association between depression, QOL, and facial paralysis in patients seeking treatment at a facial plastic surgery clinic. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS Data were prospectively collected for patients with all-cause facial paralysis and control patients initially presenting to a facial plastic surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015. The control group included a heterogeneous patient population presenting to facial plastic surgery clinic for evaluation. Patients who had prior facial reanimation surgery or missing demographic and psychometric data were excluded from analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Demographics, facial paralysis etiology, facial paralysis severity (graded on the House-Brackmann scale), Beck depression inventory, and QOL scores in both groups were examined. Potential confounders, including self-reported attractiveness and mood, were collected and analyzed. Self-reported scores were measured using a 0 to 100 visual analog scale. RESULTS There was a total of 263 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 66.9% were female) were analyzed. There were 175 control patients and 88 patients with facial paralysis. Sex distributions were not significantly different between the facial paralysis and control groups. Patients with facial paralysis had significantly higher depression, lower self-reported attractiveness, lower mood, and lower QOL scores. Overall, 37 patients with facial paralysis (42.1%) screened positive for depression, with the greatest likelihood in patients with House-Brackmann grade 3 or greater (odds ratio, 10.8; 95% CI, 5.13–22.75) compared with 13 control patients (8.1%) (P < .001). In multivariate regression, facial paralysis and female sex were significantly associated with higher depression scores (constant, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.77–3.39]; facial paralysis effect, 5.98 [95% CI, 4.38–7
Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Mahmood, Eitezaz; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F
Recent data suggest patients are seeking aesthetic surgery to improve their appearance on Instagram and other social media. Despite the rising influence of Instagram in plastic surgery, few academic publications address Instagram, let alone evaluate its utilization in plastic surgery. We set out to answer the following three questions: 1) what plastic surgery-related content is being posted to Instagram; 2) who is posting this content; and 3) what specific hashtags are they using? Our study queried 21 Instagram plastic surgery-related hashtags. Content analysis was used to qualitatively evaluate each of the nine "top" posts associated with each hashtag (189 posts). Duplicate posts and those not relevant to plastic surgery were excluded. A total of 1,789,270 posts utilized the 21 hashtags sampled in this study. Of the top 189 posts for these 21 queried hashtags, 163 posts met inclusion criteria. Plastic surgeons eligible for membership in American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) accounted for only 17.8% of top posts, whereas noneligible physicians accounted for 26.4%. All nonplastic surgery trained physicians marketed themselves as "cosmetic surgeons." Nine top posts (5.5%) were by nonphysicians, including dentists, spas with no associated physician, and a hair salon. The majority of these posts were self-promotional (67.1%) as opposed to educational (32.9%). Board-certified plastic surgeons were significantly more likely to post educational content to Instagram as compared to nonplastic surgeons (62.1% vs 38.1%, P = 0.02). ASAPS eligible board-certified plastic surgeons are underrepresented amongst physicians posting top plastic surgery-related content to Instagram. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com
Chen, Jenny T; Girotto, John A; Kitzmiller, W John; Lawrence, W Thomas; Verheyden, Charles N; Vedder, Nicholas B; Coleman, John J; Bentz, Michael L
A critical element of a thriving academic plastic surgery program is the quality of faculty. A decline in recruitment and retention of faculty has been attributed to the many challenges of academic medicine. Given the substantial resources required to develop faculty, academic plastic surgery has a vested interest in improving the process of faculty recruitment and retention. The American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons Issues Committee and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation Academic Affairs Council surveyed the 83 existing programs in academic plastic surgery in February of 2012. The survey addressed the faculty-related issues in academic plastic surgery programs over the past decade. Recruitment and retention strategies were evaluated. This study was designed to elucidate trends, and define best strategies, on a national level. Academic plastic surgery programs have added substantially more full-time faculty over the past decade. Recruitment efforts are multifaceted and can include guaranteed salary support, moving expenses, nurse practitioner/physician's assistant hires, protected time for research, seed funds to start research programs, and more. Retention efforts can include increased compensation, designation of a leadership appointment, protected academic time, and call dilution. Significant change and growth of academic plastic surgery has occurred in the past decade. Effective faculty recruitment and retention are critical to a successful academic center. Funding sources in addition to physician professional fees (institutional program support, grants, contracts, endowment, and so on) are crucial to sustain the academic missions.
Wong, Wendy W; Davis, Drew G; Son, Andrew K; Camp, Matthew C; Gupta, Subhas C
Economic tools have been used in the past to predict the trends in plastic surgery procedures. Since 1992, U.S. cosmetic surgery volumes have increased overall, but the exact relationship between economic downturns and procedural volumes remains elusive. If an economic predicting role can be established from plastic surgery indicators, this could prove to be a very powerful tool. A rolling 3-month revenue average of an eight-plastic surgeon practice and various economic indicators were plotted and compared. An investigation of the U.S. procedural volumes was performed from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons statistics between 1996 and 2008. The correlations of different economic variables with plastic surgery volumes were evaluated. Lastly, search term frequencies were examined from 2004 to July of 2009 to study potential patient interest in major plastic surgery procedures. The self-payment revenue of the plastic surgery group consistently proved indicative of the market trends approximately 1 month in advance. The Standard and Poor's 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average, National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, and Standard and Poor's Retail Index demonstrated a very close relationship with the income of our plastic surgery group. The frequency of Internet search terms showed a constant level of interest in the patient population despite economic downturns. The data demonstrate that examining plastic surgery revenue can be a useful tool to analyze and possibly predict trends, as it is driven by a market and shows a close correlation to many leading economic indicators. The persisting and increasing interest in plastic surgery suggests hope for a recovering and successful market in the near future.
Zhang, Jianlin; Ding, Wei; Chen, Aimin; Jiang, Hua
: On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 on Richter scale struck Sichuan Province of China and destroyed Wenchuan County. Two days later, a field hospital from the Second Military Medical University (Shanghai, China) arrived at Anxian County near the epicenter as a reinforcement hospital before rehabilitation of the local medical facilities. Surgical services in the field hospital were supplied by general, orthopedic, plastic, anesthetic, obstetrical surgeons, and two physicians. The plastic surgeons were responsible for assessment of all soft tissue injuries at the hospital and patient needs for plastic surgery services in a crisis intervention field hospital. : Information was gathered regarding soft tissue injuries throughout the activities of the hospital. In addition, patient charts, operation reports, and entry and evacuation logs were reviewed for all patients who were admitted and treated in the field hospital. : Of 1,013 patients who were treated in the field hospital in Wenchuan; 102 (10.07%) sought aid for soft tissue injuries, all of which were earthquake related. Twenty-one percent of the operations performed in the hospital were concerned with the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and 15% of the hospital beds were reserved for plastic surgery patients. : Plastic surgery services at a field hospital play a prominent and irreplaceable role in rescuing casualties in formidable conditions especially in a serious earthquake situation.
Eichhorn, Mitchell George; Karadsheh, Murad Jehad; Krebiehl, Johanna Ruth; Ford, Dawn Marie; Ford, Ronald D
Patients can experience significant pain during routine procedures in the plastic surgery clinic. Methods for clinical pain reduction are often impractical, time-consuming, or ineffective. Vibration is a safe, inexpensive, and highly applicable modality for pain reduction that can be readily utilized for a wide variety of procedures. This study evaluated the use of vibration as a viable pain-reduction strategy in the clinical plastic surgery setting. Patients requiring at least 2 consecutive procedures that are considered painful were enrolled in the study. These included injections, staple removal, and suture removal. In the same patient, one half of the procedures were performed without vibration and the other half with vibration. After completing the procedures, the patients rated their pain with vibration and without vibration. The patient and the researcher also described the experience with a short questionnaire. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Patients reported significantly less pain on the Numeric Rating Scale pain scale when vibration was used compared with the control group (p < .001). The average pain score was 3.46 without vibration and 1.93 with vibration, and vibration with injections resulted in the greatest improvement. Eighty-six percent of the patients claimed that vibration significantly reduced their pain. Vibration is an effective method of pain reduction. It significantly reduces the pain experienced by patients during minor office procedures. Given its practicality and ease of use, it is a welcome tool in the plastic surgery clinic.
Panse, Nikhil Shrikrishna
Background: Awareness of plastic surgery is lacking. Be it reconstructive surgery, or aesthetic surgery, public education and awareness regarding the spectrum is the need of the hour. Materials and Methods: We undertook a string of activities for patient awareness and education for burn prevention, occupational hand injuries prevention, skin banking awareness and various other conditions relevant to us as plastic surgeons. Use of social media helped us for increasing the reach of our projects. Observation and Results: Some of the projects we started, we are still pursuing with sincerity, and some never really picked up. A wide range and spectrum of activities were undertaken, and we would like to think that we have made some impact towards advocacy of plastic surgery; however, the measurable impact of these initiatives is questionable. Conclusion: Collective efforts for promotion of the speciality using innovative methods, use of celebrities for awareness and social media amongst other things must be undertaken to make a sustained and demonstrable impact towards advocacy of plastic surgery. PMID:28615817
Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Designing an effective hand rotation for plastic surgery residents is difficult. The authors address this limitation by elucidating the critical components of the hand curriculum during plastic surgery residency. Hand questions on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam for six consecutive years (2008 to 2013) were characterized by presence of imaging, vignette setting, question taxonomy, answer domain, anatomy, and topic. Answer references were quantified by source and year of publication. Two hundred sixty-six questions were related to hand surgery (22.7 percent of all questions; 44.3 per year) and 61 were accompanied by an image (22.9 percent). Vignettes tended to be clinic- (50.0 percent) and emergency room-based (35.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Questions required decision-making (60.5 percent) over interpretation (25.9 percent) and recall skills (13.5 percent) (p < 0.001). Answers focused on interventions (57.5 percent) over anatomy/pathology (25.2 percent) and diagnoses (17.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Nearly half of the questions focused on the digits. The highest yield topics were trauma (35.3 percent), reconstruction (24.4 percent), and aesthetic and functional problems (14.2 percent). The Journal of Hand Surgery (American volume) (20.5 percent) and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (18.0 percent) were the most-cited journals, and the median publication lag was 7 years. Green's Operative Hand Surgery was the most-referenced textbook (41.8 percent). These results will enable trainees to study hand surgery topics with greater efficiency. Faculty can use these results to ensure that tested topics are covered during residency training. Thus, a benchmark is established to improve didactic, clinical, and operative experiences in hand surgery.
McNichols, Colton H L; Diaconu, Silviu; Alfadil, Sara; Woodall, Jhade; Grant, Michael; Lifchez, Scott; Nam, Arthur; Rasko, Yvonne
Over the past decade, plastic surgery programs have continued to evolve with the addition of 1 year of training, increase in the minimum number of required aesthetic cases, and the gradual replacement of independent positions with integrated ones. To evaluate the impact of these changes on aesthetic training, a survey was sent to residents and program directors. A 37 question survey was sent to plastic surgery residents at all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved plastic surgery training programs in the United States. A 13 question survey was sent to the program directors at the same institutions. Both surveys were analyzed to determine the duration of training and comfort level with cosmetic procedures. Eighty-three residents (10%) and 11 program directors (11%) completed the survey. Ninety-four percentage of residents had a dedicated cosmetic surgery rotation (an increase from 68% in 2015) in addition to a resident cosmetic clinic. Twenty percentage of senior residents felt they would need an aesthetic surgery fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery compared with 31% in 2015. Integrated chief residents were more comfortable performing cosmetic surgery cases compared with independent chief residents. Senior residents continue to have poor confidence with facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures. There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents.
McNichols, Colton H. L.; Diaconu, Silviu; Alfadil, Sara; Woodall, Jhade; Grant, Michael; Lifchez, Scott; Nam, Arthur
Background: Over the past decade, plastic surgery programs have continued to evolve with the addition of 1 year of training, increase in the minimum number of required aesthetic cases, and the gradual replacement of independent positions with integrated ones. To evaluate the impact of these changes on aesthetic training, a survey was sent to residents and program directors. Methods: A 37 question survey was sent to plastic surgery residents at all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–approved plastic surgery training programs in the United States. A 13 question survey was sent to the program directors at the same institutions. Both surveys were analyzed to determine the duration of training and comfort level with cosmetic procedures. Results: Eighty-three residents (10%) and 11 program directors (11%) completed the survey. Ninety-four percentage of residents had a dedicated cosmetic surgery rotation (an increase from 68% in 2015) in addition to a resident cosmetic clinic. Twenty percentage of senior residents felt they would need an aesthetic surgery fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery compared with 31% in 2015. Integrated chief residents were more comfortable performing cosmetic surgery cases compared with independent chief residents. Senior residents continue to have poor confidence with facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures. Conclusions: There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents. PMID:29062658
Ribeiro, Rafael Vilela Eiras
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in plastic surgery and dermatology patients, by performing a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. The most relevant studies published originally in any language were analyzed. The literature search was performed using the PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Scielo databases. The final sample comprised 33 publications that were submitted to meta-analysis. The study verified that 15.04% of plastic surgery patients had body dysmorphic disorder (range 2.21-56.67%); patient mean age was 34.54 ± 12.41 years, and most were women (74.38%). Among dermatology patients, 12.65% (range 4.52-35.16%) had body dysmorphic disorder; patient mean age was 27.79 ± 9.03 years, and most were women (76.09%). Both plastic surgeons and dermatologists must adequately assess their patients to identify those with a higher likelihood of body dysmorphic disorder and should arrange multidisciplinary care for such individuals. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Hurwitz, Dennis J
Bariatric surgery, particularly the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is currently the most effective method of sustainable weight loss for the morbidly obese patient population. Unfortunately, the nutritional adequacy of the postoperative diet has frequently been overlooked, and in the months to years that follow, many nutritional deficiencies have become apparent. Furthermore, once weight loss has reached a plateau, many patients become candidates for body contouring surgery and other aesthetic operations. The aim of this review was to highlight the nutritional deficiencies of post-bariatric surgery patients as related to planned body contouring surgery. This review was prepared by an extensive search of the bariatric surgery literature. The current data indicate that many post-bariatric surgery patients have protein-calorie malnutrition as well as various vitamins and mineral deficiencies that may limit optimal health and healing. It is essential that those plastic surgeons who treat post-bariatric surgery patients are aware of these nutritional deficiencies, which can be minimized by adhering to eating guidelines and supplemental prescriptions. Although there are many studies documenting relationships between malnutrition and poor wound healing, the optimal nutrient intake in the post-bariatric surgery state to promote wound healing is unknown. It is, however, clear that proteins, vitamin A, vitamin C, arginine, glutamine, zinc, and selenium have significant beneficial effects on wound healing and optimizing the immune system.
Zavod, Matthew B; Adamson, Peter A
To compare referral sources to a facial plastic surgery practice and to develop models correlating the referral source with the decision for surgery. Retrospective descriptive study. Well-established, metropolitan, private facial plastic surgery practice with training fellowship affiliated with an academic centre. One-thousand eighty-nine new consecutive patients presenting between January 2001 and December 2005 recorded intake data including age, gender, and chief complaint. Final data input was their decision for or against surgery. Main outcome measures included differences in referral sources based on data collected and how those sources related to decision for surgery. A 50% conversion rate was found. Women and older patients were more likely to be referred from magazines, television, and newspapers and for facial rejuvenation. Men and younger patients were more likely to be referred from the website and for rhinoplasty. For facial rejuvenation, both the number of patients interested in and the probability that they agreed to the procedure increased with age. For rhinoplasty, the converse was true. The most likely patients to schedule surgery were those who were referred from other patients, friends, or family members in our practice. The data confirm that word-of-mouth referrals are the most important source for predicting which patients will elect to proceed with surgery in this established facial cosmetic surgery practice.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...
Chuang, Jessica; Barnes, Christian; Wong, Brian J. F.
Facial plastic surgery is a multidisciplinary specialty largely driven by otolaryngology but includes oral maxillary surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It encompasses both reconstructive and cosmetic components. The scope of practice for facial plastic surgeons in the United States may include rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma reconstruction, and correction of defects in the face after skin cancer resection. Facial plastic surgery also encompasses the use of injectable fillers, neural modulators (e.g., BOTOX Cosmetic, Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other devices aimed at rejuvenating skin. Facial plastic surgery is a constantly evolving field with continuing innovative advances in surgical techniques and cosmetic adjunctive technologies. This article aims to give an overview of the various procedures that encompass the field of facial plastic surgery and to highlight the recent advances and trends in procedures and surgical techniques. PMID:28824978
Sharma, Ramesh Kumar
The currently available training models are being put to scrutiny in India today, both by the residents and the teachers. Plastic surgery specialty was created primarily for reconstructive purposes but the society always perceived it from a cosmetic angle, particularly in the post second world war era. As a result, there is a need to redefine the goals of plastic surgery training in the present times so that the plastic surgeon is "future ready" to meet the needs of society and the market forces. The author has reviewed the currently available literature on plastic surgery training from India and the western countries. An attempt has been made to study opinions from the teachers and the trainees. The modules currently available in India and abroad have been analyzed and a suggestion has been made for drafting training programs that would meet the demands of the society as well as prepare the resident both for the aesthetic and reconstructive practice. The plastic surgery training needs to be more vibrant and in tune with the changing times. While maintaining its core nature, the current predominantly reconstructive modules need to incorporate the aesthetic content. The evaluation should be both knowledge and competence based. The teachers need to be educated in the various teaching methods that are more applicable to grown up residents. There is a need to find ways to attract talented people in the academic plastic surgery.
Sharma, Ramesh Kumar
Background: The currently available training models are being put to scrutiny in India today, both by the residents and the teachers. Plastic surgery specialty was created primarily for reconstructive purposes but the society always perceived it from a cosmetic angle, particularly in the post second world war era. As a result, there is a need to redefine the goals of plastic surgery training in the present times so that the plastic surgeon is “future ready” to meet the needs of society and the market forces. Materials and Methods: The author has reviewed the currently available literature on plastic surgery training from India and the western countries. An attempt has been made to study opinions from the teachers and the trainees. The modules currently available in India and abroad have been analyzed and a suggestion has been made for drafting training programs that would meet the demands of the society as well as prepare the resident both for the aesthetic and reconstructive practice. Conclusions: The plastic surgery training needs to be more vibrant and in tune with the changing times. While maintaining its core nature, the current predominantly reconstructive modules need to incorporate the aesthetic content. The evaluation should be both knowledge and competence based. The teachers need to be educated in the various teaching methods that are more applicable to grown up residents. There is a need to find ways to attract talented people in the academic plastic surgery. PMID:25190909
Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Benvenuti, Michael A; Drolet, Brian C
In-service training examinations (ITEs) are used to assess residents across specialties. However, it is not clear how they are integrated with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones and competencies. This study explored the distribution of specialty-specific milestones and competencies in ITEs for plastic surgery and orthopaedic surgery. In-service training examinations were publicly available for plastic surgery (PSITE) and orthopaedics (OITE). Questions on the PSITE for 2014-2016 and the OITE for 2013-2015 were mapped to the specialty-specific milestones and the 6 competencies. There was an uneven distribution of milestones and competencies in ITE questions. Nine of the 36 Plastic Surgery Milestones represented 52% (341 of 650) of questions, and 3 were not included in the ITE. Of 41 Orthopaedic Surgery Milestones, 7 represented 51% (201 of 394) of questions, and 5 had no representation on the ITE. Among the competencies, patient care was the most common (PSITE = 62% [403 of 650]; OITE = 59% [233 of 394]), followed by medical knowledge (PSITE = 34% [222 of 650]; OITE = 31% [124 of 394]). Distribution of the remaining competencies differed between the 2 specialties (PSITE = 4% [25 of 650]; OITE = 9% [37 of 394]). The ITEs tested slightly more than half of the milestones for the 2 specialties, and focused predominantly on patient care and medical knowledge competencies.
Neaman, Keith C; Hill, Brian C; Ebner, Ben; Ford, Ronald D
One of the goals of plastic surgery residency programs is to provide effective training in aesthetic surgery. Recently, programs have adopted the idea of chief clinics to provide senior residents with the opportunity to perform cosmetic surgery with an increased level of autonomy. The goal of this article is to characterize chief clinics currently in place and their usefulness in providing effective training in plastic surgery under the precepts set forth by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A survey was created focusing on six broad categories: respondent identifier, clinic structure, clinic monetary earnings, patient demographics, procedures, and educational utility. Surveys were distributed to all plastic surgery residency programs targeting current and recently graduated chief residents, and program directors. A total of 123 surveys were returned. Eighty of the 88 plastic surgery residency programs (91 percent) were represented. Of the programs responding, 71.3 percent (57 programs) had a chief resident clinic. Thirty-two of the respondents (43.8 percent) reported that 100 percent of the procedures performed were cosmetic in nature. Programs differed widely on their frequency of occurrence and support staff available. A majority of respondents felt these clinics enhanced resident understanding of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. A majority of plastic surgery training programs use the chief clinic model to enhance resident education. These clinics vary in makeup and case distribution but serve as an effective way of teaching autonomy, surgical maturity, and the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies.
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Operative experience in aesthetic surgery is an important issue affecting plastic surgery residents. This study addresses the variability of aesthetic surgery experience during plastic surgery residency. National operative case logs of chief residents in independent/combined and integrated plastic surgery residency programs were analyzed (2011-2015). Fold differences between the bottom and top 10th percentiles of residents were calculated for each aesthetic procedure category and training model. The number of residents not achieving case minimums was also calculated. Case logs of 818 plastic surgery residents were analyzed. There was marked variability in craniofacial (range, 6.0-15.0), breast (range, 2.4-5.9), trunk/extremity (range, 3.0-16.0), and miscellaneous (range, 2.7-22.0) procedure categories. In 2015, the bottom 10th percentile of integrated and independent/combined residents did not achieve case minimums for botulinum toxin and dermal fillers. Case minimums were achieved for the other aesthetic procedure categories for all graduating years. Significant variability persists for many aesthetic procedure categories during plastic surgery residency training. Greater efforts may be needed to improve the aesthetic surgery experience of plastic surgery residents. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Benson, Royal H; Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D; Jason, Robert A; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Stern, Bernard H; Stanton, Ryan A; Kolb, Susan E; Gonzalez, Federico
Female Genital Plastic Surgery, a relatively new entry in the field of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, has promised sexual enhancement and functional and cosmetic improvement for women. Are the vulvovaginal aesthetic procedures of Labiaplasty, Vaginoplasty/Perineoplasty ("Vaginal Rejuvenation") and Clitoral Hood Reduction effective, and do they deliver on that promise? For what reason do women seek these procedures? What complications are evident, and what effects are noted regarding sexual function for women and their partners? Who should be performing these procedures, what training should they have, and what are the ethical considerations? This study was designed to produce objective, utilizable outcome data regarding FGPS. 1) Reasons for considering surgery from both patient's and physician's perspective; 2) Pre-operative sexual functioning per procedure; 3) Overall patient satisfaction per procedure; 4) Effect of procedure on patient's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 5) Patient's perception of effect on her partner's sexual enjoyment, per procedure; 6) Complications. This cross-sectional study, including 258 women and encompassing 341 separate procedures, comes from a group of twelve gynecologists, gynecologic urologists and plastic surgeons from ten centers in eight states nationwide. 104 labiaplasties, 24 clitoral hood reductions, 49 combined labiaplasty/clitoral hood reductions, 47 vaginoplasties and/or perineoplasties, and 34 combined labiaplasty and/or reduction of the clitoral hood plus vaginoplasty/perineoplasty procedures were studied retrospectively, analyzing both patient's and physician's perception of surgical rationale, pre-operative sexual function and several outcome criteria. Combining the three groups, 91.6% of patients were satisfied with the results of their surgery after a 6-42 month follow-up. Significant subjective enhancement in sexual functioning for both women and their sexual partners was noted (p = 0.0078), especially in patients
Rabinerson, David; Salman, Lina; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinnat
Plastic surgery of the vulva for aesthetic reasons is recently gaining popularity in the Western world, as well as in Israel. There are different methods of executing these operations with no meaningful difference in the surgical results and the satisfaction of the patients. There are also more complicated plastic operations, in which the vulva is involved. These are performed in cases of pseudohermaphroditism, various states of intersex, sex change operations and developmental defects of the genitor-urinary systems. These are considered successful procedures. Furthermore, the issue of the illegal mutilation surgery of the external female genitalia, on religious or cultural background, is mentioned. All the above-mentioned types of operations involving the vulva are discussed.
Ross, Kimberly M; Moscoso, Andrea V; Bayer, Lauren R; Rosselli-Risal, Liliana; Orgill, Dennis P
Medical tourism is a growing, multi-billion dollar industry fueled by improvements in the global transportation infrastructure. The authors studied patients living in the United States who travel to other countries for plastic surgical procedures and returned to have their complications treated in the authors' center. A retrospective patient evaluation was performed. Patients who had presented to an urban tertiary academic hospital plastic surgery service with complications or complaints associated with plastic surgery performed in a developing country were studied. The authors collected demographic information, types of surgery performed, destinations, insurance coverage, and complications. Seventy-eight patients were identified over 7 years. Most commonly, complications were seen following abdominoplasty (n = 35), breast augmentation (n = 25), and foreign body injections (n = 15). Eighteen patients underwent multiple procedures in one operative setting. The most common destination country was the Dominican Republic (n = 59). Complications included surgical-site infections (n = 14), pain (n = 14), and wound healing complications (n = 12). Eighty-six percent of patients (n = 67) relied on their medical insurance to pay for their follow-up care or manage their complications, with the most common type of health insurance coverage being Massachusetts Medicaid (n = 48). Cosmetic surgery performed in developing countries can carry substantial risks of complications that can be challenging to patients, primary care providers, insurers, and plastic surgical teams not associated with the original surgery. These complications pose significant burdens on our public health systems.
Carstensen, Lena; Rose, Michael; Bentzon, Niels; Kroman, Niels Thorndal
More than 4,000 Danish women are diagnosed with operable breast cancer annually, and 70% receive breast conserving surgery. Without the use of oncoplastic surgery (OPS), 20-30% will get an unsatisfactory cosmetic result. The aim of this study was to illustrate the level of implementation of OPS in Denmark. An electronic questionnaire was sent to breast and plastic surgeons performing breast cancer treatment. The questionnaire included demographics, education, experience with operative procedures and opinions on OPS. The questionnaire was sent to 50 breast surgeons and 22 plastic surgeons; the response rate was 67%. All breast surgery units had an established cooperation with plastic surgeons. Most breast surgeons used unilateral displacement techniques; plastic surgeons also included breast reduction techniques and replacement with local flaps. Almost all symmetrisation procedures were performed by plastic surgeons. Breast surgeons had sought more specific education, both international observerships and specific courses. In both groups of surgeons, the majority expressed that both tumour removal and reconstruction should be performed by doctors of their own specialty. OPS has become integrated in all breast centres, but has not yet been fully implemented. For optimal results in all patients, this study underlines the importance of the inclusion of a dedicated plastic surgeon within the multidisciplinary team for optimal initial evaluation of all breast cancer patients. not relevant. not relevant.
Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin
Thoughts and attitudes of plastic surgeons about having cosmetic surgery on themselves remain obscure for the most part and pose an attractive subject to study. A survey was distributed to a random sample of 2635 American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons to determine plastic surgeons' interest in both minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and cosmetic surgical procedures, selection of facility type, selection of surgeon, and their satisfaction level. There were 276 responses. Sixty-two percent of the plastic surgeons had undergone at least one type of minimally invasive cosmetic procedure. Female plastic surgeons had significantly more minimally invasive cosmetic procedures compared with male plastic surgeons (84.9 versus 57 percent; p < 0.05). The most common procedure was botulinum toxin type A injection (31.5 percent). Approximately one-third of plastic surgeons had at least one type of cosmetic surgery. The most common cosmetic surgical procedure was liposuction of the trunk and/or extremity (18.6 percent). Male plastic surgeons were more likely to have a procedure than men in the general population, and female plastic surgeons were less likely to have breast augmentation than the general population. The percentage of operations conducted by a plastic surgeon was 88.2 percent. The percentage performed by a nationally known surgeon was 45.3 percent; 75.9 percent of plastic surgeons selected a surgeon who was certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. The satisfaction rate was 90 percent. The survey provides insight on the stance of American Society of Plastic Surgeons member and candidate member surgeons on the subject. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey designed for this purpose.
Basu, Chandrasekhar Bob; Chen, Li-Mei; Hollier, Larry H; Shenaq, Saleh M
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Work-Hours Duty Policy became effective on July 1, 2003, mandating the reduction of resident duty work hours. The Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program instituted a resident duty work-hours policy on July 1, 2002 (1 year ahead of the national mandate). Outcomes data are needed to facilitate continuous improvements in plastic surgical residency training while maintaining high-quality patient care. To assess the effect of this policy intervention on plastic surgery resident education as measured through the six core competencies and patient/resident safety, the investigators surveyed all categorical plastic surgery residents 6 months after implementation of the policy. This work represents the first empiric study investigating the effect of duty hours reduction on plastic surgery training and education. The categorical plastic surgery residents at the Baylor College of Medicine Multi-Institutional Integrated Plastic Surgery Program completed a 68-item survey on a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Residents were asked to rate multiple parameters based on the ACGME six core competencies, including statements on patient care and clinical/operative duties, resident education, resident quality of life, and resident perceptions on this policy. All surveys were completed anonymously. The sample size was n = 12 (program year 3 through program year 6), with a 100 percent response rate. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS version 10.0 statistical software. Specifically, interquartile deviations were used to find consensus among resident responses to each statement. Descriptive statistics indicated higher percentages of agreement on a majority of statements in three categories, including patient care and clinical/operative duties, academic duties, and resident quality of life. Using interquartile
Aldrees, Turki; Hassouneh, Basil; Alabdulkarim, Abdulaziz; Asad, Loujin; Alqaryan, Saleh; Aljohani, Emad; Alqahtani, Khalid
Objectives: To develop a more comprehensive explanation and understanding of the prevalence of and factors associated with burnout for residents of the Saudi Plastic Surgery Residency Program. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Data was gathered using a survey, which was distributed during April 2015, among all 57 plastic surgery residents enrolled in training programs across all regions of Saudi Arabia, 38 of whom responded (60% response rate). The dependent variable was professional burnout, which was measured by 3 subscales of the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). High scores on emotional exhaustion (EE) or depersonalization (DP) or low scores on personal accomplishment (PA) were taken to be indicative of professional burnout. Variables evaluating possible predictors of burnout, such as sociodemographic and professional characteristics, were also included. Results: The validated rate of high burnout status was 18%. Nearly three quarters (71%) of residents scored high in emotional exhaustion, and half (50%) scored high in depersonalization. A third (34%) scored low in personal accomplishment. However, only 5% were dissatisfied with the plastic surgery specialty as a career, and 69% would choose the same specialty again. Workload was not found to play a significant role in the development of burnout (mean 70 hours per week). Conclusion: Approximately half of plastic surgery trainees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have signs of professional burnout. PMID:28762436
Bleicher, Richard J; Topham, Neal S; Morrow, Monica
Cosmetic surgery procedures increase in incidence annually, with 11 million performed in 2006. Because breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women, a personal history of cosmetic surgery in those undergoing treatment for breast cancer is becoming more common. This review identified key studies from the PubMed database, to consolidate existing data related to treatment of breast cancer after plastic surgery. Data were reviewed for factors affecting breast cancer treatment after breast augmentation, breast reduction, abdominoplasty, and suction lipectomy. There are little comprehensive data on the management of breast cancer after plastic surgical procedures. Plastic surgery may affect diagnostic imaging, surgical options, and radiotherapy management. Breast augmentation and reduction are two of the most common cosmetic procedures performed and knowledge of their influence on the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer is important for proper management. Plastic surgery does not significantly affect breast cancer outcomes but does present management challenges that must be anticipated when deciding various treatment options. Knowledge of the existing literature may be helpful in discussing those options with patients and planning the multidisciplinary approach to this malignancy.
Centeno, Robert F; Desai, Ankit R; Watson, Marla E
Background: Contamination of autologous grafts unfortunately occurs in plastic surgery, but the literature provides no guidance for management of such incidents. Methods: American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery members were asked to complete an online survey that asked about the number and causes of graft contaminations experienced, how surgeons dealt with the problem, the clinical outcomes, and patient disclosure. Results: Nineteen hundred surgeons were asked to participate in the survey, and 223 responded. Of these, 70% had experienced at least 1 graft contamination incident, with 26% experiencing 4 or more. The most frequently reported reason for graft contamination was a graft falling on the floor (reported by 75%). Nearly two thirds of the contaminated grafts related to craniofacial procedures. Ninety-four percent of grafts were managed with decontamination and completion of the operation. The most common method of decontamination was washing with povidone-iodine, but this practice is contrary to recommendations in the literature. Only 3 surgeons (1.9%) said a clinical infection developed following decontaminated graft use. Patients were not informed in 60% of graft contamination incidents. The survey results and review of the literature led to development of algorithms for the management of inadvertent graft contamination and patient disclosure. Conclusions: Although autologous grafts do become contaminated in plastic surgery, the overwhelming majority can be safely decontaminated and produce minimal or no clinical sequelae. The algorithms presented are intended to serve as guides for prevention of contamination events or for their management should they occur. PMID:18496583
Isiguzo, C M; Nwachukwu, C D
Knowledge, perception, and acceptance of plastic surgery among any population are influenced by channel of presentation. A good understanding of the public awareness will define the way plastic surgery services will be provided. To assess the knowledge, awareness of availability, and acceptance of plastic surgery practice in Enugu, South East Nigeria. A questionnaire-based prospective study. The electronic media is the most common medium of awareness. Less than half the sample knew about the existence of plastic surgeons in Enugu even though a large proportion was aware of the existence of plastic surgery as a specialty. The concentration of plastic surgeons in a center is directly related to awareness of plastic surgery services in that facility. The most common esthetic procedure done by a plastic surgeon in Enugu is tattoo removal and scar refashioning. Orthopedic surgeons are thought to be key players in the management of burn patients as much as the plastic surgeons due to the "SIGNPOST EFFECT." The level of awareness is high in the sampled population with associated increase in acceptance of its practice and willing utilization. All public hospitals should be encouraged to employ the services of plastic surgeons. Appropriate branding of specialized hospitals where plastic surgery service is available will advance the practice significantly.
Drolet, Brian C; Prsic, Adnan; Schmidt, Scott T
Although resident duty hours are strictly regulated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, there are fewer restrictions on at-home call for residents. To date, no studies have examined the experience of home call for plastic surgery trainees or the impact of home call on patient care and education in plastic surgery. an anonymous electronic survey to plastic surgery trainees at 41 accredited programs. They sought to produce a descriptive assessment of home call and to evaluate the perceived impact of home call on training and patient care. A total of 214 responses were obtained (58.3 percent completion rate). Nearly all trainees reported taking home call (98.6 percent), with 66.7 percent reporting call frequency every third or fourth night. Most respondents (63.3 percent) felt that home call regulations are vague but that Council regulation (44.9 percent) and programmatic oversight (56.5 percent) are adequate. Most (91.2 percent) believe their program could not function without home call and that home call helps to avoid strict duty hour restrictions (71.5 percent). Nearly all respondents (92.3 percent) preferred home call to in-house call. This is the first study to examine how plastic surgery residents experience and perceive home call within the framework of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour regulations. Most trainees feel the impact of home call is positive for education (50.2 percent) and quality of life (56.5 percent), with a neutral impact on patient care (66.7 percent). Under the Council's increasing regulations, home call provides a balance of education and patient care appropriate for training in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Hunter, J E; Laing, J H E; Carroll, G
Health Commission Wales (Specialist Services) [HCW] are responsible for resource allocation and demand management in plastic surgery for the population of Wales (2.9 M). Since 2004, all low priority plastic surgery referrals have been screened by a single HCW Case Officer against clinical inclusion criteria before the referral is passed to the provider. Only patients fulfilling these criteria proceed to an outpatient appointment, although there is an appeals procedure. Revised guidelines were introduced in 2006. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the process and the impact of the revised criteria. The Case Officer's database was used to determine numbers of index procedures referred and those disallowed before and after the policy change. Since 2004 9,654 referrals have been screened. In 2005-6, 32.5% failed to meet the inclusion criteria and were disallowed. In the year after the policy revision fewer low priority patients were referred (1720 vs. 2013) and more (46.6%) were declined. Body contouring / abdominoplasty were particularly affected with 73.2% not compliant with funding criteria. The Welsh model is an efficient, effective and equitable system for demand management, which amounts to thousands of requests per year. After 2006, tighter guidelines have resulted in a higher proportion of patients not meeting the criteria for funding, particularly for body contouring / abdominoplasty procedures. Difficulties remain however in determining reproducible and clinically appropriate criteria for patients seeking plastic surgery following massive weight-loss. Whilst this process streamlines the provision of NHS plastic surgery for the people of Wales, there is a potential impact on specialist training. Copyright © 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vardanian, Andrew J; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Im, Daniel D; Lee, James C; Jarrahy, Reza
Social media platforms have revolutionized the way human beings communicate, yet there is little evidence describing how the plastic surgery community has adopted social media. In this article, the authors evaluate current trends in social media use by practicing plastic surgeons. An anonymous survey on the use of social media was distributed to members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Prevalent patterns of social media implementation were elucidated. One-half of respondents were regular social media users. Reasons for using social media included the beliefs that incorporation of social media into medical practice is inevitable (56.7 percent), that they are an effective marketing tool (52.1 percent), and that they provide a forum for patient education (49 percent). Surgeons with a primarily aesthetic surgery practice were more likely to use social media. Most respondents (64.6 percent) stated that social media had no effect on their practice, whereas 33.8 percent reported a positive impact and 1.5 percent reported a negative impact. This study depicts current patterns of social media use by plastic surgeons, including motivations driving its implementation and impressions on its impact. Many feel that social media are an effective marketing tool that generates increased exposure and referrals. A small number of surgeons have experienced negative repercussions from social media involvement. Our study reveals the presence of a void. There is a definite interest among those surveyed in developing best practice standards and oversight to ensure ethical use of social media platforms throughout the plastic surgery community. Continuing discussion regarding these matters should be ongoing as our experience with social media in plastic surgery evolves.
Khatib, Manaf; Soukup, Benjamin; Boughton, Oliver; Amin, Kavit; Davis, Christopher R; Evans, David M
Plastic surgery teaching has a limited role in the undergraduate curriculum. We held a 1-day national course in plastic surgery for undergraduates. Our aim was to introduce delegates to plastic surgery and teach basic plastic surgical skills. We assessed change in perceptions of plastic surgery and change in confidence in basic plastic surgical skills. The day consisted of consultant-led lectures followed by workshops in aesthetic suturing, local flap design, and tendon repair. A questionnaire divided into 3 sections, namely, (1) career plans, (2) perceptions of plastic surgery, and (3) surgical skills and knowledge, was completed by 39 delegates before and after the course. Results were presented as mean scores and the standard error of the mean used to calculate data spread. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric data. Career plans: Interest in pursuing a plastic surgery career significantly increased over the course of the day by 12.5% (P < 0.0005).Perceptions: Statistically significant changes were observed in many categories of plastic surgery, including the perception of the role of plastic surgeons in improving patient quality of life, increased by 18.31% (P = 0.063). Before the course 10% of delegates perceived plastic surgery to be a superficial discipline and 20% perceived that plastic surgeons did not save lives. After completing the course, no delegates held those views.Surgical skills: Confidence to perform subcuticular and deep dermal sutures improved by 53% (P < 0.0001) and 57% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Delegates' subjective understanding of the basic geometry of local flaps improved by 94% (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, before the course, 2.5% of delegates drew an accurate modified Kessler suture compared with 87% of on completion of the course. A 1-day intensive undergraduate plastic surgery course can significantly increase delegates' desire to pursue a career in plastic surgery, dispel common misconceptions about this
Parks, Joe; Kath, Melissa; Gabrick, Kyle; Ver Halen, Jon Peter
Although nanotechnology is a relatively young field, there are already countless biomedical applications. Plastic and reconstructive surgery has significantly benefited from nanoscale refinements of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Plastic surgery is an incredibly diverse specialty, encompassing craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, cancer/trauma/congenital reconstruction, burn care, and aesthetic surgery. In particular, wound care, topical skin care, implant and prosthetic design, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery have all been influenced by advances in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will continue to witness growth and expansion of its biomedical applications, especially those in plastic surgery.
Wang, Yirong; Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C
Plastic surgery has a well-known history of innovative procedures and products. However, with the rise in competition, such as aesthetic procedures being performed by other medical specialties, there is a need for continued innovation in plastic surgery to create novel treatments to advance this specialty. Although many articles introduce innovative technologies and procedures, there is a paucity of publications to highlight the application of principles of innovation in plastic surgery. The authors review the literature regarding business strategies for innovation. The authors evaluate concepts of innovation, process of innovation (i.e., idea generation, idea evaluation, idea conversion, idea diffusion, and adoption), ethical issues, and application to plastic surgery. Adopting a business model of innovation is helpful for promoting a new paradigm of progress to propel plastic surgery to new avenues of creativity.
Simis, K J; Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M
This study addressed three questions: (1) Do adolescents undergoing plastic surgery have a realistic view of their body? (2) How urgent is the psychosocial need of adolescents to undergo plastic surgery? (3) Which relations exist between bodily attitudes and psychosocial functioning and personality? From 1995 to 1997, 184 plastic surgical patients aged 12 to 22, and a comparison group of 684 adolescents and young adults from the general population aged 12 to 22 years, and their parents, were interviewed and completed questionnaires and standardised rating scales. Adolescents accepted for plastic surgery had realistic appearance attitudes and were psychologically healthy overall. Patients were equally satisfied with their overall appearance as the comparison group, but more dissatisfied with the specific body parts concerned for operation, especially when undergoing corrective operations. Patients had measurable appearance-related psychosocial problems. Patient boys reported less self-confidence on social areas than all other groups. There were very few patient-comparison group differences in correlations between bodily and psychosocial variables, indicating that bodily attitudes and satisfaction are not differentially related to psychosocial functioning and self-perception in patients than in peers. We concluded that adolescents accepted for plastic surgery have considerable appearance-related psychosocial problems, patients in the corrective group reporting more so than in the reconstructive group. Plastic surgeons may assume that these adolescents in general have a realistic attitude towards their appearance. are psychologically healthy, and are mainly dissatisfied about the body parts concerned for operation. corrective patients more so than reconstructive patients. Introverted patients may need more attention from plastic surgeons during the psychosocial assessment.
Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Schaller, H-E; Medved, F; Lüers, J-C
The Internet is becoming increasing-ly important as a source of information for patients in medical issues. However, many patients have problems to adequately understand texts, especially with medical content. A basic requirement to understand a written text is the read-ability of a text. The aim of the present study was to examine texts on the websites of German -plastic-surgical hospitals with patient information regarding their readability. In this study, the read-ability of texts of 27 major departments of plastic and Hand surgery in Germany was systematically analysed using 5 recognised readability indices. First, texts were searched based on 20 representative key words and themes. Thereafter, texts were assigned to one of 3 major themes in order to enable statistical analysis. In addition to the 5 readability indices, further objective text parameters were also recorded. Overall, 288 texts were found for analyzation. Most articles were found on the topic of "handsurgery" (n=124), less were found for "facial plastic surgery" (n=80) and "flaps, breast and reconstructive surgery" (n=84). Consistently, all readability indices showed a poor readability for the vast majority of analysed texts with the text appearing readable only for readers with a higher educational level. No significant differences in readability were found between the 3 major themes. Especially in the communication of medical information, it is important to consider the knowledge and education of the addressee. The texts studied consistently showed a readability that is understandable only for academics. Thus, a large part of the intended target group is probably not reached. In order to adequately deliver online information material, a revision of the analysed internet texts appears to be recommendable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The history of pediatric plastic surgery is linked to that of paediatrics. Until the early 19th century, there was no children's hospital. Only some operations were performed before the discovery of anesthesia, aseptic and antisepsis: cleft lip repair, amputation for polydactyly. Many operations were described in the 19th century for cleft lip and palate repair, hypospadias, syndactylies. The first operation for protruding ears was performed in 1881. Pediatric plastic surgery is diversified in the 2nd half of the 20th century: cleft lip and palate, burns, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery become separate parts of the speciality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yirong; Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.
