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Sample records for platelet function assay

  1. Normalization methods in time series of platelet function assays

    PubMed Central

    Van Poucke, Sven; Zhang, Zhongheng; Roest, Mark; Vukicevic, Milan; Beran, Maud; Lauwereins, Bart; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Henskens, Yvonne; Lancé, Marcus; Marcus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Platelet function can be quantitatively assessed by specific assays such as light-transmission aggregometry, multiple-electrode aggregometry measuring the response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and thrombin-receptor activating peptide and viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The task of extracting meaningful statistical and clinical information from high-dimensional data spaces in temporal multivariate clinical data represented in multivariate time series is complex. Building insightful visualizations for multivariate time series demands adequate usage of normalization techniques. In this article, various methods for data normalization (z-transformation, range transformation, proportion transformation, and interquartile range) are presented and visualized discussing the most suited approach for platelet function data series. Normalization was calculated per assay (test) for all time points and per time point for all tests. Interquartile range, range transformation, and z-transformation demonstrated the correlation as calculated by the Spearman correlation test, when normalized per assay (test) for all time points. When normalizing per time point for all tests, no correlation could be abstracted from the charts as was the case when using all data as 1 dataset for normalization. PMID:27428217

  2. Functional platelet defects in children with severe chronic ITP as tested with 2 novel assays applicable for low platelet counts.

    PubMed

    van Bladel, Esther R; Laarhoven, Annemieke G; van der Heijden, Laila B; Heitink-Pollé, Katja M; Porcelijn, Leendert; van der Schoot, C Ellen; de Haas, Masja; Roest, Mark; Vidarsson, Gestur; de Groot, Philip G; Bruin, Marrie C A

    2014-03-06

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease with a complex heterogeneous pathogenesis and a bleeding phenotype that is not necessarily correlated to platelet count. In this study, the platelet function was assessed in a well-defined cohort of 33 pediatric chronic ITP patients. Because regular platelet function test cannot be performed in patients with low platelet counts, 2 new assays were developed to determine platelet function: first, the microaggregation test, measuring in platelets isolated from 10 mL of whole blood the platelet potential to form microaggregates in response to an agonist; second, the platelet reactivity assay, measuring platelet reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), convulxin (CVX), and thrombin receptor activator peptide in only 150 μL of unprocessed whole blood. Patients with a severe bleeding phenotype demonstrated a decreased aggregation potential upon phorbol myristate acetate stimulation, decreased platelet degranulation following ADP stimulation, and a higher concentration of ADP and CVX needed to activate the glycoprotein IIbIIIa complex compared with patients with a mild bleeding phenotype. In conclusion, here we have established 2 functional tests that allow for evaluation of platelet function in patients with extremely low platelet counts (<10(9)). These tests show that platelet function is related to bleeding phenotype in chronic ITP.

  3. Development of a high-throughput ELISA assay for platelet function testing using platelet-rich plasma or whole blood.

    PubMed

    Salles, Isabelle; Broos, Katleen; Fontayne, Alexandre; Szántó, Tímea; Ruan, Changgeng; Nurden, Alan T; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Deckmyn, Hans

    2010-08-01

    Platelets play an essential role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and are the target of several agents that can inhibit their function. Despite the existence of a wide array of techniques to study platelet function, an assay to evaluate several platelet signalling pathways in a high-throughput fashion, combined with minimal blood volume and handling is still needed. We have developed a sensitive assay in the form of a sandwich ELISA where monoclonal antibodies against P-selectin or alphaIIbbeta3 and GPIbalpha were used to capture and detect platelets, respectively, in the presence of five different agonists [ADP, TRAP (thrombin receptor agonist), U46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue), collagen-related-peptide, and arachidonic acid]. Binding of platelets to the antibodies increased dose-dependently with the concentration of either agonist, while binding of ADP-activated platelets was abrogated when inhibitors of platelet activation were concomitantly added. The test showed good sample reproducibility in 15 healthy donors with conserved platelet response to agonists throughout the assay. Healthy subjects could be identified as normal-, hypo- or hyper-responders for each agonist, which for most cases (73%) was confirmed upon retesting. Finally, we demonstrated that the platelet ELISA assay can not only be used in platelet-rich plasma but also in whole blood; it now awaits large scale studies to assess its full screening and diagnostic values.

  4. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    PubMed

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  5. Functional assay of antiplatelet drugs based on margination of platelets in flowing blood

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Colin D.; Fogelson, Aaron L.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A novel functional assay of antiplatelet drug efficacy was designed by utilizing the phenomena of platelet margination in flowing blood and transient platelet contacts with surface-immobilized platelet agonists. Flow margination enhances transient contacts of platelets with the walls of flow chambers covered with surface-immobilized proteins. Depending on the type and the surface density of the immobilized agonists, such transient interactions could “prime” the marginated platelet subpopulation for enhanced activation and adhesion downstream. By creating an upstream surface patch with an immobilized platelet agonist, platelet flow margination was used to test how effective antiplatelet drugs are in suppressing downstream platelet activation and adhesion. The platelet adhesion downstream was measured by a so-called “capture” patch region close to the distal end of the flow chamber. Platelet adhesion downstream was found to be dose-dependent on the upstream surface coverage of the “priming” patch, with immobilized fibrinogen acting as a platelet agonist. Several antiplatelet agents (acetylsalicylic acid, eptifibatide, and tirofiban) were evaluated for their efficacy in attenuating downstream adhesion after upstream platelet priming. The activation of the platelet population was found to be dependent on both the extent of the upstream agonist stimulus and the antiplatelet drug concentration. Such a relationship provides an opportunity to measure the efficacy of specific antiplatelet agents against the type and concentration of upstream platelet agonists. PMID:27030476

  6. High content evaluation of shear dependent platelet function in a microfluidic flow assay.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ryan R; Wufsus, Adam R; Barton, Steven T; Onasoga, Abimbola A; Johnson-Paben, Rebecca M; Neeves, Keith B

    2013-02-01

    The high blood volume requirements and low throughput of conventional flow assays for measuring platelet function are unsuitable for drug screening and clinical applications. In this study, we describe a microfluidic flow assay that uses 50 μL of whole blood to measure platelet function on ~300 micropatterned spots of collagen over a range of physiologic shear rates (50-920 s(-1)). Patterning of collagen thin films (CTF) was achieved using a novel hydrated microcontact stamping method. CTF spots of 20, 50, and 100 μm were defined on glass substrates and consisted of a dense mat of nanoscale collagen fibers (3.74 ± 0.75 nm). We found that a spot size of greater than 20 μm was necessary to support platelet adhesion under flow, suggesting a threshold injury size is necessary for stable platelet adhesion. Integrating 50 μm CTF microspots into a multishear microfluidic device yielded a high content assay from which we extracted platelet accumulation metrics (lag time, growth rate, total accumulation) on the spots using Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy. This method has potential broad application in identifying platelet function defects and screening, monitoring, and dosing antiplatelet agents.

  7. High content evaluation of shear dependent platelet function in a microfluidic flow assay

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ryan R.; Wufsus, Adam R.; Barton, Steven T.; Onasoga, Abimbola A.; Johnson-Paben, Rebecca M.; Neeves, Keith B.

    2012-01-01

    The high blood volume requirements and low throughput of conventional flow assays for measuring platelet function are unsuitable for drug screening and clinical applications. In this study, we describe a microfluidic flow assay that uses 50 μL of whole blood to measure platelet function on ~300 micropatterned spots of collagen over a range of physiologic shear rates (50–920 s−1). Patterning of collagen thin films (CTF) was achieved using a novel hydrated microcontact stamping method. CTF spots of 20, 50, and 100 μm were defined on glass substrates and consisted of a dense mat of nanoscale collagen fibers (3.74 ± 0.75 nm). We found that a spot size of greater than 20 μm was necessary to support platelet adhesion under flow, suggesting a threshold injury is necessary for stable platelet adhesion. Integrating 50 μm CTF microspots into a multishear microfluidic device yielded a high content assay from which we extracted platelet accumulation metrics (lag time, growth rate, total accumulation) on the spots using Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy. This method has potential broad application in identifying platelet function defects and screening, monitoring and dosing antiplatelet agents. PMID:23001359

  8. Influence of preparative procedures on assay of platelet function and apparent effects of antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Nathaniel J; Holmes, Chris E; Serrano, Feliciano A; Sobel, Burton E; Schneider, David J

    2007-08-15

    Previous studies have shown that anticoagulants alter platelet reactivity and the apparent effects of antiplatelet agents. This study was conducted to identify the impact of methods of preparation of blood samples on an assay of platelet function and the effects of antiplatelet agents. The activation of platelets was identified with the use of flow cytometry in response to thrombin (1 and 10 nmol/L), adenosine diphosphate (0.2 and 1 micromol/L), platelet activating factor (1 nmol/L), and convulxin (1 and 10 ng/ml). Antiplatelet effects were assessed after the addition in vitro of tirofiban (50 ng/ml) and cangrelor (10 nmol/L). Results were compared in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) anticoagulated with corn trypsin inhibitor (32 microg/ml, a specific inhibitor of factor XIIa). The fraction of young platelets was quantified with thiazole orange, which identifies ribonucleic acid. The activation of platelets was consistently less in PRP compared with whole blood. Activation in PRP was 23 +/- 15% that in whole blood for thrombin, 65 +/- 26% for adenosine diphosphate, 40 +/- 20% for platelet activating factor, and 49 +/- 25% for convulxin (p <0.01 for each comparison). The fraction of young platelets in PRP was 39 +/- 11% that in whole blood (p <0.001). The effects of antiplatelet agents varied with agonist and antiplatelet agent but were generally greater in PRP compared with whole blood (p <0.05). In conclusion, platelet reactivity is lower and the effects of antiplatelet agents are greater and potentially misleading in PRP compared with whole blood. The accuracy of platelet function testing may be improved by performance in whole blood.

  9. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-02-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH/sub 2/ from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and (/sup 125/I)-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the (/sup 125/I)antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10/sup 9/ platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency.

  10. Platelet Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally developed for diagnosis of bleeding disorders, platelet function assays have become increasingly used in basic research on platelet physiology, in phenotype-genotype associations in bleeding disorders, in drug development as surrogate endpoints of efficacy of new antiplatelet therapy, and to an extent, in the monitoring of antiplatelet therapy in clinical practice to predict thrombotic and bleeding risk. A multiplicity of platelet function assays is available to measure the level of platelet activity in various settings. These include assays that are restricted to a specialized laboratory as well as point-of-care instruments meant to investigate platelet function at patient bedside. Unlike tests that determine a defined quantity or measurement of a clinical biomarker (e.g., cholesterol or blood pressure), platelet function testing assesses the dynamics of living cells, which immediately presents a series of unique problems to any laboratory or clinic. This article presents currently used platelet function assays and discusses important variables to take into account when performing these assays, including preanalytical issues and difficulties in interpreting platelet function test results.

  11. Platelet-free shear flow assay facilitates analysis of shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Emma; Kraus, Kristina; Obser, Tobias; Oyen, Florian; Klemm, Ulrike; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Brehm, Maria A

    2014-12-01

    The multimeric form of von Willebrand factor (VWF), is the largest soluble protein in mammals and exhibits a multidomain structure resulting in multiple functions. Upon agonist stimulation endothelial cells secrete VWF multimers from Weibel-Palade bodies into the blood stream where VWF plays an essential role in platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Elongation of VWF strings on the cells' surface leads to accessibility of VWF binding sites for proteins, such as platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. The prothrombotic strings are size-regulated by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 by shear force-activated proteolytic cleavage. VWF string formation was induced by histamine stimulation of HUVEC cells under unidirectional shear flow and VWF strings were detected employing the VWF binding peptide of platelet glycoprotein Ib coupled to latex beads. VWF strings were then used as substrate for kinetic studies of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13. To investigate specific aspects of the shear-dependent functions of VWF and ADAMTS13, we developed a shear flow assay that allows observation of VWF string formation and their degradation by ADAMTS13 without the need for isolated platelets. Our assay specifically detects VWF strings, can be coupled with fluorescent applications and allows semi-automated, quantitative assessment of recombinant and plasma ADAMTS13 activity. Our assay may serve as a valuable research tool to investigate the biochemical characteristics of VWF and ADAMTS13 under shear flow and could complement diagnostics of von Willebrand Disease and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura as it allows detection of shear flow-dependent dysfunction of VWD-associated VWF mutants as well as TTP-associated ADAMTS13 mutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying responsiveness to oral P2Y12 receptor blockers: platelet function assays and genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Valgimigli, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Some patients with acute coronary syndromes and/or who are undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) remain at risk for cardiovascular events despite antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel. This may be due, at least in part, to high residual on-treatment platelet reactivity (PR). Given the potential seriousness of an incomplete response to treatment, there is a need for a simple, rapid and reproducible point-of-care method to determine the patient's response to clopidogrel in order to tailor treatment in routine clinical practice. Among the available assays to measure the degree of platelet inhibition, the VerifyNow P2Y12 system is a simple test based on agglutination of fibrinogen-coated beads. Numerous studies have used this system to assess on-clopidogrel PR in an attempt to define a reliable cut-off for identifying patients at risk for a cardiovascular event. Despite substantial evidence to support a role for PR testing in routine clinical practice to stratify the risk of cardiovascular events in patients who undergo PCI, definitive clinical evidence is still lacking for the utility using PR data to tailor clopidogrel treatment. Issues include the risk profile of patients enrolled in studies, the timing of assessment of PR and the fact that PR has been shown to change over time. Genetic susceptibility may explain some of the variability in PR, and genetic testing could provide additional information for clinical decision-making. Nevertheless, until new evidence from well designed clinical studies is available, the implementation of current treatment guidelines and the administration of newer, more potent oral P2Y12 receptor blockers remains the standard-of-care.

  13. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    PubMed

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional fractionation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Haver, V M; Gear, A R

    1981-02-01

    Studies of platelet populations suggest that they are heterogeneous in size, age, and metabolic parameters. In an attempt to correlate these parameters with efficiency of aggregation, a new technique, functional fractionation, was developed. Platelet populations are separated by their differential reactivity to aggregating agents. For example, low doses of ADP (0.1 to 0.7 microM) are added to stirred PRP, after which gentle centrifugation is used to remove aggregates from single unreacted platelets. The loose aggregates can be readily dispersed for comparison of the physical or biochemical properties of the reacted versus unreacted platelets. It was found that reactive platelets were larger (6.5 micrometer3) than unreacted platelets (5.51 micrometer3). No significant difference in density existed between the two populations, and no release of [14C]serotonin from prelabeled platelets occurred during functional fractionation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size difference and revealed that in both populations platelets were structurally intact with a normal discoid shape and no significant difference in organelle content. Human platelets most reactive to ADP were also enriched in glycogen (3.6-fold), ATP (1.6-fold), and ADP (twofold), compared with less reactive cells. These "reactive" cells took up more 51[Cr] and contained 1.9 times more surface sialic acid. In an in vivo aging experiment, rats were injected with 75[Se]methionine. Shortly after labeling (1 day), the most reactive platelets possessed the highest amount of 75[Se]. These results reveal that functionally active platelets, which are also larger, are more active metabolically than less reactive platelets, possess a higher negative surface charge, and may be a younger population.

  15. Platelet function tests: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Liotta, Agatina Alessandrello; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation - adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation - have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered.

  16. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  17. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  18. Detection of platelet alloimmunity with a platelet-associated IgG assay

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Bishop, J.; Baldini, M.G.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescence PA-IgG assay was used to detect alloimmunity to platelets. The assay identified serum alloantibodies in 10 out of 14 multitransfused patients and for two of three infants with neonatal thrombocytopenia. The correct separation of all multitransfused patients into alloimmune and nonalloimmune groups by the PA-IgG assay was substantiated with chromium-51-labeled platelet survival studies. The allogeneic nature of the serum antibodies was demonstrated by progressive absorption of the antibody with increasing numbers of allogeneic platelets but not with autologous platelets. The sensitivity of the PA-IgG assay for detection of serum alloantibodies was superior to that of platelet aggregation, platelet serotonin release, and lymphocytotoxicity testing. In dilution experiments with alloimmune serum, elevated levels of serum PA-IgG could still be detected on donor platelets when platelet aggregation and serotonin release tests became negative. Platelet survival studies with selected platelets performed in the 10 alloimmunized, multitransfused patients confirmed the results of the PA-IgG assays, predicting alloimmunity to the donor platelets. In contrast, platelet aggregation, platelet serotonin release, and lymphocytotoxicity testing indicated alloimmunity for 50% or less of the patients. Reduced platelet survival times were also seen with HLA A- and HLA B-matched donor platelets when donor-recipient incompatibility was demonstrated by the PA-IgG assay. Thus the PA-IgG assay provides a sensitive method to detect serum platelet alloantibodies and may offer a technique in platelet crossmatching.

  19. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    mice and mice transfused with Syk inhibitor-treated platelets . Platelet lodging was remarkably decreased in lungs of mice transfused with Syk...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet ...30September2012–29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Rho GTPases in platelet function.

    PubMed

    Aslan, J E; McCarty, O J T

    2013-01-01

    The Rho family of GTP binding proteins, also commonly referred to as the Rho GTPases, are master regulators of the platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function. These low-molecular-weight or 'small' GTPases act as signaling switches in the spatial and temporal transduction, and amplification of signals from platelet cell surface receptors to the intracellular signaling pathways that drive platelet function. The Rho GTPase family members RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 have emerged as key regulators in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in platelets and play key roles in platelet aggregation, secretion, spreading and thrombus formation. Rho GTPase regulators, including GEFs and GAPs and downstream effectors, such as the WASPs, formins and PAKs, may also regulate platelet activation and function. In this review, we provide an overview of Rho GTPase signaling in platelet physiology. Previous studies of Rho GTPases and platelets have had a shared history, as platelets have served as an ideal, non-transformed cellular model to characterize Rho function. Likewise, recent studies of the cell biology of Rho GTPase family members have helped to build an understanding of the molecular regulation of platelet function and will continue to do so through the further characterization of Rho GTPases as well as Rho GAPs, GEFs, RhoGDIs and Rho effectors in actin reorganization and other Rho-driven cellular processes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. New trends in bioanalytical microdevices to assess platelet function.

    PubMed

    Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; Meade, Gerardene; Kenny, Dermot

    2010-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. The role of platelets and antiplatelet drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular disease is widely appreciated. Platelets have a less well-known role in cancer and inflammation and as the role of platelets in cancer and inflammation is increasingly understood, there is a compelling need to develop diagnostic assays of platelet function to guide clinical management. Most current platelet-function tests are focused on platelet aggregation, are cumbersome, require dedicated laboratory personnel, measure a single response to a single agonist and artificially separate platelets from blood, thus, these assays do not reflect the pathophysiolgical environment of complex disease states. New technology platforms are emerging that address the physiological adhesive function of platelets to vascular-specific matrices using small volumes of whole blood, giving rapid results. These technologies will guide therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and probably in risk management in both cancer and atherosclerosis.

  2. Selection of donor platelets for alloimmunized patients using a platelet-associated IgG assay

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Baldini, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescence platelet-associated immunoglobulin-G (PA-IgG) assay was used to detect alloimmunity to platelets in 8/12 multitransfused patients and to perform platelet crossmatching in the 8 alloimmunized patients. The correct separation of multitransfused patients into alloimmune and nonalloimmune groups was substantiated with chromium-51-labeled platelet survival studies. For 5 alloimmunized patients, compatible and incompatible donor platelets were demonstrated by PA-IgG crossmatching and were confirmed by platelet survival studies. With the other 3 alloimmunized patients, only Pa-IgG incompatible donor platelets were found. Survival studies with 5 of these incompatible donor platelets showed markedly reduced survival times on 4 occasions. Pa-IgG compatible donor platelets survived 3.5 to 8.7 days, while Pa-IgG incompatible platelets showed survival times of 0.1 to 2.4 days.

  3. Assessment of platelet function in healthy sedated cats using three whole blood platelet function tests.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kimberly K; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Wood, R Darren; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Kirby, Gordon M; Blois, Shauna L

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish feline references intervals for 3 commercial whole blood platelet function test analyzer systems: Multiplate analyzer (MP; Roche Diagnostics International Ltd., Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PF: Siemens Canada, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), and Plateletworks Combo-25 kit (PW; Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX). Venipuncture was performed on 55 healthy sedated cats, and platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), and arachidonic acid (AA; MP only) was assessed using citrated blood. For the MP analyzer, median (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) area under curve (Units) for ADP, COL, and AA agonists were 87 (11-176), 81 (32-129), and 91 (59-129), respectively. For the PF analyzer, median (95% CIs) closure time, using COL-ADP cartridges, was 69 (46-89) sec. For the PW assay, median (95% CIs) percent aggregations for ADP and COL agonists were 71 (18-92) and 49 (9-96), respectively, using impedance hematology analyzer platelet counts, and 94 (25-98) and 68 (14-119), respectively, using flow cytometry hematology analyzer platelet counts. There were low correlations between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and MP analyzer (COL agonist; ρ = 0.11), and between the PF analyzer (COL-ADP cartridge) and PW assay (COL agonist using impedance platelet counts; ρ = 0.14). The PW assay percent aggregations using impedance and flow cytometric platelet counts were correlated for both ADP (ρ = 0.64) and COL (ρ = 0.64) agonists. Platelet function testing using these tests are feasible in cats, but 95% CIs are wide, so single results may be difficult to interpret. Platelet counting by impedance or flow cytometry may be used for the PW assay but are not interchangeable.

  4. The influencing factors for clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition are assay-dependent.

    PubMed

    Gremmel, Thomas; Steiner, Sabine; Seidinger, Daniela; Koppensteiner, Renate; Panzer, Simon; Kopp, Christoph W

    2011-10-01

    Influencing factors for clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition have only been evaluated by one or two different test systems in the same population so far. Since previous studies revealed poor correlations between the various platelet function tests, the identification of influencing variables for clopidogrel response may vary from one test system to the next. We therefore investigated whether the influencing factors for clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition depend on the used assay. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-inducible platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay, multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), and the Impact-R in 288 patients after angioplasty and stenting for cardiovascular disease. By univariate and multivariate regression analyses, we evaluated the impact of age ≥ 75, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, active smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, C-reactive protein, platelet count, creatinine, use of calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), statins, proton pump inhibitors, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers on clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition in each test system. None of the independent influencing variables was consistent through all test systems. Only by LTA and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, age ≥ 75 and the use of CCBs were independently associated with higher on-treatment platelet reactivity. Only by the VASP assay and MEA, on-treatment platelet reactivity increased linearly with BMI. Further, only by MEA, residual ADP-inducible platelet reactivity increased linearly with platelet count, whereas an increase in platelet count was independently associated with a decrease in ADP-inducible platelet activation by the Impact-R. The influencing factors for platelet reactivity during clopidogrel therapy are assay-dependent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. A platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay for detection of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-related platelet alloantibodies.

    PubMed

    Reiner, A P; Teramura, G; Nelson, K A; Slichter, S J

    1995-08-18

    Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAT) result from formation of alloantibodies to platelet membrane glycoprotein-associated antigens. The detection and identification of platelet-specific alloantibodies in patient sera is often complicated by the presence of co-existing HLA antibodies and/or more than one platelet specificity in the same serum. We describe a solid phase assay that specifically detects antibodies to platelet membrane associated alloantigens by measuring the ability of patient antisera to inhibit the binding of glycoprotein GPIIb or GPIIIa monoclonal antibodies to intact platelets. When tested in the GPIIIa assay against a panel of random platelet donors, the reactivities of two known PLAI antisera that also contained different HLA antibodies were highly correlated (r = 0.99) and allowed PLA phenotyping of the population. A standard direct binding platelet ELISA, on the other hand, was unable to accurately PLA phenotype the same population. The reactivities of two known Baka antisera (one containing additional anti-PLA2 and the other anti-Brb specificities) were highly correlated (r = 0.95) in the GPIIb assay, and Bak phenotype determination was similarly accomplished for a random platelet panel. Furthermore, a comparison of platelet phenotype results (using the monoclonal inhibition assay) and genotype results (using DNA analysis) for the PLA and Bak systems showed a concordance of 98% for 146 alleles tested. In conclusion, the platelet monoclonal antibody inhibition assay: (1) allows determination of platelet-specific alloantibodies in the presence of contaminating HLA antibodies and/or in sera containing multiple platelet alloantibodies; (2) allows accurate platelet phenotyping for the GPIIIa-associated PLA and GPIIb-associated Bak antigen systems; and (3) may be applicable to the detection of other known or even novel platelet glycoprotein-associated antigens.

  6. [The usefulness of platelet function evaluation in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Elalamy, Ismail; Gkalea, Vasiliki; Gerotziafas, Grigorios; Ketatni, Hela; Hatmi, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis. Functional testing of platelet response has been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances of light transmission aggregometry and development of more useful devices have demonstrated the clinical utility to enlarge platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of residual platelet response seems, with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events. Still a debate, it represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and the basic scientist. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia diagnosis is also difficult and a functional assay is now available for an easier and rapid method to rule out such a life-threatening situation. This review article will describe the available methods of measuring platelet response and will discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  7. Sources of Variability in Platelet Accumulation on Type 1 Fibrillar Collagen in Microfluidic Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    Neeves, Keith B.; Onasoga, Abimbola A.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Lilly, Jessica J.; Venckunaite, Diana; Sumner, Meghan B.; Irish, Andrew T.; Brodsky, Gary; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.; Di Paola, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic flow assays (MFA) that measure shear dependent platelet function have potential clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding and thrombotic disorders. As a step towards clinical application, the objective of this study was to measure how phenotypic and genetic factors, as well as experimental conditions, affect the variability of platelet accumulation on type 1 collagen within a MFA. Whole blood was perfused over type 1 fibrillar collagen at wall shear rates of 150, 300, 750 and 1500 s−1 through four independent channels with a height of 50 µm and a width of 500 µm. The accumulation of platelets was characterized by the lag time to 1% platelet surface coverage (LagT), the rate of platelet accumulation (VPLT), and platelet surface coverage (SC). A cohort of normal donors was tested and the results were correlated to plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, platelet count, hematocrit, sex, and collagen receptors genotypes. VWF levels were the strongest determinant of platelet accumulation. VWF levels were positively correlated to VPLT and SC at all wall shear rates. A longer LagT for platelet accumulation at arterial shear rates compared to venous shear rates was attributed to the time required for plasma proteins to adsorb to collagen. There was no association between platelet accumulation and hematocrit or platelet count. Individuals with the AG genotype of the GP6 gene had lower platelet accumulation than individuals with the AA genotype at 150 s−1 and 300 s−1. Recalcified blood collected into sodium citrate and corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) resulted in diminished platelet accumulation compared to CTI alone, suggesting that citrate irreversibly diminishes platelet function. This study the largest association study of MFA in healthy donors (n = 104) and will likely set up the basis for the determination of the normal range of platelet responses in this type of assay. PMID:23355889

  8. Sources of variability in platelet accumulation on type 1 fibrillar collagen in microfluidic flow assays.

    PubMed

    Neeves, Keith B; Onasoga, Abimbola A; Hansen, Ryan R; Lilly, Jessica J; Venckunaite, Diana; Sumner, Meghan B; Irish, Andrew T; Brodsky, Gary; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J; Di Paola, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic flow assays (MFA) that measure shear dependent platelet function have potential clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding and thrombotic disorders. As a step towards clinical application, the objective of this study was to measure how phenotypic and genetic factors, as well as experimental conditions, affect the variability of platelet accumulation on type 1 collagen within a MFA. Whole blood was perfused over type 1 fibrillar collagen at wall shear rates of 150, 300, 750 and 1500 s⁻¹ through four independent channels with a height of 50 µm and a width of 500 µm. The accumulation of platelets was characterized by the lag time to 1% platelet surface coverage (Lag(T)), the rate of platelet accumulation (V(PLT)), and platelet surface coverage (SC). A cohort of normal donors was tested and the results were correlated to plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, platelet count, hematocrit, sex, and collagen receptors genotypes. VWF levels were the strongest determinant of platelet accumulation. VWF levels were positively correlated to V(PLT) and SC at all wall shear rates. A longer Lag(T) for platelet accumulation at arterial shear rates compared to venous shear rates was attributed to the time required for plasma proteins to adsorb to collagen. There was no association between platelet accumulation and hematocrit or platelet count. Individuals with the AG genotype of the GP6 gene had lower platelet accumulation than individuals with the AA genotype at 150 s⁻¹ and 300 s⁻¹. Recalcified blood collected into sodium citrate and corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) resulted in diminished platelet accumulation compared to CTI alone, suggesting that citrate irreversibly diminishes platelet function. This study the largest association study of MFA in healthy donors (n = 104) and will likely set up the basis for the determination of the normal range of platelet responses in this type of assay.

  9. Platelet serotonin modulates immune functions.

    PubMed

    Mauler, M; Bode, C; Duerschmied, D

    2016-01-01

    This short review addresses immune functions of platelet serotonin. Platelets transport serotonin at a high concentration in dense granules and release it upon activation. Besides haemostatic, vasotonic and developmental modulation, serotonin also influences a variety of immune functions (mediated by different serotonin receptors). First, platelet serotonergic effects are directed against invading pathogens via activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, modulation of cytokine release, and recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation by induction of selectin expression on endothelial cells. Second, serotonin levels are elevated in autoimmune diseases, such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis, and during tissue regeneration after ischemia of myocardium or brain. Specific antagonism of serotonin receptors appears to improve survival after myocardial infarction or sepsis and to attenuate asthmatic attacks in animal models. It will be of great clinical relevance if these findings can be translated into human applications. In conclusion, targeting immune modulatory effects of platelet serotonin may provide novel therapeutic options for common health problems.

