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Sample records for plated nickel interlayer

  1. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  2. Fabrication of nickel microbump on aluminum using electroless nickel plating

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Honma, H.

    1997-02-01

    Fabrication of nickel microbumps on an aluminum electrode using a nickel displacement and a direct nickel plating process was investigated. Electroless nickel plating reaction with hypophosphite as a reducing agent was not initiated on the aluminum substrate, because aluminum does not have catalytic action on the oxidation of hypophosphite. Accordingly, nickel was initially deposited on the aluminum using nickel displacement plating for the initiation of the electroless plating. Nickel bumps on the aluminum electrode were fabricated by treatment of the nickel displacement plating followed by electroless nickel plating. Nickel microbumps also can be formed on the aluminum electrode without the displacement plating process. Activation of the aluminum surface is an indispensable process to initiate electroless nickel plating. Uniform bumps 20 {micro}m wide and 15 {micro}m high with good configuration were obtained by direct nickel plating after being activated with dimethyl amine borane.

  3. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  4. Influence of Microwave and Conventional Annealing Processes in Improving an Electrodeposited Nickel Interlayer Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Abdelkarim; Noordin, Mohd Yusof; Izman, Sudin; Denni, Kurniawan

    2016-10-01

    Nickel interlayer was coated on tungsten carbide substrate by electrodeposition process for the purpose of diamond deposition. Conventional and microwave annealing processes were used to improve the adhesion strength and modify the surface composition of the electroplated nickel interlayer. The conventional annealing was conducted in a high-temperature tube furnace at 1323.15 K (1050 °C) for 20 and 60 minutes annealing durations. The microwave annealing was carried out in 2.45 GHz microwave furnace at 1303.15 K (1030 °C) for the same annealing durations as the conventional process. The annealed specimens were characterized by electron microscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction technique. Adhesion of the annealed nickel interlayer was assessed by the scratch test. The results revealed significant changes in the nickel coating composition, adhesion, and appearance. The adhesion strength of nickel interlayer annealed for the longer duration of the two processes is similar. For shorter annealing duration, the microwave-annealed coating showed better adhesion. The surface composition of the nickel interlayer was modified by the diffusion of carbon and tungsten during the microwave and conventional annealing, respectively. The microwave annealing is a promising process for producing good quality treated nickel-coated tungsten carbide specimens.

  5. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  6. Nickel plating of flexible products: Statistical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, S.L.; Bruns, R.J.; Tomasoski, R.J.

    1992-08-12

    A statistical study was conducted on a Mound-designed nickel/gold co-plater to determine its optimal operating parameters. Operating parameters were varied to discover their effect on the plated flexible circuit's shininess, porosity, and uniformity of thickness. In addition to determining the parameters that would give the best quality plating, the study also resulted in an increase in plating rate.

  7. Nickel plating of flexible products: Statistical optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, S.L.; Bruns, R.J.; Tomasoski, R.J.

    1992-08-12

    A statistical study was conducted on a Mound-designed nickel/gold co-plater to determine its optimal operating parameters. Operating parameters were varied to discover their effect on the plated flexible circuit`s shininess, porosity, and uniformity of thickness. In addition to determining the parameters that would give the best quality plating, the study also resulted in an increase in plating rate.

  8. Aspects of electroless nickel plating on molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkola, R.D.; Daugherty, C.E.; Harris, G.E.; Neff, W.A.; Owens, W.W.

    1984-07-01

    A process for depositing an adherent coating of an electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy on molybdenum was developed. The required pretreatment processes included an anodic etch in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution, an anodic etch in a phosphonic acid solution, and an oxide stripping step in a chromic acid-nitric acid solution. Initiation of the electroless nickel plating was accomplished through a series of strikes in the nickel bath. Scale up from laboratory parts to large components involved optimization of parameters such as pretreat time, current density, anode to cathode ratio and strike time.

  9. Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Plating on AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shartal, Kh. M.; Kipouros, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major drawbacks to using magnesium parts in automotive applications is poor corrosion resistance, which can be improved with a nickel-boron coating placed on a nickel-phosphorus coating, which, in turn, is placed on a phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer produced on the magnesium alloy AZ31. This work reports on the determination of the optimum kinetic parameters for producing a coherent nickel-phosphorus coating using an electroless-procedure phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer and for studying the effects of the experimental variables of the electroless plating process on the phosphorus content, surface morphology, and structure of the electroless nickel-phosphorus (EN-P) coatings produced. Measurements of the plating rate as a function of experimental variables such as the compositions of the plating bath constituents, temperature, and pH were implemented using the weight-gain method; the phosphorus content of the EN-P coatings was measured using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The surface morphology of the coating was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM); X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of each coating. An empirical rate law was determined for EN-P plating on a phosphate-permanganate conversion coating. It is found that the deposition rate of the EN-P coating increases by increasing the deposition temperature, the concentration of free nickel ions, and the concentration of hypophosphite ions in the plating bath. In addition, the deposition rate decreases by increasing both the plating bath pH and the concentration of citric acid in the plating bath.

  10. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  11. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  12. Interlayer free – nickel doped silica membranes for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, A.; Karlina, L.; Astuti, Y.; Sriatun; Wang, D. K.; Motuzas, J.; da Costa, J. C. D.

    2017-02-01

    This work shows for the first time the potential of nickel oxide silica membranes for desalination applications. Nickel oxide silica xerogels were synthesised via a sol–gel method including TEOS, nickel nitrate with and without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The effects of nickel addition (5% - 50 mol %) on the structure–property relationship of the silica materials were systematically studied. The membrane performance were tested as a function of feed salt concentration (0.3–3.5 wt% NaCl) and temperature (27–60 °C). The membranes which were prepared using equal sol–gel conditions to the xerogel samples showed the raised feed temperatures resulted in increased water fluxes, whilst increasing the salt concentration resulted in decreased water fluxes. The membranes with addition of hydrogen peroxide exhibited better performances than their H2O2 absence counterpart. The salt rejection was in excess of 90% and the maximum flux observed was 7.3 kg m-2 h-1 at 60°C for a 0.3 wt% NaCl feed concentration.

  13. Site-selective electroless nickel plating on patterned thin films of macromolecular metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mutsumi; Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Asakawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Makoto; Kurashina, Tadashi; Fukawa, Tadashi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to depositing nickel layer patterns using photocross-linked polymer thin films containing palladium catalysts, which can be used as adhesive interlayers for fabrication of nickel patterns on glass and plastic substrates. Electroless nickel patterns can be obtained in three steps: (i) the pattern formation of partially quaterized poly(vinyl pyridine) by UV irradiation, (ii) the formation of macromolecular metal complex with palladium, and (iii) the nickel metallization using electroless plating bath. Metallization is site-selective and allows for a high resolution. And the resulting nickel layered structure shows good adhesion with glass and plastic substrates. The direct patterning of metallic layers onto insulating substrates indicates a great potential for fabricating micro/nano devices.

  14. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  15. Study of nickel interlayer thickness effect on WN/Ni multilayer thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, P. L.; Anwar, Shahid; Islam, Aminul; Bajpai, S.; Anwar, Sharmistha

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten nitride-Nickel (WN/Ni) multilayer thin films were prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering by varying the Ni interlayer thickness. Microstructure and phase composition were examined using FESEM/EDAX and GIXRD respectively. The mechanical property of the multilayers was calculated using Berkovich nanoindenter. GIXRD showed well defined peaks of W2N phase. Cross-sectional FESEM confirms the alternate layers of WN and Ni having uniform thickness. Mechanical properties showrd that the hardness decreases as the thickness of the soft Ni layer decreases.

  16. Three-dimensional elasticity solution of layered plates with viscoelastic interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Zhou, Ding; Liu, Weiqing; Lu, Weidong; Wan, Li

    2016-10-01

    An analytical solution for simply supported layered plates with viscoelastic interlayers under a transverse load is proposed. The deformation of each plate layer is described by the exact three-dimensional elasticity equations. The viscoelastic property of interlayer is simulated by the generalized Maxwell model. The constitutive relation of the interlayer is simplified by the quasi-elastic approximation, which significantly simplifies the analytical process. The solution of stress and displacement fields with undetermined coefficients is derived by solving a group of ordinary differential equations. The undetermined coefficients can be efficiently deduced by using the recursive matrix technique for the plate with any number of layers. The practical convergence is observed during numerical tests. The comparison analysis indicates that the present solution has a close agreement with the finite element solution. However, the solution based on the Mindlin-Reissner hypothesis is significantly different from the present solution for thick plates. Finally, the effect of interlayer thickness on stress and displacement distributions of a five-layer plate is discussed in detail.

  17. Three-dimensional elasticity solution of layered plates with viscoelastic interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Zhou, Ding; Liu, Weiqing; Lu, Weidong; Wan, Li

    2017-08-01

    An analytical solution for simply supported layered plates with viscoelastic interlayers under a transverse load is proposed. The deformation of each plate layer is described by the exact three-dimensional elasticity equations. The viscoelastic property of interlayer is simulated by the generalized Maxwell model. The constitutive relation of the interlayer is simplified by the quasi-elastic approximation, which significantly simplifies the analytical process. The solution of stress and displacement fields with undetermined coefficients is derived by solving a group of ordinary differential equations. The undetermined coefficients can be efficiently deduced by using the recursive matrix technique for the plate with any number of layers. The practical convergence is observed during numerical tests. The comparison analysis indicates that the present solution has a close agreement with the finite element solution. However, the solution based on the Mindlin-Reissner hypothesis is significantly different from the present solution for thick plates. Finally, the effect of interlayer thickness on stress and displacement distributions of a five-layer plate is discussed in detail.

  18. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  19. Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Nickel-Base Single Crystal Alloy with a Novel Ni-Cr-Co-Mo-W-Ta-Re-B Amorphous Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Qiang; Peng, Peng; Zhu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    A novel Ni-Cr-Co-W-Mo-Ta-Re-B alloy consisting of plate γ and M23B6 phases was prepared as interlayer for the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of Rene' N5 nickel-base single crystal superalloy. The molten Ni-Cr-Co-W-Mo-Ta-Re-B alloy exhibited an excellent wettability on the nickel-base superalloy. The TLP bonding experiment has been carried out in vacuum furnace at 1,240 ° for 12 h and followed by post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1,305 ° for 4 h. PWHT eliminated the intermetallic compounds and promoted the formation of γ´ precipitates in the bonding region. A more uniform microhardness profile of TLP joint was found after PWHT. The shear strength of the joint after PWHT significantly increased to 533.4 MPa compared with the value of 437.2 MPa without PWHT.

  20. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  1. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  2. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  3. Lightning Damage of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates with Interlayers Modified by Nickel-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qi; Wan, Guoshun; Xu, Yongzheng; Guo, Yunli; Du, Tianxiang; Yi, Xiaosu; Jia, Yuxi

    2017-02-01

    The numerical model of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with electrically modified interlayers subjected to lightning strike is constructed through finite element simulation, in which both intra-laminar and inter-laminar lightning damages are considered by means of coupled electrical-thermal-pyrolytic analysis method. Then the lightning damage extents including the damage volume and maximum damage depth are investigated. The results reveal that the simulated lightning damages could be qualitatively compared to the experimental counterparts of CFRP laminates with interlayers modified by nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWCNTs). With higher electrical conductivity of modified interlayer and more amount of modified interlayers, both damage volume and maximum damage depth are reduced. This work provides an effective guidance to the anti-lightning optimization of CFRP laminates.

  4. Impact of Interlayer Dwell Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, B. K.; Beese, A. M.; Keist, J. S.; McHale, E. T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Path planning in additive manufacturing (AM) processes has an impact on the thermal histories experienced at discrete locations in simple and complex AM structures. One component of path planning in directed energy deposition is the time required for the laser or heat source to return to a given location to add another layer of material. As structures become larger and more complex, the length of this interlayer dwell time can significantly impact the resulting thermal histories. The impact of varying dwell times between 0 and 40 seconds on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Inconel® 625 and Ti-6Al-4V builds has been characterized. Even though these materials display different microstructures and solid-state phase transformations, the addition of an interlayer dwell generally led to a finer microstructure in both materials that impacted the resulting mechanical properties. With the addition of interlayer dwell times up to 40 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, finer secondary dendrite arm spacing values, produced by changes in the thermal history, correspond to increased yield and tensile strengths. These mechanical properties did not appear to change significantly, however, for dwell times greater than 20 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, indicating that longer dwell times have a minimal impact. The addition of interlayer dwell times in Ti-6Al-4V builds resulted in a slight decrease in the measured alpha lath widths and a much more noticeable decrease in the width of prior beta grains. In addition, the yield and tensile values continued to increase, nearly reaching the values observed in the rolled plate substrate material with dwell times up to 40 seconds.

  5. Impact of Interlayer Dwell Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, B. K.; Beese, A. M.; Keist, J. S.; McHale, E. T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    Path planning in additive manufacturing (AM) processes has an impact on the thermal histories experienced at discrete locations in simple and complex AM structures. One component of path planning in directed energy deposition is the time required for the laser or heat source to return to a given location to add another layer of material. As structures become larger and more complex, the length of this interlayer dwell time can significantly impact the resulting thermal histories. The impact of varying dwell times between 0 and 40 seconds on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Inconel® 625 and Ti-6Al-4V builds has been characterized. Even though these materials display different microstructures and solid-state phase transformations, the addition of an interlayer dwell generally led to a finer microstructure in both materials that impacted the resulting mechanical properties. With the addition of interlayer dwell times up to 40 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, finer secondary dendrite arm spacing values, produced by changes in the thermal history, correspond to increased yield and tensile strengths. These mechanical properties did not appear to change significantly, however, for dwell times greater than 20 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, indicating that longer dwell times have a minimal impact. The addition of interlayer dwell times in Ti-6Al-4V builds resulted in a slight decrease in the measured alpha lath widths and a much more noticeable decrease in the width of prior beta grains. In addition, the yield and tensile values continued to increase, nearly reaching the values observed in the rolled plate substrate material with dwell times up to 40 seconds.

  6. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  7. Electrochemically promoted electroless nickel-phosphorous plating on titanium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ce; Dai, Lei; Meng, Wei; He, Zhangxing; Wang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemically promoted electroless nickel-phosphorous plating process on titanium substrate is proposed. The influences of the temperature and current density on the phosphorous content, coating thickness and corrosion resistance are investigated. The results show that with the help of the electrochemical promotion, the uniform and amorphous nickel-phosphorous coatings with medium phosphorus content (6-8 wt%) are successfully prepared in the electroless bath at 40-60 °C. The phosphorous content of the coating increases with the temperature increasing, while decreases with current density increasing. Obvious passivation occurs for the nickel-phosphorous coatings during the anodic polarization in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution.

  8. Effect of DT4 Interlayer on Properties of Hot-roll Bonding TA2/Q235B Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Xiao, Hong; Li, Na; Qi, Zichen; Ren, Zhongkai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a Q235B/TA2/DT4/Q235B plate was bonded by hot-rolling in a vacuum, and the effect of including a DT4 interlayer within the TA2/Q235B plate was studied. The microstructure and properties of the composite plate at different reduction ratios were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, as well as tensile-shear, bending and tensile tests. The results show that when the reduction ratio is below 18%, the shear strength of the interface is higher with the DT4 interlayer than without it. At 35% reduction, the shear strength is similar in both cases. At a reduction ratio of 68%, with the DT4 interlayer, fracture of the bonding interface occurs on the TA2 side, whereas without the DT4 interlayer, fracture occurs on both the TA2 side and the compound layer on the interface. Including the DT4 interlayer improves the bending and tensile properties of the TA2/Q235B plate appreciably.

  9. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H+ and H- ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H- ions.

  10. Nickel plating of FBG strain sensors for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Marcus; Niewczas, Pawel; Johnston, Michael; Mackersie, John

    2011-05-01

    We present a method for plating FBG strain sensors with a strongly-bonded, hermetic nickel layer, without exposure of the fiber to corrosive environments. A 1μm thick, highly adhesive chrome layer is deposited onto bare fibers via evaporation. Addition of an inert and electrically conductive gold layer then allows the fiber to be electroplated with a 50-100μm nickel layer. Finite element models have confirmed that nickel plated FBG sensors can be brazed into steel structures and used to monitor local strain and temperature. Embedding gratings that are temperature and radiation resistant will be particularly applicable to the structural health monitoring of steel prestressing tendons used in the concrete containments of nuclear power plants and other safety-significant structures.

  11. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...)] Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis of the... reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products, provided... diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. Accordingly, effective March 27...

  12. NICKEL PLATING: INDUSTRY PRACTICES, CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared under the direction of EPA's ORD to assist the metal finishing community with the management of nickel plating environmental issues. This report provides the rationale for developing the document, identifies the intended user audience, and presents the fr...

  13. NICKEL PLATING: INDUSTRY PRACTICES, CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared under the direction of EPA's ORD to assist the metal finishing community with the management of nickel plating environmental issues. This report provides the rationale for developing the document, identifies the intended user audience, and presents the fr...

  14. Improvement of the thermal stability of nickel silicide using a ruthenium interlayer deposited via remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Inhye; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Shin, Changhee; Shin, Seokyoon; Lee, Kunyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effects of a thin Ru interlayer on the thermal and morphological stability of NiSi have been investigated. Ru and Ni thin films were deposited sequentially to form a Ni/Ru/Si bilayered structure, without breaking the vacuum, by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) on a p-type Si wafer. After annealing at various temperatures, the thermal stabilities of the Ni/Ru/Si and Ni/Si structures were investigated by various analysis techniques. The results showed that the sheet resistance of the Ni/Ru/Si sample was consistently lower compared to the Ni/Si sample over the entire temperature range. Although both samples exhibited the formation of NiSi{sub 2} phases at an annealing temperature of 800 °C, as seen with glancing angle x-ray diffraction, the peaks of the Ni/Ru/Si sample were observed to have much weaker intensities than those obtained for the Ni/Si sample. Moreover, the NiSi film with a Ru interlayer exhibited a better interface and improved surface morphologies compared to the NiSi film without a Ru interlayer. These results show that the phase transformation of NiSi to NiSi{sub 2} was retarded and that the smooth NiSi/Si interface was retained due to the activation energy increment for NiSi{sub 2} nucleation that is caused by adding a Ru interlayer. Hence, it can be said that the Ru interlayer deposited by RPALD can be used to control the phase transformation and physical properties of nickel silicide phases.

  15. Synthesis of nickel nanoparticles supported on metal oxides using electroless plating: controlling the dispersion and size of nickel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijie; Ge, Shaohui; Zhang, Minghui; Li, Wei; Tao, Keyi

    2009-02-15

    Nickel nanoparticles supported on metal oxides were prepared by a modified electroless nickel-plating method. The process and mechanism of electroless plating were studied by changing the active metal (Ag) loading, acidity, and surface area of metal oxides and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and H(2) chemisorption. The results showed that the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles was dependent on the interface reaction between the metal oxide and the plating solution or the active metal and the plating solution. The Ag loading and acidity of the metal oxide mainly affected the interface reaction to change the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles. The use of ultrasonic waves and microwaves and the change of solvents from water to ethylene glycol in the electroless plating could affect the dispersion and size of nickel nanoparticles.

  16. Electroless nickel plating on polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Syuji; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2014-09-15

    Near-monodisperse, micrometer-sized polypyrrole-palladium (PPy-Pd) nanocomposite-coated polystyrene (PS) particles have been coated with Ni overlayers by electroless plating in aqueous media. Good control of the Ni loading was achieved for 1.0 μm diameter PPy-Pd nanocomposite-coated PS particles and particles of up to 20 μm in diameter could also be efficiently coated with the Ni. Laser diffraction particle size analysis studies of dilute aqueous suspensions indicated that an additional water-soluble colloidal stabilizer, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone), in the electroless plating reaction media was crucial to obtain colloidally stable Ni-coated composite particles. Elemental microanalysis indicated that the Ni loading could be controlled between 61 and 78 wt% for the 1.0 μm-sized particles. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the particle surface had a flaked morphology after Ni coating. Spherical capsules were obtained after extraction of the PS component from the Ni-coated composite particles, which indicated that the shell became rigid after Ni coating. X-ray diffraction confirmed the production of elemental Ni and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicated the existence of elemental Ni on the surface of the composite particles.

  17. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    PubMed

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  18. Analysis for nickel (3 and 4) in positive plates from nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard procedure for destructive physical analysis (DPA) of nickel-cadmium cells contains a method for analysis of residual charged nickel as NiOOH in the positive plates at complete cell discharge, also known as nickel precharge. In the method, the Ni(III) is treated with an excess of an Fe(II) reducing agent and then back titrated with permanganate. The Ni(III) content is the difference between Fe(II) equivalents and permanganate equivalents. Problems have arisen in analysis at NAVSURFWARCENDIV, Crane because for many types of cells, particularly AA-size and some 'space-qualified' cells, zero or negative Ni(III) contents are recorded for which the manufacturer claims 3-5 percent precharge. Our approach to this problem was to reexamine the procedure for the source of error, and correct it or develop an alternative method.

  19. Electroless plating of graphite with copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, F.; Molina, F.; Molina-Sabio, M.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F.; Esteban, A.

    1995-12-01

    Decommissioning in the European Union of gas-cooled nuclear reactors using graphite as the moderator will generate a large amount of irradiated graphite as waste. Graphite is a radioactive waste of relatively low activity and consequently the options considered for the management of the waste may include: (i) incineration, (ii) ocean bed disposal, (iii) deep geological disposal, and (iv) shallow land burial. In case the last is the selected mode, an appropriate conditioning procedure is necessary before final disposal, by covering the graphite with a material avoiding or reducing the emission of radionuclides to its surrounding. This work analyses the possibility of conditioning graphite pieces (with a large proportion of pores of different sizes up to 100 {micro}m) with a metal coating of copper or nickel produced by electroless plating, with the aim of completely isolating the graphite from its surrounding. Electroless plating with copper results in a very large proportion of pores filled or covered, but a fraction of the pores remain in the graphite, which decreases with increasing thickness of metal deposit. Furthermore, the copper plating is permeable to liquids and consequently the graphite does not become completely isolated from the surrounding. The percentage of porosity filled or covered by nickel deposits is similar to copper, but they are not permeable to liquids, at least when the thickness is relatively high, and consequently the access of the liquids to the graphite is rather limited. However, when electroless plating with copper is followed by nickel deposition the graphite becomes isolated from the exterior.

  20. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  1. Assessment of liver function among nickel-plating workers in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shafei, H M

    2011-06-01

    Currently no reports are available from Egypt regarding occupational exposure to nickel and its effects on the liver. The aim of this study was to assess the liver function of workers occupationally exposed to nickel. Standard liver function tests were applied to blood samples from 25 nickel-plating workers in Damietta, Egypt and 30 administrative workers as a reference group. Levels of urine nickel, measured by inductively coupling plasma-emission spectroscopy, were significantly higher in nickel-exposed workers compared with the reference group. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in nickel-exposed workers. The level of serum albumin was significantly negatively correlated and the levels of serum aminotransferases, and serum gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were significantly positively correlated with urine nickel levels. Liver function is compromised in nickel-plating workers compared with non-exposed administrative workers.

  2. Microstructural development of diffusion-brazed austenitic stainless steel to magnesium alloy using a nickel interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Elthalabawy, Waled M.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2010-07-15

    The differences in physical and metallurgical properties of stainless steels and magnesium alloys make them difficult to join using conventional fusion welding processes. Therefore, the diffusion brazing of 316L steel to magnesium alloy (AZ31) was performed using a double stage bonding process. To join these dissimilar alloys, the solid-state diffusion bonding of 316L steel to a Ni interlayer was carried out at 900 deg. C followed by diffusion brazing to AZ31 at 510 deg. C. Metallographic and compositional analyses show that a metallurgical bond was achieved with a shear strength of 54 MPa. However, during the diffusion brazing stage B{sub 2} intermetallic compounds form within the joint and these intermetallics are pushed ahead of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification of the joint. These intermetallics had a detrimental effect on joint strengths when the joint was held at the diffusion brazing temperature for longer than 20 min.

  3. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final... of less-than-fair-value imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel... diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan are being sold in the United States...

  4. 78 FR 23905 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan...'') petition concerning imports of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan... Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel- Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products from Japan, dated March 27, 2013 (``Petition...

  5. Study of electroless nickel plating of ceramic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Deuis, R.L.; Subramanian, C.; Strafford, K.N.; Arora, P.; Yellup, J.M.

    1995-10-15

    In the production of aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC), the wettability of the reinforcement particulates by the matrix is an important factor. The manufacture of MMC reinforced with alumina particles require the use of specialized fabrication techniques such as rheocasting in order to achieve effective particle incorporation. Several surface treatments have been applied to alumina and other reinforcement particulates in order to modify particle wettability. The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition of Ni-P onto several ceramic particulate surfaces without the use of the conventional sensitization and activation steps. This nickel plating treatment, had the potential to improve the incorporation of alumina particles in aluminum melts, with respect to MMC formation by the plasma transferred arc (PTA) surfacing process.

  6. Effects of Processing Temperatures of Nickel Plating on Capacitance Density of Alumina Film Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Myung-Sun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2015-06-01

    We observed the effects of nickel plating temperatures for controlling the surface morphologies of the deposited nickel layers on the alumina nano-pores. The alumina nano-channels were filled with nickel at various processing temperatures of 60-90 degrees C. The electrical properties of the alumina film capacitors were changed with processing temperatures. The electroless nickel plating (ENP) at 60 degrees C improved the nickel penetration into the alumina nano-channels due to the reduced reaction rate. Nickel layers are uniformly formed on the high aspect ratio alumina pores. Due to the uniform nickel electrode, the capacitance density of the alumina film capacitors is improved by the low leakage current, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance. Alumina film capacitors made by ENP at 60 degrees C had a high capacitance density of 160 nF/cm2.

  7. Effect of electroless nickel interlayer on wear behavior of CrN/ZrN multilayer films on Cu-alloyed ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Kwei; Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Kung, Shu-Chi

    2013-11-01

    This study utilized electroless nickel as an interlayer, then coated nanoscale CrN/ZrN multilayer on Cu-alloyed ductile iron through cathodic arc deposition method. Morphology and structure of the coatings were analyzed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, Rockwell-C indentation, nanoindention, and ball-on-disk wear tests were all carried out to explore the properties of the coatings consisting of adhesion, hardness, elastic modulus, friction coefficient, and wear rate, respectively. The results showed that electroless nickel had a major amorphous phase while the CrN/ZrN multilayer coatings exhibited alternate nanocrystalline CrN and ZrN phases. Compared with single coating of electroless nickel or CrN/ZrN, the CrN/ZrN multilayer coatings with an electroless nickel interlayer exhibited higher hardness (31.1 GPa) and elastic modulus (256.4 GPa). Consequently, the ductile iron with the duplex coatings could be available to reduce both the friction coefficient and wear rate.

  8. Electroless nickel plating of arc discharge synthesized carbon nanotubes for metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannatham, M.; Sankaran, S.; Prathap, Haridoss

    2015-01-01

    Electroless nickel (EN) plating was performed on arc discharge synthesized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for various deposition times. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy characterization techniques are used to identify the presence of nickel deposition on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the degree of graphitization. The results indicate that impurities are less in the purified CNTs as compared to raw carbon soot. Increasing deposition time up to 60 min increases uniform deposition of nickel throughout the length of the CNTs. However, for deposition time longer than 60 min, nickel particles are seen separated from the surface of the CNTs. Uniformly coated nickel CNTs throughout their length are potential candidates for reinforcements in composite materials. Magnetic properties of the nickel coated CNTs, with deposition time of 30 and 60 min were also evaluated. The magnetic saturation of nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 30 min is less compared to nickel coated CNTs with deposition time of 60 min.

  9. Influence of surface treatment on the electroless nickel plating of textile fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, C. W. M.; Jiang, S. Q.; Kan, C. W.; Tung, W. S.

    2007-04-01

    The present study is performed with an objective to acquire a deeper understanding of the properties of nickel-plated polyester fabric after conducing low temperature plasma treatment. Low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen and argon gases was employed to render a hydrophilic property of woven polyester fabrics and facilitate the absorption of a palladium catalyst in order to provide a catalytic surface for electroless nickel plating. The properties of plasma-induced electroless nickel-plated polyester fabrics were evaluated by various standard testing methods in terms of both physical and chemical performances.

  10. A comparative study of structural and electrochemical properties of high-density aluminum substituted α-nickel hydroxide containing different interlayer anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Jing; Guo, Dan; Guo, Litan; Nie, Mengzhen; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-05-01

    Al-substituted α-type nickel hydroxides (α-Ni(OH)2) containing different interlayer anions (NO3-, SO42- , Cl-, CO32- , OH-) are synthesized via a polyacrylamide (PAM) assisted two-step drying method. The effects of interlayer anions on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical performance of Al-substituted α-Ni(OH)2 are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge/discharge tests. The results demonstrate that the intercalated anions have a critical effect on the basal plane spacing, degree of crystallinity, and electrochemical properties of the end products. Especially, the intercalated anions have a marked impact on the activation process of the nickel electrodes. The Cl- intercalated α-Ni(OH)2 sample exhibits better high-rate discharge ability and cycle stability than samples with other interlayer anions. This is attributed to the higher crystallinity, better exchange ability and smaller anion size of Cl-. The anion exchange ability and the size of anions also play an important role in the proton diffusion rate, which directly affects the electrochemical properties of α-Ni(OH)2. The relationships between the specific capacity and basal spacing are also discussed in details for the five samples.

  11. Plating Repair Of Nickel-Alloy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steve K.; Chagnon, Kevin M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for localized electrodeposition of nickel enables repair of small damaged nickel-based pressure vessels. Electrodeposition restores weakened areas of vessel wall to at least their former strength.

  12. Electrochemical performance of electroless nickel plated silicon electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinkaya, T.; Uysal, M.; Akbulut, H.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nickel plated silicon powders were produced using an electroless deposition process. The nickel content on the surface of silicon powders was changed by using different concentrations of NiCl2 in the plating bath. The surface morphology of the produced Ni plated composite powders was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental surface composition of the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to investigate the structure of the nickel plated silicon powders. Electrochemical cycling test of the nickel plated silicon electrodes were performed at a constant current of 100 mA/g in CR2016 test cells. In order to investigate electrochemical reactions of the nickel plated silicon powders with electrolyte, cyclic voltammetry test was performed at a scan rate of 0.1 mV/s. Among the used concentrations, the nickel plated silicon electrode produced using 40 g/L NiCl2 had a 246 mAh/g discharge capacity after 30 cycles.

  13. Effectiveness of nickel plating in inhibiting atmospheric corrosion of copper alloy contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, T.; Sorensen, R.; Guilinger, T.

    1997-12-31

    A series of tests was run to determine the effect of Ni plating thickness on connector contact resistance. Copper coupons were plated with an electrolytic nickel strike followed by electroless nickel to produce Ni layers of 10, 20, 55 and 100 {micro}in. The coupons were then exposed to a simulated industrial environment. Pore corrosion was observed after the exposure, which correlated with Ni thickness. In a second series of tests, beryllium-copper four-tine contacts with 50 {micro}in of gold plate over electrolytic nickel strike/electroless-nickel plates of varying thickness were exposed the same corrosive environment. Contact resistance of mated pairs was monitored over a two-month period. The degradation in contact resistance correlated with the Ni thickness used in the connectors.

  14. Thermal conductivity of electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy plating

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Properties of specific heat, thermal diffusivity, density, and calculated thermal conductivity have been determined for a modified acid bath electroless nickel-12.7 wt% phosphorus alloy between 298 ad 423 K. Thermal conductivity values are about half those of pure nickel.

  15. Electrodeposited Zinc-Nickel as an Alternative to Cadmium Plating for Aerospace Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion evaluation studies were conducted on 4130 alloy steel samples coated with electrodeposited zinc-nickel and samples coated with electrodeposited cadmium. The zinc nickel was deposited by the selection electrochemical metallizing process. These coated samples were exposed to a 5-percent salt fog environment at 35 plus or minus 2 C for a period ranging from 96 to 240 hours. An evaluation of the effect of dichromate coatings on the performance of each plating was conducted. The protection afforded by platings with a dichromate seal was compared to platings without the seal. During the later stages of testing, deposit adhesion and the potential for hydrogen entrapment were also evaluated.

  16. Nickel Electroless Plating: Adhesion Analysis for Mono-Type Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Gu; Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2015-10-01

    The adhesion of the front electrodes to silicon substrate is the most important parameters to be optimized. Nickel silicide which is formed by sintering process using a silicon substrate improves the mechanical and electrical properties as well as act as diffusion barrier for copper. In this experiment p-type mono-crystalline czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers having resistivity of 1.5 Ω·cm were used to study one step and two step nickel electroless plating process. POCl3 diffusion process was performed to form the emitter with the sheet resistance of 70 ohm/sq. The Six, layer was set down as an antireflection coating (ARC) layer at emitter surface by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Laser ablation process was used to open SiNx passivation layer locally for the formation of the front electrodes. Nickel was deposited by electroless plating process by one step and two step nickel electroless deposition process. The two step nickel plating was performed by applying a second nickel deposition step subsequent to the first sintering process. Furthermore, the adhesion analysis for both one step and two steps process was conducted using peel force tester (universal testing machine, H5KT) after depositing Cu contact by light induced plating (LIP).

  17. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation have been evaluated. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, and an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. These mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  18. Electroless Nickel And Ion-Plated Protective Coatings For Silvered Glass Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, M. A.; Chaudiere, D. A.; Stewart, T. L.

    1982-04-01

    Two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation have been evaluated. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, or an Al/Cu alloy that were prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver/copper mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. These mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/ copper mirrors after exposure. to elevated temperatures and water vapor. The electroless nickel coated mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors suggesting that they may prove more durable for field service.*

  19. 78 FR 50378 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan... steel products from Japan. See Diffusion- Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan... Japan: Petitioner's Request for Extension of the Antidumping Investigation Preliminary Determination...

  20. 78 FR 19734 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of... retarded, by reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated steel flat-rolled products...

  1. Microgalvanic nickel pulse plating process for the production of thermal actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansal, W.; Steiner, H.; Mann, R.; Halmdienst, M.; Schalko, J.; Keplinger, F.