Background: Plastic surgery has a well-known history of innovative procedures and products. However, with the rise in competition, such as aesthetic procedures being performed by other medical specialties, there is a need for continued innovation in plastic surgery to create novel treatments to advance this specialty. Although many articles introduce innovative technologies and procedures, there is a paucity of publications to highlight the application of principles of innovation in plastic surgery. Methods: We review the literature regarding business strategies for innovation. Results: We evaluate concepts of innovation, process of innovation (idea generation, idea evaluation, idea conversion, idea diffusion and adoption), ethical issues, and the application to plastic surgery. Conclusions: Adopting a business model of innovation is helpful to promote a new paradigm of progress to propel plastic surgery to new avenues of creativity. PMID:23897344
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Hultman, Charles Scott; Gilland, Wendell G; Weir, Samuel
Inefficient patient throughput in a surgery practice can result in extended new patient backlogs, excessively long cycle times in the outpatient clinics, poor patient satisfaction, decreased physician productivity, and loss of potential revenue. This project assesses the efficacy of multiple throughput interventions in an academic, plastic surgery practice at a public university. We implemented a Patient Access and Efficiency (PAcE) initiative, funded and sponsored by our health care system, to improve patient throughput in the outpatient surgery clinic. Interventions included: (1) creation of a multidisciplinary team, led by a project redesign manager, that met weekly; (2) definition of goals, metrics, and target outcomes; 3) revision of clinic templates to reflect actual demand; 4) working down patient backlog through group visits; 5) booking new patients across entire practice; 6) assigning a physician's assistant to the preoperative clinic; and 7) designating a central scheduler to coordinate flow of information. Main outcome measures included: patient satisfaction using Press-Ganey surveys; complaints reported to patient relations; time to third available appointment; size of patient backlog; monthly clinic volumes with utilization rates and supply/demand curves; "chaos" rate (cancellations plus reschedules, divided by supply, within 48 hours of booked clinic date); patient cycle times with bottleneck analysis; physician productivity measured by work Relative Value Units (wRVUs); and downstream financial effects on billing, collection, accounts receivable (A/R), and payer mix. We collected, managed, and analyzed the data prospectively, comparing the pre-PAcE period (6 months) with the PAcE period (6 months). The PAcE initiative resulted in multiple improvements across the entire plastic surgery practice. Patient satisfaction increased only slightly from 88.5% to 90.0%, but the quarterly number of complaints notably declined from 17 to 9. Time to third
Huis In 't Veld, Eva A; Canales, Francisco L; Furnas, Heather J
In the patient-driven market of aesthetic surgery, an understanding of the factors that patients consider in their choice of surgeon can inform the individual plastic surgeon's marketing strategy. Previous studies have investigated patient gender preferences for physicians in other specialties, but none has investigated whether patients consider gender when choosing a plastic surgeon. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a plastic surgeon's gender on patient choice. A prospective study was conducted in a single private practice of two plastic surgeons, one male and one female, both closely matched in training, experience, and reputation. Two hundred consecutive patients calling for a consultation were asked if they preferred a male or female doctor; their preference, age, and area(s) of interest were recorded. All patients were women. Nearly half (46%) had no gender preference, 26% requested a female surgeon, and 1% requested a male. Preference for a female surgeon was significant (Binomial-test: P < 0.001). The remaining 27% requested a specific doctor, with slightly more requesting (53.7%) the male surgeon by name, than requested the female surgeon by name (46.3%), a difference that was not statistically significant (P = 0.683). Most female patients interested in aesthetic surgery have no gender preference. Of those who do, nearly all requested a female plastic surgeon. More important than a plastic surgeon's gender, however, is a plastic surgeon's reputation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.
The 200th anniversary of K. F. Graefe's "Rhinoplasty," E. Zeis' naming of the specialty of plastic surgery in 1838, and the continuing discussion on what is plastic surgery have prompted this historical-conceptual review with a semantic insight into the meaning of the word "plastic." A literature search has revealed that this term contains dual aspects: artistic and philosophical. The progressive development of these two connotations can be traced from their origin in the ceramics and the myths of ancient Greeks to their metamorphoses in fine arts, science, and philosophy of plasticity of the modern day. Although the names of plastic procedures and the title of the specialty carry both the artistic and philosophical features, the philosophical notion is less evident. This article underlines the importance of etymology in the interpretation of the concept of plastic surgery. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming
We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Larson, Kelsey E; Gastman, Brian
In the last several years, federal funding has become increasingly difficult to obtain. The purpose of this project was to define the level of federal funding among plastic surgeons in the modern era. The authors evaluated members of the Plastic Surgery Research Council because of their expected invested interested in research. The authors collected information from 1998 to 2012 on funding using curricula vitae and publically available online tools. Data on Plastic Surgery Foundation funding was also collected to determine its role in supporting federally funded investigators. Of 256 individuals, the authors found 41 to be primary investigators on federally funded grants, with the majority receiving one to two awards. Common subtypes of awards included National Institutes of Health R01 (n = 15), K08 (n = 9), and R21 (n = 6). Limited funding from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense was identified. Despite a steady number of available National Institutes of Health awards, plastic surgery recipients have grown in number over the past 15 years. In a review of 20 years of Plastic Surgery Foundation awards, 113 Plastic Surgery Research Council members (44.1 percent) were awardees, averaging 1.8 awards per person. Twenty-nine Plastic Surgery Foundation awardees were also recipients of federal funding; 12 individuals received federal funding without prior Plastic Surgery Foundation funding. A search of plastic surgeons indicates a limited but increasing number of individuals receive federal funding. Plastic Surgery Foundation awards appear to be helpful in supporting investigators as they move to larger federal awards.
Wheeler, Chad K; Said, Hakim; Prucz, Roni; Rodrich, Rod J; Mathes, David W
Social media is a common term for web-based applications that offer a way to disseminate information to a targeted audience in real time. In the current market, many businesses are utilizing it to communicate with clients. Although the field of plastic surgery is constantly changing in response to innovative technologies introduced into the specialty, the utilization of social media in plastic surgery practices is currently unclear. The authors evaluate the current attitudes and practices of aesthetic surgeons to emerging social media technology and compare these to attitudes about more traditional modes of communication. A 19-question web-based survey was disseminated by e-mail to all board-certified or board-eligible American plastic surgeons (n = 4817). Respondents were asked to answer questions on three topics: (1) their use of social media in their personal and professional lives, (2) their various forms of practice marketing, and (3) their demographic information. There were 1000 responses (20.8%). Results showed that 28.2% of respondents used social media in their practice, while 46.7% used it in their personal life. Most plastic surgeons managed their social media themselves or through a staff member. The majority of respondents who used social media in their practice claimed that their efforts were directed toward patient referrals. The typical plastic surgery practice that used social media was a solo practice in a large city with a focus on cosmetic surgery. Local competition of plastic surgeons did not correlate with social media use. Most plastic surgeons (88%) advertised, but the form of marketing varied. The most common forms included websites, print, and search engine optimization, but other modalities, such as television, radio, and billboards, were still utilized. Social media represents a new avenue that many plastic surgeons are utilizing, although with trepidation. As social media becomes commonplace in society, its role in plastic surgery
Davis, Drew; Lee, Gordon
As of 2006, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education had defined six "core competencies" of residency education: interpersonal communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Objective structured clinical examinations using standardized patients are becoming effective educational tools, and the authors developed a novel use of the examinations in plastic surgery residency education that assesses all six competencies. Six plastic surgery residents, two each from postgraduate years 4, 5, and 6, participated in the plastic surgery-specific objective structured clinical examination that focused on melanoma. The examination included a 30-minute videotaped encounter with a standardized patient actor and a postencounter written exercise. The residents were scored on their performance in all six core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts on a three-point scale (1 = novice, 2 = moderately skilled, and 3 = proficient). Resident performance was averaged for each postgraduate year, stratified according to core competency, and scored from a total of 100 percent. Residents overall scored well in interpersonal communications skills (84 percent), patient care (83 percent), professionalism (86 percent), and practice-based learning (84 percent). Scores in medical knowledge showed a positive correlation with level of training (86 percent). All residents scored comparatively lower in systems-based practice (65 percent). The residents reported unanimously that the objective structured clinical examination was realistic and educational. The objective structured clinical examination provided comprehensive and meaningful feedback and identified areas of strengths and weakness for the residents and for the teaching program. The examination is an effective assessment tool for the core competencies and a valuable adjunct to residency training.
Lopez, Joseph; Calotta, Nicholas; Doshi, Ankur; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; May, James W; Tufaro, Anthony P
The purpose of this study is to determine and characterize the scientific and nonscientific factors that influence the rate of article citation in the field of plastic surgery. Cross-sectional study. We reviewed all entries in Annals of Plastic Surgery and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007; and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. All scientific articles were analyzed and several article characteristics were extracted. The number of citations at 5 years was collected as the outcome variable. A multivariable analysis was performed to determine which variables were associated with higher citations rates. A total of 2456 articles were identified of which only 908 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies were publications in the fields of reconstructive (26.3%) or pediatric/craniofacial (17.6%) surgery. The median number of citations 5 years from publication was 8. In the multivariable analysis, factors associated with higher citations rates were subspecialty field (p = 0.0003), disclosed conflict of interest (p = 0.04), number of authors (p = 0.04), and journal (p = 0.02). We have found that higher level of evidence (or other study methodology factors) is not associated with higher citation rates. Instead, conflict of interest, subspecialty topic, journal, and number of authors are strong predictors of high citation rates in plastic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freshwater, M Felix
September 2014 marked the bicentennial of the birth of modern plastic surgery. It was then that Carpue began a prospective observational study of nasal reconstruction that culminated in his 1816 monograph, which caused an explosion of interest in reconstructive surgery throughout Europe. In conducting his study, Carpue demonstrated ethical standards and the power of planning a procedure. His methods to document his results accurately would remain unsurpassed until photography was adopted at the end of the 19th century. Carpue took an apocryphal story of surgery performed in India more than twenty years earlier and transformed it into the beginning of modern plastic surgery. He succeeded in a number of unrecognized tasks that are themselves landmarks not only in plastic surgical history, but surgical history: devising the first prospective observational study, using exclusion criteria, maintaining appropriate patient confidentiality, setting a standard for preoperative disclosure and ethical approval over a century before these measures were codified, having independent documentation of his preoperative and postoperative findings, devising a method to objectively monitor and document the forehead flap, and describing the potential value of tissue expansion. He shared his experience by publishing his results and by lecturing in Europe. His contemporaries recognized him for his contributions and he was honored by election to the Royal Society. Carpue launched the modern era of plastic surgery in an ethical, logical, and objective manner. While plastic surgery has changed in the last two centuries, the principles that Carpue followed remain valid. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.
Silvestre, Jason; Wu, Liza C; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M
An increasing number of women are entering the medical profession, but plastic surgery remains a male-dominated profession, especially within academia. As academic aspirations and advancement depend largely on research productivity, the authors assessed the number of articles authored by women published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Original articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery published during the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2014 were analyzed. First and senior authors with an M.D. degree and U.S. institutional affiliation were categorized by gender. Authorship trends were compared with those from other specialties. Findings were placed in the context of gender trends among plastic surgery residents in the United States. The percentage of female authors in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery increased from 2.4 percent in 1970 to 13.3 percent in 2014. Over the same time period, the percentage of female plastic surgery residents increased from 2.6 percent to 32.5 percent. By 2014, there were more female first authors (19.1 percent) than senior authors (7.7 percent) (p < 0.001). As a field, plastic surgery had fewer female authors than other medical specialties including pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, general surgery, internal medicine, and radiation oncology (p < 0.05). The increase in representation of female authors in plastic surgery is encouraging but lags behind advances in other specialties. Understanding reasons for these trends may help improve gender equity in academic plastic surgery.
Barker, Jenny C; Rendon, Juan; Janis, Jeffrey E
Mentorship is a universal concept that has a significant impact on nearly every surgical career. Although frequently editorialized, true data investigating the value of mentorship are lacking in the plastic surgery literature. This study evaluates mentorship in plastic surgery from the medical student perspective. An electronic survey was sent to recently matched postgraduate year-1 integrated track residents in 2014, with a response rate of 76 percent. Seventy-seven percent of students reported a mentoring relationship. Details of the mentoring relationship were defined. Over 80 percent of students reported a mentor's influence in their decision to pursue plastic surgery, and nearly 40 percent of students expressed interest in practicing the same subspecialty as their mentor. Benefits of the relationship were also described. Mentees value guidance around career preparation and advice and prioritized "a genuine interest in their career and personal development" above all other mentor qualities (p ≤ 1.6 × 10). Mentees prefer frequent, one-on-one interactions over less frequent interaction or group activities. Students did not prefer "assigned" relationships (91 percent), but did prefer "facilitated exposure." Major barriers to mentorship included mentor time constraints and lack of exposure to plastic surgery. Indeed, significant differences in the presence of a mentoring relationship correlated with involvement of the plastic surgery department in the medical school curriculum. This study defines successes and highlights areas for improvement of mentorship of plastic surgery medical students. Successful mentorship may contribute to the future of plastic surgery, and a commitment toward this endeavor is needed at the local, departmental, and national leadership levels.
Qureshi, Ali A; Parikh, Rajiv P; Myckatyn, Terence M; Tenenbaum, Marissa M
Comprehensive aesthetic surgery education is an integral part of plastic surgery residency training. Recently, the ACGME increased minimum requirements for aesthetic procedures in residency. To expand aesthetic education and prepare residents for independent practice, our institution has supported a resident cosmetic clinic for over 25 years. To evaluate the safety of procedures performed through a resident clinic by comparing outcomes to benchmarked national aesthetic surgery outcomes and to provide a model for resident clinics in academic plastic surgery institutions. We identified a consecutive cohort of patients who underwent procedures through our resident cosmetic clinic between 2010 and 2015. Major complications, as defined by CosmetAssure database, were recorded and compared to published aesthetic surgery complication rates from the CosmetAssure database for outcomes benchmarking. Fisher's exact test was used to compare sample proportions. Two hundred and seventy-one new patients were evaluated and 112 patients (41.3%) booked surgery for 175 different aesthetic procedures. There were 55 breast, 19 head and neck, and 101 trunk or extremity aesthetic procedures performed. The median number of preoperative and postoperative visits was 2 and 4 respectively with a mean follow-up time of 35 weeks. There were 3 major complications (2 hematomas and 1 infection requiring IV antibiotics) with an overall complication rate of 1.7% compared to 2.0% for patients in the CosmetAssure database (P = .45). Surgical outcomes for procedures performed through a resident cosmetic clinic are comparable to national outcomes for aesthetic surgery procedures, suggesting this experience can enhance comprehensive aesthetic surgery education without compromising patient safety or quality of care. 4 Risk. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the
Freshwater, M Felix
The second decade of the 20th century saw the publication of two landmark books - John Staige Davis' Plastic Surgery its Principles and Practice published in Philadelphia in 1919 and Major Harold Gillies' Plastic Surgery of the Face published in the United Kingdom early 1920. The aim of this paper is to compare the books critically as scholarly achievements in their time and note their present day relevance. Copies of both books are available online having been scanned by Google and Microsoft. They were analyzed with Acrobat software for key words. A senior plastic surgeon with over 30 years of clinical experience reviewed both books for current relevance. Davis' book was more comprehensive as it encompassed reconstructive plastic surgery from head to toe while Gillies' book focused on the face. Davis' book contained a bibliography over 2000 references, while Gillies' book had one reference. Despite Davis's title containing the word 'Principles', Gillies' book not only mentioned principles almost five times as often, but almost all of Gillies' principles remain relevant 90 years later. Furthermore, the quality of Gillies' post-operative results are far outshines to Davis'. While Davis' book demonstrates his honesty and scholarship, now it is as interesting as a historical curiosity. Gillies' book remains valuable as it shows his originality and the continued relevance of his principles. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Andrew W; Ishii, Lisa; Joseph, Shannon S; Smith, Jane I; Su, Peiyi; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick; Boahene, Kofi; Papel, Ira; Kontis, Theda; Douglas, Raymond; Nelson, Christine C; Ishii, Masaru
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relative contraindication for facial plastic surgery, but formal screening is not common in practice. The prevalence of BDD in patients seeking facial plastic surgery is not well documented. To establish the prevalence of BDD across facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practice settings, and estimate the ability of surgeons to screen for BDD. This multicenter prospective study recruited a cohort of 597 patients who presented to academic and private facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practices from March 2015 to February 2016. All patients were screened for BDD using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ). After each clinical encounter, surgeons independently evaluated the likelihood that a participating patient had BDD. Validated instruments were used to assess satisfaction with facial appearance including the FACE-Q, Blepharoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (BOE), Facelift Outcomes Evaluation (FOE), Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE), and Skin Rejuvenation Outcomes Evaluation (SROE). Across participating practices (9 surgeons, 3 sites), a total of 597 patients were screened for BDD: 342 patients from site 1 (mean [SD] age, 44.2 [16.5] years); 158 patients, site 2 (mean [SD] age, 46.0 [16.2] years), site 3, 97 patients (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [15.5] years). Overall, 58 patients [9.7%] screened positive for BDD by the BDDQ instrument, while only 16 of 402 patients [4.0%] were clinically suspected of BDD by surgeons. A higher percentage of patients presenting for cosmetic surgery (37 of 283 patients [13.1%]) compared with those presenting for reconstructive surgery (21 of 314 patients [6.7%]) screened positive on the BDDQ (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.20-3.68; P = .01). Surgeons were only able to correctly identify 2 of 43 patients (4.7%) who screened positive for BDD on the BDDQ, and the positive likelihood ratio was only 1.19 (95% CI, 0.28-5.07). Patients screening positive for BDD by the BDDQ had lower
Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair
Introduction. "See and treat" one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service.
Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair
Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. PMID:26236502
Khansa, Ibrahim; Janis, Jeffrey E
Modern plastic surgery resident education demands the acquisition of an ever-increasing fund of knowledge and familiarity with more surgical techniques than ever before. This all must take place within the context and boundaries of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-mandated restrictions on work hours as well as balance of education and service. Technological resources have been developed and can be used to complement the skills that residents acquire while performing their day-to-day activities such as taking care of patients, reading textbooks and journal articles, and assisting or performing surgical procedures. Those complementary resources provide the benefits of portability and accessibility, and can thus be conveniently incorporated into the hectic daily life of a resident. This article presents a summary of the most commonly used currently available advanced technologies in plastic surgery resident education, and suggestions for integration of those technologies into a curriculum.
Hamilton, Grant S; Carrithers, Jeffrey S; Karnell, Lucy H
To investigate potential differences in perception of the terms "cosmetic," "plastic," and "reconstructive" as descriptors for surgery. An anonymous questionnaire was offered to subjects over 18 years of age throughout the Unites States via the Internet and in person. The multiple-choice survey measured variables including permanence, risk, expense, recovery, reversibility, pain, technical difficulty, and surgeon training. The questionnaire also included several open-ended questions to capture qualitative perceptions. Semantic differential data were analyzed to measure statistical significance. For most variables--permanence, risk, recovery, reversibility, pain, and surgeon training--the 216 subjects had significantly lower mean responses for cosmetic surgery than those for plastic or reconstructive surgery (P < .002). Overall, the results of this study support the authors' hypothesis that there is a significant difference in perception of cosmetic surgery and plastic or reconstructive surgery. Cosmetic surgery is perceived to be more temporary and less technically difficult than plastic or reconstructive surgery. In addition, cosmetic surgery is believed to be associated with less risk, shorter recovery time, and less pain. Subjects also thought that cosmetic surgeons required significantly less training than plastic or reconstructive surgeons.
Simmons, Brian J; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Askari, Morad; Birnbach, David J; Shekhter, Ilya; Thaller, Seth R
Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have proven to be a powerful tool. They possess more than a 30-year track record in assessing the competency of medical students, residents, and fellows. Objective structured clinical examinations have been used successfully in a variety of medical specialties, including surgery. They have recently found their way into the subspecialty of plastic surgery. This article uses a systematic review of the available literature on OSCEs and their recent use in plastic surgery. It incorporates survey results assessing program directors' views on the use of OSCEs. Approximately 40% of programs surveyed use OSCEs to assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. We found that 40% use OSCEs to evaluate specific plastic surgery milestones. Objective structured clinical examinations are usually performed annually. They cost anywhere between $100 and more than $1000 per resident. Four milestones giving residents the most difficulties on OSCEs were congenital anomalies, noncancer breast surgery, breast reconstruction, and practice-based learning and improvement. It was determined that challenges with milestones were due to lack of adequate general knowledge and surgical ward patient care, as well as deficits in professionalism and system-based problems. Programs were able to remediate weakness found by OSCEs using a variety of methods. Objective structured clinical examinations offer a unique tool to objectively assess the proficiency of residents in key areas of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. In addition, they can be used to assess the specific milestones that plastic surgery residents must meet. This allows programs to identify and improve identified areas of weakness.
Giuglea, Carmen; Marinescu, Sllviu; Florescu, Ioan Petre; Jecan, Crenguta
Pressure sores can be defined as lesions caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of the underlying tissue. They represent a common problem in the pathology of plegic patients and, plastic surgery has a significant role in their treatment. Pressure sores occur over bony prominences and so, they are most commonly seen at the sacrum and trochanters in paralyzed patients and at ischium for the patients who sit in a wheelchair for a long time. For these patients, surgical treatment is very important because on one hand, it stops the loss of nutrients and proteins at the site of the pressure sore, and on the other hand, it permits the initiation of neuromuscular recuperation treatment much faster.
Hume, Keith M.; Crotty, Catherine A.; Simmons, Christopher J.; Neumeister, Michael W.; Chung, Kevin C.
Clinical data registries are commonly used worldwide and are implemented for a variety of purposes ranging from physician or facility clinic logs for tracking patients, collecting outcomes data, to measuring quality improvement or safety of medical devices. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has used data collected through registries to facilitate the drug and device regulatory process, ongoing surveillance during the product life-cycle, and for disease appraisals. Furthermore, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in certain instances, base registry participation and submitting data to registries as factors for reimbursement decisions. The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of clinical data registries, the role that medical specialty societies, in particular the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and The Plastic Surgery Foundation, can have in the development and management of registries, and the opportunities for registry use in Plastic Surgery. As outcomes data are becoming essential measures of quality healthcare delivery, participating in registry development and centralized data collection has become a critical effort for Plastic Surgery to engage in to proactively participate in the national quality and performance measurement agenda. PMID:23806935
The CO2 laser has broad clinical application yet also presents a number of practical disadvantages. These drawbacks have limited the success and utilization of this laser in plastic surgery. Flashscanner technology has recently been used for char-free CO2 laser surgery of the oropharynx, the external female genital tract, and perirectal mucosa. A commercially available optomechanical flashscanner unit `Swiftlase,' was adapted to a CO2 laser and used for treatment in numerous plastic surgical applications. Conditions and situations that were treated in this study included generalized neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, rhinophyma, viral warts, breast reconstruction, and deepithelialization prior to microsurgery or local flap transfer and/or skin graft placement. There were no significant wound healing complications. Some patients previously sustained undue scarring from conventional CO2 laser surgery. Conservative, primarily ablative CO2 laser surgery with the Swiftlase has usefulness for treatment of patients in plastic surgery including those that were previously unsuccessfully treated.
Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F
Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chung, Christina K; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Lee, Gordon K
Previous studies in other medical specialties have shown a significant percentage of publications represented in residency applications are not actually published. A comprehensive evaluation of applicants to plastic surgery residency over an extended period has not been previously reported in the literature. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of misrepresented or "phantom" publications in plastic surgery residency applicants and to identify possible predisposing characteristics. We used the Electronic Residency Application Services database to our plastic surgery residency program during a 4-year period from 2006 to 2009. Applicant demographic information and listed citations were extracted. Peer-reviewed journal article citations were verified using robust methods including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, and Google. Unverifiable articles were categorized as phantom publications and then evaluated with respect to applicant demographic information and characteristics. During the 4-year study period, there were 804 applications (average, 201 applicants per year). There was a total of 4725 publications listed; of which, 1975 had been categorized as peer-reviewed journal articles. Two hundred seventy-six (14%) of peer-reviewed publications could not be verified and were categorized as phantom publications. There was an overall significant positive trend in percentage of phantom publications during the 4 application years (P = 0.005). A positive predictive factor for having phantom publications was being a foreign medical graduate (P = 0.02). A negative predictive factor for phantom publications was being a female applicant (P = 0.03). There also appeared to be a positive correlation with the number of publications listed and likelihood of phantom publications. Among plastic surgery residency applicants, we found a significant percentage of unverifiable publications. There are several possible explanations for
Silvestre, Jason; Zhang, Alicia; Lin, Samuel J
The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam is a knowledge assessment tool widely used during plastic surgery training in the United States. This study analyzed literature supporting correct answer choices to determine highest yield sources, journal publication lag, and journal impact factors. Digital syllabi of 10 consecutive Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam administrations (2006 to 2015) were reviewed. The most-referenced articles, journals, and textbooks were determined. Mean journal impact factor and publication lag were calculated and differences were elucidated by section. Two thousand questions and 5386 references were analyzed. From 2006 to 2015, the percentage of journal citations increased, whereas textbook references decreased (p < 0.001). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was cited with greatest frequency (38.5 percent), followed by Clinics in Plastic Surgery (5.6 percent), Journal of Hand Surgery (American volume) (5.1 percent), and Annals of Plastic Surgery (3.8 percent). There was a trend toward less publication lag over the study period (p = 0.05), with a mean publication lag of 9.1 ± 9.0 years for all journal articles. Mean journal impact factor was 2.3 ± 4.3 and lowest for the hand and lower extremity section (1.7 ± 2.8; p < 0.001). The highest yield textbooks were elucidated by section. Plastic surgery faculty and residents may use these data to facilitate knowledge acquisition during residency.
Chandawarkar, Akash A; Gould, Daniel J; Stevens, W Grant
Ethical guidelines for appropriate use of social media are beginning to be delineated. As social media becomes ingrained in plastic surgery culture, education of residents on appropriate use of social media is increasingly important. Recently, plastic surgery residency programs have begun to utilize social media. This study characterizes the trends and content of plastic surgery residency-associated Instagram accounts. Active individual residency program Instagram accounts were identified for integrated plastic surgery programs. Metrics for each account were retrieved on September 16, 2017, including date of first post, number of posts, and followers. Individual posts were analyzed for content of post. Fourteen of 67 (21%) integrated plastic surgery programs were found to have active Instagram accounts. There has been an exponential growth of programs adopting Instagram since August 2015. A total of 806 posts were created. Thirty-two (3.97%) posts had intraoperative photos and only one (0.12%) showed a patient image. There were 4466 followers of plastic surgery residency programs. A linear correlation was found between number of posts and number of followers, while there was no correlation of number of followers and time since account start. Instagram use by plastic surgery integrated programs continues to grow exponentially, and programs are appropriately using the platform. Active use of the resident social media results in increased influence. Resident use of social media has many benefits. We propose social media guidelines for plastic surgery trainees and advocate for continued appropriate use and auto-regulation by plastic surgery trainees.
Gill, Patwinder; Bruscino-Raiola, Frank; Leung, Michael
This study aims to assess the public's understanding of the scope of the practice of plastic surgeons, to determine if there is a need to increase awareness of the nature of a plastic surgeon's work. A cross-sectional study was performed. Participants were systematically selected from the White Pages for a telephone survey. The participants' demographics were recorded. Participants were excluded if they or anyone they knew had prior interactions with a plastic surgeon. Participants selected the most common area of specialization of plastic surgeons. The final set of questions determined their choice of surgeon in three different scenarios: breast reduction, excision of skin cancer from the facial region and hand trauma. Two hundred and thirteen of the 257 participants were eligible to complete the survey. Sixty-five per cent were female, with 38% between the ages of 46 and 65 years. The dominant field of practice was reconstructive surgery (36%). Just 19% of participants would consult plastic surgeons across the three clinical scenarios. Dermatologists (47%) were chosen over plastic surgeons (24%) to excise skin cancers from the face. Breast surgeons (53%) were chosen over plastic surgeons (23%) to perform breast reduction surgery. In hand trauma, 58% of participants would consult a hand surgeon and merely 10% would consult with plastic surgeons. The general public's understanding of plastic surgery is poor. This may be linked to the misunderstanding of specialist titles and lack of education regarding this field.
Clarke, A; Lester, K J; Withey, S J; Butler, P E M
Appearance related distress in both clinical and general populations is associated with the increasing identification of surgery as a solution, leading to referrals for cosmetic surgery and pressure on NHS resources. Cosmetic surgery guidelines are designed to control this growing demand, but lack a sound evidence base. Where exceptions are provided on the basis of psychological need, this may recruit patients inappropriately into a surgical pathway, and creates a demand for psychological assessment which transfers the resource problem from one service to another. The model described below evaluates the impact of a designated psychology service to a plastic surgery unit. Developing an operational framework for delivering cosmetic guidelines, which assesses patients using clearly defined and measurable outcomes, has significantly reduced numbers of patients proceeding to the NHS waiting list and provided a systematic audit process. The associated cost savings have provided a way of funding a psychologist within the plastic surgery service so that psychological assessment becomes routine, alternative methods of treatment are easily available and all patients have access to psychological input as part of the routine standard of care.
Tanna, Neil; Patel, Nitin J; Azhar, Hamdan; Granzow, Jay W
The great breadth of the specialty of plastic surgery is often misunderstood by practitioners in other specialties and by the public at large. The authors investigate the perceptions of primary care physicians in training toward the practice of different areas of plastic and reconstructive surgery. A short, anonymous, Web-based survey was administered to residents of internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics training programs in the United States. Respondents were asked to choose the specialist they perceived to be an expert for six specific clinical areas, including eyelid surgery, cleft lip and palate surgery, facial fractures, hand surgery, rhinoplasty, and skin cancer of the face. Specialists for selection included the following choices: dermatologist, general surgeon, ophthalmologist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, otolaryngologist, and plastic surgeon. A total of 1020 usable survey responses were collected. Respondents believed the following specialists were experts for eyelid surgery (plastic surgeon, 70 percent; ophthalmologist, 59 percent; oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 15 percent; dermatologist, 5 percent; and otolaryngologist, 5 percent); cleft lip and palate surgery (oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 78 percent; plastic surgeon, 57 percent; and otolaryngologist, 36 percent); facial fractures (oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 88 percent; plastic surgeon, 36 percent; otolaryngologist, 30 percent; orthopedic surgeon, 11 percent; general surgeon, 3 percent; and ophthalmologist, 2 percent); hand surgery (orthopedic surgeon, 76 percent; plastic surgeon, 52 percent; and general surgeon, 7 percent); rhinoplasty (plastic surgeon, 76 percent; otolaryngologist, 45 percent; and oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 18 percent); and skin cancer of the face (dermatologist, 89 percent; plastic surgeon, 35 percent; oral and maxillofacial surgeon, 9 percent; otolaryngologist, 8 percent; and general surgeon, 7 percent). As the field of plastic
The National Health Service (NHS) provides treatment free at the point of delivery to patients. Elective medical procedures in England are funded by 149 independent Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), which are each responsible for patients within a defined geographical area. There is wide variation of availability for many treatments, leading to a "postcode lottery" for healthcare provision in England. The aims were to review funding policies for cosmetic procedures, to evaluate the criteria used to decide eligibility against national guidelines, and to evaluate the extent of any postcode lottery for cosmetic surgery on the National Health Service. This study is the first comprehensive review of funding policies for cosmetic surgery in England. All PCTs in England were asked for their funding policies for cosmetic procedures including breast reduction & augmentation, removal of implants, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, facelift, blepharoplasty, rhinoplasty, pinnaplasty, body lifting, surgery for gynaecomastia and tattoo removal. Details of policies were received from 124/149 PCTs (83%). Guidelines varied widely; some refuse all procedures, whilst others allow a full range. Different and sometimes contradictory rules governing symptoms, body mass indices, breast sizes, weights, heights, and other criteria are used to assess patients for funding. Nationally produced guidelines were only followed by nine PCTs. A "postcode lottery" exists in the UK for plastic surgery procedures, despite national guidelines. Some of the more interesting findings are highlighted.
Fraser, S. J.; Al Youha, S.; Rasmussen, P. J.
Background: Plastic surgery as a discipline is poorly understood by many, including primary care physicians, nurses, medical students, and the public. These misconceptions affect the specialty in a number of ways, including referral patterns and recruitment of medical students into residency programs. The reason for these commonly held misconceptions has not yet been addressed in the plastic surgery literature. As such, we assessed medical students’ knowledge and perceptions of plastic surgery as a discipline and explored factors influencing these opinions. Methods: To assess medical students’ knowledge and perceptions of plastic surgery, we conducted an online survey. A total of 231 medical students responded. Interviews were then conducted with 2 focus groups, in which we explored the survey results and reasons behind these misconceptions. Results: As with previous studies, medical students showed a gap in knowledge with respect to plastic surgery. Although they were generally aware that plastic surgeons perform cosmetic procedures and treat burns, they were largely unaware that plastic surgeons perform hand and craniofacial surgeries. Focus groups revealed that television plays a large role in shaping their ideas of plastic surgery. Conclusion: Medical students have a skewed perception of the discipline of plastic surgery, and this is largely influenced by television. Interventions aimed at educating medical students on the matter are recommended, including a greater presence in the preclerkship medical school curriculum. PMID:29026812
Heyward-Chaplin, Jessica; Shepherd, Laura; Arya, Reza; O'Boyle, Ciaran P
Rates of self-harm injuries are considered to be increasing. The attitudes of healthcare staff towards patients who self-harm may be negative and a small amount of research specifically investigating burns and plastic surgery healthcare professionals has recently been conducted exploring this issue. This study aimed to determine attitudes towards and adherence to national guidance by healthcare professionals in a UK burns and plastic surgery department with respect to patients who self-harm. An audit questionnaire, completed in a designated Burns Unit and plastic surgery department, within a UK hospital with a major trauma centre. Data were obtained from 59 healthcare professionals. The majority of responders held positive attitudes towards those who had self-harmed. However, a significant minority held negative attitudes, stating that they found it difficult to be compassionate (10%; n = 6) and believing that patients usually self-harm to get attention (9%; n = 5). One-fifth (n = 12) agreed that, on a departmental level, conservative management (as opposed to surgery) was offered more frequently for self-harm injuries compared with accidental injuries, contrary to national guidance. Awareness of national guidance in relation to self-harm injuries was markedly lacking, in only 12% (n = 7/59) and the frequency of completing relevant training was low (34%, n = 20/59). Education among healthcare professionals is important, to ensure adherence to best practice. The findings of this study strongly suggest that many healthcare professionals do not know the current best practice. As a result, these highly vulnerable patients may be receiving sub-optimal care, with consequentially poor outcomes.
Leavitt, Adam; Pace, Elizabeth; Reintgen, Christian; Mast, Bruce A
Medical research has a long history of joint venture between commercial entities and nonindustry researchers. Significant concern exists among accrediting bodies for medical education and federal granting agencies that conflicts of interest (COIs) exist that affect the validity of the research. This study evaluates the legitimacy of this concern.All clinical breast and cosmetic articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Annals of Plastic Surgery were reviewed for calendar year 2013. If a financial disclosure was present, the article was then reviewed to determine if the subject/findings were in favor of the commercial conflict and, if so, whether the study was valid. To assess plastic surgery versus other specialties, articles from Dermatology and Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery were similarly reviewed from January to April of 2013.Two hundred seventy-two clinical articles were reviewed. Only 15 (5.5%) had a true COI: the article's findings favored the commercial interest of at least 1 author: for each journal, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 7.7%; Annals of Plastic Surgery, 3.3%; Dermatology, 2.2%; Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 7.5%. Conflicts of interest were not statistically significant between pooled articles of plastic surgery versus dermatology/orthopedics. However, COI was statistically greater (P = 0.05) in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery compared with Annals and Dermatology.Despite public and regulatory concerns, this assessment demonstrates that the peer-review process of leading journals polices true COIs. Published articles provide sound research despite presumed COIs. As such, the integrity and validity of published research remain high.
Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert
Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571
Weissler, Jason M; Stern, Carrie S; Schreiber, Jillian E; Amirlak, Bardia; Tepper, Oren M
Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.
Walden, Jennifer L; Phillips, Linda G
Plastic surgery is a broad-based discipline with emphasis on areas such as breast, craniomaxillofacial, burn, aesthetic, and hand surgery as well as complex wounds and wound healing. Plastic surgery as a specialty captures a great deal of media attention over many other fields of medicine, so education, training, and credentialing have become an area of national interest. The purpose of this article was to provide information on the organization, basic requirements for training, fellowship, and volunteer opportunities within the specialty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Jillian K.; Gao, Lani; Lee, Tara M.; Waldrop, Jimmy L.; Sargent, Larry A.; Kennedy, J. Woody; Rehm, Jason P.; Brzezienski, Mark A.
Background: Resident clinics are thought to catalyze educational milestone achievement through opportunities for progressively autonomous surgical care, but studies are lacking for general plastic surgery resident clinics (PSRCs). We demonstrate the achievement of increased surgical autonomy and continuity of care in a PSRC. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients seen in a PSRC from October 1, 2010, to October 1, 2015, was conducted. Our PSRC is supervised by faculty plastic surgery attendings, though primarily run by chief residents in an accredited independent plastic surgery training program. Surgical autonomy was scored on a 5-point scale based on dictated operative reports. Graduated chief residents were additionally surveyed by anonymous online survey. Results: Thousand one hundred forty-four patients were seen in 3,390 clinic visits. Six hundred fifty-three operations were performed by 23 total residents, including 10 graduating chiefs. Senior resident autonomy averaged 3.5/5 (SD = 1.5), 3.6/5 (SD = 1.5), to 3.8/5 (SD = 1.3) in postgraduate years 6, 7, and 8, respectively. A linear mixed model analysis demonstrated that training level had a significant impact on operative autonomy when comparing postgraduate years 6 and 8 (P = 0.026). Graduated residents’ survey responses (N = 10; 100% response rate) regarded PSRC as valuable for surgical experience (4.1/5), operative autonomy (4.4/5), medical knowledge development (4.7/5), and the practice of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies (4.3/5). Preoperative or postoperative continuity of care was maintained in 93.5% of cases. Conclusion: The achievement of progressive surgical autonomy may be demonstrated within a PSRC model. PMID:28607848
Alsarraf, Ramsey; Alsarraf, Nicole W; Larrabee, Wayne F; Johnson, Calvin M
To evaluate the relationship between cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedure price and demand, and to test the hypothesis that these procedures function as luxury goods in the marketplace, with an upward-sloping demand curve. Data were derived from a survey that was sent to every (N = 1727) active fellow, member, or associate of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, assessing the costs and frequency of 4 common cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures (face-lift, brow-lift, blepharoplasty, and rhinoplasty) for 1999 and 1989. An economic analysis was performed to assess the relationship of price and demand for these procedures. A significant association was found between increasing surgeons' fees and total charges for cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures and increasing demand for these procedures, as measured by their annual frequency (P=.003). After a multiple regression analysis correcting for confounding variables, this association of increased price with increased demand holds for each of the 4 procedures studied, across all US regions, and for both periods surveyed. Cosmetic facial plastic surgery procedures do appear to function as luxury goods in the marketplace, with an upward-sloping demand curve. This stands in contrast to other, traditional, goods for which demand typically declines as price increases. It appears that economic methods can be used to evaluate cosmetic procedure trends; however, these methods must be founded on the appropriate economic theory.
Luan, Anna; Momeni, Arash; Lee, Gordon K.
Cloud-based applications including Box, Dropbox, Google Drive, Evernote, Notability, and Zotero are available for smartphones, tablets, and laptops and have revolutionized the manner in which medical students and surgeons read and utilize plastic surgery literature. Here we provide an overview of the use of Cloud computing in practice and propose an algorithm for organizing the vast amount of plastic surgery literature. Given the incredible amount of data being produced in plastic surgery and other surgical subspecialties, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to lead the process of providing solutions for the efficient organization and effective integration of the ever-increasing data into clinical practice. PMID:26576208
Barnes, Zach J; Mahabir, Raman C
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infection and can result in increased health care costs, morbidity and even mortality. In 2009, The Scott & White Memorial Hospital/Texas A&M Health Science Center (Texas, USA) system’s CAUTI rate placed it in the upper quartile (ie, highest rate) for the country, necessitating a system-wide change. OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a guideline to reduce the incidence of CAUTI. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team was formed and completed both a root cause analysis and a review of the available literature. Consolidating the best evidence, the team formulated a best practice guideline detailing the proper indications for insertion of, improper use of and techniques to minimize infection with catheters. Included as part of this protocol was nursing and patient education, changes in identifying patients with a catheter and automatic termination orders. Three-, six- and 12-month reviews identifying additional opportunities for improvement at the end of 2010 were completed. RESULTS: In 2009, the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 1.46 per 1000 catheter days. In 2011 – the first complete year of the finalized guideline – the hospital’s CAUTI rate was 0.52 per 1000 catheter days, ranking the institution in the bottom quartile (ie, lowest rate) for the country. The surgery and plastic surgery subgroup analyses also demonstrated statistically significant reduction in both catheter use and CAUTI. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAUTI was successfully reduced at The Texas A&M Healthcare Center. The guideline, its development and how it applies to plastic surgery patients are discussed. PMID:24431946
LaGrasso, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, Debbie A; Hoehn, James G; Ashruf, Salmon; Przybyla, Adrian M
The purpose of this study was to identify those qualities and characteristics of fourth-year medical students applying for the Integrated Model of Plastic Surgery residency training that will make a successful plastic surgery resident. A three-part questionnaire was distributed to the training program directors of the 20 Integrated Model of Plastic Surgery programs accredited by the Residency Review Committee for Plastic Surgery by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education. The first section focused on 19 objective characteristics that directors use to evaluate applicants (e.g., Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society membership, United States Medical Licensing Examination scores). The second section consisted of 20 subjective characteristics commonly used to evaluate applicants during the interview process. The third section consisted of reasons why, if any, residents failed to successfully complete the training program. Fifteen of the 20 program directors responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that they considered membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society to be the most important objective criterion, followed by publications in peer-reviewed journals and letters of recommendation from plastic surgeons known to the director. Leadership capabilities were considered the most important subjective criterion, followed by maturity and interest in academics. Reasons residents failed to complete the training program included illness or death, academic inadequacies, and family demands. The authors conclude that applicants who have achieved high academic honors and demonstrate leadership ability with interest in academics were viewed most likely to succeed as plastic surgery residents by program directors of Integrated Model of Plastic Surgery residencies.
Therattil, Paul J; Hoppe, Ian C; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S
The h-index is a measure designed to assess the quantity and significance of an individual's academic contributions. The objective of this study was to determine whether the h-index of plastic surgeons correlates with academic rank and whether there is a difference based on academic rank, residency training model, sex, geographic region, faculty size, and departmental status. A database of all US academic plastic surgeons was created. The rank and sex of each surgeon were obtained, as were characteristics of their plastic surgery program. The Scopus database was queried to determine each surgeon's h-index. The 592 plastic surgeons in our database had a mean h-index of 8.97. The h-index increased with academic rank: 4.59 for assistant professors, 9.10 for associate professors, and 15.30 for professors. There was no significant difference in the h-index between chairpersons and chiefs. Plastic surgeons on faculty in integrated plastic surgery programs had significantly higher h-indices (9.64) than those at traditional programs (6.28). Those who were on faculty at larger programs also had higher h-indices. Male plastic surgeons had higher h-indices (9.57) than did female plastic surgeons (6.07), although this was insignificant when taking other variables into account. There was no correlation between the h-index and location or departmental status. The h-index of plastic surgeons seems to correlate with academic rank and has potential as a tool to measure academic productivity within plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons on faculty in integrated plastic surgery programs, those at larger programs, and male plastic surgeons tend to have higher h-indices. The difference between sexes seems to be, at least in part, due to the higher number of men in high academic positions. There does not seem to be a regional difference with regard to h-indices or a difference with regard to departmental status.
Nayar, Harry S; Caplan, Arthur L; Eaves, Felmont F; Rubin, J Peter
The emerging field of stem cell-based aesthetics has raised ethical concerns related to advertising campaigns and standards for safety and efficacy. The authors sought to characterize the attitudes of plastic surgeons regarding the ethics of stem cell-based aesthetics. A cross-sectional electronic survey was distributed to 4592 members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statements addressed ethical concerns about informed consent, conflicts of interest, advertising, regulation, and stem cell tourism. An agreement score (AS) from 0 to 100 was calculated for each statement. Majority agreement was designated as ≥60 and majority disagreement as ≤40. A total of 770 questionnaires were received (16.7%). The majority of respondents indicated that knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of stem cell procedures is insufficient to obtain valid informed consent (AS, 29) and that direct-to-consumer advertising for these technologies is inappropriate and unethical (AS, 23). Most respondents reported that patients should be actively warned against traveling abroad to receive aesthetic cell therapies (AS, 86) and that registries and evaluations of these clinics should be made publicly available (AS, 71). Even more respondents noted that financial conflicts of interest should be disclosed to patients (AS, 96) and that professional societies should participate in establishing regulatory standards (AS, 93). The plastic surgeons surveyed in this study support a well-regulated, evidence-based approach to aesthetic procedures involving stem cells. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.