  10. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  11. Point-of-care platelet function assays demonstrate reduced responsiveness to clopidogrel, but not aspirin, in patients with Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis whilst on dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Alex R; Petley, Graham; Morton, Geraint; Dawkins, Keith D; Curzen, Nick P

    2008-01-01

    Background To test the hypothesis that point-of-care assays of platelet reactivity would demonstrate reduced response to antiplatelet therapy in patients who experienced Drug Eluting Stent (DES) ST whilst on dual antiplatelet therapy compared to matched DES controls. Whilst the aetiology of stent thrombosis (ST) is multifactorial there is increasing evidence from laboratory-based assays that hyporesponsiveness to antiplatelet therapy is a factor in some cases. Methods From 3004 PCI patients, seven survivors of DES ST whilst on dual antiplatelet therapy were identified and each matched with two patients without ST. Analysis was performed using (a) short Thrombelastogram PlateletMapping™ (TEG) and (b) VerifyNow Aspirin and P2Y12 assays. TEG analysis was performed using the Area Under the Curve at 15 minutes (AUC15) as previously described. Results There were no differences in responses to aspirin. There was significantly greater platelet reactivity on clopidogrel in the ST group using the Accumetrics P2Y12 assay (183 ± 51 vs. 108 ± 31, p = 0.02) and a trend towards greater reactivity using TEG AUC15 (910 ± 328 vs. 618 ± 129, p = 0.07). 57% of the ST group by TEG and 43% of the ST cases by Accumetrics PRU had results > two standard deviations above the expected mean in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates reduced platelet response to clopidogrel in some patients with DES ST compared to matched controls. The availability of point-of-care assays that can detect these responses raises the possibility of prospectively identifying DES patients at risk of ST and manipulating their subsequent risk. PMID:18312665

  12. Reelin is a platelet protein and functions as a positive regulator of platelet spreading on fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Lien; Huang, Chien-Ling; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Liao, Chang-Huei; Stern, Arnold; Cheng, Ju-Chien; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Abnormalities of platelet functions have been linked to reelin-impaired neuronal disorders. However, little attention has been given to understanding the interplay between reelin and platelet. In this study, reelin was found to present in the human platelets and megakaryocyte-like leukemic cells. Reelin-binding assays revealed that extracellular reelin can interact with platelets through the receptor belonging to the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. The reelin-to-platelet interactions enhance platelet spreading on fibrinogen concomitant with the augmentation of lamellipodia formation and F-actin bundling. In contrast, reelin has no effect on integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation and agonist-induced platelet aggregation. Molecular analysis revealed that the up-regulation of Rac1 activity and the inhibition of protein kinase C delta-Thr505 phosphorylation are important for reelin-mediated enhancement of platelet spreading on fibrinogen. These findings demonstrate for the first time that reelin is present in platelets and the reelin-to-platelet interactions play a novel role in platelet signaling and functions.

  13. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  14. The Platelet Function Defect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-24

    fibrinolytic and coagulation systems occur during CPB,1 a platelet function defect is generally considered to be the primary CPB-induced hemostatic...platelets.39 OKM5 (provided by Dr. Patricia Rao, Ortho Diagnostic Systems , Raritan, NJ) is directed against platelet membrane GPIV.40 Flow Cytometric...22 after degranulation.7-14-16-18 Utilizing washed platelet systems , Nieuwenhuis et al.14 found a modest increase during CPB of the platelet

  15. Platelet function testing in hirudin and BAPA anticoagulated blood.

    PubMed

    Mani, Helen; Hellis, Mirna; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2011-03-01

    Sodium citrate is the most commonly used anticoagulant for platelet function testing. However, the use of citrated blood for platelet function analysis has been criticized due to creation of a non-physiological milieu. Moreover, platelet function measurements performed with citrated blood need to be completed within 4 h after blood collection. Alternatively, hirudin and recently, a dual thrombin/factor Xa inhibitor benzylsulfonyl-D-Arg-Pro-4-amidinobenzylamide (BAPA), can be used to improve the reactivity after prolonged storage of platelets. The present study investigated platelet function tests using hirudin and BAPA anticoagulated blood. Blood was obtained from 30 healthy individuals and 20 patients on aspirin or clopidogrel therapy, and stored for 2, 12, 24 or 48 h. Light transmission aggregometry and impedance platelet aggregometry were performed using adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid as agonists. The vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay was evaluated. Platelet aggregation measurements of healthy individuals and patients showed stable platelet aggregation values induced by arachidonic acid, after 24 h, when hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood was used. However, citrated blood resulted in significantly reduced platelet response after 12 h. ADP-induced light transmission aggregation of healthy individuals and patients exhibited unchanged platelet aggregation after 12 h using hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood, while significantly reduced platelet response was observed after 12 h when using citrated blood. In contrast, measurement of ADP-induced aggregation by use of impedance aggregometry resulted in reduced stability over 12 h using hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood. The VASP assay exhibited no significant changes in results over a storage period of 48 h, independent of the anticoagulants used. Use of hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood resulted in improvement of stability of platelet function measurements.

  16. A review of platelet secretion assays for the diagnosis of inherited platelet secretion disorders.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Andrew D; Frelinger, Andrew L; Gachet, Christian; Gresele, Paolo; Noris, Patrizia; Harrison, Paul; Mezzano, Diego

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of platelet granule release to detect inherited platelet secretion disorders (IPSDs) is essential for the evaluation of patients with abnormal bleeding and is necessary to distinguish which granule sub-types are affected and whether there is abnormal granule bio-synthesis or secretion. The radioactive serotonin incorporation and release assay, described before 1970, is still considered the "gold standard" test to assess platelet δ-granule release, although is unsuitable for clinical diagnostic laboratories. Luciferin-based assays, such as lumiaggregometry, are the most widely performed alternatives, although these methods do not distinguish defects in δ-granule biosynthesis from defects in secretion. Platelet α-granule release is commonly evaluated using flow cytometry by measuring surface exposure of P-selectin after platelet activation. However, this assay has poor sensitivity for some α-granule disorders. Only few studies have been published with more recently developed assays and no critical reviews on these methods are available. In this review, we describe the rationale for developing robust and accurate laboratory tests of platelet granule release and describe the characteristics of the currently available tests. We identify an unmet need for further systematic evaluation of new assays and for standardisation of methodologies for clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  17. Dynamic light scattering can determine platelet function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet transfusions are life-saving procedures for patients who are bleeding or undergoing chemotherapy. The effectiveness of transfusions depends on the number of platelets transfused and the platelet function. Platelet function correlates with proportion of discoid to activated platelets, morphology response to temperature stress, and inversely correlates with microparticle content. ThromboLUX is a novel device that determines platelet function by measuring all of these characteristics using dynamic light scattering (DLS). During periods of stress, such as decreased temperature, cytoskeletal rearrangements will cause normal, discoid platelets to activate and become spiny spheres. The formation of pseudopods of various lengths facilitates the clotting cascade and also increases the apparent size of platelets. ThromboLUX uses a 37-20-37 C temperature cycle that mimics the bleeding, storage, and transfusion process. As the temperature fluctuates, DLS will measure the changing platelet hydrodynamic radius and the size of any microparticles present. ThromboLUX analysis of platelet concentrates in vitro would allow determination of high platelet function units before transfusion and would therefore improve transfusion outcomes and patient safety. This study examined how DLS is able to distinguish between discoid and activated platelets as well as measure the parameters that contribute to high platelet function.

  18. Shear-mediated platelet activation in patients implanted with continuous flow LVADs: A preliminary study utilizing the platelet activity state (PAS) assay.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Lorenzo; Consolo, Filippo; Bluestein, Danny; Tran, Phat; Slepian, Marvin; Redaelli, Alberto; Pappalardo, Federico

    2015-08-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have emerged as vital life-saving therapeutic systems for patients with advanced and end-stage heart failure (HF). Despite their efficacy, VAD systems remain limited by post-implantation thrombotic complications. Shear-mediated platelet activation is the major driver of such complications in these devices. Nowadays few platelet function assays are routinely utilized in assessing the degree of platelet activation in VAD implanted patients. No assays exist that specifically target shear-mediated platelet activation. The platelet activity state (PAS) is a novel assay that has been well validated in vitro, measuring thrombin release as a surrogate for shear-mediated platelet activation. To date limited data exist as to the utility of this assay in the clinical setting. In the present study we evaluated eight LVAD patients' platelet activation level using the PAS assay. Simultaneous measurements of conventional prothrombotic and hemolysis markers, - i.e. fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) - were also performed. Trends as to alteration from baseline were studied. We observed that the PAS assay allowed detection of an abnormal level of platelet activation in one patient in our series who suffered from an overt thrombosis. Interestingly in the same patient no signal of major abnormality in fibrinogen or LDH was detected. Further for 7/8 patients who were free of thrombosis, no significant level of platelet activation was detected via PAS assay, while elevation in fibrinogen and LDH were observed. As such, from our observational series it appears that the PAS assay is a sensitive and specific indicator of shear-mediated platelet activation. Further patients' experience will help elucidate the role of this promising assay in the management of LVAD implanted patients.

  19. Association of MicroRNAs and YRNAs with Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Lukas H.; Barwari, Temo; Willeit, Peter; Pechlaner, Raimund; Sunderland, Nicholas P.; Willeit, Karin; Morton, Allison C.; Armstrong, Paul C.; Chan, Melissa V.; Lu, Ruifang; Yin, Xiaoke; Gracio, Filipe; Dudek, Katarzyna; Langley, Sarah R.; Zampetaki, Anna; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Ye, Shu; Warner, Timothy D.; Saxena, Alka; Kiechl, Stefan; Storey, Robert F.; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Platelets shed microRNAs (miRNAs). Plasma miRNAs change upon platelet inhibition. It is unclear if plasma miRNA levels correlate with platelet function. Objective To link small RNAs to platelet reactivity. Methods and Results Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs in plasma revealed two peaks at 22-23 and 32-33 nucleotides corresponding to miRNAs and YRNAs, respectively. Among YRNAs, predominantly fragments of RNY4 and RNY5 were detected. Plasma miRNAs and YRNAs were measured in 125 patients with a history of ACS who had undergone detailed assessment of platelet function 30 days after the acute event. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, 92 miRNAs were assessed in ACS patients on different anti-platelet therapies. Key platelet-related miRNAs and YRNAs were correlated with platelet function tests. MiR-223 (rp=0.28, n=121, P=0.002), miR-126 (rp=0.22, n=121, P=0.016), other abundant platelet miRNAs and YRNAs showed significant positive correlations with the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay. YRNAs, miR-126 and miR-223 were also among the small RNAs showing the greatest dependency on platelets, and strongly correlated with plasma levels of P-selectin, platelet factor 4 and platelet basic protein in the population-based Bruneck study (n=669). A single nucleotide polymorphism that facilitates processing of pri-miR-126 to mature miR-126 accounted for a rise in circulating platelet activation markers. Inhibition of miR-126 in mice reduced platelet aggregation. MiR-126 directly and indirectly affects ADAM9 and P2Y12 receptor expression. Conclusions Levels of platelet-related plasma miRNAs and YRNAs correlate with platelet function tests in ACS patients and platelet activation markers in the general population. Alterations in miR-126 affect platelet reactivity. PMID:26646931

  20. Platelet function and constituents of platelet rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M H; Malhotra, A; Brighton, T; Walsh, W R; Lindeman, R

    2013-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapies require blood to be processed prior to application, however, the full assessment of the output of platelet sequestration devices is lacking. In this study the products of the Autologous Fluid Concentrator (Circle BiologicsTM, Minneapolis, MN) and the Gravitational Platelet Separation System (GPS, Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) were evaluated in terms of platelet viability and PRP constituents. The AFC and GPS produced 6.4 (±1.0) ml and 6.3 (±0.4) ml of PRP, with platelet recovery of 46.4% (±14.7%) and 59.8% (±24.2%) producing fold increases of platelets of 4.19 (±1.62) and 5.19 (±1.62), respectively. Fibrinogen concentration was increased above baseline PPP produced with the AFC. pH was lower for both of the processed samples than for whole blood. White Blood Cell count was increased around 5 fold. Functional tests showed preserved viability with both devices. This represents essential knowledge that every treating physician should have before they can confidently administer PRP therapy produced by any method. These are the first published results of platelet function for the GPS system and the first performance results of the AFC system. The PRP produced is classified according to broad classifications as Leukocyte-PRP (L-PRP) for both devices.

  1. A prospective evaluation of platelet function in patients on antiplatelet therapy with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Pandit, Viraj; Sadoun, Moutamn; Larkins, Christopher G; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Mino, Matthew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Platelet transfusion is increasingly used in patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) on aspirin therapy to minimize the progression of ICH. We hypothesized (null) that platelet transfusion in this cohort of patients does not improve platelet function. We performed a prospective interventional trail on patients with traumatic ICH on daily high-dose (325 mg) aspirin therapy. All patients received one pack of apheresis platelets. Blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after platelet transfusion. Platelet function was assessed using Verify Now Platelet Function Assay, and a cutoff of greater than 550 aspirin reaction units was used to define functioning platelets (FP). Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. On presentation, 79% (22 of 28) of the patients had nonfunctioning platelets (NFPs), and transfusion of platelets did not improve platelet function as 81% (18 of 22) still had NFP. Of the 22 patients, 4 converted from NFP to FP after transfusion. There was no difference in the progression of ICH (37.5% vs. 30%, p = 0.7) or neurosurgical intervention (12.5% vs. 15%, p = 0.86) between patients with FP and NFP after platelet transfusion. Administration of one pack of apheresis platelet did not improve platelet function. In our study, progression of ICH and the need for neurosurgical intervention were independent of platelet function. Further randomized clinical trials are required to assess both the dose dependence effect and role of platelet transfusion in patients on antiplatelet therapy with traumatic ICH. Therapeutic study, level III.

  2. Spleen function and platelet kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Klonizakis, I; Peters, A M; Fitzpatrick, M L; Kensett, M J; Lewis, S M; Lavender, J P

    1981-01-01

    In patients suffering from various platelet abnormalities, quantitative scanning after injection of indium-111 (111In) labelled platelets showed three different patterns of platelet destruction and distribution. In patients with a normal platelet life span but with evidence of increased splenic pooling, the spleen tended to be the main site of destruction. In patients with a moderately reduced platelet life span, the distribution of destruction in the system and variable destruction in the marrow. However, because of its rapidity this destruction was difficult to quantify, and it was difficult in these cases to distinguish reliably between spleen pool, sequestration, and destruction. Destruction of platelets on the liver appeared to be unimportant in all three groups. 111In, because of its physical characteristics, is preferable to chromium-51 as a platelet label in the assessment of abnormal platelet kinetics. Images PMID:7240424

  3. Platelets

    MedlinePlus

    ... common disorder of platelet function is caused by aspirin. Aspirin blocks one of the steps required for platelets to stick together. This effect of aspirin is what makes it an effective treatment for ...

  4. The origin and function of platelet glycosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Patel-Hett, Sunita; Josefsson, Emma C.; Bennett, Eric P.; Italiano, Joseph E.; Clausen, Henrik; Hartwig, John H.; Hoffmeister, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are megakaryocyte subfragments that participate in hemostatic and host defense reactions and deliver pro- and antiangiogenic factors throughout the vascular system. Although they are anucleated cells that lack a complex secretory apparatus with distinct Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum compartments, past studies have shown that platelets have glycosyltransferase activities. In the present study, we show that members of 3 distinct glycosyltransferase families are found within and on the surface of platelets. Immunocytology and flow cytometry results indicated that megakaryocytes package these Golgi-derived glycosyltransferases into vesicles that are sent via proplatelets to nascent platelets, where they accumulate. These glycosyltransferases are active, and intact platelets glycosylate large exogenous substrates. Furthermore, we show that activation of platelets results in the release of soluble glycosyltransferase activities and that platelets contain sufficient levels of sugar nucleotides for detection of glycosylation of exogenously added substrates. Therefore, the results of the present study show that blood platelets are a rich source of both glycosyltransferases and donor sugar substrates that can be released to function in the extracellular space. This platelet-glycosylation machinery offers a pathway to a simple glycoengineering strategy improving storage of platelets and may serve hitherto unknown biologic functions. PMID:22613794

  5. [Cardiology. Platelet function testing for clinicians].

    PubMed

    Pellaton, Cyril; Eeckhout, Eric; Silvain, Johanne; Montalescot, Gilles; Collet, Jean-Phillipe

    2014-01-15

    Platelet P2YI2 receptor inhibition with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor plays a key role to prevent recurrent ischaemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes or elective settings. The degree of platelet inhibition depends on the antiplatelet medication used and is influenced by clinical and genetic factors. A concept of therapeutic window exists. On one side, efficient anti-aggregation is required in order to reduce cardio-vascular events. On the other side, an excessive platelet inhibition represents a risk of bleeding complications. This article describes the current knowledge about some platelet function tests and genetic tests and summarises their role in the clinical practice.

  6. Serum-induced platelet procoagulant activity: an assay for the characterization of prothrombotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Warner, M N; Pavord, S; Moore, J C; Warkentin, T E; Hayward, C P; Kelton, J G

    1999-02-01

    Platelets contribute to hemostasis by forming a platelet plug and by providing a procoagulant surface for the assembly and activation of the coagulation factors. The contribution of platelets to prothrombotic disorders has been difficult to analyze. Recently an assay was reported that measured the procoagulant activity of test platelets by making the platelet lipid surface the limiting factor in the production of thrombin. In this report we describe a novel technique, based on this assay, that we used to study patient serum factors that activate control platelets and in turn initiate measurable procoagulant activity. Using this assay we investigated a group of patients with prothrombotic disorders. The patient test serum was incubated with normal platelets in the presence of activated factor Xa. The resultant thrombin was measured in a chromogenic assay. The rate-limiting step was the presence of any potential platelet-activating factors, such as antibodies in the heat-treated test serum, that would allow the Xa to bind to the platelet phospholipid surface. Serum samples from patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and the anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome enhanced platelet procoagulant activity, while samples from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) did not. HIT serum samples also induced platelet activation, as measured by platelet microparticle shedding, carbon 14-labeled serotonin release, and platelet aggregation. The measurement of serum-induced platelet procoagulant activity provides a method for the investigation of circulating platelet agonists in prothrombotic disorders.

  7. Platelet function in the postprandial period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test). However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG), such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting) changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The information provided is valuable to

  8. Modulatory effect of coffee on platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A

    2010-01-01

    Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in mean platelet volume, platelet crit and platelet distribution width as compared to high fat diet (HFD) group. The concentration of malondialdehyde in platelets increased in atherosclerotic group indicates the increased thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production from membrane arachidonic acid and it was decreased in coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in aggregation in coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.

  9. Platelet function in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Bernardo, Esther; Feltes, Gisela; Escaned, Javier; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; De Agustín, José Alberto; Vivas, David; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TK) includes a transient left ventricular dysfunction without obstructive coronary disease, sometimes after stressful situations with elevated cathecolamines. Since catecholamines activate platelets we aimed to study the platelet influence in a TK setting. We included 32 patients with a TK diagnosis, 13 with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 18 healthy volunteers. Once consent informed was obtained, blood samples were extracted and processed (at admission and after 3 months follow-up). Clinical, ecg, echocardiographic and angiographic features were thoroughly recorded.Previous treatment before admission was similar between groups. No differences were observed in clinical features or any of the acute markers studied regarding platelet reactivity between TK compared to ACS. After follow-up, aggregation levels and platelet reactivity showed differences, mainly due to the antithrombotic therapy prescribed at discharge, but similar to volunteers. Circulating epinephrine during the acute phase was significantly higher in TK (p < 0.001). Patients with higher levels of epinephrine had elevated platelet activation and aggregation after 3 months. No differences were observed in Takotsubo acute platelet aggregation compared to patients with ACS, in spite of higher blood levels of adrenaline. Takotsubo patients had elevated platelet aggregation and activation compared with ACS patients at 3 months follow-up because they were less frequently on chronic clopidogrel and ASA. However, they had similar platelet aggregation and activation levels to healthy volunteers despite treatment with low-dose ASA. Takotsubo patients who had higher levels of adrenaline in the acute phase displayed increased platelet reactivity during follow-up.

  10. Effects of glucosamine and Celadrin on platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Chun; Jones, Samuel O; McGlasson, David L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glucosamine and celadrin on platelet function. Baseline values were determined on the Chronolog 570VS platelet aggregometer with whole blood aggregation impedance readings using 2 different concentrations of ADP (5 microM, 10 microM), collagen (1 microg/mL), arachidonic acid (0.5 mM/L) and an Accumetrics whole blood platelet aggregation cartridge assay for P2Y12 receptors were obtained from 24 healthy volunteers. These subjects then took the suggested doses of Glucosamine with Celadrin (Stockbridge Naturals) as advertised (estimated 1500mg daily) for 2 weeks. Platelet aggregation analyses, as described above, were obtained after treatment. Statistics performed via a McNemar test. Five of twenty-four subjects had at least a 20% difference in whole blood aggregation using the 5 microM concentration of ADP. A total of 6 and 7 subjects also showed a significant difference in platelet aggregation with administration of collagen and arachidonic acid, respectively. No significant differences were found with Accumetrics assay for P2Y12 in any of the subjects. Glucosamine and celadrin may inhibit platelet aggregation in some individuals via aspirin-like effects as well as inhibition of ADP receptor P2Y1 but not P2Y12.

  11. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Negative T cells than B6.lpr mice. This suggests that the absence of PF4 alleviates some tissue damage in the lupus prone mice. 6...mice with PF4-/- mice may alleviate multi organ dysfunction in Lupus prone mice. Reportable Outcomes Nothing to report Conclusions We have...dysfunction in lupus models. We have evaluated the relationship between Syk and platelets and have thus far identified a role for Syk in platelet lodging in

  12. Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H

    2003-07-01

    Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of daily consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance.

  13. Inherited Platelet Function Disorders: Algorithms for Phenotypic and Genetic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Gresele, Paolo; Bury, Loredana; Falcinelli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs) manifest with mucocutaneous bleeding and are frequently difficult to diagnose due to their heterogeneity, the complexity of the platelet activation pathways and a lack of standardization of the platelet function laboratory assays and of their use for this purpose. A rational diagnostic approach to IPFDs should follow an algorithm where clinical examination and a stepwise laboratory evaluation play a crucial role. A streamlined panel of laboratory tests, with consecutive steps of increasing level of complexity, allows the phenotypic characterization of most IPFDs. A first-line diagnosis of a significant fraction of the IPFD may be made also at nonspecialized centers by using relatively simple tests, including platelet count, peripheral blood smear, light transmission aggregometry, measurement of platelet granule content and release, and the expression of glycoproteins by flow cytometry. Some of the most complex, second- and third-step tests may be performed only in highly specialized laboratories. Genotyping, including the widespread application of next-generation sequencing, has enabled discovery in the last few years of several novel genes associated with platelet disorders and this method may eventually become a first-line diagnostic approach; however, a preliminary clinical and laboratory phenotypic characterization nowadays still remains crucial for diagnosis of IPFDs. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  15. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    5. Klinger, M.H., and W. Jelkmann. 2002. Role of blood platelets in infection and inflammation. Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the...official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 22:913-922. 6. Kulkarni, S., K.J. Woollard, S. Thomas, D. Oxley, and

  16. Effects of drugs on platelet function.

    PubMed

    Morse, E E

    1977-01-01

    Numerous drugs and chemicals affect the function of human blood platelets. The mechanism of action of some medications is partly understood. Aspirin is the most frequently involved drug. It appears to interfere with the platelet release reaction by acetylation of a platelet membrane protein which may be involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, including indomethacin, phenylbutazone, ibuprophen (Motrin) and clonixin, also interfere with the release reaction but have a shorter acting course than aspirin. Some drugs stimulate adenylcyclase (gliclazide) or block phosphodiesterase, (dipyridamole, caffeine) both of which actions lead to an increase in adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and decrease aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). These interactions should be known to clinical scientists since patients using these medicaments may manifest abnormal platelet function tests in the laboratory and mild hemorrhagic syndromes in the clinic.

  17. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers disrupt key platelet functions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clinton F.; Campbell, Robert A.; Franks, Zechariah; Gibson, Christopher C.; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Sukavaneshvar, Sivaprasad; Mohammad, S. Fazal; Li, Dean Y.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Brooks, Benjamin D.; Grainger, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been proposed for a variety of biomedical applications and are increasingly studied as model nanomaterials for such use. The dendritic structure features both modular synthetic control of molecular size and shape and presentation of multiple equivalent terminal groups. These properties make PAMAM dendrimers highly functionalizable, versatile single-molecule nanoparticles with a high degree of consistency and low polydispersity. Recent nanotoxicological studies showed that intravenous administration of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers to mice was lethal, causing a disseminated intravascular coagulation-like condition. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this coagulopathy, in vitro assessments of platelet functions in contact with PAMAM dendrimers were undertaken. This study demonstrates that cationic G7 PAMAM dendrimers activate platelets and dramatically alter their morphology. These changes to platelet morphology and activation state substantially altered platelet function, including increased aggregation and adherence to surfaces. Surprisingly, dendrimer exposure also attenuated platelet-dependent thrombin generation, indicating that not all platelet functions remained intact. These findings provide additional insight into PAMAM dendrimer effects on blood components and underscore the necessity for further research on the effects and mechanisms of PAMAM-specific and general nanoparticle toxicity in blood. PMID:22497592

  18. Proteomic approaches to dissect platelet function: half the story

    PubMed Central

    Gnatenko, Dmitri V.; Perrotta, Peter L.; Bahou, Wadie F.

    2006-01-01

    Platelets play critical roles in diverse hemostatic and pathologic disorders and are broadly implicated in various biological processes that include inflammation, wound healing, and thrombosis. Recent progress in high-throughput mRNA and protein profiling techniques has advanced our understanding of the biological functions of platelets. Platelet proteomics has been adopted to decode the complex processes that underlie platelet function by identifying novel platelet-expressed proteins, dissecting mechanisms of signal or metabolic pathways, and analyzing functional changes of the platelet proteome in normal and pathologic states. The integration of transcriptomics and proteomics, coupled with progress in bioinformatics, provides novel tools for dissecting platelet biology. In this review, we focus on current advances in platelet proteomic studies, with emphasis on the importance of parallel transcriptomic studies to optimally dissect platelet function. Applications of these global profiling approaches to investigate platelet genetic diseases and platelet-related disorders are also addressed. PMID:16926286

  19. Validation of a P2Y12-receptor specific whole blood platelet aggregation assay.

    PubMed

    Amann, Michael; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Valina, Christian M; Bömicke, Timo; Stratz, Christian; Leggewie, Stefan; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald

    2016-11-01

    Testing of P2Y12-receptor antagonist effects can support clinical decision-making. However, most platelet function assays use only ADP as agonist which is not P2Y12-receptor specific. For this reason P2Y12-receptor specific assays have been developed by adding prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) to reduce ADP-induced platelet activation via the P2Y1-receptor. The present study sought to evaluate a P2Y12-receptor specific assay for determination of pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes. This study enrolled 400 patients undergoing coronary stenting after loading with clopidogrel or prasugrel. ADP-induced platelet reactivity was assessed by whole blood aggregometry at multiple time points with a standard ADP assay (ADPtest) and a P2Y12-receptor specific assay (ADPtest HS, both run on Multiplate Analyzer, Roche Diagnostics). Patients were clinically followed for 1 month and all events adjudicated by an independent committee. In total, 2084 pairs of test results of ADPtest and ADPtest HS were available showing a strong correlation between results of both assays (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). These findings prevailed in multiple prespecified subgroups (e.g., age; body mass index; diabetes). Calculated cutoffs for ADPtest HS and the established cutoffs of ADPtest showed a substantial agreement for prediction of ischemic and hemorrhagic events with a Cohen's κ of 0.66 and 0.66, respectively. The P2Y12-receptor specific ADPtest HS assay appears similarly predictive for pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes as compared to the established ADPtest assay indicating its applicability for clinical use. Further evaluation in large cohorts is needed to determine if P2Y12-receptor specific testing offers any advantage for prediction of clinical outcome.

  20. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  1. Coated platelets function in platelet-dependent fibrin formation via integrin αIIbβ3 and transglutaminase factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Mattheij, Nadine J.A.; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; May, Frauke; Baaten, Constance C.F.M.J.; van der Meijden, Paola E.J.; Henskens, Yvonne M.C.; Beckers, Erik A.M.; Suylen, Dennis P.L.; Nolte, Marc W.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Cosemans, Judith M.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coated platelets, formed by collagen and thrombin activation, have been characterized in different ways: i) by the formation of a protein coat of α-granular proteins; ii) by exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine; or iii) by high fibrinogen binding. Yet, their functional role has remained unclear. Here we used a novel transglutaminase probe, Rhod-A14, to identify a subpopulation of platelets with a cross-linked protein coat, and compared this with other platelet subpopulations using a panel of functional assays. Platelet stimulation with convulxin/thrombin resulted in initial integrin αIIbβ3 activation, the appearance of a platelet population with high fibrinogen binding, (independently of active integrins, but dependent on the presence of thrombin) followed by phosphatidylserine exposure and binding of coagulation factors Va and Xa. A subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets bound Rhod-A14 both in suspension and in thrombi generated on a collagen surface. In suspension, high fibrinogen and Rhod-A14 binding were antagonized by combined inhibition of transglutaminase activity and integrin αIIbβ3. Markedly, in thrombi from mice deficient in transglutaminase factor XIII, platelet-driven fibrin formation and Rhod-A14 binding were abolished by blockage of integrin αIIbβ3. Vice versa, star-like fibrin formation from platelets of a patient with deficiency in αIIbβ3 (Glanzmann thrombasthenia) was abolished upon blockage of transglutaminase activity. We conclude that coated platelets, with initial αIIbβ3 activation and high fibrinogen binding, form a subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets, and function in platelet-dependent star-like fibrin fiber formation via transglutaminase factor XIII and integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26721892

  2. Low-power laser irradiation of blood inhibits platelet function: role of cyclic GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Alexander G.; Brill, Gregory E.; Shenkman, Boris; Tamarin, Ilya; Dardik, Rima; Varon, David; Savion, Naphtali

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate effect of low power laser irradiation (LPLI) on platelet function in vitro. He-Ne laser (Optronix, USA; (lambda) - 632.8 nm, output power - 7 mW) was employed. Platelet adhesion and aggregation in whole blood (WB) under defined shear conditions were assayed by a Cone and Plate(let) Analyzer. Platelet activation was evaluated by flow cytometry. Level of platelet cGMP was estimated by immunoenzyme assay. Experiments performed showed that LPLI of WB resulted in decrease of platelet deposition on extracellular matrix at high shear rate (1300 s-1). Similar results were obtained using surfaces precoated with either collagen type I or von Willebrand factor. LPLI inhibited fibrinogen binding as well as P-selectin expression on the platelet membrane, induced by thrombin analogue. It was found out that primary acceptor of laser energy responsible for the effect on platelets was located in platelets themselves and not in blood plasma or in other blood cells. LPLI of gel- filtered platelets resulted in increase of intracellular level of cGMP both in the absence and in presence of izobutylmethylxantine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) suggesting stimulation of synthesis rather than destruction of cGMP under the influence of LPLI. It is suggested that guanylate cyclase and/or NO-synthase might serve as primary acceptors of He-Ne laser light in platelets.