    2013-05-01

    Nickel is often used in the micro fabrication because of its fatigue resistance and its mechanical properties. It is used for instance for thermal actuators, micro-grippers, or RF-switches. The defined electrodeposition of the nickel matrix is crucial for the properties and functionality of the thermal actuators. Micro galvanic processes are the basis of this electrodeposition, and require knowledge of the electrochemical fundamentals as well as numerical electrochemical process simulation for adjustment. Especially realization of high aspect ratios requires the use of sophisticated plating techniques such as pulse reverse deposition. The pulse plating process was adjusted by using the results of electrochemical numerical simulation routines, visualizing the (local) potential field and the current field line distribution as a function of the applied electrochemical parameters. Compact, completely void free structures could be obtained applying the developed pulse plating process to the structured wafers. The electrodeposited material has been nickel for stability and hardness reasons. MEMS structures were designed to convert the thermal expansion of the material into an in-plane defection. A custom made measurement setup, consisting of a sealable chamber, a Peltier element with a temperature control unit, and an optical microscope is used to measure these defections at different temperatures. Additional, finite element simulations are carried out to determine the thermal expansion coefficient of the plated Nickel.

  2. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates as developed and used within the Aerospace Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, A. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure described here was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  3. Fabrication of electroless nickel plated aluminum freeform mirror for an infrared off-axis telescope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Chang, Seunghyuk; Pak, Soojong; Lee, Kwang Jo; Jeong, Byeongjoon; Lee, Gil-jae; Kim, Geon Hee; Shin, Sang Kyo; Yoo, Song Min

    2015-12-01

    Freeform mirrors can be readily fabricated by a single point diamond turning (SPDT) machine. However, this machining process often leaves mid-frequency errors (MFEs) that generate undesirable diffraction effects and stray light. In this work, we propose a novel thin electroless nickel plating procedure to remove MFE on freeform surfaces. The proposed procedure has a distinct advantage over a typical thick plating method in that the machining process can be endlessly repeated until the designed mirror surface is obtained. This is of great importance because the sophisticated surface of a freeform mirror cannot be optimized by a typical SPDT machining process, which can be repeated only several times before the limited thickness of the nickel plating is consumed. We will also describe the baking process of a plated mirror to improve the hardness of the mirror surface, which is crucial for minimizing the degradation of that mirror surface that occurs during the polishing process. During the whole proposed process, the changes in surface figures and textures are monitored and cross checked by two different types of measurements, as well as by an interference pattern test. The experimental results indicate that the proposed thin electroless nickel plating procedure is very simple but powerful for removing MFEs on freeform mirror surfaces.

  4. Modeling the stability of electroless plating bath--diffusion of nickel colloidal particles from the plating frontier.

    PubMed

    Yin, X; Hong, L; Chen, B-H; Ko, T-M

    2003-06-01

    Electroless nickel (EN) plating is a process in which Ni2+ ions are reduced by hydrogen atoms adsorbed at a fresh Ni surface. However, detaching of a handful of tiny Ni metal particles from a substrate causes the entrance of these particles into the plating solution. The metal particles offer very reactive surfaces for the reduction of Ni2+ ions, which in turn aggravates the detachment, causing a self-accelerated cycle. Eventually the plating solution will be subject to an overwhelming precipitation of Ni black. This paper proposes a one-dimensional diffusion model to explain the dependence of the bath stability on the plating time under different bath loadings. This mathematical model contains Vd, defined as the decomposition volume, a measure to judge chemical stability of a plating solution. To obtain Vd experimentally, a PdCl2 solution was purposely introduced into a model solution (the addition leads to immediate generation of metal particles) until the very moment of onset of massive deposition of colloidal Ni. The Vd data from the experiment were then used to perform simulation in order to complete the model proposed. Other than the effects of bath loadings and plating time, an adsorption model was also created to describe the temperature effect. To coordinate the adsorption model, l-cysteine was used as an adsorbate that plays a deactivation role. The under bump metallization process on patterned silicon wafers has been used to support the main theme of this study.

  5. Analysis of continuous solvent extraction of nickel from spent electroless nickel plating baths by a mixer-settler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Tanaka, Mikiya

    2009-05-30

    It is urgent to develop an effective technique to treat the large amount of spent electroless nickel plating bath and recycle the high concentration nickel. In our previous study, high recycling efficiency of nickel from the model spent bath was obtained by continuous solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime (LIX84I) as the extractant and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as the accelerator using a mixer-settler extractor. It was observed that the extraction efficiency was affected by the operation parameters such as the flow rates of the aqueous and organic phases and the total stage number. In the present study, the effects of the operation parameters on the extraction efficiency were quantitatively studied on the basis of the pseudo-first-order interfacial extraction rate equation together with the hydrodynamic properties in the mixer. The organic phase holdup, measured under varying conditions of the flow rates of both phases, was analyzed by the Takahashi-Takeuchi holdup model in order to estimate the specific interfacial area. The overall extraction rate coefficients defined by the product of the interfacial extraction rate constant and the specific interfacial area were evaluated using the experimental data and ranged from 3.5 x 10(-3) to 6.7 x 10(-3)s(-1), which was close to the value of 3.4 x 10(-3)s(-1) obtained by batch extraction. Finally, an engineering simulation method was established for assessing the extraction efficiency of nickel during a multistage operation.

  6. Electrolytic Regeneration of Contaminated Electroless Nickel Plating Baths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SERVICE 138 TSGT Jorge L. Soto 7 CES/CEV, Dyess AFB, TX LESSONS LEARNED IMPLEMENTING THE HAZMART 140 Msgt. James P. Day 2 MXS/LGMS, Barksdale AFB...INITIATIVES LOX OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENTS 230 Brian Ballew SA-ALC/TIESM, Kelly AFB, TX LESSONS- LEARNED FROM THE EVALUATION OF 236 BRUSH PLATING...A LOW RISK 273 HIGH REWARD POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL Kendal R. Smith Enviro Filtration, Gary, IN METHODOLOGY FOR MAKING SUBSTITUTES 277 Jared E

  7. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks.

  8. Initiation of electroless nickel plating on copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Flis, J.; Duquette, D.J.

    1984-02-01

    The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidation rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.

  9. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan... Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that diffusion...-0408, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Scope of the Investigation The diffusion-annealed...

  10. Electroless nickel and ion-plated protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Chaudiere, D.A.; Dake, L.S.; Stewart, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    A preliminary examination of two methods of protecting second surface silvered glass mirrors from environmental degradation is presented. One method employed silver mirrors overcoated with Al, Ni, 304 stainless steel, Cr, or an Al/Cu alloy prepared by ion-plating. The other method used conventional wet process silver mirrors protected with a thin electroless nickel coating. No attempt was made to optimize the coatings for either method. These experimental mirrors were compared with conventional paint backed silver/copper mirrors after exposure to elevated temperatures and water vapor in order to estimate their relative environmental stability. The electroless nickel mirrors showed consistently more resistance to these stresses than either the conventional or ion-plated mirrors, suggesting that they may provide more durable field service.

  11. Brush Plating of Nickel-Tungsten Alloy for Engineering Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    CONCEPTS ASETS Defense ‘12 11 Hydrogen embrittlement (ASTM F 519) • Ni-W plated directly onto notched bars & tested to verify the process is non...mm3/N/m 10×10-6 mm3/N/m Friction coef. 0.45 0.70 Taber wear 14 3 – 6 Hydrogen embrittlement Pass without bake Pass with bake Axial fatigue Debit...high strength steel meets hydrogen embrittlement requirement without bake ASETS Defense ‘12 23 Future work • Rotating beam fatigue • Hydrogen

  12. Nickel.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    Nickel is an essential element for at least several animal species. These animal studies associate nickel deprivation with depressed growth, reduced reproductive rates, and alterations of serum lipids and glucose. Although there is substantial evidence of an essential status for nickel in animals, a deficiency state in humans has not been clearly defined. Nickel is a silver-white metal with siderophilic properties that facilitate the formation of nickel-iron alloys. In contrast to the soluble nickel salts (chloride, nitrate, sulfate), metallic nickel, nickel sulfides, and nickel oxides are poorly water-soluble. Nickel carbonyl is a volatile liquid at room temperature that decomposes rapidly into carbon monoxide and nickel. Drinking water and food are the main sources of exposure for the general population with the average American diet containing about 300 micrograms Ni/d. Nickel is highly mobile in soil, particularly in acid soils. There is little evidence that nickel compounds accumulate in the food chain. Nickel is not a cumulative toxin in animals or in humans. Almost all cases of acute nickel toxicity result from exposure to nickel carbonyl. The initial effects involve irritation of the respiratory tract and nonspecific symptoms. Patients with severe poisoning develop intense pulmonary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and cerebral edema are the main cause of death. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is an investigational drug used to chelate nickel following exposure to nickel carbonyl. Nickel is a common sensitizing agent with a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel and nickel compounds are well-recognized carcinogens. However, the identity of the nickel compound or compounds, which cause the increased risk of cancer, remains unclear. Currently, there are little epidemiological data to indicate that exposure to metallic nickel increases the risk of cancer, or that exposure to the carcinogenic forms of nickel causes

  13. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution and nickel plating industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: Peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C.

    1995-07-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The process of uptake obeys both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Quantitative removal of Ni(II) from 100 mL aqueous solution containing 20 mg/L Ni(II) by 85 mg PHC was observed over a pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. The suitability of PHC for treating nickel plating industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that PHC is 36 times more efficient compared to GAC based on Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q{sub O}).

  14. A study of degradation of plates for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The relative merits of coining and not coining of sintered nickel oxide and cadmium plates was investigated. Sample plate materials from most commercial cell suppliers were obtained and characterized for properties that may correlate with the tendency toward physical disintegration during handling and over long periods of time in the cell. Special test methods were developed to obtain comparative data in a short time. A wide range of physical properties and coining thickness was observed, resulting in a range of responses. The stronger materials resisted loss of sinter better than weaker materials whether or not coined. Coining improved handling and resistance to electrochemical cycling of weaker materials. The mechanism of break-down of positive plate edges under cycling appears to be the same as that of thickening and blistering. Brittle, nonadherent sinter, resulting from certain impregnation processes, is the most vulnerable to degradation. It is concluded that the latter type of materials should be coined, but coining of strong materials is optional.

  15. Ultrasonic preparation of nano-nickel/activated carbon composite using spent electroless nickel plating bath and application in degradation of 2,6-dichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingyu; Jin, Guanping; Li, Changyong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Dou, Yan; Li, Yong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Kunwei; Gu, Qianqian

    2014-11-01

    Ni was effectively recovered from spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by forming a nano-nickel coated activated carbon composite. With the aid of ultrasonication, melamine-formaldehyde-tetraoxalyl-ethylenediamine chelating resins were grafted on activated carbon (MFT/AC). PdCl2 sol was adsorbed on MFT/AC, which was then immersed in spent electroless nickel plating bath; then nano-nickel could be reduced by ascorbic acid to form a nano-nickel coating on the activated carbon composite (Ni/AC) in situ. The materials present were carefully examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemistry techniques. The resins were well distributed on the inside and outside surfaces of activated carbon with a size of 120 ± 30 nm in MFT/AC, and a great deal of nano-nickel particles were evenly deposited with a size of 3.8 ± 1.1 nm in Ni/MFT. Moreover, Ni/AC was successfully used as a catalyst for ultrasonic degradation of 2,6-dichlorophenol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  17. A study of degradation of plates for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells. [feasibility of coining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The relative merits of coining and not coining of sintered nickel-oxide and cadmium plates was investigated. A survey of the industry including cell manufactures and users was made and results summarized. Sample plate materials from most commercial cell suppliers were obtained and characterized for properties that may correlate with the tendency toward physical disintegration during handling and over long periods of time in the cell. Special test methods were developed to obtain comparative data in a short time. A wide range of physical properties and coining thicknesses was observed, resulting in a range of responses. The stronger, less brittle materials resisted loss of sinter better than weaker materials whether or not coined. Coining improved handling and resistance to electrochemical cycling in all materials tested. An apparent exception was found to be due to improper coining of a tapered edge.

  18. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  19. Electroless nickel plating on APTHS modified wood veneer for EMI shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haibing; Li, Jian; Wang, Lijuan

    2010-12-01

    A new activation process was developed for electroless plating to prepare wood-based EMI shielding material. Pd(II) was adsorbed on a wood surface modified with γ-aminopropyltrihydroxysilane (APTHS) formed by the hydrolysis of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). After reduction of Pd(II), electroless plating was successfully initiated and an Ni-P coating was deposited on the wood veneer. The activation process and resulting coating were characterized by XPS, SEM-EDS and XRD. The metal deposition, surface resistivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. XPS analysis proved that Pd(II) was bonded to the amino group of APTHS and was reduced to Pd(0). The Ni-P coating was uniform, compact and continuous, and consisted of 3.39 wt.% phosphorus and 96.61 wt.% nickel. XRD analysis indicated that the coating was crystalline, which is thought to be related to the low phosphorus content. The plated birch veneers exhibited electromagnetic shielding effectiveness greater than 60 dB in the frequency range 10 MHz-1.5 GHz.

  20. Field Emission Lamps Prepared with Dip-Coated and Nickel Electroless Plated Carbon Nanotube Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Pu, N W; Youh, M J; Chung, K J; Liu, Y M; Ger, M D

    2015-07-01

    Fabrication and efficiency enhancement of tubal field emission lamps (FELs) using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the cathode field emitters were studied. The cathode filaments were prepared by eletrolessly plating a nickel (Ni) film on the cathode made of a 304 stainless steel wire dip-coated with MWNTs. The 304 wire was dip-coated with MWNTs and nano-sized Pd catalyst in a solution, and then eletrolessly plated with Ni to form an MWNT-embedded composite film. The MWNTs embedded in Ni not only had better adhesion but also exhibited a higher FE threshold voltage, which is beneficial to our FEL system and can increase the luminous efficiency of the anode phosphor. Our results show that the FE cathode prepared by dipping three times in a solution containing 400 ppm Pd nano-catalysts and 0.2 wt.% MWNTs and then eletrolessly plating a Ni film at a deposition temperature of 60 °C, pH value of 5, and deposition time of 7 min has the best FE uniformity and efficiency. Its emission current can stay as low as 2.5 mA at a high applied voltage of 7 kV, which conforms to the high-voltage-and-low-current requirement of the P22 phosphor and can therefore maximize the luminous efficiency of our FEL. We found that the MWNT cathodes prepared by this approach are suitable for making high-efficiency FELs.

  1. Scratch Adhesion Evaluation of Electroless Nickel Plating on mg and mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenmin; Gao, Wei

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are being used as structural components in industry because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and relatively high stiffness. A shortcoming of Mg based alloys is their poor corrosion and wear resistance. Therefore, coatings or surface treatment are needed for protection purpose. This paper reports our work on electroless plating of Ni-P on Mg alloys. Pure Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys were used as the substrates to investigate friction and adhesion properties of the electroless Ni-P coatings. The maximum friction coefficient (~0.3) was found on the electroless nickel coating of pure Mg substrate. The adhesion strengths of the coatings on AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys are higher than that on pure Mg. The critical load (a measure of adhesion strength) of AZ31 reached 13.1 N.

  2. Diffusion bonding of a superplastic Inconel 718SPF superalloy by electroless nickel plating

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, M.S.; Chang, C.B.; Chuang, T.H.

    2000-02-01

    Although intimate contact can be obtained for diffusion bonding of a superplastic Inconel 718SPF superalloy under a low pressure of 7 MPa, the precipitates formed at the interface retarded achievement of a sound joint. The shear strength was only 41.5 MPa for an overlap length of 12 T (T = 1.3 mm, sheet thickness). The diffusion bondability of t his Inconel 718SPF superalloy was enhanced by electroless nickel plating. In this situation, the bonding shear strength increased to 70.4 MPa for the same overlap length of 12 T under the same bonding condition, regardless of the roughness of the surface to be bonded. Upon decreasing the overlap length from 12 to 6T, the bonding strength remained constant.

  3. Arrays of holes fabricated by electron-beam lithography combined with image reversal process using nickel pulse reversal plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Yousef; Lavallée, Eric; Lau, Kien Mun; Beauvais, Jacques; Drouin, Dominique; Cloutier, Melanie; Turcotte, David; Yang, Pan; Kelkar, Prasad

    2004-05-01

    A critical issue in fabricating arrays of holes is to achieve high-aspect-ratio structures. Formation of ordered arrays of nanoholes in silicon nitride was investigated by the use of ultrathin hard etch mask formed by nickel pulse reversal plating to invert the tonality of a dry e-beam resist patterned by e-beam lithography. Ni plating was carried out using a commercial plating solution based on nickel sulfamate salt without organic additives. Reactive ion etching using SF6/CH4 was found to be very effective for pattern transfer to silicon nitride. Holes array of 100 nm diam, 270 nm period, and 400 nm depth was fabricated on a 5×5 mm2 area. .

  4. Sonocatalytic injury of cancer cells attached on the surface of a nickel-titanium dioxide alloy plate.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ogino, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates ultrasound-induced cell injury using a nickel-titanium dioxide (Ni-TiO2) alloy plate as a sonocatalyst and a cell culture surface. Ultrasound irradiation of cell-free Ni-TiO2 alloy plates with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s led to an increased generation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals compared to nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) control alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. When human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) cultured on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates were irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound at 0.5 W/cm(2) for 30s and then incubated for 48 h, cell density on the alloy plate was reduced to approximately 50% of the controls on the Ni-Ti alloy plates with and without ultrasound irradiation. These results indicate the injury of MCF-7 cells following sonocatalytic OH radical generation by Ni-TiO2. Further experiments demonstrated cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation after ultrasound irradiation of MCF-7 cells attached on the Ni-TiO2 alloy plates, indicating induction of apoptosis.

  5. Development of a nickel plated aluminum krypton-81m target system.

    PubMed

    Alrumayan, F; Okarvi, S M; Nagatsu, K; Yanbawi, S; Aljammaz, I

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated system was developed to produce rubidium-81 ((81)Rb), based on the (nat)Kr (p, n) (81)Rb reaction. The energy incident on the target was 26MeV. Only 6MeV was stopped inside the gas and the remainder was stopped by a specially designed flange. The target body was characterized by its conical shape and its inner walls were chemically plated with 100±10µm of nickel (Ni). Ni is advantageous as a fairly good conductor of heat whose surface can resist solutions. Additionally, the Ni plated target allowed potassium chloride to dissolve (81)Rb, with no further effect on the target body. The system produced (81)Rb with a production yield of approximately 4.5mCi/µAh, which is close to the calculated expected yield of 5.3mCi/µAh. The system is able to deliver reliable and reproducible radioactivity for patients and can be operated up to 1500µAh before preventive maintenance is due. Key steps in designing the (81)Rb target for selected energy ranges are reported here.

  6. Nickel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  7. Qualification Testing of General Electric 50 Ah Nickel-Cadmium Cells with New Separator and New Positive Plate Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah aerospace nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985, for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a new nylon separator material Pellon 2536, and the new GE Positive Plate Nickel Attack Control Passivation process. Testing began in May, 1985, at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985, with approximately 1200 LEO cycles complete at this writting. Early test results show that cells with positive plate passivation exhibit higher than normal charge voltage characteristics. Other aspects of performance were nominal.

  8. Anisotropic growth of single-crystal graphite plates by nickel-assisted microwave-plasma chemical-vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badzian, Teresa; Badzian, Andrzej; Roy, Rustum; Cheng, Shang-Cong

    2000-02-01

    Growth of single-crystal graphite free-standing plates has been achieved by a microwavehydrogen-plasma etching of graphite powder and nickel mesh. The plates resemble a knife blade and grow in the <11¯00> direction with long crystals exceeding 100 μm. Hexagonal growth features at the edges and electron diffraction patterns confirm the single-crystal nature of these ultrathin plates. Electron microprobe and Raman spectroscopy indicate the presence of graphite. Diamond crystals nucleate on these plates and they grow simultaneously. We suggest that the paradoxical growth of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, under conditions in which graphite is usually etched away, is possible because of a protective coating by a Ni-C-H phase. This thin coating allows for transport of carbon atoms from the gas phase to the growing graphite surface.

  9. Statistical analysis of data from the solderability testing of electroless nickel plated Kovar leads

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.E.; Hall, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many Sandia National Laboratories components require electrical leads to be soldered to an assembly such as a printed wiring board. In late 1982, a supplier reported to Sandia that they had problems soldering leads of a 14/16 pin integrated circuit flatpack to printed wiring boards. These problems led to the investigation described herein of the fluxes used in solder-dipping. This study shows that Alpha 611 flux, used by the supplier, is not active enough to wet an electroless nickel-plated surface that has been exposed to 200C for 16 hours (which is a condition seen in production prior to soldering). Two Blackstone fluxes included in the study did provide uniform wetting in this situation and also for room temperature curing, even though the time in flux ranged from .25 to 10 minutes. Blackstone 642 flux had a higher wetting rate and lower contact angle than Blackstone 2508. However, Flux residues of B-642 contain chloride ions; therefore, B-2508 has now been adopted by the supplier.

  10. Structure zone diagram and particle incorporation of nickel brush plated composite coatings

    PubMed Central

    Isern, L.; Impey, S.; Almond, H.; Clouser, S. J.; Endrino, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    This work studies the deposition of aluminium-incorporated nickel coatings by brush electroplating, focusing on the electroplating setup and processing parameters. The setup was optimised in order to increase the volume of particle incorporation. The optimised design focused on increasing the plating solution flow to avoid sedimentation, and as a result the particle transport experienced a three-fold increase when compared with the traditional setup. The influence of bath load, current density and the brush material used was investigated. Both current density and brush material have a significant impact on the morphology and composition of the coatings. Higher current densities and non-abrasive brushes produce rough, particle-rich samples. Different combinations of these two parameters influence the surface characteristics differently, as illustrated in a Structure Zone Diagram. Finally, surfaces featuring crevices and peaks incorporate between 3.5 and 20 times more particles than smoother coatings. The presence of such features has been quantified using average surface roughness Ra and Abbott-Firestone curves. The combination of optimised setup and rough surface increased the particle content of the composite to 28 at.%. PMID:28300159

  11. Structure zone diagram and particle incorporation of nickel brush plated composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, L.; Impey, S.; Almond, H.; Clouser, S. J.; Endrino, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    This work studies the deposition of aluminium-incorporated nickel coatings by brush electroplating, focusing on the electroplating setup and processing parameters. The setup was optimised in order to increase the volume of particle incorporation. The optimised design focused on increasing the plating solution flow to avoid sedimentation, and as a result the particle transport experienced a three-fold increase when compared with the traditional setup. The influence of bath load, current density and the brush material used was investigated. Both current density and brush material have a significant impact on the morphology and composition of the coatings. Higher current densities and non-abrasive brushes produce rough, particle-rich samples. Different combinations of these two parameters influence the surface characteristics differently, as illustrated in a Structure Zone Diagram. Finally, surfaces featuring crevices and peaks incorporate between 3.5 and 20 times more particles than smoother coatings. The presence of such features has been quantified using average surface roughness Ra and Abbott-Firestone curves. The combination of optimised setup and rough surface increased the particle content of the composite to 28 at.%.

  12. Detection of a Pd-Ni interlayer at the Pd/Ni interface of an epitaxial Pd film on cube textured nickel ( 0 0 1 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, J. H.; You, H.; Cullen, W. G.; Maroni, V. A.; Ma, B.; Koritala, R. E.; Thieme, C.

    2002-12-01

    We studied the microstructure of a Pd overlayer deposited on a cube textured Ni(0 0 1) substrate using synchrotron X-ray scattering. We find the existence of an epitaxial Pd-Ni interlayer between the epitaxial Pd layer and the Ni substrate. The Pd-Ni interlayer, which is compressively strained in a manner similar to the Pd overlayer, seemingly acts to relieve the strain at the Pd/Ni interface caused by the Pd-Ni lattice mismatch. The Ni mosaic distribution of our samples is multiply spiked with a rocking angle spread of ∼16°, which reconciles the previously reported observation of saw tooth peaks on top of a Gaussian distribution for a similarly prepared Pd on Ni specimen. The observed sharpening of the mosaic distributions for the Pd(0 0 2) grains (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)=1.95°) and for the (0 0 2) grains of Pd-Ni interlayer (FWHM=3.0°) indicates that the Pd and Pd-Ni(0 0 2) layers conform to the surface morphology instead of to the (0 0 1) crystallographic planes of Ni-substrate grains.

  13. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  14. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  15. Qualification testing of General Electric 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells with Pellon 2536 separator and passivated positive plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two 50 Ah nickel-cadmium cells were delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by General Electric (GE) in February, 1985 for the purpose of evaluating and qualifying a nonwoven nylon separator material, Pellon 2536, and the GE positive plate nickel attack control gas passivation process. Testing began May, 1985 at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana with GSFC standard initial evaluation tests. Life cycling in both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) began in July, 1985 with approximately 6500 LEO cycles and three GEO eclipse seasons completed. After early problems in maintaining test pack temperature control, all packs are performing well but are exhibiting higher than normal charge voltage characteristics.

  16. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10-9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×1013 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  17. Current distribution and current efficiency in pulsed current plating of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, S.I.; Jeong, K.M.; Kim, S.K.; Sohn, H.J.

    1996-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented to obtain the current distribution and current efficiency on a rotating disk electrode under controlled current condition. The calculated results compare well with experiments performed using a nickel/nickel sulfate system in the presence of boric acid. The current density is highly nonuniform due to the ohmic drop in the electrolyte. The current efficiency was decreased with the increase of hydrogen concentration as well as applied pulse current density.

  18. Waste reduction for electroless nickel-plating solutions at U. S. Army depots. Final report, Oct 91-Apr 92

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.S.

    1992-06-10

    Waste minimization is one of the most pressing environmental issues currently facing U.S. Army depots. The U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) conducts research and development to support Army depots in implementing technologies to reduce waste generation. The Joint Depot Environmental Panel (JDEP) identified electroless nickel (EN) plating, which is currently used at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD), Red River Army Depot (RRAD), and Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) as a target for waste minimization research. This report presents the results of an evaluation conducted by USA regarding minimizing waste from EN-plating operations. The objective of this evaluation was to formulate recommendations for depots regarding implementation of waste minimization technologies. This evaluation was performed through site visits, a literature search, and discussions with vendors of EN processes and decontamination technologies.

  19. Removal of copper, nickel and chromium mixtures from metal plating wastewater by adsorption with modified carbon foam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Lee, Soonjae; Park, Jeong-Ann; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang Jeong; Kim, Song-Bae; An, Byungryul; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the characterizations and adsorption efficiencies for chromium, copper and nickel were evaluated using manufacture-grade Fe2O3-carbon foam. SEM, XRD, XRF and BET analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Various pore sizes (12-420 μm) and iron contents (3.62%) were found on the surface of the Fe2O3-carbon foam. Fe2O3-carbon foam was found to have excellent adsorption efficiency compared to carbon foam for mixed solutions of cationic and anionic heavy metals. The adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel were 6.7, 3.8 and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, which were obtained using a dual exponential adsorption model. In experiments with varying dosages of the Fe2O3 powder, no notable differences were observed in the removal efficiency. In a fixed-bed column test, Fe2O3-carbon foam achieved adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel of 33.0, 12.0 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively, after 104 h. Based on these results, Fe2O3-carbon foam was observed to be a promising material for treatment of plating wastewater.

  20. Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

    2003-09-01

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

  1. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case.

  2. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  3. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-02-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  4. Waste Reduction for Electroless Nickel Plating Solutions at U.S. Army Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-10

    2-4 2.2.3 Complexing Agents .................................. 2-6 2.2.4 Stabilizers/ Inhibitors .................................. 2-9...11P04 H ypophosphor-ous acid3 H~lIOPhosphorous acid (orthophosphorous acid) 1IIOOC)C0bCO I Succinic acid Ii I List of Chemicals and Abbreviations...source of nickel ions * A reducing agent • Complexing agents • Stabilizers/ inhibitors * Energy If all of the above components are not in the correct

  5. Interlaminar and ductile characteristics of carbon fibers-reinforced plastics produced by nanoscaled electroless nickel plating on carbon fiber surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Rhee, Kyong-Yop

    2002-01-15

    In this work, a new method based on nanoscaled Ni-P alloy coating on carbon fiber surfaces is proposed for the improvement of interfacial properties between fibers and epoxy matrix in a composite system. Fiber surfaces and the mechanical interfacial properties of composites were characterized by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and impact strength. Experimental results showed that the O(1s)/C(1s) ratio or Ni and P amounts had been increased as the electroless nickel plating proceeded; the ILSS had also been slightly improved. The impact properties were significantly improved in the presence of Ni-P alloy on carbon fiber surfaces, increasing the ductility of the composites. This was probably due to the effect of substituted Ni-P alloy, leading to an increase of the resistance to the deformation and the crack initiation of the epoxy system.

  6. Surface finish measurements of diamond-turned electroless-nickel-plated mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Syn, C.K.; Saito, T.T.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1985-08-16

    Surface roughness data are presented for a matrix of diamond-turned electroless-nickel samples having a combination of six phosphorous contents and four heat treatments. Roughness measurements were conducted with commercial optical and stylus profilometers (Wyko and Talystep). The results are discussed in terms of the material composition and heat treatment, plus other factors having an observed influence on the surface roughness. For the optimum material properties, full-length (665 ..mu..m) restored 20X Wyko scans yielded values of better than 10A rms.

  7. Surface finish measurements of diamond-turned electroless-nickel-plated mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Syn, C.K.; Saito, T.T.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Surface roughness data are presented for a matrix of diamond-turned electroless nickel samples having a combination of six phosphorus contents and four heat treatments. Roughness measurements were conducted with commercial optical and stylus profilers (WYKO and Talystep). The results are discussed in terms of the material composition and heat treatment, plus other factors having an observed influence on the surface roughness. For the optimum material properties, full-length (665..mu..m) 20x WYKO scans yielded values of better than 10 A rms after correction for instrument roll-off.

  8. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutina, Yu. N. Bataev, A. A. Shevtsova, L. I.; Mali, V. I. Anisimov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  9. Corrosion behavior of electroless nickel/immersion gold plating by interfacial morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Jun; Huh, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Chi-Seong; Mun, Seongjae; Shin, Han-Kyun; Lee, Hyo-Jong

    2015-07-01

    Pad discoloration is caused by Ni corrosion during electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) treatment, and here it was investigated by SEM, XPS and cross-sectional EDS analysis. Interestingly, we found that the corrosion occurred at two different sites. For relatively thinner Ni layers, the Ni corrosion occurred at the nodule boundary, whereas thicker Ni deposits caused pit corrosions. The electroless Ni had an amorphous structure and had isotropic surface energy. In other words, the domain boundary energy between two Ni nodules did not change during Ni growth. However, the intersection angle of the two surfaces gradually increases during film growth, and the cusp stress between the two nodules also decreases gradually during Ni growth. Hence, the corrosion mode changed from nodule boundary corrosion to pit corrosion. Promoting Ni nucleation as well as increasing the Ni thickness is expected to suppress the pad discoloration by reducing the nodule boundary corrosion. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Evaluation of Dipsol IZ-C17 LHE Zinc-Nickel Plating (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-24

    Bath Easier to Maintain • Throwing Power Good and No Variance in % Ni 6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE Zn-Ni Versions for Aerospace and Automotive Industry... Aerospace Needs a Different Version of Automotive Zn-Ni Plating – High Strength Steel Used In Aerospace • Hydrogen Embrittlement • Fatigue Life...Corrosion Performance • Aerospace Parts Required to Have a Longer Service Life and Higher Reliability Than Automotive 7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE Pre

  11. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  12. Temperature field calculation with allowance for heat of chemical reactions under electroexplosion nickel plating of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Denis A.; Semina, Olga A.; Stepikov, Maksim A.; Gromov, Victor E.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of stress-strained state at the boundary «faced surface layer - substrate» is performed by methods of elasticity theory of inhomogeneous media, on exposure to the load distributed in a circle. The fundamental aspects of Kelvin - Helmholtz and Richtmayer - Meshkov instabilities are considered. The following methods are used for the research. The analytical method of solution is used for finding the temperature distribution of substrate and coating material as well as distribution of speed of material motion in deposition of the coating. Finite element method is required in accounting for the parameters of convective mixing. For the analysis of the proposed thickness and dispersion of the coating the concepts of hydrodynamic Kelvin - Helmholtz and Richtmayer - Meshkov instabilities are used. Using the mass, energy and momentum conservation laws, with allowance for the possible exothermal reactions, the system of equations of the mathematical model of electroexplosion synthesis on the basis of thermoreacting components of Ni-Al system is formulated. The degree of effect of model's parameters on dispersion and thickness of the coating is determined. The comparison of the modeling and experimental data is carried out. It is established that the due regard to the thermal effect of chemical reaction increases considerably the time of existence of the reacting elements in the liquid state and it facilitates the participation of the entire nickel in the reaction. The increased time of heat effect enables the other processes to occur more completely.

  13. Formation of {beta}-nickel hydroxide plate-like structures under mild conditions and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, A.P. de; Lima, R.C.; Paris, E.C.; Li, M.S.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-10-15

    Nanostructural {beta}-nickel hydroxide ({beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}) plates were prepared using the microwave-hydrothermal (MH) method at a low temperature and short reaction times. An ammonia solution was employed as the coordinating agent, which reacts with [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. A trigonal {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} single phase was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, and the crystal cell was constructed with structural parameters and atomic coordinates obtained from Rietveld refinement. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that the samples consisted of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates with a different particle size distribution. Broad absorption bands assigned as transitions of Ni{sup 2+} in oxygen octahedral sites were revealed by UV-vis spectra. Photoluminescence (PL) properties observed with a maximum peak centered in the blue-green region were attributed to different defects, which were produced during the nucleation process. We present a growth process scheme of the {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoplates. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructural {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} crystalline powders were prepared by rapid microwave-hydrothermal method for 1, 8 and 32 min. The hexagonal-shaped nanoplates obtained presented PL emission in the blue-green region and each decomposed component represents a different type of electronic transition, which can be linked to the structural arrangement or surface defects. Highlights: > Ammonia solution to control the growth of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nuclei. > Regular plates-shape related to crystallization-dissolution-recrystallization. > The surface states and lattice defects generated in growth mechanism of crystals. > Different defects produced in the growth process responsible by photoluminescence. > Each component of photoluminescence curve linked to structural arrangement or surface defects.