Leem, So Yeon
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery.
Dorfman, Robert G; Vaca, Elbert E; Fine, Neil A; Schierle, Clark F
Recent videos shared by plastic surgeons on social media applications such as Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube, among others, have blurred the line between entertainment and patient care. This has left many in the plastic surgery community calling for the development of more structured oversight and guidance regarding video sharing on social media. To date, no official guidelines exist for plastic surgeons to follow. Little is known about the ethical implications of social media use by plastic surgeons, especially with regard to video sharing. A systematic review of the literature on social media use in plastic surgery was performed on October 31, 2016, with an emphasis on ethics and professionalism. An ethical analysis was conducted using the four principles of medical ethics. The initial search yielded 87 articles. Thirty-four articles were included for analyses that were found to be relevant to the use of social media in plastic surgery. No peer-reviewed articles were found that mentioned Snapchat or addressed the ethical implications of sharing live videos of plastic surgery on social media. Using the four principles of medical ethics, it was determined that significant ethical concerns exist with broadcasting these videos. This analysis fills an important gap in the plastic surgery literature by addressing the ethical issues concerning live surgery broadcasts on social media. Plastic surgeons may use the guidelines proposed here to avoid potential pitfalls.
Struk, S; Qassemyar, Q; Leymarie, N; Honart, J-F; Alkhashnam, H; De Fremicourt, K; Conversano, A; Schaff, J-B; Rimareix, F; Kolb, F; Sarfati, B
Robot-assisted surgery is more and more widely used in urology, general surgery and gynecological surgery. The interest of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery, a discipline that operates primarily on surfaces, has yet to be conclusively proved. However, the initial applications of robotic surgery in plastic and reconstructive surgery have been emerging in a number of fields including transoral reconstruction of posterior oropharyngeal defects, nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction, microsurgery, muscle harvesting for pelvic reconstruction and coverage of the scalp or the extremities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Niddam, J; Bosc, R; Hersant, B; Bouhassira, J; Meningaud, J-P
Necrotizing cellulitis (NC) is a severe infection of the skin and soft tissues, requiring an urgent multidisciplinary approach. We aimed to clarify the surgical management of NC in French plastic surgery departments. Thirty-two French plastic surgery departments were invited to complete a survey sent by email. Questions focused on diagnostic and therapeutic management of NC in France. Twenty-five plastic surgery departments completed the survey (78%) and each center had a lead plastic surgeon. Overall, 88% of surgeons declared to have managed at least five NC patients within the year. The plastic surgeon was the lead surgical specialist for NC in 80% of cases. Conversely, 76% of interviewed facilities reported not to have any lead medical specialist. Time between surgical indication and surgical management was less than six hours in 92% of cases. Overall, 24% of responding facilities declared that access to the operating room never delayed management. Finally, 80% of facilities declared to be in favor of dedicated care pathways to improve the management of necrotizing cellulitis patients. Our study results highlight the heterogeneity of necrotizing cellulitis management in France. The lack of a dedicated care pathway may lead to diagnostic and treatment delays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.
Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.
Silvestre, Jason; Taglienti, Anthony J; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam (PSITE) is a multiple-choice examination taken by plastic surgery trainees to provide an assessment of plastic surgery knowledge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cosmetic questions and determine overlap with national procedural data. Digital syllabi of six consecutive PSITE administrations (2008-2013) were analyzed for cosmetic surgery topics. Questions were classified by taxonomy, focus, anatomy, and procedure. Answer references were tabulated by source. Relationships between tested material and national procedural volume were assessed via Pearson correlation. 301 questions addressed cosmetic topics (26% of all questions) and 20 required image interpretations (7%). Question-stem taxonomy favored decision-making (40%) and recall (37%) skills over interpretation (23%, P < .001). Answers focused on treatments/outcomes (67%) over pathology/anatomy (20%) and diagnoses (13%, P < .001). Tested procedures were largely surgical (85%) and focused on the breast (25%), body (18%), nose (13%), and eye (10%). The most common surgeries were breast augmentation (12%), rhinoplasty (11%), blepharoplasty (10%), and body contouring (6%). Minimally invasive procedures were lasers (5%), neuromodulators (4%), and fillers (3%). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (58%), Clinics in Plastic Surgery (7%), and Aesthetic Surgery Journal (6%) were the most cited journals, with a median 5-year publication lag. There was poor correlation between PSITE content and procedural volume data (r(2) = 0.138, P = .539). Plastic surgeons receive routine evaluation of cosmetic surgery knowledge. These data may help optimize clinical and didactic experiences for training in cosmetic surgery. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
de Runz, A; Simon, E; Brix, M; Sorin, T; Brengard-Bresler, T; Pineau, V; Guyon, G; Claudot, F
Photography in plastic surgery is omnipresent. Through its various uses, it may present both ethical and forensic risks. The objective of this study is to analyze the use of medical photography by the plastic surgeon, the perception of this use by the patient, and consequence of such use. A questionnaire about the use of medical photography was assessed to 629 plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was given to patients, about their perception of the use of photography by their surgeon. One hundred and seventy-six surgeon's questionnaires and 93 patient's questionnaires were analyzed. For 97.7% of the responding surgeons, the proportion of patients refusing to be photographed was less then 1/20. The objective of the photography was especially medicolegal for 62.5% of the surgeons, especially for following the patient progress (87.5%), partially for the formation (72.1%), partially for scientific publications (57.8%) and not at all for the personal publicity (73.1%). Surgeons often share his photographs with others surgeons (71.1%), sometimes with others medical personnel (48.8%). The security and the access to photographs were determined to be correct for 67.6% of the surgeons and perfect for 23.3%. In total, 17.2% of the surgeons obtained a written consent, 41.4% obtained an oral consent, and 38.5% did not request patient consent. It was found that 48.3% of the surgeons and 40.2% of the patients think that the right to the photographic images belong to the patient. Medical photographs expose the plastic surgeon to medico-legal risks. He must know and follow the law in order to prevent eventual legal proceedings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Valente, Denis Souto; Silveira Eifler, Luciano; Carvalho, Lauro Aita; Filho, Gustavo Azambuja Pereira; Ribeiro, Vinicius Weissheimer; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel
Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions.
Heyward-Chaplin, Jessica; Shepherd, Laura; Arya, Reza; O’Boyle, Ciaran P
Background: Rates of self-harm injuries are considered to be increasing. The attitudes of healthcare staff towards patients who self-harm may be negative and a small amount of research specifically investigating burns and plastic surgery healthcare professionals has recently been conducted exploring this issue. This study aimed to determine attitudes towards and adherence to national guidance by healthcare professionals in a UK burns and plastic surgery department with respect to patients who self-harm. Method: An audit questionnaire, completed in a designated Burns Unit and plastic surgery department, within a UK hospital with a major trauma centre. Results: Data were obtained from 59 healthcare professionals. The majority of responders held positive attitudes towards those who had self-harmed. However, a significant minority held negative attitudes, stating that they found it difficult to be compassionate (10%; n = 6) and believing that patients usually self-harm to get attention (9%; n = 5). One-fifth (n = 12) agreed that, on a departmental level, conservative management (as opposed to surgery) was offered more frequently for self-harm injuries compared with accidental injuries, contrary to national guidance. Awareness of national guidance in relation to self-harm injuries was markedly lacking, in only 12% (n = 7/59) and the frequency of completing relevant training was low (34%, n = 20/59). Conclusion: Education among healthcare professionals is important, to ensure adherence to best practice. The findings of this study strongly suggest that many healthcare professionals do not know the current best practice. As a result, these highly vulnerable patients may be receiving sub-optimal care, with consequentially poor outcomes. PMID:29873329
Rodrigues, Maria A; Tedesco, Ana C B; Nahas, Fabio X; Ferreira, Lydia M
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between impact factor and the level of evidence of articles in plastic surgery journals. The four plastic surgery journals with the top impact factors in 2011 were selected. Articles were selected using the PubMed database between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The journal evidence index was calculated by dividing the number of randomized clinical trials by the total number of articles published in the specific journal, multiplied by 100. This index was correlated to the impact factor of the journal and compared with the average of the other journals. Two investigators independently evaluated each journal, followed by a consensus and assessment of the interexaminer concordance. The kappa test was used to evaluate the concordance between the two investigators and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate which journal presented the highest number of randomized clinical trials. The journal evidence index values were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1.70; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 0.40; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 0.56; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 0.35. The impact factors of these journals in 2011 were as follows: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 3.382; Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 1.494; Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 1.407; and Annals of Plastic Surgery, 1.318. After consensus, the quantity of adequate studies was low and similar between these journals; only the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery showed a higher journal evidence index. The journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery exhibited the highest journal evidence index and had the highest impact factor. The number of adequate articles was low in all of the assessed journals.
Levin, L Scott
Given the changes in health care economics and the changes in increasing rates of uninsured and undercovered patients in the United States, the revenue stream for all physicians, and particularly those in academic medical centers, is subject to fluctuations that make it difficult to fund the missions of education and research. Often, academic plastic surgeons are required to use clinical revenue to supplement efforts in research and education. A large margin on clinical revenue that was present perhaps 10 or 20 years ago has been eroded by many socioeconomic factors, making it difficult to provide optimal training in academic environments for our residents. In an attempt to ascertain "best in show," a survey was sent to 89 plastic surgery programs that requested information regarding faculty salaries, relative value units, National Institutes of Health support, ancillary revenue support for taking call, and the number of faculty within individual programs. Fifty-three programs responded with completed data. The following practices directly contribute to stable financial environments: external support for call coverage, recruitment support, and gain sharing associated with health system profitability. Coverage agreements with outside facilities can be lucrative if properly negotiated. Paid medical directorships for administrative/clinical oversight are helpful. Payor mixes with high percentages of commercial, managed care, and self-pay (aesthetic) and low percentages of Medicaid are beneficial. Practices with a healthy mix of aesthetic surgery add strength.
Panse, Nikhil; Panse, Smita; Kulkarni, Priya; Dhongde, Rajendra; Sahasrabudhe, Parag
Purpose. The aim of this study is to understand the level of awareness and knowledge of plastic surgery in healthcare professionals in a tertiary health care facility in Pune, India. This study also aims to highlight the perception of the medical professionals about plastic surgery and what they think a plastic surgeon does. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was done at B.J Medical College and Sassoon Hospital, Pune in 2011. Feedback evaluation forms from hundred resident doctors and faculty were evaluated and analyzed. Results. There is not much awareness about plastic surgery as a specialty amongst health care providers. Plastic surgery is mostly perceived as cosmetic surgery, and the other spectrum of the patients we cater to goes largely unnoticed. Of all the clinical conditions given to the participants, there was not a single clinical condition where the respondents favored unanimously for plastic surgeons. Conclusion. Plastic surgery as a specialty is poorly understood by our medical colleagues, and the onus of creating and improving the awareness and perception of our specialty lies on us. Herculean unified efforts at individual as well as global level will help us achieve this goal. PMID:22685647
After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery. They used to renove famous actresse's and actors' face and nose and those of hundreds of patients. They participate to French societies of plastic surgery meetings and publications. Their enthusiastic dare largely participated to the current success of cosmetic surgery in France.
Lau, Frank H; Sinha, Indranil; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Eriksson, Elof
Resident work hours are under scrutiny and have been subject to multiple restrictions. The studies supporting these changes have not included data on surgical residents. We studied the workday of a team of plastic surgery residents to establish prospective time-study data of plastic surgery (PRS) residents at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Five trained research assistants observed all residents (n = 8) on a PRS service for 10 weeks and produced minute-by-minute activity logs. Data collection began when the team first met in the morning and continued until the resident being followed completed all non-call activities. We analyzed our data from 3 perspectives: 1) time spent in direct patient care (DPC), indirect patient care, and didactic activities; 2) time spent in high education-value activities (HEAs) versus low education-value activities; and 3) resident efficiency. We defined HEAs as activities that surgeons must master; other activities were LEAs. We quantified resident efficiency in terms of time fragmentation and time spent waiting. A total of 642.4 hours of data across 50 workdays were collected. Excluding call, residents worked an average of 64.2 hours per week. Approximately 50.7% of surgical resident time was allotted to DPC, with surgery accounting for the largest segment of this time (34.8%). Time spent on HEAs demonstrated trended upward with higher resident level (P = 0.086). Time in spent in surgery was significantly associated with higher resident levels (P < 0.0001); 57.7% of activities require 4 minutes or less, suggesting that resident work was highly fragmented. Residents spent 10.7% of their workdays waiting for other services. In this first-time study of PRS residents, we found that compared with medicine trainees, surgical residents spent 3.23 times more time on DPC. High education-value activities comprised most of our residents' workdays. Surgery was the leading component of both DPC and HEAs. Our residents were highly
Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh
Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient-physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved.
Huis in ’t Veld, Eva A.; Canales, Francisco L.
Abstract Background: In the patient-driven market of aesthetic surgery, an understanding of the factors that patients consider in their choice of surgeon can inform the individual plastic surgeon’s marketing strategy. Previous studies have investigated patient gender preferences for physicians in other specialties, but none has investigated whether patients consider gender when choosing a plastic surgeon. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a plastic surgeon’s gender on patient choice. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a single private practice of two plastic surgeons, one male and one female, both closely matched in training, experience, and reputation. Two hundred consecutive patients calling for a consultation were asked if they preferred a male or female doctor; their preference, age, and area(s) of interest were recorded. Results: All patients were women. Nearly half (46%) had no gender preference, 26% requested a female surgeon, and 1% requested a male. Preference for a female surgeon was significant (Binomial-test: P < 0.001). The remaining 27% requested a specific doctor, with slightly more requesting (53.7%) the male surgeon by name, than requested the female surgeon by name (46.3%), a difference that was not statistically significant (P = 0.683). Conclusions: Most female patients interested in aesthetic surgery have no gender preference. Of those who do, nearly all requested a female plastic surgeon. More important than a plastic surgeon’s gender, however, is a plastic surgeon’s reputation. PMID:27913412
de Blacam, Catherine; Vercler, Christian J
Maintenance of the highest ethical and professional standards in plastic surgery is in the best interests of our profession and the public whom we serve. Both the American Board of Medical Specialties and the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education mandate training in ethics and professionalism for all residents. Presently there is no gold standard in ethics and professionalism education. A systematic review on teaching ethics and professionalism in plastic surgery was performed for all articles from inception to May 23, 2013 in MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ERIC. References of relevant publications were searched for additional papers. Key journals were hand searched and relevant conference proceedings were also reviewed. Duplicate and non-English articles were excluded. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to find articles that described a curriculum in ethics and/or professionalism in plastic surgery. Two hundred twenty-seven relevant articles were identified. One hundred seventy-four did not meet inclusion criteria based on screening of the title, and 39 of those did not meet inclusion criteria based on screening of the abstract or introductory paragraph. Of the 14 identified for full text review, only 2 articles described a set curriculum in ethics and/or professionalism in plastic surgery training and reported outcomes. A paucity of data exists regarding the structure, content, or relevant measures that can be applied to assess outcomes of a curriculum to teach ethics and professionalism to plastic surgery trainees. Endeavors to teach ethics and professionalism to plastic surgery trainees must rigorously document the process and outcomes to facilitate the maintenance of our profession.
Gao, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Yang; Ma, Shao-Lin
A community survey was developed in order to analyses and assess the recognition of plastic surgery. And to provide some initial and useful evidence document for our other jobs. One thousand and one hundred individuals of various ages, either sex, different occupation and education levels, ethnically/racially diverse, social background, participated in this survey. All questionnaires were analyzed and chi-square analysis was performed for each question to compare the pattern of responses among the categories of respondents using the SPSS 11.5. Nine hundred and forty six individuals completed the survey (overall response rate 86%). Group 1 consisted of 342 general college students; The second group consisted of 427 medical college students; the third included 129 general practitioners, and 48 members of the general public comprised the fourth group of respondents. The results reveal that the majority of the crowd in the four groups needs more information about the benefits that our specialty can offer them. Despite the rapid progress that has occurred in the field of plastic surgery in the last 10 years, a large portion of the population is still unaware, even misunderstanding of the specialty. Therefore, they may not be taking advantage of the optimal care that is already available. And certainly, it also seriously hindrance the specialty. We should take effective methods to improve the advocacy from them. However, in our country, there is a scarcity of empirical evidence about the public perception of plastic surgery; this pilot study attempts to serve our jobs.
Spanholtz, T A; Leitsch, S; Holzbach, T; Volkmer, E; Engelhardt, T; Giunta, R E
A reproducible 3-dimensional photographic system enables plastic surgeons to perform preoperative planning and helps them to understand the patient's expectations. There are a few systems available that allow a reproducible 3-dimensional scans of the patient with direct simulation of the planned procedure. The Vectra Volumetric 3D Surface Imaging® by Canfield® provides such an option and helps the surgeons to document and compare postoperative changes at different time points. Since January 2011 we are digitally documenting all patients receiving form-modulating procedures in our plastic surgery unit. We present the spectrum of clinical implications and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the system. Furthermore, we have studied the accuracy of the system in comparison to direct measurement in 15 volunteers. The system is especially suited for planning and evaluation of breast augmentation, facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgery as well as volumetric measurements before and after liposuction and lipofilling. Computer-assisted measurements correlate with a median deviation of 2.3% with manually measured distances in the face. We found the user-friendly Vectra® system to be a reliable and reproducible device for planning plastic surgery therapies and for documenting postoperative results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Davis, Christopher R; Rosenfield, Lorne K
Google Glass has the potential to become a ubiquitous and translational technological tool within clinical plastic surgery. Google Glass allows clinicians to remotely view patient notes, laboratory results, and imaging; training can be augmented via streamed expert master classes; and patient safety can be improved by remote advice from a senior colleague. This systematic review identified and appraised every Google Glass publication relevant to plastic surgery and describes the first plastic surgical procedures recorded using Google Glass. A systematic review was performed using PubMed National Center for Biotechnology Information, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, following modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Key search terms "Google" and "Glass" identified mutually inclusive publications that were screened for inclusion. Eighty-two publications were identified, with 21 included for review. Google Glass publications were formal articles (n = 3), editorial/commentary articles (n = 7), conference proceedings (n = 1), news reports (n = 3), and online articles (n = 7). Data support Google Glass' positive impact on health care delivery, clinical training, medical documentation, and patient safety. Concerns exist regarding patient confidentiality, technical issues, and limited software. The first plastic surgical procedure performed using Google Glass was a blepharoplasty on October 29, 2013. Google Glass is an exciting translational technology with the potential to positively impact health care delivery, medical documentation, surgical training, and patient safety. Further high-quality scientific research is required to formally appraise Google Glass in the clinical setting.
Schubert, C D; Leitsch, S; Haertnagl, F; Haas, E M; Giunta, R E
Despite its recognition as an independent specialty, at German university hospitals the field of plastic surgery is still underrepresented in terms of independent departments with a dedicated research focus. The aim of this study was to analyse the publication performance within the German academic plastic surgery environment and to compare independent departments and dependent, subordinate organisational structures regarding their publication performance. Organisational structures and number of attending doctors in German university hospitals were examined via a website analysis. A pubmed analysis was applied to assess the publication performance (number of publications, cumulative impact factor, impact factor/publication, number of publications/MD, number of publications/unit) between 2009 and 2013. In a journal analysis the distribution of the cumulative impact factor and number of publications in different journals as well as the development of the impact factor in the top journals were analysed. Out of all 35 university hospitals there exist 12 independent departments for plastic surgery and 8 subordinate organisational structures. In 15 university hospitals there were no designated plastic surgery units. The number of attending doctors differed considerably between independent departments (3.6 attending doctors/unit) and subordinate organisational structures (1.1 attending doctors/unit). The majority of publications (89.0%) and of the cumulative impact factor (91.2%) as well as most of the publications/MD (54 publications/year) and publications/unit (61 publications/year) were created within the independent departments. Only in departments top publications with an impact factor > 5 were published. In general a negative trend regarding the number of publications (- 13.4%) and cumulative impact factor (- 28.9%) was observed. 58.4% of all publications were distributed over the top 10 journals. Within the latter the majority of articles were published in
Hürzeler, M B; Weng, D
The closure of surgical wounds in a layer-by-layer fashion, a common principle of plastic surgery, is applied in this article to the field of periodontal surgery with the introduction of a new flap design. The suggested technique is indicated with all periodontal procedures that aim for hard and soft tissue augmentation (guided bone regeneration, mucogingival surgery, or plastic periodontal surgery) where passive, tension-free wound closure is fundamental for wound healing and a successful functional and esthetic outcome. By means of a series of incisions, buccal and lingual flaps are split several times; this results in a double-partial thickness flap and a coronally positioned palatal sliding flap, respectively. Thus, several tissue layers are obtained and the passive advancement of flaps becomes possible for the coverage of augmented areas. Wound closure with microsurgical suture material is accomplished in a multilayer approach, which ensures adaptation and closure of the outer tissue layers without any tension. Two case reports demonstrate the new plastic periodontal approach.
Milothridis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Panagopoulou, Efharis
A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients' characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure.
Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E
Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. The most important factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery as a career include; plastic surgeons appear happy in their work 93 (85%), Plastic surgeons have rewarding careers 78 (71%), and plastic surgeons provide good role models for medical students 96 (87%). An overall score of > 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery compared to male medical students.
Kanevsky, Jonathan; Corban, Jason; Gaster, Richard; Kanevsky, Ari; Lin, Samuel; Gilardino, Mirko
Medical decision-making is increasingly based on quantifiable data. From the moment patients come into contact with the health care system, their entire medical history is recorded electronically. Whether a patient is in the operating room or on the hospital ward, technological advancement has facilitated the expedient and reliable measurement of clinically relevant health metrics, all in an effort to guide care and ensure the best possible clinical outcomes. However, as the volume and complexity of biomedical data grow, it becomes challenging to effectively process "big data" using conventional techniques. Physicians and scientists must be prepared to look beyond classic methods of data processing to extract clinically relevant information. The purpose of this article is to introduce the modern plastic surgeon to machine learning and computational interpretation of large data sets. What is machine learning? Machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence, can address clinically relevant problems in several domains of plastic surgery, including burn surgery; microsurgery; and craniofacial, peripheral nerve, and aesthetic surgery. This article provides a brief introduction to current research and suggests future projects that will allow plastic surgeons to explore this new frontier of surgical science.
Darisi, Tanya; Thorne, Sarah; Iacobelli, Carolyn
Research was conducted to gain insight into potential clients' decisions to undergo plastic surgery, their perception of benefits and risks, their judgment of outcomes, and their selection of a plastic surgeon. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 60 people who expressed interest in plastic surgery. Qualitative analysis revealed their "mental models" regarding influences on their decision to undergo plastic surgery and their choice of a surgeon. Interview results were used to design a Web-based survey in which 644 individuals considering plastic surgery responded. The desire for change was the most direct motivator to undergo plastic surgery. Improvements to physical well-being were related to emotional and social benefits. When prompted about risks, participants mentioned physical, emotional, and social risks. Surgeon selection was a critical influence on decisions to undergo plastic surgery. Participants gave considerable weight to personal consultation and believed that finding the "right" plastic surgeon would minimize potential risks. Findings from the Web-based survey were similar to the mental models interviews in terms of benefit ratings but differed in risk ratings and surgeon selection criteria. The mental models interviews revealed that interview participants were thoughtful about their decision to undergo plastic surgery and focused on finding the right plastic surgeon.
Silvestre, Jason; Basta, Marten N; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
To facilitate the training of plastic surgery residents, we analyzed a knowledge-based curriculum for plastic and reconstructive surgery of the lower extremity. The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam (PSITE) is a commonly used tool to assess medical knowledge in plastic surgery. We reviewed the lower extremity content on 6 consecutive score keys (2008-2013). Questions were classified by taxonomy, anatomy, and subject. Answer references were quantified by source and relative year of publication. Totally, 107 questions related to the lower extremity (9.1% of all questions) and 14 questions had an associated image (13.1%). Questions required decision making (49%) over interpretation (36%) and direct recall (15%) skills (p < 0.001). Conditions of the leg (42.1%) and thigh (24.3%) constituted most of the questions. Subject matter focused on flap reconstruction (38.3%), nerve injury (8.4%), and congenital deformity (6.5%). Analysis of 263 citations to 66 unique journals showed that Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (54.9%) was the highest yield primary source. The median year of publication relative to PSITE administration was 6 (range: 1-58) with a mode of 2 years. Plastic Surgery by Mathes et al. was the most referenced textbook (21.9%). These data establish a benchmark for lower extremity training during plastic surgery residency. Study efforts focused on the most common topics and references will enhance trainee preparation for lower extremity PSITE questions. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Wang, Aline Yen Ling; Tiong, Vincent Tze Yang; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Meiling; Lim, Philip; Kao, Huang-Kai
The use of live and cadaveric animal models in surgical training is well established as a means of teaching and improving surgical skill in a controlled setting. We aim to review, evaluate, and summarize the models published in the literature that are applicable to Plastic Surgery training. A PubMed search for keywords relating to animal models in Plastic Surgery and the associated procedures was conducted. Animal models that had cross over between specialties such as microsurgery with Neurosurgery and pinnaplasty with ear, nose, and throat surgery were included as they were deemed to be relevant to our training curriculum. A level of evidence and recommendation assessment was then given to each surgical model. Our review found animal models applicable to plastic surgery training in four major categories namely-microsurgery training, flap raising, facial surgery, and hand surgery. Twenty-four separate articles described various methods of practicing microsurgical techniques on different types of animals. Fourteen different articles each described various methods of conducting flap-based procedures which consisted of either local or perforator flap dissection. Eight articles described different models for practicing hand surgery techniques. Finally, eight articles described animal models that were used for head and neck procedures. A comprehensive summary of animal models related to plastic surgery training has been compiled. Cadaveric animal models provide a readily available introduction to many procedures and ought to be used instead of live models when feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan
More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.
Liu, P; Singh, M; Eriksson, E
The basic administrative structures at most academic institutions were implemented more than 50 years ago and have remained largely unchanged. Since the surgical specialties were in nascent stages during that time, they were clubbed together within the department of surgery. There has been extensive growth in the breadth and depth of plastic surgery over the past few decades and current administrative structures might not truly reflect the current standing of plastic surgery. The goal of this article was to review the academic status of Plastic Surgery in the United States and assess the relevance of independence from the department of surgery. A national survey of 94 hospitals with plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States was conducted to investigate the academic status of plastic surgery. 25 out of those 94 programs had department status with their respective hospitals while another 9 programs were actively planning on transitioning to department status. Out of the 25 plastic surgery hospital departments, 17 programs were also University departments. The number of plastic surgery departments has more than doubled over the past 10 years and continues to rise as more plastic surgery divisions seek department status. There are multiple advantages to seeking department status such as financial and administrative autonomy, ability to participate in medical school curricula, easier access to interdepartmental institutes and faculties, parity with other specialties, and increased control of resident education. There has been concerted advocacy for separating from surgery departments and seeking independent departmental status for plastic surgery. However, the transition from a division to department is a slow and demanding process and requires a well-planned strategy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Plana, Natalie M; Stranix, John T; Cutting, Court B; McCarthy, Joseph G; Flores, Roberto L
Contemporary plastic surgery residents are increasingly challenged to learn a greater number of complex surgical techniques within a limited period. Surgical simulation and digital education resources have the potential to address some limitations of the traditional training model, and have been shown to accelerate knowledge and skills acquisition. Although animal, cadaver, and bench models are widely used for skills and procedure-specific training, digital simulation has not been fully embraced within plastic surgery. Digital educational resources may play a future role in a multistage strategy for skills and procedures training. The authors present two virtual surgical simulators addressing procedural cognition for cleft repair and craniofacial surgery. Furthermore, the authors describe how partnerships among surgical educators, industry, and philanthropy can be a successful strategy for the development and maintenance of digital simulators and educational resources relevant to plastic surgery training. It is our responsibility as surgical educators not only to create these resources, but to demonstrate their utility for enhanced trainee knowledge and technical skills development. Currently available digital resources should be evaluated in partnership with plastic surgery educational societies to guide trainees and practitioners toward effective digital content.
Morrison, Colin M; Rotemberg, S Cristina; Moreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Zins, James E
Aesthetic surgery is evolving rapidly, both technologically and conceptually. It is critical for the specialty that aesthetic surgery training keep pace with this rapid evolution. To shed more light on this issue, a survey was sent to all program directors and senior plastic surgery residents to record their impressions of the quality of cosmetic surgery resident training. The authors report the results of this national cosmetic surgery training survey canvassing all 89 plastic surgery programs. A three-page survey delineating resident preparedness in aesthetic surgery was sent to senior plastic surgery residents and program directors in April of 2006 and collected through October of 2006. Of 814 surveys, 292 responses were obtained from 64 percent of program directors and 33 percent of senior residents. Breast augmentation, breast reduction, and abdominoplasty were most frequently performed with the highest resident comfort levels. Rhinoplasty remained a particular area of trainee concern, but confidence levels were also low in face lifts, endoscopic procedures, and body contouring techniques. Experience with skin resurfacing, fillers, and botulinum toxin type A was another area of concern. Although 51 percent of residents felt prepared to integrate cosmetic surgery into their practices on graduation, 36 percent felt that further cosmetic training was desirable. The information collected revealed significant differences in opinions between program directors and senior residents. Senior residents felt deficient in facial cosmetic, minimally invasive, and recently developed body contouring techniques. On the basis of these results and the authors' experience in resident education, changes in cosmetic surgery training are suggested.
Shaikh, Mohammad-Ali; Jeong, Haneol S; Mastro, Andrew; Davis, Kathryn; Lysikowski, Jerzy; Kenkel, Jeffrey M
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be a fatal outcome of plastic surgery. Risk assessment models attempt to determine a patient's risk, yet few studies have compared different models in plastic surgery patients. The authors investigated preoperative ASA physical status and 2005 Caprini scores to determine which model was more predictive of VTE. A retrospective chart review examined 1801 patients undergoing contouring and reconstructive procedures from January 2008 to January 2012. Patients were grouped into risk tiers for ASA scores (1-2 = low, 3+ = high) with 2 cutoffs for Caprini scores (1-4 = low, 5+ high; 1-5 = low, 6+ = high), then re-stratified into 3 tiers using Caprini score cutoffs (1-4 = low, 5-8 = high, 9+ = highest; 1-5 = low, 6-8 = high, 9+ = highest). Median scores of VTE patients were compared to those without VTE. Odds ratio and chi-squared analyses were performed. Of the 1598 patients included in the study, 1.50% developed VTE. Median ASA scores differed significantly between comparison groups but Caprini scores did not vary regardless of cutoff. When examining the 2-tiered Caprini scores, using low risk = 1-5 showed a significant relationship between risk tier and DVT development (P = 0.0266). The ASA system yielded the highest odds ratio of VTE development between low and high-risk patients. The Caprini model captured more patients with VTE in its high-risk category. Combining the two models for a more heuristic approach to preoperative care may identify patients at higher risk. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed; Asuku, Malachy E
Background: Research shows that career choices are made as a result of preconceived ideas and exposure to a specialty. If plastic surgery is to continue to attract the best, factors that may dissuade the millennial generation medical students from pursuing plastic surgery as a career must be identified and addressed. We explored the determinants of interest in plastic surgery as a career choice amongst millennial generation medical students. Materials and Methods: A survey regarding factors considered important in choosing plastic surgery was conducted amongst final year medical students in September 2011. Participants were asked to rate their agreement or disagreement with 18 statements on a four-point Likert scale (1 = very unimportant; 4 = very important). Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between male and female medical students. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The most important factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery as a career include; plastic surgeons appear happy in their work 93 (85%), Plastic surgeons have rewarding careers 78 (71%), and plastic surgeons provide good role models for medical students 96 (87%). An overall score of > 3.0 was seen in all the subscales except in gender equity and life style concerns. There were statistically significant differences between male and female students in opinions of a spouse, a significant other, or family members in choosing plastic surgery P < 0.5 and my choice of plastic surgery will be influenced by my decision to have a family P < 0.5. Conclusion: Factors influencing the decision of medical students to choose plastic surgery were related to the perceived quality of life as a plastic surgeon and the ability of plastic surgeons to provide good role models for medical students. Female medical students were more concerned with gender equity and work-life balance in selecting plastic surgery
Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.
Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing
Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J
Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing
Krieger, Lloyd M; Lee, Gordon K
Anecdotally, plastic surgeons have complained of working harder for the same or less income in recent years. They also complain of falling fees for reconstructive surgery and increasing competition for cosmetic surgery. This study examined these notions using the best available data. To gain a better understanding of the current plastic surgery market, plastic surgeon incomes, fees, volume, and relative mix of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery were analyzed between the years 1992 and 2002. To gain a broader perspective, plastic surgeon income trends were then compared with those of other medical specialties and of nonmedical professions. The data show that in real dollars, plastic surgeon incomes have remained essentially steady in recent years, despite plastic surgeons increasing their surgery load by an average of 41 percent over the past 10 years. The overall income trend is similar to that of members of other medical specialties and other nonmedical professionals. The average practice percentage of cosmetic surgery was calculated and found to have increased from 27 percent in 1992 to 58 percent in 2002. This most likely can be explained by the findings that real dollar fees collected for cosmetic surgery have decreased very slightly, whereas those for reconstructive procedures have experienced sharp declines. This study demonstrates that plastic surgeons have adjusted their practice profiles in recent years. They have increased their case loads and shifted their practices toward cosmetic surgery, most likely with the goal of maintaining their incomes. The strategy appears to have been successful in the short term. However, with increasing competition and falling prices for cosmetic surgery, it may represent a temporary bulwark for plastic surgeon incomes unless other steps are taken.
Fishman, Jordan E; Pang, John Henry Y; Losee, Joseph E; Rubin, J Peter; Nguyen, Vu T
Many aspire to leadership in academic plastic surgery yet there is no well-documented pathway. Information regarding plastic surgery residencies and program directors was obtained from the American Medical Association's FREIDA database. The division chief or department chair (academic head) of every academic plastic surgery program was identified. One Internet-based survey was distributed to academic heads; another, to program directors. Ninety academic heads were identified, 35 of whom also serve as program director. Sixty-seven unique program directors were identified. There was a 51 percent academic head response rate and a 65 percent program director response rate. Academic plastic surgery is overwhelmingly administered by midcareer men. The average program director was appointed at age 45 and has served for 7 years. She or he was trained through the independent track, completed additional training in hand surgery, and is a full professor. She or he publishes two or three peer-reviewed manuscripts per year and spends 9 hours per week in administration. The average academic head was appointed at age 45 and has held the position for 12 years. She or he was trained in the independent model, completed fellowship training, and is a full professor. She or he publishes five peer-reviewed manuscripts per year and spends 12 hours per week involved in administration. Program directors and academic heads serve nonoverlapping roles. Few program directors will advance to the role of academic head. Successful applicants to the program director position often serve as an associate program director and are seen as motivated resident educators. In contrast, those faculty members selected for the academic head role are academically accomplished administrators with business acumen.
Exceptional Parent, 1983
The article discusses the role of plastic surgery for persons with Down Syndrome, as considered in a recent conference. The functions of team plastic surgery, importance of intensive speech therapy, and the question of ultimate therapeutic value are among questions considered. (CL)
Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Boheng; Yin, Yiqing; Fang, Taolin; Wei, Ning; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng
Residency training is internationally recognized as the only way for the physicians to be qualified to practice independently. China has instituted a new residency training program for the specialty of plastic surgery. Meanwhile, plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States are presently in a transition because of restricted work hours. The purpose of this study is to compare the current characteristics of plastic surgery residency training in 2 countries. Flow path, structure, curriculum, operative experience, research, and evaluation of training in 2 countries were measured. The number of required cases was compared quantitatively whereas other aspects were compared qualitatively. Plastic surgery residency training programs in 2 countries differ regarding specific characteristics. Requirements to become a plastic surgery resident in the United States are more rigorous. Ownership structure of the regulatory agency for residency training in 2 countries is diverse. Training duration in the United States is more flexible. Clinical and research training is more practical and the method of evaluation of residency training is more reasonable in the United States. The job opportunities after residency differ substantially between 2 countries. Not every resident has a chance to be an independent surgeon and would require much more training time in China than it does in the United States. Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States and China have their unique characteristics. The training programs in the United States are more standardized. Both the United States and China may complement each other to create training programs that will ultimately provide high-quality care for all people.
Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh
Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient–physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved. PMID:27853683
Joyce, Kenneth M.; Sugrue, Conor M.; Kelly, John C.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kerin, Michael J.; Kelly, Jack L.
Background: A large proportion of the plastic surgery literature is dedicated to the breast. It is one of the most common topics in our specialty, yet it is unclear which articles have been the most influential. The purpose of this study was to identify the top 100 most-cited articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature and examine the characteristics of each individual article. Methods: Using an electronic database through the Web of Science, we were able to determine the 6 journals that contributed to the 100 most-cited articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature. Results: Each article was examined individually looking at characteristics such as subject matter, article type, country of origin, institution, authorship, and year of publication. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery contributed the most articles to the top 100 with 81 articles including the most-cited article which has been referenced 673 times to date. The United States produced 73% of the top 100 articles, and the most prolific institution was the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with 15 articles. Conclusions: This study has identified the most influential articles on breast in the plastic surgery literature over the past 68 years and highlighted many important scientific breakthroughs and landmarks that have occurred during this time. PMID:25506534
Montemurro, Paolo; Porcnik, Ales; Hedén, Per; Otte, Maximilian
Patients interested in aesthetic plastic surgery procedures increasingly seek advice on social media and rely on easily accessible online information. The investigatory goal was to determine the impact of this phenomenon on the everyday aesthetic plastic surgery practice. Five hundred consecutive patients completed a questionnaire prior to their consultation with a plastic surgeon at our clinic. A questionnaire was also completed by 128 plastic surgeons practising in 19 different countries. A literature review was performed. Almost all patients (95%) used the internet to collect information prior to consultation, for 68% of them it being their first search method. Social media were used by 46% of patients and 40% of these were strongly influenced when choosing a specific doctor. The majority of plastic surgeons (85%) thought the information found on social media could lead to unrealistic expectations. However, 45% of plastic surgeons believed that their consultations became easier after the advent of social media, 29% found them more difficult. A literature review showed a high percentage of poor quality internet websites regarding plastic surgery and an increase in use of social media among plastic surgeons. The internet and social media play an important and growing role in plastic surgery. This results in more informed patients but may create unrealistic expectations. Even if the internet provides ample information, it cannot replace the face-to-face consultation, which always should remain a detailed process, covering both risks and limitations of alternative procedures. Available literature on how social media influences the medical practice is still scarce and further research is needed. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Summary: Since the inception of the Lancet Commission in 2013 and consequent prioritization of Global Surgery at the World Health Assembly, international surgical outreach efforts have increased and become more synergistic. Plastic surgeons have been involved in international outreach for decades, and there is now a demand to collaborate and address local need in an innovative way. The aim of this article was to summarize new developments in plastic and reconstructive surgery in global health, to unify our approach to international outreach. Specifically, 5 topics are explored: current models in international outreach, benefits and concerns, the value of research, the value of international surgical outreach education, and the value of technology. A “Let’s Reconstruct Global Surgery” network has been formed using Facebook as a platform to unite plastic and reconstructive surgeons worldwide who are interested in international outreach. The article concludes with actionable recommendations from each topic. PMID:28507847
Kim, Jeff J; Evans, Gregory R D
The expansion of the application of biomaterials in plastic surgery has led to the increased availability of commercial products in recent years. This overview discusses soft tissue fillers, bioengineered skins, acellular dermal matrices, biomaterials for craniofacial surgery, and peripheral nerve repair. We summarize indications, properties, uses, types, advantages and disadvantages of some of the currently available products from each category. Finally, the current state of development in drug delivery system is also briefly summarized. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.
Tepper, Oren M; Mehrara, Babak J
Recent developments in gene therapy have shown promise in the treatment of soft-tissue repair, bone formation, nerve regeneration, and cranial suture development. This special topic article reviews commonly used methods of gene therapy and discusses their various advantages and disadvantages. In addition, an overview of new developments in gene therapy as they relate to plastic surgery is provided.
The skill set of a plastic surgeon, which addresses a broad range of soft tissue conditions that are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, remains relevant in the unmet need for surgical care. Recently, there has being a major paradigm shift from discipline-based to disease-based care, resulting in an emerging component of patient-centered care; adequate access to subspecialty care in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Given the need for an evolution in sub-specialization, this article focuses on the benefits and future role of differentiation of plastic surgeons into sub-specialty training pathways in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25584125
de Blacam, Catherine; Tierney, Sean; Shelley, Odhran
Surgical training requires exposure to clinical decision-making and operative experience in a supervised environment. It is recognised that learning ability is compromised when fatigued. The European Working Time Directive requires a decrease in working hours, but compliance reduces trainees' clinical exposure, which has profound implications for plastic surgery training. The aim of this study was to evaluate plastic surgery registrars' experience of an EWTD-compliant rota, and to examine its impact on patient care, education, and logbook activity. An electronic survey was distributed to plastic surgery registrars in a university teaching hospital. Registrars were asked to rate 31 items on a five-point Likert scale, including statements on patient care, clinical and operative duties, training, and quality-of-life. Interquartile deviations explored consensus among responses. Operative caseload was objectively evaluated using eLogbook data to compare activity at equal time points before and after implementation of the EWTD rota. Highest levels of consensus among respondents were found in positive statements addressing alertness and preparation for theatre, as well as time to read and study for exams. Registrars agreed that EWTD compliance improved their quality-of-life. However, it was felt that continuity of patient care was compromised by work hours restriction. Registrars were concerned about their operative experience. eLogbook data confirmed a fall-off in mean caseload of 31.8% compared to activity prior to EWTD rota implementation. While EWTD compliant rotas promote trainee quality-of-life and satisfaction with training, attention needs to be paid to optimising operative opportunities.
Cable, Christian; Chong, Tae; Pratt, Daniel D
Just as everyone has a different learning style, teachers too approach the task from different perspectives. There are five basic teaching perspectives or styles: transmission, apprenticeship, developmental, nurturing, and social justice. The acronym BIAS is useful to describe the beliefs, intentions, assessments, and strategies associated with each perspective. The authors present a hypothetical 1-week rotation in plastic and reconstructive surgery in which a student encounters instructors who embody the five basic teaching perspectives. By presenting these perspectives, the authors introduce valuable teaching techniques that can benefit all those charged with the education of learners along the spectrum from premedical to continuing education venues. Educational objectives include the following: (1) explain and illustrate different approaches to effective teaching in plastic surgery; (2) introduce readers to the Teaching Perspectives Inventory as a means of determining their primary teaching style; and (3) argue for a "plurality of the good" in teaching.
Silvestre, Jason; Abbatematteo, Joseph M; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
Decreasing funding rates and increasing competition for National Institutes of Health research grants have prompted diverse interventions in various fields of biomedicine. Currently, the state of National Institutes of Health funding for plastic surgery research is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the portfolio of National Institutes of Health grants in academic plastic surgery. Plastic surgery faculty at integrated and independent programs were queried individually in the National Institutes of Health RePORTER database for grants awarded in 2014. Funding totals, mechanisms, and institutes were calculated. Abstracts were categorized by research type and field of interest. Characteristics of National Institutes of Health-funded principal investigators were elucidated. Eight hundred sixty-one academic plastic surgeons at 94 programs were queried, and only 18 investigators (2.1 percent) were funded at 12 programs (12.8 percent). National Institutes of Health-funded investigators were predominately male (72 percent), fellowship-trained (61 percent), and aged 49.3 ± 7.8 years. A total of 20 awards amounted to $6,916,886, with an average award of $345,844 ± $222,909. Costs were primarily awarded through the R01 mechanism (77.2 percent). The top three National Institutes of Health institutes awarded 72.9 percent of the entire portfolio. Funding supported clinical (41.1 percent), translational (36.9 percent), and basic science (22.0 percent) research. Craniofacial (20.5 percent), hand (18.7 percent), and breast (16.2 percent) had the greatest funding. Few programs and faculty drive the National Institutes of Health portfolio of plastic surgery research. These data suggest a tenuous funding situation that may be susceptible to future spending cuts. Future research is needed to identify barriers to National Institutes of Health funding procurement in academic plastic surgery.