  3. Effect of sildenafil on platelet function and platelet cGMP of patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Akand, M; Gencer, E; Yaman, Ö; Erişgen, G; Tekin, D; Özdiler, E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sildenafil on platelet function and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction, we evaluated the association between erectile function and platelet responses after administration of 100 mg sildenafil. Erectile responses were monitored after 8 daily doses of the drug. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and simultaneous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and cGMP levels were determined before and after sildenafil therapy. Basal levels for platelet aggregation, ATP release and cGMP were compared with age-matched controls. There was no difference among basal levels of platelet responses between patients and controls, except for ADP-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.04). It was significantly higher in the patient group. Analysis of the responses to sildenafil revealed that for the patients who showed a positive erectile response, there was a significant increase in platelet cGMP (P = 0.028) and a decrease in ADP-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.04). However, for those who showed a negative or poor erectile response, there was no change in platelet cGMP levels and platelet functions. Sildenafil did not affect collagen-induced platelet responses although cGMP levels of the responders increased. It is concluded that sildenafil increases platelet cGMP in the patients with positive erectile response. Therefore, it has been speculated that platelet cGMP may be used as an index for erectile response.

  4. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Sunelle A.; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C.

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  5. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Marlien; Barnard, Sunelle A; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  6. Detection of platelet antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Comparative studies with the indirect immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Horai, S; Claas, F H; van Rood, J J

    1981-08-01

    A newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of platelet antibodies was compared with the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIF). A good correlation was found between both assays. However, ELISA seems to be more sensitive than PIF. Some sera reacted only in ELISA whereas no sera were found that were negative in ELISA and positive in PIF. When comparing the antibody titres, ELISA is at least 8 times more sensitive than PIF.

  7. Size Dependent Platelet Subpopulations: Relationship of Platelet Volume to Ultrastructure Enzymatic Activity, and Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-10

    of the present apheresis instruments to separate the larger more functional platelets from the smaller ones. The selective isolation of large... PLATELET VOLUME T. -(U) BOSTON UNIV MA SCHOOL OF I MEDICINE C B THOMPSON ET RL 10 MAR 83 BUSM-93-89 UNIIDN919CA89 /68 6ilfflfllflflflflll l...N00014-79-C-0168 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 83-08 SIZE DEPENDENT PLATELET SUBPOPULATIONS: RELATIONSHIP OF PLATELET VOLUME TO ULTRASTRUCTURE. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY

  8. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Grace, Rachael F; Gerrits, Anja J; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neufeld, Ellis J; Michelson, Alan D

    2015-08-13

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa-positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP.

  9. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for five days released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol’s beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function. PMID:26683619

  10. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.

  11. Proteasome function is required for platelet production

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dallas S.; Smith, Matthew C.P.; Campbell, Robert A.; Zimmerman, Patrick W.; Franks, Zechariah B.; Kraemer, Bjorn F.; Machlus, Kellie R.; Ling, Jing; Kamba, Patrick; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Rowley, Jesse W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Sola-Visner, Martha; Italiano, Joseph E.; Christensen, Hilary; Kahr, Walter H.A.; Li, Dean Y.; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome inhibiter bortezomib has been successfully used to treat patients with relapsed multiple myeloma; however, many of these patients become thrombocytopenic, and it is not clear how the proteasome influences platelet production. Here we determined that pharmacologic inhibition of proteasome activity blocks proplatelet formation in human and mouse megakaryocytes. We also found that megakaryocytes isolated from mice deficient for PSMC1, an essential subunit of the 26S proteasome, fail to produce proplatelets. Consistent with decreased proplatelet formation, mice lacking PSMC1 in platelets (Psmc1fl/fl Pf4-Cre mice) exhibited severe thrombocytopenia and died shortly after birth. The failure to produce proplatelets in proteasome-inhibited megakaryocytes was due to upregulation and hyperactivation of the small GTPase, RhoA, rather than NF-κB, as has been previously suggested. Inhibition of RhoA or its downstream target, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), restored megakaryocyte proplatelet formation in the setting of proteasome inhibition in vitro. Similarly, fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor used clinically to treat cerebral vasospasm, restored platelet counts in adult mice that were made thrombocytopenic by tamoxifen-induced suppression of proteasome activity in megakaryocytes and platelets (Psmc1fl/fl Pdgf-Cre-ER mice). These results indicate that proteasome function is critical for thrombopoiesis, and suggest inhibition of RhoA signaling as a potential strategy to treat thrombocytopenia in bortezomib-treated multiple myeloma patients. PMID:25061876

  12. Clot lysis time in platelet-rich plasma: method assessment, comparison with assays in platelet-free and platelet-poor plasmas, and response to tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Panes, Olga; Padilla, Oslando; Matus, Valeria; Sáez, Claudia G; Berkovits, Alejandro; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Fibrinolysis dysfunctions cause bleeding or predisposition to thrombosis. Platelets contain several factors of the fibrinolytic system, which could up or down regulate this process. However, the temporal relationship and relative contributions of plasma and platelet components in clot lysis are mostly unknown. We developed a clot lysis time (CLT) assay in platelet-rich plasma (PRP-CLT, with and without stimulation) and compared it to a similar one in platelet-free plasma (PFP) and to another previously reported test in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We also studied the differential effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) on these tests in healthy subjects. PFP- and PPP-CLT were significantly shorter than PRP-CLT, and the three assays were highly correlated (p < 0.0001). PFP- and PPP-, but more significantly PRP-CLT, were positively correlated with age and plasma PAI-1, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p < 0.001). All these CLT assays had no significant correlations with platelet aggregation/secretion, platelet counts, and pro-coagulant tests to explore factor X activation by platelets, PRP clotting time, and thrombin generation in PRP. Among all the studied variables, PFP-CLT was independently associated with plasma PAI-1, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and, additionally, stimulated PRP-CLT was also independently associated with plasma fibrinogen. A single 1 g dose of TXA strikingly prolonged all three CLTs, but in contrast to the results without the drug, the lysis times were substantially shorter in non-stimulated or stimulated PRP than in PFP and PPP. This standardized PRP-CLT may become a useful tool to study the role of platelets in clot resistance and lysis. Our results suggest that initially, the platelets enmeshed in the clot slow down the fibrinolysis process. However, the increased clot resistance to lysis induced by TXA is overcome earlier in platelet-rich clots than in PFP or PPP clots. This is

  13. Maturation of Platelet Function During Murine Fetal Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Margraf, Andreas; Nussbaum, Claudia; Rohwedder, Ina; Klapproth, Sarah; Kurz, Angela R M; Florian, Annamaria; Wiebking, Volker; Pircher, Joachim; Pruenster, Monika; Immler, Roland; Dietzel, Steffen; Kremer, Ludmila; Kiefer, Friedemann; Moser, Markus; Flemmer, Andreas W; Quackenbush, Elizabeth; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Sperandio, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Platelet function has been intensively studied in the adult organism. However, little is known about the function and hemostatic capacity of platelets in the developing fetus as suitable in vivo models are lacking. To examine fetal platelet function in vivo, we generated a fetal thrombosis model and investigated light/dye-induced thrombus formation by intravital microscopy throughout gestation. We observed that significantly less and unstable thrombi were formed at embryonic day (E) 13.5 compared with E17.5. Flow cytometry revealed significantly lower platelet counts in E13.5 versus E17.5 fetuses versus adult controls. In addition, fetal platelets demonstrated changed activation responses of surface adhesion molecules and reduced P-selectin content and mobilization. Interestingly, we also measured reduced levels of the integrin-activating proteins Kindlin-3, Talin-1, and Rap1 during fetal development. Consistently, fetal platelets demonstrated diminished spreading capacity compared with adults. Transfusion of adult platelets into the fetal circulation led to rapid platelet aggregate formation even in young fetuses. Yet, retrospective data analysis of a neonatal cohort demonstrated no correlation of platelet transfusion with closure of a persistent ductus arteriosus, a process reported to be platelet dependent. Taken together, we demonstrate an ontogenetic regulation of platelet function in vivo with physiologically low platelet numbers and hyporeactivity early during fetal development shedding new light on hemostatic function during fetal life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Bidirectional effects of dexmedetomidine on human platelet functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Shuji; Hirakata, Hideo; Sugita, Naoko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-05

    Platelets express the imidazoline (I)-receptor, I1 and I2, as well as the α2-adrenoceptor. Although dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with some affinity for the I-receptor is expected to affect platelet function, the effects of dexmedetomidine on platelet functions remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on human platelet functions in vitro. The effects of dexmedetomidine on platelet aggregation were examined using aggregometers. The formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in platelets was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. In addition, P-selectin expression in platelets was estimated by flow cytometry. We showed that dexmedetomidine enhances platelet aggregation. But in the presence of yohimbine, an α2-antagonist, dexmedetomidine suppressed platelet aggregation. Efaroxan, an I1-antagonist, and methylene blue, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, abolished the suppressive effect of dexmedetomidine, whereas idazoxan, an I2-antagonist, showed no effect. Dexmedetomidine suppressed cAMP formation and enhanced P-selectin expression in platelets, and these effects were inhibited by yohimbine. Dexmedetomidine increased cGMP formation in platelets in the presence of yohimbine, and this increase was suppressed by efaroxan. These results demonstrated that dexmedetomidine has both enhancing and suppressive effects on human platelet functions through its action on the α2-adrenoceptor and on the I1-imidazoline receptor, respectively.

  15. Fractionation of platelets according to size: functional and biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carty, D J; Gear, A R

    1986-01-01

    The functional and biochemical heterogeneity of platelets has been studied using graded differential centrifugation to fractionate human platelets according to size while maintaining their morphological and functional integrity as indicated by scanning electron microscopy and content of beta-thromboglobulin. Aggregation kinetics were studied by both optical and quenched-flow methods involving single-particle counting. Large platelets were significantly more sensitive to ADP, but aggregated less rapidly than small platelets. Thrombin exerted a similar influence. Large platelets were also enriched in surface sialic acid and sulfhydryl groups and in internal glycogen, ATP, ADP, calcium, cyclic AMP, malonaldehyde, and succinate cytochrome c reductase when compared to small platelets, even when normalized per unit volume. ADP caused a more rapid breakdown of cyclic AMP in small platelets. Potential aging relationships were tested by isotope studies in rats. 75Se-selenomethionine was incorporated in vivo at a similar rate into all fractions. Large platelets labeled with 51Cr disappeared from circulation linearly and had a longer mean lifespan than small platelets, which disappeared exponentially. This behavior supports independent aging of platelet populations of differing size. The data suggest a distinct heterogeneity in platelet function and fate, which could derive from protection of large platelets against excessive activation by Ca2+-regulated events.

  16. The effects of drugs used in anaesthesia on platelet membrane receptors and on platelet function.

    PubMed

    Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A

    2002-06-01

    Platelet dysfunctions are known origins of perioperative bleeding disorders which are a major concern in the management of surgical patients. Among multiple factors, interactions of drugs used in anaesthesia with platelets have been implicated to aggravate the risk of haemorrhagic complications. This paper reviews in vitro and in vivo studies which have examined the effects of inhalational, intravenous, and local anaesthetics, opioids, and muscle relaxants on platelets. A brief summary of platelet physiology, function tests, and flow cytometric assessment of membrane receptors is included. Although the results of many studies have been conflicting, it appears that halothane, sevoflurane, and propofol inhibit platelet function in a reversible and dose-related manner at concentrations used clinically. Ilalothane affects the intracellular activating second messenger inositol triphosphate, platelet calcium homeostasis, thromboxane A2 formation, and the inhibiting signal transduction pathway including cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The proposed platelet inhibiting mechanism of sevoflurane involves the suppression of thromboxane A2 formation. Propofol appears to cause platelet dysfunctions by inhibiting calcium mobilisation upon agonist stimulation. Nitrous oxide causes a modest suppression of calcium mobilisation. An interaction of local anaesthetics with components in the platelet membrane appears to account for their inhibiting effect, but only at concentrations far higher than that found during clinical use. A clinically relevant antithrombotic effect of regional anaesthesia has been observed, though. Isoflurane, enflurane, desflurane, barbiturates, etomidate, opioids, and muscle relaxants seem to have negligible effects on platelets at therapeutic concentrations. Anaesthetists should be aware of the potential impairment of the coagulation profile by anaesthetic agents.

  17. Expression and function of purinergic receptors in platelets from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Koessler, Juergen; Weber, Katja; Koessler, Angela; Yilmaz, Pinar; Boeck, Markus; Kobsar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The storage of platelets affects platelet integrity and functionality, a process named platelet storage lesion (PSL). Reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation is a typical manifestation of PSL. However, the role of ADP receptors in this context has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate surface expression and function of the purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 in stored platelet concentrates. Material and methods Platelets were obtained from venous whole blood and from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates stored for 0, 2 and 5 days. Purinergic receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Receptor function was determined by calcium-induced fluorescence (P2Y1 and P2X1) or by flow cytometric measurement of the platelet reactivity index (P2Y12). Results The basal surface expression and total content of purinergic receptors remained unchanged throughout storage. After an initial reduction during apheresis, P2X1-mediated calcium flux was maintained, whereas the P2Y1-mediated increase of calcium flux gradually decreased during the course of storage. In contrast, the platelet reactivity index was comparable in freshly obtained and stored platelets. Discussion The function of the P2Y12 receptor is maintained during storage of apheresis-derived platelet concentrates. However, the impairment of P2X1 and especially of P2Y1 receptor function indicated by decreased receptor-mediated calcium flux is an important mechanism contributing to reduced ADP responsiveness of stored platelets. PMID:26674810

  18. SNP in human ARHGEF3 promoter is associated with DNase hypersensitivity, transcript level and platelet function, and Arhgef3 KO mice have increased mean platelet volume.

    PubMed

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M; Kostadima, Myrto; Astle, William J; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Simon, Lukas Mikolaj; Truman, Lucy; Fang, Jennifer S; Hwa, John; Zhang, Ping-Xia; van der Harst, Pim; Bray, Paul F; Ouwehand, Willem H; Frontini, Mattia; Krause, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a genetic variant at 3p14.3 (SNP rs1354034) that strongly associates with platelet number and mean platelet volume in humans. While originally proposed to be intronic, analysis of mRNA expression in primary human hematopoietic subpopulations reveals that this SNP is located directly upstream of the predominantly expressed ARHGEF3 isoform in megakaryocytes (MK). We found that ARHGEF3, which encodes a Rho guanine exchange factor, is dramatically upregulated during both human and murine MK maturation. We show that the SNP (rs1354034) is located in a DNase I hypersensitive region in human MKs and is an expression quantitative locus (eQTL) associated with ARHGEF3 expression level in human platelets, suggesting that it may be the causal SNP that accounts for the variations observed in human platelet traits and ARHGEF3 expression. In vitro human platelet activation assays revealed that rs1354034 is highly correlated with human platelet activation by ADP. In order to test whether ARHGEF3 plays a role in MK development and/or platelet function, we developed an Arhgef3 KO/LacZ reporter mouse model. Reflecting changes in gene expression, LacZ expression increases during MK maturation in these mice. Although Arhgef3 KO mice have significantly larger platelets, loss of Arhgef3 does not affect baseline MK or platelets nor does it affect platelet function or platelet recovery in response to antibody-mediated platelet depletion compared to littermate controls. In summary, our data suggest that modulation of ARHGEF3 gene expression in humans with a promoter-localized SNP plays a role in human MKs and human platelet function-a finding resulting from the biological follow-up of human genetic studies. Arhgef3 KO mice partially recapitulate the human phenotype.

  19. Development of a New Method for Platelet Function Test and Its Shearing Condition in Microfludic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Kim, Gyehyu; Choi, Seawhan; Shin, Sehyun; Korea University Department of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2015-11-01

    Platelet is a crucial blood cell on hemostasis. As platelet exposed to high shear stress, it can be activated showing morphological and functional changes to stop bleeding. When platelet is abnormal, there is high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, quick and precise assay for platelet function is important in clinical treatment. In this study, we design a microfluidic system, which can test platelet function exposed with the stimulation of shear and agonists. The microfluidic system consists of three parts: 1) a shear mechanism with rotating stirrer; 2) multiple microchannels to flow samples and to stop; 3) camera-interfaced migration distance(MD) analyzing system. When sheared blood is driven by pressure through the microchannel, shear-activated platelets adhere to a collagen-coated surface, causing blood flow to significantly slow and eventually stop. As the micro-stirrer speed increases, MD decreases exponentially at first, but it increases beyond a critical rpm after all. These results are coincident with data measured by FACS flowcytometry. These results imply that the present system could quantitatively measure the degree of activation, aggregation and adhesion of platelets and that blood MD is potent index for measuring the shear-dependence of platelet function.

  20. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  1. [Changes of platelet aggregation function of apheresis collected platelets and soluble P-selectin during storage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zuo-Ting; Yang, Li-Hong; Tao, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Ming-Shan; Hong, Jun-Ying; Zhou, Wu; Chen, Zeng-Qiang; Dai, Mei-Jie

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the changes of aggregation function of apheresis platelets and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) during storage. 20 samples of apheresis platelets were collected, and the aggregation function were examined by function test and the level of sP-selectin every day in storage of 5 days. The results showed that the aggregation function of platelets declined obviously during storage, there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.01). The max platelet aggregation rate was < or = 3% in the fourth-day group; sP-selectin level in plasma increased with prolong of storage time; there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, platelets were activated continuously during storage, while its aggregation function declines significantly. The ability of platelet aggregation to response to ADP loses almost completely since the fourth day during platelet storage. It should be paid more attention to the damage of apheresis collected platelets during storage.

  2. Characterization of multiple platelet activation pathways in patients with bleeding as a high-throughput screening option: use of 96-well Optimul assay

    PubMed Central

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Chan, Melissa V.; Lundberg, Martina H.; Morgan, Neil V.; Bem, Danai; Nisar, Shaista P.; Leo, Vincenzo C.; Jones, Matthew L.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Daly, Martina E.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Warner, Timothy D.; Watson, Steve P.; Watson, Steve P.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Gissen, Paul; Daly, Martina E.; Lester, Will; Clark, Justin; Williams, Mike; Motwani, Jayashree; Marshall, Dianne; Nyatanga, Priscilla; Mann, Pat; Kirwan, Julie; Wilde, Jonathan; Dunkley, Tracey; Greenway, April; Makris, Michael; Pavord, Sue; Dattani, Rashesh; Grimley, Gerry Dolan Charlotte; Stokley, Simone; Astwood, Emma; Chang, Cherry; Foros, Merri; Trower, Linda; Thachil, Jecko; Hay, Charlie; Pike, Gill; Will, Andrew; Grainger, John; Foulkes, Matt; Fareh, Mona; Talks, Kate; Biss, Tina; Kesteven, Patrick; Hanley, John; Vowles, Julie; Basey, Lesley; Barnes, Michelle; Collins, Peter; Rayment, Rachel; Alikhan, Raza; Morris, Ana Guerrero Rebecca; Mansell, Dianne; Toh, Cheng Hock; Martlew, Vanessa; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin; Rose, Peter; Chapman, Oliver; Lokare, Anand; Marshall, Kathryn; Khan, Naseem; Keeling, David; Giangrande, Paul; Austin, Steve; Bevan, David; Alamelu, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Up to 1% of the population have mild bleeding disorders, but these remain poorly characterized, particularly with regard to the roles of platelets. We have compared the usefulness of Optimul, a 96-well plate-based assay of 7 distinct pathways of platelet activation to characterize inherited platelet defects in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Using Optimul and LTA, concentration-response curves were generated for arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, epinephrine, Thrombin receptor activating-peptide, U46619, and ristocetin in samples from (1) healthy volunteers (n = 50), (2) healthy volunteers treated with antiplatelet agents in vitro (n = 10), and (3) patients with bleeding of unknown origin (n = 65). The assays gave concordant results in 82% of cases (κ = 0.62, P < .0001). Normal platelet function results were particularly predictive (sensitivity, 94%; negative predictive value, 91%), whereas a positive result was not always substantiated by LTA (specificity, 67%; positive predictive value, 77%). The Optimul assay was significantly more sensitive at characterizing defects in the thromboxane pathway, which presented with normal responses with LTA. The Optimul assay is sensitive to mild platelet defects, could be used as a rapid screening assay in patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, and detects changes in platelet function more readily than LTA. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN 77951167. PMID:24408324

  3. Characterization of multiple platelet activation pathways in patients with bleeding as a high-throughput screening option: use of 96-well Optimul assay.

    PubMed

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Chan, Melissa V; Lundberg, Martina H; Morgan, Neil V; Bem, Danai; Nisar, Shaista P; Leo, Vincenzo C; Jones, Matthew L; Mundell, Stuart J; Daly, Martina E; Mumford, Andrew D; Warner, Timothy D; Watson, Steve P

    2014-02-20

    Up to 1% of the population have mild bleeding disorders, but these remain poorly characterized, particularly with regard to the roles of platelets. We have compared the usefulness of Optimul, a 96-well plate-based assay of 7 distinct pathways of platelet activation to characterize inherited platelet defects in comparison with light transmission aggregometry (LTA). Using Optimul and LTA, concentration-response curves were generated for arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, epinephrine, Thrombin receptor activating-peptide, U46619, and ristocetin in samples from (1) healthy volunteers (n = 50), (2) healthy volunteers treated with antiplatelet agents in vitro (n = 10), and (3) patients with bleeding of unknown origin (n = 65). The assays gave concordant results in 82% of cases (κ = 0.62, P < .0001). Normal platelet function results were particularly predictive (sensitivity, 94%; negative predictive value, 91%), whereas a positive result was not always substantiated by LTA (specificity, 67%; positive predictive value, 77%). The Optimul assay was significantly more sensitive at characterizing defects in the thromboxane pathway, which presented with normal responses with LTA. The Optimul assay is sensitive to mild platelet defects, could be used as a rapid screening assay in patients presenting with bleeding symptoms, and detects changes in platelet function more readily than LTA. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN 77951167.

  4. Platelet function, activation and apoptosis during and after apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Rania; Sayed, Douaa; Galal, Hanan; Shaker, Sanaa

    2010-10-01

    Platelets are known to undergo shape change, activation, release reaction and apoptosis/necrosis during processing and storage. Apheresis may have a deleterious impact on platelet achievability and functional integrity. Platelet concentrates from 50 male volunteers obtained by COBE spectra were screened for platelet activation (CD62 and CD154) and apoptosis (phosphatidylserine detected by Annexin V). Donor samples before separation, during apheresis and at the third day of storage were used as baseline donor samples. Platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the expression of activation markers in two different samples (during separation samples and third day samples). Although the increase in Annexin V expression was not so observable, it showed a significant increase also. There was marked decline in the platelet aggregation. The correlations between the values of CD62, CD154 and Annexin V were detected in baseline samples and increased during separation and at the third day of platelets storage. Correlation between values of platelet aggregation to collagen and Annexin V was relevant only in the baseline samples. No other correlations were encountered between platelet aggregation and markers of activation and apoptosis during apheresis and storage. Initial platelet activation induced by apheresis may have an impact on phosphatidylserine expression with no impact on aggregation function of platelets during storage.

  5. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality.

  6. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  7. Effect of serotonin on platelet function in cocaine exposed blood

    PubMed Central

    Ziu, Endrit; Hadden, Coedy; Li, Yicong; Lowery, Curtis Lee; Singh, Preeti; Ucer, Serra S.; Mercado, Charles P.; Gu, Howard H.; Kilic, Fusun

    2014-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors counteract the pro-thrombotic effect of elevated plasma 5-HT by down-regulating the 5-HT uptake rates of platelets. Cocaine also down-regulates the platelet 5-HT uptake rates but in contrast, the platelets of cocaine-injected mice show a much higher aggregation rate than the platelets of control mice. To examine the involvement of plasma 5-HT in cocaine-mediated platelet aggregation, we studied the function of platelets isolated from wild-type and transgenic, peripheral 5-HT knock-out (TPH1-KO) mice, and cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter knock in (DAT-KI) mice. In cocaine-injected mice compared to the control mice, the plasma 5-HT level as well as the surface level of P-selectin was elevated; in vitro platelet aggregation in the presence of type I fibrillar collagen was enhanced. However, cocaine injection lowered the 5-HT uptake rates of platelets and increased the plasma 5-HT levels of the DAT-KI mice but did not change their platelets aggregation rates further which are already hyper-reactive. Furthermore, the in vitro studies supporting these in vivo findings suggest that cocaine mimics the effect of elevated plasma 5-HT level on platelets and in 5-HT receptor- and transporter-dependent pathways in a two-step process propagates platelet aggregation by an additive effect of 5-HT and nonserotonergic catecholamine. PMID:25091505

  8. FXR and its ligands inhibit the function of platelets

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Ali, Marfoua S.; Sasikumar, Parvathy; Sage, Tanya; Flora, Gagan D; Bye, Alex P; Kriek, Neline; Dorchies, Emilie; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Dombrowicz, David; Staels, Bart; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective While initially seemingly paradoxical due to the lack of nucleus, platelets possess a number of transcription factors that regulate their function through DNA-independent mechanisms. These include the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), a member of the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that has been identified as a bile acid receptor. In this study, we show that FXR is present in human platelets and FXR ligands, GW4064 and 6-ECDCA, modulate platelet activation nongenomically. Approach and Results FXR ligands inhibited the activation of platelets in response to stimulation of collagen or thrombin receptors, resulting in diminished intracellular calcium mobilization and secretion, fibrinogen binding and aggregation. Exposure to FXR ligands also reduced integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling and thereby reduced the ability of platelets to spread and to stimulate clot retraction. FXR function in platelets was found to be associated with the modulation of cGMP levels in platelets and associated downstream inhibitory signaling. Platelets from FXR-deficient mice were refractory to the actions of FXR agonists on platelet function and cyclic nucleotide signaling, firmly linking the non-genomic actions of these ligands to the FXR receptor. Conclusion This study provides support for the ability of FXR ligands to modulate platelet activation. The athero-protective effects of GW4064, with its novel antiplatelet effects, indicate FXR as a potential target for prevention of athero-thrombotic disease. PMID:27758768

  9. Evaluation of platelet function in dogs with cardiac disease using the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer.

    PubMed

    Clancey, Noel; Burton, Shelley; Horney, Barbara; Mackenzie, Allan; Nicastro, Andrea; Côté, Etienne

    2009-09-01

    Cardiac disease has the potential to alter platelet function in dogs. Evaluation of platelet function using the PFA-100 analyzer in dogs of multiple breeds and with a broad range of cardiac conditions would help clarify the effect of cardiac disease on platelets. The objective of this study was to assess differences in closure time (CT) in dogs with cardiac disease associated with murmurs, when compared with that of healthy dogs. Thirty-nine dogs with cardiac murmurs and turbulent blood flow as determined echocardiographically were included in the study. The dogs represented 23 different breeds. Dogs with murmurs were further divided into those with atrioventricular valvular insufficiency (n=23) and subaortic stenosis (n=9). Fifty-eight clinically healthy dogs were used as controls. CTs were determined in duplicate on a PFA-100 analyzer using collagen/ADP cartridges. Compared with CTs in the control group (mean+/-SD, 57.6+/-5.9 seconds; median, 56.5 seconds; reference interval, 48.0-77.0 seconds), dogs with valvular insufficiency (mean+/-SD, 81.9+/-26.3 seconds; median, 78.0 seconds; range, 52.5-187 seconds), subaortic stenosis (71.4+/-16.5 seconds; median, 66.0 seconds; range, 51.5-95.0 seconds), and all dogs with murmurs combined (79.6+/-24.1 seconds; median, 74.0 seconds; range, 48.0-187 seconds) had significantly prolonged CTs (P<.01). The PFA-100 analyzer is useful in detecting platelet function defects in dogs with cardiac murmurs, most notably those caused by mitral and/or tricuspid valvular insufficiency or subaortic stenosis. The form of turbulent blood flow does not appear to be an important factor in platelet hypofunction in these forms of cardiac disease.

  10. Functional Assays for Ricin Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezan, Eric; Duriez, Elodie; Fenaille, François; Becher, François

    In this review, we provide background information on ricin structure, present available functional assays for other toxins that are potential biothreat agents, and finish by describing the functional assay of ricin itself. Using appropriate sample preparation and optimized detection based on N-glycosidase activity, we demonstrate that specific detection of whole ricin at a level of around 0.1 ng/mL is possible and applicable to environmental samples.