  14. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing

  15. Electroless plating of nickel phosphorous on surface-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, S. C.; Lima, E.; Drago, V.; De Lima, J. C.; Borges, N. G.; Avila, A. O. V.; Soldi, V.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical surface preparation for Ni-P electroless metallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films without using Chromium-based chemicals, was studied. The applicability of this method was verified by a subsequent metallization process. Thermal analysis was conducted to observe the main thermal transitions and stability of the polymer and metallized films. Contact angle analysis was performed to assess the surface hydrophilicity so as to optimize the substrate preparation process. X-ray diffraction, EDAX and SEM analysis were used to understand the composition and morphology of the polymeric substrate and Ni-P coat growing process. Adherence strength, contact sheet resistivity and optical diffuse reflection were measured on the metallized films. The time of chemical etching affects the polymer surface hydrophilicity, polymer/metal adherence strength, surface resistance and optical diffuse reflection, while Ni coating morphology is controlled by the pH of the electroless bath. High wettability of the polymer surface, adherence strength of 800 N cm -2, high optical diffuse reflection and low surface resistivity of the Ni coating, were found for films etched for 60 min. Metallizations performed at pH 7.5 produce Ni-P coatings with 12.0 wt.% phosphorous content, which were amorphous and flexible. The contact sheet resistivity of the plated films is sensitive to roughness variations of the substrate. The method proposed in this work allows the production of metallized films appropriate for the fabrication of flexible circuits.

  16. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    PubMed

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V

    1972-12-01

    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  17. Quantitative analysis of electroplated nickel coating on hard metal.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Hassan A; Noordin, M Y; Izman, S; Kurniawan, Denni

    2013-01-01

    Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.

  18. Comparison of analytical methods for percent phosphorous determination in electroless nickel plate. [UCC-ND alkalimetric method; UCC-ND Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method; ASTM-E39 gravimetric method; development colorimetric method; independent colorimetric method

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.W.; Sullivan, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    Electroless nicke-plate characteristics are substantially influenced by percent phosphorous concentrations. Available ASTM analytical methods are designed for phosphorous concentrations of less than one percent compared to the 4.0 to 20.0% concentrations common in electroless nickel plate. A variety of analytical adaptations are applied through the industry resulting in poor data continuity. This paper presents a statistical comparison of five analytical methods and recommends accurate and precise procedures for use in percent phosphorous determinations in electroless nickel plate. 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. A nickel-titanium shape memory alloy plate for contactless inverse dynamization after internal fixation in a sheep tibia fracture model: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Decker, Sebastian; Krämer, Manuel; Marten, Anna-Katharina; Pfeifer, Ronny; Wesling, Volker; Neunaber, Claudia; Hurschler, Christof; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2015-01-01

    Inverse dynamization has recently been proposed for the treatment of tibia non-unions. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) may provide an opportunity for contactless non-invasive alteration of the stiffness of an implant after surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the feasibility of the one way shape memory effect in a large animal as well as the feasibility of our ovine large animal fracture model. A tibia osteotomy was performed in three sheep, followed by NiTi plate osteosynthesis in two cases and standard locking compression plate (LCP) osteosynthesis in one sheep. Contactless induction heating was performed after 3 weeks in order to alter the stiffness of the NiTi plates. Euthanasia was followed by biomechanical analysis after 8 weeks. Successful change of configuration through contactless induction heating was shown in both SMA plates by image intensifier control. Although large differences in bending and torsional stiffness were observed between the operated and contralateral tibia, the sheep ambulated almost normally at six weeks post-operative. We were able to trigger the one way shape memory effect which non-invasively altered the stiffness of the plate osteosynthesis.

  20. Al/Cu Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding with Ni, Ti, and Zn Foil as the Interlayer for Flow Control, Enhancing Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Prakash Kumar; Pal, Sukhomay; Pal, Surjya K.

    2017-07-01

    This research investigates the effects of Ni, Ti, and Zn foil as interlayer, inserted between the faying edges of Al and Cu plates, for controlled intermetallic compound (IMC) formation. The weld tensile strength with Ti and Zn as interlayer is superior to Al base metal strength. This is due to controlled flow of IMCs by diffused Ti interlayer and thin, continuous, and uniform IMC formation in the case of Zn interlayer. Improved flexural stress was observed with interlayer. Weld microhardness varied with different interlayers and purely depends on IMCs present at the indentation point, flow of IMCs, and interlayer hardness. Specimens with interlayer failed at the interface of the nugget and thermomechanical-affected zone (TMAZ) with complete and broken three-dimensional (3-D) grains, indicating transgranular fracture. Phase analysis revealed that Al/Cu IMCs are impeded by Ni and Ti interlayer. The minor binary and ternary IMC phases form adjacent to the interlayer due to diffusion of the material with Al/Cu. Line scan and elemental mapping indicate thin, continuous, and uniform IMCs with enhanced weld metallurgical and mechanical properties for the joints with Zn interlayer. Macrostructural analysis revealed IMC flow variations with and without interlayer. Variation in grain size at different zones is also observed for different interlayers.

  1. Stability and Process of Destruction of Compressed Plate of Layered Composite Materials With Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhoeva, L. A.; Rogov, V. E.; Chermoshentseva, A. S.; Lobanov, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    Interlayer defects in composite materials are a pressing problem, which affecting their performance characteristics. In this research, we considered the problem of the stability and of the fracture process of the compressed thin plate made of laminated composite materials with the interlayer defects. In this research we had got a critical equation for a plate with interlayer defect. The experiment showed the effect and the quantity of nano-dispersed additives on the mechanical properties of composite materials with interlayer defects.

  2. Processing of the intermetallic matrix composite Ni[sub 76]Al[sub 23. 9]B[sub 0. 1]/[alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] from nickel-plated alumina powder

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, W.C.; Hu, C.T. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    The nickel aluminide intermetallic compound Ni[sub 3]Al exhibits many extraordinary properties. In addition, the intrinsic brittleness of the polycrystalline Ni[sub 76]Al[sub 24] compound at ambient temperatures is eliminated by microalloying with boron (B 0.1 percent). In the present report the authors demonstrate a new approach to prepare Ni[sub 76]Al[sub 23.9]B[sub 0.1]/[alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] IMC from electroless nickel-boron-plated [alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder mixed with Ni and Al powder and sintered. Expensive facilities, i.e. HIP and vacuum HP etc., are unnecessary, but ductile fracture behavior and excellent elongation are observed.

  3. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  4. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  5. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  6. Inhibition of nickel precipitation by organic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.L.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Grasso, D.

    1996-11-01

    Wastewaters from electroplating are very complex due to the composition of the plating baths. A nickel plating bath typically consists of a nickel source (nickel chloride or nickel sulfate), complexing agents to solubilize nickel ions controlling their concentration in the solution, buffering agents to maintain pH, brighteners to improve brightness of the plated metal, stabilizers (inhibitors) to prevent undesired reactions, accelerators to enhance speed of reactions, wetting agents to reduce surface tension at the metal surface, and reducing agents (only for electroless nickel plating) to supply electrons for reduction of the nickel. Alkaline precipitation is the most common method of recovering nickel from wastewaters. However, organic constituents found in the wastewaters can mask or completely inhibit the precipitation of nickel. The objective of this study was to conduct an equilibrium study to explore the inhibition behavior of various organic ligands on nickel precipitation. This will lay the groundwork for development of technologies efficacious in the treatment of complexed nickel. The organic ligands used in this study are EDTA, triethanolamine (TEA), gluconate, and tartrate.

  7. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation

  8. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  9. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Richards, Von L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

  10. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

    1996-05-14

    The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

  11. PROCESS OF COATING WITH NICKEL BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF NICKEL CARBONYL

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.

    1959-04-01

    An improved process is presented for the deposition of nickel coatings by the thermal decomposition of nickel carbonyl vapor. The improvement consists in incorporating a small amount of hydrogen sulfide gas in the nickel carbonyl plating gas. It is postulated that the hydrogen sulfide functions as a catalyst. i

  12. Apparatus and method for controlling plating uniformity

    DOEpatents

    Hachman Jr., John T.; Kelly, James J.; West, Alan C.

    2004-10-12

    The use of an insulating shield for improving the current distribution in an electrochemical plating bath is disclosed. Numerical analysis is used to evaluate the influence of shield shape and position on plating uniformity. Simulation results are compared to experimental data for nickel deposition from a nickel--sulfamate bath. The shield is shown to improve the average current density at a plating surface.

  13. Diffusion bonding of commercially pure titanium to low carbon steel using a silver interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Atasoy, Evren; Kahraman, Nizamettin

    2008-10-15

    Titanium and low carbon steel plates were joined through diffusion bonding using a silver interlayer at various temperatures for various diffusion times. In order to determine the strength of the resulting joints, tensile-shear tests and hardness tests were applied. Additionally, optical, scanning electron microscopy examinations and energy dispersive spectrometry elemental analyses were carried out to determine the interface properties of the joint. The work showed that the highest interface strength was obtained for the specimens joined at 850 deg. C for 90 min. It was seen from the hardness results that the highest hardness value was obtained for the interlayer material and the hardness values on the both sides of the interlayer decreased gradually as the distance from the joint increased. In energy dispersive spectrometry analyses, it was seen that the amount of silver in the interlayer decreased markedly depending on the temperature rise. In addition, increasing diffusion time also caused some slight decrease in the amount of silver.

  14. AN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ION EXCHANGE AND RECENTLY COMMERCIALIZED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF RINSE WATER IN BRIGHT NICKEL PLATING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers at USEPA are testing and evaluating two commercial electrochemical technologies for the purification of rinse water and the recovery of copper and nickel from a variety of electroplating processes. One of the investigated technologies is based on the application of hi...

  15. AN ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ION EXCHANGE AND RECENTLY COMMERCIALIZED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF RINSE WATER IN BRIGHT NICKEL PLATING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers at USEPA are testing and evaluating two commercial electrochemical technologies for the purification of rinse water and the recovery of copper and nickel from a variety of electroplating processes. One of the investigated technologies is based on the application of hi...

  16. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  17. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  18. Structure and energetics of interlayer dislocations in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shuyang; Xiang, Yang; Srolovitz, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a general hybrid model based upon the continuum generalized Peierls-Nabarro model (with density functional theory parametrization) to describe interlayer dislocations in bilayer systems. In this model, the bilayer system is divided into two linear elastic 2D sheets. The strains in each sheet can be relaxed by both elastic in-plane deformation and out-of-plane buckling; this deformation is described via classical linear elastic thin plate theory. The interlayer bonding between these two sheets is described by a three-dimensional generalized stacking-fault energy (GSFE) determined from first principle calculations and based upon the relative displacement between the sheets. The structure and energetics of various interlayer dislocations in bilayer graphene was determined by minimizing the elastic and bonding energy with respect to all displacements. The dislocations break into partials, and pronounced buckling is observed at the partial dislocation locations to relax the strain induced by their edge components. The partial dislocation core width is reduced by buckling. An analytical model is also developed based upon the results obtained in numerical simulation. We develop an analytical model for the bilayer structure and energy and show that these predictions are in excellent agreement with the numerical results.

  19. Analysis and Characterization of the Role of Ni Interlayer in the Friction Welding of Titanium and 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralimohan, C. H.; Ashfaq, M.; Ashiri, Rouholah; Muthupandi, V.; Sivaprasad, K.

    2016-01-01

    Joining of commercially pure Ti to 304 stainless steel by fusion welding processes possesses problems due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, which degrade the mechanical properties of the joints. Solid-state welding processes are contemplated to overcome these problems. However, intermetallic compounds are likely to form even in Ti-SS joints produced with solid-state welding processes such as friction welding process. Therefore, interlayers are employed to prevent the direct contact between two base metals and thereby mainly to suppress the formation of brittle Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds. In the present study, friction-welded joints between commercially pure titanium and 304 stainless steel were obtained using a thin nickel interlayer. Then, the joints were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by microhardness survey and tensile tests. Although the results showed that the tensile strength of the joints is even lower than titanium base metal, it is higher than that of the joints which were produced without nickel interlayer. The highest hardness value was observed at the interface between titanium and nickel interlayers indicating the formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds. Formation these compounds was validated by XRD patterns. Moreover, in tensile tests, fracture of the joints occurred along this interface which is related to its brittle nature.

  20. Nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, E. J.; Turchan, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A high energy density nickel cadmium cell of aerospace quality was designed. The approach used was to utilize manufacturing techniques which produce highly uniform and controlled starting materials in addition to improvements in the overall design. Parameters controlling the production of plaque and both positive and negative plate were studied. Quantities of these materials were produced and prototype cells were assembled to test the proposed design.

  1. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  2. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  3. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  4. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. ); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  5. Joining of materials with engineered interlayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challenger, Kenneth D.; Cordea, Tom; Sengupta, Samit; Wampler, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A reliable method to join a variety of different materials is developed which uses engineered coatings to produce strong bonds by solid-state techniques at low temperatures (300-400 C). The strong bonds are capable of accommodating the strains created between Si and most substrates due to differences in thermal expansion coefficients. The approach encompasses two phases: noble metal compliant interlayers and functionally gradient interlayer bonding. Preliminary results are presented and the Ag interlayer bonds are microstructurally characterized confirming that the planar magnetron sputtered coatings/bonds are fully dense and metallurgically sound.

  6. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  7. Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  9. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  10. Cadmium plating replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  11. Modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental design, parameters, and testing of a modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. Modifications regarding positive plate loading levels and nickel attack levels, loading levels for the negative plates, interelectrode spacing, and the positive electrode impregnation process are addressed.

  12. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  13. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  14. Electrocomposite of Alumina in Nickel Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong-Skiba, Pei; Hulguin, Ryan; Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Nickel/aluminum oxide composite was electroformed in a sulfamate bath with 50 g/L of 0.05-micron aluminum oxide powder. Different plating methods including direct current plating, periodic pulse plating, and periodic reverse pulse plating were used. With conventional direct current plating, the maximum particle inclusion in the nickel matrix remains about 2% (wt). However, much higher percentile particle inclusions were achieved when a specific pulse reversal plating technique was applied. The particle incorporation approaches theoretical maximum when the deposit thickness per cycle approaches the particle diameter size at lower duty cycle. The highest particle incorporation achieved is 23% (by weight). Conceptual models interpreting the dramatic differences in the results of these plating methods were also proposed.

  15. Development of a micro-fiber nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  16. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel].

    PubMed

    Cruz, María Jesus; Costa, Roser; Marquilles, Eduard; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2006-06-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed occupational asthma following exposure to chromium and nickel in the nickel-plating section of a metalworks company. Skin prick tests for specific antibodies proved positive for nickel chloride at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and negative for potassium dichromate. The specific bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel. The patient presented a late positive reaction to nickel chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and an immediate positive reaction to a 10 mg/mL solution of potassium dichromate. These results indicate a dual response to nickel and chromium in this patient.

  17. Nickel Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... content of the products for sale. Use substitute materials Look for safer substitutes for common nickel-containing ... opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  18. Measuring Interlayer Shear Stress in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guorui; Dai, Zhaohe; Wang, Yanlei; Tan, PingHeng; Liu, Luqi; Xu, Zhiping; Wei, Yueguang; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Monolayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit a host of intriguing properties, but the most exciting applications may come from stacking them into multilayer structures. Interlayer and interfacial shear interactions could play a crucial role in the performance and reliability of these applications, but little is known about the key parameters controlling shear deformation across the layers and interfaces between 2D materials. Herein, we report the first measurement of the interlayer shear stress of bilayer graphene based on pressurized microscale bubble loading devices. We demonstrate continuous growth of an interlayer shear zone outside the bubble edge and extract an interlayer shear stress of 40 kPa based on a membrane analysis for bilayer graphene bubbles. Meanwhile, a much higher interfacial shear stress of 1.64 MPa was determined for monolayer graphene on a silicon oxide substrate. Our results not only provide insights into the interfacial shear responses of the thinnest structures possible, but also establish an experimental method for characterizing the fundamental interlayer shear properties of the emerging 2D materials for potential applications in multilayer systems.

  19. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  20. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  1. [Efficiency of tritium enrichment by electrolytic cell with multi-nickel-plates electrode and its application to the determination of tritium in environmental water].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Sasaki, M; Kimura, S

    1984-06-01

    For the purpose of speeding up the tritium enrichment by electrolysis, we have produced an electrolytic cell with the multi-plate-electrode system instead of the commonly used single-plate-electrode, and examined the efficiencies for the tritium enrichment under the conditions of different current densities and electrode gaps. From the results, the tritium recovery and the separation factor beta were found to be maximized under the condition of 70 mA/cm2 of current density and 1.6 mm of electrode gap, and they were 90 percent and 23, respectively. Using this cell, it took 28 hours to reduce 100 ml of a sample water to 10 ml, and took 2 days, including the time required for other operations, to determine the tritium concentration of 1.85 Bq/l (50 pCi/l) with the counting error of within +/- 10 percent. This method has been applied to determining the tritium concentrations of environmental samples from Yamato River region during July 1981-February 1983. They were in the range of 1.11-9.48 Bq/l (30-256 pCi/l).

  2. The bond strength of porcelain to Ni-Cr alloy--the influence of tin or chromium plating.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Murakami, T; Terada, Y

    1992-01-01

    Nickel-chromium alloys were plated with tin and chromium to evaluate the effect on porcelain shear bond strength. Six plating methods were used. Additionally, the microstructure of the bond between the plated alloy and porcelain were studied using SEM and EPMA. Tin plating increased the bond strength of porcelain to a nickel-chromium alloy while chromium plating did not.

  3. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  4. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  5. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  6. Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Eres, Gyula; Larson, Ben C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Zschack, P.; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2006-01-01

    We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the growth kinetics of pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3. Time-dependent surface coverages corresponding to single laser shots were determined directly from crystal truncation rod intensity transients. Analysis of surface coverage evolution shows that extremely fast nonequilibrium interlayer transport, which occurs concurrently with the arrival of the laser plume, dominates the deposition process. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots, is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.

  7. Enhanced electrochemical performance and carbon anti-coking ability of solid oxide fuel cells with silver modified nickel-yttrium stabilized zirconia anode by electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Kong, Xiaowei; Wang, Jinghui; Sun, Kening; Zhou, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver (Ag) particles are introduced into the conventional Ni/YSZ anode by utilizing electroless plating method to improve its carbon anti-coking ability in hydrocarbons. The experimental results show that electrochemical performances of the decorated cells in H2, CH4 and C2H6 are all increased as compared to the cell with unmodified Ni/YSZ anode, which are verified by impedance spectrums as well. The durability experiment is carried out for as long as 24 h at the current density of 0.33 A/cm2 where the modified anode is subjected to dry C2H6 indicating the anti-coking ability of the anode is greatly improved. Scanning electron microscope shows that the slight decreasing in the cell terminal voltage can be attributed to the minimized carbon deposition which maybe resulted from the aggregation of silver particles at high temperature. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scanning results after long-term stability operation of the anode suggest that the carbon deposition can be depressed effectively both inside the anode and on the surface of the anode. Therefore, the results show that silver is a promising candidate material for modifying the Ni/YSZ anode with regard to improving electrochemical performance and suppressing the carbon deposition when taking the hydrocarbons as fuels.

  8. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-02-15

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

  9. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  10. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  11. Cleaning Effect of Interlayer Metal on the Joining Surface during Braze Pressure Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Yohei; Suzumura, Akio; Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Yamazaki, Takahisa

    Braze Pressure Welding (BPW) with high frequency induction heating is a newly developed pressure welding technique using interlayer metals for welding the general steel pipes for pipe arrangement in buildings. BPW enables to make joints by solid-state welding in air with relatively small deformation. In this method, the interlayer metal is expected to play the primary role in making high performance joints. It removes contaminations from the joining surface of the base metal and forms fillets at the gaps around the joint. It had been revealed by some experiments and/or numerical analyses in previous research that the BPW joint had higher tensile strength than the brazed joint, and that the fillet can improve the joint strength. In this study, in order to investigate the cleaning effect of interlayer metal more closely, a low carbon steel plate specimen was brazed mainly by Ni-based brazing filler using a tungsten spacer. The microscopy and EPMA analysis on the joints made by various brazing temperatures and durations confirmed that the oxide films on the joining surfaces were removed and discharged from the joining region by the interlayer metal.

  12. High-temperature ductility of electro-deposited nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Work done during the past several months on high temperature ductility of electrodeposited nickel is summarized. Data are presented which show that earlier measurements made at NASA-Langley erred on the low side, that strain rate has a marked influence on high temperature ductility, and that codeposition of a small amount of manganese helps to improve high temperature ductility. Influences of a number of other factors on nickel properties were also investigated. They included plating solution temperature, current density, agitation, and elimination of the wetting agent from the plating solution. Repair of a large nozzle section by nickel plating is described.

  13. Alternatives To Cadmium Plated Military Connectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-30

    an Electroless Nickel Plated Connector After 2000 hours salt fog exposure. Raytlleon Alternative connector finishes  38999 series III, class L in...800 microinches) and evenly on fine and coarse threads and complex geometries. Nickel underplate is typically used to increase wear and corrosion...exposure to solvents.  Galvanic compatibility with cable shield materials (tin, silver and nickel ), stainless steel coupling nut retaining rings, cable

  14. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  15. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  16. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  17. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  19. Remediation System Evaluation, Peerless Plating Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Peerless Plating Superfund Site is located at 2554 South Getty Street, north of the intersection of South Getty Street and East Sherman Boulevard in Muskegon, Michigan. Copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, and zinc electroplating operations as well as...

  20. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  1. Occupational Asthma Caused by Nickel and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chein Soo; Oh, Seung Heon; Lee, Hyun Chul; Huh, Kap Bum; Lee, Sang Yong

    1986-01-01

    A 28-year-old man developed asthma 10 years after working in a metal-plating factory. Recordings of peak expiratory flow rates showed increased variations after exposure at work. Allergy prick skin tests elicited an immediate reaction with nickel sulfate at a concentration of 1 and 10 mg/ml, and with zinc sulfate at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. Inhalation challenges with nickel sulfate and zinc sulfate produced bronchial obstructions. Thus, we concluded that this was a case of asthma caused by nickel sulfate and zinc sulfate. PMID:3154623

  2. Reducing chromium losses from a chromium plating bath. 1987 summer intern report. Project conducted at New Dimension Plating, Hutchinson, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Achman, D.

    1987-12-31

    The company employs about forty people and operates for one or two eight hour shifts with an average of 315 racks of chrome plating per eight hour day. They plate a variety of metals including copper, nickel, gold, brass and chromium. Chromium is the major metal plated and is usually the last step in plating cycle. Most parts are copper plated and then nickel plated in preparation for chrome plating. The main difference between New Dimension Plating and other plating shops is the variety of parts plated. As New Dimension Plating is a job shop, a wide range of parts such as motorcycle accessories, stove parts, and custom items are metal finished. The plating lines are manual, meaning employees dip the racks into the tanks by hand. This fact along with the fact that parts vary greatly in size and shape accounts for the significant drag-out on the chromium plating line.

  3. Topotactic conversion of β-helix-layered silicate into AST-type zeolite through successive interlayer modifications.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yusuke; Takayama, Ryosuke; Shibue, Toshimichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-02-10

    AST-type zeolite with a plate morphology can be synthesized by topotactic conversion of a layered silicate (β-helix-layered silicate; HLS) by using N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DPA) to control the layer stacking of silicate layers and the subsequent interlayer condensation. Treatment of HLS twice with 1) hydrochloric acid/ethanol and 2) dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are needed to remove interlayer hydrated Na ions and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions in intralayer cup-like cavities (intracavity TMA ions), both of which are introduced during the preparation of HLS. The utilization of an amide molecule is effective for the control of the stacking sequence of silicate layers. This method could be applicable to various layered silicates that cannot be topotactically converted into three-dimensional networks by simple interlayer condensation by judicious choice of amide molecules. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Deposition Of Cubic BN On Diamond Interlayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P.; Shing, Yuh-Han

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of polycrystalline, pure, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) formed on various substrates, according to proposal, by chemical vapor deposition onto interlayers of polycrystalline diamond. Substrate materials include metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Typical substrates include metal-cutting tools: polycrystalline c-BN coats advantageous for cutting ferrous materials and for use in highly oxidizing environments-applications in which diamond coats tend to dissolve in iron or be oxidized, respectively.

  5. Deposition Of Cubic BN On Diamond Interlayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P.; Shing, Yuh-Han

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of polycrystalline, pure, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) formed on various substrates, according to proposal, by chemical vapor deposition onto interlayers of polycrystalline diamond. Substrate materials include metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Typical substrates include metal-cutting tools: polycrystalline c-BN coats advantageous for cutting ferrous materials and for use in highly oxidizing environments-applications in which diamond coats tend to dissolve in iron or be oxidized, respectively.

  6. Glass-bead peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  7. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  8. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  9. Systems and Methods for the Electrodeposition of a Nickel-cobalt Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogozalek, Nance Jo (Inventor); Wistrand, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrodepositing a nickel-cobalt alloy using a rotating cylinder electrode assembly with a plating surface and an electrical contact. The assembly is placed within a plating bath and rotated while running a plating cycle. Nickel-cobalt alloy deposition is selectively controlled by controlling current density distribution and/or cobalt content in the plating bath while running the plating cycle to deposit an alloy of a desired yield strength onto the plating surface in a single plating cycle. In various embodiments, the rotating cylinder may be used as an insitu monitoring method to assist in obtaining the properties desired.

  10. A simple and efficient method of nickel electrodeposition for the cyclotron production of (64)Cu.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Arias, Juan C; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Nickel targets for the cyclotron production of (64)Cu were prepared by electrodeposition on a gold backing from nickel chloride solutions using boric acid as buffer. Parameters studied were nickel chloride and boric acid concentration, temperature and current density. All plating conditions studied were successful obtaining efficiencies of approximately 90% in 2-3 h, reaching almost quantitative plating (>97%) in 10-20 h depending on the current density. All plated targets withstood proton irradiations up to 40 µA for 2 h. Recovered nickel was successfully recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%.

  11. Interlayer resistance of misoriented MoS2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kuan; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Ge, Supeng; Su, Shanshan; De, Amrit; Lake, Roger K

    2017-04-05

    Interlayer misorientation in transition metal dichalcogenides alters their interlayer distance, total energy, electronic band structure, and vibrational modes, but its effect on the interlayer resistance is not known. This study analyzes the interlayer resistance of misoriented bilayer MoS2 as a function of the misorientation angle, and it shows that interlayer misorientation exponentially increases the electron resistivity while leaving the hole resistivity almost unchanged. The physics, determined by the wave functions at the high symmetry points, are generic among the popular semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The asymmetrical effect of misorientation on the electron and hole transport may be exploited in the design and optimization of vertical transport devices such as a bipolar transistor. Density functional theory provides the interlayer coupling elements used for the resistivity calculations.

  12. Wetlife Study of Nickel Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the residual Nickel Precharge, and to understand the Performance and Cycle Life of Aged Nickel Hydrogen cells that were in cold storage up to thirteen (13) years. Comsat Technical Services, Aerospace Corporation, and NSWC/Crane test data to date indicate a nominal electrical performance with a small second plateau and the presence of Nickel Precharge in the cells: Cell Teardown, Plate (active Nickel Precharge determination), and Electrolyte Analyses are in progress. Preliminary Thermal Imaging data indicates that older the cell greater the heat generation, but cell over charge (capacity) could dominate heat generation. U.S. Govt. cells has completed 1150 nominal 60% LEO cycles. The completion date for this study is January 31, 2008.

  13. Dynamic effects of magnetic multilayer interlayer coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.; Xu, J. . Dept. of Physics); Kelly, D.M.; Schuller, I.K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-11-01

    Coupling between magnetic layers in multilayer samples gives rise to dynamic effects which are manifest as anomalous modes in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra. According to the model presented, antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling would produce such modes on the high (low) field side of the uniform FMR mode. Anomalous modes, observed in Fe/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayer samples, are analyzed to obtain coupling constants as a function of nonmagnetic layer thickness. The modes are shown to arise from 180 out-of-phase interlayer magnetization precession. The coupling is observed to be antiferromagnetic in all samples and to be an order of magnitude greater in the Cr system than in the Cu.

  14. Calcination of Nickel Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klačanská, Michaela; Kobetičová, Hana; Soldán, Maroš; Haršáni, Marián; Kuracina, Marcel

    2017-06-01

    Different characterizations were carried out on uncalcinated nickel mud and samples calcined in the temperature range of 200-600 °C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structure transition of the nickel mud heated from room temperature are indicated by SEM, EDX analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Samples of nickel mud were collected in Sereď, where nickel was produced from Albanian iron-nickel ore. It was found that calcination has effect on the structure and composition of nickel mud. The obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of nickel mud.

  15. Interlayer quality dependent graphene spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Hussain, Ghulam; Siddique, Salma; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    It is possible to utilize the new class of materials for emerging two-dimensional (2D) spintronic applications. Here, the role of defects in the graphene interlayer and its influence on the spin valve signal is reported. The emergence of D peak in Raman spectrum reveals defects in the graphene layer. The linear I-V curve for defective and non-defective graphene samples indicate the ohmic nature of NiFe and graphene contact. A non-uniform magnetoresistive effect with a bump is persistently observed for defective graphene device at various temperatures, while a smooth and symmetric signal is detected for non-defective graphene spin valve. Parallel and antiparallel alignments of magnetization of magnetic materials shows low and high resistance states, respectively. The magnetoresistance (MR) ratio for defective graphene NiFe/graphene/NiFe spin valve is measured to be 0.16% at 300 K which progresses to 0.39% for non-defective graphene device at the same temperature. Similarly at 4.2 K the MR ratios are reported to be 0.41% and 0.78% for defective and non-defective graphene devices, respectively. Our investigation provides an evidence for relatively better response of the spin valve signal with high quality graphene interlayer.

  16. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  17. Correlation of interface structure with adhesive strength of ion-plated TiN hard coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.C.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Interlayers of Ti have been used to improve the adhesion of ion-plated TiN coatings. However, the mechanisms of the improvement of adhesion remain unclear. In this study, we have applied analytical electron microscopy on cross section specimens and Auger electron spectroscopy to investigate the correlation of the interface structure with the scratch adhesion of ion-plated TiN coatings with and without Ti interlayers on M50 steel substrates. Our results have shown that the Ti interlayer can reduce the internal stresses at the interface region. Furthermore, this Ti interlayer can transform into TiC phase at high substrate temperature both during and after ion plating. These types of treatment can in turn increase the adhesion of the TiN coatings via a better interface contact and stronger chemical bonds. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Titanium oxynitride interlayer to influence oxygen reduction reaction activity and corrosion stability of Pt and Pt-Ni alloy.

    PubMed

    Tan, XueHai; Wang, Liya; Zahiri, Beniamin; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Karpuzov, Dimitre; Lotfabad, Elmira Memarzadeh; Li, Zhi; Eikerling, Michael H; Mitlin, David

    2015-01-01

    A key advancement target for oxygen reduction reaction catalysts is to simultaneously improve both the electrochemical activity and durability. To this end, the efficacy of a new highly conductive support that comprises of a 0.5 nm titanium oxynitride film coated by atomic layer deposition onto an array of carbon nanotubes has been investigated. Support effects for pure platinum and for a platinum (50 at %)/nickel alloy have been considered. Oxynitride induces a downshift in the d-band center for pure platinum and fundamentally changes the platinum particle size and spatial distribution. This results in major enhancements in activity and corrosion stability relative to an identically synthesized catalyst without the interlayer. Conversely, oxynitride has a minimal effect on the electronic structure and microstructure, and therefore, on the catalytic performance of platinum-nickel. Calculations based on density functional theory add insight with regard to compositional segregation that occurs at the alloy catalyst-support interface.

  19. Second Plateau Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second plateau. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.

  20. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-27

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short-and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.

  1. Surface and interlayer structure of vermiculite intercalated with methyl viologen.

    PubMed

    Kulhánková, Lenka; Capková, Pavla; De Valle, Veronika Ramirez; Poyato, Juan; Pérez-Rodríguez, Jose Luis; Lerf, Anton

    2008-12-01

    Molecular modeling using empirical force field revealed the differences between the surface and interlayer arrangement of the dye guest molecules in vermiculite intercalated with the divalent methyl viologen cation (MV(2+)). Conformation and anchoring of MV(2+) cations on the silicate layer in the interlayer space of vermiculite host structure is different from that on the crystal surface. A preferential position has been found for the anchoring of guests on the silicate layer. Anyway the arrangement of guests in the interlayer space as well as on the crystal surface exhibits a high degree of disorder due to a certain flexibility in guest molecules arrangement and first of all due to the presence of water molecules in the interlayer space. The presence of water disturbs not only the regularity in guest positions and orientations but also in conformation of guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host structure.

  2. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.

  3. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    DOE PAGES

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-27

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short-and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without externalmore » water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.« less

  4. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  5. Diffusion bonding titanium to stainless steel using Nb/Cu/Ni multi-interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Li Peng; Li Jinglong; Xiong Jiangtao; Zhang Fusheng; Raza, Syed Hamid

    2012-06-15

    By using Nb/Cu/Ni structure as multi-interlayer, diffusion bonding titanium to austenitic stainless steel has been conducted. The effects of bonding temperature and bonding time on the interfacial microstructure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope, and the joint strength was evaluated by tensile test. The results showed that Ni atoms aggregated at the Cu-Nb interface, which promoted Cu solution in Nb. This phenomenon forms a Cu-Nb solution strengthening effect. However, such effect would decay by using long bonding time that dilutes Ni atom aggregation, or be suppressed by using high bonding temperature that embrittles the Cu-Nb interface due to the formation of large grown intermetallic compounds. The sound joint was obtained by promoted parameters as 850 Degree-Sign C for 30-45 min, under which a bonding strength around 300 MPa could be obtained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium was diffusion bonded to stainless steel using Nb/Cu/Ni multi-interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of bonding parameters on microstructure and joint strength were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel aggregation promotes Cu solution in Nb which can strengthen the joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sound joint with strength of around 300 MPa was obtained by promoted parameters.

  6. Aqueous Solution Processed Photoconductive Cathode Interlayer for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells with Thick Interlayer and Thick Active Layer.

    PubMed

    Nian, Li; Chen, Zhenhui; Herbst, Stefanie; Li, Qingyuan; Yu, Chengzhuo; Jiang, Xiaofang; Dong, Huanli; Li, Fenghong; Liu, Linlin; Würthner, Frank; Chen, Junwu; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-09-01

    An aqueous-solution-processed photoconductive cathode interlayer is developed, in which the photoinduced charge transfer brings multiple advantages such as increased conductivity and electron mobility, as well as reduced work function. Average power conversion efficiency over 10% is achieved even when the thickness of the cathode interlayer and active layer is up to 100 and 300 nm, respectively.