Lopez, Joseph; Musavi, Leila; Quan, Amy; Calotta, Nicholas; Juan, Ilona; Park, Angela; Tufaro, Anthony P; May, James W; Dorafshar, Amir H
The purpose of this study was to identify types and trends in industry sponsorship of plastic surgery research since the establishment of conflict-of-interest reporting policies in plastic surgery. The authors analyzed the frequency and types of self-reported conflicts of interest in the plastic surgery literature since the adoption of reporting policies in 2007. All original articles that met the authors' inclusion criteria and were published in the following three journals from 2008 to 2013 were included: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine what study-specific variables were associated with conflict-of-interest disclosures. A total of 3722 articles were analyzed. The incidence of conflicts of interest increased from 14 percent in 2008 to 24 percent in 2009. However, thereafter, the incidence of conflicts of interest decreased steadily from 21 percent in 2010 to 9 percent in 2013. Furthermore, the authors' analysis revealed that from 2008 to 2013, industry decreased direct research support but steadily increased the rate of consultantships (p < 0.001). A multivariate regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, self-reported conflicts of interest have decreased since 2008 (p = 0.03) and the prevalence of conflicts of interest differs by plastic surgery subspecialty (p < 0.0001), country of origin (p < 0.0001), and journal of publication (p = 0.05). If self-reporting of conflicts of interest is assumed to be accurate, the number of surgeon-reported conflicts of interest in plastic surgery declined overall. Although the absolute number of consultantships did not change, the rate of consultantships rather than direct research support increased over this period.
Luce, Edward A
Relationships between physicians and industry, whether it be pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, or purveyors of medical technology, contain both an element of potential for good and a potential for harm. Certainly, the potential for good is realized when the collaboration results in improved plastic surgery patient care due to product and technology development. If the collaboration contains a financial component, the potential for harm exists in the form of a financial conflict of interest on the part of the physician. Recently, considerable discussion has been directed toward the pervasiveness of financial conflict of interest in all three arenas of the profession of medicine: education, research, and clinical practice, although an overlap exists among all three with respect to the issue of conflict of interest. This article will focus on conflict of interest in plastic surgery education, both continuing medical education for practitioners and graduate medical education for plastic surgery residents, as well as conflict of interest in research, such as conflicts related to publications in our literature.
Silvestre, Jason; Abbatematteo, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin; Serletti, Joseph M
Recent studies have demonstrated low levels of National Institutes of Health funding for surgical research. The authors compared the funding in plastic surgery with the funding for other surgical specialties. A query of National Institutes of Health grants awarded to departments of surgical specialties was performed using the National Institutes of Health RePORTER database (2008 to 2016). Trends in funding were compared by specialty and adjusted for the number of active physicians in each specialty. Plastic surgery residency program characteristics were correlated with funding procurement. Eight hundred eighty-nine faculty at 94 plastic surgery residency programs were queried. Forty-eight investigators (5.4 percent) at 23 programs (24.4 percent) had National Institutes of Health funding. From 2008 to 2016, a total of $84,142,138 was awarded through 81 grants. Funding supported translational (44.6 percent), clinical (26.4 percent), basic science (27.2 percent), and educational (1.7 percent) research. In 2016, plastic surgery received the least amount of National Institutes of Health funding per active physician ($1,530) relative to orthopedic surgery ($3124), obstetrics and gynecology ($3885), urology ($5943), otolaryngology ($9999), general surgery ($11,649), ophthalmology ($11,933), and neurologic surgery ($20,874). Plastic surgery residency program characteristics associated with National Institutes of Health funding were high ranking and had more than 10 clinical faculty (p < 0.05). Plastic surgery receives the least National Institutes of Health funding among the surgical specialties. Departments and divisions of plastic surgery should support investigators applying for research grants to increase future National Institutes of Health funding.
Lyle, W Glenn; Outlaw, Kitti; Krizek, Thomas J; Koss, Neal; Payne, Wyatt G; Robson, Martin C
Infection complicating a plastic-surgery procedure can be a catastrophic event, both for the patient and the surgeon. Surveys published in 1975 and 1985 demonstrated the "usual and customary" practices of plastic surgeons with regard to the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine plastic surgeons' current use of prophylactic antibiotics, to compare these data with similar data from 1975 and 1985, and to gain relevant information regarding newer aesthetic procedures. We conducted a survey of members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons to elicit information on the frequency and timing of and modifying influences on their use of prophylactic antibiotics for plastic surgery procedures. The data we compiled were compared with the 1985 and 1975 data. Respondents returned 1804 questionnaires, for a 35% response rate. Antibiotic usage increased by 100% in nearly half of the operative categories surveyed since 1985 (P = .001). Aesthetic procedures were most common in this group. In 7 procedures, usage increased by 200% (P = 0.001). These categories included rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, rhytidectomy, and arm contouring. The use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons is increasing, especially in aesthetic procedures. A review of the literature indicates that this increase in use is not based on scientific evidence of increased incidence of infection or on increased evidence of efficacy. The necessary data to provide scientific guidelines for antibiotic usage in plastic surgery do not exist. (Aesthetic Surg J 2003;23:177-183.).
Li, Yanqi; Yang, Xin; Li, Dong
Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging system has gained popularity worldwide in clinical application. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it has the ability to capture 3D images with both shape and texture information. This feature has made it quite useful for plastic surgeons. This review article is mainly focusing on demonstrating the current status and analyzing the future of the application of 3D surface imaging systems in plastic and reconstructive surgery.Currently, 3D surface imaging system is mainly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery to help improve the reliability of surgical planning and assessing surgical outcome objectively. There have already been reports of its using on plastic and reconstructive surgery from head to toe. Studies on facial aging process, online applications development, and so on, have also been done through the use of 3D surface imaging system.Because different types of 3D surface imaging devices have their own advantages and disadvantages, a basic knowledge of their features is required and careful thought should be taken to choose the one that best fits a surgeon's demand.In the future, by integrating with other imaging tools and the 3D printing technology, 3D surface imaging system will play an important role in individualized surgical planning, implants production, meticulous surgical simulation, operative techniques training, and patient education.
Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Dedhia, Raj; Cervenka, Brian; Tollefson, Travis T
To review the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, with a focus on current uses in surgical training, surgical planning, clinical outcomes, and biomedical research. To evaluate the limitations and future implications of 3D printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Studies reviewed demonstrated 3D printing applications in surgical planning including accurate anatomic biomodels, surgical cutting guides in reconstruction, and patient-specific implants fabrication. 3D printing technology also offers access to well tolerated, reproducible, and high-fidelity/patient-specific models for surgical training. Emerging research in 3D biomaterial printing have led to the development of biocompatible scaffolds with potential for tissue regeneration in reconstruction cases involving significant tissue absence or loss. Major limitations of utilizing 3D printing technology include time and cost, which may be offset by decreased operating times and collaboration between departments to diffuse in-house printing costs SUMMARY: The current state of the literature shows promising results, but has not yet been validated by large studies or randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, further research and advancements in 3D printing technology should be supported as there is potential to improve resident training, patient care, and surgical outcomes.
Krieger, Lloyd M
Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.
Davis, C R; O'Donoghue, J M; McPhail, J; Green, A R
Plastic surgery now occupies a negligible component of many undergraduate curricula. The British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Undergraduate Course aimed to introduce and improve students' plastic surgery knowledge and skills, as well as develop personal career interests. This research aims to quantify whether this was achieved. Students attending the one-day course were invited to complete a questionnaire before and after the course. Questions were self-reflective and incorporated four key themes: (1) plastic surgery knowledge; (2) awareness of the work of a plastic surgeon; (3) ability to perform basic plastic surgical skills; (4) career interest in plastic surgery. Non-medical students were given an identical questionnaire to quantify public perception of the work of a plastic surgeon. 121 students attended from 17 universities across the UK, with 93 completing the questionnaire (77% response rate). Paired analyses compared mean or median scores of the students' answers before and after the course. After completing the course, medical students significantly improved in all four key themes (p<0.01). 93 non-medical students completed questionnaires. Medical students were significantly more accurate at identifying plastic surgery procedures than non-medical students (P < 0.01), which was further strengthened after completing the course (P < 0.001). This study demonstrates the positive educational impact of a one-day plastic surgery event for medical students and supports the need for plastic surgery education at an undergraduate level. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heidekrueger, Paul I; Juran, Sabrina; Patel, Anup; Tanna, Neil; Broer, P Niclas
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons publishes yearly procedural statistics, collected through questionnaires and online via tracking operations and outcomes for plastic surgeons (TOPS). The statistics, disaggregated by U.S. region, leave two important factors unaccounted for: (1) the underlying base population and (2) the number of surgeons performing the procedures. The presented analysis puts the regional distribution of surgeries into perspective and contributes to fulfilling the TOPS legislation objectives. ASPS statistics from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed by geographic region in the U.S. Using population estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau, procedures were calculated per 100,000 population. Then, based on the ASPS member roster, the rate of surgeries per surgeon by region was calculated and the interaction of these two variables was related to each other. In 2013, 1668,420 esthetic surgeries were performed in the U.S., resulting in the following ASPS ranking: 1st Mountain/Pacific (Region 5; 502,094 procedures, 30 % share), 2nd New England/Middle Atlantic (Region 1; 319,515, 19 %), 3rd South Atlantic (Region 3; 310,441, 19 %), 4th East/West South Central (Region 4; 274,282, 16 %), and 5th East/West North Central (Region 2; 262,088, 16 %). However, considering underlying populations, distribution and ranking appear to be different, displaying a smaller variance in surgical demand. Further, the number of surgeons and rate of procedures show great regional variation. Demand for plastic surgery is influenced by patients' geographic background and varies among U.S. regions. While ASPS data provide important information, additional insight regarding the demand for surgical procedures can be gained by taking certain demographic factors into consideration. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online
Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G
A number of historical texts published during the first half of the twentieth century played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.
Altieri, Maria S; Yang, Jie; Park, Jihye; Novikov, David; Kang, Lijuan; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Bates, Andrew; Talamini, Mark; Pryor, Aurora
Bariatric surgery has substantial health benefits; however, some patients desire body contouring (BC) procedures following rapid weight loss. There is a paucity of data regarding the true rate of BC following bariatric procedures. The purpose of our study is to examine the utilization of two common procedures, abdominoplasty, and panniculectomy, following bariatric surgery in New York State. The SPARCS longitudinal administrative database was used to identify bariatric procedures by using ICD-9 and CPT codes between 2004 and 2010. Procedures included sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Using a unique patient identifier, we tracked those patients who subsequently underwent either abdominoplasty or panniculectomy with at least a 4-year follow-up (until 2014). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate predictors of follow-up BC surgery. 37,806 patients underwent bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010. Only 5.58% (n = 2112) of these patients subsequently had a BC procedure, with 143 of them (6.8%) having ≥1 plastic surgery. The average time to plastic surgery after band, bypass, or sleeve was 1134.83 ± 671.09, 984.70 ± 570.53, and 903.02 ± 497.31 days, respectively (P < 0.0001). Following the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, a female, SG patients, patients with Medicare or Medicaid, and patients in either <20 or >80%ile in yearly income were more likely to have plastic surgery after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, comorbidities and complications (P values < 0.0001). This study shows that plastic surgery is completed by only 6% of patients following bariatric procedures. As insurance and income are associated with pursuing surgery, improved access may increase the number of patients who are able to undergo these reconstructive procedures.
Pavan, Chiara; Marini, Massimo; De Antoni, Eleonora; Scarpa, Carlotta; Brambullo, Tito; Bassetto, Franco; Mazzotta, Annapina; Vindigni, Vincenzo
Obese patients, mainly females, feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with their physical appearance; they have a wrong perception of their image and consequently diminish their self-esteem, sometimes showing difficulties in functional areas such as work, relationship, social activity. Beside health concerns, improving their appearance and body image are often common motives for weight loss in obese individuals and after weight loss about 30% of bariatric surgery patients undergo plastic surgical correction of excessive skin. The authors investigated psychological and psychiatric traits in post-bariatric patients undergoing body-contouring surgery to underline the strong correlation between psychiatry and obesity and avoid unsatisfactory results in post-bariatric patients. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Beck Depression Inventory II, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, Body Uneasiness Test, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, and Binge Eating Scale were performed in 36 post-bariatric patients looking for plastic surgery and 21 controls, similar for clinical features, not seeking shape remodelling. Much different psychiatric pathology characterizes cases, including current body dysmorphic disorder and previous major depression and anxiety disorders, impulsivity, binging and body uneasiness are other common traits. In post-obesity rehabilitation, a strong collaboration between the plastic surgeon and psychiatrist is recommended to reduce the number of non-compliant patients. Preoperative psychological assessment of the body-contouring patient should be a central part of the initial plastic surgery consultation, as it should be for all plastic surgery patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz
Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.
Chude-Olisah, Chollette C.; Sulong, Ghazali; Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Hashim, Siti Z. M.
Plastic surgery procedures on the face introduce skin texture variations between images of the same person (intra-subject), thereby making the task of face recognition more difficult than in normal scenario. Usually, in contemporary face recognition systems, the original gray-level face image is used as input to the Gabor descriptor, which translates to encoding some texture properties of the face image. The texture-encoding process significantly degrades the performance of such systems in the case of plastic surgery due to the presence of surgically induced intra-subject variations. Based on the proposition that the shape of significant facial components such as eyes, nose, eyebrow, and mouth remains unchanged after plastic surgery, this paper employs an edge-based Gabor feature representation approach for the recognition of surgically altered face images. We use the edge information, which is dependent on the shapes of the significant facial components, to address the plastic surgery-induced texture variation problems. To ensure that the significant facial components represent useful edge information with little or no false edges, a simple illumination normalization technique is proposed for preprocessing. Gabor wavelet is applied to the edge image to accentuate on the uniqueness of the significant facial components for discriminating among different subjects. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the Georgia Tech (GT) and the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) databases with illumination and expression problems, and the plastic surgery database with texture changes. Results show that the proposed edge-based Gabor feature representation approach is robust against plastic surgery-induced face variations amidst expression and illumination problems and outperforms the existing plastic surgery face recognition methods reported in the literature.
Cornelissen, Anouk J M; van Mulken, Tom J M; Graupner, Caitlin; Qiu, Shan S; Keuter, Xavier H A; van der Hulst, René R W J; Schols, Rutger M
Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging technique, after administration of contrast agents with fluorescent characteristics in the near-infrared (700-900 nm) range, is considered to possess great potential for the future of plastic surgery, given its capacity for perioperative, real-time anatomical guidance and identification. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive literature review concerning current and potential future applications of NIRF imaging in plastic surgery, thereby guiding future research. A systematic literature search was performed in databases of Cochrane Library CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE (last search Oct 2017) regarding NIRF imaging in plastic surgery. Identified articles were screened and checked for eligibility by two authors independently. Forty-eight selected studies included 1166 animal/human subjects in total. NIRF imaging was described for a variety of (pre)clinical applications in plastic surgery. Thirty-two articles used NIRF angiography, i.e., vascular imaging after intravenous dye administration. Ten articles reported on NIRF lymphography after subcutaneous dye administration. Although currently most applied, general protocols for dosage and timing of dye administration for NIRF angiography and lymphography are still lacking. Three articles applied NIRF to detect nerve injury, and another three studies described other novel applications in plastic surgery. Future standard implementation of novel intraoperative optical techniques, such as NIRF imaging, could significantly contribute to perioperative anatomy guidance and facilitate critical decision-making in plastic surgical procedures. Further investigation (i.e., large multicenter randomized controlled trials) is mandatory to establish the true value of this innovative surgical imaging technique in standard clinical practice and to aid in forming consensus on protocols for general use.Level of Evidence: Not ratable.
Pozza, Edoardo Dalla; D'Souza, Gehaan F; DeLeonibus, Anthony; Fabiani, Brianna; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Zins, James E
While prevalent in everyday life, smartphones are also finding increasing use as a medical care adjunct. The use of smartphone technology as a postoperative cosmetic surgery adjunct for care has received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this effort was to assess the potential efficacy of a smartphone-based cosmetic surgery early postoperative follow-up program. Specifically, could smartphone photography provided by the patient to the plastic surgeon in the first few days after surgery allay patient's concerns, improve the postoperative experience and, possibly, detect early complications? From August 2015 to March 2016 a smartphone-based postoperative protocol was established for patients undergoing cosmetic procedures. At the time of discharge, the plastic surgeon sent a text to the patient with instructions for the patient to forward a postoperative photograph of the operated area within 48 to 72 hours. The plastic surgeon then made a return call/text that same day to review the patient's progress. A postoperative questionnaire evaluated the patients' postoperative experience and satisfaction with the program. A total of 57 patients were included in the study. Fifty-two patients responded to the survey. A total of 50 (96.2%) patients reported that the process improved the quality of their postoperative experience. The protocol allowed to detect early complications in 3 cases. The physician was able to address and treat the complications the following day prior to the scheduled clinic follow up. The smartphone can be effectively utilized by the surgeon to both enhance the patient's postoperative experience and alert the surgeon to early postoperative problems. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Therattil, Paul J.; Chung, Stella; Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S.
Objective: Expert witness testimony is crucial for juror decision making. The goals of this study were to examine the trends in malpractice litigation in plastic surgery and to examine the characteristics of expert witnesses in litigation. Methods: The Westlaw legal database was queried for jury verdict and settlement reports related to plastic surgery cases from 2009 to 2015. Cases were examined for expert witness testimony, procedure performed, alleged injury, cause of action, verdict, and indemnity payments. Results: Ninety-three relevant cases were examined. Mean plaintiff award was $1,036,469, whereas mean settlement was $633,960. The most commonly litigated procedures involved breast surgery (34.4%), liposuction (18.3%), and body contouring (14.0%). Cases involving body contouring (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.10) were more likely to result in favor of the defendant, whereas cases involving breast surgery (RR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.57) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). Cases in which there was claimed pain (RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48) or emotional distress (RR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). The party of a lawsuit was more likely to win the case if its expert witness was a plastic surgeon (P < .05). Conclusion: Plastic surgery litigation tends to favor defendants. Most litigation involves breast surgery, liposuction, and body contouring. The type of procedure and alleged claim affect case success. Parties with a plastic surgeon as an expert witness tend to be more successful in litigation. PMID:29062461
Bucknor, Alexandra; Kamali, Parisa; Phillips, Nicole; Mathijssen, Irene; Rakhorst, Hinne; Lin, Samuel J; Furnas, Heather
Previous research has highlighted the gender-based disparities present throughout the field of surgery. This study aims to evaluate the breadth of the issues facing women in plastic surgery, worldwide. A systematic scoping review was undertaken from October of 2016 to January of 2017, with no restrictions on date or language. A narrative synthesis of the literature according to themed issues was developed, together with a summary of relevant numeric data. From the 2247 articles identified, 55 articles were included in the analysis. The majority of articles were published from the United States. Eight themes were identified, as follows: (1) workforce figures; (2) gender bias and discrimination; (3) leadership and academia; (4) mentorship and role models; (5) pregnancy, parenting, and childcare; (6) relationships, work-life balance, and professional satisfaction; (7) patient/public preference; and (8) retirement and financial planning. Despite improvement in numbers over time, women plastic surgeons continue to be underrepresented in the United States, Canada, and Europe, with prevalence ranging from 14 to 25.7 percent. Academic plastic surgeons are less frequently female than male, and women academic plastic surgeons score less favorably when outcomes of academic success are evaluated. Finally, there has been a shift away from overt discrimination toward a more ingrained, implicit bias, and most published cases of bias and discrimination are in association with pregnancy. The first step toward addressing the issues facing women plastic surgeons is recognition and articulation of the issues. Further research may focus on analyzing geographic variation in the issues and developing appropriate interventions.
Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K
Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.
Although the exact time of performing plastic surgery is not addressed in the medical and historical literature, it can be supposed that these surgical procedures have a long and fascinating history. Recent excavations provided many documents regarding the application of medical instruments, surgical and even reconstructive procedures during the pre-historic and ancient periods. Actually, there is no historical definite time-zone separating general and cosmetic operations in the pre-modern time; however, historically there have been many surgeons who tried to perform reconstructive procedures during their usual medical practice. This article presents a brief look at the history of plastic surgery form the ancient to the contemporary era, with a special focus on Iran.
Chetta, Matthew D; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Diaz-Garcia, Rafael J; Kasten, Steven J
Plastic surgery residency program directors have an interest in recruiting applicants who show an interest in an academic practice. Medical school achievements (ie, United States Medical Licensing Examination® scores, publications, and Alpha Omega Alpha status) are metrics assessed to grade applicants but may not correlate with ultimately choosing an academic career. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing residents' choices for or against academic careers. A 25-item online questionnaire was designed to measure baseline interest in academic plastic surgery and factors that influence decisions to continue on or abandon that career path. This questionnaire was disseminated to the integrated/combined plastic surgery residents during the 2013 to 2014 academic year. One hundred twenty-five respondents indicated that they were currently interested in pursuing academic practice (n = 78) or had lost interest in academic practice (n = 47). Among all respondents, 92.8% (n = 116) stated they were interested in academic careers at the time of residency application, but one-third (n = 41) subsequently lost interest. Those residents who retained interest in academic careers indicated resident/medical student educational opportunities (57%) and complexity of patients (52%) as reasons. Those who lost interest cited a lack of autonomy (43%), publishing requirements (32%), and income discrepancy (26%) as reasons. Many residents report losing interest in academics during residency. Traditional metrics valued in the recruitment process may not serve as positive predictors of an academic career path. Reasons why residents lose interest are not easily correctable, but mentorship, adequate career counseling, and research opportunities during training remain factors that can be addressed across all residency programs.
Journal ranking based on the impact factor (IF) can be distorted by self-citation. The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of self-citation in the plastic surgery journals and its effect on the journals' IFs. IF, IF without self-citations (corrected IF), self-cited rate, and self-citing rate for 11 plastic surgery journals were investigated from 2009-2015, by reviewing the Journal Citation Report ® . The correlations of the IF with the self-cited rate and the self-citing rate were statistically assessed. In addition, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was compared with 15 top journals from other surgical specialties in 2015. IF was significantly correlated with the self-cited rate (R: 0.594, p = 0.001) and the self-citing rate (R: 0.824, p < 0.001). The self-cited rate of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 2015 was higher than that of top journals from other surgical specialties. The IFs of Microsurgery and Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery increased greatly in recent years, but they were inflated by high self-cited and self-citing rates. The self-citation rate positively affects the IF in plastic surgery journals. A high concentration of self-citation of some journals could distort the ranking among plastic surgery journals in general.
Loewenstein, Scott N; Duquette, Stephen; Valsangkar, Nakul; Avula, Umakanth; Lad, Neha; Socas, Juan; Flores, Roberto L; Sood, Rajiv; Koniaris, Leonidas G
There is an increased push for plastic surgery units in the United States to become independent departments administered autonomously rather than as divisions of a multispecialty surgery department. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are any quantifiable differences in the academic performance of departments versus divisions. Using a list of the plastic surgery units affiliated with The American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS), unit websites were queried for departmental status and to obtain a list of affiliated faculty. Academic productivity was then quantified using the SCOPUS database. National Institute of Health (NIH) funding was determined through the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools database. Plastic surgery departments were comparable to divisions in academic productivity, evidenced by a similar number of publications per faculty (38.9 versus 38.7; p=0.94), number of citations per faculty (692 versus 761; p=0.64), H-indices (9.9 versus 9.9; p=0.99), and NIH grants (3.25 versus 2.84; p=0.80), including RO1 grants (1.33 versus 0.84; p=0.53). There was a trend for departments to have a more equitable male to female ratio (2.8 versus 4.1; p=0.06), and departments trained a greater number of integrated plastic surgery residents (9.0 versus 5.28; p=0.03). This study demonstrates that the academic performance of independent plastic surgery departments is generally similar to divisions, but with nuanced distinctions.
Stevens, Roger J G; Hamilton, Neil M
Some authors have claimed that those plastic surgeons born between 1965 and 1979 (generation X, or Gen-X) are more technologically able than those born between 1946 and 1964 (Baby Boomers, or BB). Those born after 1980, which comprise generation Y (Gen-Y), might be the most technologically able and most demanding for electronic learning (e-learning) to support their education and training in plastic surgery. These differences might represent a "digital generation gap" and would have practical and financial implications for the development of e-learning. The aim of this study was to survey plastic surgeons on their experience and preferences in e-learning in plastic surgery and to establish whether there was a difference between different generations. Online survey (e-survey) of plastic surgeons within the UK and Ireland was used for this study. In all, 624 plastic surgeons were invited by e-mail to complete an e-survey anonymously for their experience of e-learning in plastic surgery, whether they would like access to e-learning and, if so, whether this should this be provided nationally, locally, or not at all. By stratifying plastic surgeons into three generations (BB, Gen-X, and Gen-Y), the responses between generations were compared using the χ(2)-test for linear trend. A p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Of the 624 plastic surgeons contacted, 237 plastic surgeons completed the survey (response rate, 38%), but data from 2 surgeons were excluded. For the remaining 235 plastic surgeons, no evidence was found of statistically significant linear trends between by generation and either experience, access, or provision of e-learning. These findings refute the claim that there are differences in the experience of e-learning of plastic surgeons by generation. Furthermore, there is no evidence that there are differences in whether there should be access to e-learning and how e-learning should be provided for different generations of plastic
Dunkin, Christopher S J; Pleat, Jonathon M; Jones, Sarah A M; Goodacre, Timothy E E
A questionnaire survey of the perception of plastic surgery amongst 1567 members of the public, general practitioners and medical students is presented. Closed-ended format questions were designed to assess understanding of the range of conditions managed by plastic surgeons. Respondents were asked to match nine surgical specialists with 40 conditions or procedures. To investigate understanding of the multidisciplinary nature of some surgery, respondents were asked which type of surgeon might have a supplementary role. Completed questionnaires from 1004 members of the public, 335 general practitioners, and 228 medical students are presented (responses rate>65%). Significant differences were identified between public respondents and other groups. Plastic surgery was associated with reconstruction for trauma and cancer and procedures with a strong aesthetic element by all three groups. The public were poorly informed about some core plastic surgery including burns, melanoma and hand surgery. General practitioner and student respondents had a better understanding of the diversity of the specialty. However, both groups considered orthopaedic surgeons and not plastic surgeons to be hand surgeons. The strengths and weaknesses of this study are discussed together with potential areas for education and promotion.
Atashroo, David A; Luan, Anna; Vyas, Krishna S; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Maan, Zeshaan; Duscher, Dominik; Walmsley, Graham G; Lynch, Michael P; Davenport, Daniel L; Wan, Derrick C; Longaker, Michael T; Vasconez, Henry C
Plastic surgery is among the most competitive specialties in medicine, but little is known about the attributes of programs that are most attractive to successful applicants. This study aimed to understand and provide insights regarding program characteristics that are most influential to students when ranking plastic surgery programs. An anonymous online survey was conducted with newly matched plastic surgery residents for the integrated and combined Match in 2012 and 2013. Subjects were queried regarding their demographics, qualifications, application experiences, and motivations for residency program selection. A total of 92 of 245 matched plastic surgery residents (38 percent) responded to the survey. The perception of resident happiness was the most positive factor influencing program ranking, followed by high operative volume, faculty mentorship, and strong research infrastructure. Perception of a program as "malignant" was the most negative attribute. Applicants with Step 1 scores greater than 245 received significantly more interviews (p =0.001) and considered resident benefits less important (p < 0.05), but geographic location more important (p =0.005). Applicants who published more than two articles also received more interviews (p =0.001) and ranked a strong research infrastructure and program reputation as significantly more important (p < 0.05). Forty-two percent of applicants completed an away rotation at the program with which they matched, and these applicants were more likely to match at their number one ranked program (p = 0.001). Plastic surgery applicants have differing preferences regarding the ideal training program, but some attributes resonate. These trends can guide programs for improvement in attracting the best applicants.
Knox, Aaron D C; Gilardino, Mirko S; Kasten, Steve J; Warren, Richard J; Anastakis, Dimitri J
North American surgical education is beginning to shift toward competency-based medical education, in which trainees complete their training only when competence has been demonstrated through objective milestones. Pressure is mounting to embrace competency-based medical education because of the perception that it provides more transparent standards and increased public accountability. In response to calls for reform from leading bodies in medical education, competency-based medical education is rapidly becoming the standard in training of physicians. The authors summarize the rationale behind the recent shift toward competency-based medical education and creation of the milestones framework. With respect to procedural skills, initial efforts will require the field of plastic surgery to overcome three challenges: identifying competencies (principles and procedures), modeling teaching strategies, and developing assessment tools. The authors provide proposals for how these challenges may be addressed and the educational rationale behind each proposal. A framework for identification of competencies and a stepwise approach toward creation of a principles oriented competency-based medical education curriculum for plastic surgery are presented. An assessment matrix designed to sample resident exposure to core principles and key procedures is proposed, along with suggestions for generating validity evidence for assessment tools. The ideal curriculum should provide exposure to core principles of plastic surgery while demonstrating competence through performance of index procedures that are most likely to benefit graduating residents when entering independent practice and span all domains of plastic surgery. The authors advocate that exploring the role and potential benefits of competency-based medical education in plastic surgery residency training is timely.
Kolby, Lars; Elander, Anna
Background: Different health conditions are treated in a Plastic Surgery unit, including those cases whose main goal is to enable patients to feel and integrate better within society and therefore improving quality of life, rather then physical functions. Methods: We discuss moral principles that can be used as a guide for health professionals to revise and create policies for plastic surgery patients presenting with non–life-threatening conditions. Results: A specific anatomical feature is not always an indicator of patient’s well-being and quality of life, and therefore it cannot be used as the sole parameter to identify the worst-off and prioritize the provision of health care. A policy should identify who preoperatively are the worst-off and come to some plausible measure of how much they can be expected to benefit from an operation. Policies that do not track these principles in any reliable way can cause discrimination. Conclusions: A patient-centered operating system and patient’s informed preferences might be implemented in the process of prioritizing health. In circumstances when the effectiveness of a specific treatment is unproven, professionals should not make assumptions based on their own values. PMID:28894658
Hendrickson, S A; Khan, M A; Verjee, L S; Rahman, K M A; Simmons, J; Hettiaratchy, S P
The introduction of major trauma centres (MTCs) in England has led to 63% reduction in trauma mortality.(1) The role of plastic surgeons supporting these centres has not been quantified previously. This study aimed to quantify plastic surgical workload at an urban MTC to determine the contribution of plastic surgeons to major trauma care. All Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN)-recorded major trauma patients who presented to an urban MTC in 2013 and underwent an operation were identified retrospectively. Patients who underwent plastic surgery were identified and the type and date of procedure(s) were recorded. The trauma operative workload data of another tertiary surgical specialty and local historical plastics workload data from pre-MTC go-live were collected for comparison. Of the 416 major trauma patients who required surgical intervention, 29% (n = 122) underwent plastic surgery. Of these patients, 43% had open lower limb fractures, necessitating plastic surgical involvement according to British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma (BOAST) 4 guidance. The overall plastic surgery operative workload increased sevenfold post-MTC go-live. A similar proportion of the same cohort required neurosurgery (n = 115; p = 0.589). This study quantifies plastic surgery involvement in major trauma and demonstrates that plastic surgical operative workload is at least on par with other tertiary surgical specialties. It also reports one centre's experience of a significant change in plastic surgery activity following designation of MTC status. The quantity of plastic surgical operative workload in major trauma must be considered when planning major trauma service design and workforce provision, and for plastic surgical postgraduate training. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dobbs, Thomas D; Cundy, Olivia; Samarendra, Harsh; Khan, Khurram; Whitaker, Iain Stuart
The use of robots in surgery has become commonplace in many specialties. In this systematic review, we report on the current uses of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery and looks to future roles for robotics in this arena. A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus was performed using appropriate search terms in order to identify all applications of robot-assistance in plastic and reconstructive surgery. All articles were reviewed by two authors and a qualitative synthesis performed of those articles that met the inclusion criteria. The systematic review and results were conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 7,904 articles were identified for title and abstract review. Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Robotic assistance in plastic and reconstructive surgery is still in its infancy, with areas such as trans-oral robotic surgery and microvascular procedures the dominant areas of interest currently. A number of benefits have been shown over conventional open surgery, such as improved access and greater dexterity; however, these must be balanced against disadvantages such as the lack of haptic feedback and cost implications. The feasibility of robotic plastic surgery has been demonstrated in several specific indications. As technology, knowledge, and skills in this area improve, these techniques have the potential to contribute positively to patient and provider experience and outcomes.
Dolan, Roisin T; Zins, James E; Morrison, Colin M
The aesthetic surgery arena has become a competitive marketplace. Recognition as an authority in aesthetic surgery remains a powerful marketing tool for plastic surgeons, but have significant inroads been made by other specialties? The aims of this study were to analyze publication trends relating to the top five most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures, and to assess the origins (i.e., source specialty, authorship, institutions, and countries) of published aesthetic surgical research. Based on the seventeenth annual multispecialty data set provided by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the top five most commonly performed aesthetic surgical procedures were selected. A temporal analysis of publication and citation rates, source institution and country, publishing journal, funding agency trends, and level of evidence was undertaken from 1970 to 2013. Using the search criteria, 7762 articles were identified. There was an 8.8-fold increase in publication volume when the first decade (n = 375) was compared with the last decade (n = 3326). Over the past four decades, 52.2 percent of publications (n = 4053 of 7762) originated from plastic surgery research institutions, with varying contributions from other specialties. Competition was greatest in relation to authorship of blepharoplasty- and rhinoplasty-related publications. Although plastic surgeons continue to maintain a center-stage presence in terms of authorship of aesthetic surgical literature, significant contributions are now made by other specialties. Plastic surgeons must continue to foster high-quality, peer-reviewed research and innovations to maintain their visibility as leaders in the aesthetic surgery literature and sustain a competitive advantage in aesthetic surgery practice.
Wagner, Ida Janelle; Hultman, Charles Scott
To elucidate the components of professionalism specific to plastic surgery, we surveyed surgeons, anesthesiologists, and fourth-year medical students at a public university. We sought to define the central components of professionalism in plastic surgery, to determine the difference in perception of professionalism by plastic surgeons (PSs), compared to other practitioners (OPs), and to improve education in professionalism by obtaining data on attitudes of professionalism among practitioners. Using SurveyMonkey, we distributed a questionnaire to members of the Departments of Surgery and Anesthesia and fourth-year medical students. The responses of PSs (n = 22) were compared to non-plastic surgeons (OPs, n = 294). Of the 594 participants, 316 completed the survey (response rate, 53%). Participants consisted of 211 (66.8%) medical students, 60 (19%) residents, 5 (1.6%) fellows, 28 (8.9%) attending physicians, 6 (1.9%) nonphysician providers, and 6 (1.9%) administrators. Both PS and OP listed "the development and conformance to a body of ethics" the most important component of professionalism. Most participants thought that professionalism could be taught, and assessed. Plastic surgeons listed "not enough mentors" (63.2%) as the main obstacle to teaching professionalism, whereas OP listed "not a priority in medical school curriculum" (48.2%). Both PS and OP cited substance abuse, fraud, and sexual misconduct as egregious displays of unprofessional behavior. Opinions differed between the groups, regarding aspects of professionalism pertaining to plastic surgery. When asked about "charity raffles" for cosmetic surgery, 72.2% of PS ranked this as a 4 or 5 (with 5 representing the most unprofessional behavior), compared to only 46.7% of OP who assigned this a 4 or 5. For the scenario of a PS deceiving patients, by showing them another surgeon's before and after photographs, 84.2% of PS assigned this a 4 or 5, whereas 71.0% of OP ranked this a 4 or 5. Both groups cited
Rosenthal, E; Clark, J M; Wax, M K; Cook, T A
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of medical students regarding facial aesthetic surgery and those specialists most likely to perform aesthetic or reconstructive facial surgery. A survey was designed based on a review of the literature to assess the desirable characteristics and the perceived role of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon (FPRS). The surveys were distributed to 2 populations: medical students from 4 medical schools and members of the general public. A total of 339 surveys were collected, 217 from medical students and 122 from the general public. Medical students and the public had similar responses. The results demonstrated that respondents preferred a male plastic surgeon from the ages of 41 to 50 years old and would look to their family doctor for a recommendation. Facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgery was considered the domain of maxillofacial and general plastic surgeons, not the FPRS. Integration of the FPRS into the medical school curriculum may help to improve the perceived role of the specialty within the medical community. It is important for the specialty to communicate to aspiring physicians the dedicated training of an otolaryngologist specializing in FPRS.
Paik, Angie M; Mady, Leila J; Villanueva, Nathaniel L; Goljo, Erden; Svider, Peter F; Ciminello, Frank; Eloy, Jean Anderson
The h-index has utility in examining the contributions of faculty members by quantifying both the amount and the quality of research output and as such is a metric in approximating academic productivity. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the relationship between h-index and academic rank in plastic surgery and (2) to describe the current gender representation in academic plastic surgery to assess whether there are any gender disparities in academic productivity. The h-index was used to evaluate the research contributions of plastic surgeons from academic departments in the United States. There were 426 (84%) men and 79 (16%) women in our sample. Those in higher academic ranks had higher h-index scores (p < 0.0005). There was a significant difference in overall mean h-index by gender, where the mean scores were 9.0 and 6.0 for men and women, respectively (p = 0.0005). When analyzed by academic rank, there was a significant difference in academic productivity between men and women in assistant and associate professor positions (6.4 vs 5.1, respectively; p = 0.04). The h-index is able to objectively and reliably quantify academic productivity in plastic surgery. We found that h-indices increased with higher academic rank, and men had overall higher scores than their female colleagues. Adoption of this metric as an adjunct to other objective and subjective measures by promotions committees may provide a more reliable measure of research relevance and academic productivity in academic plastic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chandawarkar, Akash A; Gould, Daniel J; Grant Stevens, W
Recent studies demonstrate that board-certified plastic surgeons are underrepresented amongst individuals posting public-directed marketing plastic surgery-related content on Instagram. However, peer-to-peer and education-based social media influence has not been studied. Twitter is a social media platform has been suggested to be useful for educating the masses and connecting with colleagues. The purpose of this study is to identify the top influencers in plastic surgery on Twitter, characterize who they are, and relate their social media influence to academic influence. Twitter influence scores for the topic search "plastic surgery" were collected in July 2017 using Right Relevance software. The accounts associated with the highest influencer scores were linked to individual names, status as a plastic surgeon, board certification, location, and academic h-index. The top 100 Twitter influencers in plastic surgery are presented. Seventy-seven percent of the top influencers are trained as plastic surgeons or facial plastic surgeons. Sixty-one percent of influencers are board-certified plastic surgeons or board-eligible/future eligible trainees. International plastic surgeons made up 16% of influencers. Other medical doctors made up another 10%. The other 13% of influencers were nonphysicians. Three-quarters of social media influencers were physically located in the United States. Academic h-index of social media influencers ranged from 0 to 62 (mean, 8.6). This study shows that the top plastic surgery social media influencers on Twitter are predominantly board-certified or eligible plastic surgeons and physically based in the United States. This study also provides the influencer network for other plastic surgeons to engage with to improve their own influence within the plastic surgery social media sphere.
Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M
The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.
Hansson, E; Tegelberg, E
The French language is less and less used as an international scientific language and many French researchers publish their work in English. Nowadays, Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique is the only international plastic surgical journal published completely in French. The use of English loan words in French plastic surgery has never been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of English loan words in French plastic surgery. A corpus consisting of all the articles in a number of Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthethique, chosen by default, was created. The frequency of English loan words was calculated and the types of words were analysed. The corpus contains 367 (0.8%) English loan words. Most of them are non-integrated loan words and calques. The majority of the plastic surgical loan words describe surgical techniques. The French plastic surgical language seems to be influenced by English. The usage of loan words does not always follow the recommendations and the usage is sometimes ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pfaff, Miles J; Steinbacher, Derek M
Three-dimensional analysis and planning is a powerful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery, enabling improved diagnosis, patient education and communication, and intraoperative transfer to achieve the best possible results. Three-dimensional planning can increase efficiency and accuracy, and entails five core components: (1) analysis, (2) planning, (3) virtual surgery, (4) three-dimensional printing, and (5) comparison of planned to actual results. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three-dimensional virtual planning and to provide a framework for applying these systems to clinical practice. Therapeutic, V.
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Duclos, Antoine; Orgill, Dennis; Carty, Matthew J
The assessment of performance in surgery is expanding significantly. Application of relevant frameworks to plastic surgery, however, has been limited. In this article, the authors present two robust graphic tools commonly used in other industries that may serve to monitor individual surgeon operative time while factoring in patient- and surgeon-specific elements. The authors reviewed performance data from all bilateral reduction mammaplasties performed at their institution by eight surgeons between 1995 and 2010. Operative time was used as a proxy for performance. Cumulative sum charts and exponentially weighted moving average charts were generated using a train-test analytic approach, and used to monitor surgical performance. Charts mapped crude, patient case-mix-adjusted, and case-mix and surgical-experience-adjusted performance. Operative time was found to decline from 182 minutes to 118 minutes with surgical experience (p < 0.001). Cumulative sum and exponentially weighted moving average charts were generated using 1995 to 2007 data (1053 procedures) and tested on 2008 to 2010 data (246 procedures). The sensitivity and accuracy of these charts were significantly improved by adjustment for case mix and surgeon experience. The consideration of patient- and surgeon-specific factors is essential for correct interpretation of performance in plastic surgery at the individual surgeon level. Cumulative sum and exponentially weighted moving average charts represent accurate methods of monitoring operative time to control and potentially improve surgeon performance over the course of a career.
Workman, Adrienne D; Gupta, Subhas C
The vast array of information technology available to plastic surgeons continues to expand. With the recent introduction of smartphone application ("app") technology to the market, the potential for incorporating both social media and app technology into daily practice exists. The authors describe and evaluate the smartphone applications most pertinent to plastic surgery. Smartphone apps from all available markets were analyzed for various factors, including popularity among general consumers, ease of use, and functionality. Using various advertising guidelines from plastic surgery societies as well as the US Food and Drug Administration, each app's content was further analyzed within the context of ethical obligations. The apps with the highest number of ratings were those offering the option to upload photos and morph each photo according to the user's own preference. The title of apps also appears to play a role in popularity. A majority of apps demonstrated the same features available on websites. The applicability of social media marketing via smartphone apps has the potential to change future patient-surgeon interactions by offering more personalized and user-friendly encounters. The role of smartphone apps is important to the future of plastic surgery as long as plastic surgeons maintain an active role in the development of these apps to ensure their value.
Bennett, Katelyn G; Ingraham, John M; Schneider, Lisa F; Saadeh, Pierre B; Vercler, Christian J
The ethical practice of medicine has always been of utmost importance, and plastic surgery is no exception. The literature is devoid of information on the teaching of ethics and professionalism in plastic surgery. In light of this, a survey was sent to ascertain the status of ethics training in plastic surgery residencies. A 21-question survey was sent from the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons meeting to 180 plastic surgery program directors and coordinators via email. Survey questions inquired about practice environment, number of residents, presence of a formal ethics training program, among others. Binary regression was used to determine if any relationships existed between categorical variables, and Poisson linear regression was used to assess relationships between continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at a P value of 0.05. A total of 104 members responded to the survey (58% response rate). Sixty-three percent were program directors, and most (89%) practiced in academic settings. Sixty-two percent in academics reported having a formal training program, and 60% in private practice reported having one. Only 40% of programs with fewer than 10 residents had ethics training, whereas 78% of programs with more than 20 residents did. The odds of having a training program were slightly higher (odds ratio, 1.1) with more residents (P = 0.17). Despite the lack of information in the literature, formal ethics and professionalism training does exist in many plastic surgery residencies, although barriers to implementation do exist. Plastic surgery leadership should be involved in the development of standardized curricula to help overcome these barriers.
Sifakis, Eftychios; Hellrung, Jeffrey; Teran, Joseph; Oliker, Aaron; Cutting, Court
One of the most fundamental challenges in plastic surgery is the alteration of the geometry and topology of the skin. The specific decisions made by the surgeon concerning the size and shape of the tissue to be removed and the subsequent closure of the resulting wound may have a dramatic affect on the quality of life for the patient after the procedure is completed. The plastic surgeon must look at the defect created as an organic puzzle, designing the optimal pattern to close the hole aesthetically and efficiently. In the past, such skills were the distillation of years of hands-on practice on live patients, while relevant reference material was limited to two-dimensional illustrations. Practicing this procedure on a personal computer  has been largely impractical to date, but recent technological advances may come to challenge this limitation. We present a comprehensive real-time virtual surgical environment, based on finite element modeling and simulation of tissue cutting and manipulation. Our system demonstrates the fundamental building blocks of plastic surgery procedures on a localized tissue flap, and provides a proof of concept for larger simulation systems usable in the authoring of complex procedures on elaborate subject geometry.