  11. Understanding platelet function through signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Alan H; Song, Seng; Crow, Andrew R

    2003-01-01

    Platelets are activated by a number of stimuli resulting in the expression and/or activation of surface receptors, secretion of vasoactive substances, adhesion, aggregation, and finally thrombus formation. These events are propagated by a process known as transmembrane signaling, which relays the activating signal from the platelet membrane (eg, von Willebrand Factor binding to glycoprotein Ib) to the inside of the platelet which then serves to activate the platelet via a cascade of biochemical interactions. Inhibition of these transmembrane signaling molecules with a variety of available inhibitors or antagonists can in many cases prevent the platelet from becoming activated. An awareness of the mechanisms involved in platelet transmembrane signaling and the recent availability of new reagents to inhibit signaling may provide us with additional means to prevent platelet activation and perhaps even ameliorate the platelet storage lesion. This review will provide an introduction to the field of platelet transmembrane signaling and give an overview of some of the platelet signaling mechanisms that are relevant to transfusion medicine. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Technical Advance: Changes in neutrophil migration patterns upon contact with platelets in a microfluidic assay.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Le, Anna; Ellett, Felix; Jorgensen, Julianne; Fox, James G; Tompkins, Ronald G; Irimia, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally regarded as the "first responders" of the immune system. However, recent observations revealed that platelets often respond earlier to recruit and activate neutrophils within sites of injury and inflammation. Currently, platelet-neutrophil interactions are studied by intravital microscopy. Although such studies provide exceptional, physiologic in vivo data, they are also laborious and have low throughput. To accelerate platelet-neutrophil interaction studies, we have developed and optimized an ex vivo microfluidic platform with which the interactions between platelets and moving neutrophils are measured at single-cell level in precise conditions and with high throughput. With the use of this new assay, we have evaluated changes in neutrophil motility upon direct contact with platelets. Motility changes include longer distances traveled, frequent changes in direction, and faster neutrophil velocities compared with a standard motility response to chemoattractant fMLP. We also found that the neutrophil-platelet direct interactions are transient and mediated by CD62P-CD162 interactions, localized predominantly at the uropod of moving neutrophils. This "crawling," oscillatory neutrophil behavior upon platelet contact is consistent with previous in vivo studies and validates the use of this new test for the exploration of this interactive relationship.

  13. The effect of desmopressin on platelet function: a selective enhancement of procoagulant COAT platelets in patients with primary platelet function defects.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Giuseppe; Stutz, Monika; Rochat, Sophie; Conte, Tiziana; Pavicic, Marko; Reusser, Marianne; Giabbani, Evelyne; Huynh, Anh; Thürlemann, Charles; Keller, Peter; Alberio, Lorenzo

    2014-03-20

    1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (desmopressin [DDAVP]) is clinically efficacious in patients with mild platelet function disorders but it is not known which mechanisms mediate this effect. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of in vivo DDAVP administration in these patients. We assessed von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor VIII, platelet activation and aggregation, platelet-dependent thrombin generation, and platelet intracellular Na(+)/Ca(2+) fluxes, before and 2 and 4 hours after DDAVP (0.3 µg/kg). We found (1) no significant changes for P-selectin expression, PAC-1 binding, δ-granule content and secretion, and platelet-aggregation; (2) significant decreases of secretion of α-granules and GPIIb-IIIa activation induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, convulxin, and thrombin; (3) significant increases of procoagulant platelets induced by convulxin/thrombin and platelet-dependent thrombin generation; and (4) significant increases of intracellular Na(+)/Ca(2+) concentrations. We show that in vivo DDAVP selectively and markedly enhances the ability to form procoagulant platelets and increases platelet-dependent thrombin generation by enhancing Na(+)/Ca(2+) mobilization. This report indicates that the beneficial hemostatic effect of DDAVP is not limited to an increase in large VWF multimers. An enhancement of platelet procoagulant activity appears to be an additional and (at least in platelet disorders) -possibly clinically relevant mechanism of DDAVP's action.

  14. Platelet Function in Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Chrono -Lume. Thromb Res 32(5):509, 1983. Mills DCB. Platelet aggregation and the adenylate cyclase system. In Platelets and Thromosis, DCB Mills and FI ...44 Figure ATP release to varying ADP concentrations ............. 9 Chrono -Lume potentiation of aggregation...............l0 Platelet ATP release...hours of blood collection. Storage pool adenine nucleotide release was monitored using the Lumi- Aggregometer ( Chrono -Log Corp., Havertown, Pa

  15. Role of platelet function and platelet membrane glycoproteins in children with primary immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Bai, Jing; Guo, Qu-Lian; Huang, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and understand changes in platelet functions prior to and after the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. An automatic hematology analyzer and whole blood flow cytometry were used to detect immature platelet fraction (IPF), IPC and membrane glycoproteins (CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b) in ITP children (ITP group), children with complete response after ITP treatment (ITP-CR group) and children with elective surgery (normal control group). The results showed that, levels of platelet count (PLT) and plateletcrit in the ITP group were lower alhtough the levels of mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) were higher than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PLT in the ITP-CR group was lower than that in the normal controls. Additionally, IPF% was higher in the normal control and ITP-CR groups, IPC was lower in the ITP group compared to the normal control and ITP-CR groups. Furthermore, prior to ADP activation, the expression levels of CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b in the ITP group were lower in ITP group than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. The expression level of PAC-1 was lower in the ITP-CR and normal control groups. No differences were identified in CD62p and CD42b expression levels. Following ATP activation, CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b expression in the ITP group was lower than that in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PAC-1 expression was lower while CD62p expression was higher in the ITP-CR group compared to the normal control group. In conclusion, the activation of platelets in ITP children was low. Decreased platelet function, platelet parameters and platelet glycoproteins may be used as markers for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ITP children. PMID:27431926

  16. Metastasis: new functional implications of platelets and megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Raphael; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2016-07-07

    Platelets are essential components of hemostasis. Due to a plethora of factors released on activation, platelet functions are also connected to tumor growth, notably by acting on angiogenesis. It is now well recognized that major roles of platelets in the poor outcome of cancer patients occurs during hematogenous dissemination of cancer cells. In this review, we describe recent insights into the molecular mechanisms supporting the prometastatic activity of platelets. Platelets have been shown to promote survival of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream by conferring resistance to the shear stress and attack from natural killer cells. Recently, platelets were found to promote and/or maintain the state of epithelial to mesenchymal transition on CTCs through platelet secretion of transforming growth factor β in response to CTC activation. At a later stage in the metastatic process, platelets promote extravasation and establishment of metastatic cells in distant organs as observed in bone. This particular environment is also the site of hematopoiesis, megakaryocytopoiesis, and platelet production. Increasing the number of megakaryocytes (MKs) in the bone marrow results in a high bone mass phenotype and inhibits skeletal metastasis formation of prostate cancer cells. As a result of their specific location in vascular niches in the bone marrow, MK activity might contribute to the "seed and soil" suitability between CTCs and bone. In conclusion, recent findings have made a great advance in our knowledge on how platelets contribute to the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells and that may support the development of new antimetastasis therapies.

  17. Reversible translocation of glycoprotein Ib in plasmin-treated platelets: consequences for platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Soria, C; Soria, J; De Romeuf, C; Perrot, J Y; Tenza, D; Garcia, I; Caen, J P; Cramer, E M

    1993-12-01

    Understanding the effect of fibrinolysis on platelet function is of clinical importance. Plasmin is recognized to affect platelet adhesive function by reducing the interaction of platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib with von Willebrand factor (vWF) bound to the subendothelium. This platelet function is commonly explored in vitro by the ristocetin-induced agglutination test. Our previous study demonstrated a plasmin-induced redistribution of GP Ib molecules from the platelet surface to the linings of the surface-connected canalicular system (SCCS), a critical mechanism for understanding plasmin-induced GP Ib dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that neutralization of plasmin by its inhibitors, aprotinin or tripeptide Val-Phe-Lys-CH2Cl, permits a time dependent recovery (within 30 min) of ristocetin-induced agglutination in the platelets which were stimulated by plasmin at < 1 CU ml-1. This functional recovery was accompanied with a restoration of a normal amount of GP Ib on the platelet surface, as measured by the binding of both monoclonal anti-GP Ib antibody SZ 2 and 125I-labelled vWF to the platelets. Cytochalasin D did not inhibit this recovery, suggesting that this process may be due to passive actin depolymerization. These findings were further confirmed by immunoelectron microscopic study. Utilizing the platelets pre-labelled with anti-GP Ib antibody prior to plasmin stimulation, it was demonstrated that the observed recovery is due to a reverse translocation from the SCCS to the plasma membrane of the same GP Ib molecules which were present initially at the cell surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Generation of functional platelets from canine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Hatoya, Shingo; Kanegi, Ryoji; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-07-15

    Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently, there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1, and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific MK and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin, bind to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into MKs and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.

  19. Modulation of platelet functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Teng; Ismail, Maznah; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-07-28

    Rice bran is bioactive-rich and has proven health benefits for humans. Moreover, its source, the brown rice has antioxidant, hypolipidemic and other functional properties that are increasingly making it a nutritional staple especially in Asian countries. This study investigated the antiplatelet aggregation mechanisms of crude hexane/methanolic rice bran extract, in which policosanol was the targeted bioactive. Platelets play a vital role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and their increased activities could potentially cause arterial thrombus formation or severe bleeding disorders. Thus, in this study, platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to major components of basal lamina were examined in vitro. In addition, cellular protein secretion was quantified as a measurement of platelet activation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation were studied using the microtiter technique. Rat platelets were pre-treated with various concentrations of policosanol extract, and the adhesion of platelets onto collagen- and laminin-coated surface (extracellular matrix) was studied using the acid phosphatase assay. The effect of crude policosanol extract on released proteins from activated platelets was measured using modified Lowry determination method. Rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation induced by different agonists in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 of ADP-, collagen-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were 533.37 ± 112.16, 635.94 ± 78.45 and 693.86 ± 70.57 μg/mL, respectively. The present study showed that crude rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen in a dose dependent manner. Conversely, at a low concentration of 15.625 μg/mL, the extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to laminin stimulated by different platelet agonists. In addition to the alteration of cell adhesive

  20. Ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrate abrogates lymphocyte activation without affecting platelet function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.A.; Duffy, B.F.; Rodey, G.G.

    1985-11-01

    We studied the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on platelet concentrates. Samples irradiated at 310 mm for 30 minutes at a dose of 1782 J per m2 showed no loss of platelet function in vitro as determined by adenosine diphosphate, collagen, or ristocetin-induced aggregation. Lymphocytes isolated from irradiated units were unable to act as responders or stimulators in a mixed-lymphocyte reaction. These data suggest that UV radiation of platelet concentrates may result in a cell suspension that is unable to evoke an immunological response.

  1. Alterations of platelet function and clot formation kinetics following in vitro exposure to anti-A and -B antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Refaai, Majed A.; Carter, Jessie; Henrichs, Kelly F.; Davidson, Donna C.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Casey, Ann E.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Phipps, Richard P.; Francis, Charles W.; Blumberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Background ABO mismatched platelets are commonly transfused despite reported complications. We hypothesized that because platelets possess A and B antigens on their surface, ABO mismatched transfused or recipient platelets could become activated and/or dysfunctional after exposure to anti-A or -B antibodies in the transfused or recipient plasma. We present here in vitro modeling data on the functional effects of exposure of platelets to ABO antibodies. Methods Platelet functions of normal platelets of all ABO types were assessed before and after incubation with normal saline, ABO identical plasmas, or O plasmas with varying titers of anti-A and anti-B (anti-A/B) antibodies. Assays used for this assessment include: platelet aggregation, clot kinetics, thrombin generation, platelet cytoskeletal function, and mediator release. Results Exposure of antigen bearing platelets to O plasma with moderate to high titers of anti-A/B antibodies significantly inhibits aggregation, prolongs PFA-100 epinephrine closure time, disrupts clot formation kinetics, accelerates thrombin generation, reduces total thrombin production, alters platelet cytoskeletal function, and influences pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediator release. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a wide range of effects that anti-A/B antibodies have on platelet function, clot formation, thrombin generation, platelet cytoskeletal function, and mediator release. These data provide potential explanations for clinical observations of increased red cell utilization in trauma and surgical patients receiving ABO non-identical blood products. Impaired hemostasis caused by anti-A/B antibodies interacting with A and B antigens on platelets, soluble proteins, and perhaps even endothelial cells is a potential contributing factor to hemorrhage in patients receiving larger volumes of ABO non-identical transfusions. PMID:22624532

  2. Platelets generated from human embryonic stem cells are functional in vitro and in the microcirculation of living mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shi-Jiang; Li, Feng; Yin, Hong; Feng, Qiang; Kimbrel, Erin A; Hahm, Eunsil; Thon, Jonathan N; Wang, Wei; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung; Lanza, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21221130

  3. Platelets generated from human embryonic stem cells are functional in vitro and in the microcirculation of living mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi-Jiang; Li, Feng; Yin, Hong; Feng, Qiang; Kimbrel, Erin A; Hahm, Eunsil; Thon, Jonathan N; Wang, Wei; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung; Lanza, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells.

  4. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease.

  5. Platelet membrane glycoproteins and their function: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kunicki, T J

    1989-07-01

    The membrane glycoproteins (GP) of human platelets act as receptors that mediate two important functions, adhesion to the subendothelial matrix and platelet-platelet cohesion, or aggregation. Many of these glycoprotein receptors exist as noncovalently linked heterodimers, including those that belong to the supergene family of adhesion receptors called the integrins. Human platelets contain at least five members of this integrin family, including a collagen receptor (GP Ia-IIa; alpha 2, beta 1), a fibronectin receptor (GP Ic-IIa; alpha 5, beta 1), a laminin receptor (GP Ic'-IIa; alpha 6, beta 1), a vitronectin receptor (VnR; alpha v, beta 3), and a promiscuous, activation-dependent receptor that is thought to be the receptor most responsible for fibrinogen-dependent, platelet-platelet cohesion (GP IIb-IIIa; alpha IIb, beta 3). Some, but not all, of the integrins bind to a tripeptide sequence, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), on the adhesive proteins. In addition to the integrins, platelets contain other membrane glyco-proteins: GP Ib-IX, a receptor for von Willebrand factor, which is thought to be the receptor most responsible for platelet adhesion to the subendothelial matrix in a flowing system; GP V, which may be associated with GP Ib-IX and whose function remains unknown; and GP IV (GP IIIb), which functions as a receptor for thrombospondin and collagen.

  6. Thioredoxin Inhibitors Attenuate Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Clive; Ramasubramoni, Anjana; Pula, Giordano; Harper, Matthew T; Mundell, Stuart J; Coxon, Carmen H

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12) to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase). In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb). This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.

  7. Proteasome proteolysis supports stimulated platelet function and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nilaksh; Li, Wei; Willard, Belinda; Silverstein, Roy L; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors used in the treatment of hematologic cancers also reduce thrombosis. Whether the proteasome participates in platelet activation or function is unclear because little is known of the proteasome in these terminally differentiated cells. Platelets displayed all 3 primary proteasome protease activities, which MG132 and bortezomib (Velcade) inhibited. Proteasome substrates are marked by ubiquitin, and platelets contained a functional ubiquitination system that modified the proteome by monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Systemic MG132 strongly suppressed the formation of occlusive, platelet-rich thrombi in FeCl3-damaged carotid arteries. Transfusion of platelets treated ex vivo with MG132 and washed before transfusion into thrombocytopenic mice also reduced carotid artery thrombosis. Proteasome inhibition reduced platelet aggregation by low thrombin concentrations and ristocetin-stimulated agglutination through the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex. This receptor was not appropriately internalized after proteasome inhibition in stimulated platelets, and spreading and clot retraction after MG132 exposure also were decreased. The effects of proteasome inhibitors were not confined to a single receptor as MG132 suppressed thrombin-stimulated, ADP-stimulated, and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microparticle shedding. Proteasome inhibition increased ubiquitin decoration of cytoplasmic proteins, including the cytoskeletal proteins Filamin A and Talin-1. Mass spectrometry revealed a single MG132-sensitive tryptic cleavage after R1745 in an extended Filamin A loop, which would separate its actin-binding domain from its carboxy terminal glycoprotein Ibα-binding domain. Platelets contain a ubiquitin/proteasome system that marks cytoskeletal proteins for proteolytic modification to promote productive platelet-platelet and platelet-wall interactions.

  8. The role of platelets in hemostasis and the effects of snake venom toxins on platelet function.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Mayara Ribeiro; de Sousa, Bruna Barbosa; da Cunha Pereira, Déborah Fernanda; Mamede, Carla Cristine Neves; Matias, Mariana Santos; de Morais, Nadia Cristina Gomes; de Oliveira Costa, Júnia; de Oliveira, Fábio

    2017-07-01

    The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world. Interfering with platelet function is a strategy for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. Antiplatelet drugs are used mainly in cases related to arterial thrombosis and interfere in the formation of the platelet plug by different mechanisms. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is the oldest and most widely used antithrombotic drug. Although highly effective in most cases, aspirin has limitations compared to other drugs used in the treatment of homeostatic disorders. For this reason, research related to molecules that interfere with platelet aggregation are of great relevance. In this regard, snake venoms are known to contain a number of molecules that interfere with hemostasis, including platelet function. The mechanisms by which snake venom components inhibit or activate platelet aggregation are varied and can be used as tools for the diagnosis and the treatment of several hemostatic disorders. The aim of this review is to present the role of platelets in hemostasis and the mechanisms by which snake venom toxins interfere with platelet function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of reactive nitrogen species in blood platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2007-12-01

    Blood platelets, in analogy to other circulating blood cells, can generate reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that may behave as second messengers and may regulate platelet functions. Accumulating evidence suggest a role of ROS/RNS in platelet activation. On the other hand, an increased production of ROS/RNS causes oxidative stress, and thus, may contribute to the development of different diseases, including vascular complications, inflammatory and psychiatric illnesses. Oxidative stress in platelets leads to chemical changes in a wide range of their components, and platelet proteins may be initial targets of ROS/RNS action. It has been demonstrated that reaction of proteins with ROS/RNS results in the oxidation and nitration of some amino acid residues, formation of aggregates or fragmentation of proteins. In oxidized proteins new carbonyl groups and protein hydroperoxides are also formed. In platelets, low molecular weight thiols such as glutathione (GSH), cysteine and cysteinylglycine and protein thiols may be also target for ROS/RNS action. This review describes the chemical structure and biological activities of reactive nitrogen species, mainly nitric oxide ((*)NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and their effects on blood platelet functions, and the mechanisms involved in their action on platelets.

  10. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  11. Impact of high dose vitamin C on platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Bassem M; Sanford, Kimberly W; Fisher, Bernard J; Martin, Erika J; Contaifer Jr, Daniel; Warncke, Urszula Osinska; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Chalfant, Charles E; Brophy, Donald F; Fowler III, Alpha A; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To examine the effect of high doses of vitamin C (VitC) on ex vivo human platelets (PLTs). METHODS Platelet concentrates collected for therapeutic or prophylactic transfusions were exposed to: (1) normal saline (control); (2) 0.3 mmol/L VitC (Lo VitC); or (3) 3 mmol/L VitC (Hi VitC, final concentrations) and stored appropriately. The VitC additive was preservative-free buffered ascorbic acid in water, pH 5.5 to 7.0, adjusted with sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide. The doses of VitC used here correspond to plasma VitC levels reported in recently completed clinical trials. Prior to supplementation, a baseline sample was collected for analysis. PLTs were sampled again on days 2, 5 and 8 and assayed for changes in PLT function by: Thromboelastography (TEG), for changes in viscoelastic properties; aggregometry, for PLT aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in response to collagen or adenosine diphosphate (ADP); and flow cytometry, for changes in expression of CD-31, CD41a, CD62p and CD63. In addition, PLT intracellular VitC content was measured using a fluorimetric assay for ascorbic acid and PLT poor plasma was used for plasma coagulation tests [prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombplastin time (PTT), functional fibrinogen] and Lipidomics analysis (UPLC ESI-MS/MS). RESULTS VitC supplementation significantly increased PLTs intracellular ascorbic acid levels from 1.2 mmol/L at baseline to 3.2 mmol/L (Lo VitC) and 15.7 mmol/L (Hi VitC, P < 0.05). VitC supplementation did not significantly change PT and PTT values, or functional fibrinogen levels over the 8 d exposure period (P > 0.05). PLT function assayed by TEG, aggregometry and flow cytometry was not significantly altered by Lo or Hi VitC for up to 5 d. However, PLTs exposed to 3 mmol/L VitC for 8 d demonstrated significantly increased R and K times by TEG and a decrease in the α-angle (P < 0.05). There was also a fall of 20 mm in maximum amplitude associated with the Hi VitC compared to

  12. Evaluation of platelet function using multiple electrode platelet aggregometry in dogs with septic peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronald H L; Chan, Daniel L

    2016-09-01

    To assess platelet function via multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEPA) in dogs with septic peritonitis and in healthy dogs. The secondary aim was to determine if there is prognostic significance to changes in platelet function observed in septic dogs. Prospective, observational cohort study conducted from January 2012 to March 2014. University teaching hospital. Twenty dogs with septic peritonitis and 23 healthy dogs. None. MEPA using arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen (COL) as agonists was measured within 24 hours of diagnosis of sepsis. Compared to healthy dogs, platelet aggregation was reduced in dogs with septic peritonitis for all agonists (P < 0.01). Overall mortality rate was 40%. MEPA in response to COL was significantly reduced in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (P = 0.019). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve statistics, a COL-activated MEPA less than 43.5 aggregation units had a sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 90.9%, respectively, for predicting nonsurvival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Circulating platelets from dogs with septic peritonitis have diminished aggregation in response to multiple platelet agonists. MEPA may serve as an assessment tool for illness severity in this patient population. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  13. Function of platelet 47K protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, T.

    1987-05-01

    To provide insight into the biochemical pathway of platelet activation, they purified both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P47 to homogeneity from human platelets. This study represents the first demonstration of a change of physiological action of P47 in response to phosphorylation in platelet activation. SVI labelled unphosphorylated P47 had an ability to bind with platelet membrane fraction in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Effect of diacylglycerol was inhibitory in this PS dependent P47 binding with membrane. Unphosphorylated P47 had an inhibitory activity in platelet actin polymerization. Molar ratio to inhibit actin polymerization was 1:8 (P47:actin). These activities were Ca independent. Purified TSP-labelled P47 lost the binding ability with membrane, also the inhibitory activity in actin polymerization. Therefore, they propose the hypothesis that unphosphorylated P47 may loosely bind with the inside of plasma membrane of platelet and inhibit actin polymerization as a modulator, when stimulated, protein Kinase C rapidly phosphorylate P47 and induce the activation of cytoskeletal network and subsequently release reaction.

  14. Comparison of Modified Impedance Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation Method Detecting Platelet Function in ACS Patients with Different CYP2C19 Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chanjuan; Qiao, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A reliable laboratory test to monitor onclopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) is very necessary. In addition, genetic factors also play an important part in onclopidogrel PR. This study aimed to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay associated with the release assay to monitor onclopidogrel PR and assess their relationship with genotype. We adjusted the concentration of calcium in the in vitro reaction system of platelet aggregation to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay. Meanwhile, chronolume, which quantified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from platelet dense granules, is added to this reaction system to reflect the platelet release function. In the modified assay, platelet magnified activation time (MAT) and the maximal platelet ATP release value (RV) were used to reflect platelet function parameters. In the original assay, the electrical resistance (omega) and RV were used to reflect platelet function parameters. Onclopidogrel PR was detected by the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay, modified assay, and flow cytometric vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) assay in 168 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms were also detected in all of these patients. This modified method showed that when 12.5 microL CaCl2 (0.2 mmol/L) was added to the reaction system, MAT was appropriate (93 +/- 23 seconds). The CVs for the modified impedance assay and release assay were 9.31% and 6.13%, respectively. The mean VASP-PRI in the patient group treated with clopidogrel was significantly lower than that in the control group without antiplatelet therapy (54.88 +/- 16.81% vs. 79.86 +/- 10.24%, p < 0.001). MAT of the modified method in VASP PRI > 50% group were shorter than that in the PRI < 50% group [185 (154-241) vs. 214 (184-250), p < 0.051. Meanwhile, the RV of the modified method in VASP PRI > 50% group were higher than that in the

  15. Platelet-derived microparticles and platelet function profile in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; Youssef, Omneya Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Platelet microparticles (PMPs) and function profile in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not been widely explored. We investigated platelet aggregation, flow cytometric platelet surface receptors (P-selectin and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa) and PMPs in 23 children with cyanotic CHD (CCHD), 30 children with acyanotic CHD (ACHD) and 30 healthy controls correlating these variables to hematological and coagulation parameters including von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF Ag) as a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Hemoglobin, hematocrit (HCT), D-dimer, and vWF Ag were significantly higher in CCHD than ACHD group. Platelet MPs and P-selectin expression were increased in patients than controls, particularly in CCHD and positively correlated to HCT, D-dimer, and vWF Ag while platelet count, aggregation, and GP IIb/IIIa expression were decreased in CCHD compared with ACHD group and negatively correlated to HCT. The overproduction of PMPs and platelet activation with suppressed aggregation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of coagulation/hemostatic abnormalities in children with CCHD.

  16. [Acquired platelet function disorders: pathogenesis, classification, frequency, diagnosis, clinical management].

    PubMed

    Scharf, R E

    2008-12-01

    Given the high consumption of pharmacological agents in western societies, it is not surprising at all that drugs represent the most common cause of acquired platelet dysfunction. While acetylsalicylic acid, clopigogrel and integrin alphaIIbbeta3 (GPIIb-IIIa) receptor antagonists are well-known as prototypes of antiplatelet drugs, other widely used agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and volume expanders can also impair platelet function and cause or aggravate haemorrhages. Besides pharmacological agents, certain clinical conditions are often associated with qualitative platelet disorders and bleeding diathesis. Consequently, in contrast to inherited platelet disorders, acquired platelet function defects are much more frequent in clinical practice and deserve special attention. Their pathogenesis is widespread and heterogeneous with various, sometimes overlapping abnormalities. Moreover, acquired platelet dysfunctions can occur at any age and range in severity from mild to life-threatening haemorrhages. Due to their heterogeneity, acquired platelet function disorders will be classified and discussed according to the underlying clinical setting or disease.

  17. Which platelet function test best reflects the in vivo plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite? The HARMONIC study.

    PubMed

    Koziński, Marek; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Adamski, Piotr; Sikora, Joanna; Sikora, Adam; Karczmarska-Wódzka, Aleksandra; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Boinska, Joanna; Laskowska, Ewa; Obońska, Ewa; Fabiszak, Tomasz; Kubica, Jacek

    2016-11-30

    Aim of this study was assessment of the relationship between concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) and results of selected platelet function tests. In a single-centre, cohort study, patients with myocardial infarction underwent blood sampling following a 180 mg ticagrelor loading dose intake (predose, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24 hours postdose) to perform pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Platelet reactivity was evaluated using the VASP-assay, the VerifyNow device and the Multiplate analyzer. Analysis of 36 patients revealed high negative correlations between ticagrelor concentrations and platelet reactivity evaluated with all three platelet function tests (the VASP-assay: RS=-0.722; p<0.0001; the VerifyNow device: RS=-0.715; p<0.0001; the Multiplate analyzer: RS=-0.722; p<0.0001), with no significant differences between correlation coefficients. Similar results were found for AR-C124910XX. Platelet reactivity values assessed with all three methods generally correlated well with each other; however, a significantly higher correlation (p<0.02) was demonstrated between the VerifyNow and Multiplate tests (RS=0.707; p<0.0001) than in other assay combinations (the VASP-assay and the VerifyNow device: RS=0.595; p<0.0001; the VASP-assay and the Multiplate analyzer: RS=0.588; p<0.0001). With respect to the recognition of high platelet reactivity, we found higher measurement concordance between the VerifyNow and Multiplate tests compared with other assay combinations, while for low platelet reactivity, only results of the VerifyNow and Multiplate assay were related to each other. Platelet reactivity measurements performed with the VASP, VerifyNow and Multiplate tests show comparably strong negative correlations with ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX concentrations.

  18. Human albumin in extracorporeal prime: effect on platelet function and bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kamra, C; Beney, A

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic starches have been positioned as an equivalent substitute for human albumin in extracorporeal prime, with both providing osmotic and oncotic pressure. Another effect of albumin is its ability to coat the synthetic surfaces of an extracorporeal circuit with a biopassivating protein monolayer. Whether this protein biopassivation has any benefit to the patient, assessed by platelet count, platelet function and 24-hour bleeding rate, is considered. Patients presenting for coronary artery bypass at a Canadian tertiary care hospital were randomized into two groups until a final study size of 20 patients was obtained. The Study Group received 2.5 g of human albumin in the extracorporeal prime and the Control Group remained protein free. Both groups included Voluven 6% as a synthetic starch. Blood samples were obtained at three intervals; Pre-bypass, During bypass (30 minutes after initiation of bypass), and Post-bypass. These samples were assayed for platelet function, platelet count and hemoglobin. Chest tube drainage over a 24-hour period was monitored. Platelet count was significantly higher in the During sample in the Study Group (196 ± 56.5 x 10(9)/ml versus 160 ± 18.5 x 10(9)/ml, p<0.05), however, this difference was no longer significant with the Post-bypass sample (135 ± 36.0 x 10(9)/mL versus 127 ± 1 9 x 10(9)/mL). Platelet function assays (PFA) showed no significant differences. Chest tube drainage after 24 hours was significantly lower in the Study Group (586 ± 131.8 ml/24 h versus 741 ± 272.5 ml/24 h, p<0.05). Human albumin can passivate the synthetic surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit, which is supported by observations of preserved platelet count and reduced chest tube drainage. Although some statistically significant benefits were observed, the practical benefits of passivating an extracorporeal circuit with human albumin may be minimal.