  7. Study of high performance alloy electroforming. [nickel manganese and nickel cobalt manganese alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-manganese alloy electrodeposits from an electrolyte containing more manganese ion than previously used is being evaluated at two bath operating temperatures with a great variety of pulse plating conditions. Saccharine was added as a stress reducing agent for the electroforming of several of the samples with highest manganese content. All specimens for mechanical property testing have been produced but are not through the various heat treatments as yet. One of the heat treatment will be at 343 C (650 F), the temperature at which the MCC outer electroformed nickel shell is stress relieved. A number of retainer specimens from prior work have been tested for hardness before and after heat treatment. There appears to be a fairly good correlation between hardness and mechanical properties. Comparison of representative mechanical properties with hardnesses are made for nickel-manganese electrodeposits and nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits.

  8. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  9. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-02-25

    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers.

  10. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers. PMID:26911859

  11. Delayed mechanical failure of silver-interlayer diffusion bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, M.E. ); Rosen, R.S.; Henshall, G.A. . Physical Metallurgy and Joining Section)

    1990-12-01

    Silver-interlayer diffusion bonds were fabricated using planar-magnetron sputtering (PMS). The bonds exhibit very high tensile strengths, despite the soft interlayer, because of the constraint by the base metal. However, these joints undergo delayed failure at relatively low tensile stresses at ambient temperatures, apparently by a ductile microvoid coalescence mechanism at the bond interfaces. Two classes of delayed tensile failure were investigated. In the first case, the applied stress does not produced any plastic deformation in the base metal, and failure appears to be controlled by time-dependent plasticity within the silver interlayer as a result of the effective stress in the interlayer. The plasticity causes cavity nucleation and, eventually, interlinkage and failure. In the second case, time-dependent plasticity is observed in base metals, and concomitant shear occurs within the softer silver under a high triaxial stress state. Here, the time-dependent plasticity of the base metal accelerates plasticity and failure in the interlayer. These models were substantiated by careful analysis of the stress and temperature dependence of the rupture times, finite element analysis of the stress state within the interlayer, and microscopy of the fracture surfaces and interfaces loaded to various fractions of the expected rupture times. These findings are applicable to bonds in which the interlayers are prepared by processes other than physical vapor deposition.

  12. Preparation of magnetic nickel hollow fibers with a trilobe structure using cellulose acetate fibers as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Changfeng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lixiong

    2013-02-01

    Nickel hollow fibers with trilobe shape in cross section and monolithic nickel structures composed of trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibrous networks were prepared by using cellulose acetate fibers from cigarette filters as the template. Magnetic ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers were then fabricated by using the nickel-based hollow fibers as the support. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers retain the morphology of the cellulose acetate fibers, and the monolithic nickel structures can be prepared by pre-shaping the cellulose acetate fibers. The thickness of the nickel layer can be regulated by controlling the electroless plating times. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers are 27.78 and 21.59 emu/g and 78 and 61 Oe, respectively.

  13. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leven, Itai; Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded

    2014-03-01

    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures.

  14. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Leven, Itai; Hod, Oded; Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-03-14

    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures.

  15. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  16. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  17. Interlayer exciton dynamics in a dichalcogenide monolayer heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Philipp; Plechinger, Gerd; Ballottin, Mariana V.; Mitioglu, Anatolie; Meier, Sebastian; Paradiso, Nicola; Strunk, Christoph; Chernikov, Alexey; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    In heterostructures consisting of different transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers, a staggered band alignment can occur, leading to rapid charge separation of optically generated electron-hole pairs into opposite monolayers. These spatially separated electron-hole pairs are Coulomb-coupled and form interlayer excitons. Here, we study these interlayer excitons in a heterostructure consisting of MoSe2 and WSe2 monolayers using photoluminescence spectroscopy. We observe a non-trivial temperature dependence of the linewidth and the peak energy of the interlayer exciton, including an unusually strong initial redshift of the transition with temperature, as well as a pronounced blueshift of the emission energy with increasing excitation power. By combining these observations with time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, we are able to explain the observed behavior as a combination of interlayer exciton diffusion and dipolar, repulsive exciton-exciton interaction.

  18. Photoconductive Cathode Interlayer for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nian, Li; Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhu, Na; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Wu, Hongbin; Würthner, Frank; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-06-10

    A highly photoconductive cathode interlayer was achieved by doping a 1 wt % light absorber, such as perylene bisimide, into a ZnO thin film, which absorbs a very small amount of light but shows highly increased conductivity of 4.50 × 10(-3) S/m under sunlight. Photovoltaic devices based on this kind of photoactive cathode interlayer exhibit significantly improved device performance, which is rather insensitive to the thickness of the cathode interlayer over a broad range. Moreover, a power conversion efficiency as high as 10.5% was obtained by incorporation of our photoconductive cathode interlayer with the PTB7-Th:PC71BM active layer, which is one of the best results for single-junction polymer solar cells.

  19. Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Mihnev, Momchil T; Tolsma, John R; Divin, Charles J; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A; MacDonald, Allan H; Norris, Theodore B

    2015-09-24

    In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron-phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied.

  20. Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene

    PubMed Central

    Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2015-01-01

    In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955

  1. A new interlayer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akıner, Tolga; Mason, Jeremy K.; Ertürk, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    A new interlayer potential is developed for interlayer interactions of hexagonal boron nitride sheets, and its performance is compared with other potentials in the literature using molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed potential contains Coulombic and Lennard-Jones 6-12 terms, and is calibrated with recent experimental data including the hexagonal boron nitride interlayer distance and elastic constants. The potentials are evaluated by comparing the experimental and simulated values of interlayer distance, density, elastic constants, and thermal conductivity using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The proposed potential is found to be in reasonable agreement with experiments, and improves on earlier potentials in several respects. Simulated thermal conductivity values as a function of the number of layers and of temperature suggest that the proposed LJ 6-12 potential has the ability to predict some phonon behaviour during heat transport in the out-of-plane direction.

  2. Quality assurance in small plating shops

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, W.J. )

    1993-10-01

    The potential for electroless nickel coatings in oilfield and petrochemical applications is quite high. The greatest obstacle to their use has been a reputation for poor quality due to a lack of quality control in many plating shops. To overcome this, electroless nickel shops should not only have a quality control program in their operation, but must also document its use and success. This article describes how a plating shoe can develop the necessary procedures, manuals, and paperwork trail to offer quality assurance and to satisfy customers.

  3. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nickel transfer by fingers.

    PubMed

    Isnardo, D; Vidal, J; Panyella, D; Vilaplana, J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated fingers as a potential source of nickel transfer to the face in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and a history of facial dermatitis. Samples were collected from the fingers and cheeks of volunteers using the stripping method with standard adhesive tape, and nickel levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. Fingers and cheeks of individuals who had handled coins were both positive for nickel, with levels ranging from 14.67 to 58.64 ppm and 1.28 to 8.52 ppm, respectively. The levels in a control group were considerably and significantly lower. Transfer of nickel from a person's fingers to their face after handling a nickel-containing object could explain the presence of facial dermatitis in patients with nickel hypersensitivity.

  5. Characterization of hexagonal boron nitride layers on nickel surfaces by low-energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, P. C.; Gao, Q.; Ismach, A.; Chou, H.; Widom, M.; Ruoff, R.; Colombo, L.; Feenstra, R. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thickness and interfacial geometry of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) films grown by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline nickel foils is studied using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The reflectivity of the electrons, measured over an energy range of 0-20 eV, reveals distinct minima and maxima. The measured data is compared with simulations based on a first-principles description of the electronic structure of the material. From this comparison, the number of hBN layers and the separation between the lowest hBN layer and the nickel surface is deduced. The coupling of interlayer states of the hBN to both image-potential and Shockley-type surface states of the nickel is discussed, and the dependence of the reflectivity spectra on the surface orientation of nickel grains is examined.

  6. Promoting information diffusion through interlayer recovery processes in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Weihua; Liu, Longzhao; Pei, Sen; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates. By combining the mean-field approximation and the Markov chain approach, we derive the evolution equations of the diffusion process in two-layer homogeneous multiplex networks. The optimal interlayer recovery rate that achieves the maximal enhancement can be calculated by solving the equations numerically. In addition, we find that the promoting effect on a certain layer can be strengthened if information spreads more extensively within the counterpart layer. When applying the model to two-layer scale-free multiplex networks, with or without degree correlation, similar promoting effect is also observed in simulations. Our work indicates that the interlayer recovery process is beneficial to information diffusion in multiplex networks, which may have implications for designing efficient spreading strategies.

  7. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Joyce

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these "real" systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF2O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  8. Evaluation of brush plated alloys as substitutes for tank plated hard chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, H.B.; Hooper, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained from a test program conducted in cooperation with Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) in 1993 for the purpose of evaluating the potential of using brush plated alloys as replacements for tank plated hard chromium which is used in the overhaul of jet engines. Tank plating is energy expensive and generates waste products in several of the plating steps. Test specimens used in this study were fabricated from carbon steel, chromium-based stainless steel, and nickel-based stainless steel. Baseline specimens were tank plated with hard chromium or with a soft nickel capped with hard chromium. The specimens were tested for fatigue, thickness, microhardness, Taber wear, and Falex pin and vee block wear. All test were conducted in accordance with standard procedures of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Test results obtained from the baseline specimens were compared with those obtained from specimens which had been coated with the three brush plated layered alloy solutions used in this evaluation. Results of this study show that brush plated alloy coatings appear promising as alternatives to tank plated hard chromium. Some data quality problems were encountered during testing, so at this time, definitive statements concerning the use of brush plating alloys as an acceptable alternative to tank plated hard chromium in critical TAFB maintenance, cannot be made. Although these tests results are not positive for TAFB`s operation, users of hard chromium tank plating with less critical applications may find brush plated coatings a suitable alternative. 1 ref.

  9. Interlayer coupling effect on the performance of monolithic three-dimensional inverters and its dependence on the interlayer dielectric thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Irisawa, Toshifumi; Ota, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2017-04-01

    We study the interlayer coupling in monolithic three-dimensional (3D) inverters and investigate its effect on the performance of 3D inverters using technology computer-aided design simulation. The interlayer coupling in 3D inverters consisting of silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (FETs) improves the current driving capability of the top FETs. Owing to this improvement, 3D inverters have a smaller intrinsic delay than the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) inverters although the switching energies of 3D and 2D inverters are comparable to each other. We analyze the relationship of such interlayer coupling effects with the interlayer dielectric (ILD) thickness and find that there exists an appropriate ILD thickness in terms of various aspects of the performance such as speed, energy efficiency, and both. It is also found that decreasing the power supply voltage enhances the interlayer coupling effects. In addition, we reveal that the interlayer coupling in 3D inverters is strongly dependent on the original structure of the constituent FETs.

  10. In-depth survey report of American Airlines plating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, V. D., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    An in depth survey was conducted at the American Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Center as part of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study evaluating measures to control occupational health hazards associated with the metal plating industry. This American Airlines plating facility, employing approximately 25 workers, is primarily engaged in plating hard chromium, nickel and cadmium on aircraft engine and landing gear parts. Six tanks were studied, including an electroless nickel tank. Area and personal samples for chromium, nickel, cadmium, and cyanide were collected. Ventilation airflow and tank dimensions were measured and data recorded on plating operations. The relationships between air contaminants emitted, local exhaust ventilation flow rate, tank size, and plating activity were evaluated.

  11. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  12. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  13. A REVIEW OF NICKEL PLATING BATH LIFE EXTENSION, NICKEL RECOVERY & COPPER RECOVERY FROM NICKEL BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For metal finishing operations to remain competitive and in compliance with environmental requirements, companies must focus their efforts on pollution prevention to reduce waste generation and disposal costs, limit liability and restore maximum profits. By applying the pollutio...

  14. A REVIEW OF NICKEL PLATING BATH LIFE EXTENSION, NICKEL RECOVERY & COPPER RECOVERY FROM NICKEL BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For metal finishing operations to remain competitive and in compliance with environmental requirements, companies must focus their efforts on pollution prevention to reduce waste generation and disposal costs, limit liability and restore maximum profits. By applying the pollutio...

  15. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  16. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  17. Process optimization for diffusion bonding of tungsten with EUROFER97 using a vanadium interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuki, Widodo Widjaja; Aktaa, Jarir

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state diffusion bonding is a selected joining technology to bond divertor components consisting of tungsten and EUROFER97 for application in fusion power plants. Due to the large mismatch in their coefficient of thermal expansions, which leads to serious thermally induced residual stresses after bonding, a thin vanadium plate is introduced as an interlayer. However, the diffusion of carbon originated from EUROFER97 in the vanadium interlayer during the bonding process can form a vanadium carbide layer, which has detrimental influences on the mechanical properties of the joint. For optimal bonding results, the thickness of this layer and the residual stresses has to be decreased sufficiently without a significant reduction of material transport especially at the vanadium/tungsten interface, which can be achieved by varying the diffusion bonding temperature and duration. The investigation results show that at a sufficiently low bonding temperature of 700 °C and a bonding duration of 4 h, the joint reaches a reasonable high ductility and toughness especially at elevated test temperature of 550 °C with elongation to fracture of 20% and mean absorbed Charpy impact energy of 2 J (using miniaturized Charpy impact specimens). The strength of the bonded materials is about 332 MPa at RT and 291 MPa at 550 °C. Furthermore, a low bonding temperature of 700 °C can also help to avoid the grain coarsening and the alteration of the grain structure especially of the EUROFER97 close to the bond interface.

  18. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  19. A novel plating process for microencapsulating metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Law, H.H.; Vyas, B.; Zahurak, S.M.; Kammlott, G.W.

    1996-08-01

    One approach to increasing the lifetime of the metal hydride electrode has been the use of conventional electroless plating to produce a coating of copper or nickel on the surface of the metal hydride powders. In this paper, a novel method for microencapsulating the active electrode powders is presented. This new plating technique takes advantage of the reducing power of hydrogen already stored inside the metal hydride to plate a variety of metals onto metal hydride materials. This method greatly simplifies electroless plating for these powders, eliminating the need for stabilizers and additives typically required for conventional electroless plating solutions. Metals that can be electrolessly plated with stored hydrogen have been identified based on thermodynamic considerations. Experimentally, micrometers thick coatings of copper, silver, and nickel have been plated on several metal hydrides.

  20. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  1. Insights into asphaltene aggregation in the Na-montmorillonite interlayer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinzhe; Chen, Daoyi; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to provide insights into the diffusion and aggregation of asphaltenes in the Na-montmorillonite (MMT) interlayer with different water saturation, salinity, interlayer space and humic substances. The molecular configuration, density profile, diffusion coefficient and aggregation intensity were determined by molecular dynamic simulation, while the 3D topography and particle size of the aggregates were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Results indicated that the diffusivity of asphaltenes was up to 5-fold higher in the MMT interlayer filled with fresh water than with saline water (salinity: 35‰). However, salinity had little impact on the asphaltene aggregation. This study also showed a marked decrease in the mobility of asphaltenes with decrease in the pore water content and the interlayer space of MMT. This was more pronounced in the organo-MMT where the humic substances were present. The co-aggregation process resulted in the sequestration of asphaltenes in the hollow cone-shaped cavity of humic substances in the MMT interlayer, which decreased the asphaltene diffusion by up to one-order of magnitude and increased the asphaltene aggregation by about 33%. These findings have important ramifications for evaluating the fate and transport of heavy fractions of the residual oil in the contaminated soils.

  2. The chemical precipitation of nickel on ion exchangers and active carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorol'Skaya, S. V.; Zolotukhina, E. V.; Polyanskii, L. N.; Peshkov, S. V.; Kravchenko, T. A.; Krysanov, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    The chemical precipitation of nickel in the form of poorly soluble precipitates in ion exchanger matrices and on active carbons from solutions of nickel chloride and chemical nickel plating electrolytes was studied. The sorption of nickel ions from a solution of nickel chloride occurs most effectively on Purolite D24002 macroporous chelate forming ion exchanger, KU-23-15/100 sulfo cation exchanger, and KU-2-8 gel sulfo cation exchanger. Nickel enters sulfo cation exchangers in the form of counterions, and is adsorbed on Purolite D24002 largely because of complex formation. The subsequent precipitation of nickel in the solid state in matrix pores liberates ionogenic centers, which allows repeated sorption cycles to be performed. After three chemical precipitation cycles under static conditions, the amount of nickel is higher by 170-250% than the ion exchange capacity of the sorbents. The electrolyte of chemical nickel plating contains nickel predominantly in the form of negatively charged and neutral complexes with glycine, which cannot form bonds with the matrices under study. It is therefore reasonable to perform sorption at decreased solution pH values.

  3. Dermatitis from a chromium dental plate.

    PubMed

    Hubler, W R; Hubler, W R

    1983-09-01

    Systemic absorption of metal or metallic salts from dental and orthopedic surgical implants can produce a cutaneous allergic dermatitis in susceptible individuals. Mercury, nickel and cobalt are the most common metals to elicit such systemic allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure. A case is presented of a generalized eczematoid dermatitis apparently caused by allergy to chromium liberated from a metal dental plate.

  4. Nickel-Cadmium Cell Design Variable Program Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A program was undertaken in conjunction with the General Electric Company to evaluate 9 of the more important nickel cadmium aerospace cell designs that are currently being used or that have been used in the past 15 years. Design variables tested in this program included teflonated negative plates, silver treated negative plates, light plate loading level, no positive plate cadmium treatment, plate design of 1968 utilizing both old and new processing techniques, and electrochemically impregnated positive plates. The data acquired from these test packs in a low Earth orbit cycling regime is presented and analyzed here. This data showed conclusively that the cells manufactured with no positive plate cadmium treatment outperformed all other cell designs in all aspects of the program and that the cells with teflonated negative electrodes performed very poorly.

  5. A transient FGM interlayer based approach to joining ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, A.M.; Shalz, M.L.; Dalgleish, B.J.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    In most cases, functionally gradient materials have been designed to produce a desirable property gradient in a material or in a joint region. In this paper, the concept of a transient gradient structure is introduced. The function of the intentional property discontinuities in these multilayer interlayers is to facilitate processing of assemblies and materials combinations that would be difficult to process using conventional bonding approaches. Specifically, the methods make use of a thin or partial layer of a low melting point transient liquid phase to facilitate bonding via brazing, yet produce refractory joints. Several mechanisms for consuming the transient liquid former are outlined, and examples of interlayer designs that exploit these mechanisms are presented. Specific results from experiments joining alumina to alumina via Cu/Pt/Cu, Cu/Ni/Cu, Cu/Nb/Cu and Sn/Nb/Sn interlayers are presented.

  6. Bending Behavior of Structural Glass Laminated With Different Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafinavicius, T.; Kvedaras, A. K.; Sauciuvenas, G.

    2013-09-01

    Experimental results on the bending strength of structural laminated glass are presented. Three different interlayer laminates were used: polyvinyl butyric (PVB), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), DuPont SentryGlas Plus (SGP), and a 6-mm-thick tempered soda-lime-silica glass. Four-point bending tests up to failure were carried out on test specimens according to the EN 1288-3 standard and deflections at the midspan of the specimens and the sliding displacement between their two structural glass sheets with different types of interlayer laminates were measured. A comparison between experimental results for the resistances of glass composite panels with various interlayers and monolithic glass sheets is presented too.

  7. Observation of Interlayer Phonons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Ye, Zhipeng; Ji, Chao; Means-Shively, Casie; Anderson, Heidi; Kidd, Tim; Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Chou, Cheng-Tse; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Andersen, Trond; Lui, Chun Hung

    Interlayer phonon modes in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures are observed for the first time. We measured the low-frequency Raman response of MoS2/WSe2 and MoSe2/MoS2 heterobilayers. We discovered a distinct Raman mode (30 - 35 cm-1) that cannot be found in any individual monolayers. By comparing with Raman spectra of Bernal bilayer (2L) MoS2, 2L MoSe2 and 2L WSe2, we identified the new Raman mode as the layer breathing vibration arising from the vertical displacement of the two TMD layers. The layer breathing mode (LBM) only emerges in bilayer regions with atomically close layer-layer proximity and clean interface. In addition, the LBM frequency exhibits noticeable dependence on the rotational angle between the two TMD layers, which implies a change of interlayer separation and interlayer coupling strength with the layer stacking.

  8. Electronic structure and phase composition of dielectric interlayers in multilayer amorphous nanostructure [(CoFeB)60C40/SiO2]200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domashevskaya, E. P.; Builov, N. S.; Terekhov, V. A.; Barkov, K. A.; Sitnikov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    The multilayer amorphous nanostructure [(CoFeB)60C40/SiO2]200 of alternating composite and dielectric layers was obtained by ion-beam sputtering on a rotating pyroceramic substrate of two targets, one of which was a Co40Fe40B20 metal alloy plate with graphite inserts. The dielectric interlayers of SiO2 were sputtered from a quartz plate (second target). The thicknesses of bilayers of the multilayered nanostructure (MNS) (6 nm), consisting of metal-carbon composite layers (CoFeB)60C40 approximately 4 nm in thickness and a silicon oxide dielectric interlayers with a thickness of approximately 2 nm, were determined by small-angle diffraction. The results of experimental layer-by-layer study without destroying the MNS by ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy (USXES) showed a significant deviation of the stoichiometric composition of the dielectric interlayers from stoichiometry sputtered quartz towards decreasing oxygen concentration with the formation of SiO1.3 suboxide. As a result of simulation of the Si L 2,3 spectra of silicon using reference spectra of known phases, the concentration of the silicon suboxide phase in the amorphous dielectric interlayers reaches about half of the interlayer content, the second half of which is accounted for SiO 2 dioxide. A "shielding" effect of carbon in the metal layers is manifested in the absence of silicide formation at the interfaces of the multilayer structure under study and should help to increase the anisotropy of their electromagnetic properties.

  9. Interlayer Superfluidity in Bilayer Systems of Fermionic Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Pikovski, A.; Santos, L.; Klawunn, M.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.

    2010-11-19

    We consider fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry where they are oriented perpendicularly to the layers, which permits both low inelastic losses and superfluid pairing. The dipole-dipole interaction between molecules of different layers leads to the emergence of interlayer superfluids. The superfluid regimes range from BCS-like fermionic superfluidity with a high T{sub c} to Bose-Einstein (quasi-)condensation of interlayer dimers, thus exhibiting a peculiar BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. We show that one can cover the entire crossover regime under current experimental conditions.

  10. Interlayer electronic transport in CaMnBi2 antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aifeng; Graf, D.; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Kefeng; Bozin, E.; Zhu, Yimei; Petrovic, C.

    2016-09-01

    We report interlayer electronic transport in CaMnBi2 single crystals. Quantum oscillations and angular magnetoresistance suggest coherent electronic conduction and valley polarized conduction of Dirac states. The small cyclotron mass, high mobility of carriers, and nontrivial Berry's phase are consistent with the presence of Dirac fermions on the side wall of the warped cylindrical Fermi surface. Similarly to SrMnBi2, which features an anisotropic Dirac cone, our results suggest that magnetic-field-induced changes in interlayer conduction are also present in layered bismuth-based materials with a zero-energy line in momentum space created by the staggered alkaline earth atoms.

  11. Structural rheological model of two-phase interlayer shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altoiz, B. A.; Aslanov, S. K.; Kiriyan, S. V.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a study of an epitropic liquid crystal layer formation at a metal substrate. Such layer structurization leads to non-Newtonian flow of thin interlayer with wall-adjacent orientation-ordered layers. Rheological characteristics of micron interlayers of n-hexadecane and Vaseline oil with surfactant addition are investigated. The features of structural "variable viscosity" layer are defined within the framework of a proposed rheological model. An increase in the rate of shear deformation leads to a reduction in near-surface layer viscosity due to molecular reorientation. Estimation of model parameters, performed on basis of the experimental rheological data, is carried out.

  12. Interlayer electronic transport in CaMnBi2 antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Aifeng; Graf, D.; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2016-09-12

    Here, we report interlayer electronic transport in CaMnBi2 single crystals. Quantum oscillations and angular magnetoresistance suggest coherent electronic conduction and valley polarized conduction of Dirac states. Furthermore, the small cyclotron mass, high mobility of carriers, and nontrivial Berry's phase are consistent with the presence of Dirac fermions on the side wall of the warped cylindrical Fermi surface. Similarly to SrMnBi2 , which features an anisotropic Dirac cone, our results suggest that magnetic-field-induced changes in interlayer conduction are also present in layered bismuth-based materials with a zero-energy line in momentum space created by the staggered alkaline earth atoms.

  13. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  14. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  15. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  16. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  17. The nickel problem.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Dalmau, L

    1982-07-01

    Clinical use of the new base-metal alloys in restorative dentistry involves a risk for both dentist and patient. It is the responsibility of the dentist to determine if a patient is allergic to nickel prior to treatment with a restoration containing a nickel alloy. A patch test is recommended for nickel sensitivity in every patient when such a restoration is planned. In addition, the dentist should include in the work authorization order to the dental laboratory the type of alloy he wants for a particular patient. The dentist should be prepared to check for the presence of nickel in a casting suspected of containing it using the dimethylglyoxime test. The evaluation record for nickel sensitivity should include the patient's name, age, history of allergies, medication, name of drug, dosage, and reaction. The record should be kept in the patient's chart.

  18. Boronization of nickel and nickel clad materials for potential use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon; Coleman, J. E.; Yang, Z Gary

    2006-12-20

    A new low-cost, nickel clad bipolar plate concept is currently being developed for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Reported in this paper are the details of a powder-pack boronization process that would be used to establish a passivation layer on the electrolyte exposed surfaces of the bipolar plate in the final stage of manufacture. Results from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that under moderate boronization conditions a homogeneous Ni3B layer grows on the exposed surfaces of the nickel clad material, the thickness of which depends on the time and temperature of boronization according to a Wagner-type scale growth relationship. At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, a Ni2B overlayer forms on top of the Ni3B during boronization.

  19. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  20. Nickel silicide for Ni/Cu contact mono-silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-07-01

    A solar cell contact needs to be as thin as possible and have high conductivity since a thick contact causes shading loss and reduced current. Plating is a very suitable method for making a metal contact, and nickel is a high conductivity metal which is easy to form into a contact using electroless plating. After the nickel is plated on the silicon substrate, the nickel contact should be fired in order to form nickel silicide. Nickel silicide is used for the seed layer of the Cu contact for silicon solar cells. In this study, we replaced the screen-printed contact of the Passivated Emitter Solar Cell (PESC) with a Ni/Cu contact that has a selective emitter. The nickel layer was used as the seed layer, adhesion layer, and Cu diffusion barrier. The main contact was formed by plating the copper. The firing conditions of a conventional furnace were varied in order to form nickel silicide. Consequently, we achieved the best solar cell efficiency of 18.15%.

  1. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  2. Evidence for near-Surface NiOOH Species in Solution-Processed NiOx Selective Interlayer Materials: Impact on Energetics and the Performance of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Meyer, Jens; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Garcia, Andres; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.; Kahn, Antoine; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2011-11-22

    The characterization and implementation of solution-processed, wide bandgap nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) hole-selective interlayer materials used in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are discussed. The surface electrical properties and charge selectivity of these thin films are strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry, band edge energies, and midgap state concentrations, as dictated by the ambient conditions and film pretreatments. Surface states were correlated with standards for nickel oxide, hydroxide, and oxyhydroxide components, as determined using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements show changes in the surface chemistries directly impact the valence band energies. O₂-plasma treatment of the as-deposited NiO{sub x} films was found to introduce the dipolar surface species nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), rather than the p-dopant Ni₂O₃, resulting in an increase of the electrical band gap energy for the near-surface region from 3.1 to 3.6 eV via a vacuum level shift. Electron blocking properties of the as-deposited and O₂-plasma treated NiO{sub x} films are compared using both electron-only and BHJ devices. O₂-plasma-treated NiO{sub x} interlayers produce electron-only devices with lower leakage current and increased turn on voltages. The differences in behavior of the different pretreated interlayers appears to arise from differences in local density of states that comprise the valence band of the NiO{sub x} interlayers and changes to the band gap energy, which influence their hole-selectivity. The presence of NiOOH states in these NiO{sub x} films and the resultant chemical reactions at the oxide/organic interfaces in OPVs is predicted to play a significant role in controlling OPV device efficiency and lifetime.

  3. Theoretical adhesion strength of diamond coating with metallic interlayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haibo; Qi, Yue; Li, Xiaodong

    2009-03-01

    Metallic interlayers are often needed to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings to substrates and to promote diamond nucleation and growth. The interfaces between diamond coatings and metallic interlayer materials with different carbide formation enthalpies, Cu, Al, and Ti, are studied using density functional theory. The ideal interface strength or the work of separation is found to decrease with the carbide formation enthalpy. Analysis to the electronic structure shows that covalent metal-carbon bonds form at the interface, and the perturbation from the interface weakens nearby metal phase. Comparing the work of separation at the interface with the fracture energy of the metal, a fracture is likely to initiate in the metal phase near the interface, therefore a tough metal with a large surface energy is needed to achieve a higher overall toughness. In addition, when the surface energy is larger than the interface energy, a wetted diamond/metal interface is formed during diamond nucleation, which also contributes to good adhesion. The interface energy, which is an energy barrier to diamond nucleation, is found to decrease with the carbide formation enthalpy. These results indicate strong carbide formability and a large surface energy of the interlayer enhance the adhesion and the fracture resistance of the interface, and also conduce to the diamond nucleation on the interlayer.

  4. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-01

    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  5. Electric explosion nickel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, A. B.; Aliev, B. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the morphology of the nickel nanopowders synthesized by an electric explosion of a metallic wire are comprehensively studied. The results of scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the nickel nanoclusters have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. An analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrates that the lattice parameter of the electric explosion nanopowder particles is larger than the standard parameter. The results of computer experiments agree well with the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction data. However, the causes of the lattice distortion in the nickel nanoclusters are still debatable.

  6. Conjugated Polymer Zwitterions: Efficient Interlayer Materials in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Duzhko, Volodimyr V; Page, Zachariah A; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-11-15

    Conjugated polymer zwitterions (CPZs) are neutral, hydrophilic, polymer semiconductors. The pendent zwitterions, viewed as side chain dipoles, impart solubility in polar solvents for solution processing, and open opportunities as interfacial components of optoelectronic devices, for example, between metal electrodes and organic semiconductor active layers. Such interlayers are crucial for defining the performance of organic electronic devices, e.g., field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and photovoltaics (OPVs), all of which consist of multilayer structures. The interlayers reduce the Schottky barrier height and thus improve charge injection in OFETs and OLEDs. In OPVs, the interlayers serve to increase the built-in electric potential difference (Vbi) across the active layer, ensuring efficient extraction of photogenerated charge carriers. In general, polar and even charged electronically active polymers have gained recognition for their ability to modify metal/semiconductor interfaces to the benefit of organic electronics. While conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as interlayer materials are well-documented, open questions remain about the role of mobile counterions in CPE-containing devices. CPZs possess the processing advantages of CPEs, but as neutral molecules lack any potential complications associated with counterions. The electronic implications of CPZs on metal electrodes stem from the orientation of the zwitterion dipole moment in close proximity to the metal surface, and the resultant surface-induced polarization. This generates an interfacial dipole (Δ) at the CPZ/metal interface, altering the work function of the electrode, as confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and improving device performance. An ideal cathode interlayer would reduce electrode work function, have orthogonal processability to the active layer, exhibit good film forming properties (i.e., wettability/uniformity), prevent exciton

  7. Nickel Curie point engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient heat source. A simple but elegant device illustrates this phenomenon beautifully.

  8. Environmentally friendly process for nickel electroplating of ABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaoui, M.; Martins, J. I.; Bazzaoui, E. A.; Albourine, A.

    2012-08-01

    Nickel electroplating of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic has been achieved successfully without any chromium or palladium pretreatment. Once the ABS is coated with polypyrrole (PPy), the sample may be electroplated. The process is fast, economic and involves three stages. Firstly, chemical deposition of PPy on ABS, secondly, copper deposition and finally nickel electroplating. A homogenous and adherent PPy has been synthesized chemically on ABS plate by using pyrrole as monomer and iron (III) chloride as oxidant. Copper and nickel were deposited galvanostatically from industrial plating baths. The metallic coatings were homogeneous and the adherence was estimated at 100%. The thickness of copper and nickel depend on the electrolysis time. As the current density increases, the Cu and Ni thickness raises. This result was confirmed from SEM characterization and RX map. The Ni coating is characterized by a globular structure with globules of different sizes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis shows the presence of Ni with some amount of carbon and oxygen due to the nickel oxides and contaminant from the bath solution.

  9. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  10. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for....1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from nickel ore by transforming...

  12. Peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babecki, A. J. (Inventor); Haehner, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    A process for metal plating which comprises spraying a mixture of metallic powder and small peening particles at high velocity against a surface is described. The velocity must be sufficient to impact and bond metallic powder onto the surface. In the case of metal surfaces, the process has as one of its advantages providing mechanical working (hardening) of the surface simultaneously with the metal plating.

  13. Production method of nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, H.; Ohira, T.

    1982-01-01

    A nickel electrode having improved charging efficiency, an increased coefficient of discharging utilization, and large capacity is disclosed. Nickel hydroxide or nickel oxide is retained in a porous nickel substrate which is immersed in an aqueous solution of cobalt acetate with a pH 4.0 to 6.8. The electrode thus obtained is then immersed in an alkaline solution or heated to change cobalt acetate into cobalt hydroxide or cobalt oxide whereby the surface of nickel active material is covered with cobalt crystals and alloying of cobalt and nickel is promoted at the same time.

  14. Soil, nickel and low nickel food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Mimiola, Giancarlo; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Nickel is an ubiquitous trace element and occurs in soil, water, air and in the biosphere. Ni is an essential element for several plants, microorganisms and vertebrates. Human requirement for Ni has not been conclusively demonstrated. Nickel is normally present in human tissues at low concentration and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. Food is the major source of Ni exposure. Nickel is present in many food products, especially vegetables. The amount of Ni present in vegetables is increasing because of environmental contamination and cultural practices. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of a Ni-rich diet can cause an increase of immunological disorders including Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS patients are currently treated with a diet that is closely Ni-free. Therefore, there is a need to produce certified and guaranteed vegetables with a low Ni concentration in the market. The proposed research aims to develop new methods for vegetable production and innovative cultural practices through a suitable choice of agricultural soil, cultivar, amendments and fertilizers as well as good agricultural practices in order to reduce Ni plant uptake and its translocation to the edible plant parts and therefore to produce Ni-free food products for SNAS patients.