Whitaker, Iain S; Mason, Lyndon; Boyce, D E; Cooper, M A C S
One of the challenges facing our profession is the adequate training of plastic surgeons in the subspeciality of aesthetic surgery, in addition to covering the rest of the large curriculum. The UK's Chief Medical Officer, Professor Sir Liam Donaldson, has recently called for better training for doctors, better information for patients, and a touger regulatory structure for private cosmetic surgery. In this study, we show that the training of cosmetic procedures in our unit has risen steadily over the 6 year period studied. As part of our committment to improving training, our unit has recently organised a 3 month block soely dedicated to aesthetic surgery, allowing increasing exposure to cosmetic clinics and theatre sessions. It is clear that as a group, we must continue to develop robust training schemes to produce plastic surgeons able to cope with the demands of 21st Century healthcare, and ensure that the public does not fall prey to practitioners in unregulated clinics.
Liang, Fan; Rudnicki, Pamela A; Prince, Noah H; Lipsitz, Stuart; May, James W; Guo, Lifei
Our purpose was to provide a metric by which evaluation criteria are prioritized during resident selection. In this study, we assessed which residency applicant qualities are deemed important by members of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS). A survey was distributed to all 580 AAPS members, and 295 responded to rate the importance of resident metrics, including measures of competency and personal characteristics. Demographic information, background training, and interaction with residents were also noted. Using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), outcomes were analyzed across demographic groups with column trend exact (CTE) test for ordinal variables, Mantel-Haenszel trend test for interval variables, and Fisher exact test for discrete variables. Regarding competency metrics, letters of recommendation from known sources is the most important factor, whereas letters from unknown sources ranks the lowest. Character evaluations identified honesty as the most desirable trait; dishonesty was the most despised. Across demographic groups, academic surgeons and program directors value letters from known sources more than nonacademicians or nonprogram directors (CTE p = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Academicians and current program directors regard research more highly than their counterparts do (CTE p = 0.022 and 0.022, respectively). Currently, practicing surgeons, academicians, and program directors value hard work more than others (CTE p = 0.008, 0.033, and 0.029, respectively). Program directors emphasize maturity and patient commitment and are less tolerant of narcissism (CTE p = 0.002, 0.005, and 0.003, respectively). Lastly, academic surgeons and program directors look more favorably upon strong team players (CTE p < 0.00001 and p = 0.008, respectively), but less so over time (Mantel-Haenszel trend p = 0.006). We have examined applicant metrics that were deemed important by AAPS members and assessed their demographic interpretation. We hope this
Franzblau, Lauren E.; Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.
Background Countless papers have demonstrated and emphasized the importance of mentoring in academic medicine. However, the upcoming role of mentors in the evolving medical field is poorly defined. As translational medicine, collaboration, and healthcare priorities change, so too must the goals and usage of mentoring. The aims of this paper are to demonstrate key aspects of effective mentoring in academic plastic surgery, show institutions how to cultivate mentoring relationships among their faculty and trainees, and provide direction for how to optimize the future use of mentoring to best prepare the next generation of plastic surgeons. Methods We reviewed the current literature regarding mentorship and the evolution of academic medicine. Results Mentors not only facilitate their protégés’ entrance into the field and future success, but can also attract medical students and residents to careers in research and abet the racial and gender discrepancies in plastic surgery and academia. Ideally faculty should undergo some form of training before they enter mentoring relationships. This will ensure that they are aware of their specific duties as mentors, are able to communicate with mentees, and can avoid potential pitfalls. Conclusions Mentorship is a tool. If used correctly, it can help recruit and retain talented physician-scientists to plastic surgery to satisfy the growing demand. This will require institutions to actively support mentorship, provide opportunities and resources for training mentors, and enable faculty to allocate time to this vital pursuit. PMID:23629123
Lopez, Joseph; Lopez, Sandra; Means, Jessica; Mohan, Raja; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; Tufaro, Anthony P; May, James W; Dorafshar, Amir
Despite a growing interest in examining the effects of industry funding on research in plastic surgery, no study to date has comprehensively examined the effects of financial conflicts of interest on publication outcomes. The authors investigated the association between financial conflicts of interest and reported study findings in plastic surgery research. The authors reviewed all entries in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2012. All clinical and basic science articles were analyzed. The following article characteristics were extracted: self-reported financial conflicts of interest, sample size, level of evidence, study design, and prospectiveness. The findings reported in each abstract were blindly graded as not applicable, negative, or positive. Of the 1650 abstracts that resulted from the authors' initial search, 568 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of the included articles covered breast (20.8 percent), experimental (19.7 percent), and general reconstruction (31.69 percent). Financial conflicts of interest were disclosed in only 17.6 percent of the articles. Of the total studies that met inclusion criteria, 66.2 percent were reviewed as having positive outcomes, and 33.8 percent were reviewed as having negative or not applicable results. Studies that disclosed a financial conflict of interest were 7.12 times more likely (p < 0.0001) to present a positive outcome over a negative outcome compared with studies with no financial conflict of interest. Investigators with a financial conflict of interest are significantly more likely to publish plastic surgery studies with a positive conclusion compared with investigators with no conflicts of interest.
Ferreira, M C
Aesthetic plastic surgery has received wide public attention in the past few years. Expectations of patients regarding results have been exaggerated; the real place and medical importance of the procedures are still not clear because of a lack of more objective evidence. This study discusses the difficulties encountered related to the scientific evaluation of the aesthetic operations and proposes alternatives for assessment. A frequently performed procedure, reduction mammaplasty, is presented as an example, with its specific evaluation.
Giladi, Aviram M; Yuan, Frank; Chung, Kevin C
As the health care landscape in the United States changes under the Affordable Care Act, providers are set to face numerous new challenges. Although concerns about practice sustainability with declining reimbursement have dominated the dialogue, there are more pressing changes to the health care funding mechanism as a whole that must be addressed. Plastic surgeons, involved in various practice models each with different relationships to hospitals, referring physicians, and payers, must understand these reimbursement changes to dictate adequate compensation in the future. In this article, the authors discuss bundle payments and accountable care organizations, and how plastic surgeons might best engage in these new system designs. In addition, the authors review the value of a focused and driven health-services research agenda in plastic surgery, and the importance of this research in supporting long-term financial stability for the specialty.
Giladi, Aviram M.; Yuan, Frank; Chung, Kevin C.
As the healthcare landscape in the United States changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), providers are set to face numerous new challenges. Although concerns about practice sustainability with declining reimbursement have dominated the dialogue, there are more pressing changes to the healthcare funding mechanism as a whole that must be addressed. Plastic surgeons, involved in various practice models each with different relationships to hospitals, referring physicians, and payers, must understand these reimbursement changes in order to dictate adequate compensation in the future. Here we discuss bundle payments and Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs), and how plastic surgeons might best engage in these new system designs. In addition, we review the value of a focused and driven health-services research agenda in plastic surgery, and the importance of this research in supporting long-term financial stability for the specialty. PMID:25626805
Dreher, Rodrigo; Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L C; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B; Ferrão, Ygor A
Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis. The search was made in two electronic databases (LILACS and PUBMED) using Mesh and non-Mesh terms related to aesthetic plastic surgery and QoL. We performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the gathered data. We calculated a random effect meta-analysis with Der Simonian and Laird as variance estimator to compare pre- and postoperative QoL standardized mean difference. To check if there is difference between aesthetic surgeries, we compared reduction mammoplasty to other aesthetic surgeries. Of 1,715 identified, 20 studies were included in the qualitative analysis and 16 went through quantitative analysis. The random effect of all aesthetic surgeries shows that QoL improved after surgery. Reduction mammoplasty has improved QoL more than other procedures in social functioning and physical functioning domains. Aesthetic plastic surgery increases QoL. Reduction mammoplasty seems to have better improvement compared with other aesthetic surgeries.
Luce, Edward A; Jackman, Carye A
Recent articles in the scientific literature have expressed concerns about financial conflicts of interest in the profession of medicine in general and the specialty of plastic surgery in particular. Disclosure of financial ties to industry has been regarded as an address of a possible bias. The policies of medical journals places responsibility on authors for self-reporting of financial conflicts of interest, yet underreporting of conflicts of interest has occurred. The investigative hypothesis was that authors in the plastic surgery literature, in particular, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, underreported financial conflicts of interest. A review of articles published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from July of 2015 through April of 2016 for author disclosures was accomplished. The disclosure statements were compared to the information available in the Open Payments database for 2015. The lack of disclosure on the part of an author, when present, was individually examined for relevance of the corporate conflicts of interest to the subject matter of the involved article. A total of 302 articles authored by 1262 individuals were reviewed. One hundred thirty-nine (45.5 percent) had neither a disclosed nor an actual conflict of interest. In 61 articles (20.2 percent), one or more authors disclosed; 105 articles (34.8 percent) did not provide disclosure of a financial conflict of interest. In assessment of relevance, 10 undisclosed conflicts of interest (9.5 percent) were determined relevant, and one-third of that total were non-plastic surgeons. Nondisclosure of financial conflicts of interest is common, but only a small minority pose a potential for harm from bias.
Silvestre, Jason; Bilici, Nadir; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam is written by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Examinees reasonably infer that tested material reflects the Society's vision for the core curriculum in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of evidence on which credited answers to the examination questions are based. Two recent Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exams (2014 and 2015) were analyzed. Questions were categorized using a taxonomy model. Recommended journal article references for Level III (decision-making) questions were assigned a level of evidence. Exam sections were analyzed for differences in question taxonomy distribution and level of evidence. To look for studies with higher levels of evidence, a PubMed search was conducted for a random sample of 10 questions from each section. One hundred three Level I (25.8 percent), 138 Level II (34.5 percent), and 159 Level III (39.8 percent) questions were analyzed (p < 0.001). The hand and lower extremity section had the highest percentage of Level III questions (50.0 percent; p = 0.005). Journal articles had a mean level of evidence of 3.9 ± 0.7. The number of articles with a low level of evidence (IV and V) (p = 0.624) and the percentage of questions supported by articles with a high level of evidence (I and II) (p = 0.406) did not vary by section. The PubMed search revealed no instances of a higher level of evidence than the recommended reading list. A significant percentage of Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam questions test clinical management, but most are supported with a low level of evidence. Although that is consistent with low level of evidence of plastic surgery literature, educators should recognize the potential for biases of question writers.
Sears, Erika Davis; Larson, Bradley P; Chung, Kevin C
The authors' aim was to conduct a national survey of hand surgery fellowship program directors to determine differences of opinions of essential components of hand surgery training between program directors from plastic and orthopedic surgery programs. The authors performed a Web-based survey of 74 program directors from all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited hand surgery fellowship programs to determine components that are essential for hand surgery training. The survey included assessment of nine general areas of practice, 97 knowledge topics, and 172 procedures. Twenty-seven scales of related survey items were created to determine differences between specialty groups based on clinical themes. An 84 percent response rate was achieved, including 49 orthopedic and 12 plastic surgery program directors. There were significant differences in mean responses between the specialty groups in 11 of 27 scales. Only one scale, forearm fractures, contained items with a significantly stronger preference for essential rating among orthopedic surgeons. The other 10 scales contained items with a significantly higher preference for essential rating among plastic surgeons, most of which related to soft-tissue injury and reconstruction. The burn scale had the greatest discrepancy in opinion of essential ratings between the groups, followed by pedicled and free tissue transfer, and amputation and fingertip injuries. Despite being united under the subspecialty of hand surgery, program directors tend to emphasize clinical areas that are stressed in their respective primary disciplines. These differences promote the advantage of programs that provide exposure to both plastic surgery-trained and orthopedic surgery-trained hand surgeons.
Rosique, Marina Junqueira Ferreira; Rosique, Rodrigo Gouvea; Costa, Ilson Rosique; Lara, Brunno Rosique; Figueiredo, Jozé Luiz Ferrari; Ribeiro, Davidson Gomes Barbosa
Acute swelling of the parotid glands after general anesthesia has become known as anesthesia mumps. Its cause is unknown. Only one case of postsurgical parotitis without general anesthesia is reported. This report describes three cases in this setting after plastic surgery. A 37-year-old women underwent breast surgery and abdominoplasty with a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block (bupivacaine 0.5 %). The operative time totaled almost 6 h. Subsequently, 4 h after surgery, the patient experienced painless bilateral parotid swelling without palpable crepitus. The edema resolved completely within 12 h under clinical observation and parenteral hydration. A 45-year-old patient received subglandular breast implants and body contouring with liposuction, all with the patient under a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with 0.5 % marcaine. The total surgical time was 5 h. Subsequently, 3 h after surgery, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. The problem resolved completely in 36 h with clinical observation and parenteral hydration. CASE 3: A 30-year-old patient received a subglandular breast implant and underwent liposuction of the outer thighs using a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with lidocaine 1 %. The duration of surgery was 1 h. Subsequently, 5 h postoperatively, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. Dexamethasone and parenteral hydration were administered. The problem resolved completely in 48 h without sequelae. The occurrence of parotitis in patients undergoing surgery under epidural anesthesia is a novel situation, which increases the range of possible etiologies for this little known condition. Dehydration leading to transient parotid secretion obstruction may play a significant role. Further reports of parotitis occurring in the regional anesthesia setting are expected to help elucidate its pathophysiology. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of
... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in...
... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in...
... plastic surgery and in dermatology. 878.4810 Section 878.4810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4810 Laser surgical instrument for use in general and plastic surgery and in...
Wong, Wendy W; Gupta, Subhas C
"Social media" describes interactive communication through Web-based technologies. It has become an everyday part of modern life, yet there is a lack of research regarding its impact on plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate and compare the prevalence of classic marketing methods and social media in plastic surgery. The Web sites of aesthetic surgeons from seven US cities were compared and evaluated for the existence of Facebook, Twitter, or MySpace links and promotions. To find the sites, the authors conducted a Google search for the phrase "plastic surgery" with the name of each city to be studied: Beverly Hills, California; Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; Miami, Florida; New York City, New York; and San Francisco, California. The trends of social networking memberships were also studied in each of these cities. In comparison to aesthetic surgeons practicing in other cities, those in Miami, Florida, favored social media the most, with 50% promoting a Facebook page and 46% promoting Twitter. Fifty-six percent of New York City aesthetic surgeons promoted their featured articles in magazines and newspapers, whereas 54% of Beverly Hills aesthetic surgeons promoted their television appearances. An increase in the number of new Facebook memberships among cosmetic providers in the seven cities began in October 2008 and reached a peak in October, November, and December 2009, with subsequent stabilization. The increase in the number of new Twitter memberships began in July 2008 and remained at a steady rate of approximately 15 new memberships every three months. Social media may seem like a new and unique communication tool, but it is important to preserve professionalism and apply traditional Web site-building ethics and principles to these sites. We can expect continued growth in plastic surgeons' utilization of these networks to enhance their practices and possibly to launch direct marketing campaigns.
...] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the..., FDA announced that a meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices...
Theocharidis, Vasileios; Katsaros, Ioannis; Sgouromallis, Emmanouil; Serifis, Nikolaos; Boikou, Vasileios; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Kokosis, George; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P
Smoking is considered to be a significant risk factor for the development of postoperative complications after various surgical procedures, mainly by limiting oxygen delivery to tissues. Evidence on the collective impact of smoking in aesthetic procedure outcomes is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current evidence on the association between smoking and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent common elective procedures in plastic surgery. PubMed and Cochrane bibliographical databases were searched from January 1950 to October 2016 for studies reporting on patients who underwent facelift, abdominoplasty, breast reduction and breast reconstruction and for studies with included data on smoking history of treated patients. Fifty-three studies reporting on postoperative complications in tobacco users undergoing facelift, abdominoplasty, breast reduction and reconstruction were identified. Tobacco use is found to significantly increase the total number of postoperative complications as far as abdominoplasty (OR: 5.43; 95% CI = 2.92-10.10), breast reduction (OR: 2.36; 95% CI = 1.64-3.39) and breast reconstruction (OR: 1.91; 95% CI = 1.69-2.17) are concerned. Smoking history does not significantly affect total postoperative complications after facelift procedures (OR: 3.36; 95% CI = 0.92-12.30). Smoking predisposes to surgical site infections, delayed wound healing and skin necrosis in patients undergoing the most common aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. More rigorous and detailed reporting on the history of tobacco use and surgical outcomes following plastic surgery procedures is needed to better quantify the impact of smoking on the overall postoperative care for this patient population. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lutz, Kristina; Yazdani, Arjang; Ross, Douglas
Competency-based medical education is becoming increasingly prevalent and is likely to be mandated by the Royal College in the near future. The objective of this study was to define the core technical competencies that should be possessed by plastic surgery residents as they transition into their senior (presently postgraduate year 3) years of training. A list of potential core competencies was generated using a modified Delphi method that included the investigators and 6 experienced, academic plastic surgeons from across Canada and the United States. Generated items were divided into 7 domains: basic surgical skills, anesthesia, hand surgery, cutaneous surgery, esthetic surgery, breast surgery, and craniofacial surgery. Members of the Delphi group were asked to rank particular skills on a 4-point scale with anchored descriptors. Item reduction resulted in a survey consisting of 48 skills grouped into the aforementioned domains. This self-administered survey was distributed to all Canadian program directors (n = 11) via e-mail for validation and further item reduction. The response rate was 100% (11/11). Using the average rankings of program directors, 26 "core" skills were identified. There was agreement of core skills across all domains except for breast surgery and esthetic surgery. Of them, 7 skills were determined to be above the level of a trainee at this stage; a further 15 skills were agreed to be important, but not core, competencies. Overall, 26 competencies have been identified as "core" for plastic surgery residents to possess as they begin their senior, on-service years. The nature of these skills makes them suitable for teaching in a formal, simulated environment, which would ensure that all plastic surgery trainees are competent in these tasks as they transition to their senior years of residency. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albert, Mark G; Rothkopf, Douglas M
Operating rooms (ORs), combined with labour and delivery suites, account for approximately 70% of hospital waste. Previous studies have reported that recycling can have a considerable financial impact on a hospital-wide basis; however, its importance in the OR has not been demonstrated. To propose a method of decreasing cost through judicious selection of instruments and supplies, and initiation of recycling in plastic and hand surgery. The authors identified disposable supplies and instruments that are routinely opened and wasted in common plastic and hand surgery procedures, and calculated the savings that can result from eliminating extraneous items. A cost analysis was performed, which compared the expense of OR waste versus single-stream recycling and the benefit of recycling HIPAA documents and blue wrap. Fifteen total items were removed from disposable plastic packs and seven total items from hand packs. A total of US$17,381.05 could be saved per year from these changes alone. Since initiating single-stream recycling, the authors' institution has saved, on average, US$3,487 per month at the three campuses. After extrapolating at the current savings rate, one would expect to save a minimum of US$41,844 per year. OR waste reduction is an effective method of decreasing cost in the surgical setting. By revising the contents of current disposable packs and instrument sets designated for plastic and hand surgery, hospitals can reduce the amount of opened and unused material. Significant financial savings and environmental benefit can result from this judicious supply and instrument selection, as well as implementation of recycling.
Silvestre, Jason; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the proportion of plastic surgery residents pursuing subspecialty training relative to other surgical specialties, and (2) analyze trends in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accreditation of plastic surgery subspecialty fellowship programs. The American Medical Association provided data on career intentions of surgical chief residents graduating from 2014 to 2016. The percentage of residents pursuing fellowship training was compared by specialty. Trends in the proportion of accredited fellowship programs in craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, and microsurgery were analyzed. The percentage of accredited programs was compared between subspecialties with added-certification options (hand surgery) and subspecialties without added-certification options (craniofacial surgery and microsurgery). Most integrated and independent plastic surgery residents pursued fellowship training (61.8 percent versus 49.6 percent; p = 0.014). Differences existed by specialty from a high in orthopedic surgery (90.8 percent) to a low in colon and rectal surgery (3.2 percent). From 2005 to 2015, the percentage of accredited craniofacial fellowship programs increased, but was not significant (from 27.8 percent to 33.3 percent; p = 0.386). For hand surgery, the proportion of accredited programs that were plastic surgery (p = 0.755) and orthopedic surgery (p = 0.253) was stable, whereas general surgery decreased (p = 0.010). Subspecialty areas with added-certification options had more accredited fellowships than those without (100 percent versus 19.2 percent; p < 0.001). There has been slow adoption of accreditation among plastic surgery subspecialty fellowships, but added-certification options appear to be highly correlated.
Park, Bo Young; Kwon, Jung Woo; Kang, So Ra; Hong, Seung Eun
Postoperative infections are rare after plastic surgery; however, when present, they can affect the aesthetic outcome. Currently, many malpractice lawsuits are associated with surgical site infection. The present study aimed to analyze malpractice claims associated with surgical site infection in the field of plastic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and legal judgment in these cases. Most claimants were women, and claims were most often related to breast surgery. The common complications related to surgical site infection were deformity, scar, and asymmetry. Among the 40 cases, 34 were won by the plaintiff, and the mean claim settlement was 2,832,654 KRW (USD 2,636.6). The reasons for these judgements were as follows: 1) immediate bacterial culture tests were not performed and appropriate antibiotics were not used; 2) patients were not transferred to a high-level hospital or the infection control department was not consulted; 3) surgical site infection control measures were not appropriate; and 4) surgical procedures were performed without preoperative explanation about surgical site infection. The number of claims owing to surgical site infection after surgery is increasing. Infection handling was one of the key factors that influenced the judgement, and preoperative explanation about the possibility of infection is important. The findings will help surgeons achieve high patient satisfaction and reduce liability concerns.
Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim
Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.
Chung, Kevin C.; Song, Jae W.; Shauver, Melissa J.; Cullison, Terry M.; Noone, R. Barrett
Background To evaluate the case mix of plastic surgeons in their early years of practice by examining candidate case-logs submitted for the Oral Examination. Methods De-identified data from 2000–2009 consisting of case-logs submitted by young plastic surgery candidates for the Oral Examination were analyzed. Data consisted of exam year, CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) Codes and the designation of each CPT code as cosmetic or reconstructive by the candidate, and patient age and gender. Subgroup analyses for comprehensive, cosmetic, craniomaxillofacial, and hand surgery modules were performed by using the CPT code list designated by the American Board of Plastic Surgery Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery ( ) module framework. Results We examined case-logs from a yearly average of 261 candidates over 10 years. Wider variations in yearly percent change in median cosmetic surgery case volumes (−62.5% to 30%) were observed when compared to the reconstructive surgery case volumes (−18.0% to 25.7%). Compared to cosmetic surgery cases per candidate, which varied significantly from year-to-year (p<0.0001), reconstructive surgery cases per candidate did not vary significantly (p=0.954). Subgroup analyses of proportions of types of surgical procedures based on CPT code categories, revealed hand surgery to be the least performed procedure relative to comprehensive, craniomaxillofacial, and cosmetic surgery procedures. Conclusions Graduates of plastic surgery training programs are committed to performing a broad spectrum of reconstructive and cosmetic surgical procedures in their first year of practice. However, hand surgery continues to have a small presence in the practice profiles of young plastic surgeons. PMID:21788850
Hughes, Christopher; Wong, Anselm; McCormack, Susan; Castiglione, Charles; Pap, Stephen A; Silverman, Richard; Babigian, Alan
Plastic and reconstructive surgery provide a necessary and essential service to public health efforts in resource-poor regions around the world. Disease processes amenable to plastic surgical treatment significantly contribute to worldwide disability, and it is the poor and underserved who are disproportionately affected. We conducted a week-long plastic and reconstructive surgical trip to Latacunga, Ecuador to provide reconstructive surgical services for the underserved in this region. Over the course of a week, 97 patients received surgery. Most patients were young (mean age = 21.8 years) and 50.5% were female. Burns and burn scar contractures were the most common diagnoses requiring surgery(21.6%), but cleft lip and palate deformities, scars, nevi, and congenital ear deformities comprised a significant proportion of the case load as well (17.5%, 11.3%, 12.4%, and 10.3%, respectively). There was one postoperative complication requiring reoperation. This short-term surgical trip successfully delivered essential reconstructive surgical care to an underserved population in rural Ecuador. Although this is most certainly only a fraction of the true surgical disease burden within this population, our experience provides a testament to the need for essential reconstructive surgical services in developing nations around the world.
Lim, Seokchun; Jordan, Sumanas W; Jain, Umang; Kim, John Y S
Studies that evaluate the predictors and causes of unplanned re-operation in outpatient plastic surgery. This study retrospectively reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) and identified all plastic surgery outpatient cases performed in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilised to identify independent risk factors and causes of unplanned reoperations. Of the 6749 outpatient plastic surgery cases identified, there were 125 (1.9%) unplanned re-operations (UR). Regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.041, 95% CI = 1.019-1.065), preoperative open wound/wound infection (OR = 3.498, 95% CI = 1.593-7.678), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (OR = 2.235, 95% CI = 1.048-4.765), and total work relative value units (RVU, OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 1.005-1.024) were significantly predictive of UR. Additionally, the presence of any complication was significantly associated with UR (OR = 15.065, 95% CI = 5.705-39.781). In an era of outcomes-driven medicine, unplanned re-operation is a critical quality indicator for ambulatory plastic surgery facilities. The identified risk factors will aid in surgical planning and risk adjustment.
Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed. PMID:28573091
Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Yong Oock
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have received increasing attention, with the development of VR/AR devices such as head-mounted displays, haptic devices, and AR glasses. Medicine is considered to be one of the most effective applications of VR/AR. In this article, we describe a systematic literature review conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art VR/AR technology relevant to plastic surgery. The 35 studies that were ultimately selected were categorized into 3 representative topics: VR/AR-based preoperative planning, navigation, and training. In addition, future trends of VR/AR technology associated with plastic surgery and related fields are discussed.
Klassen, A; Jenkinson, C; Fitzpatrick, R; Goodacre, T
To assess the health related quality of life of patients before and after aesthetic surgery. A survey by questionnaire of patients before receiving surgery and 6 months after surgery. 656 patients anticipating surgery were sent a preoperative questionnaire, to which 443 replied. Subsequently 259 of these received a postoperative questionnaire, of which 198 were returned. Health status was assessed using three standardised health status instruments (The Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Comparisons were made between the health status of the plastic surgery patients and that of a random sample of the general population. Patients receiving breast reduction surgery experienced significant improvements on all three health status measures. Patients in all surgical groups experienced significant improvements in self-esteem. Patients receiving aesthetic surgery experience a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. Surgery was shown be effective at addressing these problems. Health status assessment provides a valid and independent method for measuring the effects of such health care interventions.
Svider, Peter F; Keeley, Brieze R; Zumba, Osvaldo; Mauro, Andrew C; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Malpractice litigation has increased in recent decades, contributing to higher health-care costs. Characterization of complications leading to litigation is of special interest to practitioners of facial plastic surgery procedures because of the higher proportion of elective cases relative to other subspecialties. In this analysis, we comprehensively examine malpractice litigation in facial plastic surgery procedures and characterize factors important in determining legal responsibility, as this information may be of great interest and use to practitioners in several specialties. Retrospective analysis. The Westlaw legal database was examined for court records pertaining to facial plastic surgery procedures. The term "medical malpractice" was searched in combination with numerous procedures obtained from the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery website. Of the 88 cases included, 62.5% were decided in the physician's favor, 9.1% were resolved with an out-of-court settlement, and 28.4% ended in a jury awarding damages for malpractice. The mean settlement was $577,437 and mean jury award was $352,341. The most litigated procedures were blepharoplasties and rhinoplasties. Alleged lack of informed consent was noted in 38.6% of cases; other common complaints were excessive scarring/disfigurement, functional considerations, and postoperative pain. This analysis characterized factors in determining legal responsibility in facial plastic surgery cases. Several factors were identified as potential targets for minimizing liability. Informed consent was the most reported entity in these malpractice suits. This finding emphasizes the importance of open communication between physicians and their patients regarding expectations as well as documentation of specific risks, benefits, and alternatives. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Adams, Brandon M; Klaassen, Michael F; Tan, Swee T
The New Zealand (NZ) plastic and reconstructive surgery (PRS) workforce provides reconstructive plastic surgery (RPS) public services from six centres. There has been little analysis on whether the workforce is adequate to meet the needs of the NZ population currently or in the future. This study analysed the current workforce, its distribution and future requirements. PRS manpower data, workforce activities, population statistics, and population modelling were analysed to determine current needs and predict future needs for the PRS workforce. The NZ PRS workforce is compared with international benchmarks. Regional variation of the workforce was analysed with respect to the population's access to PRS services. Future supply of specialist plastic surgeons is analysed. NZ has a lower number of plastic surgeons per capita than comparable countries. The current NZ PRS workforce is mal-distributed. Areas of current and emerging future need are identified. The current workforce mal-distribution will worsen with future population growth and distribution. Up to 60% of the NZ population will be at risk of inadequate access to PRS services by 2027. Development of PRS services must be coordinated to ensure that equitable and sustainable services are available throughout NZ. Strategies for ensuring satisfactory future workforce are discussed.
Müller, Karin; Becker, Frederic; Pfau, Matthias; Werdin, Frank
Pressure sores in geriatric patients represent a challenge for all disciplines involved in the treatment process; however, the prerequisite for successful treatment is the elaboration of an interdisciplinary treatment concept. The treatment goals should be adapted to the individual needs of the patients including the life situation, general condition and local findings. In addition to general basic operative techniques, such as wound cleansing and conditioning, plastic and reconstructive surgery provides a wide range of highly specialized operative techniques for the treatment of these patients by which a definitive defect coverage can be achieved. The aim of this article is to raise awareness for these complex and highly specialized procedures for all disciplines participating in the treatment in order to improve the interdisciplinary cooperation and ultimately the quality of treatment.
McInnes, Colin W; Vorstenbosch, Joshua; Chard, Ryan; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Buchel, Edward W; Islur, Avinash
The impact of resident work hour restrictions on training and patient care remains a highly controversial topic, and to date, there lacks a formal assessment as it pertains to Canadian plastic surgery residents. To characterize the work hour profile of Canadian plastic surgery residents and assess the perspectives of residents and program directors regarding work hour restrictions related to surgical competency, resident wellness, and patient safety. An anonymous online survey developed by the authors was sent to all Canadian plastic surgery residents and program directors. Basic summary statistics were calculated. Eighty (53%) residents and 10 (77%) program directors responded. Residents reported working an average of 73 hours in hospital per week with 8 call shifts per month and sleep 4.7 hours/night while on call. Most residents (88%) reported averaging 0 post-call days off per month and 61% will work post-call without any sleep. The majority want the option of working post-call (63%) and oppose an 80-hour weekly maximum (77%). Surgical and medical errors attributed to post-call fatigue were self-reported by 26% and 49% of residents, respectively. Residents and program directors expressed concern about the ability to master surgical skills without working post-call. The majority of respondents oppose duty hour restrictions. The reason is likely multifactorial, including the desire of residents to meet perceived expectations and to master their surgical skills while supervised. If duty hour restrictions are aggressively implemented, many respondents feel that an increased duration of training may be necessary.
Vyas, Krishna S; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Shakir, Afaaf; Morrison, Shane D; Tran, Duy C; Pearson, Keon; Vasconez, Henry C; Mardini, Samir; Gosman, Amanda A; Dobke, Marek; Granick, Mark S
Telemedicine, the use of information technology and telecommunication to provide healthcare at a distance, is a burgeoning field with applications throughout medicine. Given the visual nature of plastic surgery and dermatology, telemedicine has a myriad of potential applications within the field. A comprehensive literature review of articles published on telemedicine since January 2010 was performed. Articles were selected for their relevance to plastic and reconstructive surgery and dermatology, and then reviewed for their discussion of the applications, benefits, and limitations of telemedicine in practice. A total of 3119 articles were identified in the initial query. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria in plastic surgery (7 wound management, 5 burn management, 5 trauma, 4 free flap care, 2 in cleft lip/palate repair). Twenty-three (100%) reported a benefit of telemedicine often related to improved postoperative monitoring, increased access to expertise in rural settings, and cost savings, either predicted or actualized. Eight (35%) reported limitations and barriers to the application of telemedicine, including overdiagnosis and dependence on functional telecommunication systems. Sixty-six articles focused on telemedicine in dermatology and also demonstrated significant promise. Telemedicine holds special promise in increasing the efficiency of postoperative care for microsurgical procedures, improving care coordination and management of burn wounds, facilitating interprofessional collaboration across time and space, eliminating a significant number of unnecessary referrals, and connecting patients located far from major medical centers with professional expertise without impinging on-and in some cases improving-the quality or accuracy of care provided. Teledermatology consultation was found to be safe and has a comparable or superior efficacy to the traditional in-patient consultation. The system was consistently rated as convenient and easy to use
Simien, Christopher; Holt, Kathleen D; Richter, Thomas H; Whalen, Thomas V; Coburn, Michael; Havlik, Robert J; Miller, Rebecca S
Resident duty hour restrictions were implemented in 2002-2003. This study examines changes in resident surgical experience since these restrictions were put into place. Operative log data for 3 specialties were examined: general surgery, urology, and plastic surgery. The academic year immediately preceding the duty hour restrictions, 2002-2003, was used as a baseline for comparison to subsequent academic years. Operative log data for graduating residents through 2007-2008 were the primary focus of the analysis. Examination of associated variables that may moderate the relationship between fewer duty hours and surgical volume was also included. Plastic surgery showed no changes in operative volume following duty hour restrictions. Operative volume increased in urology programs. General surgery showed a decrease in volume in some operative categories but an increase in others. Specifically the procedures in vascular, plastic, and thoracic areas showed a consistent decrease. There was no increase in the percentage of programs' graduates falling below minimum requirements. Procedures in pancreas, endocrine, and laparoscopic areas demonstrated an increase in volume. Graduates in larger surgical programs performed fewer procedures than graduates in smaller programs; this was not the case for urology or plastic surgery programs. The reduction of duty hours has not resulted in an across the board decrease in operative volume. Factors other than duty hour reforms may be responsible for some of the observed findings.
Knipper, P; Antoine, P; Carré, C; Baudet, J
This publication presents the results of 10 years of nomadic plastic surgery missions by a small French non-governmental organization: Interplast-France/surgery without borders (www.Interplast-France.net). This NGO is specialized in reconstructive surgery in challenging conditions and works in developing countries. We present a view of 10 years of missions carried out between 2003 and 2013. This experience covers a uniform period both by the objectives proposed and the regularity of missions observed. This work shows the way surgical missions take place and the methodology used. We carried out 30 missions. We made more than 4000 consultations and we operated 1500 patients. Interventions are divided into one quarter cleft, one quarter tumors, one quarter burn injuries and one quarter of various diseases such as noma and Buruli ulcer. We show some adaptations such as autonomy during missions, the adjustment guidance in relation to this new environment and the integration of local traditions in our therapeutic action. We offer practical notions on the surgical procedures and some reflections on the societal level. This work aims primarily to pay tribute to all the invisible actors in this long chain of humanity, and thanks to the simple intervention of men, a patient can have the same medical treatment whether he is in an industrial country or in some isolated place on this earth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rahmani, G; Joyce, C W; Jones, D M; Kelly, J L; Hussey, A J; Regan, P J
The Republic of Ireland has always had an influence on medicine and has produced many renowned doctors who have helped shape its history. Furthermore, many clinical articles that have originated from Ireland have changed clinical practice throughout the world. The Irish have also had an impact on the plastic surgery literature yet it has never specifically been analyzed before. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze all papers that have originated from the plastic surgery units in the Republic of Ireland in the medical literature over the past 21 years. Twenty-four well-known plastic surgery, hand surgery and burns journals were selected for this study. By utilizing Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, we analyzed each of our chosen 24 journals looking for Irish publications. Each paper was examined for article type, authorship, year of publication, institution of origin and level of evidence. Papers from the Republic of Ireland were published in 20 of the 24 journals over the past 21 years. A total of 245 articles from Ireland were published in the plastic surgery, hand surgery and burns literature over the 21-year period. Of these, 111 were original articles and 73 were case reports. The institution that published the most papers over the past 21 years was University Hospital Galway (66 publications) followed by Cork University Hospital with 54 papers. The journal with the most Irish articles was the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery with 56 papers. 2014 was the year with the most publications (28 papers). Authorship numbers also increased over time as the average number of authors in 1994 was 3.5, whereas it was 5.54 in 2014. The number of publications per year continues to increase along with authorship numbers. This mirrors the trend in other specialties. Publications are now no longer required for selection on to a higher surgical training scheme. There is now a fear that the
Reusche, Ryan; Buchanan, Patrick J; Kozlow, Jeffrey H; Vercler, Christian J
The growth and acceptance of smartphones among clinicians has been remarkable over the last decade. Over 87% of doctors use a smartphone or tablet capable of running third-party software known as applications (apps). In the field of plastic surgery, apps have been designed for personal practice development, education, clinical tools and guidelines, and entertainment. This study reviews the literature on apps related to plastic surgery and determines the number and types of apps available. A systematic review of the literature was performed to find articles written about plastic surgery applications. Queries were run in the Apple iPhone iOS App store and Google Play using the term "plastic surgery." Apps were reviewed for ratings, downloads, and cost. In addition, apps were categorized based on purpose. Categories include practice development, media/literature, clinical tool and guideline apps, or recreation. The literature search yielded 8 articles for review, 2 articles focused on categorizing apps and 6 articles focused on describing useful apps. Searching Apple's iTunes (iOS) store identified 273 and Google Play identified 250 apps related to plastic surgery; since 2013, a 62%, and 580% increase, respectively. The iOS store included practice development (46%), recreation (26%), media/literature (14%), and clinical tool and guideline (11%). Google Play store included recreation apps (44%), practice development (24%), clinical tools and guidelines (11%), and media and literature (9%). Apps related to the field of plastic surgery are increasing in prevalence. The content of these apps are variable, and the majority are intended for marketing and development of private practices. Apps linking to literature, texts, study materials, and clinical tools and guidelines are developed for both practicing plastic surgeons and surgical trainees. Finding "useful" apps takes time because searches are often complicated by a variety of apps.
Ver Halen, Jon P; Chen, Andrew; Jeffers, Lynn; Basu, C Bob
Given the continued evolution of the American health system, the authors explored young plastic surgeons' attitudes on challenges affecting the specialty and the future role of organized plastic surgery and its advocacy mission. A 21-question online survey was distributed to all members of the Young Plastic Surgeons Forum. Questions were related to demographics, attitudes toward policy issues, participation in the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and its advocacy efforts. The survey was e-mailed to 2155 Forum members, of which 397 responded (19% response rate). Young plastic surgeons appear to be interested in American Society of Plastic Surgeons and PlastyPAC, as evidenced by a higher than normal response rate to this survey and rate of contribution. However, a lack of awareness about the details of the organizations and mechanisms for involvement remains. Scope-of-practice issues and encroachment on the specialty by noncore providers remain the top concern of young plastic surgeons. Other top concerns were financial barriers to participation in advocacy efforts and concerns with return on investment on PlastyPAC contributions. A majority received minimal or no public policy education on issues affecting plastic surgery during training. A minority currently participate in American Society of Plastic Surgeons advocacy efforts. These data represent the first such collection of opinions from Young Plastic Surgeons members regarding goals and directions of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and PlastyPAC. These organizations are in a uniquely strong position to enlist participation from and provide for the future success of the profession's younger members.
Baltacioğlu, Esra; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Aydin, Güven; Sukuroglu, Erkan
This report presents the clinical results of peri-implant plastic surgical approaches for hard and soft tissues before and during the implant placement in a patient with vertical ridge deformation and a shallow vestibule sulcus, and the subsequently performed prosthetic rehabilitation. The surgical approaches used in this case reduced the crown-height space and crown-to-implant ratio and ensured that the implants were placed in their ideal positions, and peri-implant tissue health was maintained. In conclusion, developments in the peri-implant plastic surgery enable the successful augmentation of hard and soft tissue defects and provide the implant-supported fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:29386805
Shi, Yunyong; Lin, Li; Zhou, Chaozheng; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Le; Chai, Gang
Mandible plastic surgery plays an important role in conventional plastic surgery. However, its success depends on the experience of the surgeons. In order to improve the effectiveness of the surgery and release the burden of surgeons, a mandible plastic surgery assisting robot, based on an augmented reality technique, was developed. Augmented reality assists surgeons to realize positioning. Fuzzy control theory was used for the control of the motor. During the process of bone drilling, both the drill bit position and the force were measured by a force sensor which was used to estimate the position of the drilling procedure. An animal experiment was performed to verify the effectiveness of the robotic system. The position error was 1.07 ± 0.27 mm and the angle error was 5.59 ± 3.15°. The results show that the system provides a sufficient accuracy with which a precise drilling procedure can be performed. In addition, under the supervision's feedback of the sensor, an adequate safety level can be achieved for the robotic system. The system realizes accurate positioning and automatic drilling to solve the problems encountered in the drilling procedure, providing a method for future plastic surgery.
Mlodinow, Alexei S; Khavanin, Nima; Ver Halen, Jon P; Rambachan, Aksharananda; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the postoperative setting. Various risk stratification schema exist in the plastic surgery literature, but do not take into account variations in procedure length. The putative risk of VTE conferred by increased length of time under anaesthesia has never been rigorously explored. The goal of this study is to assess this relationship and to benchmark VTE rates in plastic surgery. A large, multi-institutional quality-improvement database was queried for plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures performed under general anaesthesia between 2005-2011. In total, 19,276 cases were abstracted from the database. Z-scores were calculated based on procedure-specific mean surgical durations, to assess each case's length in comparison to the mean for that procedure. A total of 70 patients (0.36%) experienced a post-operative VTE. Patients with and without post-operative VTE were compared with respect to a variety of demographics, comorbidities, and intraoperative characteristics. Potential confounders for VTE were included in a regression model, along with the Z-scores. VTE occurred in both cosmetic and reconstructive procedures. Longer surgery time, relative to procedural means, was associated with increased VTE rates. Further, regression analysis showed increase in Z-score to be an independent risk factor for post-operative VTE (Odds Ratio of 1.772 per unit, p-value < 0.001). Subgroup analyses corroborated these findings. This study validates the long-held view that increased surgical duration confers risk of VTE, as well as benchmarks VTE rates in plastic surgery procedures. While this in itself does not suggest an intervention, surgical time under general anaesthesia would be a useful addition to existing risk models in plastic surgery.
Jeevan, R; Birch, J; Armstrong, A P
Travelling abroad for surgery is a phenomenon reported internationally. It is particularly likely for aesthetic procedures not undertaken routinely by national health services. We assessed the impact of these patients presenting to the UK National Health Service (NHS) with concerns or complications on their return. All 326 UK consultant members of the British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) were asked to complete a short questionnaire about patients that had presented to the NHS with complications or concerns following surgery abroad. The results were subsequently presented to the Department of Health (DH). 203 (62%) UK consultant plastic surgeons responded. 76 (37%) of the 203 respondents had seen such patients in their NHS practice, most commonly following breast or abdominal procedures. A quarter underwent emergency surgery, a third out-patient treatment and a third elective surgical revision. In response to these findings, the DH clarified that NHS teams should provide emergency care to such patients but should not undertake any elective revision procedures. Travelling abroad for aesthetic surgery may reduce its cost. However, aesthetic procedures have high minor complication rates, and peri-operative travel is associated with increased risks. Fully informed consent is unlikely when patients do not meet their surgeon prior to paying and travelling for surgery, and national health services are used to provide a free safety net on their return. To help minimise the potential risks, BAPRAS has clarified the responsibilities of the NHS and is acting to better inform UK patients considering travelling abroad. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Galinski, Michel; Catineau, Jean; Rayeh, Fatima; Muret, Jane; Ciebiera, Jean-Pierre; Plantevin, Frédéric; Foucrier, Arnaud; Tual, Loic; Combes, Xavier; Adnet, Frédéric
To compare two brands of disposable plastic laryngoscope blades, Vital View plastic blades and Heine XP plastic blades, with the reusable Heine Classic+ Macintosh metal blades. Prospective randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Operating room of a university-affiliated hospital. 519 patients without criteria for predicted difficult intubation, undergoing scheduled surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups according to laryngoscope blade brand. Difficult tracheal intubation was evaluated by the Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) (IDS > 5 = procedure involving moderate to major difficulty). The percentage of intubations with an IDS > 5 was 3.1% in Group M (metal blade group), 5.1% in Group V (Vital View plastic blade group), and 10.0% in Group H (Heine plastic blade group). A significant difference was noted between Groups M and H (P = 0.02) but not between Groups M and V. Intubation may be more challenging when using Heine XP plastic blades but no significant difference exists between Vital-View plastic blades and Heine Classic+ metal blades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruck, Johannes C
The WHO describes health as physical, mental and social well being. Ever since the establishment of plastic surgery aesthetic surgery has been an integral part of this medical specialty. It aims at reconstructing subjective well-being by employing plastic surgical procedures as described in the educational code and regulations for specialists of plastic surgery. This code confirms that plastic surgery comprises cosmetic procedures for the entire body that have to be applied in respect of psychological exploration and selection criteria. A wide variety of opinions resulting from very different motivations shows how difficult it is to differentiate aesthetic surgery as a therapeutic procedure from beauty surgery as a primarily economic service. Jurisdiction, guidelines for professional conduct and ethical codes have tried to solve this question. Regardless of the intention and ability of the health insurances, it has currently been established that the moral and legal evaluation of advertisements for medical procedures depends on their purpose: advertising with the intent of luring patients into cosmetic procedures that do not aim to reconstruct a subjective physical disorder does not comply with a medical indication. If, however, the initiative originates with the patient requesting the amelioration of a subjective disorder of his body, a medical indication can be assumed.