  19. Is platelet function as measured by Thrombelastograph monitoring in whole blood affected by platelet inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lori A; Sistino, Joseph J; Uber, Walter E

    2005-03-01

    were comparable to control values for all parameters measured. Although statistical significance could be demonstrated with some parameters, sensitivity was only observed at increased doses and was not seen with all agents tested. In our in vitro model, the TEG monitor was unable to demonstrate clinically significant differences in platelet function and may not be reflective of platelet function in samples which have been treated with these GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  20. Risk factors for coronary heart disease and platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Renaud, S

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that several environmental factors are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Most of them are predisposing factors known also as risk factors. Other factors appear to have preventive effects. Blood lipids have been considered the main blood mediator between most of these factors and CHD. In recent years, this concept has been challenged since many of these factors did not affect serum lipids. By contrast blood platelets, involved in both thrombosis and atherosclerosis, appear to have their functions markedly changed by most of the factors associated with CHD. To determine whether saturated fats would affect platelet functions as shown in animals and in pilot studies in man, groups of male farmers (40-45 years) from 2 regions of France (Var and Moselle) in which the mortality rate from CHD differed markedly were studied, particularly regarding their platelet functions in relation to the intake of saturated fats. No difference could be observed in blood between the 2 regions concerning total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides, the coagulation was markedly accelerated, as well as the platelet clotting activity in farmers from Moselle. The response of platelets mostly to thrombin but also to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and collagen was more elevated in Moselle farmers. In Moselle farmers, there was significantly higher intake of saturated fats (16% of the calories) as compared to Var (12%). To determine whether the abnormal platelet response in Moselle farmers was really due to the diet or whether a genetic factor might be involved, a group of 50 Moselle farmers were persuaded to change their dietary habits in order to lower their intake of saturated fats to 10% of the calories and that of polyunsaturated to approximately 12%. 1 year after diet modification, the clotting time (PCT) and clotting activity of platelets were considerably prolonged and the response to thrombin drastically reduced. These

  1. Multiscale prediction of patient-specific platelet function under flow.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Matthew H; Colace, Thomas V; Chatterjee, Manash S; Jing, Huiyan; Zhou, Songtao; Jaeger, Daniel; Brass, Lawrence F; Sinno, Talid; Diamond, Scott L

    2012-07-05

    During thrombotic or hemostatic episodes, platelets bind collagen and release ADP and thromboxane A(2), recruiting additional platelets to a growing deposit that distorts the flow field. Prediction of clotting function under hemodynamic conditions for a patient's platelet phenotype remains a challenge. A platelet signaling phenotype was obtained for 3 healthy donors using pairwise agonist scanning, in which calcium dye-loaded platelets were exposed to pairwise combinations of ADP, U46619, and convulxin to activate the P2Y(1)/P2Y(12), TP, and GPVI receptors, respectively, with and without the prostacyclin receptor agonist iloprost. A neural network model was trained on each donor's pairwise agonist scanning experiment and then embedded into a multiscale Monte Carlo simulation of donor-specific platelet deposition under flow. The simulations were compared directly with microfluidic experiments of whole blood flowing over collagen at 200 and 1000/s wall shear rate. The simulations predicted the ranked order of drug sensitivity for indomethacin, aspirin, MRS-2179 (a P2Y(1) inhibitor), and iloprost. Consistent with measurement and simulation, one donor displayed larger clots and another presented with indomethacin resistance (revealing a novel heterozygote TP-V241G mutation). In silico representations of a subject's platelet phenotype allowed prediction of blood function under flow, essential for identifying patient-specific risks, drug responses, and novel genotypes.

  2. Cytochrome c and resveratrol preserve platelet function during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ekaney, Michael L; Grable, Martin A; Powers, William F; McKillop, Iain H; Evans, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    Donated platelets are stored at 22°C and discarded within 5 days because of diminished function and risk of bacterial contamination. Decline of platelet function has been attributed to decreased mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Resveratrol (Res) and cytochrome c (Cyt c), in combination with hypothermic storage, may extend platelet viability. Platelets from 20 donors were pooled into four independent sets and stored at 22°C or 4°C in the absence or presence of Res (50 μM) or Cyt c (100 μM) for up to 10 days. Sequential measurement of platelet counts, coagulation function (thromboelastography), oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation, glucose-lactate levels, pH, TCO2, and soluble platelet activation markers (CD62P/PF-4) was performed. Platelet function diminished rapidly over time at 22°C versus 4°C (adenosine diphosphate, day 10 [0.6 ± 0.5] vs. [7.8 ± 3.5], arachidonic acid: day 10 [0.5 ± 0.5] vs. [30.1 ± 27.72]). At 4°C, storage treatment with Res or Cyt c limited deterioration in platelet function up to day 10, an effect not observed at 22°C (day 10, 4°C, Con [7.8 ± 3.5] vs. Res [37.3 ± 24.19] vs. Cyt c [45.83 ± 43.06]). Mechanistic analysis revealed oxygen consumption increased in response to Cyt c at 22°C, whereas neither Cyt c or Res affected oxygen consumption at 4°C. Lipid peroxidation was only reduced at 22°C (day 7 and day 10), but remained unchanged at 4°C, or when Res or Cyt c was added. Cytosolic ROS was significantly reduced by pretreatment with Res at 4°C. Total platelet count and soluble activation markers were unchanged during storage and not affected by Res, Cyt c, or temperature. Glucose concentration, pH and TCO2 decreased while lactate levels increased during storage at 22°C but not 4°C. Platelet function is preserved by cold storage for up to 10 days. This function is enhanced by treatment with Res or Cyt c, which supports mitochondrial activity, thus potentially extending platelet shelf life.

  3. Evaluation of a universal point-of-issue assay for bacterial detection in buffy coat platelet components.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Arcos, S; Kou, Y; Perkins, H

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates poses a major post-transfusion infectious risk. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the BacTx(®) assay (Immunetics Inc.) for bacterial detection in leucocyte-reduced buffy coat platelet pools and for its sensitivity in detecting clinical isolates, including bacteria that form surface-attached aggregates (biofilm positives). Platelet pools were inoculated at bacterial concentrations of 0·8-13 CFU/ml. The BacTx(®) assay detected all species at concentrations ≥10(3)  CFU/ml within 20-69 h of platelet incubation. Detection of slow-growing and biofilm-forming strains was delayed in comparison with the other strains. This assay could be used as a point-of-issue method to increase the safety of the platelet supply. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Platelet functional and transcriptional changes induced by intralipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Lea M; Vitseva, Olga; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Kucukural, Alper; Mick, Eric; Hamburg, Naomi; Vita, Joseph; Freedman, Jane E

    2016-06-02

    Multiple studies have shown the effects of long-term exposure to high-fat or western diets on the vascular system. There is limited knowledge on the acute effects of high circulating fat levels, specifically on platelets, which have a role in many processes, including thrombosis and inflammation. This study investigated the effects of acute, high-fat exposure on platelet function and transcript profile. Twenty healthy participants were given an intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid emulsion and heparin over 6 hours. Blood samples were taken prior to and the day after infusion to measure platelet function and transcript expression levels. Platelet aggregation was not significantly affected by Intralipid infusion, but, when mitochondria function was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or oligomycin, platelet aggregation was higher in the post-infusion state compared to baseline. Through RNA sequencing, and verified by RT-qPCR, 902 miRNAs and 617 mRNAs were affected by Intralipid infusion. MicroRNAs increased include miR-4259 and miR-346, while miR-517b and miR-517c are both decreased. Pathway analysis identified two clusters significantly enriched, including cell motility. In conclusion, acute exposure to high fat affects mitochondrial-dependent platelet function, as well as the transcript profile.

  5. Ex vivo recapitulation of trauma-induced coagulopathy and assessment of trauma patient platelet function under flow using microfluidic technology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruizhi; Elmongy, Hanna; Sims, Carrie; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Relevant to trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) diagnostics, microfluidic assays allow controlled hemodynamics for testing of platelet and coagulation function using whole blood. Methods Hemodilution or hyperfibrinolysis was studied under flow with modified healthy whole blood. Furthermore, platelet function was also measured using whole blood from trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma center. Platelet deposition was measured with PPACK-inhibited blood perfused over collagen surfaces at a wall shear rate of 200 s−1, while platelet/fibrin deposition was measured with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated blood perfused over TF/collagen. Results In hemodilution studies, PPACK-treated blood displayed almost no platelet deposition when diluted to 10% Hct with saline, platelet poor plasma (PPP), or platelet rich plasma (PRP). Using similar dilutions, platelet/fibrin deposition was essentially absent for CTI-treated blood perfused over TF/collagen. To mimic hyperfibrinolysis during trauma, exogenous tPA (50 nM) was added to blood prior to perfusion over TF/collagen. At both venous and arterial flows, the generation and subsequent lysis of fibrin was detectable within 6 min, with lysis blocked by addition of the plasmin inhibitor, ε-aminocaproic acid. Microfluidic assay of PPACK-inhibited whole blood from trauma patients revealed striking defects in collagen response and secondary platelet aggregation in 14 of 21 patients, while platelet hyperfunction was detected in 3 of 20 patients. Conclusions Rapid microfluidic detection of (i) hemodilution-dependent impairment of clotting, (ii) clot instability due to lysis, (iii) blockade of fibrinolysis, or (iv) platelet dysfunction during trauma may provide novel diagnostic opportunities to predict TIC risk. Level of Evidence Level IV Study type Diagnostic Test PMID:27082706

  6. Effect of adjunctive dipyridamole to DAPT on platelet function profiles in stented patients with high platelet reactivity. The result of the ACCEL-DIP Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Jeong, Y-H; Tantry, U S; Ahn, J H; Kim, K H; Koh, J-S; Park, J-R; Hwang, S-J; Kwak, C H; Hwang, J-Y; Gurbel, P A

    2014-12-01

    Adjunctive use of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor can enhance antiplatelet and vasoprotective properties in patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PDE5 inhibitor dipyridamole on platelet function in stented patients with high platelet reactivity (HPR) during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel. Patients with HPR after 600-mg clopidogrel loading were randomly assigned to adjunctive dipyridamole 75 mg twice daily to standard DAPT (DIP group; n = 45) or double-dose clopidogrel of 150 mg daily (DOUBLE group; n = 46) for 30 days. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and 30-day follow-up with platelet reactivity index (PRI) by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay and platelet aggregation (PA) by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA). Primary endpoint was PRI at 30-day follow-up. HPR was defined as PRI > 50%. Baseline platelet function did not differ between the groups. Following 30-day therapy, platelet function was significantly reduced in the DIP and DOUBLE groups (all p-values ≤ 0.004 and ≤ 0.068, respectively). PRI values were not significantly different between the two groups (mean difference: 3.1%; 95% confidence interval: -2.8% to 9.0%: p = 0.295). PA values and prevalence of HPR were similar between the groups. However, a significant number of patients still exhibited HPR in the DIP (75.6%) and DOUBLE (67.4%) groups. In conclusion, among stented HPR patients, adding dipyridamole to DAPT does not reduce platelet reactivity and prevalence of HPR compared with double-dose clopidogrel therapy, and therefore both strategies are inadequate to overcome HPR.

  7. Viscoelastic measurements of platelet function, not fibrinogen function, predicts sensitivity to tissue-type plasminogen activator in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    MOORE, H. B.; MOORE, E. E.; CHAPMAN, M. P.; GONZALEZ, E .; SLAUGHTER, A. L .; MORTON, A. P.; D’ALESSANDRO, A.; HANSEN, K. C.; SAUAIA, A.; BANERJEE, A.; SILLIMAN, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is a lethal phenotype of trauma-induced coagulopathy. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recent studies have support a central role of platelets in hemostasis and in fibrinolysis regulation, implying that platelet impairment is integral to the development of postinjury systemic hyperfibrinolysis. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if platelet function is associated with blood clot sensitivity to fibrinolysis. We hypothesize that platelet impairment of the ADP pathway correlates with fibrinolysis sensitivity in trauma patients. Methods A prospective observational study of patients meeting the criteria for the highest level of activation at an urban trauma center was performed. Viscoelastic parameters associated with platelet function (maximum amplitude [MA]) were measured with native thrombelastography (TEG), and TEG platelet mapping of the ADP pathway (ADP-MA). The contribution of fibrinogen to clotting was measured with TEG (angle) and the TEG functional fibrinogen (FF) assay (FF-MA). Another TEG assay containing tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (75 ng mL−1) was used to assess clot sensitivity to an exogenous fibrinolytic stimulus by use of the TEG lysis at 30 min (LY30) variable. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify which TEG variable correlated with t-PA-LY30 (quantification of fibrinolysis sensitivity). Results Fifty-eight trauma patients were included in the analysis, with a median injury severity score of 17 and a base deficit of 6 mEq L−1. TEG parameters that significantly predicted t-PA-LY30 were related to platelet function (ADP-MA, P = 0.001; MA, P < 0.001) but not to fibrinogen (FF-MA, P = 0.773; angle, P = 0.083). Clinical predictors of platelet ADP impairment included calcium level (P = 0.001), base deficit (P = 0.001), and injury severity (P = 0.001). Results and Conclusions Platelet impairment of the ADP pathway is associated with increased sensitivity to

  8. Effect on platelet functions of derivatives of cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Pareti, F I; Carrera, D; Mannucci, L; Mannucci, P M

    1978-04-30

    Derivatives of cyclic nucleotides were evaluated for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Derivatives substituted in position 8 (mainly 8-Br-cyclic GMP) were more active than 3'-5' cyclic AMP, and their relative potency in inhibiting platelet aggregation and 14C-serotonin release was comparable to that of N62-0'-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP. Compounds substituted in position 6 or 2'-0 were not effective. The active compounds, which were also tested for their ability to stimulate platelet adenylate cyclase or to inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, did not modify the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Since previous animal experiments have shown that these derivatives cause less side effects than cyclic AMP and its dibutyryl derivative in animals, it is suggested that modification of the cyclophosphate molecule might make it possible to find compounds active only on platelet function without interfering with other biological systems.

  9. Bivalirudin inhibits periprocedural platelet function and tissue factor expression of human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pepke, Wojciech; Eisenreich, Andreas; Jaster, Markus; Ayral, Yunus; Bobbert, Peter; Mayer, Alexander; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    A major concern of stent implantation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is acute stent thrombosis. Effective inhibition of periprocedural platelet function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) leads to an improved outcome. In this study, we examined the periprocedural platelet reactivity after administrating bivalirudin during PCI compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) administration. Further, the effect of bivalirudin on induced tissue factor (TF) expression in smooth muscle cells (SMC) was determined. Patients with CAD (n = 58) and double antithrombotic medication were treated intraprocedural with UFH (n = 30) or bivalirudin (n = 28). Platelet activation markers were flow cytometrically measured before and after stenting. The expression of TF in SMC was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The thrombogenicity of platelet-derived microparticles and SMC was assessed via a TF activity assay. Bivalirudin significantly diminished the agonist-induced platelet reactivity post-PCI. Compared to UFH treatment, the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced thrombospondin expression post-PCI was reduced when bivalirudin was administrated during intervention. In contrast to UFH, bivalirudin reduced the P-selectin expression of unstimulated and ADP-induced platelets post-PCI. Moreover, bivalirudin inhibited the thrombin-, but not FVIIa- or FVIIa/FX-induced TF expression and pro-coagulant TF activity of SMC. Moreover, bivalirudin reduced the TF activity of platelet-derived microparticles postinduction with TRAP or ADP. Bivalirudin is better than UFH in reducing periprocedural platelet activation. Moreover, thrombin-induced TF expression is inhibited by bivalirudin. Thus, bivalirudin seems to be a better anticoagulant during PCI than UFH. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Platelet function and hemolysis in centrifugal pumps: in vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Steines, D; Westphal, D; Göbel, C; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1999-08-01

    The effects of centrifugal pumps on blood components other than erythrocytes, namely platelets and their interaction with the coagulation system, are not very well known. In a comparative study with three centrifugal pumps (BioMedicus BP-80, St. Jude Isoflow, and Sarns Delphin) and the Stockert roller pump hemolysis, platelet counts, thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin times, as well as resonance thrombography (RTG) parameters for the assessment of platelet and coagulation function were evaluated in vitro. Normalized indices of hemolysis (NIH) with ACD anticoagulation after 360 minutes were 0.008+/-0.004 (Isoflow), 0.018+/-0.017 (BP-80), 0.085+/-0.051 (Delphin), and 0.049+/-0.010 g/1001 (roller pump). Plasmatic coagulation was activated in all circuits. Platelet function was severely inhibited by the BP-80, indicated by increase in RTG platelet time to 358%+/-150% of initial values compared to 42%+/-29% (Isoflow), 40%+/-20% (Delphin), and 12%+/-10% (roller pump). Fibrin polymerization was affected similarly. The large surface area of the BP-80 leads to an extensive activation of platelets and plasminogen.

  11. Influence of gold nanoparticles on platelets functional activity in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Akchurin, George G.; Ivanov, Alexey N.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Terentyuk, George S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolay G.

    2008-02-01

    Now in the leading biomedical centers of the world approved new technology of laser photothermal destruction of cancer cells using plasmon gold nanoparticles. Investigations of influence of gold nanoparticles on white rat platelets aggregative activity in vitro have been made. Platelet aggregation was investigated in platelet rich plasma (PRP) with help of laser analyzer 230 LA <>, Russia). Aggregation inductor was ADP solution in terminal concentration 2.5 micromole (<>, Russia). Gold nanoshells soluted in salt solution were used for experiments. Samples of PRP were incubated with 50 or 100 μl gold nanoshells solution in 5 minute, after that we made definition ADP induced platelet aggregation. We found out increase platelet function activity after incubation with nanoparticles solution which shown in maximum ADP-induced aggregation degree increase. Increase platelet function activity during intravenous nanoshells injection can be cause of thrombosis on patients. That's why before clinical application of cancer cell destruction based on laser photothermal used with plasmon gold nanoparticles careful investigations of thrombosis process and detail analyze of physiological blood parameters are very necessary.

  12. A simple colorimetric assay for phenotyping the major human thermostable phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1) using platelet cytosols.

    PubMed

    Frame, L T; Ozawa, S; Nowell, S A; Chou, H C; DeLongchamp, R R; Doerge, D R; Lang, N P; Kadlubar, F F

    2000-09-01

    A thermostable phenol sulfotransferase, SULT1A1, has been implicated in numerous detoxification and bioactivation pathways; however, little is known regarding its endogenous function or its putative role in mediating risk for human environmental disease. A simple endpoint colorimetric assay is described that can be used for rapid phenotyping of SULT1A1 activity in human populations. The assay utilizes a microtiter-plate format and relatively small amounts of platelet cytosol-derived enzyme. The enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of 2-naphthylsulfate from 2-naphthol and 5'-phosphoadenosine 3'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), whereas addition of p-nitrophenyl sulfate to the assay contributes to an effective PAPS-regenerating system. In contrast to other sulfotransferase assay methods, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) does not accumulate during the incubation to interfere with enzyme activity, but instead serves as a cofactor to cause the removal of sulfate from p-nitrophenyl sulfate to regenerate PAPS. This reaction concomitantly results in generation of p-nitrophenol that can be quantified colorimetrically at 405 nm (epsilon = 18,200 M(-1)) to give an indirect measure of sulfotransferase activity. Using platelet enzyme preparations from adult human subjects, sulfation rates of two prototypical thermostable phenol sulfotransferase substrates (2-naphthol and p-nitrophenol) and one thermolabile phenol sulfotransferase substrate (dopamine) were determined using standard radiochemical protocols. These data were then compared with results from the colorimetric assay using 2-naphthol as substrate. There was a good correlation between the phenotyping assay and radiochemical assays for both 2-naphthol sulfotransferase and p-nitrophenol sulfotransferase activity (r = 0.85 and 0.69, respectively). However, SULT1A1 activity was approximately 10 to 20 times higher with the colorimetric determination. As anticipated, there was no correlation between SULT1A1 activity and dopamine

  13. Modulation of equine platelet function by diethylcarbamazine (DEC).

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, K. A.; McConnell, L. A.; Sadoff, D. A.; Leid, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Equine platelets, when treated with the anthelmintic drug diethylcarbamazine (DEC), gave a dose-dependent release of radiolabeled serotonin without concomitant aggregation. At levels of the drug that gave only minimal release of radiolabel, marked dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation to three of four platelet agonists tested--adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and arachidonic acid--was observed. With ADP, inhibition was observed to be reversed by removal of DEC prior to agonist challenge. However, with collagen, inhibition was only partially reduced by prior removal of DEC; whereas with arachidonate the DEC inhibition appeared not to be reduced by removal of the drug. Thrombin-induced aggregation was not inhibited by DEC. DEC therefore has the heretofore unrecognized property of modulating platelet function to several platelet agonists as well as inducing the platelet release of serotonin. Our results would suggest a reversible membrane-drug interaction as the potential site of modulation for ADP and collagen, whereas an apparent irreversible inhibition is suggested for arachidonate-induced aggregation. PMID:6414306

  14. Dietary fats and platelet function in French and Scottish farmers.

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Dumont, E; Godsey, F; Morazain, R; Thevenon, C; Ortchanian, E

    1980-01-01

    Although the intake of saturated facts still appears to be the environmental factor most closely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), this does not necessarily mean that CHD is caused essentially or solely by blood lipids, as suggested by several investigators. It seems that blood platelets rather than (or at least in addition to) blood lipids might be the intermediate link between certain environmental factors (saturated fats, hard water) and CHD, through an effect on both thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Our recent studies in French and Scottish farmers, have shown that blood platelet function is more drastically affected by saturated fats than blood lipids. In those studies, platelet function was the only blood parameter correlated on an individual basis with the intake of saturated fat and inversely related to calcium intake. Calcium is probably the cation responsible for the protective effect of hard water against CHD in various countries. The results obtained also indicate that platelet function can be improved by increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats at the expense of saturated fats. Finally, only platelet function was different from one region of France to another and from our region of Scotland to another; this difference could be related to the reported incidence of CHD in these various regions.

  15. No associations exist between mean platelet volume or platelet distribution width and thyroid function in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaojun; Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Jia, Qiyu; Jia, Qiang; Li, Xue; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Liu, Na; Hu, Tianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are morphometric indices of size distribution and variability of platelet. We aimed to explore the associations between MPV or PDW and thyroid function in a large Chinese cohort. This was a cross-sectional study with a recruitment of 13,622 self-reported healthy Chinese (8424 males, 5198 females). Clinical data of the participants comprised of anthropometric measurements, hepatic function, renal function, serum levels of lipid, glucose, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet, MPV, PDW, and thyroid hormones. Database was sorted by sex, and the associations between MPV or PDW and thyroid function were analyzed by quartiles of MPV or PDW. Levels of MPV and PDW were compared in different thyroid function subgroups by 1-way analysis of variance and independent sample's t test. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was adopted to determine diagnostic values of MPV and PDW for thyroid dysfunction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios of MPV and PDW for thyroid dysfunction with 95% confidence intervals were analyzed by binary logistic regression models. MPV, PDW, and thyroid stimulation hormone were significantly higher in females than in males. Females showed significantly higher incidence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism than males. However, there were no significant differences of MPV and PDW among different thyroid function subgroups in both sexes, and no obvious correlations were revealed between MPV or PDW and thyroid function. From ROC analysis, we demonstrated no diagnostic values of MPV and PDW for thyroid dysfunction. From binary logistic regression models, no risks of different MPV and PDW quartiles were identified for thyroid dysfunction in both sexes. We could not show any association between MPV or PDW and thyroid function. Prospective studies with better defined risk groups should be performed in the future for further verification and validation. PMID

  16. Platelet Function During Hypothermia in Experimental Mock Circulation.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Sven; Stevens, Kris; Kicken, Cécile; Simons, Antoine; Marcus, Abraham; Lancé, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in platelet function are a common finding in surgical procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia. Although the combined impact of hypothermia and artificial circulation on platelets has been studied before, the ultimate strategy to safely minimize the risk for bleeding and thrombosis is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mock circulation loop to study the impact of hypothermia for platelet-related hemostatic changes. Venous blood was collected from healthy adult humans (n = 3). Closed mock circulation loops were assembled, each consisting of a centrifugal pump, an oxygenator with integrated heat exchanger, and a hardshell venous reservoir. The experiment started with the mock circulation temperature set at 37°C (T0 [0 h]). Cooling was then initiated at T1 (+2 h), where temperature was adjusted from 37°C to 32°C. Hypothermia was maintained from T2 (+4 h) to T3 (+28 h). From that point in time, rewarming from 32°C to 37°C was initiated with similar speed as cooling. From time point T4 (+30 h), normothermia (37°C) was maintained until the experiment ended at T5 (+32 h). Blood samples were analyzed in standard hematological tests: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (arachidonic acid [AA], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen [COL], thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide-14 [TRAP]), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) (AA, ADP, COL, TRAP), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (EXTEM, FIBTEM, PLTEM). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decrease more substantially during temperature drop (37-32°C) than during hypothermia maintenance. Hb and Hct continue to follow this trend during active rewarming (32-37°C). PC increase from the moment active rewarming was initiated. None of the values return to the initial values. LTA values demonstrate a similar decrease in aggregation after stimulation with the platelet agonists between the start of the mock circulation and the start of cooling. Except

  17. Platelet microparticles reprogram macrophage gene expression and function.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Benoit; Corduan, Aurélie; Rousseau, Matthieu; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Lee, Chan Ho C; Boilard, Eric; Provost, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Platelet microparticles (MPs) represent the most abundant MPs subtype in the circulation, and can mediate intercellular communication through delivery of bioactives molecules, such as cytokines, proteins, lipids and RNAs. Here, we show that platelet MPs can be internalised by primary human macrophages and deliver functional miR-126-3p. The increase in macrophage miR-126-3p levels was not prevented by actinomycin D, suggesting that it was not due to de novo gene transcription. Platelet MPs dose-dependently downregulated expression of four predicted mRNA targets of miR-126-3p, two of which were confirmed also at the protein level. The mRNA downregulatory effects of platelet MPs were abrogated by expression of a neutralising miR-126-3p sponge, implying the involvement of miR-126-3p. Transcriptome-wide, microarray analyses revealed that as many as 66 microRNAs and 653 additional RNAs were significantly and differentially expressed in macrophages upon exposure to platelet MPs. More specifically, platelet MPs induced an upregulation of 34 microRNAs and a concomitant downregulation of 367 RNAs, including mRNAs encoding for cytokines/chemokines CCL4, CSF1 and TNF. These changes were associated with reduced CCL4, CSF1 and TNF cytokine/chemokine release by macrophages, and accompanied by a marked increase in their phagocytic capacity. These findings demonstrate that platelet MPs can modify the transcriptome of macrophages, and reprogram their function towards a phagocytic phenotype.

  18. Microfluidic assessment of functional culture-derived platelets in human thrombi under flow.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Viraj; Muthard, Ryan W; Li, Ruizhi; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-10-01

    Despite their clinical significance, human platelets are not amenable to genetic manipulation, thus forcing a reliance on mouse models. Culture-derived platelets (CDPs) from human peripheral blood CD34(+) cells can be genetically altered and may eventually be used for transfusions. By use of microfluidics, the time-dependent incorporation of CD41(+)CD42(+) CDPs into clots was measured using only 54,000 CDPs doped into 27 μL of human whole blood perfused over collagen at a wall shear rate of 100 sec(-1). With the use of fluorescence-labeled human platelets (instead of CDPs) doped between 0.25% and 2% of total platelets, incorporation was highly quantitative and allowed monitoring of the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonism that occurred after collagen adhesion. CDPs were only 15% as efficient as human platelets in their incorporation into human thrombi under flow, although both cell types were equally antagonized by αIIbβ3 inhibition. Transient transfection allowed the monitoring of GFP(+) human CDP incorporation into clots. This assay quantifies genetically altered CDP function under flow.

  19. The inhibition of human platelet function by ganodermic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C N; Chen, J C; Shiao, M S; Wang, C T

    1991-01-01

    Human gel-filtered platelets aggregate at greater than 20 microM-ganodermic acid S [lanosta-7,9(11),24-triene-3 beta, 15 alpha-diacetoxy-26-oic acid] [Wang, Chen, Shiao & Wang (1989) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 986, 151-160]. This study showed that platelets at less than 20 microM-ganodermic acid S displayed both concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of function, in which the agent potency in response to inducers was ADP-fibrinogen greater than collagen greater than thrombin. The agent caused a biphasic time-dependent effect on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. The first phase involved the decrease in the pool size of phosphoinositide by 10-20%. The second phase, in which both the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the decrease of [32P]phosphatidic acid occurred, took place after 30 min. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed a time-dependent morphological change in platelets in the presence of the agent. The cells initially became spiculate discs, then swelled to a 'potato-like' morphology at 60 min. Further studies on the time-dependent inhibition of thrombin response revealed that: (1) the percentage inhibition of cell aggregation was comparable with that occurring with an increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) or the phosphorylation of marker proteins; (2) [32P]Pi-labelled platelets showed the time-dependent inhibition of thrombin-stimulated PIP2 resynthesis as indicated by first-2-min time-course studies of phosphoinositide interconversion; (3) scanning electron microscopy revealed that the aged platelet population showed an increase in the percentage of non-responding cells on prolonged incubation. The results, taken together, enabled one to discuss a possible mechanism for the time-dependent inhibition by ganodermic acid S of platelet response to thrombin. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1649599

  20. Mechanism of platelet functional changes and effects of anti-platelet agents on in vivo hemostasis under different gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Suping; Shi, Quanwei; Liu, Guanglei; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Zhicheng; Wang, Yuedan; Dai, Kesheng

    2010-05-01

    Serious thrombotic and hemorrhagic problems or even fatalities evoked by either microgravity or hypergravity occur commonly in the world. We recently reported that platelet functions are inhibited in microgravity environments and activated under high-G conditions, which reveals the pathogenesis for gravity change-related hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases. However, the mechanisms of platelet functional variations under different gravity conditions remain unclear. In this study we show that the amount of filamin A coimmunoprecipitated with GPIbalpha was enhanced in platelets exposed to modeled microgravity and, in contrast, was reduced in 8 G-exposed platelets. Hypergravity induced actin filament formation and redistribution, whereas actin filaments were reduced in platelets treated with modeled microgravity. Furthermore, intracellular Ca2+ levels were elevated by hypergravity. Pretreatment of platelets with the cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM had no effect on cytoskeleton reorganization induced by hypergravity but significantly reduced platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin/hypergravity. Two anti-platelet agents, aspirin and tirofiban, effectively reversed the shortened tail bleeding time and reduced the death rate of mice exposed to hypergravity. Furthermore, the increased P-selectin surface expression was obviously reduced in platelets from mice treated with aspirin/hypergravity compared with those from mice treated with hypergravity alone. These data suggest that the actin cytoskeleton reorganization and intracellular Ca2+ level play key roles in the regulation of platelet functions in different gravitational environments. The results with anti-platelet agents not only further confirm the activation of platelets in vivo but also suggest a therapeutic potential for hypergravity-induced thrombotic diseases.