  15. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niguès, A.; Siria, A.; Vincent, P.; Poncharal, P.; Bocquet, L.

    2014-07-01

    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a ‘Christmas cracker’-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  16. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Niguès, A; Siria, A; Vincent, P; Poncharal, P; Bocquet, L

    2014-07-01

    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a 'Christmas cracker'-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  17. Detection of interlayer interaction in few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Zhu, Wei; He, Mingquan; Xu, Shuigang; Chen, Xiaolong; Lu, Huanhuan; Ye, Weiguang; Han, Tianyi; Wu, Yingying; Long, Gen; Shen, Junying; Huang, Rui; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Lortz, Rolf; Su, Dangsheng; Wang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Bernal-stacked few-layer graphene has been investigated by analyzing its Landau-level spectra through quantum capacitance measurements. We find that surface relaxation, which is insignificant in trilayer graphene, starts to manifest in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. In trilayer graphene, the interlayer interaction parameters are generally similar to those of graphite. However, in tetralayer graphene, the hopping parameters of the two bulk layers are quite different from those of the two outer layers. This represents direct evidence of the surface relaxation phenomenon. Traditionally, the van der Waals interaction between the carbon layers is thought to be insignificant. However, we suggest that the interlayer interaction is an important factor in explaining the observed results, and the symmetry-breaking effects in graphene sublattice are not negligible.

  18. Multimetallic Core/Interlayer/Shell Nanostructures as Advanced Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yijin; Snyder, Joshua; Chi, Miaofang; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2014-11-12

    The fine balance between activity and durability is crucial for the development of high performance electrocatalysts. The importance of atomic structure and compositional gradients is a guiding principle in exploiting the knowledge from well-defined materials in the design of novel electrocatalysts with a Ni core, Au interlayer and PtNi shell nanostructure (Ni@Au@PtNi). This multimetallic system is found to have the optimal balance of activity and durability due to the synergy between stabilizing effect of subsurface Au and modified electronic structure of surface Pt through interaction with subsurface Ni atoms. The electrocatalysts with Ni@Au@PtNi core-interlayer-shell structure exhibit high intrinsic and mass activities as well as superior durability for the oxygen reduction reaction with less than 10% activity loss after 10,000 potential cycles between 0.6 and 1.1 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode.

  19. Reduction of magnetic interlayer coupling in barlowite through isoelectronic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Valentí, Roser; Jeschke, Harald O.

    2016-09-01

    Materials with a perfect kagome lattice structure of magnetic ions are intensively sought after, because they may exhibit exotic ground states like a quantum spin liquid phase. Barlowite is a natural mineral that features perfect kagome layers of copper ions. However, in barlowite there are also copper ions between the kagome layers, which mediate strong interkagome couplings and lead to an ordered ground state. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations we investigate whether selective isoelectronic substitution of the interlayer copper ions is feasible. After identifying several promising candidates for substitution we calculate the magnetic exchange couplings based on crystal structures predicted from first-principles calculations. We find that isoelectronic substitution with nonmagnetic ions significantly reduces the interkagome exchange coupling. As a consequence, interlayer-substituted barlowite can be described by a simple two-parameter Heisenberg Hamiltonian, for which a quantum spin liquid ground state has been predicted.

  20. Interlayer commensurability and superlubricity in rigid layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Oded

    2012-08-01

    Superlubricity is a frictionless tribological state sometimes occurring in nanoscale material junctions. It is often associated with incommensurate surface lattice structures appearing at the interface. Here, by using the recently introduced registry-index concept that quantifies the registry mismatch in layered materials and reproduces their interlayer sliding energy landscape, we prove the existence of a direct relation between interlayer commensurability and wearless friction in rigid layered materials. We show that our simple and intuitive model is able to capture, down to fine details, the experimentally measured frictional behavior of a hexagonal graphene flake sliding on top of the surface of graphite. We further predict that superlubricity is expected to occur in hexagonal boron nitride as well with tribological characteristics very similar to those observed for the graphitic system. The success of our method in predicting experimental results along with its high computational efficiency marks the registry index as a promising tool for studying tribological properties of nanoscale material interfaces.

  1. Copper plating on the polyimide film by electroless plating techniques for EMI shielding.

    PubMed

    Ji, Eun Sun; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Kang, Dong In; Kang, Young Soo

    2009-12-01

    In this work, the metal plated film was prepared by electroless plating techniques. The film was prepared for the fabrication of EMI shielding. Polyimide film was treated by base solution for etching and then activated by silver. The modified polyimide film was immersed into the electroless copper plating solution which has different molar ratios of nickel in the solution. The thickness and surface morphology of copper layer on the polyimide films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, EMI shielding ability of the film was calculated by measuring reflectivity of EM wave on the film surface using the equation of Schelkunoff theory.

  2. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  3. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  4. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  5. Interlayer methods for reducing the dislocation density in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappers, M. J.; Moram, M. A.; Zhang, Y.; Vickers, M. E.; Barber, Z. H.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    The ability of various interlayers to lower the density of threading dislocations (TDs) has been studied for the growth of c-plane (0 0 0 1) GaN epilayers on sapphire by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The TD density in the films may be reduced to 9×10 7 cm -2 using in-situ SiN x interlayers formed from silane and ammonia. This TD reduction method relies on the formation of facetted islands on the SiN x-treated GaN surface and the formation of dislocation half loops between bent-over TDs during the lateral overgrowth, and not by physically blocking the TDs. Thus, the TD density was reduced at the expense of greater film thickness by increasing the SiN x coverage and delaying intentionally the coalescence of the GaN islands. Scandium nitride interlayers have also proved effective for defect reduction; dislocation densities of 3×10 7 cm -2 have been reached by depositing thin (5-15 nm) Sc metal layers on 500 nm GaN-on-sapphire seed layers, then annealing in NH 3 to form ScN, followed by overgrowth of GaN. The low dislocation densities are attributed to a dislocation-blocking effect induced by the different (but compatible) crystal structures of GaN and ScN, whereby the dislocations threading from the seed layer cannot propagate through the ScN layer. The remaining dislocations appear to form on coalescence of the dislocation-free GaN islands which nucleate on the ScN interlayer.

  6. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells and batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher specific energy than the heavy sintered state of the art nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber, felt, and nickel plated plastic) are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested at 40 and 80 percent depths of discharge (DOD). Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. Over 7,000 cycles of life cycle testing have been accumulated at 40 percent DOD, using the lightweight fiber electrode in a boiler plate Ni-H2 cell with stable voltage.

  7. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field. PMID:21436967

  8. Nickel and chromium cycles: Stocks and flows project part IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, Barbara K.; Gordon, Robert B.

    2008-07-01

    Nickel and chromium are essential ingredients in alloys increasingly important for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly modern technology. Quantitative assessment of the flows of these metals through the world economy from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article summarizes the worldwide technological cycles of nickel and chromium in 2000. Stainless steel is the major use of these metals, but they serve numerous other special needs, as in superalloys for high-temperature service, as plating materials, and in coinage. Because they are used primarily in alloys, novel recycling issues arise as their use becomes more widespread.

  9. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  10. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships in transient liquid phase bonded nickel-based superalloys and iron-based ODS alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluru, Sreenivasa Charan Rajeev

    The research work presented here discusses the microstructure-mechanical property relationships in wide gap transient liquid phase (TLP) bonds, between the single crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 and two polycrystalline superalloys, IN 738 and IN 939, using wide-gap style composite interlayers. Fabrication of complicated geometries and successful repair development of gas turbine engine components made of superalloys requires a high performance metallurgical joining technique and a complete understanding of microstructure-mechanical property relationships. A number of joining processes have been investigated, but all of them have significant disadvantages that limit their ability to produce sound joints. TLP bonding has proved to be a successful method and is the most preferred joining method for nickel-based superalloys, with microstructures and compositions of the joint similar to that of the bulk substrates resulting in mechanical properties close to that of the parent metal. The current joining process used two proprietary wide-gap style composite interlayers, Niflex-110 and Niflex-115, consisting of a nickel-based core with boron-rich surfaces, and a conventional rapidly solidified metallic glass foil interlayer BNi-3 was chosen for comparison. When composite interlayers were employed, competition between wetting of the faying surfaces and formation of the eutectic along the grain boundaries was observed to lead to non-bonded regions at the faying surfaces, unless a boron-rich interlayer was employed. Composite interlayers resulted in the suppression of bondline boride formation. With the exception of this competition, adequate wetting of the substrates occurred for all interlayers. Two factors dominated the room temperature mechanical properties of the wide-gap bonds. The first was the extent of gamma-prime formation at the bondline. Results from shear testing and fractography of the bonds indicated ductile shear failure at the bondline. This was due to

  11. Universality of periodicity as revealed from interlayer-mediated cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung Rae; Jung, Jong Hyun; Seo, Min Key; Cho, Sung Un; Kim, Young Duck; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Seung; Kim, Pilkwang; Hone, James; Ihm, Jisoon; Park, Yun Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A crack and its propagation is a challenging multiscale materials phenomenon of broad interest, from nanoscience to exogeology. Particularly in fracture mechanics, periodicities are of high scientific interest. However, a full understanding of this phenomenon across various physical scales is lacking. Here, we demonstrate periodic interlayer-mediated thin film crack propagation and discuss the governing conditions resulting in their periodicity as being universal. We show strong confinement of thin film cracks and arbitrary steering of their propagation by inserting a predefined thin interlayer, composed of either a polymer, metal, or even atomically thin graphene, between the substrate and the brittle thin film. The thin interlayer-mediated controllability arises from local modification of the effective mechanical properties of the crack medium. Numerical calculations incorporating basic fracture mechanics principles well model our experimental results. We believe that previous studies of periodic cracks in SiN films, self-de-bonding sol-gel films, and even drying colloidal films, along with this study, share the same physical origins but with differing physical boundary conditions. This finding provides a simple analogy for various periodic crack systems that exist in nature, not only for thin film cracks but also for cracks ranging in scale.

  12. Triplet superconductivity in oxide ferromagnetic interlayer of mesa-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Y Constantinian, K.; Sheerman, A. E.; Shadrin, A. V.; Kislinski, Yu V.; Khaydukov, Yu N.; Mustafa, L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Winkler, D.

    2015-03-01

    We present experimental data on Nb-Au/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrRuO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ mesa- structure with in plane linear size 10÷50 μm. The mesa-structures were patterned from the epitaxial heterostructures fabricated by pulsed laser ablation and magnetron sputtering. Superconducting critical current was observed for mesa-structures with the interlayer thicknesses up to 50 nm. In the mesa-structures with just one, either La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 or SrRuO3 interlayer with a thickness larger than 10 nm no superconducting current was observed. The registered superconducting current for the mesa-structures with a thinner interlayer is attributed to pinholes. Obtained results are discussed in terms of superconducting long-range triplet generation at interfaces of superconductor and a composite ferromagnet consisting of ferromagnetic materials with non-collinear magnetization.

  13. Superconducting current in hybrid structures with an antiferromagnetic interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitsev, A. V. Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Constantinian, K. Y. Kislinskii, Yu. V.; Shadrin, A. V.; Borisenko, I. V.; Komissinskiy, P. V.

    2010-02-15

    It is shown experimentally that the superconducting current density in Nb/Au/Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 2}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} hybrid superconducting heterostructures with a Ca{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 2} anti-ferromagnetic (AF) cuprate interlayer is anomalously high for interlayer thicknesses d{sub M} = 10-50 nm and the characteristic damping length for superconducting correlations is on the order of 10 nm. The experimental results are explained on the basis of theoretical analysis of a junction of two superconductors (S' and S) connected by a magnetic multilayer with the AF ordering of magnetization in the layers. It is shown that with such a magnetization ordering, anomalous proximity effect determined by the singlet component of the condensate wavefunction may take place. As a result, the critical currents in S'/I/AF/S and S'/I/N/S structures (I denotes an insulator, and N, the normal metal) may coincide in order of magnitude even when the thickness of the AF interlayer considerably exceeds the decay length of the condensate wavefunction in ferromagnetic layers.

  14. Size effect on interlayer shear between graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengtao; Chen, Yuli; Ma, Yong; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Jianyu

    2017-08-01

    Interlayer shear between graphene sheets plays an important role in graphene-based materials and devices, but the effect of in-plane deformation of graphene, which may depend on the graphene size, has not been fully understood. In this paper, the size effect on interlayer shear behavior between two graphene sheets is studied based on a non-linear shear-lag model with energy barrier analysis, in which both the lattice registry effect and the elastic deformation of graphene are taken into account, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to verify the model. Both theoretical prediction and MD simulations show that the maximum interlayer shear force of short graphene sheets increases with the graphene length and width. However, if the sheet length is beyond 20 nm, the maximum shear force cannot be further increased by increasing the graphene length due to the non-uniform relative displacement between graphene layers, which is caused by the in-plane deformation of graphene. The upper bound of the maximum shear force per unit graphene width is obtained analytically as a constant 5.6 N/m, suggesting that a small force can pull an infinite long graphene belt to slide on a graphene substrate. This study offers useful information for design and manufacture of graphene-based nano-devices and materials.

  15. An anomalous interlayer exciton in MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Azhikodan, Dilna; Nautiyal, Tashi; Shallcross, Sam; Sharma, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The few layer transition metal dichalcogenides are two dimensional materials that have an intrinsic gap of the order of ≈2 eV. The reduced screening in two dimensions implies a rich excitonic physics and, as a consequence, many potential applications in the field of opto-electronics. Here we report that a layer perpendicular electric field, by which the gap size in these materials can be efficiently controlled, generates an anomalous inter-layer exciton whose binding energy is independent of the gap size. We show this originates from the rich gap control and screening physics of TMDCs in a bilayer geometry: gating the bilayer acts on one hand to increase intra-layer screening by reducing the gap and, on the other hand, to decrease the inter-layer screening by field induced charge depletion. This constancy of binding energy is both a striking exception to the universal reduction in binding energy with gap size that all materials are believed to follow, as well as evidence of a degree of control over inter-layer excitons not found in their well studied intra-layer counterparts. PMID:27841337

  16. Time-dependent behavior of layered arches with viscoelastic interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Zhou, Ding; Liu, Weiqing; Fang, Hai

    2017-08-01

    This work studies the time-dependent behavior of a layered arch adhesively bonded by viscoelastic interlayers. The deformation of the viscoelastic interlayer is represented by the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive relation in an interlayer is simplified through the quasi-elastic approximation approach. The mechanical property of an arch layer is described by the exact two-dimensional (2-D) elasticity theory in polar coordinates. The stress and displacement components in an arch layer, which strictly satisfy the simply supported boundary conditions, have been analytically derived out. The stresses and displacements are efficiently obtained by means of the recursive matrix method for the arch with any number of layers. The comparison study shows that the 2-D finite element solution has good agreement with the present one, while the solution based on the one-dimensional (1-D) Euler-Bernoulli theory has considerable error, especially for thick arches. The influences of geometrical and material parameters on the time-dependent behavior of the layered arch are analyzed in detail.

  17. Universality of periodicity as revealed from interlayer-mediated cracks

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Myung Rae; Jung, Jong Hyun; Seo, Min key; Cho, Sung Un; Kim, Young Duck; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yong Seung; Kim, Pilkwang; Hone, James; Ihm, Jisoon; Park, Yun Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A crack and its propagation is a challenging multiscale materials phenomenon of broad interest, from nanoscience to exogeology. Particularly in fracture mechanics, periodicities are of high scientific interest. However, a full understanding of this phenomenon across various physical scales is lacking. Here, we demonstrate periodic interlayer-mediated thin film crack propagation and discuss the governing conditions resulting in their periodicity as being universal. We show strong confinement of thin film cracks and arbitrary steering of their propagation by inserting a predefined thin interlayer, composed of either a polymer, metal, or even atomically thin graphene, between the substrate and the brittle thin film. The thin interlayer-mediated controllability arises from local modification of the effective mechanical properties of the crack medium. Numerical calculations incorporating basic fracture mechanics principles well model our experimental results. We believe that previous studies of periodic cracks in SiN films, self-de-bonding sol-gel films, and even drying colloidal films, along with this study, share the same physical origins but with differing physical boundary conditions. This finding provides a simple analogy for various periodic crack systems that exist in nature, not only for thin film cracks but also for cracks ranging in scale. PMID:28252036

  18. Perspective on plating for precision finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    This paper is intended as an overview on platings for precision finishing operations. After a brief review of the two processes (polishing and precision machining) by which a coating on a part can be converted to a precision surface, the coatings which work successfully in these applications will be discussed. Then adhesion and stress aspects of deposits will be covered. Electroless nickel, which is a particularly attractive coating for precision finishing applications, will be discussed in some detail, from its early years as the Kanigen'' process to the present. Since microstructural changes in deposits are important for precision parts, this aspect will be covered for electroless nickel, copper and silver deposits. Lastly, some words will be directed at potential future electrodeposited coatings including nickel-phosphorus alloys, and various silver alloys. 41 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for a Nickel-hydrogen Cell: Cycle Life Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, cycle life tests of nickel electrodes were carried out in Hi/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45-minute low earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. The results show that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength did not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. The best plaque type appears to be one which is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has a median pore size of 13 micron.

  20. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list.

  1. Nickel gradient electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates generally to rechargeable batteries, and, in particular, relates to batteries that use nickel electrodes. It provides an improved nickel electrode with a selected gradient of additive materials. The concentration of additives in the impregnating solution are controlled during impregnation such that an additive gradient is generated. In the situation where the highest ionic conductivity is needed at the current collector boundary with the active material, the electrochemical impregnating solution is initially high in additive, and at the end of impregnation has been adjusted to significantly lower additive concentration. For chemical impregnation, the electrodes are similarly dipped in solutions that are initially high in additive. This invention is suitable for conventional additives such as cobalt, cadmium, barium, manganese, and zinc. It is therefore one objective of the invention to provide an improved nickel electrode of a battery cell with an additive in the active material to increase the life of the battery cell. Another objective is to provide for an improved nickel electrode having a greater concentration of additive near the current collector of nickel.

  2. Influence of Interlayer Design on Residual Thermal Stresses in Trilayered and Graded All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Bruno; Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C. M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Fredel, Márcio

    2017-01-01

    Residual thermal stresses are formed in dental restorations during cooling from high temperature processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of constructive design variables (composition and interlayer thickness) on residual stresses in alumina- and zirconia-graded restorations. Restorations' real-like cooling conditions were simulated using finite elements method and temperature-dependent material properties were used. Three different designs were evaluated: a bilayered restoration (sharp transition between materials); a trilayered restoration with a homogenous interlayer between core and veneer; and a trilayered restoration with a graded interlayer. The interlayer thickness and composition were varied. Zirconia restorations presented overall higher thermal stress values than alumina ones. Thermal stresses were significantly reduced by the presence of a homogeneous interlayer. The composition of the interlayer showed great influence on the thermal stresses, with the best results for homogeneous interlayers being observed for porcelain contents in the composite ranging between 30%-50% (vol.%), for both alumina and zirconia restorations. The interlayer's thickness showed a minor contribution in the thermal stress reduction. The graded interlayer showed an optimized reduction in restorations' thermal stresses. The use of graded interlayer, favoring enhanced thermal stress distributions and lower magnitude is expected to reduce the risk of catastrophic failure. PMID:27987657

  3. Influence of interlayer design on residual thermal stresses in trilayered and graded all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Bruno; Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C M; Silva, Filipe S; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Fredel, Márcio

    2017-02-01

    Residual thermal stresses are formed in dental restorations during cooling from high temperature processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of constructive design variables (composition and interlayer thickness) on residual stresses in alumina- and zirconia-graded restorations. Restorations' real-like cooling conditions were simulated using finite elements method and temperature-dependent material properties were used. Three different designs were evaluated: a bilayered restoration (sharp transition between materials); a trilayered restoration with a homogenous interlayer between core and veneer; and a trilayered restoration with a graded interlayer. The interlayer thickness and composition were varied. Zirconia restorations presented overall higher thermal stress values than alumina ones. Thermal stresses were significantly reduced by the presence of a homogeneous interlayer. The composition of the interlayer showed great influence on the thermal stresses, with the best results for homogeneous interlayers being observed for porcelain contents in the composite ranging between 30%-50% (vol.%), for both alumina and zirconia restorations. The interlayer's thickness showed a minor contribution in the thermal stress reduction. The graded interlayer showed an optimized reduction in restorations' thermal stresses. The use of graded interlayer, favoring enhanced thermal stress distributions and lower magnitude is expected to reduce the risk of catastrophic failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interlayer coupling in Co/Si multilayers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, K.; Saito, Y.

    1997-04-01

    Although the picture of antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling in metal/metal multilayers is well-established, it is not clear how the picture can be extensively modified for coupling across insulating or semiconducting spacer layers. Unusual temperature sensitive interlayer coupling has recently been observed in Fe/Si/Fe sandwiches and Fe/Si multilayers.123 The spacer has been claimed to be a metastable metallic FeSi with CsCl structure in the Fe/Si multilayers,4 and a transition from AF coupling to biquadratic coupling has been observed with decreasing temperature in Fe/FeSi multilayers.56 In this study, interlayer coupling has been investigated as a function of nominal Si layer thickness tSi in Co/Si multilayers. The multilayers were grown at ambient temperature on water cooled thermally oxidized Si substrates by ion beam sputtering at a base pressure of 3×10-7 Torr. The sputtering was conducted using 1.8×10-4 Torr Ar ions and an acceleration voltage of 400 V. Co was shown to have hcp structure with (002) texture by x-ray and transmission electron diffractions. From the magnetization curve, the coupling was ferromagnetic below tSi=0.8 nm, changed to antiferromagnetic above 0.8 nm Si and disappeared at tSi>1.7 nm, exhibiting nonoscillation. We have estimated interlayer coupling J between Co layers across the spacer from the saturation field Hs using the relation of Hs=4J/dMs, where d is the Co layer thickness and Ms is the saturation magnetization. The interlayer coupling was also investigated using FMR for Co/Si/Co sandwiches, which demonstrates an exponentially decay of the coupling with increasing tSi, and gives AF coupling of J=-3.6×10-2 erg/cm2 for a 10 nm Co/1.5 nm Si/10 nm Co sandwich. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy exhibited the spacer consisting of Co silicide with amorphous nature, formed in the interface. Temperature dependence of the coupling was investigated using FMR and compared with that of Fe/Si multilayers. Substrate dependence

  5. SUMMARY OF ‘AFIP’ FULL SIZED PLATE IRRADIATIONS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Adam B; Wachs, Daniel M

    2010-03-01

    Recent testing at the Idaho National Laboratory has included four AFIP (ATR Full Size plate In center flux trap Position) experiments. These experiments included both dispersion plates and monolithic plates fabricated by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding utilizing both thermally sprayed inter-layers and zirconium barriers. These plates were tested between 100 and 350 w/cm2 at low temperatures and high burn-ups. The post irradiation exams performed have indicated good performance under the conditions tested and a summary of the findings and irradiation history are included herein.

  6. Gyroid nickel nanostructures from diblock copolymer supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S D; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th M; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-04-28

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology.

  7. Gyroid Nickel Nanostructures from Diblock Copolymer Supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S. D.; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology. PMID:24797367

  8. Lightweight Cathodes For Nickel Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight cathodes for rechargeable nickel-based electrochemical cells undergoing development. In cathodes, mats of nickel fibers are substrates providing structural support of, and electrical contact with, active cathode material. Offers specific energies greater than sintered nickel plaque cathodes. Electrodes used in rechargeable batteries for applications in which weight major concern, including laptop computers, cellular phones, flashlights, soldiers' backpacks, and electric vehicles.

  9. Dermal nickel exposure associated with coin handling and in various occupational settings: assessment using a newly developed finger immersion method.

    PubMed

    Staton, I; Ma, R; Evans, N; Hutchinson, R W; McLeod, C W; Gawkrodger, D J

    2006-04-01

    The role of nickel in causing hand dermatitis in some occupations has been difficult to assess due to problems with reliable measurement of the exposure to nickel in the workplace and lack of a definitive threshold for nickel allergic contact dermatitis. It is not uncommon to find nickel allergy on patch testing but it is difficult to determine whether this is of relevance to occupational nickel exposure or simply a reflection of past exposure to nickel-plated jewellery or other nonoccupational nickel exposure. To devise a simple and reproducible method to quantify the amount of nickel on the skin and to apply the technique to measure dermal nickel exposure in various occupational settings. A rapid and simple sampling procedure was developed for determination of nickel on the skin of workers potentially exposed to nickel by exposing individuals to nickel-releasing coins and measuring exposure by immersing the exposed thumbs and index fingers directly into graduated sample tubes containing ultrapure water and aqueous nickel extracts. The solutions were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry after stabilization with nitric acid. The method shows advantages over alternatives such as wipe testing and tape stripping in terms of extraction efficiency, speed and ease of operation in the field. A pilot survey of dermal nickel exposure for workers in several occupational settings was conducted. The study suggested that a 'normal' level of nickel on the skin is <10 ng cm(-2). Coin handling induced an appreciable increase in the amount of nickel on the skin within 2 min. Experiments indicated a linear relationship between coin handling (exposure time) and measured dermal nickel levels following standardized coin handling. A pilot survey, conducted among cashiers, shop assistants, bar staff, hairdressers and workers in the nickel industry revealed dermal nickel concentrations ranging from <0.9 to 7160 ng cm(-2). The levels of nickel on the skin of

  10. Progress in nickel toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.S.; Sunderman, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Nickel Metabolism and Toxicology was held at the PLM St Jacques Hotel in Paris in September 1984, under the joint sponsorship of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the Association of Clinical Scientists, and the Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association (NiPERA). The Paris Conference was attended by 150 participants from 19 countries, including many of the world's authorities on nickel in the areas of trace analysis, biochemistry, radiochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, immunology, industrial hygiene, epidemiology, occupational health and clinical medicine. The text of the Richard T. Barton memorial lecture and synopses of the scientific papers that were presented at the Conference are published in this volume.

  11. Variation of solar-selective properties of black chrome with plating time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of a commercially prepared black chrome over dull nickel, both plated on steel, for various plating times of the black chrome were measured. The plating current was 180 amperes per square foot. Values of absorptance integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance integrated over black-body radiation at 250 F were obtained. It is shown that plating between one and two minutes produces the optimum combination of highest heat absorbed and lowest heat lost by radiation.

  12. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  13. Prediction of the relative texture coefficient of nanocrystalline nickel coatings using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, A. M.; Hayati, M.; Rezaei, A.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the relative texture coefficient (RTC) of nanocrystalline (NC) nickel as a function of electroplating parameters has been modeled using artificial neural network (ANN). In the model, the inputs are the electroplating parameters namely current density, concentration of sodium saccharin in bath and plating temperature. In order to train and test the ANN model with a consistent set of experimental data, NC nickel coatings has been provided using a Watts-type bath, in which the significant parameters such as current density, concentration of sodium saccharin in bath and plating temperature have been systematically varied. The RTC has been determined using the peak intensities of diffracted x-ray radiation from (hkl) crystallographic planes of deposits with respect to coarse grained nickel (reference sample). An excellent agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was obtained indicating that the ANN approach can be used as a reliable and accurate tool for prediction of the RTC of NC nickel coatings.

  14. Regenerate metal-plating baths to cut waste and save

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    During electrode-based metal plating of equipment components, the formation of an electrical field causes metal deposits to be thicker at edges and seams, and thinner on flat surfaces. And, electrode-based methods consume large amounts of energy. Electroless-nickel (EN) -- or autocatalytic -- plating systems were pioneered in the 1940s to solve these problems. EN plating produces a more uniform coating, irrespective of the complexity of the part, and it consumes less electricity, since to electric current is required during plating. Plating in an EN system results from a chemical reaction between nickel in the bath and the substrate of the equipment component. The downside of electroless plating, however, is the limited life of the nickel bath, and the large volume of metal waste produced by bath disposal. Ionsep Corp. (Wilmington, Del.) has developed an electrodialytic system that continuously reforms the EN plating baths, to give them longer life. Its patented system has been successfully laboratory tested in a 1-ft{sup 2} cell, and the firm recently won a $250,000 grant from the US Dept. of Energy (Washington, D.C.) and Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.), to design and engineer a commercial-scale version of the system.

  15. Indium Alloy as Cadmium Brush Plating Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    Aged In- Sn Aged Cd In- Sn before Aging Cd before Aging Sn -Zn (12V) before Aging 18 Temperature Cycling Table 6. Temperature Cycling Conditions for Each...selection Key Requirements Candidate Cd Plating Replacement Processing Al Zn Ni Sn Zn-Ni Sn -Ni Sn -Zn Sn -In Meet Environmental Health and Safety (EHS...Corrosion Protection P P F P ? ? P P Whisker Growth (FOR INFO) ? F P F P P ? ? Al = Aluminum; In = Indium; Ni = Nickel; Sn =

  16. Plating Patches On Heat-Exchanger Jackets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loureiro, Henry; Kubik, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Permanent repairs made without welding. Technique used to repair nickel-alloy nozzle jacket of Space Shuttle main engine. Applicable to other metal heat-exchanger jackets with similar configurations. Does not require welding, brazing, soldering, or other operations involving high temperatures and consequent damage to surrounding areas. Portion of jacket around damaged area removed by grinding and polishing out to edges adjacent to tube/jacket braze bonds. Spaces between tubes filled with wax preventing contamination of spaces during subsequent plating.

  17. Aeroheating model advancements featuring electroless metallic plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are advancements in wind tunnel model construction methods and hypersonic test data demonstrating the methods. The general objective was to develop model fabrication methods for improved heat transfer measuring capability at less model cost. A plated slab model approach was evaluated with cast models containing constantan wires that formed single-wire-to-plate surface thermocouple junctions with a seamless skin of electroless nickel alloy. The surface of a space shuttle orbiter model was selectively plated with scaled tiles to simulate, with high fidelity, the probable misalignments of the heatshield tiles on a flight vehicle. Initial, Mach 8 heating results indicated a minor effect of tile misalignment roughness on boundary layer transition, implying a possible relaxation of heatshield manufacturing tolerances. Some loss of the plated tiles was experienced when the model was tested at high heating rates.

  18. Aeroheating model advancements featuring electroless metallic plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Goodrich, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Discussed are advancements in wind tunnel model construction methods and hypersonic test data demonstrating the methods. The general objective was to develop model fabrication methods for improved heat transfer measuring capability at less model cost. A plated slab model approach was evaluated with cast models containing constantan wires that formed single-wire-to-plate surface thermocouple junctions with a seamless skin of electroless nickel alloy. The surface of a space shuttle orbiter model was selectively plated with scaled tiles to simulate, with high fidelity, the probable misalignments of the heatshield tiles on a flight vehicle. Initial, Mach 8 heating results indicated a minor effect of tile misalignment roughness on boundary layer transition, implying a possible relaxation of heatshield manufacturing tolerances. Some loss of the plated tiles was experienced when the model was tested at high heating rates.

  19. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  20. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  1. Improvement of Delamination Resistance in Composite Laminates with Nano-Interlayers (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-409 IMPROVEMENT OF DELAMINATION RESISTANCE IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH NANO - INTERLAYERS (PREPRINT) Sangwook Sihn, Jin W...IMPROVEMENT OF DELAMINATION RESISTANCE IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH NANO -INTERLAYERS (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...is a nano -interlayer which can be fabricated in the form of either a thin film of nano -modified epoxy reinforced with vapor grown nanofibers or a

  2. Microstructure and properties of TiO2 sol-enhanced black nickel nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Hu; Hou, Fengyan; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Gao, Wei; Xiong, Chao

    2017-07-01

    Black nickel coatings are widely used in industries due to their shiny black color and other unique properties. However these coatings are normally soft, which limits their applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of black nickel coatings, sol-enhanced technology has been applied to the plating process. TiO2 sol-enhanced black nickel nanocomposite coatings were electroplated on nickel-coated brass. A systematic study on the microstructure and properties of the black coatings were conducted. The effects of TiO2 concentration (TiO2 sol concentration in 0-20 mL/L) on the surface morphology, nanohardness and wear resistance have been studied. The results indicated that the nanohardness of the sol-enhanced black nickel coating was increased by ˜20%. The mechanisms of improvement and surface morphology variation were also discussed.

  3. Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

    2013-01-01

    Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

  4. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigation of Benzoic Acid Interactions with Montmorillonite Clay Interlayer Water.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Molecular interactions between benzoic acid and cations and water contained in montmorillonite clay interlayer spaces are characterized by using variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS). Using sample perturbation and difference spectroscopy, infrared spectral changes resulting from removal of interlayer water and associated changes in local benzoic acid environments are identified. Difference spectra features can be correlated with changes in specific molecular vibrations that are characteristic of benzoic acid molecular orientation. Results suggest that the carboxylic acid functionality of benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through a bridging water molecule and that this interaction is affected by the nature of the cation present in the clay interlayer space.

  5. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  6. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  8. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of a Transient Liquid Phase Bonded Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, O. J.; Ojo, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of corrosion performance of a transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded nickel-based superalloy was performed. The TLP bonding process resulted in significant reduction in corrosion resistance due to the formation of non-equilibrium solidification reaction micro-constituents within the joint region. The corrosion resistance degradation is completely eliminated through a new application of composite interlayer that had been previously considered unusable for joining single-crystal superalloys. The effectiveness of the new approach becomes more pronounced as the severity of environment increases.

  9. Life test data and flight predictions for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H/sub 2/) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.

    1982-08-01

    A substantial test data base is accumulating on Ni-H/sub 2/ cells, batteries and positive plates to support life predictions of greater than 10 years in synchronous and elliptical orbits and greater than 5000 cycles in low earth orbit, all at high (80 percent) depth of discharge. All cells, batteries, and positive plates used for this test data base are of a common design. The cell is the Air Force/ Hughes ''pineapple slice'' cell. The positive plate is the Air Force/EPI Colorado Springs dry sinter electrochemically impregnated plate. Cell testing includes real time tests of cells and/or batteries in all three (low earth, elliptical, synchronous) orbits. Plate testing includes real time and accelerated tests in boilerplate assemblies. Life predictions are based on understanding cell wearout modes and comparing wearout rates of nickel-hydrogen components to those of nickel-cadmium cells.

  10. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  11. Inter-layer synchronization in multiplex networks of identical layers

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Leyva, I.; Buldú, J. M.; Gutiérrez, R.; Boccaletti, S.