Silvestre, Jason; Tomlinson-Hansen, Sandra; Fosnot, Joshua; Taylor, Jesse A
Medical students applying for plastic surgery residency utilize the Internet to manage their residency applications. Applicants often apply to many programs and rely on advice from colleagues, mentors, and information gathered from plastic surgery residency websites (PSRWs). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate integrated and combined PSRWs with respect to accessibility, resident recruitment, and education. Websites from all 63 integrated and combined plastic surgery residencies available to graduating medical students during the 2013 academic year were available for study inclusion. Databases from national bodies for plastic surgery education were analyzed for accessibility of information. PSRWs were evaluated for comprehensiveness in the domains of resident education and recruitment. Residency programs were compared according to program characteristics using the Student t test and ANOVA with Tukey method. Of the 63 residencies available to graduating medical students, only 57 had combined or integrated program information on their PSRWs (90.5%). In the domain of resident recruitment, evaluators found an average of 5.5 of 15 content items (36.7%). As a whole, 26.3% of PSRWs had academic conference schedules, 17.5% had call schedules, and only 8.8% had operative case listings. For resident education, PSRWs provided an average of 4.6 of 15 content items (30.7%). Only 31.6% of PSRWs had interview schedules, 24.6% had graduate fellowship information, and 5.3% had information on board exam performance. Upon comparison, programs in the Midwest had more online recruitment content than programs in the West (47.1% vs. 24.2%, P < 0.01). Additionally, programs with a larger class of incoming residents (2 vs. 1) had greater online recruitment content (40.0% vs. 26.7%, P < 0.05). Larger programs with 3 integrated spots had more online education content than smaller programs with only 1 integrated spot (40.0% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.01). PSRWs are often not readily
Summary: This report examines the meaning of validity and reliability and the role of psychometrics in plastic surgery. Study titles increasingly include the word “valid” to support the authors’ claims. Studies by other investigators may be labeled “not validated.” Validity simply refers to the ability of a device to measure what it intends to measure. Validity is not an intrinsic test property. It is a relative term most credibly assigned by the independent user. Similarly, the word “reliable” is subject to interpretation. In psychometrics, its meaning is synonymous with “reproducible.” The definitions of valid and reliable are analogous to accuracy and precision. Reliability (both the reliability of the data and the consistency of measurements) is a prerequisite for validity. Outcome measures in plastic surgery are intended to be surveys, not tests. The role of psychometric modeling in plastic surgery is unclear, and this discipline introduces difficult jargon that can discourage investigators. Standard statistical tests suffice. The unambiguous term “reproducible” is preferred when discussing data consistency. Study design and methodology are essential considerations when assessing a study’s validity. PMID:25289354
Correia-Sá, Inês Bastos; Correia-Sá, Mário; Costa-Ferreira, Pedro; Silva, Álvaro; Marques, Marisa
Salivary gland tumors are an uncommon entity, comprising 3% to 6% of all head and neck tumors. Approximately 75% to 80% occur in the parotid gland, and 80% are benign. It is difficult to establish epidemiologic characteristics of parotid gland tumors due to their low incidence. We performed a retrospective study to analyze clinical diagnostic and therapeutic features of patients submitted to parotid gland surgery. A retrospective study was performed, regarding all the patients (n = 96) submitted to surgery for treatment of parotid gland disease in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of Centro Hospitalar de S. João (Porto, Portugal) between 2002 and 2012. Medical records were analyzed and the following data were collected: patient age at diagnosis, sex, tumor location, symptom, tumor position, preoperative diagnosis techniques, type of operation performed, pathology, postoperative complications, adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy or chemotherapy), follow-up time, and tumor recurrence. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. Fifty-two percent of the patients were males and 48% females and mean age of 52.02. In 68.75% of the patients, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Benign pathology was found in 72% patients, and pleomorphic adenoma the most common tumor (39%). Facial paralysis (41.7%), Frey syndrome (9.4%), and great auricular nerve hyposthesia (10.4%) were major complications. Tumor recurrence was observed in 16 patients (16.7%), which forced 17 reoperations (17.7%). There were 5 deaths (5.2%). For most tumors, superficial parotidectomy is an effective treatment with acceptable morbidity. In patients of malignancy, treatment should be aggressive.
Ridha, H; Colville, R J I; Vesely, M J J
Gynaecomastia reduction surgery is a common male cosmetic procedure. Our clinical experience suggested far lower rates of satisfaction than previously reported. Therefore we evaluated our patient group using a detailed questionnaire designed specifically to assess patient satisfaction with breast attributes and quality-of-life outcome following surgery. The questionnaire was sent to all patients who had surgery for gynaecomastia between January 2000 to January 2006. A total of 74 of the 120 patients contacted returned the questionnaire (62% overall response rate). The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their surgical treatment; liposuction only, excision only and combined excision plus liposuction. The majority of patients underwent surgery for reasons of self-confidence and emotional distress. In all groups surgery resulted in an increase in the mean Likert score (LS). The overall mean LS, combined from all the questions increased from 1.9 ('dissatisfied') to 3.2 ('neither satisfied nor dissatisfied'). Only 62.5% of all patients treated for gynaecomastia were 'satisfied' to 'very satisfied'. This more detailed study has shown that satisfaction rates are not as high as previously published. Patients must be appropriately counselled preoperatively to ensure they have realistic expectations of what can be achieved with surgery. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ridgway, Emily B; Sauerhammer, Tina; Chiou, A Portia; LaBrie, Richard A; Mulliken, John B
Almost three times as many board-certified female plastic surgeons are unmarried compared with male colleagues. The purpose of this study was to determine why women in plastic surgery are less likely to be married. A 52-question survey was sent to all female members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Questions focused on type of training and practice; marital status; age at marriage; spousal education, financial, and professional status; relational goals, values, and satisfaction. A total of 729 questionnaires were sent via e-mail; responses were anonymous. Response rate was 34 percent (n = 250). Respondents were either married (64 percent), engaged (2 percent), in a "serious" relationship (11 percent), or not in a committed relationship (23 percent). Of unmarried respondents, 56 percent wanted to marry, 44 percent did not wish marriage at the time of the survey, and 42 percent had deliberatively postponed marriage. The most frequently cited reasons for being single were perceived lack of desirable partners (45 percent), job constraints (14 percent), and personality differences (13 percent). Female plastic surgeons who married later than 36 years of age were more likely to choose a spouse with a lower income, less education, and lower financial success compared with female plastic surgeons who married at a younger age. Women in surgical practice who marry later are less likely to find a partner with equal educational level, financial resources, and professional success. Hence, a shift occurs from hypergamy toward hypogamy. These findings are not unique to plastic surgery.
Faga, A; Valdatta, L; Magnani, S; Thione, A
The authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of plastic surgery performed in a day-care public hospital unit. A retrospective study was made of the day-surgery activities over 16 months (1998-1999) as part of a centralized system. Data were compared to day-surgery activities undertaken in 1997 using a non-centralized system. The study was based in the Macchi Foundation Hospital in Varese. A total of 179 patients were treated from all age group whose clinical, intellectual and social characteristics enabled them to be treated using a day-hospital regime. The pathologies treated can be classified into six groups: benign skin pathologies, malignant skin pathologies, scar pathologies, hand disorders, burns and others. All operations were performed as planned under general, local or regional anesthesia with the help of an anesthetist. The centralized system has a number of advantages of a social and technical kind; there are few disadvantages, mainly consisting in the impossibility of using this approach for emergency surgery and its overall rigidity. This form of surgery provides a service that stands out for its quality, organisational efficiency and low cost.
...] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the... INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of July 7, 2011, FDA announced that a meeting of the General and Plastic...
Avashia, Yash J; Thaller, Seth R
Regarded as "America's first plastic surgeon," Dr John Peter Mettauer's professional life displays 3 fundamental keystones of plastic surgery: education, innovation, and practice. To fully appreciate the history of our plastic surgery, one must look beyond a purely factual recount of noteworthy actions performed decades ago. Fundamental principles that governed achievements of our predecessors remain applicable even today. Dr Mettauer thrived as a medical student under the influence of distinguished professors in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Later, he continued to propagate their basic tenets when he established his medical institute in 1837. Throughout his life, Dr Mettauer combined ingenuity with scientific inquiry to devise numerous unprecedented surgical techniques and instruments. He was a prolific writer and exquisitely documented his work in medical journals for the benefit of both contemporary and future surgeons. One of Dr Mettauer's momentous achievements in plastic surgery that displays his remarkable capabilities was his contributions to management of both simple and complicated cases of cleft palate. He was the first to describe relaxing lateral incisions for treating complete cleft palates and, incidentally, was the first to successfully treat this in America. He invariably replicated similar success in establishing techniques for treating a wide range of anatomic deformities. Cumulatively, Dr Mettauer's lifelong commitment and diligence have truly laid a foundation for the eventual progress and success in the field of plastic surgery.
Moayer, Roxana; Sand, Jordan P; Han, Albert; Nabili, Vishad; Keller, Gregory S
This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cosmetic facial plastic surgery use among facial plastic surgeons. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency with which facial plastic surgeons have cosmetic procedures themselves. A secondary aim is to determine whether trends in usage of cosmetic facial procedures among facial plastic surgeons are similar to that of nonsurgeons. The study design was an anonymous, five-question, Internet survey distributed via email set in a single academic institution. Board-certified members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) were included in this study. Self-reported history of cosmetic facial plastic surgery or minimally invasive procedures were recorded. The survey also queried participants for demographic data. A total of 216 members of the AAFPRS responded to the questionnaire. Ninety percent of respondents were male ( n = 192) and 10.3% were female ( n = 22). Thirty-three percent of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years ( n = 70), 25% were aged 41 to 50 years ( n = 53), 21.4% were aged 51 to 60 years ( n = 46), and 20.5% were older than 60 years ( n = 44). Thirty-six percent of respondents had a surgical cosmetic facial procedure and 75% has at least one minimally invasive cosmetic facial procedure. Facial plastic surgeons are frequent users of cosmetic facial plastic surgery. This finding may be due to access, knowledge base, values, or attitudes. By better understanding surgeon attitudes toward facial plastic surgery, we can improve communication with patients and delivery of care. This study is a first step in understanding use of facial plastic procedures among facial plastic surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Semer, Nadine B; Sullivan, Stephen R; Meara, John G
The global burden of surgical disease is estimated as being 11% of the total global burden of disease. In this article we discuss the portion of this burden which could be ameliorated with plastic surgical expertise. Although not necessarily seen as a major player in issues related to global health, plastic surgeons are uniquely qualified to decrease the burden of surgical disease afflicting people in the developing world. Burns, traumatic injuries, and congenital anomalies are some of the areas where the presence of plastic surgical expertise can make a significant difference in patient outcomes and thereby decrease the years of life lost due to disability due to these highly treatable conditions. In light of the severe shortage of plastic surgeons throughout the developing world, it falls to those concentrated in the developed world to harness their skills and address the vast unmet needs of the developing world so as to enhance global health. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandel, Michael G; Reid, Christopher M; Parmeshwar, Nisha; Dobke, Marek K; Gosman, Amanda A
Truly informed consent is an elusive goal, seldom attained in medical or surgical practice. Patients often do not fully understand procedures and therapies they undergo or the associated sequelae. Historically, informed consent and patient education have been limited to physician discussions, sometimes with the addition of simple visual aids. More recently, there is a growing body of decision aids available, including interactive multimedia patient educational modules that review preoperative through postoperative care, risks, benefits, alternatives, different surgical options, as well as commonly asked questions. We hypothesized that the addition of a Web-based educational tool would positively impact attainment of informed consent and satisfaction in plastic surgery patients. We performed a prospective randomized controlled study comparing patients who presented in consultation for breast reconstruction, breast reduction, and abdominoplasty. Patients received standard patient education along with a procedure-specific (study) or general patient safety (control) Web-based educational module. Informed consent was measured using a surgical-focused, modified version of the Shared Decision-making 25 index tool. Patient demographic information as well as surrogate markers of familiarity with technology were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Comparisons were made between study and control groups, procedure subgroups, and preoperative and postoperative time points. Demographic factors and consent variables were compared among experimental and procedure groups. Data were collected from 65 patients preoperatively and 48 patients postoperatively. Thirty patients competed both surveys. Overall, no differences in patient characteristics or familiarity with technology were observed between experimental groups. Demographic characteristics were also similar between groups. No meaningful differences were identified in comparisons between experimental groups on either
Ward, Brittany; Ward, Max; Paskhover, Boris
Celebrities have long influenced the medical decisions of the general population. By analyzing Google search data using Google Trends, we measured the impact of highly publicized plastic surgery-related events on the interest level of the general population in specific search terms. Additionally, we investigated seasonal and geographic trends around interest in rhinoplasties, which is information that physicians and small surgical centers can use to optimize marketing decisions. Google Trends was used to access search data histories for three separate areas of interest: Kylie Jenner and lip fillers, Joan Rivers and plastic surgery, and rhinoplasty, which were then analyzed using two-tailed, two-sample equal variance t-tests. The average interest level in fillers increased by 30.31 points after Kylie Jenner announced that she received Juvéderm lip injections. The interest level in plastic surgery was decreased by 21.3% the month after Joan Rivers' death. Between January 2004 and May 2017, the average interest level for rhinoplasty was significantly different in January/December (67.91 ± 20.68) and June/July (70.12 ± 18.89) from the remaining calendar months (63.58 ± 19.67). Los Angeles, New York City, and Miami showed consistently high interest levels throughout the time period, while Tulsa, OK, showed a major interest increase between 2015 to 2016 of 65 points. A noticeable impact was observed in both celebrity cases on search term volume, and a seasonal effect is apparent for rhinoplasty searches. As many surgeons already employ aggressive Internet marketing strategies, understanding and utilizing these trends could help optimize their investments, increase social engagement, and increase practice awareness by potential patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www
Wu, Cindy; Bentz, Michael L.; Redett, Richard J.; Shack, R. Bruce; David, Lisa R.; Taub, Peter J.; Janis, Jeffrey E.
Introduction: Resident aesthetic clinics (RACs) have demonstrated good outcomes and acceptable patient satisfaction, but few studies have evaluated their educational, financial, or medicolegal components. We sought to determine RAC best practices. Methods: We surveyed American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeon members (n = 399), focusing on operational details, resident supervision, patient safety, medicolegal history, financial viability, and research opportunities. Of the 96 respondents, 63 reported having a RAC, and 56% of plastic surgery residency program directors responded. Results: RACs averaged 243 patient encounters and 53.9 procedures annually, having been in existence for 19.6 years (mean). Full-time faculty (73%) supervised chief residents (84%) in all aspects of care (65%). Of the 63 RACs, 45 were accredited, 40 had licensed procedural suites, 28 had inclusion/exclusion criteria, and 31 used anesthesiologists. Seventeen had overnight capability, and 17 had a Life Safety Plan. No cases of malignant hyperthermia occurred, but 1 facility death was reported. Sixteen RACs had been involved in a lawsuit, and 33 respondents reported financial viability of the RACs. Net revenue was transferred to both the residents’ educational fund (41%) and divisional/departmental overhead (37%). Quality measures included case logs (78%), morbidity/mortality conference (62%), resident surveys (52%), and patient satisfaction scores (46%). Of 63 respondents, 14 have presented or published RAC-specific research; 80 of 96 of those who were surveyed believed RACs enhanced education. Conclusions: RACs are an important component of plastic surgery education. Most clinics are financially viable but carry high malpractice risk and consume significant resources. Best practices, to maximize patient safety and optimize resident education, include use of accredited procedural rooms and direct faculty supervision of all components of care. PMID:26146599
Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W
National experience shows that 50 percent of physicians change positions within the first 2 years of practice. Because of market pressures, medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular are shifting away from solo practice. The authors examine the primary reasons for turnover and discuss job search priorities for recent plastic surgery graduates and established surgeons in job transition, with a current analysis of the different job opportunities available, ranging from government to private practice. The advantages and disadvantages of different positions are compared and income data are presented. Academic income is close to that of private practice at a mean of $366,141 annually but requires more work as measured by an overall higher relative value unit of productivity. The concept of creating a personal inventory before seeking the best job match is introduced.
Zuhr, Otto; Rebele, Stephan F; Cheung, Stefani L; Hürzeler, Markus B
Diverse clinical advancements, together with some relevant technical innovations, have led to an increase in popularity of tunneling flap procedures in plastic periodontal and implant surgery in the recent past. This trend is further promoted by the fact that these techniques have lately been introduced to a considerably expanded range of indications. While originally described for the treatment of gingival recession-type defects, tunneling flap procedures may now be applied successfully in a variety of clinical situations in which augmentation of the soft tissues is indicated in the esthetic zone. Potential clinical scenarios include surgical thickening of thin buccal gingiva or peri-implant mucosa, alveolar ridge/socket preservation and implant second-stage surgery, as well as soft-tissue ridge augmentation or pontic site development. In this way, tunneling flap procedures developed from a technique, originally merely intended for surgical root coverage, into a capacious surgical conception in plastic periodontal and implant surgery. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview on tunneling flap procedures, to introduce the successive development of the approach along with underlying ideas on surgical wound healing and to present contemporary clinical scenarios in step-by-step photograph-illustrated sequences, which aim to provide clinicians with guidance to help them integrate tunneling flap procedures into their daily clinical routine. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zenilman, M E
Will a Geriatric Surgical Consult Service eventually develop into yet another surgical subspecialty? Precedent has been set in surgical fields such as pediatric and plastic surgery, and surely the expanding patient population will demand that some surgeons take care of the geriatric surgical patient full time. Those surgeons doing so will therefore become recognized experts and will be frequently consulted. The surgical problems faced by this unique patient population observed in our small series are most often straightforward. More complicated issues related to wound and intravenous line care, breast disease, and alimentary tract disease should be easily handled by an aggressive, conscientious, well-trained general surgeon.
Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N; Kaliki, Swathi; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Dendukuri, Gautam
To demonstrate the techniques and utility of 3-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) of the target pathologies for subsequent navigation guidance in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Prospective interventional case series. Stereotactic surgeries using 3D reconstruction of target lesions as the intraoperative image-guiding tool were performed in 5 patients with varied etiopathologies. All the surgeries were performed using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation system in the electromagnetic mode. 3DR was performed using StealthStation 3D model software. The utility of 3D reconstruction for extensive orbital mass lesions, large orbital fractures, intraconal foreign body, and delineation of perilesional intricate structures was studied. The intraoperative ease and usefulness for the navigation of a 3D lesion at crucial phases of the surgery were noted. Intraoperative geometric localization of the 3D lesions was found to be enhanced and precise. 3D reconstruction of the lesion along with the major vessels and nerves in the vicinity helped the surgeon to prevent potential injuries to these structures. The fracture defects could be navigated in a 3D plane and this helped in moderate customization of the implants intraoperatively. Foreign body located in difficult access positions could be accurately targeted for geometric localization before safe retrieval. Detailed preoperative 3D reconstruction by the surgeon was found to be beneficial for successful outcomes. Three-dimensional navigation is very useful in providing detailed anatomical delineation of the targets and enhances the precision in certain complex cases in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaughan, R.; Thomas, S.
Objective The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff). The questions were about plastic surgery: (1) source of information and basic understanding; (2) undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3) factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group). The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2) and level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Results Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n = 171/332, 52%) (McGill n = 72/132, 54%). Birmingham students (14%) considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p < 0.025). Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p < 0.001) while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p < 0.001). McGill students (67%) more than Birmingham (49%, p < 0.010) considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p < 0.01) but an optional module for Birmingham (61%). A similar proportion (18%) from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in
Chao, Albert H; Gangopadhyay, Noopur
Limited data exist regarding industry financial relationships in plastic surgery. The Sunshine Act Open Payments Database currently represents the largest repository of these data, but is limited primarily to queries of individual providers. The purpose of this study was to analyze these data and present them in a manner that better delineates these relationships, and to compare plastic surgery with other surgical subspecialties. A review of the Open Payments Database was performed for the period from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. These data were analyzed with respect to types of payments, characteristics of plastic surgeons and companies, and comparison with other surgical subspecialties. A total of 49,053 payments from 274 companies were identified that were made to 4812 plastic surgeons (475 academic and 4337 private practice). The total value of payments was $17,091,077. Food and beverage represented the most common type of payment (82.2 percent). Royalties and licensing represented the highest valued type of payment (35.7 percent), but were received by only a minority of plastic surgeons (0.5 percent). No significant differences were identified between academic and private practice plastic surgeons in the value or quantity of payments. Plastic surgery (54.5 percent) exhibited the lowest prevalence of industry financial relationships compared with otolaryngology (57.9 percent), orthopedics (62.4 percent), neurosurgery (87.8 percent), and urology (63.1 percent) (p < 0.001). Approximately half of all plastic surgeons have industry financial relationships. The prevalence of these relationships is comparatively less than in other surgical subspecialties.
Kling, Russell E; Nayar, Harry S; Harhay, Michael O; Emelife, Patrick O; Manders, Ernest K; Ahuja, Naveen K; Losee, Joseph E
The general public and physicians often equate plastic surgery with cosmetic surgery. The authors investigate whether this perception is present in U.S. medical students. A national survey of first- and second-year allopathic medical students was conducted. Students were asked to determine whether 46 specific procedures are performed by plastic surgeons: 12 aesthetic and 34 reconstructive procedures, which were further separated into three subgroups (general reconstruction and breast, craniofacial, and hand and lower extremity). Of the questionnaires sent out, 2434 from 44 medical schools were returned completed (23 percent response rate); 90.7 percent of aesthetic, 66.0 percent of general reconstruction and breast, 51.0 percent of craniofacial, and 33.4 percent of hand and lower extremity procedures were correctly identified. There was no relationship with self-reported interest in plastic surgery (1 = not at all interested to 10 = extremely interested) and the number of correctly identified aesthetic procedures. However, there was a nonlinear relationship with correctly identified reconstructive procedures; compared to those with an interest level of 1 to 5, those who chose 10 scored on average 6.5 points higher (14.2 versus 20.7) (p < 0.01). An anticipated career in surgery was associated with more correctly identified procedures across all sections but neither year (first versus second) nor region (Northeast, South, Central, West) with any section. U.S. medical students are unaware of the true scope of plastic surgery. Early exposure to basic aspects of plastic surgery could serve as a means of increasing interest and knowledge in the field and help educate future generations of referring physicians.
Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin
The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p < 0.001). No regional differences existed regarding residents matching at their home institution (p = 0.268). More women matched at West programs (43.1%) versus East programs (30.6%, p < 0.05). A significant number of residents matched at their home institution. Roughly, half matched at a program in the same region as their medical school. Whether this regional phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fabié, A; Delay, E; Chavoin, J-P; Soulhiard, F; Seguin, P
As, quest for beauty has always been an aim. There is a need to define the "ideal" beautifull breast with objective caracteristics, usable in plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. After, we have defined the necessary parameters usable in breast surgery. We realized an anthropomorphic study including 70 volunteer women and one molded model. Multiple pictures have been taken for each volunteer, that were evaluated and noted by five plastic surgeon, five doctors from other speciality, five women, five men. A twenty notation was used for this study. The main values for the ten women that obtained best notation (>or=14/20) were used in order to defined the ideal measures for surgery. Breast arrow and breast arrow over the trunck height were the most significant factors. According statistical studies, this fraction is about 0,387 (P=0,000969). The nice breast has a round shape and look like juvenile breast. Bra size, cup size, base, segments II and III, fraction II/III are not significant in our series of (non operated) natural breast. The ideal breast is in harmony and proportional to the trunck height, with the main fraction of breast arrow on the trunck height about 0,387 in our serie.
Kelley, Brian P.; Bennett, Katelyn G.; Chung, Kevin C.; Kozlow, Jeffrey H.
Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen are common medications with multiple useful effects including pain relief and reduction of inflammation. However, surgeons commonly hold all NSAIDs peri-operatively because of bleeding concerns. However, not all NSAIDs irreversibly block platelet function. We hypothesized that the use of ibuprofen would have no effect on postoperative bleeding in plastic surgery patients. Methods A literature review was performed using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for primary research articles on ibuprofen and bleeding. Inclusion criteria were primary journal articles examining treatment of acute postoperative based on any modality. Data related to pain assessment, postoperative recovery, and complications were extracted. Bias assessment and meta-analysis were performed. Results A total of 881 publications were reviewed. Four primary randomized controlled trials were selected for full analysis. Articles were of high quality by bias assessment. No significant difference was noted regarding bleeding events (p = 0.32) and pain control was noted to be equivalent. Conclusion Ibuprofen is a useful medication in the setting of surgery with multiple beneficial effects. This meta-analysis represents a small set of high quality studies that suggests ibuprofen provides equivalent pain control to narcotics. Importantly, ibuprofen was not associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Further large studies will be necessary to elucidate this issue further, but ibuprofen is a safe postoperative analgesic in patients undergoing common plastic surgery soft tissue procedures. PMID:27018685
Burd, Andrew; Chiu, Tor; McNaught, Carmel
As the undergraduate medical curriculum becomes increasingly crowded the competition for time inevitably increases and surgical specialties have decreasing representation. Plastic surgery is regarded with some confusion in terms of its relevance to the generic doctor. Plastic surgeons have no doubt about the relevance of the specialty to undergraduates. Others see this as a very technical specialty dealing with complex reconstructions and surgical interventions or, as a rather indulgent specialty focusing mainly on glamour and cosmesis. This study focuses on students' perceptions of an undergraduate teaching program in plastic surgery. The reality is that highly pressured undergraduates do not have the luxury of time to consider the finer details of the specialties to which they are exposed. Their priority is to pass their examinations and, having addressed that concern, further information becomes an acceptable bonus. The conclusion is that if plastic surgeons are going to gain greater involvement in the undergraduate curriculum they must start with involvement in examinations and assessments. The students will then ensure that adequate and appropriate teaching time is allocated.
Marck, K W
At first sight there would appear to be no similarities between the work of the Dutch graphic artist M.C. Escher and plastic surgery. M.C. Escher was a gifted graphic artist who produced a large collection of work. Most of his fame is due to the works that play with symmetry, space and infinity and leave the viewer astounded. However, how Escher came to produce these works is less well known. A theory which he developed himself formed the basis of the regular plane division. It later became apparent that this theory almost completely agreed with the mathematics of plane division. Two movements (isometries) defined in mathematics, translation and rotation, are equivalent to two techniques for transferring local skin in plastic surgery, namely, advancement and transposition. Escher's performance on the plane of a sheet of paper and a plastic surgeon's performance on the plane of the skin, therefore have a similar mathematical background. Escher has visualised these mathematical rules in an unusual and artistic manner, whereas plastic surgeons apply these rules in the grace of an elastic and healing nature.
Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Wolf, Leszek
For the first time laserotherapy is described as a method of port wine stain decolorization in plastic surgery. The authors present their 20-year experience in the treatment of port wine stains with the argon laser and dye laser.
Surgery of language-eloquent tumors in patients not eligible for awake surgery: the impact of a protocol based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation on presurgical planning and language outcome, with evidence of tumor-induced intra-hemispheric plasticity.
Raffa, Giovanni; Quattropani, Maria C; Scibilia, Antonino; Conti, Alfredo; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Esposito, Felice; Sindorio, Carmela; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco
Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network. This can be used to plan and guide the surgical strategy to preserve the language function. The objective if this study is to describe the impact of a non-invasive preoperative protocol for mapping the language network through the nTMS and nTMS-based DTI-FT in patients not eligible for awake surgery and thereby operated under general anesthesia for suspected language-eloquent brain tumors. We reviewed clinical data of patients not eligible for awake surgery and operated under general anaesthesia between 2015 and 2016. All patients underwent nTMS language cortical mapping and nTMS-based DTI-FT of subcortical language fascicles. The nTMS findings were used to plan and guide the maximal safe resection of the tumor. The impact on postoperative language outcome and the accuracy of the nTMS-based mapping in predicting language deficits were evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The nTMS-based reconstruction of the language network was successful in all patients. Interestingly, we observed a significant association between tumor localization and the cortical distribution of the nTMS errors (p = 0.004), thereby suggesting an intra-hemispheric plasticity of language cortical areas, probably induced by the tumor itself. The nTMS mapping disclosed the true-eloquence of lesions in 12 (60%) of all suspected cases. In the remaining 8 cases (40%) the suspected eloquence of the lesion was disproved. The n
Flageul, G; Horay, P; Rouanet, F
Obligation to deliver full information and obtaining enlightened assent are now, for the whole French practitioner, a necessary preliminary to each operation. Henceforth, in case of suit, the practitioner must prove the reality and the quality of preoperative information. The authors propose 32 information cards corresponding to the most currently operations of plastic and aesthetic surgery. They will being clear and simple, with a large agreement, strictly informative and yearly up to date. They have the label and therefore the scientific guaranty of the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery.
Marck, K W; Martin, D
The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hashmi, Asra; Policherla, Rohan; Campbell, Hector; Khan, Faraz A; Schumaier, Adam; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal
To evaluate the comprehensiveness of plastic surgery program websites. American Medical Association interactive database was accessed for the list of integrated plastic surgery programs, in June 2015. Since then, 67 plastic surgery program websites were accessed and searched for the presence or absence of 31 criteria, which were further grouped into 5 categories: First, program contact information; second, training and research; third, program setup; fourth, benefits and facilities; and fifth, information for applicants. Programs were categorized based on US census bureau designated regions, and number of residency positions available. One-way ANOVA test was used for comparison. Only 25% (17) program website had information available on more than two-thirds (21 or more of 31) of the criteria. The 3 least factors commonly available by program websites were: operative log (10%), contract (10%), and information on night float (25%). The 3 most commonly available factors included: coordinator information (92%), number of residents (92%), and comprehensive faculty list (88%). Less than 50% of the programs provided information regarding fellowship opportunities, active and previous research projects, and operative logs. There was no difference in amount of information on program websites when analyzed for program size or program geographic location. Programs should consider revising their websites to include aforementioned 31 criteria. This would make applicants and potential resident physicians better informed of the programs before the interview process such that they would be more likely to apply to only those programs that match their specific aspirations. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of... General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee scheduled for August...
In the early 1990s, it was reported that silicone breast implants were possibly responsible for serious damage to women's health. In January 1992, the Food and Drug Administration issued a voluntary breast implant moratorium and, in April, issued a ban on the use of silicone gel-filled implants for cosmetic breast augmentation. Since that time, silicone gel-filled breast implants have been available to women only for select cases: women seeking breast reconstruction or revision of an existing breast implant, women who have had breast cancer surgery, a severe injury to the breast, a birth defect that affects the breast, or a medical condition causing a severe breast deformity. Since the ban on the use of silicone gel-filled breast implants for cosmetic breast augmentation, numerous scientific studies have been conducted. To ensure patient safety, the American Board of Plastic Surgery believes that these scientific studies and the Food and Drug Administration's scrutiny of silicone gel-filled breast implants have been appropriate and necessary.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of... Administration (FDA) is postponing the meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices...
Rufai, Sohaib R; Davis, Christopher R
Patient safety is a fundamental issue in aesthetic surgery. In an attempt to improve safety, the Department of Health (DoH) and Professor Sir Bruce Keogh published a review in 2013 of the regulation of cosmetic interventions. Proposals included: (1) Banning free consultations; (2) Restricting time-limited promotional deals; (3) Two-stage written pre-operative consent; (4) Consultations with a medical professional rather than a sales 'consultant'. The Cosmetic Surgical Practice Working Party (CSWP) recommended a two week "cooling off" period before surgery. This study quantified compliance with the above national initiatives by aesthetic surgery providers in the UK. To replicate a patient searching for aesthetic surgery providers, "cosmetic surgery UK" was searched via Google. The top fifty websites of aesthetic surgery providers were included in the study. Websites were analysed for compliance with the DoH Keogh and CSWP recommendations. When clarification was required, aesthetic surgery providers were contacted via telephone. Pearson's Chi-squared test compared actual compliance with national recommendations of full compliance. Fifty cosmetic surgery providers in the UK entered the study. Consultations with the operating surgeon occurred in 90% of cases. Mean compliance with all parameters from the national guidelines was 41%, significantly less than the desired level of full compliance (P < 0.001). The majority offered free consultations (54%) and promotional deals (52%), of which 27% were time limited. No provider stipulated compliance with two stages of signed consent. This study demonstrated low compliance with national guidelines for aesthetic surgery. Aggressive sales techniques and enticing offers by aesthetic surgery providers were widespread. Statutory government guidelines on aesthetic surgery and increased public awareness into potential risks from inappropriate cosmetic surgery may improve patient decision making and safety. Copyright © 2014 British
Misra, Poonam; Agarwal, Nitin; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Hansberry, David R; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Deficient health literacy remains a widespread public issue. As such, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that all patient resources should be written around a sixth-grade level. The authors evaluate healthcare-oriented resources specified for patient use on the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) Web site in order to identify potential areas of improvement and highlight those sections that may serve as paradigms for future revisions. Descriptive and correlational design. Seventeen healthcare-oriented resources specifically for patients were downloaded in February 2012 from the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Web site. Readability assessments of each article were performed using Readability Studio Professional Edition Version 2012.1. These tests included the Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, SMOG Grading, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning-Fog Index, the New Fog Count, the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST formula, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Graph. Patient health education material found on the AAFPRS Web site has been found to be written at an average grade level of 12th grade using 10 different readability scales. Modifications of the patient education section of the AAFPRS Web site can increase the readability of the literature, and allow greater comprehension among a wider audience. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Cho, Brian H; Lopez, Joseph; Means, Jessica; Lopez, Sandra; Milton, Jacqueline; Tufaro, Anthony P; May, James W; Dorafshar, Amir H
Conflicts of interest (COI) are an emerging area of discussion within the field of plastic surgery. Recently, several reports have found that research studies that disclose COI are associated with publication of positive outcomes. We hypothesize that this association is driven by higher-quality studies receiving industry funding. This study aimed to investigate the association between industry support and study methodological quality. We reviewed all entries in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery, and Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery within a 1-year period encompassing 2013. All clinical research articles were analyzed. Studies were evaluated blindly for methodology quality based on a validated scoring system. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to examine the association between methodology score and COI. A total of 1474 articles were reviewed, of which 483 met our inclusion criteria. These articles underwent methodological quality scoring. Conflicts of interest were reported in 28 (5.8%) of these articles. After adjusting for article characteristics in the ordinal logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between articles with COI and higher methodological scores (P = 0.7636). Plastic surgery studies that disclose COI are not associated with higher methodological quality when compared with studies that do not disclose COI. These findings suggest that although the presence of COI is associated with positive findings, the association is not shown to be driven by higher-quality studies.
Eberlin, Kyle R; Perdikis, Galen; Damitz, Lynn; Krochmal, Dan J; Kalliainen, Loree K; Bonawitz, Steven C
With the advancement of technology, electronic communication has become an important mode of communication within plastic and reconstructive surgery. This can take the form of e-mail, text messaging, video conferencing, and social media, among others. There are currently no defined American Society of Plastic Surgeons guidelines for appropriate professional use of these technologies. A search was performed on PubMed and the Cochrane database; terms included "telemedicine," "text messaging," "HIPAA," "metadata," "video conferencing," "photo sharing," "social media," "Facebook," "Twitter," and "Instagram." Initial screening of all identified articles was performed; the level of evidence, limitations, and recommendations were evaluated and articles were reviewed. A total of 654 articles were identified in the level I screening process; after more comprehensive review, 41 articles fit inclusion criteria: social networking, 12; telemedicine, 11; text messaging, 10; metadata, four; video conferencing, three; and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, one. General themes were identified from these articles and guidelines proposed. Electronic communication can provide an efficient method of information exchange for professional purposes within plastic surgery but should be used thoughtfully and with all professional, legal, and ethical considerations.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0606] General and Plastic Surgery Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice...) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the General and Plastic Surgery Devices...
Falk-Brynhildsen, K; Söderquist, B; Friberg, O; Nilsson, U G
Sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery is a serious complication. Various perioperative strategies, including plastic adhesive drapes, are used to reduce bacterial contamination of surgical wounds. To compare plastic adhesive drape to bare skin regarding bacterial growth in wound and time to recolonization of the adjacent skin intraoperatively, in cardiac surgery patients. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial (May 2010 to May 2011) included 140 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery via median sternotomy. The patients were randomly allocated to the adhesive drape (chest covered with plastic adhesive drape) or bare skin group. Bacterial samples were taken preoperatively and intraoperatively every hour during surgery until skin closure. Disinfection with 0.5% chlorhexidine solution in 70% alcohol decreased coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), while the proportion colonized with Propionibacterium acnes was not significantly reduced and was still present in more than 50% of skin samples. P. acnes was significantly more common in men than in women. Progressive bacterial recolonization of the skin occurred within 2-3 h. At 120 min there were significantly more positive cultures in the adhesive drape group versus bare skin group for P. acnes (63% vs 44%; P = 0.034) and for CoNS (45% vs 24%; P = 0.013). The only statistically significant difference in bacterial growth in the surgical wound was higher proportion of CoNS at the end of surgery in the adhesive drape group (14.7% vs 4.4%; P = 0.044). Plastic adhesive drape does not reduce bacterial recolonization. P. acnes colonized men more frequently, and was not decreased by disinfection with chlorhexidine solution in alcohol. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hardy, Krista L; Davis, Kathryn E; Constantine, Ryan S; Chen, Mo; Hein, Rachel; Jewell, James L; Dirisala, Karunakar; Lysikowski, Jerzy; Reed, Gary; Kenkel, Jeffrey M
Little evidence within plastic surgery literature supports the precept that longer operative times lead to greater morbidity. The authors investigate surgery duration as a determinant of morbidity, with the goal of defining a clinically relevant time for increased risk. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent a broad range of complex plastic surgical procedures (n = 1801 procedures) at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from January 1, 2008 to January 31, 2012. Adjusting for possible confounders, multivariate logistic regression assessed surgery duration as an independent predictor of morbidity. To define a cutoff for increased risk, incidence of complications was compared among quintiles of surgery duration. Stratification by type of surgery controlled for procedural complexity. A total of 1753 cases were included in multivariate analyses with an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Most operations were combined (75.8%), averaging 4.9 concurrent procedures. Each hour increase in surgery duration was associated with a 21% rise in odds of morbidity (P < .0001). Compared with the first quintile of operative time (<2.0 hours), there was no change in complications until after 3.1 hours of surgery (odds ratio, 1.6; P = .017), with progressively greater odds increases of 3.1 times after 4.5 hours (P < .0001) and 4.7 times after 6.8 hours (P < .0001). When stratified by type of surgery, longer operations continued to be associated with greater morbidity. Surgery duration is an independent predictor of complications, with a significantly increased risk above 3 hours. Although procedural complexity undoubtedly affects morbidity, operative time should factor into surgical decision making.
Al-Bustani, Saif; Halvorson, Eric G
Various simulation models for microsurgery have been developed to overcome the limitations of Halstedian training on real patients. We wanted to assess the status of microsurgery simulation in plastic surgery residency programs in the United States. Data were analyzed from responses to a survey sent to all plastic surgery program directors in the United States, asking for type of simulation, quality of facilities, utilization by trainees, evaluation of trainee sessions, and perception of the relevance of simulation. The survey response rate was 50%. Of all programs, 69% provide microsurgical simulation and 75% of these have a laboratory with microscope and 52% provide live animal models. Half share facilities with other departments. The quality of facilities is rated as good or great in 89%. Trainee utilization is once every 3 to 6 months in 82% of programs. Only in 11% is utilization monthly. Formal evaluation of simulation sessions is provided by 41% of programs. All program directors agree simulation is relevant to competence in microsurgery, 60% agree simulation should be mandatory, and 43% require trainees to complete a formal microsurgery course prior to live surgery. There seems to be consensus that microsurgical simulation improves competence, and the majority of program directors agree it should be mandatory. Developing and implementing standardized simulation modules and assessment tools for trainees across the nation as part of a comprehensive competency-based training program for microsurgery is an important patient safety initiative that should be considered. Organizing with other departments to share facilities may improve their quality and hence utilization.
Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique; Pinho, Andre Silveira; Denadai, Rodrigo; Samartine, Hugo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
The purpose of this bibliometric study was to assess the discrepancies between plastic surgery meeting abstracts and subsequent full-length manuscript publications. Abstracts presented at the Brazilian Congress of Plastic Surgery from 2010 to 2011 were compared with matching manuscript publications. Discrepancies between the abstract and the subsequent manuscript were categorized as major (changes in the purpose, methods, study design, sample size, statistical analysis, results, and conclusions) and minor (changes in the title and authorship) variations. The overall discrepancy rate was 96 %, with at least one major (76 %) and/or minor (96 %) variation. There were inconsistencies between the study title (56 %), authorship (92 %), purpose (6 %), methods (20 %), study design (36 %), sample size (51.2 %), statistical analysis (14 %), results (20 %), and conclusions (8 %) of manuscripts compared with their corresponding meeting abstracts. As changes occur before manuscript publication of plastic surgery meeting abstracts, caution should be exercised in referencing abstracts or altering surgical practices based on abstracts' content. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Dalton, Teresa A; Veale, David; Hardwick-Smith, Susan
Little prospective data exists regarding the procedures constituting female genital plastic/cosmetic surgery (FGPS). To evaluate whether the procedures of labiaplasty and vaginoperineoplasty improve genital self image, and evaluate effects on sexual satisfaction. Prospective cohort case-controlled study of 120 subjects evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative, paired with a demographically similar control group. Interventions include labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, and/or aesthetic vaginal tightening, defined as perineoplasty + "vaginoplasty" (aka "vaginal rejuvenation."). Outcome measures include body image, genital self-image, sexual satisfaction, and body esteem. As a group, study patients tested at baseline showing body dissatisfaction, negative genital self-image, and poorer indices of sexual satisfaction. Preoperative body image of study patients were in a range considered to be mild to moderately dysmorphic, but matched controls at one and two years; genital self-image scores at entry were considerably lower than controls, but by 2-year follow-up had surpassed control value at entry. Similarly, sexual satisfaction values, significantly lower at entry, equaled at one, and surpassed control values, at 2 years. Postoperatively, at all points in time, these differences in body image and genital self-image disappeared, and sexual satisfaction markedly improved. Overall body esteem did not differ between study and control groups, with the exception of the genital esteem quotient, which improved after surgery. Women requesting and completing FGPS, when tested by validated instruments, at entry report sexual dissatisfaction and negative genital self-image. When tested at several points in time after surgery up to two years, these findings were no longer present. When performed by an experienced surgeon, FGPS appears to provide sexual and genital self-image improvement. 2 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Faga, A; Carminati, M; Falconi, D; Gatti, S; Rottino, A
Personal experience of plastic surgery carried out in Day Hospital conditions is reported. The experience took place within the hospital structure through two different organisational models called here transversal and divisional organisation models: characteristic of the former is that it uses a dedicated interdivisional structure within the hospital involving the centralization of all day-surgery activities, whereas the latter organizes Day Surgery activities within the operating unit whose structures it shares. On the basis of a comparison between the two models we were able to note advantages and disadvantages. We can review our experience in brief by stating that our own preference went to the transversal model which presents the indubitable advantage of being a logistic structure which is hinged on daytime activity and is ready therefore to satisfy on the one hand the needs of this type of patient and, on the other, the needs of the structure itself in efficiency terms. We propose to correct the disadvantages of the transversal model which can be outlined in its lack of homogeneity in the pathology treated and in the subtraction of the criterion of clinical priority in waiting lists through the attainment of a critical dimensional threshold such as to permit programmable sessions with patients with homogeneous pathology (i.e. belonging to the same hospital unit) and through the maintenance of a certain number of Day Hospital beds (around 25%) reserved for new emergency clinical cases.