  1. The evaluation of platelet function in HIV infected, asymptomatic treatment-naïve individuals using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nkambule, Bongani B; Davison, Glenda Mary; Ipp, Hayley

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces inflammation and platelet activation. People living with HIV are at increased risk of thrombotic events. Activated platelets link inflammation with thrombosis. However platelet function in HIV remains unclear. P-selectin (CD62P), a marker of platelet activation, and platelet glycoprotein GPIV (CD36) a marker of platelet aggregation, can be measured using flow cytometry. We raise a hypothesis that HIV alters the signalling pathways involved in normal platelet function. We evaluated platelet function in HIV using a whole blood platelet flow cytometry based assay. Fifty-eight antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV infected and 38 HIV negative individuals were recruited in a clinic in Cape Town. Platelet surface CD36 and CD62P were measured using flow cytometry. These were then correlated with CD4 count, viral load and %CD38 on CD8+ T-cells. Platelet function was evaluated using adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid and collagen at varying concentrations. The HIV group showed increased levels of %CD62P (median 5.51[3.03- 10.11] vs. Control group 2.14[0.19 - 3.59], p<0.0001. This correlated with Viral load (r=0.336, P=0.008). The HIV group also showed increased levels of platelet %CD36 21.93[11.03-44.92] vs. Control 16.15[2.24-25.37], p=0.0087) which correlated with viral load (r=0.398, p=0.024). The HIV group showed a hyper response to AA and collagen at various concentrations. Notably, the HIV group only showed a hyper response to ADP at a maximal concentration of 20 μM (median CD62P MFI, 1.91[1.64-4.95] vs. Control 1.75[1.45-2.44] p=0.0279. The measurement of platelet function using flow cytometry is a rapid technique for the evaluation of platelet signalling pathways that may be modified in HIV infected individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Effect of the Mutations Similar to the Cleavage during Platelet Activation at Integrin β3 Cytoplasmic Tail when Expressed in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiansong; Long, Zhangbiao; Zhou, Yulan; Liu, Ping; Tao, Lanlan; Ruan, Zheng; Xiao, Bing; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongya; Dai, Kesheng; Mao, Jianhua; Xi, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that truncational mutations of β3 at sites of F754 and Y759 mimicking calpain cleavage regulate integrin signaling. The roles of the sequence from F754 to C-terminus and the conservative N756ITY759 motif in platelet function have yet to be elaborated. Mice expressing β3 with F754 and Y759 truncations, or NITY deletion (β3-ΔTNITYRGT, β3-ΔRGT, or β3-ΔNITY) were established through transplanting the homozygous β3-deficient mouse bone marrow cells infected by the GFP tagged MSCV MigR1 retroviral vector encoding different β3 mutants into lethally radiated wild-type mice. The platelets were harvested for soluble fibrinogen binding and platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Platelet adhesion on fibrinogen- and collagen-coated surface under flow was also tested to assess the ability of the platelets to resist hydrodynamic drag forces. Data showed a drastic inhibition of the β3-ΔTNITYRGT platelets to bind soluble fibrinogen and spread on immobilized fibrinogen in contrast to a partially impaired fibrinogen binding and an almost unaffected spreading exhibited in the β3-ΔNITY platelets. Behaviors of the β3-ΔRGT platelets were consistent with the previous observations in the β3-ΔRGT knock-in platelets. The adhesion impairment of platelets with the β3 mutants under flow was in different orders of magnitude shown as: β3-ΔTNITYRGT>β3-ΔRGT>β3-ΔNITY to fibrinogen-coated surface, and β3-ΔTNITYRGT>β3-ΔNITY>β3-ΔRGT to collagen-coated surface. To evaluate the interaction of the β3 mutants with signaling molecules, GST pull-down and immunofluorescent assays were performed. Results showed that β3-ΔRGT interacted with kindlin but not c-Src, β3-ΔNITY interacted with c-Src but not kindlin, while β3-ΔTNITYRGT did not interact with both proteins. This study provided evidence in platelets at both static and flow conditions that the calpain cleavage-related sequences of integrin β3, i.e. T755

  3. Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant with effects on blood platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the currently available evidence of antiplatelet properties of resveratrol (3,4('),5-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol, a phenolic compound found naturally in fruits, nuts, flowers, seeds and bark of different plants is integral part of human diet. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimutagenic and antifungal properties. It is also a potent antioxidant, reactive oxygen species scavenger and metal chelators. Resveratrol reduces lipid peroxidation, oxidation and nitration of platelet and plasma proteins. This review article describes the chemical structure of resveratrol, its biological activity, the effects on blood platelet functions and the mechanisms involved in its action on blood platelets, the cells which play an important role not only in the haemostatic process, but also in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Comparison of modified Thrombelastograph and Plateletworks whole blood assays to optical platelet aggregation for monitoring reversal of clopidogrel inhibition in elective surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Craft, Robert M; Chavez, Jack J; Snider, Carolyn C; Muenchen, Robert A; Carroll, Roger C

    2005-06-01

    Clinically monitoring recovery from clopidogrel and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) inhibition requires whole blood assays corresponding to a standard methodology such as platelet-rich plasma aggregation monitored optically (OPA). We compared OPA, using an ED 50 dose of adenosine diphosphate activation, with 2 whole blood assays, Plateletworks (PWA) and modified Thrombelastograph (TEG). Two sets of assays were performed on 43 surgery patients while on clopidogrel and off clopidogrel to determine the reversal of absolute and relative inhibition. The modified TEG had Spearman correlations with OPA for absolute (rho = .424; P = .006) and relative inhibition (rho = .742; P < .0001). PWA correlations with OPA gave absolute (rho = .28; P = .08) and relative inhibition (rho = .46; P = .004) values. Bland-Altman analysis indicated agreement of both tests with OPA, showing constant biases of about 18% and some dependency on mean magnitude error. Cohen effect size thresholds defined nonresponders as < 7.7% clopidogrel inhibition relative to baseline recovery of full platelet function. Apparent nonresponse to clopidogrel or lack of platelet recovery did not correlate with statin or NSAID therapies. These PWA and modified TEG whole blood assays could prove useful for monitoring the reversal of clopidogrel and NSAID inhibition before surgery. More important, these assays done at baseline and after beginning clopidogrel therapy could monitor the effectiveness for the individual patients with cardiovascular disease and help identify the need for alternative therapies.

  5. Experimental conditions affect the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum platelet-mediated clumping assays

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Mònica; Rowe, J Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Background Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) is a parasite adhesion phenotype that has been associated with severe malaria in some, but not all, field isolate studies. A variety of experimental conditions have been used to study clumping in vitro, with substantial differences in parasitaemia (Pt), haematocrit (Ht), and time of reaction between studies. It is unknown whether these experimental variables affect the outcome of parasite clumping assays. Methods The effects of Pt (1, 4 and 12%), Ht (2, 5 and 10%) and time (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h) on the clumping of P. falciparum clone HB3 were examined. The effects of platelet freshness and parasite maturity were also studied. Results At low Ht (2%), the Pt of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 12% Pt (mean 47% of IE in clumps) compared to 4% Pt (mean 26% IE in clumps) or 1% Pt (mean 7% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Similarly, at low Pt (1%), the Ht of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 10% Ht (mean 62% IE in clumps) compared to 5% Ht (mean 25% IE in clumps) or 2% Ht (mean 10% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Combinations of high Ht and high Pt were impractical because of the difficulty assessing clumping in densely packed IE and the rapid formation of enormous clumps that could not be counted accurately. There was no significant difference in clumping when fresh platelets were used compared to platelets stored at 4°C for 10 days. Clumping was a property of mature pigmented-trophozoites and schizonts but not ring stage parasites. Conclusion The Pt and Ht at which in vitro clumping assays are set up have a profound effect on the outcome. All previous field isolate studies on clumping and malaria severity suffer from potential problems in experimental design and methodology. Future studies of clumping should use standardized conditions and control for Pt

  6. New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation

    PubMed Central

    Gieger, Christian; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Cvejic, Ana; Tang, Weihong; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio; Serbanovic-Canic, Jovana; Elling, Ulrich; Goodall, Alison H.; Labrune, Yann; Lopez, Lorna M.; Mägi, Reedik; Meacham, Stuart; Okada, Yukinori; Pirastu, Nicola; Sorice, Rossella; Teumer, Alexander; Voss, Katrin; Zhang, Weihua; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bis, Joshua C.; Ellinghaus, David; Gögele, Martin; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Langenberg, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Shin, So-Youn; Esko, Tõnu; Hartiala, Jaana; Kanoni, Stavroula; Murgia, Federico; Parsa, Afshin; Stephens, Jonathan; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Allayee, Hooman; Attwood, Antony; Balkau, Beverley; Bastardot, François; Basu, Saonli; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bomba, Lorenzo; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cambien, François; Chambers, John C.; Cucca, Francesco; D’Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; de Boer, Rudolf A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Erdmann, Jeanette; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feng, Wei; Folsom, Aaron R.; Frazer, Ian H.; Gibson, Quince D.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hammond, Chris; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hersch, Micha; Illig, Thomas; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Jolley, Jennifer; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Lumley, Thomas; Mangino, Massimo; Maschio, Andrea; Leach, Irene Mateo; McKnight, Barbara; Memari, Yasin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nauck, Matthias; Navis, Gerjan; Nöthlings, Ute; Nolte, Ilja M.; Porteous, David J.; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Pullat, Janne; Ring, Susan M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sala, Cinzia; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Schlessinger, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, James; Smith, Nicholas L.; Snieder, Harold; Starr, John M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Taylor, Kent; Tenesa, Albert; Thein, Swee Lay; Tönjes, Anke; Uda, Manuela; Ulivi, Sheila; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Völker, Uwe; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yang, Tsun-Po; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zitting, Paavo; Bradley, John R.; Dedoussis, George V.; Gasparini, Paolo; Hazen, Stanley L.; Metspalu, Andres; Pirastu, Mario; Shuldiner, Alan R.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Deary, Ian J.; Franke, Andre; Froguel, Philippe; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meisinger, Christa; Psaty, Bruce M.; Spector, Timothy D.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N.; Ciullo, Marina; Deloukas, Panos; Greinacher, Andreas; Jupe, Steve; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Khadake, Jyoti; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Penninger, Josef; Prokopenko, Inga; Stemple, Derek; Toniolo, Daniela; Wernisch, Lorenz; Sanna, Serena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Rendon, Augusto; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Soranzo, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function. PMID:22139419

  7. Platelet and coagulation function before and after burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Prat, Nicolas J; Herzig, Maryanne C; Kreyer, Stefan; Montgomery, Robbie K; Parida, Bijaya K; Linden, Katharina; Scaravilli, Vittorio; Belenkiy, Slava M; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-07-01

    Smoke inhalation and burn injury remain a major source of morbidity and mortality. There is known dysregulation of hemostasis in burn patients, but either hypercoagulation or hypocoagulation states are reported. Sheep are an established animal model for studying burn pathology and provide robust data on hemostatic function at baseline and after injury. After an IACUC-approved protocol, 15 sheep were anesthetized and subjected to a 40% full thickness burn with smoke inhalation. Blood was sampled at baseline, 1 day postinjury (early effects) and days 2, 3, and 4 (late effects) after injury. Assays at each timepoint assessed: hemostatic function by thromboelastography (TEG), platelet counts and function by flow cytometry and aggregometry, coagulation protein levels, and free hemoglobin. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon paired test (nonparametric) with significance set at less than 0.05. By 24 hours postinjury, platelet counts had dropped, whereas the percent activated platelets increased. Absolute platelet functional response to the agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP) decreased, whereas response to collagen showed no significant difference. On a per platelet basis, ADP response was unchanged, whereas the collagen response was elevated. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged. TEG parameters decreased significantly from baseline. Fibrinogen and factor V were trending up; coagulation proteins ATIII, factors IX and X were decreased.Late effects were followed in six animals. At day 4, platelet counts remained depressed compared with baseline with a nadir at day 2; responses to agonist on a per platelet basis remained the same for ADP and stayed elevated for collagen. Platelets continued to have elevated activation levels. Fibrinogen and factor V remained significantly elevated, whereas TEG parameters and prothrombin time, factors IX and X returned to near baseline levels. Coagulation parameters and hemostasis are dysregulated in sheep

  8. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function.

    PubMed

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E; Meyer, Claudius U; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Provost, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen+ ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin+ UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p < 0.05) and an impaired platelet aggregation response to ADP (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Intercept treatment may induce platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established.

  9. Effects of pathogen reduction systems on platelet microRNAs, mRNAs, activation, and function

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Abdimajid; Hitzler, Walter E.; Meyer, Claudius U.; Landry, Patricia; Corduan, Aurélie; Laffont, Benoit; Boilard, Eric; Hellstern, Peter; Vamvakas, Eleftherios C.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction (PR) systems for platelets, based on chemically induced cross-linking and inactivation of nucleic acids, potentially prevent transfusion transmission of infectious agents, but can increase clinically significant bleeding in some clinical studies. Here, we documented the effects of PR systems on microRNA and mRNA levels of platelets stored in the blood bank, and assessed their impact on platelet activation and function. Unlike platelets subjected to gamma irradiation or stored in additive solution, platelets treated with Intercept (amotosalen + ultraviolet-A [UVA] light) exhibited significantly reduced levels of 6 of the 11 microRNAs, and 2 of the 3 anti-apoptotic mRNAs (Bcl-xl and Clusterin) that we monitored, compared with platelets stored in plasma. Mirasol (riboflavin + UVB light) treatment of platelets did not produce these effects. PR neither affected platelet microRNA synthesis or function nor induced cross-linking of microRNA-sized endogenous platelet RNA species. However, the reduction in the platelet microRNA levels induced by Intercept correlated with the platelet activation (p < 0.05) and an impaired platelet aggregation response to ADP (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Intercept treatment may induce platelet activation, resulting in the release of microRNAs and mRNAs from platelets. The clinical implications of this reduction in platelet nucleic acids secondary to Intercept remain to be established. PMID:24749844

  10. Increasing platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma inhibits anterior cruciate ligament cell function in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryu; Cheng, Mingyu; Murray, Martha M

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering is one new strategy being developed to treat ACL ruptures. One such approach is bio-enhanced ACL repair, where a suture repair is supplemented with a bio-active scaffold containing platelets. However, the optimal concentration of platelets to stimulate ACL healing is not known. We hypothesized that increasing platelet concentrations in the scaffold would enhance critical cell behaviors. Porcine ACL fibroblasts were obtained from explant culture and suspended in platelet poor plasma (PPP), 1× platelet-rich plasma (PRP), 3× PRP, 5× PRP, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The cell suspensions were cultured in a 3D collagen scaffold. Cellular metabolism (MTT assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and gene expression for type I and type III collagen were measured. 1× PRP significantly outperformed 5× PRP in all parameters studied: Type I and III collagen gene expression, apoptosis prevention, and cell metabolism stimulation. ACL fibroblasts cultured with 1× PRP had the highest type I and type III collagen gene expression. 1× PRP and PPP groups had the highest cell metabolism and lowest apoptosis rates. Concentration of platelets had significant effects on the behavior of ACL fibroblasts; thus, it is an important parameter that should be specified in clinical or basic science studies.

  11. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  12. Platelets in the neonatal period: developmental differences in platelet production, function, and hemostasis and the potential impact of therapies.

    PubMed

    Sola-Visner, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among sick neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Frequently, platelet transfusions are given to thrombocytopenic infants in an attempt to decrease the incidence or severity of hemorrhage, which is often intracranial. Whereas there is very limited evidence to guide platelet transfusion practices in this population, preterm infants in the first week of life (the highest risk period for bleeding) are nearly universally transfused at higher platelet counts than older infants or children. To a large extent, this practice has been influenced by the observation that neonatal platelets are hyporeactive in response to multiple agonists in vitro, although full-term infants exhibit normal to increased primary hemostasis. This apparently paradoxical finding is due to factors in the neonatal blood that enhance the platelet-vessel wall interaction and counteract the platelet hyporeactivity. Relatively few studies have evaluated the platelet function and primary hemostasis of preterm infants, the subset of neonates at highest risk of bleeding and those most frequently transfused. Current understanding of platelet production and function in preterm and full-term neonates, how these factors affect their response to thrombocytopenia and their primary hemostasis, and the implications of these developmental differences to transfusion medicine are reviewed herein.

  13. Platelet function tests in clinical cardiology: unfulfilled expectations.

    PubMed

    Gorog, Diana A; Fuster, Valentin

    2013-05-28

    This review is a critical evaluation of publications in the past decade on the usefulness of platelet function tests (PFTs) in clinical cardiology, in aiding diagnosis, predicting risk, and monitoring therapy. The ideal PFT should: 1) detect baseline platelet hyperreactivity; 2) allow individualization of antiplatelet medication; 3) predict thrombotic risk; and 4) predict bleeding risk. The practicalities of clinical cardiology demand rapid, accurate, and reliable tests that are simple to operate at the bedside and available 24 h a day, 7 days a week. Point-of-care PFTs most widely evaluated clinically include PFA-100 and VerifyNow. None of these tests can reliably detect platelet hyperreactivity and thus identify a prothrombotic state. Identification of antiplatelet nonresponsiveness or hyporesponsiveness is highly test specific, and does not allow individualization of therapy. The power of PFTs in predicting thrombotic events for a given individual is variable and often modest, and alteration of antithrombotic treatment on the basis of the results of PFTs has not been shown to alter clinical outcome. PFTs in current mainstream use cannot reliably assess bleeding risk. These tests have been in use for over a decade, but the hopes raised by PFTs in clinical practice remain unfulfilled. Although physiologically relevant measurement of platelet function now is more important than ever, a critical reappraisal of available techniques in light of clinical requirements is needed. The use of native blood, global stimulus instead of individual agonists, contribution of thrombin generation by activated platelets to the test results, and establishment of a PFT therapeutic range for each antiplatelet drug should be considered and is discussed.

  14. Usefulness of Flow Cytometric Mepacrine Uptake/Release Combined with CD63 Assay in Diagnosis of Patients with Suspected Platelet Dense Granule Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huili; Mullier, François; Frotscher, Birgit; Briquel, Marie-Elisabeth; Toussaint, Marie; Massin, Frédéric; Lecompte, Thomas; Latger-Cannard, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Dense granule disorder is one of the most common platelet abnormalities, resulting from dense granule deficiency or secretion defect. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the flow cytometric combination of mepacrine uptake/release assay and CD63 expression detection in the management of patients with suspected dense granule disorder. Over a period of 5 years, patients with abnormal platelet aggregation and/or reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion suggestive of dense granule disorder were consecutively enrolled. The flow cytometric assays were systematically performed to further investigate dense granule functionality. Among the 26 included patients, 18 cases showed impaired mepacrine uptake/release and reduced CD63 expression on activated platelets, consistent with δ-storage pool deficiency (SPD). Another seven patients showed decrease in mepacrine release and CD63 expression but mepacrine uptake was normal, indicating secretion defect rather than δ-SPD. Unfortunately, ATP secretion could not be measured in 7 out of the 26 patients due to insufficient sample and/or severe thrombocytopenia. This test combination provides a rapid and effective method to detect the heterogeneous abnormalities of platelet dense granule by distinguishing between storage and release defects. This combination is particularly advantageous for severely thrombocytopenic patients and pediatric patients in which only minimal sample is required.

  15. Platelet Arachidonic Acid Deficiency May Contribute to Abnormal Platelet Function During Parenteral Fish Oil Monotherapy in a Piglet Model.

    PubMed

    Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Platelet function in baboons and humans - A comparative study of whole blood using impedance platelet aggregometry (Multiplate®).

    PubMed

    Ponschab, Martin; van Griensven, Martijn; Heitmeier, Stefan; Laux, Volker; Schlimp, Christoph J; Calatzis, Andreas; Bahrami, Soheyl; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2016-11-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation and wound healing. Suitable animal models that have the potential to mimic human platelet function are limited. The objective of the current study was to compare platelet aggregation response in the whole blood of baboons and humans using impedance aggregometry. Blood was drawn from 24 anesthetised male baboons and 25 healthy volunteers. The platelet aggregation response was determined by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate®). Platelets in the hirudinised whole blood samples were stimulated with four different activators: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen (COL), thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TR1AP), and activation of PAR-4 thrombin receptor subtype (TR4AP) at standard concentrations. Higher than standard concentrations were tested in a subgroup of the animals. The cell counts showed no differences between baboons and humans. The platelet aggregation response was significantly lower in baboons compared to humans when stimulated with the platelet agonists ADP (p<0.0001), COL (p=0.021) and TR4AP (p<0.0001). TR1AP did not stimulate platelet aggregation in the baboon blood. Doubling the concentration of ADP and of TR4AP significantly increased the AUC compared to the standard concentration. In contrast, increased COL levels did not further increase the AUC. The current study revealed that testing the platelet function in baboon blood by impedance aggregometry is feasible with ADP, COL and TR4AP, but not with TR1AP. Compared to humans, the aggregation response is lower in baboons. Considering the limitations in accordance to these results, baboons might represent a potential species for further platelet research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility. PMID:28053805

  18. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility.

  19. Functional factor XIII-A is exposed on the stimulated platelet surface

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Joanne L.; Lionikiene, Ausra S.; Fraser, Steven R.; Whyte, Claire S.; Booth, Nuala A.

    2014-01-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) stabilizes thrombi against fibrinolysis by cross-linking α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) to fibrin. Cellular FXIII (FXIII-A) is abundant in platelets, but the extracellular functions of this pool are unclear because it is not released by classical secretion mechanisms. We examined the function of platelet FXIII-A using Chandler model thrombi formed from FXIII-depleted plasma. Platelets stabilized FXIII-depleted thrombi in a transglutaminase-dependent manner. FXIII-A activity on activated platelets was unstable and was rapidly lost over 1 hour. Inhibiting platelet activation abrogated the ability of platelets to stabilize thrombi. Incorporating a neutralizing antibody to α2AP into FXIII-depleted thrombi revealed that the stabilizing effect of platelet FXIII-A on lysis was α2AP dependent. Platelet FXIII-A activity and antigen were associated with the cytoplasm and membrane fraction of unstimulated platelets, and these fractions were functional in stabilizing FXIII-depleted thrombi against lysis. Fluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry revealed exposure of FXIII-A on activated membranes, with maximal signal detected with thrombin and collagen stimulation. FXIII-A was evident in protruding caps on the surface of phosphatidylserine-positive platelets. Our data show a functional role for platelet FXIII-A through exposure on the activated platelet membrane where it exerts antifibrinolytic function by cross-linking α2AP to fibrin. PMID:25331118

  20. Platelet Content of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Phosphorylated At Serine1177 Is Associated with the Functional Response of Platelets to Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Modrego, Javier; Azcona, Luis; Martín-Palacios, Naiara; Zamorano-León, José J.; Segura, Antonio; Rodríguez, Pablo; Guerra, Reddy; Tamargo, Juan; Macaya, Carlos; López-Farré, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse if platelet responsiveness to aspirin (ASA) may be associated with a different ability of platelets to generate nitric oxide (NO). Patients/Methods Platelets were obtained from 50 patients with stable coronary ischemia and were divided into ASA-sensitive (n = 26) and ASA-resistant (n = 24) using a platelet functionality test (PFA-100). Results ASA-sensitive platelets tended to release more NO (determined as nitrite + nitrate) than ASA-resistant platelets but it did not reach statistical significance. Protein expression of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) was higher in ASA-sensitive than in ASA-resistant platelets but there were no differences in the platelet expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) isoform. The highest NOS3 expression in ASA-sensitive platelets was independent of the presence of T-to-C mutation at nucleotide position −786 (T−786→C) in the NOS3-coding gene. However, platelet content of phosphorylated NOS3 at Serine (Ser)1177, an active form of NOS3, was higher in ASA-sensitive than in ASA-resistant platelets. The level of platelet NOS3 Ser1177 phosphorylation was positively associated with the closure time in the PFA-100 test. In vitro, collagen failed to stimulate the aggregation of ASA-sensitive platelets, determined by lumiaggregometry, and it was associated with a significant increase (p = 0.018) of NOS3 phosphorylation at Ser1177. On the contrary, collagen stimulated the aggregation of ASA-resistant platelets but did not significantly modify the platelet content of phosphorylated NOS3 Ser1177. During collagen stimulation the release of NO from ASA-sensitive platelets was significantly enhanced but it was not modified in ASA-resistant platelets. Conclusions Functional platelet responsiveness to ASA was associated with the platelet content of phosphorylated NOS3 at Ser1177. PMID:24376548

  1. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-17

    ONR Grant No. N00014-92-J-1244 EVALUATION OF DRIED STORAGE OF PLATELETS FOR TRANSFUSION: PHYSIOLOGIC INTEGRITY AND HEMOSTATIC FUNCTIONALITY. Principal...protection for commercialization of the manufacture and use of lyophilized platelets in transfusion medicine is still pending in U.S. Patent Court and... platelets for correction of bleeding times in thrombocytopenic rabbits. Three different preparations, representing the platelets from a total of six units

  2. Coagulation parameters and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Colak, A; Yılmaz, H; Temel, Y; Demirpence, M; Simsek, N; Karademirci, İ; Bozkurt, U; Yasar, E

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data about the evaluation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acromegalic patients are very limited and to our knowledge, platelet function analysis has never been investigated. So, we aimed to investigate the levels of protein C, protein S, fibrinogen, antithrombin 3 and platelet function analysis in patients with acromegaly. Thirty-nine patients with active acromegaly and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Plasma glucose and lipid profile, fibrinogen levels, GH and IGF-1 levels and protein C, protein S and antithrombin III activities were measured in all study subjects. Also, platelet function analysis was evaluated with collagen/ADP and collagen-epinephrine-closure times. Demographic characteristics of the patient and the control were similar. As expected, fasting blood glucose levels and serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group (pglc: 0.002, pGH: 0.006, pIGF-1: 0.001, respectively). But lipid parameters were similar between the two groups. While serum fibrinogen and antithrombin III levels were found to be significantly higher in acromegaly group (p fibrinogen: 0.005 and pantithrombin III: 0.001), protein S and protein C activity values were significantly lower in the patient group (p protein S: 0.001, p protein C: 0.001). Also significantly enhanced platelet function (measured by collagen/ADP- and collagen/epinephrine-closure times) was demonstrated in acromegaly (p col-ADP: 0.002, p col-epinephrine: 0.002). The results did not change, when we excluded six patients with type 2 diabetes in the acromegaly group. There was a negative correlation between serum GH levels and protein S (r: -0.25, p: 0.04)) and protein C (r: -0.26, p: 0.04) values. Likewise, there was a negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and protein C values (r: -0.39, p: 0.002), protein S values (r: -0.39, p: 0.001), collagen

  3. Platelet function abnormalities in qualified whole-blood donors: effects of medication and recent food intake.

    PubMed

    Paglieroni, T G; Janatpour, K; Gosselin, R; Crocker, V; Dwyre, D M; MacKenzie, M R; Holland, P V; Larkin, E C

    2004-01-01

    Platelet function abnormalities have been reported in blood donors who have not consumed aspirin. Our objective was to identify factors other than aspirin that may contribute to impaired platelet function in qualified volunteer blood donors. Blood samples were obtained from 24 donors following routine blood donation. Donors completed a study questionnaire that included questions about recent food consumption, medication and medical history. Platelet activation was measured using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding on platelets were used as indicators of platelet activation. Platelet function was measured on a platelet function analyser (PFA-100) using both collagen/epinephrine (cEPI) and collagen/ADP (cADP) cartridges. Fifty-four per cent of donors (13 of 24) had normal platelet function. Thirty-eight per cent (nine of 24) had prolonged cEPI closure times, of whom four (17%) had no cEPI closure (> 300 seconds). No closure was associated with aspirin use (two donors) or chocolate consumption (two donors) before donation. Two donors (8%) had either a shortened cEPI or cADP closure time. Platelet dysfunction in qualified blood donors is underestimated. Platelet function screening can identify donors with diet-related platelet dysfunction or with poor recollection of aspirin use.