    2016-06-15

    Inter-layer synchronization is a distinctive process of multiplex networks whereby each node in a given layer evolves synchronously with all its replicas in other layers, irrespective of whether or not it is synchronized with the other units of the same layer. We analytically derive the necessary conditions for the existence and stability of such a state, and verify numerically the analytical predictions in several cases where such a state emerges. We further inspect its robustness against a progressive de-multiplexing of the network, and provide experimental evidence by means of multiplexes of nonlinear electronic circuits affected by intrinsic noise and parameter mismatch.

  12. Carrier doping and interlayer coupling in HTSC single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kishio, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Kimura, T.; Kotaka, Y.; Kitazawa, K.; Yamafuji, K.; Li, Q.; Suenaga, M.

    1994-09-01

    Experimental results of the effect of carrier doping on the irreversibility lines in (La,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 4{minus}{delta}} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8 + {delta}} single crystals are summarized. As a function of Sr or oxygen contents, systematic and dramatic widening of the irreversible regions in the B {minus} T phase diagram was observed in both systems. The present study suggests the critical importance of carrier concentration which directly affects the interlayer coupling strength and dimensionality of the flux line lattice in all the layered HTSC compounds as a universal feature.

  13. Magnetization damping in noncollinear spin valves with antiferromagnetic interlayer couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Takahiro; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo

    2015-08-01

    We study the magnetic damping in the simplest of synthetic antiferromagnets, i.e., antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled spin valves, in the presence of applied magnetic fields that enforce noncolliear magnetic configurations. We formulate the dynamic exchange of spin currents in a noncollinear texture based on the spin-diffusion theory with quantum mechanical boundary conditions at the ferrromagnet/normal-metal interfaces and derive the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations coupled by the interlayer static and dynamic exchange interactions. We predict noncollinearity-induced additional damping that is modulated by an applied magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with published experiments.

  14. Control of the Oscillatory Interlayer Exchange Interaction with Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uta; Haack, Géraldine; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The oscillatory interlayer exchange interaction between two magnetic layers separated by a metallic spacer is one of the few coherent quantum phenomena that persists at room temperature. Here, we show that this interaction can be controlled dynamically by illuminating the sample (e.g., a spin valve) with radiation in the 10-100 THz range. We predict that the exchange interaction can be changed from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic (and vice versa) by tuning the amplitude and/or the frequency of the radiation. Our chief theoretical result is an expression that relates the dynamical exchange interaction to the static one that has already been extensively measured.

  15. Electrodeposition of High Quality Nickel Phosphorous Alloys for Pollution Reduction and Energy Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have developed ecologically friendly, versatile nickel and nickel cobalt phosphorous electroplating processes. Solutions show excellent performance with high efficiency for vastly extended throughput. Properties include, clean, low temperature operation (40 - 60 C), high Faradaic efficiency, low stress and high hardness. A variety of alloy and plating speed options are easily achieved from the same chemistry using soluble anodes for metal replacement with only 25% of the phosphorous additions required for electroless nickel. Thick deposits are easily achieved unattended, for electroforming freestanding shapes without buildup of excess orthophosphate or stripping of equipment.

  16. Electrodeposition of High Quality Nickel Phosphorous Alloys for Pollution Reduction and Energy Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have developed ecologically friendly, versatile nickel and nickel cobalt phosphorous electroplating processes. Solutions show excellent performance with high efficiency for vastly extended throughput. Properties include, clean, low temperature operation (40 - 60 C), high Faradaic efficiency, low stress and high hardness. A variety of alloy and plating speed options are easily achieved from the same chemistry using soluble anodes for metal replacement with only 25% of the phosphorous additions required for electroless nickel. Thick deposits are easily achieved unattended, for electroforming freestanding shapes without buildup of excess orthophosphate or stripping of equipment.

  17. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  18. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  19. Solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire anodes for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ian E; Rathmell, Aaron R; Yan, Liang; Ye, Shengrong; Flowers, Patrick F; You, Wei; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2014-06-07

    This work describes a process to make anodes for organic solar cells from copper-nickel nanowires with solution-phase processing. Copper nanowire films were coated from solution onto glass and made conductive by dipping them in acetic acid. Acetic acid removes the passivating oxide from the surface of copper nanowires, thereby reducing the contact resistance between nanowires to nearly the same extent as hydrogen annealing. Films of copper nanowires were made as oxidation resistant as silver nanowires under dry and humid conditions by dipping them in an electroless nickel plating solution. Organic solar cells utilizing these completely solution-processed copper-nickel nanowire films exhibited efficiencies of 4.9%.

  20. Electrodeposition of High Quality Nickel Phosphorous Alloys for Pollution Reduction and Energy Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have developed ecologically friendly, versatile nickel and nickel cobalt phosphorous electroplating processes. Solutions show excellent performance with high efficiency for vastly extended throughput. Properties include, clean, low temperature operation (40 - 60 C), high Faradaic efficiency, low stress and high hardness. A variety of alloy and plating speed options are easily achieved from the same chemistry using soluble anodes for metal replacement with only 25% of the phosphorous additions required for electroless nickel. Thick deposits are easily achieved unattended, for electroforming freestanding shapes without buildup of excess orthophosphate or stripping of equipment.

  1. Electrodeposition of High Quality Nickel Phosphorous Alloys for Pollution Reduction and Energy Conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    NASA and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have developed ecologically friendly, versatile nickel and nickel cobalt phosphorous electroplating processes. Solutions show excellent performance with high efficiency for vastly extended throughput. Properties include, clean, low temperature operation (40 - 60 C), high Faradaic efficiency, low stress and high hardness. A variety of alloy and plating speed options are easily achieved from the same chemistry using soluble anodes for metal replacement with only 25% of the phosphorous additions required for electroless nickel. Thick deposits are easily achieved unattended, for electroforming freestanding shapes without buildup of excess orthophosphate or stripping of equipment.

  2. Plate electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Using a Cray T3D supercomputer and a simple assumption about the physical character of Earth's mantle, a pair of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley have built a computer model that may help explain why the planet's tectonic plates look the way they do.In creating a three-dimensional numerical simulation of convection in the Earth's interior, UC researchers Hans-Peter Bunge and Mark Richards simplified their model to account for just one major physical effect: that the viscosity of the mantle increases with depth. Reviewing some recent—but not yet widely accepted—seismic data, Bunge and Richards assumed for the sake of the model that the viscosity of the mantle increases by a factor of 30 from the lithosphere to the core-mantle boundary. Relying on that assumption, the pair ran the model for nearly three weeks on a supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory and found that the simulation produced an effect similar to what we see on the surface of Earth. The model produced a surface paralleling the actual width of plates and the geometry of the plate boundaries.

  3. Nickel foil microcantilevers for magnetic manipulation and localized heating.

    PubMed

    Gaitas, Angelo; McNaughton, Brandon H

    2013-12-01

    Cellular manipulation has been investigated by a number of techniques. In this manuscript nickel foil microcantilevers were used for magnetophoresis and manipulation of microparticles and magnetically labeled HeLa cells. The cantilevers were also used for localized heating in liquid, reaching biologically relevant temperatures. This work aims to develop cantilevers for sample enrichment, manipulation, and thermal applications, offering an inexpensive and versatile solution compatible with standard tools in research and clinical diagnostic testing, such as microwell plates.

  4. Nickel foil microcantilevers for magnetic manipulation and localized heating

    PubMed Central

    Gaitas, Angelo; McNaughton, Brandon H.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular manipulation has been investigated by a number of techniques. In this manuscript nickel foil microcantilevers were used for magnetophoresis and manipulation of microparticles and magnetically labeled HeLa cells. The cantilevers were also used for localized heating in liquid, reaching biologically relevant temperatures. This work aims to develop cantilevers for sample enrichment, manipulation, and thermal applications, offering an inexpensive and versatile solution compatible with standard tools in research and clinical diagnostic testing, such as microwell plates. PMID:25541581

  5. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  6. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  7. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  8. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  9. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  10. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  11. Direct measurement of interlayer interaction in Permalloy/Gd nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Pavel; Ding, Junjia; Novosad, Valentine; Hoffmann, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic interaction at the interfaces of ferromagnetic transition metals(TM) and Gd is well known phenomenon. However, quantitative description of this interaction still lacks understanding. The main reason is that most experimental data were obtained by inspecting the hysteresis loops of TM/Gd multilayers. First, in plane domain structures of TM and Gd films complicates the description of the magnetization reversal process. Second, experimentally measured parameters are averaged over the domains obfuscating the microscopical picture. We make an effort to overcome these limitations by studying the magnetization reversal process of Permalloy/Gd nanodots. The dots were prepared by combination of optical lithography and magnetron sputtering. Experimentally it is observed that in these dots the antiferromagnetic interlayer interaction tunes magnetic vortex nucleation/annihilation fields. Rise of Gd magnetization at low temperature provides unusual temperature behavior of hysteresis loop. Micromagnetic models in which interlayer interaction energy acts as a fitting parameter is applied to simulate experimental hysteresis curves. The effect of nonmagnetic spacer between Permalloy and Gd is also considered and will be presented. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  12. Interlayer coupling through a dimensionality-induced magnetic state.

    PubMed

    Gibert, M; Viret, M; Zubko, P; Jaouen, N; Tonnerre, J-M; Torres-Pardo, A; Catalano, S; Gloter, A; Stéphan, O; Triscone, J-M

    2016-04-15

    Dimensionality is known to play an important role in many compounds for which ultrathin layers can behave very differently from the bulk. This is especially true for the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3, which can become insulating and magnetic when only a few monolayers thick. We show here that an induced antiferromagnetic order can be stabilized in the [111] direction by interfacial coupling to the insulating ferromagnet LaMnO3, and used to generate interlayer magnetic coupling of a nature that depends on the exact number of LaNiO3 monolayers. For 7-monolayer-thick LaNiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices, negative and positive exchange bias, as well as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling are observed in different temperature windows. All three behaviours are explained based on the emergence of a (¼,¼,¼)-wavevector antiferromagnetic structure in LaNiO3 and the presence of interface asymmetry with LaMnO3. This dimensionality-induced magnetic order can be used to tailor a broad range of magnetic properties in well-designed superlattice-based devices.

  13. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    PubMed

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  14. Surface treatment on polyethylenimine interlayer to improve inverted OLED performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chang-Ting; Zhuang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ya-Li; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Su, Wen-Ming; Cui, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) interlayer rinsing with different solvents for inverted organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is systematically studied in this paper. In comparison with the pristine one, the maximum current efficiency (CE max) and power efficiency (PE max) are enhanced by 21% and 22% for the device rinsing by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EEA). Little effect is found on the work function of the PEI interlayer rinsed by deionized water (DI), ethanol (EtOH), and EEA. On the other hand, the surface morphologies of PEI through different solvent treatments are quite different. Our results indicates that the surface morphology is the key to improving the device performance for IOLED as the work function of PEI keeps stable. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Project of China (Grant No. 2015CB351901), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09020201), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2013206), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21402233), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK2012631 and BK20140387).

  15. Interlayer coupling in Fe/Cr/Gd multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Drovosekov, A. B. Kreines, N. M.; Savitsky, A. O.; Kravtsov, E. A.; Blagodatkov, D. V.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Milyaev, M. A.; Ustinov, V. V.; Pashaev, E. M.; Subbotin, I. A.; Prutskov, G. V.

    2015-06-15

    The effect of the chromium layer thickness on the magnetic state of an [Fe/Cr/Gd/Cr]{sub n} multilayer structure is studied. A series of Fe/Cr/Gd structures with Cr spacer thicknesses of 4–30 Å is studied by SQUID magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance in the temperature range 4.2–300 K. The obtained experimental results are described in terms of an effective field model, which takes into account a biquadratic contribution to the interlayer coupling energy and a nonuniform magnetization distribution inside the gadolinium layer (which was detected earlier). Depending on the magnetic field and temperature, the following types of magnetic ordering are identified at various chromium layer thicknesses: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and canted ordering. A comparison of the experimental and calculated curves allowed us to determine the dependence of the bilinear (J{sub 1}) and biquadratic (J{sub 2}) exchange constants on chromium layer thickness t{sub Cr}. Weak oscillations at a period of about 18 Å are detected in the J{sub 1}(t{sub Cr}) dependence in the range 8–30 Å. The interlayer coupling oscillations in the system under study are assumed to be related to the RKKY exchange interaction mechanism via the conduction electrons of Cr.

  16. Joining of alumina via copper/niobium/copper interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Robert A.; Chapman, Daniel R.; Danielson, David T.; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2000-03-15

    Alumina has been joined at 1150 degrees C and 1400 degrees C using multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayers. Four-point bend strengths are sensitive to processing temperature, bonding pressure, and furnace environment (ambient oxygen partial pressure). Under optimum conditions, joints with reproducibly high room temperature strengths (approximately equal 240 plus/minus 20 MPa) can be produced; most failures occur within the ceramic. Joints made with sapphire show that during bonding an initially continuous copper film undergoes a morphological instability, resulting in the formation of isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. For optimized alumina bonds, bend tests at 800 degrees C-1100 degrees C indicate significant strength is retained; even at the highest test temperature, ceramic failure is observed. Post-bonding anneals at 1000 degrees C in vacuum or in gettered argon were used to assess joint stability and to probe the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on joint characteristics. Annealing in vacuum for up to 200 h causes no significant decrease in room temperature bend strength or change in fracture path. With increasing anneal time in a lower oxygen partial pressure environment, the fracture strength decreases only slightly, but the fracture path shifts from the ceramic to the interface.

  17. Interlayer coupling through a dimensionality-induced magnetic state

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, M.; Viret, M.; Zubko, P.; Jaouen, N.; Tonnerre, J.-M.; Torres-Pardo, A.; Catalano, S.; Gloter, A.; Stéphan, O.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Dimensionality is known to play an important role in many compounds for which ultrathin layers can behave very differently from the bulk. This is especially true for the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3, which can become insulating and magnetic when only a few monolayers thick. We show here that an induced antiferromagnetic order can be stabilized in the [111] direction by interfacial coupling to the insulating ferromagnet LaMnO3, and used to generate interlayer magnetic coupling of a nature that depends on the exact number of LaNiO3 monolayers. For 7-monolayer-thick LaNiO3/LaMnO3 superlattices, negative and positive exchange bias, as well as antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling are observed in different temperature windows. All three behaviours are explained based on the emergence of a (¼,¼,¼)-wavevector antiferromagnetic structure in LaNiO3 and the presence of interface asymmetry with LaMnO3. This dimensionality-induced magnetic order can be used to tailor a broad range of magnetic properties in well-designed superlattice-based devices. PMID:27079668

  18. Corrosion of separator plate constituents in molten carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossen, Jack

    To improve the corrosion resistance of the separator plates, insight in the corrosion behavior of the materials used is necessary. Especially, a detailed knowledge of the dissolution and passivation mechanisms as a function of the electrode potential will be useful. It is very difficult to unravel the corrosion mechanism of commercially available materials because it depends on several factors. Therefore, to obtain a first insight, the corrosion mechanism of pure metals and binary model alloys has been investigated and described in this thesis. The pure metals investigated are gold, nickel and chromium. The alloys that were investigated in this thesis are nickel-chromium, nickel-iron and nickel-aluminium alloys. Some commercially available materials have been investigated as a first attempt to understand the corrosion and passivation mechanisms of more complicated alloys.

  19. Potential non-corrodable terminal seals for nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, D.

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion resistant brazes to seal electrodes into casings of batteries required for satellites were identified. Fabrication of alumina-Dilver Pl seals by noncorrodable brazes may be achieved by activating the ceramic with TiH2 and using gold or nickel alloy brazes, or by using such alloys modified by reactive metal additions without the need for activation. Alternatively, the seals might be made by using reactive metal inserts that form eutectic reactive brazes by alloying with Dilver Pl, or by diffusion bonding. It is recommended that the proposal to replace Dilver Pl components with stainless steel should not be executed. Based on brazing trials, gold 17% nickel alloy with TiH2 activated alumina and the use of titanium foil are recommended for more detailed optimization. Diffusion bonding using corrosion resistant interlayers should also be considered as an alternative fabrication route.

  20. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  1. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  2. Evaluation of asphalt-rubber interlayers. (Revised). Final research report, September 1986-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Estakhri, C.K.; Pendleton, O.; Lytton, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The report presents the field performance results of three asphalt-rubber interlayer test roads in terms of the effectiveness of the interlayer at reducing the rate of reflection cracking. Several variables were included in the field experiments: concentration of rubber, binder application rate, type or source of rubber, and digestion (or mixing) time of asphalt and rubber. Control sections were made up of no interlayer and interlayer binders of polymer-modified asphalt and conventional asphalt cement. Results of the statistical analyses of the data indicated that, in general, asphalt-rubber interlayers are more effective at reducing reflection cracking than no interlayer at all. Asphalt-rubber also peerformed better than control sections composed of asphalt cement interlayers and polymer-modified interlayers except in one case where the interlyaer was composed of a double application of asphalt cement/aggregate. The data also indicated that higher binder application rates lead to imnproved cracking resistance; however, on many test sections, excessively high binder application rates caused flushing at the pavement surface.

  3. Effect of sputtered titanium interlayers on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Dai, Wei; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2016-04-01

    Ti interlayers with different thicknesses were sputtered on Si substrates and then ultrasonically seeded in a diamond powder suspension. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited using a dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition system on the seeded Ti/Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy tests showed that the roughness of the prepared Ti interlayer increased with increasing thickness. The effects of Ti interlayers with various thicknesses on the properties of NCD films were investigated. The results show nucleation, growth, and microstructure of the NCD films are strongly influenced by the Ti interlayers. The addition of a Ti interlayer between the Si substrate and the NCD films can significantly enhance the nucleation rate and reduce the surface roughness of the NCD. The NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer possesses the fastest nucleation rate and the smoothest surface. Raman spectra of the NCD films show trans-polyacetylene relevant peaks reduce with increasing Ti interlayer thickness, which can owe to the improvement of crystalline at grain boundaries. Furthermore, nanoindentation measurement results show that the NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer displays a higher hardness and elastic modulus. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images of a cross-section show that C atoms diffuse into the Ti layer and Si substrate and form TiC and SiC hard phases, which can explain the enhancement of mechanical properties of NCD.

  4. Interlayer for modified cathode in highly efficient inverted ITO-free organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng; Andersson, L Mattias; George, Zandra; Vandewal, Koen; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Heriksson, Patrik; Kroon, Renee; Andersson, Mats R; Inganäs, Olle

    2012-01-24

    Inverted polymer solar cells with a bottom metal cathode modified by a conjugated polymer interlayer show considerable improvement of photocurrent and fill factor, which is due to hole blocking at the interlayer, and a modified surface energy which affects the nanostructure in the TQ1/[70]PCBM blend. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effect of sputtered titanium interlayers on the properties of nanocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cuiping E-mail: limingji@163.com; Li, Mingji E-mail: limingji@163.com; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe; Dai, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Li, Hongji

    2016-04-07

    Ti interlayers with different thicknesses were sputtered on Si substrates and then ultrasonically seeded in a diamond powder suspension. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films were deposited using a dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition system on the seeded Ti/Si substrates. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy tests showed that the roughness of the prepared Ti interlayer increased with increasing thickness. The effects of Ti interlayers with various thicknesses on the properties of NCD films were investigated. The results show nucleation, growth, and microstructure of the NCD films are strongly influenced by the Ti interlayers. The addition of a Ti interlayer between the Si substrate and the NCD films can significantly enhance the nucleation rate and reduce the surface roughness of the NCD. The NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer possesses the fastest nucleation rate and the smoothest surface. Raman spectra of the NCD films show trans-polyacetylene relevant peaks reduce with increasing Ti interlayer thickness, which can owe to the improvement of crystalline at grain boundaries. Furthermore, nanoindentation measurement results show that the NCD film on a 120 nm Ti interlayer displays a higher hardness and elastic modulus. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images of a cross-section show that C atoms diffuse into the Ti layer and Si substrate and form TiC and SiC hard phases, which can explain the enhancement of mechanical properties of NCD.

  6. NICKEL ALLERGY: Surgeons Beware.

    PubMed

    Axe, Jeremie M; Sinz, Nathan J; Axe, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    When performing an orthopaedic device implantation, it should be routine practice for the surgeon to ask the patient if he or she has a metal allergy, and more specifically a nickel allergy. Ask the patient about costume jewelry or button reactions. If it is an elective surgery, obtain a confirmatory test with the aid of a dermatologist or allergist. It is recommended to use a non-nickel implant if the surgery is urgent, the patient has a confirmed allergy, or the patient does not want to undergo testing, as these implants are readily available in 2015. Finally, if the patient has a painful joint arthroplasty and all other causes have been ruled out, order a metal allergy test to aid in diagnosis.

  7. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOEpatents

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  8. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1999-10-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ({approx}260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature ({approx}970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the

  9. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  10. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel. PMID:2759060

  11. Electroless plating of PVC plastic through new surface modification method applying a semi-IPN hydrogel film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-Qiu; Yan, Jun; Du, Shi-Guo; Li, Hong-Guang

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-free surface activation process for electroless nickel plating was developed. This method applied a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) hydrogel film to modify the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface by chemical bonds. The activation process involved the formation of semi-IPN hydrogel film on the PVC surface and the immobilization of catalyst for electroless plating linking to the pretreated substrate via Nsbnd Ni chemical bond. The hydrogel layer was used as the chemisorption sites for nickel ions, and the catalyst could initiate the subsequent electroless nickel plating onto the PVC surface. Finally, a Ni-P layer was deposited on the nickel-activated PVC substrate by electroless plating technique. The composition and morphology of nickel-plated PVC foils were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM and XRD show that a compact and continuous Ni-P layer with amorphous nickel phase is formed on the PVC surface. EDS shows that the content of the nickel and the phosphorus in the deposits is 89.4 wt.% and 10.6 wt.%, respectively.

  12. A novel potential: the interlayer potential for the fcc (111) plane family.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fu-Yang; Chen, Nan-Xian; Shen, Jiang; Vitos, Levente

    2012-02-01

    We propose a novel interlayer potential, which is different from usual interatomic potentials. The interlayer potential represents the interaction between atomic layers in a layered material. Based on the Chen-Möbius inversion method in combination with ab initio calculations, the interlayer interactions are obtained for the face centered cubic (fcc) (111) planes. In order to check the validity of our interlayer potential, we calculate the intrinsic stacking fault energy (γ(sf)) and the surface energy (γ(s)) of five metals: Al, Ni, Cu, Ag and Au. The predicted γ(sf) and γ(s) values are compared with the theoretical results obtained from direct calculations and also with the available experimental data. Using the interlayer potentials, we also investigate the phonon dispersion and phonon density of state in the fcc (111) plane family of the considered metals.

  13. Voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Liu, Yaohua; Xu, M.; ...

    2017-05-16

    Magnetic interlayer coupling is one of the central phenomena in spintronics. It has been predicted that the sign of interlayer coupling can be manipulated by electric fields, instead of electric currents, thereby offering a promising low energy magnetization switching mechanism. Here we present the experimental demonstration of voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in a new perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction system with a GdOx tunnel barrier, where a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a sizable tunnelling magnetoresistance have been achieved at room temperature. Owing to the interfacial nature of the magnetism, the ability to move oxygen vacancies within the barrier, and a largemore » proximity-induced magnetization of GdOx, both the magnitude and the sign of the interlayer coupling in these junctions can be directly controlled by voltage. Lastly, these results pave a new path towards achieving energy-efficient magnetization switching by controlling interlayer coupling.« less

  14. Water and ions in clays: Unraveling the interlayer/micropore exchange using molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Marry, Virginie; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Malikova, Natalie; Simon, Christian; Turq, Pierre

    2007-11-01

    We present the first microscopic description of the exchange of water and ions between clay interlayers and microporosity. A force field based on ab-initio calculations is developed and used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. The latter allow to compute the potential of mean force for the interlayer/micropore exchange for water, Na + and Cs + cations and Cl - anions. For the simulated water content (water bilayer, with interlayer spacing 15.4 Å) and salt concentration in the micropore (0.52 mol dm -3) the exchange is found to be almost not activated for water and cations, whereas the entrance of an anion into the interlayer is strongly unfavorable ( ΔF˜9kT). Calculations of the diffusion tensor in the interlayer and in the micropore complete the study of the exchange dynamics.

  15. Voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse-Illige, T.; Liu, Yaohua; Xu, M.; Reifsnyder Hickey, D.; Kundu, A.; Almasi, H.; Bi, Chong; Wang, X.; Freeland, J. W.; Keavney, D. J.; Sun, C. J.; Xu, Y. H.; Rosales, M.; Cheng, X. M.; Zhang, Shufeng; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Wang, W. G.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic interlayer coupling is one of the central phenomena in spintronics. It has been predicted that the sign of interlayer coupling can be manipulated by electric fields, instead of electric currents, thereby offering a promising low energy magnetization switching mechanism. Here we present the experimental demonstration of voltage-controlled interlayer coupling in a new perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction system with a GdOx tunnel barrier, where a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a sizable tunnelling magnetoresistance have been achieved at room temperature. Owing to the interfacial nature of the magnetism, the ability to move oxygen vacancies within the barrier, and a large proximity-induced magnetization of GdOx, both the magnitude and the sign of the interlayer coupling in these junctions can be directly controlled by voltage. These results pave a new path towards achieving energy-efficient magnetization switching by controlling interlayer coupling. PMID:28508882

  16. Interlayer coupling in commensurate and incommensurate bilayer structures of transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhan; Yao, Wang; Liu, Gui-Bin; Yu, Hongyi

    2017-03-01

    The interlayer couplings in commensurate and incommensurate bilayer structures of transition-metal dichalcogenides are investigated with perturbative treatment. The interlayer coupling in ±K valleys can be decomposed into a series of hopping terms with distinct phase factors. In H-type and R-type commensurate bilayers, the interference between the three main hopping terms leads to a sensitive dependence of the interlayer coupling strength on the translation that can explain the position dependent local band gap modulation in a heterobilayer moiré superlattice. The interlayer couplings in the Γ valley of valence band and Q valley of conduction band are also studied, where the strong coupling strengths of several hundred meV can play important roles in mediating the ultrafast interlayer charge transfer in heterobilayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  17. Polyphenol Coating as an Interlayer for Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Enhanced Nanofiltration Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Lv, Yan; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Du, Yong; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-11-30

    Thin-film composite (TFC) nanofiltration membranes are prepared via interfacial polymerization with a polyphenol coating as an interlayer for the thin and smooth polyamide selective layer. The polyphenol interlayer is simply fabricated by the codeposition of tannic acid and diethylenetriamine without changing the surface morphology of the polysulfone ultrafiltration substrate. An interfacial polymerization is conducted from piperazidine and trimesoyl chloride on the polyphenol interlayer to construct the polyamide selective layer. The as-prepared TFC nanofiltration membranes show nearly tripled fold of water permeation flux as compared with those prepared at the same condition without an interlayer. They also exhibit a high rejection to Na2SO4 (>98%) because the thin and defect-free polyamide selective layer is formed on the polyphenol interlayer. These nanofiltration properties have high reproducibility, which means the TFC nanofiltration membranes are suitable for scale-up industrial applications.

  18. Nickel contact hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B; Licht, Jonah; Friedler, Suzanne; Sethi, Shika; Laude, Teresita A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent allergy in North America, with an incidence of 14.3%. It is on the rise from 10 years ago, when the incidence was 10%. This has been presumed to represent an increased exposure to nickel in the environment-especially in costume jewelry and belt buckles. We examined a group of 30 pediatric patients who had either a personal history of umbilical or wrist dermatitis, or a family history of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. All of these patients had a positive patch test to nickel sulfate 5%. Moreover, 50% of patients had an id reaction; all of these patients had positive patch tests that were papular in nature, similar to their papular id reaction. We posit that the presence of a positive family history may be a positive predictor of nickel allergic contact dermatitis, requiring nickel avoidance, especially in atopic children. Based on the high level of positive reactions in patients with umbilical dermatitis and an id reaction, patch testing to nickel in these patients is most likely to yield a useful result. Knowledge of reactivity to nickel would then allow parents and patients to initiate nickel avoidance earlier in life.

  19. Lightweight Electrode For Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved substrate for nickel electrode increases specific energy of nickel/hydrogen cell. Consists of 50 percent by weight nickel fiber, 35 percent nickel powder, and 15 percent cobalt powder. Porosity and thickness of nickel electrodes affect specific energy, initial performance, and cycle life of cell. Substrate easily manufactured with much larger porosities than those of heavy-sintered state-of-art nickel substrate.

  20. METHOD FOR ELECTRO-NICKEL PLATING WOLFRAM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Slatin, H.L.

    1959-05-01

    A WC body can be electroplated with Ni after anodic etching in Na/sub 4/ P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ solution (200 g/l) with a Pb cathode. A current density of 2 amp/in./sup 2/ for 10 min is sufficient. This allows Ni to be electrodeposited in an adherent coating which is weldable. (T.R.H.)

  1. The effect of interlayers on dissimilar friction weld properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Zepeda, Cuauhtemoc

    The influence of silver interlayers on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminium alloy/stainless steel friction welds are investigated. An elastic contact model is proposed that explains the conditions at and close to the contact surface, which produce Al2O3 particle fracture in dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds. Intermixed (IM) and particle dispersed (PD) regions are formed in Ag-containing dissimilar friction welds. These regions form very early in the joining operation and both contain Ag3Al. Therefore, an interlayer (Ag) introduced with the specific aim of preventing FexAly compound formation in MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds promotes the formation of another intermetallic phase at the bondline. Since IM and PD regions are progressively removed as the friction welding operation proceeds thinner intermetallic layers are produced when long friction welding times are applied. This type of behavior is quite different from that observed in silver-free dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel welds. Nanoparticles of silver are formed in dissimilar MMC/Ag/AISI 304 stainless steel welds produced using low friction pressures. Nanoparticle formation in dissimilar friction welds has never been previously observed or investigated. The introduction of silver interlayers decreases heat generation during welding, produces narrower softened zone regions and improved notch tensile strength properties. All research to-date has assumed per se that joint mechanical properties wholly depend on the mechanical properties and width of the intermetallic layer formed at the dissimilar joint interface. However, it is shown in this thesis that the mechanical properties of MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel joints are determined by the combined effects of intermetallic formation at the bondline and softened zone formation in MMC base material immediately adjacent to the joint interface. A methodology for calculating the notch tensile

  2. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-04-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  3. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  4. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of interlayer water embedded in phospholipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Bae; Kim, Suk Jun; An, Hyeun Hwan; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Yongdeok; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2014-03-01

    1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid bilayer with a thin layer of water molecules inserted in the hydrophobic region was simulated at 300K to observe the pore structure formation during escape of the water molecules from the hydrophobic region. The transformation of the water slab into a cylindrical droplet in the hydrophobic region, which locally deformed the lipid monolayer, was prerequisite to the pore formation. If the thickness of the interlayer water was increased beyond a critical value, the local deformation was suppressed as such deformation would rupture the lipid bilayer. Hence, it was demonstrated that the pore structure formation or local permeability of the lipid membrane is closely related to the rigidity of the lipid membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interlayer diffusion studies of a Laves phase exchange spring superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Kohn, A; Wang, S G; Ward, R C C

    2011-03-23

    Rare earth Laves phase (RFe(2)) superlattice structures grown at different temperatures are studied using x-ray reflectivity (XRR), x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized molecular beam epitaxy growth condition is matched with the XRR simulation, showing minimum diffusion/roughness at the interfaces. Electron microscopy characterization reveals that the epitaxial growth develops from initial 3D islands to a high quality superlattice structure. Under this optimum growth condition, chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study the interface. The analysis shows that the interface roughness is between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and there is no significant interlayer diffusion. The locally sharp interface found in this work explains the success of simple structural models in predicting the magnetic reversal behavior of Laves exchange spring superlattices.

  7. Interactions of aminomethylphosphonic acid and sarcosine with montmorillonite interlayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennig, Amanda; Slutter, Annette; Tribe, Lorena

    The smectite clay, montmorillonite, can be found in many soils throughout the world. In addition to its importance in agriculture and soil remediation, montmorillonite has extensive applications in industry both in its natural form and as a component of composite materials. The adsorptive properties of montmorillonite have been explored in relation to its interactions with the common herbicide glyphosate. This herbicide, when exposed to microorganisms in the soil is degraded, forming two products: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sarcosine. The atomic-level interactions of these compounds with the montmorillonite interlayer surfaces are studied here using molecular mechanics. The final outcomes of these calculations are analyzed in terms of the proximity of the montmorillonite surface to the moieties of the degradation products. The phosphonate moiety was found to be the most important source of interactions for AMPA, while for sarcosine there was an even distribution between the amino and carboxylic moieties, and Na+ ion mediated surface complexes.0

  8. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  9. Preliminary characterization of interlayer for Be/Cu sintered compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for plasma facing components of ITER, because of its many advantages such as low Z, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, low activation and so on. Among the different divertor design options, the duplex structure where the beryllium armor is bonded with heat sink structural materials (DS-copper, Cu-Cr-Zr and so on) is under consideration. And plasma facing components will be exposed to high heat load and high neutron flux generated by the plasma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the reliable bonding technologies between beryllium and heat sink structural materials in order to fabricate plasma facing components which can resist those. Then, we started the bonding technology development of beryllium and copper alloy with FGM (functional gradient material) in order to reduce thermal stress due to the difference of thermal expansion between beryllium and copper alloy. As the interlayers for FGM, eleven kinds of sintered compacts in which the mixing ratio of beryllium powder and oxygen free copper powder is different, were fabricated by the hot press/HIP method. The dimension of each compact is 8mm in diameter, 2mm in thickness. Then, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of these compacts were measured by laser flash method, and thermal conductivity was calculated from those values. From metalographical observation, it became clear that the sintered compacts of mixture of beryllium powder and copper powder contain residual beryllium, copper and two kinds of intermetallic compounds, Be{sub 2}Cu({delta}) and BeCu({gamma}). From the results of thermal characterization, thermal diffusivity of interlayers increased with increase of copper containing ratio. And, specific heat gradually decreased with increase of copper containing ratio.

  10. Interlayer micromechanics of the aortic heart valve leaflet.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Rachel M; Sacks, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25 % that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks in J Biomech Eng 129:757-766, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture.