Obeid, Sara; Fanning, Alex
Introduction: To date, there have been few studies in the field of plastic surgery examining the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of educators and residents regarding diversity and inclusion, especially for the purposes of enhancing resident education, improving diversity efforts, and addressing health care disparities. Methods: An anonymous survey was provided electronically to a total of 462 American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeon members and 91 program coordinators (PCs), and 1,029 plastic surgery residents at 91 institutions across the United States. We analyzed the responses from PCs and program directors (PDs). Results: We collected responses from 34 institutions (37%), and 16.8% of American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeon members including 34 PCs and 44 PDs. We found that PDs were more likely to be male (86%) and above the age of 40 years (97%) compared with PCs (5% male and 61% above 40 years). Both groups were majority White. Fifty-nine percentage of PDs have a parent/guardian who attained a graduate degree versus 15% of PCs. Forty-eight percentage of PDs speak another language compared with 16% of PCs. More importantly, 95% of PDs had an opportunity to engage in diversity and inclusion-related activities in the last 6 months as compared with 43% of PCs; however, we did not find a statistical difference based on knowledge of increasing institutional capacity of diversity and inclusion between the 2 groups. PCs were more likely to witness discrimination (64%) than PDs (40%) in the health care setting, with body type/weight emerging as the most common type of discrimination. Very few respondents (10%) indicated they discriminated against others. Conclusions: Plastic surgery educators are committed to diversity and inclusion. Improvements can be made by incorporating PCs more frequently in activities related to the topic along with focused training on improving diversity on an institutional rather than individual level. Our study suggests body type
Background: Plastic surgery is the most competitive specialty in medicine. We sought to identify factors associated with the successful match of generation Y applicants into integrated plastic surgery residency. Methods: We utilized the most recent data from the Charting Outcomes in the Match published by the National Resident Matching Program in 2011. We had data on US senior or independent applicant status, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, attendance of top 40 medical schools, advanced degree status, and number of contiguous ranks within plastic surgery. Our main outcome measure was match status. Results: A total of 81 out of 197 applicants (41.1%) successfully matched into integrated plastic surgery in the 2011 main match. US seniors matched at a significantly higher rate compared to independent applicants (44.0% vs 24.1%, P = 0.044). Matched US seniors were more likely to have AOA membership compared to unmatched US seniors (45.9% vs 27.7%, P = 0.014) and attend a top 40 medical school (52.7% vs 35.1%, P = 0.022). There were no differences in terms of advanced degrees between matched and unmatched US seniors. Unmatched US seniors were more likely to have 3 or fewer contiguous ranks of plastic surgery residency programs than matched US seniors (86.2% vs 68.9%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: US senior status, AOA membership, and attendance at a top 40 medical school are predictors of matching into integrated plastic surgery. Program directors need to be aware of the background of the millennial applicants to recruit and maintain top residents. PMID:25289227
Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.
Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652
Lopez, Joseph; Ameri, Afshin; Susarla, Srinivas M; Reddy, Sashank; Soni, Ashwin; Tong, J W; Amini, Neda; Ahmed, Rizwan; May, James W; Lee, W P Andrew; Dorafshar, Amir
It is currently unknown whether formal research training has an influence on academic advancement in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formal research training was associated with higher research productivity, academic rank, and procurement of extramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding in plastic surgery, comparing academic surgeons who completed said research training with those without. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The main predictor variable was formal research training, defined as completion of a postdoctoral research fellowship or attainment of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The primary outcome was scientific productivity measured by the Hirsh-index (h-index, the number of publications, h that have at least h citations each). The secondary outcomes were academic rank and NIH funding. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. A total of 607 academic surgeons were identified from 94 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited plastic surgery training programs. In all, 179 (29.5%) surgeons completed formal research training. The mean h-index was 11.7 ± 9.9. And, 58 (9.6%) surgeons successfully procured NIH funding. The distribution of academic rank was the following: endowed professor (5.4%), professor (23.9%), associate professor (23.4%), assistant professor (46.0%), and instructor (1.3%). In a multiple regression analysis, completion of formal research training was significantly predictive of a higher h-index and successful procurement of NIH funding. Current evidence demonstrates that formal research training is associated with higher scientific productivity and increased likelihood of future NIH funding. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Joseph; Juan, Ilona; Wu, Adela; Samaha, Georges; Cho, Brian; Luck, J D; Soni, Ashwin; Milton, Jacqueline; May, James W; Tufaro, Anthony P; Dorafshar, Amir H
Recently, several studies have demonstrated that articles that disclose conflicts of interests (COI) are associated with publication of positive results. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the different types of COI as they relate to the general topic of COI in plastic surgery. Specifically, we aimed to examine whether different types of COI are more likely than others to be associated with the presentation of positive findings. We reviewed all original articles in Annals of Plastic Surgery, Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, and Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. All scientific articles were analyzed, and several article characteristics were extracted. Disclosed COI were categorized into the following categories: consultant/employee, royalties/stock options, and research support. The findings reported in each article abstract were blindly graded as reporting a positive, negative, neutral, or not applicable result. A multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether an association existed between certain types of COI and publication of positive conclusions. A total of 3124 articles were identified of which 1185 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Financial COI were reported in 153 studies (12.9%). The most common type of COI was "research support" (7.3%), whereas the least common was "royalties/stock options" (1.2%). Rates of different types of COI varied significantly by plastic surgery subspecialty field (P < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, authors who disclosed COI related to research support, consultant/employee, and royalties/stock options were 1.31, 6.62, and 8.72 times more likely, respectively, to publish positive findings when compared with authors that disclosed no COI after correcting for potential confounding factors. However, consultancy/employee status was the only COI category statistically associated with publication of positive results (P < 0.001). Self
Sun, Beatrice J; Tijerina, Jonathan; Nazerali, Rahim S; Lee, Gordon K
In recent years, there has been a push to publish higher level of evidence studies in medicine, particularly in plastic surgery. Well-conducted systematic reviews are considered the strongest level of evidence in medicine, recently becoming the key process indicators for quality delivery. A varying quality of systematic reviews, however, has led to concerns of their validity in clinical decision-making. We perform a quality analysis of systematic reviews published in head and neck microsurgery by the surgical specialties of plastic surgery and otolaryngology. An evaluation of systematic reviews published on microsurgery in 13 high-impact surgical journals was conducted by searching PubMed and Scopus. Two authors independently performed searches, screened for eligibility, and extracted data from included articles. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion and consensus. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) criteria were used to assess methodological quality. The initial database search retrieved 166 articles. After removing duplicates, screening titles and abstracts, 26 articles remained for full text review. Seven did not focus on head and neck microsurgery and were further excluded, leaving 19 systematic reviews for final analysis. Of those, 10 systematic reviews were published by otolaryngology, and 9 were published by plastic surgery. Median AMSTAR score was 8 for otolaryngology, 7 for plastic surgery, and 8 overall, reflecting "fair to good" quality. The number of systematic reviews on head and neck microsurgery markedly increased over time. Of note, both the AMSTAR score and the number of systematic reviews published by plastic surgery have steadily increased from 2014 to 2016, whereas those published by otolaryngology have remained relatively stable since 2010. Our review shows a trend toward publishing more systematic reviews. The increasing quantity and quality of systematic reviews published by plastic surgeons indicates recognition in the
Schneider, William J; Migliori, Mark R; Gosain, Arun K; Gregory, George; Flick, Randall
Many international volunteer groups provide free reconstructive plastic surgery for the poor and underserved in developing countries. An essential issue in providing this care is that it meets consistent guidelines for both quality and safety-a topic that has been addressed previously. An equally important consideration is how to provide that care in an ethical manner. No literature presently addresses the various issues involved in making those decisions. With these ethical considerations in mind, the Volunteers in Plastic Surgery Committee of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation undertook a project to create a comprehensive set of guidelines for volunteer groups planning to provide this type of reconstructive plastic surgery in developing countries. The committee worked in conjunction with the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia on this project. The Board of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation has approved the ethical guidelines created for the delivery of care in developing countries. The guidelines address the variety of ethical decisions that may be faced by a team working in an underdeveloped country. These guidelines make it possible for a humanitarian effort to anticipate the types of ethical decisions that are often encountered and be prepared to deal with them appropriately. Any group seeking to undertake an international mission trip in plastic surgery should be able to go to one source to find a detailed discussion of the perceived needs in providing ethical humanitarian care. This document was created to satisfy that need and is a companion to our original guidelines addressing safety and quality.
Baltacıoğlu, Esra; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Bağış, Nilsun; Aydın, Güven; Yuva, Pınar; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Bağış, Bora
This case report presents an implant-aided prosthetic treatment in which peri-implant plastic surgery techniques were applied in combination to satisfactorily attain functional aesthetic expectations. Peri-implant plastic surgery enables the successful reconstruction and restoration of the balance between soft and hard tissues and allows the option of implant-aided fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:25489351
Dedhia, Raj; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Tollefson, Travis T; Ishii, Lisa E
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) encompasses the evaluation and application of best available evidence, incorporation of clinical experience, and emphasis on patient preference and values. Different scales are used to rate levels of evidence. Translating available data for interventions to clinical practice guidelines requires an assessment of both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation. Essential to the practice of EBM is evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention through outcome measures. This article discusses principles essential to EBM, resources commonly used in EBM practice, and the strengths and limitations of EBM in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sweis, Iliana E; Spitz, Jamie; Barry, David R; Cohen, Mimis
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an often under-recognized yet severe psychiatric illness. There is limited guidance for plastic surgeons in the USA in how to recognize and manage patients with BDD and protect themselves from potential litigation and harm. Therefore, in collaboration with legal counsel, we remind our profession of the serious nature of patients with BDD, provide warning signs for recognizing BDD, and critically evaluate the validity of informed consent and the legal ramifications of operating on such patients in the USA. A literature review was performed to clearly define the psychopathology of BDD and identify cases of patients with BDD who underwent cosmetic surgery resulting in potential threats to the surgeon. An additional search of the legal literature was performed in collaboration with legal counsel to identify key cases of patients with BDD attempting litigation following cosmetic surgery procedures. The diagnostic criteria and psychopathology of BDD are presented. Warning signs are highlighted to alert the plastic surgeon to patients at high risk for BDD. Strategies for legal protection include a pre-procedure checklist for patients that are suspected of having a BDD diagnosis. Body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in the cosmetic surgery population. Patients with BDD often have a poor outcome following aesthetic surgery, which can result in a dangerous or even deadly situation for the surgeon. We aim to remind aesthetic plastic surgeons of the psychopathology, severity, and specific risks associated with operating on patients with BDD while suggesting specific protective strategies. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please
Oliver, Jeremie D; Menapace, Deanna; Younes, Ahmed; Recker, Chelsey; Hamilton, Grant; Friedman, Oren
Although periorbital edema and ecchymosis are commonly encountered after facial plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures, there is currently no validated grading scale to qualify these findings. In this study, the modified "Surgeon Periorbital Rating of Edema and Ecchymosis (SPREE)" questionnaire is used as a grading scale for patients undergoing facial plastic surgery procedures. This article aims to validate a uniform grading scale for periorbital edema and ecchymosis using the modified SPREE questionnaire in the postoperative period. This is a prospective study including 82 patients at two different routine postoperative visits (second and seventh postoperative days), wherein the staff and resident physicians, physician assistants (PAs), patients, and any accompanying adults were asked to use the modified SPREE questionnaire to score edema and ecchymosis of each eye of the patient who had undergone a plastic surgery procedure. Interrater and intrarater agreements were then examined. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated to measure intrarater and interrater agreement between health care professionals (staff physicians and resident physicians); staff physicians and PAs; and staff physicians, patients, and accompanying adults. Good to excellent agreement was identified between staff physicians and resident physicians as well as between staff physicians and PAs. There was, however, poor agreement between staff physicians, patients, and accompanying adults. In addition, excellent agreement was found for intraobserver reliability during same-day visits. The modified SPREE questionnaire is a validated grading system for use by health care professionals to reliably rate periorbital edema and ecchymosis in the postoperative period. Validation of the modified SPREE questionnaire may improve ubiquity in medical literature reporting and related outcomes reporting in future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Krieger, Lloyd M
Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is
John, Hannah Eliza; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Whitaker, Iain S.
Background Infrared thermography (IRT) has become an increasingly utilized adjunct to more expensive and/or invasive investigations in a range of surgical fields, no more so than in plastic surgery. The combination of functional assessment, flow characteristics and anatomical localization has led to increasing applications of this technology. This article aims to perform a systematic review of the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery. Methods A systematic literature search using the keywords ‘IRT’ and ‘dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT)’ has been accomplished. A total of 147 papers were extracted from various medical databases, of which 34 articles were subjected to a full read by two independent reviewers, to ensure the papers satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies focusing on the use of IRT in breast cancer diagnosis were excluded. Results A systematic review of 29 publications demonstrated the clinical applications of IRT in plastic surgery today. They include preoperative planning of perforators for free flaps, post operative monitoring of free flaps, use of IRT as an adjunct in burns depth analysis, in assessment of response to treatment in hemangioma and as a diagnostic test for cutaneous melanoma and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Conclusions Modern infrared imaging technology with improved standardization protocols is now a credible, useful non-invasive tool in clinical practice. PMID:27047781
Griffiths, R W
The effect of instituting "consultant only" clinics on plastic surgery outpatient activity was to produce a 19% reduction in both clinic sessions and new patient bookings, but a 50% reduction in booked follow-up patients; non-attender rates reduced from 20% to 11% (Northern General Hospital, April 1986-March 1989). Mean clinic attendances reduced from 35 to 26 (Northern General Hospital) and from 33 to 27 (Barnsley District Hospital)--26% and 18%, respectively. Analysis of new referrals to such clinics in the 6 months January-June 1989 showed 41% of patients came from general practitioners, although 80% of "aesthetic" conditions came from this source. 31% of referrals were for malignancy, 51/72 (70%) being basal cell carcinomas. Malignancies waited on average 4 weeks, benign conditions 15 weeks, and "aesthetic" conditions 28 weeks from referral to consultation. Such clinic management has dramatically reduced follow-up episodes, but regulation of new patient attendances is associated with appreciable waiting times for non-malignant conditions. To reduce such waiting times and pursue a "consultant only" clinic policy nationally requires many more consultants.
Grunwald, Tiffany; Krummel, Thomas; Sherman, Randy
Over the last two decades, virtual reality, haptics, simulators, robotics, and other "advanced technologies" have emerged as important innovations in medical learning and practice. Reports on simulator applications in medicine now appear regularly in the medical, computer science, engineering, and popular literature. The goal of this article is to review the emerging intersection between advanced technologies and surgery and how new technology is being utilized in several surgical fields, particularly plastic surgery. The authors also discuss how plastic and reconstructive surgeons can benefit by working to further the development of multimedia and simulated environment technologies in surgical practice and training.
Kravetz, Shlomo; And Others
This study compared perceptions of parents of 19 children with Down's syndrome (DS) who had undergone plastic facial surgery with perceptions of parents of DS children who had not received surgery. The comparison found little evidence of positive impact of the surgery on parents' perceptions of their children's physical, personal, and social…
Becker, Daniel G
The Internet has become an important avenue for facial plastic surgeons to make potential patients aware of their practice. It is important for the facial plastic surgeon to understand how the Internet is used by patients and how it can complement a physician's practice. The website unavoidably has a marketing aspect. Although there are no statistics available, certainly a substantial number of patients use the Internet as a primary source for both learning about cosmetic surgical procedures and also to locate a physician. A practice website can provide potential patients with important logistical information; it also provides an opportunity to educate the potential patient about the surgical procedures provided. A website can be an important aspect of the overall practice image. An increasing number of individuals visit the website of their physician or potential physician, so it is important that attention is given to this aspect of a practice.
Pannucci, Christopher J; Reavey, Patrick L; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B; Hume, Keith M; Wilkins, Edwin G; Pusic, Andrea L
The Skin Products Assessment Research Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation in 2006. The Skin Products Assessment Research study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-conducted, industry-sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research study was designed as a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I to IV skin, moderate to severe facial photodamage, and periocular and/or perioral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to reepithelialization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82 percent were followed beyond reepithelialization. There were no significant differences in mean time to reepithelialization between Obagi Nu-Derm System and control groups. The Obagi Nu-Derm System group had a significantly higher median erythema score on the day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) that did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photographic evaluations demonstrated that both interrater and intrarater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. The authors demonstrated no significant difference in time to reepithelialization between patients who used the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-sponsored clinical research for readers of this article.
Boháč, Martin; Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Kupcová, Ida; Zamborský, Radoslav; Fedeleš, Jozef; Koller, Ján
Stem cells represent heterogeneous population of undifferentiated cells with unique characteristics of long term self renewal and plasticity. Moreover, they are capable of active migration to diseased tissues, secretion of different bioactive molecules, and they have immunosuppressive potential as well. They occur in all tissues through life and are involved in process of embryogenesis and regeneration. During last decades stem cells attracted significant attention in each field of medicine, including plastic and reconstructive surgery. The main goal of the present review article is to present and discuss the potential of stem cells and to provide information about their safe utilization in chronic wounds and fistulae healing, scar management, breast reconstruction, as well as in bone, tendon and peripheral nerve regeneration.
Sillah, Nyama M; Miller, Hannah J; Weis Sadoski, Tahlia L; Larson, Jeffrey D; Bentz, Michael L; King, Timothy W
Programs specific to plastic surgery are necessary to dispel common myths and increase interest in the field. In a previous publication by the authors, a community outreach program was developed for these reasons for middle school students. In the current study, we expanded on the previous research and collected objective data to assess students' initial interest in medicine and knowledge about plastic surgery, compared to their interest and knowledge afterward. The program previously developed by the authors was modified and performed for the students at various community outreach events and included a PowerPoint presentation, case didactics, and hands-on activities. A test about plastic surgery and questionnaire about interest in the medical field and becoming a doctor was given to each student before and after the program. One hundred seventy-nine students participated in the program from 2009 to 2013. The pretest mean score was 6.50 of 12 questions whereas the posttest mean score was 9.72 (P = <0.001). After participation in the program, 27% of students that answered "no" or "unsure" about interest in the medical field on the pretest changed their answer to "yes," on the posttest, and 17% of students that answered "no" or "unsure" about interest in becoming a doctor on the pretest changed their answer to "yes," on the posttest (P = <0.001). A plastic surgery community outreach program is beneficial in increasing students' interest in the field of medicine as a whole, and more specifically in the field of plastic surgery.
Van Slyke, Aaron C; Carr, Michael; Knox, Aaron D C; Genoway, Krista; Carr, Nicholas J
Many plastic surgeons advocate smoking cessation before patients undergo cosmetic surgery with extensive soft-tissue dissection. Smoking cessation rates after cosmetic surgery are unknown. The preoperative consultation may be an opportunity to promote long-term smoking cessation. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study. All patients over an 8-year study period who smoked before their preoperative consultation; who quit 2 weeks before surgery; and who subsequently underwent rhytidectomy, abdominoplasty, or mastopexy were included. Patients were asked to complete a Web-based survey at long-term follow-up. Eighty-five smokers were included, and 47 patients completed the survey, for a response rate of 55.3 percent. Average follow-up was 63.3 months. Five respondents were social smokers and thus excluded. Of the 42 daily smokers, 17 patients (40.5 percent) were no longer smoking cigarettes on a daily basis at long-term follow-up. Of these 17 patients, 10 (23.8 percent) had not smoked since their operation. A total of 24 patients (57.1 percent) had reduced their cigarette consumption by any amount, and 70.8 percent (17 of 24) of these patients agreed that discussing adverse surgical outcomes related to smoking influenced their ability to quit/reduce. Twenty-one of 42 patients (50.0 percent) admitted that they were not compliant with the preoperative smoking cessation instructions. This is the first report to investigate long-term smoking cessation from a cosmetic surgery practice. The authors have shown a positive association between smoking cessation and cosmetic surgery. Requesting a period of cessation before cosmetic surgery may promote long-lasting smoking cessation.
Richards, Bryson G; Schleicher, William F; D'Souza, Gehaan F; Isakov, Raymond; Zins, James E
The plastic surgeon competes with both core and noncore physicians and surgeons for traditional cosmetic procedures. In 2007, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) joined efforts to form a Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to further analyze this trend. Our objective is to document and quantify the patient capture and total collections generated in a single surgeon's practice exclusive from Botulinum Toxin A and filler injections over a 10-year period. We subsequently identified the effect and importance that fillers and Botulinum Toxin A have on an active cosmetic practice. A retrospective chart review of all male and female patients who received Botulinum Toxin A or soft tissue filler injections (noninvasive aesthetic treatment) in a single surgeons practice from January 2004 to December 2013 was undertaken. Only those patients new to the practice and who were exclusively seeking out Botulinum Toxin A or fillers were included in the study. Chart review then identified which of these selected patients ultimately underwent invasive aesthetic surgery during this 10-year period. Noninvasive and invasive aesthetic surgery total collections were calculated using billing records. From January 2004 to December 2013, 375 patients entered the senior surgeon's practice specifically requesting and receiving noninvasive aesthetic treatments. Of these 375 patients, 59 patients (15.7%) subsequently underwent an aesthetic surgery procedure at an average of 19 months following initial noninvasive aesthetic treatment. Of these 375 patients, 369 were female and 6 were male. The most common initial invasive aesthetic procedure performed after injectable treatment included 22 facelifts (18.5%), 21 upper eyelid blepharoplasties (17.6%), and 15 endoscopic brow lifts (12.6%). Total collections from noninvasive aesthetic sessions and invasive surgery combined represented US$762,470 over this 10-year span. This
Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Rubin, J Peter
The authors begin their discussion of current concepts in massive weight loss (MWL) surgery by offering terminological guidelines that help define reconstructive and aesthetic concepts and procedures for the post-MWL patient. Measures for effective preoperative nutritional and metabolic screening include assessment of weight fluctuations over time, constitutional symptoms, and medications and nutritional supplements. Although there is no established body-mass index (BMI) threshold above which surgery should be refused, higher BMIs have been associated with increased complications. Residual medical problems and psychosocial issues require assessment before surgery, with appropriate specialist consultation as necessary. Consultation with patients concerning the different expectations for functional versus aesthetic procedures and issues such as postoperative scarring and the common incidence of wound healing problems is essential. Patient safety is paramount in decisions to combine multiple procedures and plan stages. The authors often recommend combining abdominoplasty and mastopexy. Surgeon experience, operative setting, and a patient's medical status are factors which influence how much surgery should be performed in the same operative setting. Centers of Excellence in body contouring that provide a team approach combining comprehensive patient evaluation, outcomes research, and surgical training may be the optimal approach for treating the massive weight loss patient.
Mirivel, Julien C
Cosmetic surgery is a controversial medical practice that is rapidly expanding in the United States. In 2004 alone, 9.2 million procedures were performed. From breast augmentation to tummy tuck, Americans are taking surgical/medical/health risks to alter their bodily appearance. Although many scholars have criticized the practice, few have looked closely at how plastic surgeons interact with prospective surgical candidates. This essay explores videotaped data of naturally occurring interactions between plastic surgeons and patients seeking to transform their physical appearance. Drawing on action-implicative discourse analysis (Tracy, 2005), the article describes plastic surgeons' embodied and discursive activities during a typical physical examination. The core analysis shows how the patient's body and its aesthetic features can be used by plastic surgeons as interpretive resources to promote the desirability of surgery. By touching excess tissue, pinching it, moving it, or applying tools and artifacts (e.g., tape measurer) on and around the body, plastic surgeons literally bring to life patients' bodily "flaws." Through their multimodal performance, I argue, plastic surgeons mark the desirability of surgical transformation. As medicine meets consumerism, medical activities turn persuasive, incrementally constructing the patient's body as a territory of surgical need.
Hultman, Charles Scott
Portfolio planning in health care represents the strategic prioritization of services that permits an organization to better achieve its goals of margin and mission. Because of recent volatility in the economy, declining reimbursement, and rising costs of providing care, such strategic planning has become increasingly important if physicians want to remain leaders in health care. This project assesses the financial impact of procedural portfolio planning on an academic plastic surgery practice from the physician's perspective. We tracked the top 50 procedures, defined as total charges per CPT code, that were performed in our baseline year, for 6 providers in a stable plastic surgery practice. At the end of the first year, we implemented 3 types of strategic changes: growth of areas with high contribution margin (laser resurfacing of burn scars), curtailment of high-risk procedures with negative contribution margin (panniculectomy in smokers), and improved efficiency of mission-critical services with high resource consumption (free-flap breast reconstruction). During the 2-year study period, we had no turnover in faculty, did not pursue any formal marketing, did not change our surgical fees or billing system, provided care independent of payer mix, and maintained our commitment to indigent care. Outcome measures included procedural charges and revenue, collection rates, work relative value units, operating room times, idle times (room time less case time), receipts/minute in operating room, uncompensated charity care, and patient satisfaction (Press-Gainey scores). Before the study period, annual incremental growth in our practice was 1% to 2%, in terms of charges and receipts. After implementation of the portfolio planning project, the financial position of our division improved significantly, with patient satisfaction rates increasing from 85.5% to 94.1% and charity care remaining constant at US $400,000 per year. Encounters, work relative value units, charges
Cooper, Leah Beth
Aesthetic obsession is commonplace in current society. Supermarket a isles dedicated to beauty products, makeup, and anti-aging creams seem to expand daily. Television and publications flood the public with messages of what constitutes beauty and how to achieve the ideal. Surgical alteration of the body is swiftly becoming a form of self-care technique along with other heath-promoting behavior. Since 2003, the general acceptance of plastic surgery among all Americans surpassed 50% (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). Elective cosmetic surgical procedures have increased by an astounding 444% since 1997 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2006). This quest for body satisfaction based on modern cultural norms increases the public's need for accurate information and understanding from those in the healthcare profession. Despite a transformation in the general population's conception of cosmetic surgery and its clients, stigma still lies in many individuals, including those in the healthcare profession. As this progressively growing patient population emerges, many in healthcare question their attitudes toward plastic surgery and the patients receiving aesthetic operations. With clients undergoing plastic surgery becoming increasingly visible within the healthcare system, some unique aspects of patient care must be addressed.
Yu, Panxi; Zhai, Zhen; Jin, Xiaolei; Yang, Xiaonan; Qi, Zuoliang
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been applied in the clinical field for more than a decade, but largely in oral surgery and implant dentistry. Its utilization in plastic and reconstructive surgery is limited and lacking a comprehensive review. Hence, this article focuses on the various clinical applications of PRF pertaining to the plastic and reconstructive field through a systematic review. In this review, articles describing the clinical application of PRF in plastic and reconstructive surgery were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The articles were summarized and divided into groups based on the utilization of PRF. The effects and complications of PRF were analyzed and concluded. Among the 634 articles searched, 7 articles describing 151 cases are eligible. PRF was applied on 116 (76.8%) wounds to facilitate tissue healing, and the complete wound closure rate was 91.4% (106/116). Otherwise, PRF was applied in 10 (6.6%) cases of zygomaticomaxillary fracture to reconstruct orbital floor defects and in 25 (16.6%) cases of facial autologous fat grafts to increase the fat retention rate successfully. There is no report of PRF-related complications. PRF could facilitate wound healing, including the healing of soft tissues and bony tissues, and facilitate fat survival rate. Further studies are needed to test the mechanism of PRF and expand its scope of application in plastic and reconstructive surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Janes, Lindsay; Lanier, Steven T; Evans, Gregory R D; Kasten, Steven J; Hume, Keith M; Gosain, Arun K
Although recent estimates predict a large impending shortage of plastic surgeons, graduate medical education funding through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services remains capped by the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. The authors' aim was to develop a plan to stimulate legislative action. The authors reviewed responses of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association from January of 2015 to a House Energy & Commerce Committee request for input on graduate medical education funding. In addition, all program directors in plastic surgery were surveyed through the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons to determine their graduate medical education funding sources. All three organizations agree that current graduate medical education funding is inadequate to meet workforce needs, and this has a significant impact on specialty selection and distribution for residency training. All agreed that funding should be tied to the resident rather than to the institution, but disagreed on whether funds should be divided between direct (allocated to residency training) and indirect (allocated to patient care) pools, as is currently practiced. Program directors' survey responses indicated that only 38 percent of graduate medical education funds comes from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Organized medicine is at risk of losing critically needed graduate medical education funding. Specific legislation to support additional graduate medical education positions and funding (House Resolutions 1180 and 4282) has been proposed but has not been universally endorsed, in part because of a lack of collaboration in organized medicine. Collaboration among major organizations can reinvigorate these measures and implement real change in funding.
Tol, J A M G; van Hooft, J E; Timmer, R; Kubben, F J G M; van der Harst, E; de Hingh, I H J T; Vleggaar, F P; Molenaar, I Q; Keulemans, Y C A; Boerma, D; Bruno, M J; Schoon, E J; van der Gaag, N A; Besselink, M G H; Fockens, P; van Gulik, T M; Rauws, E A J; Busch, O R C; Gouma, D J
In pancreatic cancer, preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) increases complications compared with surgery without PBD, demonstrated by a recent randomised controlled trial (RCT). This outcome might be related to the plastic endoprosthesis used. Metal stents may reduce the PBD-related complications risk. A prospective multicentre cohort study was performed including patients with obstructive jaundice due to pancreatic cancer, scheduled to undergo PBD before surgery. This cohort was added to the earlier RCT (ISRCTN31939699). The RCT protocol was adhered to, except PBD was performed with a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS). This FCSEMS cohort was compared with the RCT's plastic stent cohort. PBD-related complications were the primary outcome. Three-group comparison of overall complications including early surgery patients was performed. 53 patients underwent PBD with FCSEMS compared with 102 patients treated with plastic stents. Patients' characteristics did not differ. PBD-related complication rates were 24% in the FCSEMS group vs 46% in the plastic stent group (relative risk of plastic stent use 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p=0.011). Stent-related complications (occlusion and exchange) were 6% vs 31%. Surgical complications did not differ, 40% vs 47%. Overall complication rates for the FCSEMS, plastic stent and early surgery groups were 51% vs 74% vs 39%. For PBD in pancreatic cancer, FCSEMS yield a better outcome compared with plastic stents. Although early surgery without PBD remains the treatment of choice, FCSEMS should be preferred over plastic stents whenever PBD is indicated. Dutch Trial Registry (NTR3142). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Sinno, Sammy; Mehta, Karan; Squitieri, Lee; Ranganathan, Kavitha; Koeckert, Michael S; Patel, Ashit; Saadeh, Pierre B; Thanik, Vishal
The National Residency Matching Program Match is a very unique process in which applicants and programs are coupled to each other based on a ranking system. Although several studies have assessed features plastic surgery programs look for in applicants, no study in the present plastic surgery literature identifies which residency characteristics are most important to plastic surgery applicants. Therefore, we sought to perform a multi-institutional assessment as to which factors plastic surgery residency applicants consider most important when applying for residency. A validated and anonymous questionnaire containing 37 items regarding various program characteristics was e-mailed to 226 applicants to New York University, Albany, University of Michigan, and University of Southern California plastic surgery residency programs. Applicants were asked to rate each feature on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the most important. The 37 variables were ranked by the sum of the responses. The median rating and interquartile range as well as the mean for each factor was then calculated. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare medians in rank order. A total of 137 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a 61% response rate. The characteristics candidates considered most important were impressions during the interview, experiences during away rotations, importance placed on resident training/support/mentoring by faculty, personal experiences with residents, and the amount of time spent in general surgery. The characteristics candidates considered least important were second-look experiences, compensation/benefits, program reputation from Internet forums, accessibility of program coordinator, opportunity for laboratory research, and fellowship positions available at the program. Applicants value personal contact and time spent in general surgery when selecting residency programs. As the number of integrated programs continues to grow, programs will benefit
In this article I discuss medical tourism, whereby patients go overseas for plastic surgery treatment in order to save money. However, if malpractice occurs abroad, there are several barriers that make it difficult for patients to recover damages. I explain these legal barriers and then discuss the possible causes of action patients can have over their "domestic physician" (their personal physician who might have referred surgery abroad or who gives postoperative follow-up care) and how these causes of action can create avenues of legal recovery not otherwise available. The possible liability of the domestic physician in the context of surgical malpractice abroad creates an ethical tension in the pursuit of higher-quality continuity of care, as the more involved the physician becomes in the process, the more likely he or she will assume liability. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
White, Michelle C; Randall, Kirsten; Avara, Esther; Mullis, Jenny; Parker, Gary; Shrime, Mark G
Access to affordable and timely surgery is not equitable around the world. Five billion people lack access, and while non-governmental organizations (NGOs) help to meet this need, long-term surgical outcomes, social impact or patient experience is rarely reported. In 2016, Mercy Ships, a surgical NGO, undertook an evaluation of patients who had received surgery seven years earlier with Mercy Ships in 2009 in Benin. Using purposive sampling, patients who had received maxillofacial, plastics or orthopedic surgery were invited to attend a surgical evaluation day. In this pilot study, we used semi-structured interviews and questionnaire responses to assess patient expectation, surgical and social outcome. Our results show that seven years after surgery 35% of patients report surgery-related pain and 18% had sought further care for a clinical complication of their condition. However, 73% of patients report gaining social benefit from surgery, and overall patient satisfaction was 89%, despite 35% of patients saying that they were unclear what to expect after surgery indicating a mismatch of doctor/patient expectations and failure of the consent process. In conclusion, our pilot study shows that NGO surgery in Benin provided positive social impact associated with complication rates comparable to high-income countries when assessed seven years later. Key areas for further study in LMICs are: evaluation and treatment of chronic pain, consent and access to further care.
Waltzman, Joshua T; Tadisina, Kashyap K; Zins, James E
Over the past decade there has been a dramatic rise in the use of technology. Evaluating our use of technology is crucial to advancing the next generation of plastic surgeons. The goals of this study were to assess the current use of technology by residents, help Program Directors allocate financial resources, and predict the future of technology and education. A 17-question online survey was emailed to American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery resident/fellow members (n = 447). The survey evaluated current use of technology, preferred use of educational resources, and directions for the future. Ample space was allocated for free response questions. The response rate was 40%. The average age of respondents was 32 years old (standard deviation 3.7). The majority (86.5%) of residents own iPhones, and 90% of residents own tablets. There was a heavy daily reliance on smartphone technology. Sixty percent of residents used physical textbooks on a weekly basis. The Plastic Surgery Education Network was used on a weekly basis by 42% of residents. In contrast, 78% of residents were not aware of, or had never used, the readily available digital aesthetic resource (RADAR) Resource iPad application. In order to remain at the forefront of education, we as a specialty need to adapt with technology. Program Directors should support integrating technology with electronic access to educational materials. There exists an opportunity in resident education to increase awareness and utilization of the RADAR Resource. The future of plastic surgery education will be reliant on platforms like the iPhone and iPad to conveniently provide large volumes of information with only a finger touch. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: email@example.com.
Choi, Bong-Kyoon; Goh, Raymond C W; Moaveni, Zachary; Lo, Lun-Jou
An ovoid and slender face is considered attractive in Oriental culture, and facial bony contouring is frequently performed in Asian countries to achieve this desired facial profile. Despite their popularity, critical analyses of patients' satisfaction after facial-bone contouring surgery is lacking in the current literature. Questionnaires were sent to 90 patients who had undergone zygoma and/or mandibular contouring by a single surgeon at the Craniofacial Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. The number of patients who had mandibular angle reduction and zygoma reduction were 78 and 36, respectively. The questionnaire contained 20 questions, concerning aesthetic and surgical results, psychosocial benefits and general outcome. Medical records were also reviewed for correlation with the questionnaire findings. The survey response rate was 52.2% (47 patients). A total of 95.7% were satisfied with the symmetry of their face after surgery, and 97.9% felt that there was improvement in their final facial appearance. As many as 61.7% could not feel an objectionable new jaw line or bony step and 66.0% could not detect any visible deformity. A total of 87.2% could not detect bony regrowth after surgery. Complication after surgery was experienced by 17.0% of patients, but all of these recovered without long-term consequences. All patients noted a positive psychosocial influence, and 97.9% of patients said that they would undergo the same surgery again under similar circumstances and would recommend the same surgery to friends. The majority of patients with square face seeking facial bone contouring surgery are satisfied with their final appearance. Of equal importance is the ability for this type of surgery to have a positive influence on the patient's psychosocial environment. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This qualitative study examined comments of 250 parents of children with Down syndrome concerning facial plastic surgery as a means of improving the physical functioning, appearance, and social acceptance of these children. Most respondents viewed improvement of negative societal attitudes toward individuals with Down syndrome and futhering their…
Yeung, Celine; McMillan, Catherine; Saun, Tomas J; Sun, Kimberly; D'hondt, Veerle; von Schroeder, Herbert P; Martou, Glykeria; Lee, Matthew; Liao, Elizabeth; Binhammer, Paul
To describe the development of cognitive task analysis (CTA)-based multimedia educational videos for surgical trainees in plastic surgery. A needs assessment survey was used to identify 5 plastic surgery skills on which to focus the educational videos. Three plastic surgeons were video-recorded performing each skill while describing the procedure, and were interviewed with probing questions. Three medical student reviewers coded transcripts and categorized each step into "action," "decision," or "assessment," and created a cognitive demands table (CDT) for each skill. The CDTs were combined into 1 table that was reviewed by the surgeons performing each skill to ensure accuracy. The final CDTs were compared against each surgeon's original transcripts. The total number of steps identified, percentage of steps shared, and the average percentage of steps omitted were calculated. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, an urban tertiary care teaching center. Canadian junior plastic surgery residents (n = 78) were sent a needs assessment survey. Four plastic surgeons and 1 orthopedic surgeon performed the skills. Twenty-eight residents responded to the survey (36%). Subcuticular suturing, horizontal and vertical mattress suturing, hand splinting, digital nerve block, and excisional biopsy had the most number of residents (>80%) rank the skills as being skills that students should be able to perform before entering residency. The number of steps identified through CTA ranged from 12 to 29. Percentage of steps shared by all 3 surgeons for each skill ranged from 30% to 48%, while the average percentage of steps that were omitted by each surgeon ranged from 27% to 40%. Instructional videos for basic surgical skills may be generated using CTA to help experts provide comprehensive descriptions of a procedure. A CTA-based educational tool may give trainees access to a broader, objective body of knowledge, allowing them to learn decision-making processes
Mulkens, Sandra; Bos, Arjan E R; Uleman, Richard; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Velthuis, Peter
During the past decades, cosmetic surgery has become increasingly popular. People with certain psychopathology disorders, for example, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), are dissatisfied with their physical appearance, and a significant number try to receive cosmetic medical treatment for their complaints. It seems relatively easy for them to receive this type of surgery, despite the fact that it has no or even adverse effects on the symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological condition and especially the presence of psychopathological symptoms such as BDD in cosmetic surgery patients. Questionnaires about body image dissatisfaction, symptoms of BDD and psychopathology in general and satisfaction about surgery were sent to patients who had been treated in a large cosmetic surgery clinic. Of the patients who replied, 86% were pleased with the outcome of the cosmetic procedure. Further, 21-59% of these former patients scored higher on questionnaires of body image dissatisfaction and psychopathological symptoms than a norm group from the general population. When differentiating the group on the basis of BDD symptomatology, it appeared that the high BDD symptomatic group displayed significantly worse outcome on all measurements. That is, high BDD symptomatic patients were more dissatisfied about the result of surgery, exhibited higher levels of psychopathology, and had lower self-esteem than the low symptomatic BDD patients. These findings clearly suggest that the evaluation of the psychological condition and motivation of the candidate patient might be a valuable addition to the standard procedure in cosmetic medical treatment settings. Copyright Â© 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, A J; Scerri, G V; Benamore, R; McDiarmid, J G; Lamberty, B G
The image of plastic surgery as portrayed by the media is of concern to all plastic surgeons. In order to assess knowledge about the specialty, a questionnaire was devised and given to five groups of participants: general practitioners, medical students, nurses, plastic surgical out-patient attendees, and the general public. The results revealed that general practitioners, nurses and medical students in the Cambridge area are, on the whole, knowledgeable about the role of plastic surgery. However, the general public are not so well educated and 23.7% of them could not think of five conditions treated by plastic surgeons, and felt that burns and cosmetic problems were the commonest conditions dealt with. Improved liaison with general practitioners, other specialties and more teaching of undergraduates, coupled with more effective promotion of the skills on offer might permit better use to be made of the specialty.
Horch, R E; Vogt, P M; Schaller, H E; Stark, G B; Lehnhardt, M; Kneser, U; Giunta, R E
Recruitment problems in surgical disciplines have become an increasingly debated topic. On the one hand current career prospects appear to be less attractive than those were seen for the previous generation. On the other hand the demands for a so-called "work-life balance" have changed and the proportion of female students and colleagues in medicine has risen and will continue to increase. Although Plastic Surgery currently seems to be less affected by these problems than other surgical disciplines, securing a qualified supply of young academics in Plastic Surgery is a prerequisite for the further development of this discipline. The traditional model of mentoring is discussed and the role of coaching in a sense of helping the mentorees examine what they are doing in the light of their intentions and goals is reflected. The present article tries to analyze the current status of academic Plastic Surgery from the viewpoint of German university senior surgeons in academic plastic surgery, and aims to highlight the specific prospects for young academics against the backdrop of an often one-sided and superficial perception of this profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Plastics are not only the proverbial everyday commodity, but they also permeate almost every aspect of medical devices, from technology to clinical application. This article addresses some of the confusing features of plasticity as they relate to the materials called plastics, to the phenomena of material plasticity, and to the clinical and biological usage of the word.
Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Kamarowski, Stephanie Felice; Lopez, Camilo Andres Villabona; Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Neto, Alexandre Teixeira; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda
Periodontal surgery associated with prior waxing, mock-up, and the use of digital tools to design the smile is the current trend of reverse planning in periodontal plastic surgery. The objective of this study is to report a surgical resolution of the gummy smile using a prior esthetic design with the use of digital tools. A digital smile design and mock-up were used for performing gingival recontouring surgery. The relationship between the facial and dental measures and the incisal plane with the horizontal facial plane of reference were evaluated. The relative dental height x width was measured, and the dental contour drawing was inserted. Complementary lines are drawn such as the gingival zenith, joining lines of the gingival and incisal battlements. The periodontal esthetic was improved according to the established design digital smile pattern. These results demonstrate the importance of surgical techniques and are well accepted by patients and are easy to perform for the professional. When properly planned, they provide the desired expectations. Periodontal Surgical procedures associated with the design digital smile facilitate the communication between the patient and the professional. It is, therefore, essential to demonstrate the reverse planning of the smile and periodontal parameters with approval by the patient to solve the esthetic problem.
Ganry, L; Hersant, B; Sidahmed-Mezi, M; Dhonneur, G; Meningaud, J P
Preoperative anxiety may lead to medical and surgical complications, behavioral problems and emotional distress. The most common means of prevention are based on using medication and, more recently, hypnosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether a virtual reality (VR) program presenting natural scenes could be part of a new therapy to reduce patients' preoperative anxiety. Our prospective pilot study consisted of a single-blind trial in skin cancer surgery at the Henri-Mondor teaching hospital in France. In the outpatient surgery department, 20 patients with a score of >11 on the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS) were virtually immersed into a natural universe for 5minutes. Their stress levels were assessed before and after this experience by making use of a visual analog scale (VAS), by measuring salivary cortisol levels, and by determining physiological stress based on heart coherence scores. The VAS score was significantly reduced after the simulation (P<0.009) as was the level of salivary cortisol (P<0.04). Heart coherence scores remained unchanged (P=0.056). VR allows patients to be immersed in a relaxing, peaceful environment. It represents a non-invasive way to reduce preoperative stress levels with no side effects and no need for additional medical or paramedical staff. Our results indicate that VR may provide an effective complementary technique to manage stress in surgery patients. Randomized trials are necessary to determine precise methods and benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fraser, James F; Hultman, Charles Scott
Most historians agree that modern plastic surgery was born out of the efforts of reconstructive surgeons in World War I (WW I). In a single British hospital, over 8000 wounded soldiers were treated for disfiguring facial wounds. These gruesome injuries provided surgeons with enough cases to make unprecedented advances in tissue reconstruction. After the war, however, surgeons returned to civilian society where they found relatively few cases to support their new niche. In England, plastic surgery failed to establish itself while, in the United States, plastic surgeons had much greater success in founding their new specialty. Emphasizing this trend is the staggering statistic that, at the outbreak of World War II (WW II), the US boasted 60 trained plastic surgeons compared with only 4 in Britain. This article analyzes a variety of primary sources (speeches, journal articles, letters, and live interviews) obtained from several libraries and special collections to argue that the relative success of US plastic surgery in the interwar period (1920-1940) can be attributed to (1) the efforts of pioneering American plastic surgeons (Varaztad Kazanjian, Vilray Blair, and John Davis), (2) the post-Flexner report restructuring of US medical training, and (3) a much warmer reception both by the US public and general surgical community to plastic surgery.
Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Ho
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are a type of adult stem cells that share common characteristics with typical mesenchymal stem cells. In the last decade, ASCs have been shown to be a useful cell resource for tissue regeneration. The major role of regenerative medicine in this century is based on cell therapy in which ASCs hold a key position. Active research on this new type of adult stem cell has been ongoing and these cells now have several clinical applications, including fat grafting, overcoming wound healing difficulties, recovery from local tissue ischemia, and scar remodeling. The application of cultured cells will increase the efficiency of cell therapy. However, the use of cultured stem cells is strictly controlled by government regulation to ensure patient safety. Government regulation is a factor that can limit more versatile clinical application of ASCs. In this review, current clinical applications of ASCs in plastic surgery are introduced. Future stem cell applications in clinical field including culturing and banking of ASCs are also discussed in this review.
Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S
The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors' aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P < .01) and multiple fellowships (10.4; P < .01). Craniofacial-trained plastic surgeons demonstrated the next highest h-index (9.8), followed by no fellowship (8.4), microsurgery (8.3), hand (7.7), cosmetic (5.2), and burn (5.1). Plastic surgeons with a research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery.
Hultman, Charles Scott; Halvorson, Eric G; Kaye, Donna; Helgans, Richard; Meyers, Michael O; Rowland, Pamela A; Meyer, Anthony A
Professionalism is now recognized as a core competency for graduate medical education and maintenance of certification. However, few models exist in plastic surgery that define, teach, and assess professionalism as a competency. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a professionalism curriculum in an academic plastic surgery practice. We created and conducted a 6-wk, 12-h course for health care professionals in plastic surgery (faculty, residents, nurses, medical students). Teaching methods included didactic lectures, journal club, small group discussions, and book review. Topics included: (1) Professionalism in Our Culture, (2) Leadership Styles, (3) Modeling Professional Behavior, (4) Leading Your Team, (5) Managing Oneself, and (6) Leading While You Work. Using Kirkpatrick methodology to assess perception of the course (level 1 data), learning of the material (level 2 data), effect on behavior (level 3 data), and impact on the organization (level 4 data), we compiled participant questionnaires, scores from pre- and post-tests, and such metrics as incidence of sentinel events (defined as infractions requiring involvement by senior administrators), number of patient complaints reported to Patient Relations, and patient satisfaction (Press Ganey surveys), for the 6 mo before and after the course. Thirty health care professionals participated in a 6-wk course, designed to improve professionalism in plastic surgery. Level 1 data: Although only 56.5% of respondents felt that the course was a "good use of my time," 73.9% agreed that the course "will help me become a better professional" and 82.6% "would recommend the course to others." Level 2 data: Post-test scores increased from 48% to 70% (P < 0.05), and the ability to recall all six competencies increased from 22% to 73% (P < 0.01). Level 3 data: The number of sentinel events in our division decreased from 13 to three. After the course, one resident was placed on probation and resigned
Gurunluoglu, R; Gurunluoglu, A
Paulus Aegineta (625-690 ad), born on the island of Aegina, practiced medicine at Alexandria. The last of the eclectic Greek compilers in the Byzantine period, he wrote an Epitome of medicine in seven books. The sixth book, which is considered the best section of his work, is devoted mainly to surgery. The first edition, "editio princeps," of his Epitome was published in Greek by the Aldine press in Venice in 1528 and later translated into English for the Sydenham Society by Francis Adams of Banchory (1844-1847). Paulus was not only a compiler but also a competent and skillful surgeon. In addition to his achievements in general surgical progress, Paulus Aegineta, especially in the book on surgery, made valuable contributions in the history of plastic surgery. He may be considered as one of the originators of plastic surgery as it is known today. He described procedures varying from the treatment of nasal and jaw fractures to operations for gynecomastia, ganglion, and hypospadias. This Grecian master influenced not only his own but also the subsequent ages. Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Albucasis, Avicenna, and Fabricius ab Aquapendente were the greatest physicians influenced by Paulus Aegineta. Because the work of Paulus Aegineta was the only source for many of the surgical treatises of Arabian authors, his Epitome bridged Western and Eastern medicine and conveyed surgical experience and knowledge, including several plastic surgery procedures, to the subsequent ages.
Silva, Amanda K; Preminger, Aviva; Slezak, Sheri; Phillips, Linda G; Johnson, Debra J
The underrepresentation of women leaders in plastic surgery echoes a phenomenon throughout society. The importance of female leadership is presented, and barriers to gender equality in plastic surgery, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are discussed. Strategies for fostering women in leadership on an individual level and for the specialty of plastic surgery are presented.
Pacella, Salvatore J; Comstock, Matthew C; Kuzon, William M
The authors examined the economic patterns of outpatient aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgical procedures performed within an academic health center. For fiscal years 2003 and 2004, the University of Michigan Health System's accounting database was queried to identify all outpatient plastic surgery cases (aesthetic and reconstructive) from four surgical facilities. Total facility charges, cost, revenue, and margin were calculated for each case. Contribution margin (total revenue minus variable direct cost) was compared with total case time to determine average contribution margin per operating suite case minute for subsets of aesthetic and reconstructive procedures. A total of 3603 cases (3457 reconstructive and 146 aesthetic) were identified. Payer mix included Blue Cross (36.7 percent), health maintenance organization (28.7 percent), other commercial payers (17.4 percent), Medicare/Medicaid (13.5 percent), and self-pay (3.7 percent). The most profitable cases were reconstructive laser procedures ($66.20; n = 361), scar revision ($36.01; n = 25), and facial trauma ($32.17; n = 64). The least profitable were hand arthroplasty ($13.93; n = 35), arthroscopy ($17.25; n = 15), and breast reduction ($17.46; n = 210). Aesthetic procedures (n = 144) yielded a significantly higher contribution margin per case minute ($24.21) compared with reconstructive procedures ($22.28; n = 3093) (p = 0.01). Plastic surgical cases performed at dedicated ambulatory surgery centers ($28.60; n = 1477) yielded significantly higher contribution margin per case minute compared with those performed at hospital-based facilities ($25.58; n = 2123) (p < 0.01). Use of standardized accounting (contribution margin per case minute) can be a strategically effective method for determining the most profitable and appropriate case mix. Within academic health centers, aesthetic surgery can be a profitable enterprise; dedicated ambulatory surgery centers yield higher profitability.
Gfrerer, Lisa; Guyuron, Bahman
This article describes connections between migraine surgery and cosmetic surgery including technical overlap, benefits for patients, and why every plastic surgeon may consider screening cosmetic surgery patients for migraine headache (MH). Contemporary migraine surgery began by an observation made following forehead rejuvenation, and the connection has continued. The prevalence of MH among females in the USA is 26%, and females account for 91% of cosmetic surgery procedures and 81-91% of migraine surgery procedures, which suggests substantial overlap between both patient populations. At the same time, recent reports show an overall increase in cosmetic facial procedures. Surgical techniques between some of the most commonly performed facial surgeries and migraine surgery overlap, creating opportunity for consolidation. In particular, forehead lift, blepharoplasty, septo-rhinoplasty, and rhytidectomy can easily be part of the migraine surgery, depending on the migraine trigger sites. Patients could benefit from simultaneous improvement in MH symptoms and rejuvenation of the face. Simple tools such as the Migraine Headache Index could be used to screen cosmetic surgery patients for MH. Similarity between patient populations, demand for both facial and MH procedures, and technical overlap suggest great incentive for plastic surgeons to combine both. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Smith, Carly P; George, Daniel
Advertising a plastic surgery practice on social media is fraught with both practical and ethical challenges. We use an institutional betrayal framework to explore the range of potential harms to patient well-being while also considering the pitfalls of social media activity, especially marketing, for practitioners. We also give consideration to the relative benefits that such online patient-clinician relationships can provide. In our analysis, we draw on specific examples of plastic surgery procedures prominently featured on social media, including the Vampire Facelift ® . © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Shapiro, Fred E; Pawlowski, John B; Rosenberg, Noah M; Liu, Xiaoxia; Feinstein, David M; Urman, Richard D
Simulation-based interventions and education can potentially contribute to safer and more effective systems of care. We utilized in-situ simulation to highlight safety issues, regulatory requirements, and assess perceptions of safety processes by the plastic surgery office staff. A high-fidelity human patient simulator was brought to an office-based plastic surgery setting to enact a half-day full-scale, multidisciplinary medical emergency. Facilitated group debriefings were conducted after each scenario with special consideration of the principles of team training, communication, crisis management, and adherence to evidence-based protocols and regulatory standards. Abbreviated AHRQ Medical Office Safety Culture Survey was completed by the participants before and after the session. The in-situ simulations had a high degree of acceptance and face validity according to the participants. Areas highlighted by the simulation sessions included rapid communication, delegation of tasks, location of emergency materials, scope of practice, and logistics of transport. The participant survey indicated greater awareness of patient safety issues following participation in simulation and debriefing exercises in 3 areas (P < 0.05): the need to change processes if there is a recognized patient safety issue (100% vs 75%), openness to ideas about improving office processes (100% vs 88%), and the need to discuss ways to prevent errors from recurring (88% vs 62%). Issues of safety and regulatory compliance can be assessed in an office-based setting through the short-term (half-day) use of in-situ simulation with facilitated debriefing and the review of audiovisual recordings by trained facilities inspectors.
Shapiro, Fred E.; Pawlowski, John B.; Rosenberg, Noah M.; Liu, Xiaoxia; Feinstein, David M.; Urman, Richard D.
Objective: Simulation-based interventions and education can potentially contribute to safer and more effective systems of care. We utilized in-situ simulation to highlight safety issues, regulatory requirements, and assess perceptions of safety processes by the plastic surgery office staff. Methods: A high-fidelity human patient simulator was brought to an office-based plastic surgery setting to enact a half-day full-scale, multidisciplinary medical emergency. Facilitated group debriefings were conducted after each scenario with special consideration of the principles of team training, communication, crisis management, and adherence to evidence-based protocols and regulatory standards. Abbreviated AHRQ Medical Office Safety Culture Survey was completed by the participants before and after the session. Results: The in-situ simulations had a high degree of acceptance and face validity according to the participants. Areas highlighted by the simulation sessions included rapid communication, delegation of tasks, location of emergency materials, scope of practice, and logistics of transport. The participant survey indicated greater awareness of patient safety issues following participation in simulation and debriefing exercises in 3 areas (P < 0.05): the need to change processes if there is a recognized patient safety issue (100% vs 75%), openness to ideas about improving office processes (100% vs 88%), and the need to discuss ways to prevent errors from recurring (88% vs 62%). Conclusions: Issues of safety and regulatory compliance can be assessed in an office-based setting through the short-term (half-day) use of in-situ simulation with facilitated debriefing and the review of audiovisual recordings by trained facilities inspectors. PMID:24501616
Ricci, Joseph A; Desai, Naman S
Evidence-based medicine, particularly randomized controlled trials, influence many of the daily decisions within plastic surgery as well as nearly every other medical specialty, and will continue to play a larger role in medicine in the future. Even though it is certainly not a new idea, evidence-based medicine continues to remain a hot topic among members of the healthcare community. As evidence-based medicine continues to grow and evolve, it is becoming more important for all physicians to understand the fundamentals of evidence-based medicine: how evidence-based medicine has changed, and how to successfully incorporate it into the daily practice of medicine. Admittedly, the wide acceptance and implementation of evidence-based medicine has been slower in surgical fields such as plastic surgery given the difficulty in performing large scale blinded randomized controlled trials due to the inherent nature of a surgical intervention as a treatment modality. Despite these challenges, the plastic surgery literature has recently begun to respond to the demand for more evidence-based medicine. Today's plastic surgeons are making a concerted embrace evidence-based medicine by increasing the amount of out of high-level clinical evidence and should be encouraged to continue to further their endeavors in the field of evidence-based medicine in the future. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Flageul, G; Godefroy, M; Lacoeuilhe, G
By its definition and its etymology, aesthetic surgery is as much a surgery for the soul as for the body. Aesthetic surgery is a true "armed" therapy that essentially targets the psychology of the patient. This therapeutic "arsenal" preserves and/or restores the health of the patient according to its different aspects as defined by the World Health Organization. The plastic surgeon is always concerned about his patient as a whole, and as a human being, of whom he takes charge. Indeed there lies his specificity: He is as well a surgeon and a physician. We identify and analyze, in this chapter, the particular quality of patient-surgeon relationship on a surgical, psychological and juridical level. It is interesting to note that this collaboration results from a spontaneous convergence. The surgeon, the main interested figure, asserts himself mainly as a physician that is totally involved in a dialogue with his patient. He multiplies the interviews and he sharpens his clinical approach, and his own reactions, with regard to the demand for plastic surgery. The psychiatrist establishes the theoretical and practical aspects of the patient demand. The jurist, far from the barren dissertation of the law, reconsiders the environment of the demand and legitimates the generating wish: he insists on the necessary information but also on assuming responsibility. The therapeutic function of the plastic surgery appears essentially related to the success of a psychic repair solicited by the patient but that is scarcely specified by him as such, and of which he is, most probably, rarely fully aware. The process is to listen and to gather the information that guarantees mutual understanding. Plastic surgery is considered irreplaceable by many of our patients, and indisputable by us. It brings incomparable social and human fertility. It is, however, an ambitious and difficult project that is highly demanding. It is far from the impression of facility reflected by the media. Every
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Fansa, H; Haller, S
. Influence on patients' decision is only possible by high quality operation results, which in turn lead to good reputation with (non-aesthetic) physicians and patients. In contrast to print advertisements, the provision of information via the internet is of tremendous importance and must be both information and comprehensible. Not only the aesthetic result should be depicted, but also questions such as "when will I be fit after surgery", and possible problems and complications should be described honestly. Besides the described word-of-mouth recommendations web fora resemble a virtual extension of recommendation. Whether such web based fora will prevail as a significant source of information remains unclear. Board certification in plastic and aesthetic surgery ("Facharzt" qualification) was assessed as very important. Thus, this is relevant information which should be emphasized. Most important for the patients' decision, however, was patient-doctor communication. To develop a basis of trust, communication should be open and reliable. An adequate time span has to be planned for the first appointment with the patient. In addition to aesthetic results, risks and possible complications have to be discussed. An open and comprehensible conversation which does not sugar-coat the operation is assessed as very positive. Finally, based on this consultation the surgeon is suggestive of his surgical competence. This underlines that core competence in aesthetic surgery is a medical one. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zhang, Yi; Dong, Jiasheng; Qiao, Yufei; He, Jinguang; Wang, Tao; Ma, Sunxiang
There is no consensus with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis usage in clean and clean-contaminated plastic and reconstructive surgery. This meta-analysis sought to assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis and to determine appropriate duration of prophylaxis. An English language literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Collaboration for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing clean and clean-contaminated plastic and reconstructive surgery. Data from intention-to-treat analyses were used where available. For the dichotomous data, results for each study were odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and combined for meta-analysis using the Mantel-Haenszel method or the DerSimonian and Laird method. Study quality was critically appraised by 2 reviewers using established criteria. STATA version 12 was used for meta-analyses. Twelve RCTs involving 2395 patients were included, of which 8 trials were considered to be of high methodological quality. Effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in plastic and reconstructive surgery was found favorable over placebo in SSI prevention (13 studies; 2449 participants; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.4-0.7; P < 0.01) and the other wound complication (OWC) prevention (9 studies; 1843 participants; OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.84; P < 0.02). Subgroup analysis performed according to surgical wound type or the duration of prophylaxis did not modify the results except for the OWC with short-term antibiotic treatment. Compared with short-term antibiotic prophylaxis, long-term administration showed no evidence of a difference in risk of SSI (7 studies; 1012 participants; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.63-1.55; P < 0.95), OWC (5 studies; 824 participants; OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.46-1.86; P < 0.82), and adverse event relative to antibiotic administration (3 studies; 653 participants; OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-4.92; P < 0
Barcia, Juan A; Sanz, Ana; Balugo, Paloma; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Brin, Juan Raúl; Yus, Miguel; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Acedo, Victoria M; Oliviero, Antonio
Functional areas located near or within brain gliomas prevent the complete resection of these tumors. It has recently been described that slow tumor invasion promotes neural reorganization, and even topographic plasticity, allowing a staged resection of those tumors. Thus, our aim was to promote plasticity by mimicking the tumor's capability to displace brain function. This proceeded through the production of a 'virtual lesion' in eloquent areas within a tumor using continuous high-frequency cortical electrical stimulation (cHFCS). An anaplastic astrocytoma located in Broca's area progressed in a patient whose lateralization of language to the side of the lesion was demonstrated with functional MRI. After partial tumor resection using awake cortical monitoring, we implanted a subdural grid over the eloquent cortex located within residual tumor. We then applied cHFCS for 25 days, using a frequency of 130 Hz and a pulse width of 1 ms. Stimulus intensity was set to the threshold wherein mild speech disturbance was evident without any other neurological effects. This treatment successfully achieved the displacement of speech functions, and a more radical resection of the tumor was possible in a second surgery. Critically, a reorganization of motor language areas was demonstrated both with functional MRI and cortical stimulation. Furthermore, motor language areas were also identified in the right hemisphere, where previously they were absent. The patient's speech fluency improved both after stimulation and resection. We therefore demonstrate the first evidence of induced topographic plasticity using cHFCS in eloquent areas within a tumor, which allowed for increased tumor removal. Our results open the possibility to induce plasticity before the resection of brain tumors near eloquent areas, in order to increase the extent of resection.
Therattil, Paul J.; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S.
Purpose: The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors’ aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Methods: Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. Results: In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P < .01) and multiple fellowships (10.4; P < .01). Craniofacial-trained plastic surgeons demonstrated the next highest h-index (9.8), followed by no fellowship (8.4), microsurgery (8.3), hand (7.7), cosmetic (5.2), and burn (5.1). Conclusion: Plastic surgeons with a research fellowship or at least 2 subspecialty fellowships had increased academic productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery. PMID:26664673
Highton, Lyndsey; Ekwobi, Chidi; Rose, Victoria
Following massive weight loss, patients are left with folds of redundant skin that may cause physical and psychological problems. These problems can be addressed through body contouring procedures such as abdominoplasty and the thigh lift. Despite an exponential rise in the number of bariatric surgery procedures performed in the United Kingdom, there are no national guidelines on the provision of body contouring procedures after massive weight loss. We conducted a survey of UK Bariatric Surgeons to determine the pre-operative counselling that patients receive on this issue, their opinions towards post-bariatric surgery body contouring and current referral patterns to Plastic Surgery. By exploring the relationship between Bariatric and Plastic Surgery, we aimed to identify how the comprehensive treatment of patients undergoing bariatric surgery could be improved. A questionnaire was sent to 86 surgeon members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society. Questionnaires were analysed from the 61/86 respondents (71% response rate). 92% of the responding surgeons feel that patients face functional problems relating to skin redundancy after massive weight loss, and a high percentage of patients complain about this problem. However, only 66% of surgeons routinely counsel patients about these problems before they undergo bariatric surgery. 96% of respondents feel that body contouring for these patients should be funded on the NHS in selected cases. However, it is difficult for patients to access consultation with a Plastic Surgeon and there are no explicit guidelines on the criteria that patients must fulfil to undergo body contouring surgery on the NHS. At present, these criteria are locally determined and represent a postcode lottery. The NICE guidelines on obesity recommend that patients undergoing bariatric surgery should have information on, or access to plastic surgery where appropriate, but this standard is not being achieved. National guidelines on post
Kung, Theodore A; Guyuron, Bahman; Cederna, Paul S
Migraine headache can be a debilitating condition that confers a substantial burden to the affected individual and to society. Despite significant advancements in the medical management of this challenging disorder, clinical data have revealed a proportion of patients who do not adequately respond to pharmacologic intervention and remain symptomatic. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of migraine headache argue against a central vasogenic cause and substantiate a peripheral mechanism involving compressed craniofacial nerves that contribute to the generation of migraine headache. Botulinum toxin injection is a relatively new treatment approach with demonstrated efficacy and supports a peripheral mechanism. Patients who fail optimal medical management and experience amelioration of headache pain after injection at specific anatomical locations can be considered for subsequent surgery to decompress the entrapped peripheral nerves. Migraine surgery is an exciting prospect for appropriately selected patients suffering from migraine headache and will continue to be a burgeoning field that is replete with investigative opportunities.
Connolly, Katharine A; Azouz, Solomon M; Smith, Anthony A
Education is to be provided efficiently and effectively according to guidelines in the United States by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education as core competencies and in Canada by the Royal College according to the CanMEDS framework. This article defines formative feedback, reviews the currently available validated feedback tools, and describes the future use of technology to enhance feedback in plastic surgery education.
Li, R B; Li, M X; Guo, G H; Zhang, H Y
Three-dimensional bioprinting is one of the latest and fastest growing technologies in the medical field. It has been implemented to print part of the transplantable tissues and organs, such as skin, ear, and bone. This paper introduces the application status, challenges, and application prospect of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field.
Carey, Joseph N; Rommer, Elizabeth; Sheckter, Clifford; Minneti, Michael; Talving, Peep; Wong, Alex K; Garner, Warren; Urata, Mark M
Surgical simulation models are often limited by their lack of fidelity, which hinders their essential purpose, making a better surgeon. Fresh cadaveric tissue is a superior model of simulation owing to its approximation of live tissue. One major unresolved difference between dead and live tissue is perfusion. Here, we propose a means of enhancing the fidelity of cadaveric simulation through the development of a perfused cadaveric model whereby simulation is further able to approach life-like surgery and teach one of the more technically demanding skills of plastic surgery: microsurgery. Fresh tissue human cadavers were procured according to university protocol. Perfusion was performed via cannulation of large vessels, and arterial and venous pressure was maintained by centrifugal circulation. Skin perfusion was evaluated with incisions in the perfused regions and was evaluated using indocyanine green angiography. Surgical simulations were selected to broadly evaluate applicability to plastic surgical education. Surgical simulation of 38 procedures ranging in complexity from skin excisions to microsurgical cases was performed with high priority given to the accurate simulation of clinical procedures. Flap dissections included perforator flaps, muscle flaps, and fasciocutaneous flaps. Effective perfusion was noted with ICG angiography and notable bleeding vessels. Microsurgical flap transfer was successfully performed. We report the establishment of a high fidelity surgical simulation using a perfused fresh tissue model in a realistic environment akin to the operating room. We anticipate utilization of this model prior to entering the operating room will enhance surgical ability and offer a valuable resource in plastic surgical education. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arneja, JS; McInnes, CW; Carr, NJ; Lennox, P; Hill, M; Petersen, R; Woodward, K; Skarlicki, D
BACKGROUND: Effective leadership is imperative in a changing health care landscape driven by increasing expectations in a setting of rising fiscal pressures. Because evidence suggests that leadership abilities are not simply innate but, rather, effective leadership can be learned, it is prudent for plastic surgeons to evaluate the training and challenges of their leaders because there may be opportunities for further growth and support. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the practice profiles, education/training, responsibilities and challenges of leaders within academic plastic surgery. METHODS: Following research ethics board approval, an anonymous online survey was sent to division heads and program directors from all university-affiliated plastic surgery divisions in Canada. Survey themes included demographics, education/training, job responsibilities and challenges. RESULTS: A response rate of 74% was achieved. The majority of respondents were male (94%), promoted to their current position at a mean age of 48 years, did not have a leadership-focused degree (88%), directly manage 30 people (14 staff, 16 faculty) and were not provided with a job description (65%). Respondents worked an average of 65 h per week, of which 18% was devoted to their leadership role, 59% clinically and the remainder on teaching and research. A discrepancy existed between time spent on their leadership role (18%) and related compensation (10%). Time management (47%) and managing conflict (24%) were described as the greatest leadership challenges by respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps were identified among leaders in plastic surgery including predominance of male sex, limitations in formal leadership training and requisite skill set, as well as compensation and human resources management (emotional intelligence). Leadership and managerial skills are key core competencies, not only for trainees, but certainly for those in a position of leadership. The present study provides evidence that
Pannucci, Christopher J; Fleming, Kory I; Momeni, Arash; Prazak, Ann Marie; Agarwal, Jayant; Rockwell, W Bradford
Low anti-factor Xa level, indicative of inadequate enoxaparin dosing, has a significant association with 90-day venous thromboembolism events. The authors examined the pharmacodynamics of enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily and its correlation with anti-factor Xa level, postoperative venous thromboembolism, and bleeding. Adult patients were admitted after plastic and reconstructive surgery and received enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily. Peak anti-factor Xa levels, which quantify enoxaparin's antithrombotic effect, were drawn, with a goal level of 0.2 to 0.4 IU/ml. Ninety-day symptomatic venous thromboembolism and clinically relevant bleeding were identified. The authors enrolled 118 patients who received enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily. Of these patients, 9.6 percent had low peak anti-factor Xa levels (<0.2 IU/ml), 62.6 percent had in-range peak anti-factor Xa levels (0.2 to 0.4 IU/ml), and 27.8 percent had high anti-factor Xa levels (>0.4 IU/ml). With enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily, 90.4 percent of patients received at least adequate prophylaxis. Patient weight predicted the rapidity of enoxaparin metabolism. Zero acute 90-day venous thromboembolism occurred. Eight patients (6.8 percent) had clinically relevant 90-day bleeding: clinical consequences ranged from cessation of enoxaparin prophylaxis to transfusion to operative hematoma evacuation. When enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily is provided, 90 percent of patients receive at least adequate venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (anti-factor Xa level >0.2 IU/ml). However, 27 percent of the overall population is overtreated (anti-factor Xa level >0.4 IU/ml). These pharmacodynamics data likely explain the low rate of 90-day acute venous thromboembolism (0 percent) and the high rate of clinically relevant bleeding (6.8 percent) observed. Future studies are needed to better optimize the risks and benefits of enoxaparin prophylaxis in plastic and reconstructive surgery patients. Therapeutic, IV.
Uehara, K; Akai, M; Kubo, T; Yamasaki, N; Okuma, Y; Tobimatsu, Y; Iwaya, T
Retrospective study at a rehabilitation center. Patients with spinal cord injury, even if they are wheelchair users, sometimes suffer from fractures of the lower limb bones. As their bones are too weak to have surgery, and because a precise reduction is not required for restoration, such patients are often indicated for conservative treatment. This case series study investigated the use of a hinged, soft-plastic brace as a conservative approach to treating fractures of the lower extremities of patients with spinal cord injury. National Rehabilitation Center, Japan. Fifteen patients (male, n=10; female, n=5; average age, 52.7 years) with 19 fractures of the femur or the tibia who were treated with a newly-developed hinged, soft-plastic brace were studied. All of them used wheelchairs. We analyzed the time taken for fracture union and for wearing orthotics, degree of malalignment, femorotibial angle and side effects. The fractures in this series were caused by relatively low-energy impact. The average time taken for fracture union was 80.1 (37-189) days, and the average amount of time spent wearing orthotics was 77.9 (42-197) days. On final X-ray imaging, the average femorotibial angle was 176.9° (s.d. ±8.90), and 15° of misalignment in the sagittal plane occurred in one patient. A hinged, soft-plastic brace is a useful option as a conservative approach for treating fractures of the lower extremities in patients with spinal cord injury.
Hauck, Randy M; Nogan, Stephen
The indications for prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery remain controversial. No recent survey has been reported on the use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons in clinical practice. This survey was designed to assess the current use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons and to compare trends with previous studies. All members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons with an e-mail address on the Society's website were contacted via an e-mail and sent a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire. To survey only in those subspecialty areas that they practice in, surgeons were queried only on the procedures that they perform. Within each section, a list of common representative procedures was included, with questions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. A total of 3824 American Society of Plastic Surgeons members were contacted. Of the 3613, 910 with working e-mail addresses responded to the survey for a response rate of 25%. And 833 or 91.5% completed the survey. Survey data cover the percentage of surgeons reporting their use of antibiotics in procedures that they currently perform. The percentage of plastic surgeons who use prophylactic antibiotics in almost all procedures studied has increased significantly when compared with earlier studies. The use of prophylactic antibiotics by plastic surgeons has increased considerably since the prior studies by Krizek et al (Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975;55:21-32 and 1985;76:953-963). Some of these uses are appropriate because of the use in procedures involving implants and longer operations. The elevated rates for clean procedures are not part of the evidence-based practice.
Pavan, Chiara; Azzi, Mariafrancesca; Lancerotto, Luca; Marini, Massimo; Busetto, Luca; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo
Correlations between psychiatric disorders and overweight/obesity are reported in the literature. However, temperament/personality traits have been less frequently studied even though the correlation with Axis-1 diseases is well defined. The present study aims to detect correlations between psychiatric disorders, temperament traits and body image perception in overweight and obese patients who seek surgical lipostructuring treatment. Seventy overweight/obese patients (age 18-60 years, BMI 25-34.9 at recruitment) referring to the outpatient service for obesity-related lipodystrophism were enrolled in the period March 2008-March 2012. Psychiatric disorders, temperament traits, and body image perception were evaluated and compared with a control group (N = 33) from the general population sharing clinical/demographic features. Patients had higher scores in lifetime depression, with moderate/mild concern with body shape. Regarding personality traits, tests revealed higher scores on subscale RD4 (dependence/independence) in patients, whereas controls scored higher on the "openness to experience" NEO Five Factory Inventory sub-scale. Obese patients had a higher prevalence of obsessive characteristics. The affective sphere is an important feature in obese patients, as are obsessive traits, since negative body shape perception and temperament and personality characteristics appear to be involved in leading patients to seek surgical advice. These aspects should be involved in medical/surgical outcomes and compliance with treatment. The future possibility of identifying patients who show alterations in these traits or psychic characteristics may represent a possible instrument to avoid early post-treatment relapse and to implement the service offered to patients, with appropriate psychiatric care before and after surgery.
Carney, Martin J; Weissler, Jason M; Koltz, Peter F; Fischer, John P; Wu, Liza C; Serletti, Joseph M
Academic research productivity is limited by strenuous resident and faculty schedules but nevertheless is imperative to the growth and success of our discipline. The authors report institutional experience with their clinical research fellowship model, providing two positions per year. A critical analysis of research productivity was performed for all trainees, faculty, and research fellows from 2000 to 2015. Academic productivity was determined by the number of peer-reviewed publications, podium presentations, and h-index. Academic fate of previous research fellows was also noted. During the 16-year timeframe, 484 articles were published in print. Notably, 92 articles were published from 2000 to 2007 and 392 articles were published from 2008 to 2015 (p = 0.0066), demonstrating linear growth after instituting the research fellowship. In addition, 33 articles were published from 2002 to 2004 before leadership change, 47 from 2005 to 2007 after leadership change but before fellowship, and 58 from 2008 to 2010 in the first few years of the fellowship (p = 0.0204). Overall, 39.9 percent of publications appeared in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, with a total of 77 different peer-reviewed journal inclusions. American Association of Plastic Surgeons, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, and Northeastern Society of Plastic Surgeons podium presentations totaled 143 between 2005 and 2015. Of the eight previous fellows who applied into integrated and independent programs, 100 percent have matched. Incorporation of a formalized research fellowship into a plastic surgery program can drastically increase clinical research contribution in a reproducible fashion.
Perri, Vincenzo; Familiari, Pietro; Tringali, Andrea; Boskoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido
Biliary plastic stenting plays a key role in the endoscopic management of benign biliary diseases. Complications following surgery of the biliary tract and liver transplantation are amenable to endoscopic treatment by plastic stenting. Insertion of an increasing number of plastic stents is currently the method of choice to treat postoperative biliary strictures. Benign biliary strictures secondary to chronic pancreatitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis may benefit from plastic stenting in select cases. There is a role for plastic stent placement in nonoperative candidates with acute cholecystitis and in patients with irretrievable bile duct stones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olsson, Greger; Frozanpor, Farshad; Lundell, Lars; Enochsson, Lars; Ansorge, Christoph; Del Chiaro, Marco; Reuterwall-Hansson, Marcus; Shetye, Alysha; Arnelo, Urban
Background and study aims Preoperative biliary drainage in patients with periampullary tumors and jaundice has been popularized to improve the quality of life and minimize the risks associated with subsequent radical surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible superiority of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) over plastic stents, by comparing the amount of bacteria in intraoperatively collected bile and using this variable as a proxy for the efficacy of the respective biliary drainage modalities. Patients and methods In this randomized clinical trial, 92 patients with obstructive jaundice were enrolled; 45 were allocated to the plastic stent group and 47 to the SEMS group. The primary outcome was the extent and magnitude of biliary bacterial growth at the time of surgical exploration. Secondary outcomes were: macroscopic grading of inflammation of the stented bile ducts, occurrence of adverse events after stenting, stent dysfunction, recognized surgical complexities, and incidence of postoperative complications. Results The patients were well matched regarding clinical and disease-specific characteristics. At surgery, there were no group differences in the bacterial amount and composition of the bile cultures or the perceived difficulty of surgical dissection. During the preoperative biliary drainage period, more instances of stent dysfunction requiring stent replacement were recorded in the plastic stent group (19 % vs. 0 %; P = 0.03). Postoperative complications in patients who underwent curative surgery were more common in patients with plastic stents (72 % vs. 52 %), among which clinically significant leakage from the pancreatic anastomoses seemed to predominate (12 % vs. 3.7 %); however, none of these differences in postoperative adverse events reached statistical significance. Conclusion This randomized clinical study was unable to demonstrate any superiority of SEMS in the efficacy of preoperative bile
Lu, Kaihua; Han, Yan; Guo, Shuzhong
To summarize and review the development and experience of anastomosis vascular pedicle free composite tissue flap. From July 1987 to March 2007, 321 patients with complete records were treated. Fourteen tissue flaps were applied for the repair of trauma or tumor excision defects of the body, and for organ reconstruction. Vascular crisis occurred in 20 patients within 48 hours postoperatively. Necrosis occurred at flap end in 6 patients. The total survival rate was 94.8%. The main experience was: (1) Training to grasp the basic micro-vascular anastomosis technique was very important starting up period for surgeons. The basic technique should be often practiced to ensure the safty of clinical application. (2) Restoring appearance and function were equally important in practice. (3) Utilizing the minimal invasive methods and decreasing the loss of function of donor site were important for improvement of reconstruction quality. The purpose was to achieve functional and esthetic restoration in the condition of lowest donor site scarification. The application of free composite tissue flap is important for the development of plastic surgery. There are extensive applications for free flap, especially for those critical patients. The application of free flap could decrease the mobility rate, shorten the treatment period, ease the pain of patients and improve the reconstruction effect. The experience of donor site selection, the strategy of poor recipient site condition, the advantages and disadvantages of muscle flap, the applications time, infections wound treatment and application, are helpful for the future application.
Li, Ge-hong; Hou, Dian-ju; Fu, Hua-dong; Guo, Jing-ying; Guo, Xiao-bo; Gong, Hui
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for plastic surgical procedures at our hospital, and to perform a systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgery. The records of patients who received plastic surgical procedures with Class I surgical incisions between 2009 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic literature review was conducted for studies examining the use of prophylactic antibiotics for Class I surgical wounds. A total of 13,997 cases with Class I surgical incisions were included. Prophylactic antibiotics were given in 13,865 cases (99.1%). The antibiotics used were primarily cefuroxime, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin sodium, and gentamicin. The average duration of administration was 4.84 ± 3.07 (range, 1-51) days. Antibiotics were administered postoperatively in >99% of cases while preoperative antibiotic administration was only given in 32 cases (0.23%). Wound infections occurred in 21 cases for an overall infection rate of 0.15%. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. There was marked variation in the timing of antibiotic administration with antibiotics given pre-, peri-, and postoperatively. Of studies that compared the use of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, a reduction in wound infections was noted in 4 trials and no difference was noted in 6 trials. No significant difference in infection rates was shown between the prophylactic and postoperative arms. In conclusion, prophylactic antibiotics are overused in plastic surgical procedures. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in plastic surgical procedures are needed. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin T; Susarla, Srinivas M; Lopez, Joseph; Lough, Denver M; May, James W; Redett, Richard J
Research productivity plays a significant role in academic promotions. Currently, various bibliometric measures utilizing citation counts are used to judge an author's work. With increasing numbers of journals, numbers of open access publications, ease of online submission, and expedited indexing of accepted manuscripts, it is plausible that an author could influence his/her own bibliometric measures through self-citation. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of self-citation in academic plastic surgery. A cohort of full-time academic plastic surgeons was identified from 9 U.S. plastic surgery training programs. For all included faculty, academic rank was retrieved from department/division websites, and bibliometric measures were assessed using a subscription bibliographic citation database (Scopus, Reed Elsevier, London, UK). Bibliometric measures included the Hirsch index (h-index, the number of publications h which are cited ≥ h times), total number of publications, and total number of citations. The h-index and total number of citations were collected with and without self-citations. Percent changes in the h-index and total citations were calculated after removal of self-citations and compared across academic ranks and levels of research productivity (total publications, h-index, and total citations). The study cohort consisted of 169 full-time academic plastic surgeons. The h-index and total citations experienced decreases of 2.8 ± 5.0% (P < 0.0001) and 4.5 ± 4.6% (P < 0.0001), respectively, after correction for self-citation. More than half of the cohort (n = 113, 67%) did not experience a change in the h-index after removal of self-citations. These decreases did not vary across academic rank. Surgeons who self-cited at rates greater than 5% were 9.8 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 4.5-21.9; P < 0.001) to have their h-index change as a result of self-citation (after adjusting for academic rank). There were weak correlations
Cook, Sharon A; Rosser, Robert; Toone, Helen; James, M Ian; Salmon, Peter
Elective cosmetic surgery is expanding in the UK in both the public and private sectors. Because resources are constrained, many cosmetic procedures are being excluded within the National Health Service. If guidelines on who can receive such surgery are to be evidence-based, information is needed about the level of dysfunction in patients referred for elective surgery and whether this is related to their degree of physical abnormality. Consecutive patients referred to a regional plastic surgery and burns unit for assessment for elective cosmetic surgery completed standardised measures of physical and psychosocial dysfunction, and indicated their perception of the degree of their abnormality and their preoccupation with it. We distinguished between patients referred for physical reasons or appearance reasons only, and compared levels of physical and psychosocial dysfunction in each with published values for community and clinical samples. Surgeons indicated patients' degree of objective abnormality, and we identified the relationship of dysfunction with perceived and objective abnormality and preoccupation. Whether patients sought surgery for physical or appearance reasons, physical function was normal. Those seeking surgery for appearance reasons only had moderate psychosocial dysfunction, but were not as impaired as clinical groups with psychological problems. Patients seeking the correction of minor skin lesions for purely appearance reasons reported excellent physical and psychosocial function. Level of function was related (negatively) to patients' preoccupation with abnormality rather than to their perceived or objective abnormality. In general, patients referred for elective cosmetic surgery did not present with significant levels of dysfunction. Moreover, levels of functioning were related to preoccupation rather than to objective abnormality. Therefore, for most patients, whether surgical treatment is generally appropriate is questionable. Future guidelines
Denadai, Rafael; Pinho, André Silveira; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo
to assess the conversion rate of Plastic Surgery meeting abstract presentations to full manuscript publications and examine factors associated with this conversion. we assessed the abstracts presented at the 47th and 48th Brazilian Congresses of Plastic Surgery by cross-referencing with multiple databases. We analyzed the Abstracts' characteristics associated with full manuscript publications. of the 200 abstracts presented, 50 abstracts were subsequently published in full, giving the conference a conversion rate of 25%. The mean time to publish was 15.00±13.75 months. In total, there were 4.93±1.63 authors per abstract and 67.8±163 subjects per abstract; 43.5% of the abstracts were of retrospective studies; 69% comprised the plastic surgery topics head and neck, and chest and trunk, and 88.5% had no statistical analysis. Overall, 80% of the manuscripts were published in plastic surgery journals, 76% had no impact factor and 52% had no citations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed the presence of statistical analysis to be the most significant (p<0.05) predictive factor of conversion of abstracts into full manuscripts. the conversion rate found from this bibliometric research appeared a bit lower than the conversion trend of international plastic surgery meetings, and statistical analysis was a determinant of conversion success. avaliar a taxa de conversão de resumos apresentados em congressos de Cirurgia Plástica em publicações de manuscritos completos e examinar fatores associados a essa conversão. resumos apresentados nos XLVII e XLVIII Congressos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Plástica foram avaliados por meio de referências cruzadas em diversos bancos de dados. Averiguaram-se as características dos resumos associadas às publicações de manuscritos completos. dos 200 resumos apresentados, 50 foram posteriormente publicados na íntegra, determinando uma taxa de publicação de 25%. O tempo médio para publicação foi 15,00±13,75 meses. No total
Alawi, Seyed Arash; Busch, Lukas Fabian; Limbourg, Anne; Boyce, Maria; Jokuszies, Andreas; Vogt, Peter M
Background Over the last few decades plastic and aesthetic surgery careers aimed at holding a chair as head of the department or clinical director. The current career trend shows a drain of academic teaching staff to peripheral hospitals with sole clinical focus. The achievement of a doctorate in German university medicine or obtaining the venia legendi appears to be the termination of academic careers. This brain drain with loss of expertise and scientific output imposes a problem to future progress in clinical and scientific plastic and reconstructive surgery. The causative role of our present work profile, workload and financial compensation will be discussed in this paper. Methods In order to understand this brain drain, the scientific and clinical developments of all habilitands, Assistant Professors and University Directors enlisted in our specialist society (DGPRAEC) were analyzed. The evaluation included the duration of the residency, the time span from being a specialist physician to habilitation, as well as gaining a leadership position after habilitation. Finally, the current activity of the members at university and non-university institutions was evaluated. Results A total of 1238 members were analyzed. Among these, 177 (14.3 %) members had completed the habilitation. In total, 114 (9.21 %) were included based on full available CVs. Of the listed members, 80 members (6,5 %) had an APL professorship/university professorship in April 2017. 88 CVs showed an average time span of 4.2 years from specialization to habilitation. 80 CVs revealed a 5 year time span to achieve an APL professorship/university professorship. After an average of 4.2 years, leadership positions were held. Of the analyzed habilitations, 60 % were active in peripheral hospitals at the time April 2017. Discussion The loss of scientific and clinical expertise should be prevented in order to preserve academic plastic surgery with focus on patient care, academic education and
Solvi, Anette S; Foss, Kaja; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut C; Holte, Arne
We investigated how and why prospective cosmetic breast augmentation patients decide to undergo such surgery. The results can offer important insights to plastic surgeons in addressing their patients' motives and expectations, and thereby avoiding potential patient dissatisfaction and disappointment. It is also a necessary first step to better understand the increasing tendency among women in the Western society to seek cosmetic breast augmentation. A qualitative, descriptive and phenomenological design was employed. Fourteen female prospective breast augmentation patients, aged 19-46 years, were recruited from a private plastic surgery clinic and interviewed in depth based on an informant-centred format. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded and analysed phenomenologically using a QSR-N*Vivo software program. We detected four psychological processes associated with cosmetic breast augmentation surgery (create, improve, repair and restore). The data could further be categorised into one basic drive (femininity), six generating factors (appearance dissatisfaction, ideal figure, self-esteem, comments, clothes and sexuality) and five eliciting factors motivating the decision (media, knowledge of former patients, physicians, finances and romantic partner). These new insights into how and why women seek cosmetic breast augmentation may aid plastic surgeons in enhancing their communication with patients. This can be achieved by addressing the patient's psychological process and motives, and thereby better assist them in making the best decision possible in their particular situation. It may also lay the groundwork for future quantitative studies on the prevalence of certain motives for undergoing such surgery and, as such, help explain the increasing popularity of cosmetic breast-augmentation surgery. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, Jamil; Eaves, Felmont F; Rohrich, Rod J; Kenkel, Jeffrey M
The emergence of new technologies necessitates a study of current trends in liposuction and other methods for fat removal. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) conducted a survey of its members to gain valuable information from Board-certified plastic surgeons about their experience with new technologies for fat removal and managing complications after liposuction. The ASAPS Current Trends in Liposuction Survey was emailed to 1713 ASAPS members. Data were tabulated and examined to determine current trends in liposuction and other fat removal techniques performed by ASAPS members. The response rate for the survey was 28.7% (n = 492). Most ASAPS respondents reported performing between 50 and 100 liposuction procedures annually. Most plastic surgeons currently employ or have previous experience with suction-assisted lipectomy/liposuction (SAL), ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL), and power-assisted liposuction, but fewer reported experience with laser-assisted liposuction (LAL), mesotherapy, or external, noninvasive devices. SAL was the preferred method of fat removal for 51.4%. UAL, LAL, and SAL were most commonly associated with complications. Only 10.5% of ASAPS members employ LAL; 38% have treated a patient with complications secondary to LAL. Valuable information about current trends in liposuction and other fat removal techniques has been gained from this survey. Although many studies have been published that review issues related to safety, morbidity, aesthetics, and recovery after different methods of fat removal, more prospective studies with standardized objective outcome measures comparing these techniques, particularly newer modalities, are needed to continue improving safety-related standards of care.
Felberbauer, Franz X; Shakeri-Leidenmühler, Soheila; Langer, Felix B; Kitzinger, Hugo; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Kefurt, Ronald; Prager, Gerhard
Paralleling the growth of bariatric