  4. Iron-induced platelet aggregation measurement: a novel method to measure platelet function in stenting for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Smit, J J J; van Oeveren, W; Ottervanger, J P; Slingerland, R J; Remijn, J A; Zijlstra, F; van 't Hof, A W J

    2009-02-01

    Iron and (stainless) steel are potent platelet aggregation activators, and may be involved in stent thrombosis, a serious complication after intracoronary stenting. Current platelet function tests are suboptimal, because of inappropriate agonists and/or lack of reproducibility. We tested the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel platelet function test using stainless steel as an agonist and compared it with other platelet function tests. In 111 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), duplo measurements of iron (Fe)-induced platelet aggregation (FIPA) were performed after clopidogrel, acetylsalicylic acid and/or tirofiban treatment. Within 1 h, citrated blood samples drawn from the femoral sheath before primary percutaneous coronary intervention were added to 100 mg of low carbon steel and after 5 s mixing with vortex, the samples were incubated for 15 min. The ratio between the non-aggregated platelets in the agonist sample and platelets in a reference sample was calculated as the platelet aggregation inhibition. FIPA measurement was highly reproducible (correlation coefficient (R)=0.942, P<0.001 between duplo samples). FIPA correlated well with adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation (R=0.83, P<0.001) but weakly with platelet function analyser-100 bleeding time (R=0.56, P<0.001). FIPA could be measured in patients in which platelet aggregation could not be measured by platelet function analyser-100 or after adenosine diphosphate. This study showed good reproducibility of a novel platelet function test using stainless steel as an agonist and showed correlation with validated platelet function tests. We found that the novel platelet function test is a suitable test for measurement of platelet aggregation inhibition in patients undergoing stenting for STEMI, even when they are taking multiple antiplatelet regimens.

  5. Fusaric acid, a mycotoxin, and its influence on blood coagulation and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Santhosh, Martin S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Nayaka, Siddaiah C; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2013-06-01

    The current study intended to explore the effect of fusaric acid on blood coagulation including plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation. Fusaric acid exhibited biphasic effects on citrated human plasma recalcification time. At concentrations below 50 ng, fusaric acid decreased the clotting time of plasma dose-dependently from 130 ± 3s control value to 32 ± 3s; however, above 50 ng, fusaric acid increased the clotting time from 32 ± 3s and reached a maximum of 152 s at 100 ng and remained unaltered thereafter for the increased dose of fusaric acid. Fusaric acid without damaging red blood cells and platelets, inhibited agonists such as collagen, ADP, thrombin, and epinephrine-induced aggregation of both platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and washed platelets preparations of human. Interestingly, fusaric acid showed biphasic effects only in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of washed platelets, and at lower concentration (below 900 ng) it activated platelet aggregation; however, in increased concentration (above 900 ng) it inhibited the platelet aggregation of washed platelets. In addition, fusaric acid also inhibited the agonist ADP-induced platelet aggregation of washed platelet suspension but did not show biphasic effect. Further, fusaric acid did not induce the platelets to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that clearly suggests that the induction of platelet function could be the result of the fusaric acid-mediated receptor interaction but not through the morphological shape change.

  6. Flow cytometric kinetic assay of calcium mobilization in whole blood platelets using Fluo-3 and CD41.

    PubMed

    do Céu Monteiro, M; Sansonetty, F; Gonçalves, M J; O'Connor, J E

    1999-04-01

    Platelet activation plays a major role in the physiology and pathology of hemostasis. Flow cytometry is a promising approach for the structural and functional analysis of platelets. However, the choice of adequate biological parameters and most technical issues are still under discussion. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ is a key early event that follows platelet stimulation and precedes several activation responses, including shape change, aggregation, secretion, and expression of procoagulant activity. Our objective was to set up a fast and sensitive flow cytometric method to determine the kinetics of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in platelets, which could be performed with the least artifactual perturbation of platelet function. Anticoagulated blood was diluted in Tyrode's buffer and incubated with Fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester prior to staining with phycoerytrin-conjugated antiplatelet GPIIb/IIIa complex monoclonal antibody. Platelets were identified by a gate including only CD41+ events. After the determination of baseline Fluo-3 green fluorescence on a flow cytometer (EPICS XL-MCL, Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL), adequate agonists were added and time-dependent changes in Fluo-3 fluorescence were recorded on-line for up to 3 min. In these conditions, a very fast and transient increase of cytosolic-free Ca2+ was observed following the addition of thrombin, a strong platelet agonist. Stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), a weak agonist, also resulted in evident increase of Ca2+ levels. Our results show that this flow cytometric kinetic method provides a simple and sensitive tool to assess in vitro the time course and intensity of signal transduction responses to different platelet agonists under near physiological conditions. In this way, it may be useful to evaluate the degree of platelet reactivity and thus to monitor antiplatelet therapy.

  7. Comparison of current platelet functional tests for the assessment of aspirin and clopidogrel response. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Negrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2016-09-27

    The two most widely used antiplatelet drugs in the world are aspirin and clopidogrel. However, some patients on aspirin and/or clopidogrel therapy do not respond appropriately to either aspirin or clopidogrel. This phenomenon is usually called "aspirin/clopidogrel resistance". Several platelet function tests have been used in various studies for the assessment of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in healthy individuals and patients admitted in cardiology departments. An accurate assessment of platelet response to aspirin/clopidogrel could benefit patients by proposing tailored-antiplatelet therapy based on test results. However, there is a clear lack of standardisation of such techniques and their analytical variability may induce misinterpretation. After a quick report of the mechanisms responsible for aspirin/clopidogrel resistance, we describe the pre-analytical aspects and the analytical performances of current platelet function tests (Light-transmission aggregometry, whole-blood aggregometry, VerifyNow®, Platelet Function Analyzer®, thromboelastography, VASP assay) that are used for the assessment of aspirin/clopidogrel resistance in clinical studies. Considering the different variables that have to be taken into account with each of the platelet function tests, a particular attention should be paid when interpreting results.

  8. Ex vivo recapitulation of trauma-induced coagulopathy and preliminary assessment of trauma patient platelet function under flow using microfluidic technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruizhi; Elmongy, Hanna; Sims, Carrie; Diamond, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Relevant to trauma-induced coagulopathy diagnostics, microfluidic assays allow controlled hemodynamics for testing of platelet and coagulation function using whole blood. Hemodilution or hyperfibrinolysis was studied under flow with modified healthy whole blood. Furthermore, platelet function was also measured using whole blood from trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center. Platelet deposition was measured with PPACK-inhibited blood perfused over collagen surfaces at a wall shear rate of 200 s, whereas platelet/fibrin deposition was measured with corn trypsin inhibitor-treated blood perfused over tissue factor (TF)/collagen. In hemodilution studies, PPACK-treated blood displayed almost no platelet deposition when diluted to 10% hematocrit with saline, platelet-poor plasma, or platelet-rich plasma. Using similar dilutions, platelet/fibrin deposition was essentially absent for corn trypsin inhibitor-treated blood perfused over TF/collagen. To mimic hyperfibrinolysis during trauma, exogenous tissue plasminogen activator (50 nM) was added to blood before perfusion over TF/collagen. At both venous and arterial flows, the generation and subsequent lysis of fibrin were detectable within 6 minutes, with lysis blocked by addition of the plasmin inhibitor, ε-aminocaproic acid. Microfluidic assay of PPACK-inhibited whole blood from trauma patients revealed striking defects in collagen response and secondary platelet aggregation in 14 of 21 patients, whereas platelet hyperfunction was detected in three of 20 patients. Rapid microfluidic detection of (1) hemodilution-dependent impairment of clotting, (2) clot instability because of lysis, (3) blockade of fibrinolysis, or (4) platelet dysfunction during trauma may provide novel diagnostic opportunities to predict trauma-induced coagulopathy risk.

  9. Platelet-induced thrombin generation by the calibrated automated thrombogram assay is increased in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Panova-Noeva, Marina; Marchetti, Marina; Spronk, Henri Maria; Russo, Laura; Diani, Erika; Finazzi, Guido; Finazzi, Good; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rambaldi, Aueesandrd; Barbui, Tiziano; Barbui, Titiano; Ten Cate, Hugo; Ten Cate, Huao; Falanga, Anna

    2011-04-01

    The platelet contribution to the thrombophilic state of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), i.e., essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV), remains uncertain. In this study we aimed to characterize the thrombin generation (TG) potential expressed by platelets from these subjects, compare it to normal platelets, and identify what factors might be responsible for platelet TG. In a group of 140 MPN patients (80 ET and 60 PV) and 72 healthy subjects, we measured the global procoagulant potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) utilizing the TG assay by the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT). To characterize the procoagulant contribution of platelets in PRP, the TG of both isolated platelets and platelet-poor plasma was measured, and the platelet surface expression of TF was determined. Finally, the activation status of platelets was assessed by the levels of P-selectin expressed on platelet surface. MPN patients had significantly increased PRP and isolated platelet TG potential compared to controls. This was associated to the occurrence of platelet activation. Patients carriers of the JAK2V617F mutation showed the highest values of TG and platelet surface TF and P-selectin. Platelet TG potential was significantly lower in hydroxyurea(HU) compared to non-HU-treated patients and was lowest in HU-treated JAK2V617F carriers. In subjects not receiving HU, platelet TG significantly increased by JAK2V617F allele burden increment (P < 0.05).This study demonstrates a platelet-dependent form of hypercoagulability in MPN patients, particularly in those carriers of the JAK2V617F mutation. The cytoreductive therapy with HU significantly affects this prothrombotic phenotype.

  10. EDTA-induced changes in platelet structure and function: adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    White, J G; Escolar, G

    2000-02-01

    Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an effective anticoagulant, but unfortunately causes structural, biochemical and functional damage to human platelets. Some of the functional injuries, such as adhesion to and spreading on surfaces, are considered irreversible. The present investigation has evaluated that hypothesis. Our findings indicate that platelets from EDTA platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or CCD PRP to which EDTA has been added do not adhere to glass or plastic surfaces. However, when platelets from EDTA PRP or CCD PRP containing added EDTA are washed and resuspended under conditions reported to cause irreversible dissociation of the fibrinogen receptor, GPIIb/IIIa, then washed and resuspended in buffer containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions will adhere and spread in the same manner as platelets not exposed to EDTA. The ability to recover adhesive function may explain why EDTA platelets are able to sustain clot retraction as well as CCD platelets.

  11. The effect of variation in donor platelet function on transfusion outcome: a semirandomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anne M; Garner, Stephen F; Foukaneli, Theodora; Godec, Thomas R; Herbert, Nina; Kahan, Brennan C; Deary, Alison; Bakrania, Lekha; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Ouwehand, Willem H; Williamson, Lorna M; Cardigan, Rebecca A

    2017-07-13

    The effect of variation in platelet function in platelet donors on patient outcome following platelet transfusion is unknown. This trial assessed the hypothesis that platelets collected from donors with highly responsive platelets to agonists in vitro assessed by flow cytometry (high-responder donors) are cleared more quickly from the circulation than those from low-responder donors, resulting in lower platelet count increments following transfusion. This parallel group, semirandomized double-blinded trial was conducted in a single center in the United Kingdom. Eligible patients were those 16 or older with thrombocytopenia secondary to bone marrow failure, requiring prophylactic platelet transfusion. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a platelet donation from a high- or low-responder donor when both were available, or when only 1 type of platelet was available, patients received that. Participants, investigators, and those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. The primary end point was the platelet count increment 10 to 90 minutes following transfusion. Analysis was by intention to treat. Fifty-one patients were assigned to receive platelets from low-responder donors, and 49 from high-responder donors (47 of which were randomized and 53 nonrandomized). There was no significant difference in platelet count increment 10 to 90 minutes following transfusion in patients receiving platelets from high-responder (mean, 21.0 × 10(9)/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-37.2) or low-responder (mean, 23.3 × 10(9)/L; 95% CI, 7.8-38.9) donors (mean difference, 2.3; 95% CI, -1.1 to 5.7; P = .18). These results support the current policy of not selecting platelet donors on the basis of platelet function for prophylactic platelet transfusion. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Leonard C; Simon, Lukas M; Lindsay, Cory R; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E; Chen, Edward S; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A; Bray, Paul F

    2014-11-27

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Reversibility of thrombin-induced decrease in platelet glycoprotein Ib function.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Menashi, S; Garcia, I; Cramer, E M; Li, H; Tenza, D; De Romeuf, C; Soria, J; Soria, C

    1993-09-01

    Thrombin induces a redistribution of glycoprotein (GP) Ib/GP IX complex from the platelet surface into the surface connected canalicular system (SCCS). This redistribution results in a reduced interaction of platelet GP Ib with von Willebrand factor (vWF) bound to subendothelium leading to impaired platelet adhesion. In this study we show that the platelet aggregation and degranulation require concentrations of thrombin above 0.05 U/ml, while the decrease in GP Ib function (about 50% of control value), as determined by ristocetin induced platelet agglutination, can be induced by lower concentrations (0.01-0.04 U/ml). Moreover, we show that when adding thrombin inhibitors to the platelets preincubated with < 0.04 U/ml thrombin for 5 min, their agglutinability by ristocetin was gradually recovered within 30 min, indicating that in these conditions the decrease in platelet adhesiveness is reversible. Immuno-electromicroscopic study showed that this restoration of platelet GP Ib function was associated with a reversed translocation of GP Ib from the SCCS to the plasma membrane. The data obtained from counting gold particles showed that the ratio of GP Ib immunolabelling on the external membrane versus that on the SCCS was 3.31 +/- 0.90 for resting platelets, down-regulated to 0.84 +/- 0.13 (P < 0.05 versus resting platelets) for the platelets treated with 0.04 U/ml thrombin and returned to 2.63 +/- 2.21 (P > 0.05 versus resting platelets) after incubation for 30 min with hirudin. However, the translocation of GP Ib was poorly reversed by thrombin inhibitors when higher concentrations of thrombin were used which induced platelet aggregation and large extent of degranulation. We conclude that thrombin affects platelets in a dose dependent manner, and that at low concentrations the decrease in platelet GP Ib related function is a reversible phenomenon.

  14. Migration distance-based platelet function analysis in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Song, Suk-Heung; Lim, Chae-Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation and adhesion of platelets to the vascular wall are shear-dependent processes that play critical roles in hemostasis and thrombosis at vascular injury sites. In this study, we designed a simple and rapid assay of platelet aggregation and adhesion in a microfluidic system. A shearing mechanism using a rotating stirrer provided adjustable shear rate and shearing time and induced platelet activation. When sheared blood was driven through the microchannel under vacuum pressure, shear-activated platelets adhered to a collagen-coated surface, causing blood flow to significantly slow and eventually stop. To measure platelet adhesion and aggregation, the migration distance (MD) of blood through the microchannel was monitored. As the microstirrer speed increased, MD initially decreased exponentially but then increased beyond a critical rpm. For platelet-excluded blood samples, there were no changes in MD with increasing stirrer speed. These findings imply that the stirrer provided sufficiently high shear to activate platelets and that blood MD is a potentially valuable index for measuring the shear-dependence of platelet activation. Our microfluidic system is quick and simple, while providing a precise assay to measure the effects of shear on platelet aggregation and adhesion.

  15. Dicer1-mediated miRNA processing shapes the mRNA profile and function of murine platelets.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jesse W; Chappaz, Stéphane; Corduan, Aurélie; Chong, Mark M W; Campbell, Robert; Khoury, Amanda; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Michael, James V; Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Mumaw, Michele M; Nieman, Marvin T; Kile, Benjamin T; Provost, Patrick; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-04-07

    Human platelets contain microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing machinery, but their contribution to platelet function remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that murine megakaryocyte (MK)-specific knockdown of Dicer1, the ribonuclease that cleaves miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs, reduces the level of the majority of miRNAs in platelets. This leads to altered platelet messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles and mild thrombocytopenia. Fibrinogen receptor subunits Itga2b (αIIb) and Itgb3 (β3) mRNAs were among the differentially expressed transcripts that are increased in platelets lacking Dicer1. Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a member of the miRNA silencing complex, co-immunoprecipitated with αIIband β3mRNAs in wild-type platelets. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested reduced αIIb/β3/Ago2 complexes in miRNA-deficient platelets. These results suggested that miRNAs regulate both integrin subunits. Subsequent 3' untranslated region luciferase reporter assays confirmed that the translation of both αIIband β3mRNAs can be regulated by miRNAs miR-326, miR-128, miR-331, and miR-500. Consistent with these molecular changes, the deletion ofDicer1resulted in increased surface expression of integrins αIIband β3, and enhanced platelet binding to fibrinogen in vivo and in vitro. Heightened platelet reactivity, shortened tail-bleeding time, and reduced survival following collagen/epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism were also observed in Dicer1-deficient animals. CombinedPf4-cre-mediated deletion of Drosha and Dicer1 did not significantly exacerbate phenotypes observed in single Dicer1 knockout mice. In summary, these findings indicate that Dicer1-dependent generation of mature miRNAs in late-stage MKs and platelets modulates the expression of target mRNAs important for the hemostatic and thrombotic function of platelets.

  16. Dicer1-mediated miRNA processing shapes the mRNA profile and function of murine platelets

    PubMed Central

    Chappaz, Stéphane; Corduan, Aurélie; Chong, Mark M. W.; Campbell, Robert; Khoury, Amanda; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Wurtzel, Jeremy G. T.; Michael, James V.; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Mumaw, Michele M.; Nieman, Marvin T.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Provost, Patrick; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Human platelets contain microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing machinery, but their contribution to platelet function remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that murine megakaryocyte (MK)-specific knockdown of Dicer1, the ribonuclease that cleaves miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs, reduces the level of the majority of miRNAs in platelets. This leads to altered platelet messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles and mild thrombocytopenia. Fibrinogen receptor subunits Itga2b (αIIb) and Itgb3 (β3) mRNAs were among the differentially expressed transcripts that are increased in platelets lacking Dicer1. Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a member of the miRNA silencing complex, co-immunoprecipitated with αIIb and β3 mRNAs in wild-type platelets. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested reduced αIIb/β3/Ago2 complexes in miRNA-deficient platelets. These results suggested that miRNAs regulate both integrin subunits. Subsequent 3′ untranslated region luciferase reporter assays confirmed that the translation of both αIIb and β3 mRNAs can be regulated by miRNAs miR-326, miR-128, miR-331, and miR-500. Consistent with these molecular changes, the deletion of Dicer1 resulted in increased surface expression of integrins αIIb and β3, and enhanced platelet binding to fibrinogen in vivo and in vitro. Heightened platelet reactivity, shortened tail-bleeding time, and reduced survival following collagen/epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism were also observed in Dicer1-deficient animals. Combined Pf4-cre–mediated deletion of Drosha and Dicer1 did not significantly exacerbate phenotypes observed in single Dicer1 knockout mice. In summary, these findings indicate that Dicer1-dependent generation of mature miRNAs in late-stage MKs and platelets modulates the expression of target mRNAs important for the hemostatic and thrombotic function of platelets. PMID:26773046

  17. Quantitative phase imaging of platelet: assessment of cell morphology and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Irina; Vlasova, Elizaveta; Metelin, Vladislav; Agadzhanjan, B.; Lyfenko, R.

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that platelets play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis, they also mediate tumor cell growth, dissemination and angiogenesis. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate living platelet size, function and morphology simultaneously in unactivated and activated states using Phase-Interference Microscope "Cytoscan" (Moscow, Russia). We enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, who had no past history of aeteriosclerosis-related disorders, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertention, diabetes or hyperlipidemia and 30 patients with oropharynx cancer. We observed the optic-geometrical parameters of each isolated living cell and the distribution of platelets by sizes have been analysed to detect the dynamics of cell population heterogeneity. Simultaneously we identified 4 platelet forms that have different morphological features and different parameters of size distribution. We noticed that morphological platelet types correlate with morphometric platelet parameters. The data of polymorphisms of platelet reactivity in tumor progression can be used to improve patient outcomes in the cancer prevention and treatment. Moreover morphometric and functional platelet parameters can serve criteria of the efficiency of the radio- and chemotherapy carried out. In conclusion the computer phase-interference microscope provides rapid and effective analysis of living platelet morphology and function at the same time. The use of the computer phase-interference microscope could be an easy and fast method to check the state of platelets in patients with changed platelet activation and to follow a possible pharmacological therapy to reduce this phenomenon.

  18. Ibrutinib treatment affects collagen and von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Levade, Marie; David, Elodie; Garcia, Cédric; Laurent, Pierre-Alexandre; Cadot, Sarah; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Tam, Constantine; Sié, Pierre; Ysebaert, Loïc; Payrastre, Bernard

    2014-12-18

    The oral Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, has recently demonstrated high efficiency in patients with relapsed B-cell malignancies. Occurrence of bleeding events has been reported in a subgroup of ibrutinib-treated patients. We demonstrate that ibrutinib selectively inhibits platelet signaling and functions downstream of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and strongly affects firm platelet adhesion on von Willebrand factor (VWF) under arterial flow. A longitudinal study of 14 patients indicated a correlation between occurrence of bleeding events and decreased platelet aggregation in response to collagen in platelet-rich plasma and firm adhesion on VWF under arterial flow. The addition of 50% untreated platelets was sufficient to efficiently reverse the effects of ibrutinib, and platelet functions recovered after treatment interruption as physiological platelet renewal occurred. These data have important clinical implications and provide a basis for hemostasis management during ibrutinib treatment.

  19. Characterization of human platelet UDPglucose-collagen glucosyltransferase using a new rapid assay.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Kosow, D P; Wu, C; Jamieson, G A

    1977-08-11

    A rapid and specific assay has been developed for UDPglucose-collagen glucosyltransferase (UDPglucose: 5-hydroxylysine-collagen glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.66) using galactosylhydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl) as acceptor. Studies with intact human platelets and isolated plasma membranes indicated that about 5--10% of the total activity was surface bound and the rest was of cytoplasmic origin. The two forms of the enzyme had similar broad pH optima (6.5--8.0), Km values for UDPglucose (5 muM) and Gal-Hyl (approx. 4 mM) and for optimal manganese concentrations (25 mM). The soluble form of the enzyme was purified 80-fold. The reaction mechanism was determined as being rapid equilibrium random BiBi + dead end complex or ordered BiBi with UDPglucose being the first substrate to bind. Using Gal-Hyl bound in purified alpha 1 chain of chick skin collagen, a Km value three orders of magnitude less (2 muM) was found than for free Gal-Hyl and the manganese requirement decreased to 2 mM. These results suggest that the binding to the enzyme of Gal-Hyl in the collagen molecule is enhanced by the presence of the protein portion so that the enzyme may be capable of recognizing not only the carbohydrate side chains but also the primary structure of collagen.

  20. Regulation of platelet function by class B scavenger receptors in hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimman, Alejandro; Podrez, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Platelets constitutively express class B scavenger receptors CD36 and SR-BI, two closely related pattern recognition receptors best known for their roles in lipoprotein and lipid metabolism. The biological role of scavenger receptors in platelets is poorly understood. However, in vitro and in vivo data suggest that class B scavenger receptors modulate platelet function and contribute significantly to thrombosis by sensing pathological or physiological ligands, inducing prothrombotic signaling, and increasing platelet reactivity. Platelet CD36 recognizes a novel family of endogenous oxidized choline phospholipids that accumulate in plasma of hyperlipidemic mice and in plasma of subjects with low HDL levels. This interaction leads to the activation of specific signaling pathways and promotes platelet activation and thrombosis. Platelet SR-BI, on the other hand, plays a critical role in the induction of platelet hyper-reactivity and accelerated thrombosis in conditions associated with increased platelet cholesterol content. Intriguingly, oxidized HDL, aSR-BI ligand, can suppress platelet function. These recent findings demonstrate that platelet class B scavenger receptors play roles in thrombosis in dyslipidemia and may contribute to acute cardiovascular events in vivo in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21071700

  1. Patterns and functional implications of platelets upon tumor "education".

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hongda; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhan, Ping; Zhu, Suhua; Zhang, Jianya; Lv, Tangfeng; Song, Yong

    2017-09-01

    While platelets are traditionally recognized to play a predominant role in hemostasis and thrombosis, increasing evidence verifies its involvement in malignancies. As a component of the tumor microenvironment, platelets influence carcinogenesis, tumor metastasis and chemotherapy efficiency. Platelets status is thus predictable as a hematological biomarker of cancer prognosis and a hot target for therapeutic intervention. On the other hand, the role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as an inducer of platelet activation and aggregation has been well acknowledged. The cross-talk between platelets and CTCs is reciprocal on that the CTCs activate platelets while platelets contribute to CTCs' survival and dissemination. This review covers some of the current issues related to the loop between platelets and tumor aggression, including the manners of tumor cells in "educating" platelets and biofunctional alterations of platelets upon tumor "education". We also highlight the potential clinical applications on the interplay between tumors and platelets. Further studies with well-designed prospective multicenter trials may contribute to clinical "liquid biopsy" diagnosis by evaluating the global changes of platelets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The use of regression analysis in determining reference intervals for low hematocrit and thrombocyte count in multiple electrode aggregometry and platelet function analyzer 100 testing of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Gerhardus J A J M; Houben, Rik; Wetzels, Rick J H; Verhezen, Paul W M; van Oerle, Rene; Ten Cate, Hugo; Henskens, Yvonne M C; Lancé, Marcus D

    2017-01-09

    Low platelet counts and hematocrit levels hinder whole blood point-of-care testing of platelet function. Thus far, no reference ranges for MEA (multiple electrode aggregometry) and PFA-100 (platelet function analyzer 100) devices exist for low ranges. Through dilution methods of volunteer whole blood, platelet function at low ranges of platelet count and hematocrit levels was assessed on MEA for four agonists and for PFA-100 in two cartridges. Using (multiple) regression analysis, 95% reference intervals were computed for these low ranges. Low platelet counts affected MEA in a positive correlation (all agonists showed r(2) ≥ 0.75) and PFA-100 in an inverse correlation (closure times were prolonged with lower platelet counts). Lowered hematocrit did not affect MEA testing, except for arachidonic acid activation (ASPI), which showed a weak positive correlation (r(2) = 0.14). Closure time on PFA-100 testing was inversely correlated with hematocrit for both cartridges. Regression analysis revealed different 95% reference intervals in comparison with originally established intervals for both MEA and PFA-100 in low platelet or hematocrit conditions. Multiple regression analysis of ASPI and both tests on the PFA-100 for combined low platelet and hematocrit conditions revealed that only PFA-100 testing should be adjusted for both thrombocytopenia and anemia. 95% reference intervals were calculated using multiple regression analysis. However, coefficients of determination of PFA-100 were poor, and some variance remained unexplained. Thus, in this pilot study using (multiple) regression analysis, we could establish reference intervals of platelet function in anemia and thrombocytopenia conditions on PFA-100 and in thrombocytopenia conditions on MEA.

  3. Leukaemia-associated Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) plays an agonist specific role in platelet function through RhoA activation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M; Yin, Mingzhu; Xiang, Yaozu; Xavier-Ferrucio, Juliana; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Hwa, John; Min, Wang; Krause, Diane S

    2016-08-30

    Leukemia-Associated RhoGEF (LARG) is highly expressed in platelets, which are essential for maintaining normal haemostasis. We studied the function of LARG in murine and human megakaryocytes and platelets with Larg knockout (KO), shRNA-mediated knockdown and small molecule-mediated inhibition. We found that LARG is important for human, but not murine, megakaryocyte maturation. Larg KO mice exhibit macrothrombocytopenia, internal bleeding in the ovaries and prolonged bleeding times. KO platelets have impaired aggregation, α-granule release and integrin α2bβ3 activation in response to thrombin and thromboxane, but not to ADP. The same agonist-specific reductions in platelet aggregation occur in human platelets treated with a LARG inhibitor. Larg KO platelets have reduced RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, suggesting that Larg plays an agonist-specific role in platelet signal transduction. Using two different in vivo assays, Larg KO mice are protected from in vivo thrombus formation. Together, these results establish that LARG regulates human megakaryocyte maturation, and is critical for platelet function in both humans and mice.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID ON PLATELET FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Geoffrey; Packham, Marian A.; Nishizawa, Edward E.; Mustard, James F.; Murphy, Edmund A.

    1968-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) and sodium salicylate inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, antigen-antibody complexes, gamma globulin-coated particles or thrombin. These compounds suppress the release of platelet constituents, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and serotonin, induced by such stimuli. Since ASA and sodium salicylate do not inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, it appears that their effect on the action of the other stimuli is due to a decrease in the amount of ADP released. The administration of ASA to rabbits (in doses which inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation) impaired hemostasis, prolonged platelet survival, and diminished the amount of deposit formed in an extracorporeal shunt. PMID:4176225

  5. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P) translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet proteome in dengue

  6. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue.

    PubMed

    Trugilho, Monique Ramos de Oliveira; Hottz, Eugenio Damaceno; Brunoro, Giselle Villa Flor; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Zimmerman, Guy A; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T; Perales, Jonas

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P) translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet proteome in dengue

  7. Plasma protein regulation of platelet function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M S; Bang, N U

    1979-04-02

    This reviews summarizes our evidence suggesting that the plasma protein enviroment influences platelet aggregation potential and metabolic activity. Cationic proteins are capable of restoring the aggreation potential of washed human platelets. The aggregation restoring effect of gamma globulin is inhibited by more anionic proteins in subfractions of Cohn fraction IV and fractions V and VI. Artificial enhancement of the net negative charge of plasma proteins through acylation produces derivatives capable of inhibiting platelet rich plasma. The oxygen consumption of washed human platelets is lower than in platelet rich plasma while the lactate production is identical. Autologus plasma, albumin or IgG immunoglobulin restores the oxygen consumption of washed platelets to values comparable to those obtained for platelet rich plasma, while the lactate production is unaffected. Fibrinogen on IgA myeloma protein increases the lactate production, but not the oxygen consumption. Cyclic AMP levels are considerably lower in washed platelets than in platelet rich plasma. Gamma globulin and albumin causes a futher decrease, which is progressive with time. Fibrinogen causes no change in platelet cyclic AMP content. It is suggested that these observations may in part be explained by the equilibriun between anionic and cationic proteins in the platelet microenvironment. This hypothesis appears applicable in certain situations.