  11. Mach 6 electroformed nickel nozzle refurbishment: FNAS investigation of ultra-smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Robert; Griffith, Charles; Engelhaupt, Darell; Cernosek, John

    1992-01-01

    The task objective has been to apply a coating of nickel-phosphorous alloy to a laminar flow wind tunnel nozzle by catalytic deposition and then polish and inspect the inside surface using optical device processes. The surface of the nozzle was coated with a nickel-phosphorous alloy of sufficient hardness and corrosion resistance to improve the durability. Due to plating defects that were clearly process related and not inherent, the final polished part was less than the desired quality. Surface finishing processes and lapping media were identified which produced a submicron surface finish on the interior plated surface. Defects apparently manifested by the first plating attempt were repaired using a small brush plating process demonstrating that individual small defects can be repaired. Measurement and analysis by profilometry demonstrated that quantitative control of the surface can be achieved.

  12. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  13. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  14. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  15. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  16. Nickel-based layered double hydroxide from guest vanadium oxide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hae Woong; Chae, Ji Su; Park, Sun-Min; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Roh, Kwang Chul

    2013-07-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are well known for ionic exchange properties to intercalate anionic compound in interlayer region. The Ni/V LDH composite was explored by co-precipitation method. The maximum capacitance of Ni/V LDH composite was 2612 F g-1 at the scan rate 2 mV s-1. As-synthesized Ni/V LDH composite provides a three-dimensional conducting network frame for manifesting electrochemical capacitance. This is because the insertion of vanadium oxide anions (VOx -) into nickel interlayer space between nickel layers is compensated for hydroxyl vacancies during synthesis of lower-pH condition. The network frame makes it possible to promote fast electron transfer for Ni/V LDH composite electrode material and consequently allows the improvement of the electronic conductivity for Ni/V LDH composite electrode material. Thus, the Ni/V LDH composite exhibits high capacitance than β-Ni(OH)2 due to its unique properties, with vanadium oxide anions embedded in the turbostratic structure and shorter diffusion pathway.

  17. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  18. Investigation into the rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Paul T; Szlag, David C

    2002-05-15

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to regenerate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, leading to high losses of valuable bath components, continues to be a weakness of the technology. This research has investigated improving electrodialysis permselectivity for removing contaminants (sodium, orthophosphite, and sulfate) in a spent electroless nickel bath while minimizing the losses of valuable bath ions (nickel, hypophosphite, and organic acids). Ion permselectivity was explored with respect to electrodialysis operating conditions, membrane type, and cell configuration. Excellent permselectivity for sodium over nickel was attained irrespective of operating condition, membrane, or cell configuration. Studies on the effects of four different operating conditions (current density, pH, flow rate, and temperature) on anion permselectivity revealed bath pH and current density to be critical operating parameters. The type of anion exchange membrane used had a crucial effect on selectivity; one membrane (Ionac MA-3475) was identified as having superior selectivity for bath contaminants particularly for sulfate. The improvements in electrodialysis permselectivity established by this research will decrease waste generation within the electroless nickel process and increase resource productivity by minimizing the loss of valuable plating chemicals.

  19. Formation of borohydride-reduced nickel-boron coatings on various steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitry, V.; Delaunois, F.

    2015-12-01

    Electroless nickel-boron coatings are widely used in industrial on various substrates: ferrous and non-ferrous alloys mainly but also in some cases non-metallic materials. However, their growth process is still not fully understood and the influence of the nature of the substrate on this process is completely unknown. The formation of electroless nickel-boron was observed on five ferrous alloys: a mild steel, a high carbon unalloyed steel, a cryogenic steel (that contains 9 wt.% nickel), an austenitic stainless steel and an austeno-ferritic (duplex) stainless steel. Nickel-boron films were prepared by electroless deposition, using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Samples were immersed in a plating bath for times ranging from 5 s to 60 min. The influence of the nature of the substrate on the initial deposition of the coatings was investigated in detail: the initiation mechanism was identified for all substrates and it was found to be related to catalytic oxidation of the reducing agent rather than to a displacement process. The delay before initiation was influenced by the nickel content of the coating and by a high number of grain boundaries. In all cases, the plating rate varied with plating time, with a slower period during the first 10 min that corresponds to morphological modification of the coating.

  20. Nickel-base alloys for severe environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.K.; Flower, H.L.; Hack, G.A.J.; Isobe, S.

    1996-03-01

    Inconel alloys MA754 and MA758 are nickel-base, oxide dispersion-strengthened superalloys made by mechanical alloying. The simple nickel-chromium matrix, when combined with the strengthening effect of the yttrium oxide dispersoid during mechanical alloys, provides excellent creep properties, resistance to thermal fatigue, and surface stability suitable for operation without protective coatings. Gas turbine engine components are primary applications for alloy MA754, but this aerospace alloy has been applied in many other products that operate in severe conditions, and alloy MA758 was developed specifically for aggressive, elevated temperature industrial environments. Billets for large bar and plate are typically consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), because this technology allows production of forms suitable for a variety of industrial components. Material consolidated by HIP and conventionally worked by extrusion and hot rolling generally exhibits properties that are more isotropic than those of material consolidated by extrusion. However, the degree of anisotropy depends strongly on the specific processing of the consolidated billet. This article describes production of new mill shapes from HIP billets, and reviews current and potential applications such as skid rails for high-temperature walking-beam furnaces, heat treating furnace parts, equipment for handling molten glass, and furnace tubes.

  1. Cold charge nickel hydrogen geosynchronous satellite batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.C.

    1997-12-01

    It has been well recognized for the last twenty years that the capacity of nickel hydrogen batteries is improved if the batteries are operated at relatively cool temperatures ({approximately}0 to 10 C). This is somewhat contra-intuitive relative to other batteries and is generally ascribed to the competition between the useful nickel electrode recharge reaction and the parasitic electrolysis of water. The Cold Charge concept exploits the difference in charge vs. discharge kinetics and the fixed rates and periods of geosynchronous operation to increase the name plate capacity of IPV Ni/H{sub 2} by forcing discharge to occur at a higher temperature than charge. In practice battery recharge is completed ({approximately}90% {yields} 100% SOC) under taper charge conditions (C/10 {yields} C/100) with a battery temperature {approximately}{minus}20 C. Prior to high rate discharge the temperature of the battery is artificially increased (via the battery heaters) to {minus}10C to 0C. The net result is a 15% increase in practical battery capacity and hence reduction in battery weight. This is achieved with essentially no increase in battery cell cost. The Cold Charge process is fully qualified and is presently in use on two large geosynchronous communications satellites. It is base lined for all future Space Systems/Loral geosynchronous spacecraft.

  2. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  3. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  4. Nickel: Impact on horticultural characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge by practitioners regarding the potential impact of nickel nutritional physiology on pecan orchard profitability is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recogni...

  5. Statistically determined nickel cadmium performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Sidney

    1987-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed on sealed nickel cadmium cell manufacturing data and cell matching data. The cells subjected to the analysis were 30 Ah sealed Ni/Cd cells, made by General Electric. A total of 213 data parameters was investigated, including such information as plate thickness, amount of electrolyte added, weight of active material, positive and negative capacity, and charge-discharge behavior. Statistical analyses were made to determine possible correlations between test events. The data show many departures from normal distribution. Product consistency from one lot to another is an important attribute for aerospace applications. It is clear from these examples that there are some significant differences between lots. Statistical analyses are seen to be an excellent way to spot those differences. Also, it is now proven beyond doubt that battery testing is one of the leading causes of statistics.

  6. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  7. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    PubMed

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  8. Interlayer exciton optoelectronics in a 2D heterostructure p–n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Jason S.; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-12-22

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid-state-based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures have enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and a long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p–n junctions in a MoSe2–WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p–n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller than the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to the opposite layers. Lastly, these results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  9. Comparison Study on the Effect of Interlayer Hydration and Solvation on Montmorillonite Delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongliang; Song, Shaoxian; Zhao, Yunliang; Nahmad, Yuri; Chen, Tianxing

    2017-02-01

    The effect of water and isopropanol intercalation on montmorillonite (MMT) delamination was investigated in order to compare the roles of hydration and solvation in the delamination. Transmittance results showed that water has a significant effect on the delamination of MMT compared with isopropanol. This observation was attributed to the difference of the intercalation of water and isopropanol. Thermogravimetric (TG) results illustrate that the intercalation mass of water was greater than that of isopropanol when the pressure remained constant. Weighing test results show that the intercalation mass of water was smaller than that of isopropanol when the volume of MMT remained constant. Molecule dynamic simulation results show that the water and isopropanol molecules were interacting with Na+ and siloxane surface of MMT, respectively. It was demonstrated that the hydration of the MMT interlayer followed two steps: in step 1, the Na+ in the interlayer was hydrated, thereby expanding the interlayer spacing; in step 2, additional water molecules were absorbed into the expanded interlayer space. It was found that step 2 could not be actuated until the completion of step 1. For the solvation of the MMT interlayer with isopropanol, however, only one step was required, in which isopropanol was absorbed onto the siloxane sites of the interlayer while maintaining the interlayer spacing.

  10. Interlayer Exciton Optoelectronics in a 2D Heterostructure p–n Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jason S.; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid state based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures has enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb-bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p-n junctions in a MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p-n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller compared to the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to opposite layers. These results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  11. Interlayer exciton optoelectronics in a 2D heterostructure p–n junction

    DOE PAGES

    Ross, Jason S.; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; ...

    2016-12-22

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid-state-based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures have enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and a long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p–n junctions in a MoSe2–WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the firstmore » observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p–n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller than the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to the opposite layers. Lastly, these results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.« less

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion and electrical conductivity in montmorillonite interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Cygan, Randall T.; Fredrich, Joanne T.; Jerauld, Gary R.

    2016-01-20

    In this study, the diffusion of water and ions in the interlayer region of smectite clay minerals represents a direct probe of the type and strength of clay–fluid interactions. Interlayer diffusion also represents an important link between molecular simulation and macroscopic experiments. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate trends in cation and water diffusion in montmorillonite interlayers, looking specifically at the effects of layer charge, interlayer cation and cation charge (sodium or calcium), water content, and temperature. For Na-montmorillonite, the largest increase in ion and water diffusion coefficients occurs between the one-layer and two-layer hydrates, corresponding to the transition from inner-sphere to outer-sphere surface complexes. Calculated activation energies for ion and water diffusion in Na-montmorillonite are similar to each other and to the water hydrogen bond energy, suggesting the breaking of water–water and water–clay hydrogen bonds as a likely mechanism for interlayer diffusion. A comparison of interlayer diffusion with that of bulk electrolyte solutions reveals a clear trend of decreasing diffusion coefficient with increasing electrolyte concentration, and in most cases the interlayer diffusion results are nearly coincident with the corresponding bulk solutions. Trends in electrical conductivities computed from the ion diffusion coefficients are also compared.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion and electrical conductivity in montmorillonite interlayers

    DOE PAGES

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Cygan, Randall T.; Fredrich, Joanne T.; ...

    2016-01-20

    In this study, the diffusion of water and ions in the interlayer region of smectite clay minerals represents a direct probe of the type and strength of clay–fluid interactions. Interlayer diffusion also represents an important link between molecular simulation and macroscopic experiments. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate trends in cation and water diffusion in montmorillonite interlayers, looking specifically at the effects of layer charge, interlayer cation and cation charge (sodium or calcium), water content, and temperature. For Na-montmorillonite, the largest increase in ion and water diffusion coefficients occurs between the one-layer and two-layer hydrates, corresponding to themore » transition from inner-sphere to outer-sphere surface complexes. Calculated activation energies for ion and water diffusion in Na-montmorillonite are similar to each other and to the water hydrogen bond energy, suggesting the breaking of water–water and water–clay hydrogen bonds as a likely mechanism for interlayer diffusion. A comparison of interlayer diffusion with that of bulk electrolyte solutions reveals a clear trend of decreasing diffusion coefficient with increasing electrolyte concentration, and in most cases the interlayer diffusion results are nearly coincident with the corresponding bulk solutions. Trends in electrical conductivities computed from the ion diffusion coefficients are also compared.« less

  14. Tunneling Photocurrent Assisted by Interlayer Excitons in Staggered van der Waals Hetero-Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Luong, Dinh Hoa; Lee, Hyun Seok; Neupane, Guru Prakash; Roy, Shrawan; Ghimire, Ganesh; Lee, Jin Hee; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-09-01

    Vertically stacked van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have been suggested as a robust platform for studying interfacial phenomena and related electric/optoelectronic devices. While the interlayer Coulomb interaction mediated by the vdW coupling has been extensively studied for carrier recombination processes in a diode transport, its correlation with the interlayer tunneling transport has not been elucidated. Here, a contrast is reported between tunneling and drift photocurrents tailored by the interlayer coupling strength in MoSe2 /MoS2 hetero-bilayers (HBs). The interfacial coupling modulated by thermal annealing is identified by the interlayer phonon coupling in Raman spectra and the emerging interlayer exciton peak in photoluminescence spectra. In strongly coupled HBs, positive photocurrents are observed owing to the inelastic band-to-band tunneling assisted by interlayer excitons that prevail over exciton recombinations. By contrast, weakly coupled HBs exhibit a negative photovoltaic diode behavior, manifested as a drift current without interlayer excitonic emissions. This study sheds light on tailoring the tunneling transport for numerous optoelectronic HB devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Interlayer Exciton Optoelectronics in a 2D Heterostructure p-n Junction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jason S; Rivera, Pasqual; Schaibley, John; Lee-Wong, Eric; Yu, Hongyi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Cobden, David; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2017-02-08

    Semiconductor heterostructures are backbones for solid-state-based optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in assembly techniques for van der Waals heterostructures have enabled the band engineering of semiconductor heterojunctions for atomically thin optoelectronic devices. In two-dimensional heterostructures with type II band alignment, interlayer excitons, where Coulomb bound electrons and holes are confined to opposite layers, have shown promising properties for novel excitonic devices, including a large binding energy, micron-scale in-plane drift-diffusion, and a long population and valley polarization lifetime. Here, we demonstrate interlayer exciton optoelectronics based on electrostatically defined lateral p-n junctions in a MoSe2-WSe2 heterobilayer. Applying a forward bias enables the first observation of electroluminescence from interlayer excitons. At zero bias, the p-n junction functions as a highly sensitive photodetector, where the wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurement allows the direct observation of resonant optical excitation of the interlayer exciton. The resulting photocurrent amplitude from the interlayer exciton is about 200 times smaller than the resonant excitation of intralayer exciton. This implies that the interlayer exciton oscillator strength is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the intralayer exciton due to the spatial separation of electron and hole to the opposite layers. These results lay the foundation for exploiting the interlayer exciton in future 2D heterostructure optoelectronic devices.

  16. Enhanced performance of blue polymer light-emitting diodes by a self-assembled thin interlayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ho; Lee, Wonjoo; Cai, Gangri; Baek, Su Jin; Han, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2008-09-01

    High efficiency and long lifetime, blue polymer light-emitting diodes were obtained by adding a thin interlayer, which was fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique between poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transporting and emissive polymer layers in the device configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS (65 nm)/interlayer (10-30 nm)/emissive polymer (70 nm)/BaF2 (2 nm)/Ca (50 nm)/Al (300 nm). The interlayer, (PPV/PSS)n, consisted of self-assembled multilayers of the conjugated polymer, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), and the polyelectrolyte, poly (styrene sulfonic acid) (PSS). Electroluminescence (EL) characteristics such as luminescence and current efficiency of the devices were enhanced by the addition of the interlayer. Furthermore, the devices with interlayer showed longer lifetime than those without interlayer. The maximum device performance was obtained from the device with (PPV/PSS)3 interlayer.

  17. Direct laser engraving of intaglio printing plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deinhammer, Harald; Loos, Franz; Schwarzbach, Daniel; Fajmann, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Traditionally, Intaglio printing is one of the key security elements for banknotes and security documents, providing high-resolution fine-line elements and the characteristic tactility easily recognized by the public. The conventional process of creating Intaglio printing-plates involves multiple production steps from the hand-engraving of the artist and the computer-aided-design of security elements to the final, print-ready metal plate. We present the results of a feasibility study regarding the direct laser engraving of Intaglio printing-plates. Results of our studies on laser optics and choice of material to achieve optimal line quality are presented. In our studies we have found a novel plate material superior to galvanic nickel regarding plate lengthening and have achieved line widths in the 10μm range. The process found, allows reintroducing true three-dimensional elements with line-depth and -profiling control independent of line-width, while decreasing lead-times in the production of security documents. We give a comparison between direct laser engraving and traditional platemaking, comparing aspects such as resolution, plate performance and production time.

  18. Electroformed Nickel-Graphite Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong-Skiba, Pei

    2005-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomy will demand larger optics than Chandra, currently in orbit. Ways must be devised to produce cheaper and lighter x-ray mirrors to save the cost of manufacturing and launching this future telescope. One technique, being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center and elsewhere, is electroformed nickel replication technique, wherein mirror shells are electroformed (using pure nickel or a nickel alloy) onto super-polished and figured aluminum mandrels and are subsequently released by cooling. This technique can produce relatively inexpensive mirrors, but is hampered by the high density of nickel (8.9 g / cm3). An alternative is to develop a composite, with lower mass density and compatible mechanical properties to the nickel cobalt alloy, as the mirror shell material.

  19. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  20. Graphite and Hexagonal Boron-Nitride have the Same Interlayer Distance. Why?

    PubMed

    Hod, Oded

    2012-04-10

    Graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) are two prominent members of the family of layered materials possessing a hexagonal lattice structure. While graphite has nonpolar homonuclear C-C intralayer bonds, h-BN presents highly polar B-N bonds resulting in different optimal stacking modes of the two materials in the bulk form. Furthermore, the static polarizabilities of the constituent atoms considerably differ from each other, suggesting large differences in the dispersive component of the interlayer bonding. Despite these major differences, both materials present practically identical interlayer distances. To understand this finding, a comparative study of the nature of the interlayer bonding in both materials is presented. A full lattice sum of the interactions between the partially charged atomic centers in h-BN results in vanishingly small contributions to the interlayer binding energy. Higher order electrostatic multipoles, exchange, and short-range correlation Kohn-Sham contributions are found to be very similar in both materials and to almost completely cancel out by the kinetic energy term, which partly represents the effects of Pauli repulsions, at physically relevant interlayer distances, resulting in a marginal effective contribution to the interlayer binding. Further analysis of the dispersive energy term reveals that despite the large differences in the individual atomic polarizabilities, the heteroatomic B-N C6 coefficient is very similar to the homoatomic C-C coefficient in the hexagonal bulk form, resulting in very similar dispersive contribution to the interlayer binding. The overall binding energy curves of both materials are thus very similar, predicting practically the same interlayer distance and very similar binding energies. The conclusions drawn here regarding the role of electrostatic interactions between partially charged atomic centers for the interlayer binding of h-BN are of a general nature and are expected to hold true for many

  1. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  2. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates (10) having very small holes (14) with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a "wire drawing" process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er.sub.3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans (20) containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array (53) with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er.sub.3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations (38, 42), one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed.

  3. High strength bonding of titanium to stainless steel using an Ag interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung G.; Hong, S. J.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Strong bonding between titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (STS) was achieved by employing a commercially available Ag-28Cu (wt.%) filler, and more importantly with a help of an Ag interlayer. A mass transport of the Ti elements from the substrate into the molten filler was completely prevented through the use of the Ag interlayer, so the resultant brazed joint was free from any brittle Ti-based intermetallic compounds. Notably, this Ti-STS dissimilar joint displayed a remarkable improvement in its bonding strength, demonstrating the potential application of an Ag interlayer for joining Ti and its alloys to various structural steels.

  4. Interlayer locking and atomic-scale friction in commensurate small-diameter boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Homin; Kim, Keun Su; Simard, Benoit; Klug, Dennis D.

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory applied to small-diameter boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) finds out-of-plane structural buckling in contrast to large-diameter tubes that exhibit faceting. Buckling significantly affects interlayer interactions in commensurate double-walled BNNTs. Energy corrugation amplitudes in relative motions of BNNT walls change up to fourfold, depending on interlayer registry relaxation, in marked contrast to carbon nanotubes. Large differences between relaxed and unrelaxed energy corrugations of BNNTs could yield energy dissipation via the strain-induced anelastic relaxation of interlayer locking (or "lattice kinks"), which can be exploited for mechanical damping applications.

  5. The coherent interlayer resistance of a single, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K. M. Masum; Sylvia, Somaia S.; Ge, Supeng; Neupane, Mahesh; Lake, Roger K.

    2013-12-01

    The coherent, interlayer resistance of a misoriented, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite is determined for a variety of misorientation angles. The quantum-resistance of the ideal AB stack is on the order of 1 to 10 mΩ μm2. For small rotation angles, the coherent interlayer resistance exponentially approaches the ideal quantum resistance at energies away from the charge neutrality point. Over a range of intermediate angles, the resistance increases exponentially with cell size for minimum size unit cells. Larger cell sizes, of similar angles, may not follow this trend. The energy dependence of the interlayer transmission is described.

  6. Creep and Sliding in Clay Slopes: Mutual Effects of Interlayer Swelling and Ice Jacking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-25

    7 AD-A141 764 CREEP AND SLIDING IN CLAY SLOPES: MUTUAL EFFECTS OP I/O INTERLAYER SWELLNG AND ICE JAC NA U) INNSRUCK UNIV (AUSTRIA) K A CZURDA 25...Innabruck DAJA 45-83-C-0010 Co S .esearch Project: CREEP AND SLIDING IN CLAY SLOPES: _-- MUTUAL EFFECTS OF INTERLAYER SWELLING AND ICE JACKING I...4. TITLE (end Subttle) S. WTWFOF.EPORT S ERIOD COVERED Repor .-Creep and Sliding in clay slopes; mutual effects Dec 83 - Apr 84 ....... on Interlayer

  7. Stress and Defect Control in GaN Using Low Temperature Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaki, I.; Amano, H.; Chason, E.; Figiel, J.; Floro, J.A.; Han, J.; Hearne, S.; Iwaya, M.; Kashima, T.; Katsuragcawa, M.

    1998-12-04

    In organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of Gail on sapphire, the role of the low- temperature-deposited interlayers inserted between high-temperature-grown GaN layers was investigated by in situ stress measurement, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Insertion of a series of low temperature GaN interlayers reduces the density of threading dislocations while simultaneously increasing the tensile stress during growth, ultimately resulting in cracking of the GaN film. Low temperature AIN interlayers were found to be effective in suppressing cracking by reducing tensile stress. The intedayer approach permits tailoring of the film stress to optimize film structure and properties.

  8. Effects of catalyst introduction methods using PAMAM dendrimers on selective electroless nickel deposition on polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Troy R; Dams, Erin E; Wensing, Steven T; Lee, Ilsoon

    2007-06-19

    We studied the effects of catalyst introduction methods using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers on the nickel patterning of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM)-coated substrates. Three different approaches to palladium catalyst introduction using microcontact printing as the patterning technique were utilized and compared. The catalyst introduction methods are (1) direct catalyst stamping, (2) directed assembly using PAMAM dendrimer stamping, and (3) catalyst encapsulation and reduction to nanoparticles within PAMAM dendrimers before stamping. After patterning, the sample surfaces were placed in an electroless bath where nickel was selectively plated onto the patterns. The patterned surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The metal plating rates on different homogeneous surfaces that simulate the patterned surfaces were measured using a quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, the effect of PEM film thickness (i.e., number of bilayers) on the selectivity of nickel patterning was investigated.

  9. Deep eutectic solvent approach towards nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Gage, Samuel H.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; ...

    2016-12-15

    Nickel nitride is an attractive material for a broad range of applications including catalysis. However preparations and especially those targeting nanoscale particles remain a major challenge. Herein, we report a wet-chemical approach to produce nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites using deep eutectic solvents. A choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent was used as a reaction medium to form gels containing nickel acetate tetrahydrate. Heat treatment of the gel in inert atmosphere forms nanoparticles embedded within a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to understand the decomposition profile of the precursors and to select pyrolysis temperatures locatedmore » in regions of thermal stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of metallic nickel, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the existence of a nickel nitride surface layer. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis these mixed phase, possibly core-shell type nanoparticles, have very defined facets. Furthermore, these materials represent a unique opportunity to tune catalytic properties of nickel-based catalysts through control of their composition, surface structure, and morphology; in addition to employing potential benefits of a nitrogen-doped carbon support.« less

  10. Deep eutectic solvent approach towards nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, Samuel H.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Richards, Ryan M.

    2016-12-15

    Nickel nitride is an attractive material for a broad range of applications including catalysis. However preparations and especially those targeting nanoscale particles remain a major challenge. Herein, we report a wet-chemical approach to produce nickel/nickel nitride nanocomposites using deep eutectic solvents. A choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent was used as a reaction medium to form gels containing nickel acetate tetrahydrate. Heat treatment of the gel in inert atmosphere forms nanoparticles embedded within a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to understand the decomposition profile of the precursors and to select pyrolysis temperatures located in regions of thermal stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of metallic nickel, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the existence of a nickel nitride surface layer. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis these mixed phase, possibly core-shell type nanoparticles, have very defined facets. Furthermore, these materials represent a unique opportunity to tune catalytic properties of nickel-based catalysts through control of their composition, surface structure, and morphology; in addition to employing potential benefits of a nitrogen-doped carbon support.

  11. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  12. Perspective on electrodeposited and electroless nickel coatings used in optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.M.; Dini, J.W.

    1982-01-04

    Electrodeposits of copper, gold, silver and electroless nickel coatings are playing an ever more important role in optical technology. Any material that can be adherently coated with these deposits can be finished by conventional polishing or diamond turning techniques, thus greatly expanding design strategies and supporting manufacturing capability for optical surfaces. The importance of good quality coatings, e.g., the absence of surface pits, porosity, nodules, stress and inclusions large enough to damage the diamond tool or adversely effect conventional polishing process are emphasized and information is presented on influence of plating defects on optics. Recent data on the diamond turning and polishing of other electrodeposited coatings including bright nickel, sulfamate nickel and tin-nickel are also included.

  13. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    In the early 1980s, the battery group at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) reviewed the design issues associated with nickel/hydrogen cells for low-earth orbit applications. In 1984, these issues included gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. The design effort by that group followed principles set forth in an earlier LeRC paper that introduced the topic of pore size engineering. Also in 1984, the beneficial effect of lower electrolyte concentrations on cycle life was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a LeRC-funded study. Subsequent life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially have verified all of this earlier work. During the past decade, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research done at several laboratories. While attention has been paid to understanding and modeling abnormal nickel/hydrogen cell behaviors, not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently, in batteries. Examining the potassium ion content of different portions of the cell or battery is a convenient way of following the conductivity, mass transport properties, and electrolyte volume in each of the cell or battery portions under consideration. Several of the consequences of solvent and solute changes within fuel cells have been well known for some time. However, only recently have these consequences been applied to nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell designs. As a result of these studies, several unusual cell performance signatures can now be satisfactorily explained in terms of movement of the solvent and solute components in the electrolyte. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take

  14. Specific features of the atomic structure of metallic layers of multilayered (CoFeZr/SiO2)32 and (CoFeZr/ a-Si)40 nanostructures with different interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domashevskaya, E. P.; Guda, A. A.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Sitnikov, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    Multilayered nanostructures (MN) were prepared by ion-beam successive sputtering from two targets, one of which was a metallic Co45Fe45Zr10 alloy plate and another target was a quartz (SiO2) or silicon plate on the surface of a rotating glass-ceramic substrate in an argon atmosphere. The Co and Fe K edges X-ray absorption fine structure of XANES in the (CoFeZr/SiO2)32 sample with oxide interlayers was similar to XANES of metallic Fe foil. This indicated the existence in metallic layers of multilayered CoFeZr nanocrystals with a local environment similar to the atomic environment in solid solutions on the base of bcc Fe structure, which is also confirmed by XRD data. XANES near the Co and Fe K edges absorption in another multilayered nanostructure with silicon interlayers (CoFeZr/ a-Si)40 differs from XANES of MN with dielectric SiO2 interlayer, which demonstrates a dominant influence of the Fe-Si and Co-Si bonds in the local environment of 3 d Co and Fe metals when they form CoFeSi-type silicide phases in thinner bilayers of this MN.

  15. Utilization of nickel-containing alloys for FGD systems in North America and Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Mathay, W.L.; Plant, W.H.D.

    1996-08-01

    Factors involved in the selection and application of nickel-containing alloys for FGD systems are discussed. Fabrication and construction considerations with respect to the use of wallpaper lining (sheet linings), roll-bonded clad plate and solid alloys for FGD components are reviewed. North American and European experience in the utilization of these materials is described and projections for future usage are given.

  16. Thick tellurium electrodeposition on nickel-coated copper substrate for 124I production.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, M; Dastan, M; Ensaf, M R; Tehrani, A Abaspour; Tenreiro, C; Avila, M

    2008-10-01

    Tellurium electrodeposition on a nickel-coated copper substrate was investigated for production of iodine-124. The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by the alkali plating baths. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tellurium were as follows: 6 g l(-1) tellurium, pH=10, DC current density of ca. 8.55 mA cm(-2) and room temperature.

  17. Selective coating for solar panels. [using black chrome and black nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The energy absorbing properties of solar heating panels are improved by depositing a black chrome coating of controlled thickness on a specially prepared surface of a metal substrate. The surface is prepared by depositing a dull nickel on the substrate, and the black chrome is plated on this low emittance surface to a thickness between 0.5 micron and 2.5 microns.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  19. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  20. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells. An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  1. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet reflection efficiencies of diamond-turned aluminum, polished nickel, and evaporated gold surfaces. [for telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, R. F.; Cash, W.

    1978-01-01

    Measured reflection efficiencies are presented for flat samples of diamond-turned aluminum, nickel, and evaporated gold surfaces fabricated by techniques suited for EUV telescopes. The aluminum samples were 6.2-cm-diameter disks of 6061-T6, the electroless nickel samples were formed by plating beryllium disks with 7.5-microns of Kanigen. Gold samples were produced by coating the aluminum and nickel samples with 5 strips of evaporated gold. Reflection efficiencies are given for grazing angles in the 5-75 degree range. The results indicate that for wavelengths over about 100 A, the gold-coated nickel samples yield highest efficiencies. For shorter wavelengths, the nickel samples yield better efficiencies. 500 A is found to be the optimal gold thickness.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet reflection efficiencies of diamond-turned aluminum, polished nickel, and evaporated gold surfaces. [for telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, R. F.; Cash, W.

    1978-01-01

    Measured reflection efficiencies are presented for flat samples of diamond-turned aluminum, nickel, and evaporated gold surfaces fabricated by techniques suited for EUV telescopes. The aluminum samples were 6.2-cm-diameter disks of 6061-T6, the electroless nickel samples were formed by plating beryllium disks with 7.5-microns of Kanigen. Gold samples were produced by coating the aluminum and nickel samples with 5 strips of evaporated gold. Reflection efficiencies are given for grazing angles in the 5-75 degree range. The results indicate that for wavelengths over about 100 A, the gold-coated nickel samples yield highest efficiencies. For shorter wavelengths, the nickel samples yield better efficiencies. 500 A is found to be the optimal gold thickness.

  4. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between 'cauliflower' like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  5. Ferrodistorsive orbital ordering in the layered nickelate NaNiO2: A density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskine, H.; Satpathy, S.

    2005-05-01

    The electronic structure and magnetism in the sodium nickelate NaNiO2 in the low-temperature phase is studied from density-functional calculations using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method. An antiferromagnetic solution with a magnetic moment of 0.7μB per Ni ion is found. A ferrodistorsive orbital ordering is shown to occur due to the Jahn-Teller distortion around the Ni+3 ion in agreement with the orbital ordering inferred from neutron diffraction. While the intralayer exchange is ferromagnetic, the interlayer exchange is weakly antiferromagnetic, mediated by a long Ni-O-Na-O-Ni superexchange path.

  6. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  7. Joining of SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics using Silver, Copper, Nickel, Palladium, and Silicon-Based Alloy Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Asthana, Rajiv; Singh, Mrityunjay; Lin, Hua-Tay; Matsunaga, Kenji; Ishikawa, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    SiC fiber-bonded ceramics, SA-Tyrannohex, (SA-THX) with perpendicular and parallel fiber orientations were brazed using Ag-, Ni- and Pd-base brazes, and four Si X (X: Ti, Cr, Y, Ta) eutectics. Outcomes were variable, ranging from bonded joints through partially bonded to un-bonded joints. Prominent Ti- and Si-rich interfaces developed with Cusil-ABA, Ticusil, and Copper-ABA and Ni- and Si-rich layers with MBF-20. Stress rupture tests at 650 and 750 C on Cusil-ABA-bonded joints revealed a temperature-dependent behavior for the perpendicular joints but not for the parallel joints with failure occurring at brazed interface. Higher-use temperatures can be targeted with eutectic Si Ti and Si Cr alloys.

  8. Long-Lived Direct and Indirect Interlayer Excitons in van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bastian; Steinhoff, Alexander; Pano, Borja; Klein, Julian; Jahnke, Frank; Holleitner, Alexander; Wurstbauer, Ursula

    2017-09-13

    We report the observation of a doublet structure in the low-temperature photoluminescence of interlayer excitons in heterostructures consisting of monolayer MoSe2 and WSe2. Both peaks exhibit long photoluminescence lifetimes of several tens of nanoseconds up to 100 ns verifying the interlayer nature of the excitons. The energy and line width of both peaks show unusual temperature and power dependences. While the low-energy peak dominates the spectra at low power and low temperatures, the high-energy peak dominates for high power and temperature. We explain the findings by two kinds of interlayer excitons being either indirect or quasi-direct in reciprocal space. Our results provide fundamental insights into long-lived interlayer states in van der Waals heterostructures with possible bosonic many-body interactions.

  9. Enhancing the interlayer adhesive force in twisted multilayer MoS2 by thermal annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ke; LIU, Dameng; Tian, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 has recently gained great attention owing to its remarkable mechanical and photoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the interactions and relative orientations between layers. Here, we report on Raman scattering measurements of twisted MoS2 flakes prepared by exfoliation and nondestructive transfer. Thermal annealing treatment can effectively enhance the interlayer coupling of twisted MoS2 and lead to a van der Waals (vdW) interaction between two stacked layers. We have roughly calculated the interlayer coupling force by a diatomic chain model (DCM) and found that the interlayer adhesive force increased by ˜20% compared with no-treatment samples. We additionally found that the non-Bernal stacking structure of MoS2 induces a weakening in the interlayer coupling. This study could promote the development of novel semiconductors, optoelectronic devices, and superlubricity materials.

  10. Nonlinear interlayer transport in the aligned carbon nanotube films and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Y. U. L.; Kosakovskaya, Z. YA; Orlov, A. P.; Latyshev, A. Y. U.; Kolesov, V. V.; Monceau, P.; Vignolles, D.

    2008-10-01

    Interlayer tunneling spectroscopy on graphite stacked junctions and on aligned carbon nanotube (ACN) films shows universal zero bias anomaly (dip) for both type of objects. For graphite this anomaly disappears above 30K while for aligned nanotube films that persists up to 350K. We consider this anomaly as a pseudogap that appears due to a presence of interlayer correlated state. In a presence of magnetic field of 1-10T oriented across the layers we found characteristic peaks on interlayer tunneling spectra of graphite mesas. Their voltage position and square root dependence on magnetic field let us to identify the origin of those peaks to be related with interlayer tunneling between Landau levels (LLs) in graphite typical for Dirac fermions in graphene.

  11. Interface morphologies and interlayer diffusions in organic light emitting device by x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Joo; Park, Seong-Sik; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyunjung

    2009-06-01

    Surface and interface morphologies with thermal expansions and interlayer diffusions in organic light emitting device [LiF/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N ,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/indium tin oxide/SiO2/glass] were studied by synchrotron x-ray scattering. Interface sharpness and roughness correlation are held under annealing at 100 °C up to 1 h and at 120 °C up to 0.25 h in spite of thermal expansions and interlayer diffusions of NPB and Alq3 layers. The roughness correlation at the interfaces was recovered partially when the interlayer diffusions reach quasisaturation. Crystallization of NPB is hindered due to the interlayer diffusions and appears at much higher temperature than its glass transition.

  12. Improved AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor using AlN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, A.; Bougrioua, Z.; Tirado, J. M.; Braña, A. F.; Calleja, E.; Muñoz, E.; Moerman, I.

    2003-06-01

    This work reports on the effects of AlN interlayers embedded into the GaN semi-insulating buffer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, in comparison with standard heterostructures without AlN interlayers. Detailed optical and structural characterization data are presented, along with computer simulation results. The AlN interlayers generate a compressive strain in the GaN topmost layer, which slightly reduces the total polarization field, but most important, it prevents the AlGaN barrier from plastic relaxation. The final result is an enhanced polarization field with respect to standard heterostructures, providing an increased channel carrier density and pinch-off voltage. Electrical characterization confirms the advantages of using AlN interlayers, reaching maximum drain current density and extrinsic transconductance as high as 1.4 A/mm and 266 mS/mm, respectively, for 0.2-μm gate length.

  13. Stable and biocompatible genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles for sustained drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2017-05-01

    To develop the sustained drug release system, here we describe genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles crosslinked via Schiff bases between the amines of amphiphilic linear-hyperbranched polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-branched polyethylenimine-poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PEG-PEI-PCL) and genipin. The generation of Schiff bases was confirmed by the color changes and UV-Vis absorption spectra of polymeric micelles after adding genipin. The particle size, morphology, stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release behavior of crosslinked micelles as well as non-crosslinked micelles were characterized. The results indicated that genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles had better stability and biocompatibility than non-crosslinked micelles and glutaraldehyde-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles. In addition, genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles were able to improve drug loading capacity, reduce the initial burst release, and achieve sustained drug release.

  14. Enhancing the interlayer adhesive force in twisted multilayer MoS₂ by thermal annealing treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke; Liu, Dameng; Tian, Yu

    2015-10-09

    Few-layer MoS2 has recently gained great attention owing to its remarkable mechanical and photoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the interactions and relative orientations between layers. Here, we report on Raman scattering measurements of twisted MoS2 flakes prepared by exfoliation and nondestructive transfer. Thermal annealing treatment can effectively enhance the interlayer coupling of twisted MoS2 and lead to a van der Waals (vdW) interaction between two stacked layers. We have roughly calculated the interlayer coupling force by a diatomic chain model (DCM) and found that the interlayer adhesive force increased by ∼20% compared with no-treatment samples. We additionally found that the non-Bernal stacking structure of MoS2 induces a weakening in the interlayer coupling. This study could promote the development of novel semiconductors, optoelectronic devices, and superlubricity materials.

  15. Recent Advances in Nickel Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Standley, Eric A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Preface The field of nickel catalysis has made tremendous advances in the past decade. There are several key properties of nickel that have allowed for a broad range of innovative reaction development, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and leveraged to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Herein, we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism. PMID:24828188

  16. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  17. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  18. Analysis of 12 AH aerospace nickel-cadmium cells from the design variable program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, Kunigahalli L.; Morrow, George

    1987-01-01

    The Design Variable Program of NASA/GSFC provided a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of 12 Ampere-Hour Nickel-Cadmium cells of different designs. Design Variables tested in this program included teflonated negative plates, silver treated negative plates, lightly loaded negative plates, positive plates with no cadmium treatment, plate design of 1968 utilizing old and new processing techniques and electrochemically impregnated positive plates. These cells were life cycled in a Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) regime for 3 to 4 years. Representative cells taken from the Design Variable Program were examined via chemical, electrochemical and surface analyses. The results indicate the following: (1) positive swelling and carbonate content in the electrolyte increase as a function of number of cycles; (2) electrolyte distribution follows a general order NEG greater than POS greater than SEP; (3) control and No PQ groups outperformed the rest of the groups; and (4) the polyproylene group exhibited heavy cadmium migration and poor performance.

  19. Interfacial Characteristics of Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated on MoOx Anode Interlayers.

    PubMed

    Jasieniak, Jacek J; Treat, Neil D; McNeill, Christopher R; de Villers, Bertrand J Tremolet; Della Gaspera, Enrico; Chabinyc, Michael L

    2016-05-01

    The role of the interface between an MoOx anode interlayer and a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction is investigated. Processing differences in the MoOx induce large variations in the vertical stratification of the bulk heterojunction films. These variations are found to be inconsistent in predicting device performance, with a much better gauge being the quantity of polymer chemisorbed to the anode interlayer.

  20. Structural charge site influence on the interlayer hydration of expandable three-sheet clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, R.L.; Mankin, C.J.

    1968-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated the influences of interlayer cation composition, relative humidity, temperature, and magnitude of interlayer surface charge on the interlayer hydration of montmorillonites and vermiculites. It has been suggested that the sites of layer charge deficiencies may also have an influence upon the amount of hydration that can take place in the interlayers of expandable clay minerals. If the interlayer cation-to-layer bonds are considered as ideally electrostatic, the magnitude of the forces resisting expansion may be expressed as a form of Coulomb's law. If this effect is significant, expandable structures in which the charge-deficiency sites are predominantly in the tetrahedral sheet should have less pronounced swelling properties than should structures possessing charge deficiencies located primarily in the octahedral sheet. Three samples that differed in location of layer charge sites were selected for study. An important selection criterion was a non-correlation between tetrahedral charge sites and high surface-charge density, and between octahedral charge sites and low surface-charge density. The effects of differences in interlayer cation composition were eliminated by saturating portions of each sample with the same cations. Equilibrium (001) d values at controlled constant humidities were used as a measure of the relative degree of interlayer hydration. Although no correlation could be made between the degree of interlayer hydration and total surface-charge density, the investigation does not eliminate total surface-charge density as being significant to the swelling properties of three-sheet clay-mineral structures. The results do indicate a correlation between more intense expandability and predominance of charge deficiencies in the octahedral sheet. Conversely, less intense swelling behavior is associated with predominantly tetrahedral charge deficiencies. ?? 1968.

  1. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-02-15

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO{sub 4}) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, AlPO{sub 4}, MgO and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} after heated to 1273 K. - Graphical abstract: The cross section of the synthetic Mg, Al layered double hydroxides in Phase 1, with interlayer hydrogen phosphate Phase 2, and with grafted phosphate, Phase 3. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafting of hydrogen phosphate intercalated Mg/Al-LDH has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first decrease is due to loss of interlayer water, the second is attributed to phosphate grafting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafted interlayer phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange.

  2. The study of interlayer channel effects on the temperature conditions of SC coil for the UNK

    SciTech Connect

    Kozub, S.S.; Veshchikov, A.T.; Zlobin, A.V. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the coefficient of pressure loss of the interlayer channels in the coil of the superconducting (SC) dipoles for the UNK. The conditions for heat exchange between the magnet coil and cooling helium have been determined proceeding from the results obtained. The effect of the height of the interlayer channels on the conditions of heat exchange between them has been considered. The computational analysis of the temperature mode has been made. These results have been compared with the experimental data.

  3. Interfacial Characteristics of Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated on MoOx Anode Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jasieniak, Jacek J.; Treat, Neil D.; McNeill, Christopher R.; Tremolet de Villers, Bertrand J.; Gaspera, Enrico Della; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2016-05-25

    The role of the interface between an MoOx anode interlayer and a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction is investigated. Processing differences in the MoOx induce large variations in the vertical stratification of the bulk heterojunction films. These variations are found to be inconsistent in predicting device performance, with a much better gauge being the quantity of polymer chemisorbed to the anode interlayer.

  4. Fine tuning of optical transition energy of twisted bilayer graphene via interlayer distance modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Corro, Elena; Peña-Alvarez, Miriam; Sato, Kentaro; Morales-Garcia, Angel; Bousa, Milan; Mračko, Michal; Kolman, Radek; Pacakova, Barbara; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbac, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2017-02-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) represents a family of unique materials with optoelectronic properties tuned by the rotation angle between the two layers. The presented work shows an additional way of tweaking the electronic structure of tBLG by modifying the interlayer distance, for example by a small uniaxial out-of-plane compression. We have focused on the optical transition energy, which shows a clear dependence on the interlayer distance, both experimentally and theoretically.

  5. Acidic Fluids Across Mars: Detections of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Vaniman, D. T.; Thompson, L. M.; Morris, R. V.; Clark, B. C.; VanBommel, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, magnesium and ferric iron sulfates have been detected by the instrument suites on the Mars rovers. A subset of the magnesium sulfates show clear associations with nickel. These associations indicate Ni(2+) co-precipitation with or substitution for Mg(2+) from sulfate-saturated solutions. Nickel is ex-tracted from primary rocks almost exclusively at pH values less than 6, constraining the formation of these Mg-Ni sulfates to mildly to strongly acidic conditions. There is clear evidence for aqueous alteration at the rim of Endeavour Crater (Meridiani Planum), in the Murray formation mudstone (Gale Crater), and near Home Plate (Gusev Crater). The discovery of Mg-Ni sulfates at these locations indicates a history of fluid-rock interactions at low pH.

  6. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  7. Silicon solar cells with nickel/solder metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. C.; Muleo, A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nickel plus solder is shown to be feasible for contact metallization for silicon solar cells by offering a relatively inexpensive method of making electrical contact with the cell surfaces. Nickel is plated on silicon solar cells using an electroless chemical deposition method to give contacts with good adhesion, and in some cases where adhesion is poor initially, sintering under relatively mild conditions will dramatically improve the quality of the bond without harming the p-n junction of the cell. The cells can survive terrestrial environment stresses, which is demonstrated by a 1000 hour test at 85 C and 85% relative humidity under constant forward bias of 0.45 volt.

  8. Deposition of continuous nickel shells on polymer microspheres.

    PubMed

    Halaciuga, Ionel; Njagi, John I; Redford, Keith; Goia, Dan V

    2012-10-01

    Anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs) are widely used as interconnect materials in the manufacturing of LCD screens. To be integrated in a broader range of applications, several technical and economical issues still need to be addressed. Encapsulating the polymer particles within continuous, compact, and adhering metallic conductive shells is one of these challenges. This work describes a method for depositing nickel layers with different thickness (30-120nm) onto monosized polymer particles. The novelty of the approach consists in modifying the surface of polymer particles with linear polymeric amines. We show that by increasing amine chain length the structure and adhesion of deposited nickel shell are significantly improved. The effect of key parameters of the electroless Ni plating are discussed and illustrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Silicon solar cells with nickel/solder metallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. C.; Muleo, A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nickel plus solder is shown to be feasible for contact metallization for silicon solar cells by offering a relatively inexpensive method of making electrical contact with the cell surfaces. Nickel is plated on silicon solar cells using an electroless chemical deposition method to give contacts with good adhesion, and in some cases where adhesion is poor initially, sintering under relatively mild conditions will dramatically improve the quality of the bond without harming the p-n junction of the cell. The cells can survive terrestrial environment stresses, which is demonstrated by a 1000 hour test at 85 C and 85% relative humidity under constant forward bias of 0.45 volt.

  10. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  11. Interlayer tunneling spectroscopy of mixed-phase BSCCO superconducting whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilaslan, O.; Truccato, M.; Simsek, Y.; Aksan, M. A.; Koval, Y.; Müller, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study on the interlayer tunneling spectroscopy (ITS) of mixed-phase BiSrCaCuO (BSCCO) superconducting whiskers. The tunneling experiments were carried out on the artificial cross-whisker (twist angle of 90°) junctions. A multiple superconducting energy gap in the cross-whisker junctions was observed, which is attributed to the presence of different doping levels of two Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ phases (Bi-2212), rather than two different phases, in the BSCCO whiskers, namely Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Bi-2212 and Bi-2223). The temperature dependence of the energy gaps was discussed in the framework of the BCS T-dependence. On the other hand, the carrier concentration of the cross-whisker junction was changed by the carrier injection process. The effects of the carrier injection on the critical current, I c, and the ITS of intrinsic Josephson junctions were investigated in details.

  12. Coherence and modality of driven interlayer-coupled magnetic vortices.

    PubMed

    Pulecio, J F; Warnicke, P; Pollard, S D; Arena, D A; Zhu, Y

    2014-04-30

    The high-frequency dynamics of mode-coupled magnetic vortices have generated great interest for spintronic technologies, such as spin-torque nano-oscillators. While the spectroscopic characteristics of vortex oscillators have been reported, direct imaging of driven coupled magnetic quasi-particles is essential to the fundamental understanding of the dynamics involved. Here, we present the first direct imaging study of driven interlayer coaxial vortices in the dipolar- and indirect exchange-coupled regimes. Employing in situ high-frequency excitation with Lorentz microscopy, we directly observe the steady-state orbital amplitudes in real space with sub-5 nm spatial resolution. We discuss the unique frequency response of dipolar- and exchange-coupled vortex motion, wherein mode splitting and locking demonstrates large variations in coherent motion, as well as detail the resultant orbital amplitudes. This provides critical insights of the fundamental features of collective vortex-based microwave generators, such as their steady-state amplitudes, tunability and mode-coupled motion.

  13. Vacancy Interlayer Migration in Multi-layered Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lili; Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiuyun; Yan, Tianying; Ding, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Graphene has innumerous applications due to its exceptional properties. Various defects that may be introduced into the graphene lattice during synthesis and/or post-treatments are known have significantly impact on these properties. So engineering graphene by introducing or annealing of defects is an important technology to achieve desired properties for various applications. Therefore a comprehensive understanding on the behavior of defects in graphene is critically important. Here, interlayer migration of the vacancies in multi-layered graphene (MLG) was investigated by density functional tight-binding molecular dynamic simulations and first principle calculations. Our study reveals that, although the direct vacancy migration between neighboring graphene layers (NGLs) is prohibited by a very high barrier up to ~ 7 eV, the interaction between vacancies or vacancy and holes in NGLs can greatly reduce the barrier to ~ 3 eV and expedites the migration process. Our study reveals a new mechanism of the defect self-healing in MLG and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and it can be used to engineer desired graphene materials.

  14. Engineering the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Hao; Dou, Kun-Peng; Chen, Ying-Chin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Kaun, Chao-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    When the thickness of metal film approaches the nanoscale, itinerant carriers resonate between its boundaries and form quantum well states (QWSs), which are crucial to account for the film’s electrical, transport and magnetic properties. Besides the classic origin of particle-in-a-box, the QWSs are also susceptible to the crystal structures that affect the quantum resonance. Here we investigate the QWSs and the magnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in the Fe/Ag/Fe (001) trilayer from first-principles calculations. We find that the carriers at the Brillouin-zone center (belly) and edge (neck) separately form electron- and hole-like QWSs that give rise to an oscillatory feature for the IEC as a function of the Ag-layer thickness with long and short periods. Since the QWS formation sensitively depends on boundary conditions, one can switch between these two IEC periods by changing the Fe-layer thickness. These features, which also occur in the magnetic trilayers with other noble-metal spacers, open a new degree of freedom to engineer the IEC in magnetoresistance devices.

  15. Molybdenum interlayers for nucleation enhancement in diamond CVD growth.

    PubMed

    Buijnsters, J G; Vázquez, L; Galindo, R Escobar; ter Meulen, J J

    2010-04-01

    The use of a 50-nm thick Mo interlayer on silicon substrates for the nucleation enhancement of microcrystalline diamond (MCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films synthesized by hot filament chemical vapour deposition was studied. The MCD and NCD films were deposited using methane concentrations of 1% and 2%, respectively. The presence of a Mo nucleation layer enabled the formation of more uniform NCD films with reduced surface roughness (rms roughness approximately 40 nm for a 750-nm thick layer) and with significantly less interfacial voids due to the superior nucleation densities and surface coverage in the early stages of NCD film formation. During the initial stages of MCD film growth, the nucleation density increased by one order of magnitude as compared to uncoated silicon. As a result, much thinner MCD films with smaller surface grain sizes and, thus, reduced surface roughness could be produced as well. The presence of a Mo nucleation layer not only leads to a structural optimization of NCD and MCD films but also allows fast nucleation and film growth kinetics at relatively low substrate temperatures (approximately 575 degrees C), relevant for the coating of substrate materials that do not withstand high substrate temperatures.

  16. Interlayer thermal conductance within a phosphorene and graphene bilayer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jingchao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-24

    Monolayer graphene possesses unusual thermal properties, and is often considered as a prototype system for the study of thermal physics of low-dimensional electronic/thermal materials, despite the absence of a direct bandgap. Another two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered material, phosphorene, is a natural p-type semiconductor and it has attracted growing interest in recent years. When a graphene monolayer is overlaid on phosphorene, the hybrid van der Waals (vdW) bilayer becomes a potential candidate for high-performance thermal/electronic applications, owing to the combination of the direct-bandgap properties of phosphorene with the exceptional thermal properties of graphene. In this work, the interlayer thermal conductance at the phosphorene/graphene interface is systematically investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The transient pump-probe heating method is employed to compute the interfacial thermal resistance (R) of the bilayer. The predicted R value at the phosphorene/graphene interface is 8.41 × 10(-8) K m(2) W(-1) at room temperature. Different external and internal conditions, i.e., temperature, contact pressure, vacancy defect, and chemical functionalization, can all effectively reduce R at the interface. Numerical results of R reduction as a function of temperature, interfacial coupling strength, defect ratio, or hydrogen coverage are reported with the most R reduction amounting to 56.5%, 70.4%, 34.8% and 84.5%, respectively.

  17. Engineering the interlayer exchange coupling in magnetic trilayers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hao; Dou, Kun-Peng; Chen, Ying-Chin; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Kaun, Chao-Cheng

    2015-11-24

    When the thickness of metal film approaches the nanoscale, itinerant carriers resonate between its boundaries and form quantum well states (QWSs), which are crucial to account for the film's electrical, transport and magnetic properties. Besides the classic origin of particle-in-a-box, the QWSs are also susceptible to the crystal structures that affect the quantum resonance. Here we investigate the QWSs and the magnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) in the Fe/Ag/Fe (001) trilayer from first-principles calculations. We find that the carriers at the Brillouin-zone center (belly) and edge (neck) separately form electron- and hole-like QWSs that give rise to an oscillatory feature for the IEC as a function of the Ag-layer thickness with long and short periods. Since the QWS formation sensitively depends on boundary conditions, one can switch between these two IEC periods by changing the Fe-layer thickness. These features, which also occur in the magnetic trilayers with other noble-metal spacers, open a new degree of freedom to engineer the IEC in magnetoresistance devices.

  18. Carbonized cellulose paper as an effective interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiqi; Ren, Guofeng; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Dong, Zhihua; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-02-01

    One of the several challenging problems hampering lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery development is the so-called shuttling effect of the highly soluble intermediates (Li2S8-Li2S6). Using an interlayer inserted between the sulfur cathode and the separator to capture and trap these soluble intermediates has been found effective in diminishing this effect. Previously, most reported interlayer membranes were synthesized in a complex and expensive process, and might not be suitable for practical cheap batteries. Herein, a facile method is reported to pyrolyze the commonly used cellulose filter paper into highly flexible and conductive carbon fiber paper. When used as an interlayer, such a carbon paper can improve the cell capacity by several folds through trapping the soluble polysulfides. The enhanced electronic conductivity of the cathode, due to the interlayer, also significantly improves the cell rate performance. In addition, it was demonstrated that such an interlayer can also effectively mitigate the self-discharge problem of the Li-S batteries. This study indicates that the cost-effective pyrolyzed cellulose paper has potential as interlayer for practical Li-S batteries.

  19. Effects of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers’ Interlayers on High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tianji; Le, TrungHieu; Yang, Ying; Yu, Zhihao; Huang, Zhenghong; Kang, Feiyu

    2017-01-01

    Two different interlayers were introduced in lithium–sulfur batteries to improve the cycling stability with sulfur loading as high as 80% of total mass of cathode. Melamine was recommended as a nitrogen-rich (N-rich) amine component to synthesize a modified polyacrylic acid (MPAA). The electrospun MPAA was carbonized into N-rich carbon nanofibers, which were used as cathode interlayers, while carbon nanofibers from PAA without melamine was used as an anode interlayer. At the rate of 0.1 C, the initial discharge capacity with two interlayers was 983 mAh g−1, and faded down to 651 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles with the coulombic efficiency of 95.4%. At the rate of 1 C, the discharge capacity was kept to 380 mAh g−1 after 600 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8%. It apparently demonstrated that the cathode interlayer is extremely effective at shutting down the migration of polysulfide ions. The anode interlayer induced the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the fiber surface and in the bulk to strengthen the cycling stability of the lithium metal anode. PMID:28772731

  20. Synergistic Ultrathin Functional Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotube Interlayer for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Seo, Jihoon; Choi, Junghyun; Shin, Donghyeok; Carter, Marcus; Jeon, Yeryung; Wang, Chengwei; Hu, Liangbing; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been intensively investigated as a next-generation rechargeable battery due to their high energy density of 2600 W·h kg(-1) and low cost. However, the systemic issues of Li-S batteries, such as the polysulfide shuttling effect and low Coulombic efficiency, hinder the practical use in commercial rechargeable batteries. The introduction of a conductive interlayer between the sulfur cathode and separator is a promising approach that has shown the dramatic improvements in Li-S batteries. The previous interlayer work mainly focused on the physical confinement of polysulfides within the cathode part, without considering the further entrapment of the dissolved polysulfides. Here, we designed an ultrathin poly(acrylic acid) coated single-walled carbon nanotube (PAA-SWNT) film as a synergic functional interlayer to address the issues mentioned above. The designed interlayer not only lowers the charge transfer resistance by the support of the upper current collector but also localizes the dissolved polysulfides within the cathode part by the aid of a physical blocking and chemical bonding. With the synergic combination of PAA and SWNT, the sulfur cathode with a PAA-SWNT interlayer maintained higher capacity retention over 200 cycles and achieved better rate retention than the sulfur cathode with a SWNT interlayer. The proposed approach of combining a functional polymer and conductive support material can provide an optimiztic strategy to overcome the fundamental challenges underlying in Li-S batteries.

  1. Tailoring interlayer structure of molecular layer-by-layer assembled polyamide membranes for high separation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Il Tae; Chan, Edwin P.; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    A molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) technique was recently developed to fabricate polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC) membranes for water purification. In this study, the interlayer structure between the selective and support layers of the mLbL-assembled TFC membrane was tailored to achieve high performance applicable to seawater desalination. Introducing interlayers on porous supports prior to mLbL deposition allowed the effective PA growth by preventing monomer deposition within the support pores. The PA layers were grown via mLbL on supports coated by a series of interlayers: poly(piperazine-amide), cross-linked poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and a polyelectrolyte bilayer of PEI and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (PEI/PAA). The density and distribution of surface carboxyl groups of the interlayer were found to be key parameters that determine the structure and performance of the mLbL-assembled membranes. Among the interlayers examined, the PEI/PAA interlayer not only yielded membranes with superior performance but also with a highly smooth surface beneficial for antifouling.

  2. Effect of interlayer bonding quality of asphalt layers on pavement performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskula, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of interlayer bonding at the interfaces between the asphalt layers in flexible pavements affects the overall pavement performance. Lack or partial lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers can cause pavement’s premature failures such as rutting, slippage of the wearing course, cracking or simply a reduction in the calculated fatigue life of the pavement structure. This paper shows the case studies of investigation of actual or potential premature failure of newly reconstructed and constructed pavements where low quality of interlayer bonding has a dominant meaning. In situ and laboratory tests were performed and followed by analytical calculation of pavement structure where thicknesses of layers and maximum shear strengths obtained from the tests were used. During the investigation it was found out that a low quality of tack coat as well as the same aggregate gradation in the bonded asphalt mixtures were the main reasons behind the weak quality of interlayer bonding. Partial interlayer bonding has a strong influence on reduction of calculated fatigue life of pavement. The summary of the paper includes recommendations on how to avoid the low quality of interlayer bonding of asphalt layers.

  3. Effect of interlayer spacing on the electrochemical properties of alkali titanate nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Minyong; Kim, Junghoon; Yoon, Yongsub; Shin, Dongwook

    2013-05-01

    Multilayered titanate nanotubes (TNTs) has been considered as a candidate for lithium ion battery anode material. However, it has a problem of high irreversible capacity due to trapped lithium ions in the interlayer space. To solve this problem, an attempt to enlarge the interlayer spacing has been made in this work to improve intercalation characteristics of TNTs. Monoatomic ions in hydrothermally heat-treated TNTs were substituted to one of Li, Na and K alkali ions via ion-exchange process. The TNTs (200) interlayer spacing peak in XRD patterns showed a shift to a lower angle, indicating an enlarged interlayer spacing of TNTs. The Li-, Na- and K-ion exchanged TNTs exhibited an initial capacity of 214, 230 and 248 mA h/g at 0.1 C, respectively, in the TNTs // LiPF6 electrolyte // Li metal coin type cell test. It was found that the enlarged interlayer spacing resulted in an increment in the specific capacity and rate capability. This increase was attributed to both the enhanced lithium ion diffusion and the increased number of lithium ion intercalation sites in the TNTs interlayers.

  4. Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-02-10

    van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (<50 cm(-1)) in twisted bilayer MoS2 by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles modeling. Twisting significantly alters the interlayer stacking and coupling, leading to notable frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.

  5. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  6. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  7. Electrochemical deposition of iridium and iridium-nickel-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näther, J.; Köster, F.; Freudenberger, R.; Schöberl, C.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    To develop durable and reliable electronic contacts, precious metals are still very important for finish plating of contact surfaces. The lesser-known iridium might be an interesting alternative to substitute gold alloys, platinum or rhodium for applications with highest demands to wear and corrosion resistance such as sliding and plug contacts. As matters stand there is no commercial electrolyte for iridium plating. Initial investigation screened the parameter range for different iridium compounds when an iridium layer occurred on the substrates. This approach showed that the oxidation state of iridium is crucial to reach contenting deposits. Best results came from Ir(IV) electrolyte with high bromine concentration coming from the starting compound, while electrolytes made from Ir(III) compounds gave very poor deposits. In subsequent experiments different organic compounds were added to the electrolytes to improve plating efficiency and stability of the solutions. So found electrolytes gave crack-free deposits up to two microns with a micro-hardness of 600 HV. To reduce the iridium content in the layer, iridium-nickel-alloys were investigated, finding that a nickel-content of 10 wt% raised the layer hardness to more than 900 HV.

  8. Nickel-Magnesia Cermet Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-06-01

    alumin " oxide cermet. To develop a bond between these tw components it in first necessary to produce a controlled film of Cr 203 on the Cr grains...somewhat more refractory. A cobalt - magnesia cermet may be made in the same way as the nickel - magnesia cermet, the bond being through the agency...of the oxide CoO. However, cobalt is not as oxidation resistant as nickel and is more strategic. Iron will wet probably all oxides and silicates and

  9. Nickel uptake in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.; Mallick, S.; Maier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    Free-living Bradyrhizobium japonicum grown heterotrophically with 1 ..mu..M /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ accumulated label. Strain SR470, a Hup/sup c/ mutant, accumulated almost 10-fold more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ on a per-cell basis than did strain SR, the wild type. Nongrowing cells were also able to accumulate nickel over a 2-h period, with the Hup/sup c/ mutant strain SR470 again accumulating significantly more /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ than strain SR. These results suggest that this mutant is constitutive for nickel uptake as well as for hydrogenase expression. The uptake process was relatively specific for nickel; only Cu/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ (10 ..mu..M) were found to appreciably inhibit the uptake of 1 ..mu..M Ni, while a 10-fold excess of Mg/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ did not affect Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake. The lack of inhibition by Mg/sup 2 +/ indicates that nickel is not transported by a magnesium uptake system. Nickel uptake was also inhibited by cold and slightly by the ionophores nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. The cytochrome c oxidase inhibitors azide, cyanide, and hydroxylamine did not inhibit Ni/sup 2 +/ uptake, even at concentrations (of cyanide and hydroxylamine) that inhibited O/sub 2/ uptake. The addition of oxidizable substrates such as succinate or gluconate did not increase nickel uptake, even though they increased respiratory activity. Nickel uptake showed a pH dependence with an optimum at 6.0. Most (approximately 85%) of the /sup 63/Ni/sup 2 +/ taken up in 1 min by strain SR470 was not exchangeable with cold nickel.

  10. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  11. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  12. Nickel and the Carbon Cycle†

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    This article, dedicated to Edward Stiefel, reviews three nickel enzymes that play important roles in the carbon cycle: CO dehydrogenase, acetyl-CoA synthase, and methyl-coenzyme M reductase. After a short discussion of the carbon cycle, the structures of the active centers of the proteins and their proposed mechanisms are discussed. A brief description of future research areas is presented for each enzyme system. A short perspective on future research on nickel enzymes ends this contribution. PMID:17716738

  13. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  14. Experiments shed new light on nickel-fluorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Gunther, W.; Jarry, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Isotopic tracer experiments and scale-impingement experiments show fluorine to be the migrating species through the nickel fluoride scale formed during the fluorination of nickel. This is in contrast to nickel oxide scales, where nickel is the migrating species.

  15. Nickel-Resistant Bacteria from Anthropogenically Nickel-Polluted and Naturally Nickel-Percolated Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Stoppel, R.; Schlegel, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    DNA fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in Europe and Zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from New Caledonia by DNA-DNA hybridization. The biotinylated DNA probes were derived from the previously described Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A, Alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and Klebsiella oxytoca CCUG 15788 and four new nickel resistance-determining fragments cloned from strains isolated from soils under nickel-hyperaccumulating trees. Nine probes were hybridized with endonuclease-cleaved plasmid and total DNA samples from 56 nickel-resistant strains. Some of the New Caledonian strains were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comamonas, Hafnia alvei, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter aurescens, and Arthrobacter ramosus strains. The DNA of most strains showed homologies to one or several of the following nickel resistance determinants: the cnr and ncc operons of the strains A. eutrophus CH34 and A. xylosoxidans 31A, respectively, the nre operon of strain 31A, and the nickel resistance determinants of K. oxytoca. On the basis of their hybridization reactions the nickel resistance determinants of the strains could be assigned to four groups: (i) cnr/ncc type, (ii) cnr/ncc/nre type, (iii) K. oxytoca type, and (iv) others. The majority of the strains were assigned to the known groups. Among the strains from Belgium and Zaire, exclusively the cnr/ncc and the cnr/ncc/nre types were found. Among the New Caledonian strains all four types were represented. Homologies to the nre operon were found only in combination with the cnr/ncc operon. The homologies to the cnr/ncc operon were the most abundant and were detected alone or together with homologies to the nre operon. Only the DNA of the strains isolated from soil in Scotland and the United States

  16. Nickel nanoparticles in carbon structures prepared by solid-phase pyrolysis of nickel-phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, A. S.; Mirzakhanyan, A. A.; Badalyan, G. R.; Shirinyan, G. H.; Fedorenko, A. G.; Lianguzov, N. V.; Yuzyuk, Yu I.; Bugaev, L. A.; Sharoyan, E. G.

    2012-07-01

    By using a modified method of solid-phase pyrolysis of metal-phthalocyanines, we have synthesized ferromagnetic Ni nanoparticles in different carbon structures: amorphous carbon plates, multiwall carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, and graphitized capsules. The composition, structure and morphology of prepared composite materials have been studied by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction technique. It has been found that the sizes of nickel nanoparticles (10-500 nm) and the type of carbon structures strongly depend on the pyrolysis conditions. By using the X-band ferromagnetic resonance measurements, we have revealed features of the temperature dependence of resonance spectra of single-domain and multi-domain Ni nanoparticles in Ni/C composites.

  17. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  18. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  19. Molecular modeling of the structure and dynamics of the interlayer species of ZnAlCl layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Pisson, J; Morel, J P; Morel-Desrosiers, N; Taviot-Guého, C; Malfreyt, P

    2008-07-03

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the ZnAl layered double hydroxide containing interlayer chloride anions have been performed in the NpT and Np(zz)T statistical ensembles for metal Zn/Al ratios of 2 and 3. We have monitored the interlayer spacing as a function of the number of intercalated water molecules for each statistical ensemble. We have studied how these profiles are affected by the method of calculation of the charges of the hydroxide layer atoms. Diffusion coefficients of the interlayer water molecules have been calculated for different Zn/Al ratios. The calculation of the chemical potential of the interlayer water molecules has been carried out for three amounts of interlayer water molecules. The calculation showed a qualitative agreement with the bulk water chemical potential within a range of interlayer water molecule contents.

  20. A mathematical approach for evaluating nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical equation is presented which gives a quantitative relationship between time-voltage discharge curves, when a cell's ampere-hour capacity is determined at a constant discharge current. In particular the equation quantifies the initial exponential voltage decay; the rate of voltage decay; the overall voltage shift of the curve and the total capacity of the cell at the given discharge current. The results of 12 nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cells cycled to 80 percent depth-of-discharge (DOD) are discussed in association with these equations.