  8. Genetic Regulation of Platelet Receptor Expression and Function: Application in Clinical Practice and Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marlene S.; Weiss, Ethan J.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Bray, Paul F.; Simon, Daniel I.; Bahou, Wadie F.; Becker, Lewis C.; Parise, Leslie V.; Dauerman, Harold L.; French, Patricia A.; Becker, Richard C.; Smyth, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic contributions to platelet function could have profound clinical ramifications for personalizing platelet-directed pharmacotherapy, by providing insight into the risks and possible benefits associated with specific genotypes. This article represents an integrated summary of presentations related to genetic regulation of platelet receptor expression and function given at the Fifth Annual Platelet Colloquium in January 2010. It is supplemented with additional highlights from the literature covering 1) approaches to determining and evidence for the associations of genetic variants with platelet hypo- and hyperresponsive phenotypes, 2) the ramifications of these polymorphisms with regard to clinical responses to antiplatelet therapies, and 3) the role of platelet function/genetic testing in guiding antiplatelet therapy. PMID:21084706

  9. Genetic regulation of platelet receptor expression and function: application in clinical practice and drug development.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marlene S; Weiss, Ethan J; Sabatine, Marc S; Simon, Daniel I; Bahou, Wadie F; Becker, Lewis C; Parise, Leslie V; Dauerman, Harold L; French, Patricia A; Smyth, Susan S; Becker, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Understanding genetic contributions to platelet function could have profound clinical ramifications for personalizing platelet-directed pharmacotherapy, by providing insight into the risks and possible benefits associated with specific genotypes. This article represents an integrated summary of presentations related to genetic regulation of platelet receptor expression and function given at the Fifth Annual Platelet Colloquium in January 2010. It is supplemented with additional highlights from the literature covering (1) approaches to determining and evidence for the associations of genetic variants with platelet hypo- and hyperresponsive phenotypes, (2) the ramifications of these polymorphisms with regard to clinical responses to antiplatelet therapies, and (3) the role of platelet function/genetic testing in guiding antiplatelet therapy.

  10. Microfluidic assay of platelet deposition on collagen by perfusion of whole blood from healthy individuals taking aspirin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruizhi; Fries, Susanne; Li, Xuanwen; Grosser, Tilo; Diamond, Scott L

    2013-08-01

    Microfluidic devices can create hemodynamic conditions for platelet assays. We validated an 8-channel device in a study of interdonor response to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) with whole blood from 28 healthy individuals. Platelet deposition was assessed before treatment or 24 h after ingestion of 325 mg ASA. Whole blood (plus 100 μmol/L H-d-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone to inhibit thrombin) was further treated ex vivo with ASA (0-500 μmol/L) and perfused over fibrillar collagen for 300 s at a venous wall shear rate (200 s(-1)). Ex vivo ASA addition to blood drawn before aspirin ingestion caused a reduction in platelet deposition [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) approximately 10-20 μmol/L], especially between 150 and 300 s of perfusion, when secondary aggregation mediated by thromboxane was expected. Twenty-seven of 28 individuals displayed smaller deposits (45% mean reduction; range 10%-90%; P < 0.001) from blood obtained 24 h after ASA ingestion (no ASA added ex vivo). In replicate tests, an R value to score secondary aggregation [deposition rate from 150 to 300 s normalized by rate from 60 to 150 s] showed R < 1 in only 2 of 28 individuals without ASA ingestion, with R > 1 in only 3 of 28 individuals after 500 μmol/L ASA addition ex vivo. At 24 h after ASA ingestion, 21 of 28 individuals displayed poor secondary aggregation (R < 1) without ex vivo ASA addition, whereas the 7 individuals with residual secondary aggregation (R > 1) displayed insensitivity to ex vivo ASA addition. Platelet deposition was not correlated with platelet count. Ex vivo ASA addition caused similar inhibition at venous and arterial wall shear rates. Microfluidic devices quantified platelet deposition after ingestion or ex vivo addition of aspirin.

  11. Detection of platelet sensitivity to inhibitors of COX-1, P2Y₁, and P2Y₁₂ using a whole blood microfluidic flow assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruizhi; Diamond, Scott L

    2014-02-01

    Microfluidic devices recreate the hemodynamic conditions of thrombosis. Whole blood inhibited with PPACK was treated ex vivo with inhibitors and perfused over collagen for 300 s (wall shear rate=200 s(-1)) using a microfluidic flow assay. Platelet accumulation was measured in the presence of COX-1 inhibitor (aspirin, ASA), P2Y₁ inhibitor (MRS 2179), P2Y₁₂ inhibitor (2MeSAMP) or combined P2Y1 and P2Y₁₂ inhibitors. High dose ASA (500 μM), 2MeSAMP (100 μM), MRS 2179 (10 μM), or combined 2MeSAMP and MRS 2179 decreased total platelet accumulation by 27.5%, 75.6%, 77.7%, and 87.9% (p<0.01), respectively. ASA reduced secondary aggregation rate between 150 and 300 s without effect on primary deposition rate on collagen from 60 to 150 s. In contrast, 2MeSAMP and MRS 2179 acted earlier and reduced primary deposition to collagen between 60 and 105 s and secondary aggregation between 105 and 300 s. R(COX) and R(P2Y) (defined as a ratio of secondary aggregation rate to primary deposition rate) demonstrated 9 of 10 subjects had R(COX)<1 or R(P2Y)<1 following ASA or 2MeSAMP addition, while 6 of 10 subjects had R(P2Y)<1 following MRS 2179 addition. Combined MRS 2179 and 2MeSAMP inhibited primary platelet deposition rate and platelet secondary aggregation beyond that of each individual inhibitor. Receiver-Operator Characteristic area under the curve (AUC) indicated the robustness of R(COX) and R(P2Y) to detect inhibition of secondary platelet aggregation by ASA, 2MeSAMP, and MRS 2179 (AUC of 0.874 0.966, and 0.889, respectively). Microfluidic devices can detect platelet sensitivity to antiplatelet agents. The R-value can serve as a self-normalized metric of platelet function for a single blood sample. © 2013.

  12. Circulating primers enhance platelet function and induce resistance to antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Blair, T A; Moore, S F; Hers, I

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists are antiplatelet compounds that are used clinically in patients with thrombosis. However, some patients are ‘resistant’ to antiplatelet therapy, which increases their risk of developing acute coronary syndromes. These patients often present with an underlying condition that is associated with altered levels of circulating platelet primers and platelet hyperactivity. Platelet primers cannot stimulate platelet activation, but, in combination with physiologic stimuli, significantly enhance platelet function. Objectives To explore the role of platelet primers in resistance to antiplatelet therapy, and to evaluate whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) contributes to this process. Methods and Results We used platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 production and ex vivo thrombus formation as functional readouts of platelet activity. Platelets were treated with the potent P2Y12 inhibitor AR-C66096, aspirin, or a combination of both, in the presence or absence of the platelet primers insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and thrombopoietin (TPO), or the Gz-coupled receptor ligand epinephrine. We found that platelet primers largely overcame the inhibitory effects of antiplatelet compounds on platelet functional responses. IGF-1-mediated and TPO-mediated, but not epinephrine-mediated, enhancements in the presence of antiplatelet drugs were blocked by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Conclusions These results demonstrate that platelet primers can contribute to antiplatelet resistance. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that there are PI3K-dependent and PI3K-independent mechanisms driving primer-mediated resistance to antiplatelet therapy. PMID:26039631

  13. Platelet function in reconstituted whole blood variants: An observational study over 5 days of storage time.

    PubMed

    Ponschab, Martin; Schlimp, Christoph J; Zipperle, Johannes; Gabriel, Christian; Süssner, Susanne; Cadamuro, Janne; Gratz, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Platelet concentrates (PCs) are usually stored at room temperature under constant gentle agitation. Risk of bacterial contamination limits maximum storage time to 5 days. The objective of the study was to investigate platelet function with regard to storage time in different reconstituted whole blood (RWB) variants. Donated apheresis PCs were stored at 22°C over 5 days. To obtain RWB, apheresis PCs were mixed with plasma-free packed red blood cells (RBCs) and either prethawed fresh frozen plasma (PT) or solvent-detergent plasma (SD) [1:1:1 ratio], or with leukocyte- and platelet-depleted whole blood (LD-WB) as control. Platelet function in RWB variants was assessed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate) on Days 0, 1, 3, and 5 following platelet donation. Platelet aggregometry did not reach the lower limits determined from healthy volunteers in any of the RWB variants. Platelet aggregability measured by ASPI test, ADP test, and COL test declined over storage time in all RWB variants. No differences were observed in the TRAP test. At most measurement time points, LD-RWB provided significantly higher platelet aggregability compared with SD-RWB and PT-RWB (p < 0.01). SD-RWB demonstrated higher platelet aggregability on Day 0 in the ASPI test, ADP test, and TRAP test compared with PT-RWB. Apheresis PCs stored for 5 days at 22°C demonstrated reduced platelet aggregability, as measured by multiple electrode aggregometry when mixed with RBCs and plasma. As platelet aggregation in LD-RWB was superior compared with SD-RWB and PT-RWB variants, it might be possible that additives in RBCs or plasma are responsible for the observed depressed platelet function. Critical evaluation of current massive transfusion recommendations proposing early platelet transfusion is indicated.

  14. [Morphology, ultrastructure and function of glycosylation-modified chilled blood platelets].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Han, Ying; Quan, Guo-Bo; Liu, Min-Xia; Liu, An

    2008-04-01

    The glycosylation of platelets may prolong their life-span when being transfused after preservation under 4 degrees C, therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of glycosylation on morphology, ultrastructure, function and membrane glycoprotein of platelets. The experiments were divided into 3 groups: group preserved in room temperature (RT group), group preserved in 4 degrees C (4T group) and group UDP-Gal glycosylated and preserved in 4 degrees C (U+4T group). The binding rate of RCA I lectin and expression of platelet surface markers CD62P, CD42b were determined by flow cytometry. Morphology and ultrastructure of platelets were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Platelets aggregation was detected by aggregometer. The results showed that the binding rate of RCAI in U+4T group significantly higher than that in RT group (p<0.01), no obvious changes was found in ultrastructure of glycosylated platelets, as compared with fresh platelets. Some morphologic changes, such as pseudopodium could be observed in 4T group. The aggregation rate of platelets in U+4T group reached to 50% of RT group. The expression levels of CD42b and CD62P, and the binding rate of annexin V in U+4T group were not significantly different from that in RT group. It is concluded that UDP-Gal can effectively cause galactosylation of platelets, and the platelets modified with UDP-Gal remain normal morphology, ultrastructure and function.

  15. Effect of Fibrinogen on Platelet Reactivity Measured by the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolsky, A B; Laguta, P S; Guskova, E V; Yarovaya, E B; Titaeva, E V; Storozhilova, A N; Panchenko, E P

    2016-05-01

    The VerifyNow assay is based upon the ability of activated platelets to cross-link beads coated with fibrinogen. However, fibrinogen is an abundant protein of blood, and therefore it may affect test results by competing with fibrinogen of beads for binding to platelets. To test this assumption, we assessed the influence of artificial alteration of fibrinogen level in blood samples obtained from donors (n = 9) and patients on clopidogrel therapy (n = 8) on the results of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Fibrinogen level was altered by adding to blood samples 1/10 volume of fibrinogen solution (10.56 g/liter) or corresponding buffer. Relative to baseline, addition of buffer significantly increased platelet reactivity, whereas addition of fibrinogen decreased it. Analysis of the relationship between change in platelet reactivity values (dBase and dPRU) and change in fibrinogen concentration (dFg) revealed strong negative correlations: dBase = -63.3 × dFg - 27.1 (r = -0.924, p < 0.0005) and dPRU = -54.4 × dFg - 21.8 (r = -0.764, p < 0.0005). Thus, the results of our experiments suggest that: (i) blood fibrinogen strongly influences results of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, and (ii) correcting for fibrinogen effect may be needed to improve the accuracy of the test in the measuring of antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel therapy.

  16. NF-E2 p45 Is Important for Establishing Normal Function of Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Rie; Takayama-Tsujimoto, Mariko; Satoh, Hironori; Gutiérrez, Laura; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Satoshi; Sarai, Akinori; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2013-01-01

    NF-E2 is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of p45 and small Maf subunits. Since p45−/− mice display severe thrombocytopenia, p45 is recognized as a critical regulator of platelet production from megakaryocytes. To identify direct p45 target genes in megakaryocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing to analyze the genome-wide chromatin occupancy of p45 in primary megakaryocytes. p45 target gene candidates obtained from the analysis are implicated in the production and function of platelets. Two of these genes, Selp and Myl9, were verified as direct p45 targets through multiple approaches. Since P-selectin, encoded by Selp, plays a critical role in platelet function during thrombogenesis, we tested whether p45 determines the intrinsic reactivity and potency of platelets generated from megakaryocytes. Mice expressing a hypomorphic p45 mutant instead of wild-type p45 in megakaryocytes (p45−/−:ΔNTD-Tg mice) displayed platelet hypofunction accompanied by mild thrombocytopenia. Furthermore, lung metastasis of melanoma cells, which requires platelet activation, was repressed in p45−/−:ΔNTD-Tg mice compared to control mice, validating the impaired function of platelets produced from p45−/−:ΔNTD-Tg megakaryocytes. By activating genes in megakaryocytes that mediate platelet production and function, p45 determines the quantity and quality of platelets. PMID:23648484

  17. NF-E2 p45 is important for establishing normal function of platelets.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Rie; Takayama-Tsujimoto, Mariko; Satoh, Hironori; Gutiérrez, Laura; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Satoshi; Sarai, Akinori; Bresnick, Emery H; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2013-07-01

    NF-E2 is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of p45 and small Maf subunits. Since p45(-/-) mice display severe thrombocytopenia, p45 is recognized as a critical regulator of platelet production from megakaryocytes. To identify direct p45 target genes in megakaryocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing to analyze the genome-wide chromatin occupancy of p45 in primary megakaryocytes. p45 target gene candidates obtained from the analysis are implicated in the production and function of platelets. Two of these genes, Selp and Myl9, were verified as direct p45 targets through multiple approaches. Since P-selectin, encoded by Selp, plays a critical role in platelet function during thrombogenesis, we tested whether p45 determines the intrinsic reactivity and potency of platelets generated from megakaryocytes. Mice expressing a hypomorphic p45 mutant instead of wild-type p45 in megakaryocytes (p45(-/-):ΔNTD-Tg mice) displayed platelet hypofunction accompanied by mild thrombocytopenia. Furthermore, lung metastasis of melanoma cells, which requires platelet activation, was repressed in p45(-/-):ΔNTD-Tg mice compared to control mice, validating the impaired function of platelets produced from p45(-/-):ΔNTD-Tg megakaryocytes. By activating genes in megakaryocytes that mediate platelet production and function, p45 determines the quantity and quality of platelets.

  18. Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function.

    PubMed

    Rein, D; Paglieroni, T G; Pearson, D A; Wun, T; Schmitz, H H; Gosselin, R; Keen, C L

    2000-08-01

    There is speculation that dietary polyphenols can provide cardioprotective effects due to direct antioxidant or antithrombotic mechanisms. We report in vitro and postingestion ex vivo effects of cocoa procyanidins, a procyanidin-rich cocoa beverage and dealcoholized red wine (DRW) on human platelet activation. In a series of in vitro studies, cocoa procyanidin trimers, pentamers or DRW (3 and 10 micromol/L) were incubated with citrated peripheral whole blood in the presence and absence of platelet agonists. Platelet activation was detected using fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies recognizing the fibrinogen binding conformation of GPIIb-IIIa (referred to herein as PAC-1 binding) and the activation-dependent platelet epitope CD62P (P-selectin). The percentage of CD42a-positive platelets coexpressing PAC-1 binding and/or CD62P was determined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Procyanidin trimers, pentamers and DRW added to whole blood in vitro increased PAC-1 binding and P-selectin expression. In contrast, procyanidin trimers, pentamers and DRW inhibited the platelet activation in response to epinephrine. The effects on platelet activation of cocoa beverage and DRW consumption were also studied in healthy subjects. Citrated blood was obtained before and 2 and 6 h after the ingestion of a cocoa beverage, a caffeine-containing beverage, DRW or water. Platelet activation was measured by flow cytometry. The consumption of DRW did not affect the expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens, either unstimulated or after ex vivo activation with epinephrine. However, the consumption of DRW increased PAC-1 binding in response to 100 micromol/L ADP ex vivo. Cocoa consumption reduced platelet response to agonists ex vivo. The ingestion of water had no effect on platelet activation, whereas a caffeine-containing beverage augmented the response of platelets to epinephrine. In summary, select cocoa procyanidins and DRW added to whole blood in vitro increased

  19. The sticky platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Benjamín; Ruíz-Arguelles, Guillermo J; Castillo-Martínez, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    The sticky platelets syndrome (SPS) is a procoagulant condition based on either arterial, venous, or capillary thrombi caused by hyperesponsive and hyperaggregable platelets. This is a frequent disease, which often remains clinically inapparent, until stressful events or combination with other factors increase the risk of developing SPS. The condition is due to a congenital platelet defect with autosomal dominant characteristics, leading to the increased platelet aggregability when they are challenged with epinephrine and adenosine diphosphate. Nowadays classification of this disorder is based on platelet reactivity to both ADP and epinephrine (SPS type 1), epinephrine alone (SPS type 2), and ADP alone (SPS type 3). The diagnoses of the syndrome depend on the functional aggregometer assay. This condition should be taken into account whenever a patient with thrombophilia is considered.

  20. Human Platelets and Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Myatt S.; Walsh, Peter N.

    1979-01-01

    Because human platelets participate in the contact phase of intrinsic coagulation and contain a Factor XI-like coagulant activity, the nature of the Factor XI-like activity was examined and compared with purified plasma Factor XI. The platelet factor XI-like activity was sedimented with the particulate fraction of a platelet lysate, was inactivated by heat (t1/2 3.5 min, 56°C), was not a nonspecific phospholipid activity, and was destroyed by treatment with Triton X-100. Isolated platelet membranes were four-fold enriched in Factor XI activity and similarly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The Factor XI-like activity of platelet membranes was detected only when assayed in the presence of kaolin, which suggests that it is present in an unactivated form and can participate in contact activation. Concanavalin A inhibited the Factor XI-like activity of platelet lysates and platelet membranes but not of plasma or purified Factor XI. A platelet membrane-Factor XI complex was isolated after incubation of membranes with purified Factor XI. The Factor XI activity of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex was inhibited by concanavalin A, whereas unbound plasma Factor XI retained activity. An antibody raised against plasma Factor XI inhibited the in vitro Factor XI activity of plasma and of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex but had no effect on the endogenous Factor XI-like activity of washed lysed platelets or isolated platelet membranes. Washed platelets and isolated platelet membranes obtained from a Factor XI-deficient donor without a history of excessive bleeding had normal quantities of platelet Factor XI-like activity and normal behavior in the contact phase of coagulation (collagen-induced coagulant activity). These results indicate that platelet membranes contain an endogenous Factor XI-like activity that is functionally distinct from plasma Factor XI. PMID:447822

  1. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs.

  2. Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control.

  3. Intrinsic platelet reactivity before start with clopidogrel as predictor for on-clopidogrel platelet function and long-term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Hochholzer, Willibald; Valina, Christian M; Bömicke, Timo; Amann, Michael; Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2015-07-01

    High on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity is associated with worse clinical outcome. Previous data suggest that intrinsic platelet reactivity before initiation of clopidogrel contributes significantly to on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. It is unknown whether intrinsic reactivity can sufficiently predict on-clopidogrel reactivity and therefore identify patients with insufficient response to clopidogrel before initiation of treatment and at risk for worse clinical outcome. This analysis included 765 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary stent implantation. Platelet reactivity was assessed by light transmission aggregometry (5 µM ADP) before administration of clopidogrel 600mg and after intake of first maintenance dose of clopidogrel on day 1 following coronary stenting. Patients were followed for up to seven years. The combined primary endpoint was death of any cause or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Intrinsic and on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity were significant correlated (r=0.31; p < 0.001). Among all tested clinical and genetic factors including the cytochrome P450 2C19*2 polymorphism, intrinsic platelet reactivity was the strongest predictor for on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. However, intrinsic platelet reactivity could only explain 8 % of variability of on-clopidogrel platelet function. Only on-treatment platelet reactivity was predictive for long-term clinical outcome (HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.05-2.05; p = 0.02) whereas intrinsic platelet reactivity was not (HR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.74-1.43; p = 0.86). In conclusion, intrinsic platelet reactivity before initiation of clopidogrel is the strongest predictor of early on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity but can only explain a minor proportion of its variability and is not significantly associated with clinical outcome. Thus, baseline testing cannot substitute on-clopidogrel platelet function testing.

  4. Evaluation of store lesion in platelet obtained by apheresis compared to platelet derived from whole blood and its impact on the in vitro functionality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, M; Núñez, M; Mellado, S; Maldonado, M; Wehinger, S

    2015-12-01

    Platelet units for transfusion purposes are obtained manually from whole blood or by apheresis, in an automated process. In both methods, platelets during storage present a characteristics grouped under the name "storage lesion" that are associated with adverse effects on platelet units. Oxidative stress has been claimed to be one of major causes, leading to activation and apoptosis processes affecting their post transfusion functionality. In this work, we observed an association between apheresis and a reduced presence of oxidative stress and better results in functional markers in stored platelets, compared to manually obtained platelets. Then, apheresis which would ensure a greater number of functional platelets during the 5 days of storage, compared to concentrates obtained from whole blood.

  5. Unravelling the different functions of protein kinase C isoforms in platelets.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Johan W M; Harper, Matthew T; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Poole, Alastair W

    2011-06-23

    Platelets tightly regulate haemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in most platelet responses implicated in thrombus formation. Recent pharmacological and mouse gene knockout approaches show that the conventional PKC isoforms and the novel PKC isoforms contribute in distinct ways to these platelet responses. We hypothesize that, in platelets and other cells, the characteristic functions of PKC isoforms are established through unique activation mechanisms and unique interacting protein partners, which result in isoform-specific patterns of substrate phosphorylation. For identifying the substrate proteins in a living cell, new methodology is available and discussed.

  6. An overview of platelet indices for evaluating platelet function in children with scorpion envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Capan; Tekin, Mehmet; Colak, Pinar; Uckardes, Fatih; Turgut, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between platelet indices and scorpion envenomations (SE). Medical records of 76 children who were hospitalised for scorpion stings in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between February 2013 and November 2013, and 55 healthy children who were similar to the patient group in terms of age and sex, were analysed retrospectively. The leucocyte (WBC), thrombocyte (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values of the 76 children with SE were recorded. These values were compared with the healthy control group. Significantly higher WBC and PDW values were noted in patients with SE in comparison to the controls. Patients with SE had significantly lower mean MPV values compared to the healthy controls (9.03 ± 1.26 compared to 10.43 ± 1.44 fL, respectively; p < 0.001). Although the mean platelet count was slightly elevated in the SE group, no statistically significant difference existed between the two groups (p = 0.097). Furthermore, the mean PCT values in the SE group compared to the control group were slightly decreased, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.141). A significant inverse correlation existed between the MPV values and the WBC (r = -0.450, p < 0.01) and PLT counts (r = -0.420, p < 0.01). The PLT values were significantly correlated with the PCT values (r = 0.687, p < 0.01). This study demonstrated that SE may lead to several alterations in platelet indices. Significantly lower values of MPV and higher values of PDW were detected in SE patients. However, the increase in the platelet counts and the decrease in the PCT values were not significant. PMID:26417303

  7. Variant Interpretation: Functional Assays to the Rescue.

    PubMed

    Starita, Lea M; Ahituv, Nadav; Dunham, Maitreya J; Kitzman, Jacob O; Roth, Frederick P; Seelig, Georg; Shendure, Jay; Fowler, Douglas M

    2017-09-07

    Classical genetic approaches for interpreting variants, such as case-control or co-segregation studies, require finding many individuals with each variant. Because the overwhelming majority of variants are present in only a few living humans, this strategy has clear limits. Fully realizing the clinical potential of genetics requires that we accurately infer pathogenicity even for rare or private variation. Many computational approaches to predicting variant effects have been developed, but they can identify only a small fraction of pathogenic variants with the high confidence that is required in the clinic. Experimentally measuring a variant's functional consequences can provide clearer guidance, but individual assays performed only after the discovery of the variant are both time and resource intensive. Here, we discuss how multiplex assays of variant effect (MAVEs) can be used to measure the functional consequences of all possible variants in disease-relevant loci for a variety of molecular and cellular phenotypes. The resulting large-scale functional data can be combined with machine learning and clinical knowledge for the development of "lookup tables" of accurate pathogenicity predictions. A coordinated effort to produce, analyze, and disseminate large-scale functional data generated by multiplex assays could be essential to addressing the variant-interpretation crisis. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tyrosine phosphorylated c-Cbl regulates platelet functional responses mediated by outside-in signaling.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Langdon, Wallace Y; Sanjay, Archana; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2011-11-17

    c-Cbl protein functions as an E3 ligase and scaffolding protein, where 3 residues, Y700, Y731, and Y774, upon phosphorylation, have been shown to initiate several signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the role of these phospho-tyrosine residues in the platelet functional responses after integrin engagement. We observed that c-Cbl Y700, Y731 and Y774 undergo phosphorylation upon platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen, which was inhibited in the presence of PP2, a pan-src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor, suggesting that c-Cbl is phosphorylated downstream of SFKs. However, OXSI-2, a Syk inhibitor, significantly reduced c-Cbl phosphorylation at residues Y774 and Y700, without affecting Y731 phosphorylation. Interestingly, PP2 inhibited both platelet-spreading on fibrinogen as well as clot retraction, whereas OXSI-2 blocked only platelet-spreading, suggesting a differential role of these tyrosine residues. The physiologic role of c-Cbl and Y731 was studied using platelets from c-Cbl KO and c-Cbl(YF/YF) knock-in mice. c-Cbl KO and c-Cbl(YF/YF) platelets had a significantly reduced spreading over immobilized fibrinogen. Furthermore, clot retraction with c-Cbl KO and c-Cbl(YF/YF) platelets was drastically delayed. These results indicate that c-Cbl and particularly its phosphorylated residue Y731 plays an important role in platelet outside-in signaling contributing to platelet-spreading and clot retraction.

  9. Functionalized Nanofiber Meshes Enhance Immunosorbent Assays.

    PubMed

    Hersey, Joseph S; Meller, Amit; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional substrates with high surface-to-volume ratios and subsequently large protein binding capacities are of interest for advanced immunosorbent assays utilizing integrated microfluidics and nanosensing elements. A library of bioactive and antifouling electrospun nanofiber substrates, which are composed of high-molecular-weight poly(oxanorbornene) derivatives, is described. Specifically, a set of copolymers are synthesized from three 7-oxanorbornene monomers to create a set of water insoluble copolymers with both biotin (bioactive) and triethylene glycol (TEG) (antifouling) functionality. Porous three-dimensional nanofiber meshes are electrospun from these copolymers with the ability to specifically bind streptavidin while minimizing the nonspecific binding of other proteins. Fluorescently labeled streptavidin is used to quantify the streptavidin binding capacity of each mesh type through confocal microscopy. A simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented to assess the protein binding capabilities and detection limits of these nanofiber meshes under both static conditions (26 h) and flow conditions (1 h) for a model target protein (i.e., mouse IgG) using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) colorimetric assay. Bioactive and antifouling nanofiber meshes outperform traditional streptavidin-coated polystyrene plates under flow, validating their use in future advanced immunosorbent assays and their compatibility with microfluidic-based biosensors.

  10. Anti-platelet effects of olive oil extract: in vitro functional and proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Baukje; Zhang, Xuguang; Rodriguez Gutierrez, Guillermo; Wood, Sharon; Rucklidge, Garry J; Reid, Martin D; Duncan, Gary J; Cantlay, Louise L; Duthie, Garry G; O'Kennedy, Niamh

    2011-10-01

    Platelets play a key role in haemostasis and wound healing, contributing to formation of vascular plugs. They are also involved in formation of atherosclerosic plaques. Some traditional diets, like the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Components in these diets may have anti-platelet functions contributing to their health benefits. We studied the effects of alperujo extract, an olive oil production waste product containing the majority of polyphenols found in olive fruits, through measurement of effects on platelet aggregation and activation in isolated human platelets, and through identification of changes in the platelet proteome. Alperujo extract (40 mg/L) significantly decreased in vitro ADP- (p = 0.002) and TRAP- (p = 0.02) induced platelet activation as measured by the flow cytometry using the antibody for p-selectin (CD62p), but it did not affect the conformation of the fibrinogen receptor as measured by flow cytometry using the antibodies for anti-fibrinogen, CD42a and CD42b. Alperujo extract (100 mg/L) inhibited both collagen- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation by 5% (p < 0.05), and a combination of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were, at least partly, responsible for this effect. Proteomic analysis identified nine proteins that were differentially regulated by the alperujo extract upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation. These proteins represent important mechanisms that may underlie the anti-platelet effects of this extract: regulation of platelet structure and aggregation, coagulation and apoptosis, and signalling by integrin αIIb/β3. Alperujo extract may protect against platelet activation, platelet adhesion and possibly have anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  12. Changes in platelet functional parameters and CD62 P expression in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Xianghong, G; Guanping, C; Fenghua, Y; Jiayin, W

    2013-12-01

    Hepatic impairment, portal hypertension, and multi-systemic damage could occur during liver cirrhosis's late stage. Bleeding is a complication of hepatic cirrhosis along with several changes including blood platelet count (BPC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet crit (PCT) and expression of platelet CD62P. Blood platelet count (BPC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width, and other indices are indirect reflections of CD62P parameters. To investigate the changes in platelet functional parameters and CD62 P expression in liver cirrhosis as a possible guide in clinical treatments and prognoses of liver cirrhosis. CD62P was tested by flow cytometry in liver cirrhosis. BPC, MPV, and PCT in peripheral blood were tested using an auto blood cell analyzer. Data were analyzed using SPSS11.0. The values of CD62P and MPV in patients was significantly higher than those of healthy donors (P<0.01), while the values of BPC and PCT were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.01). CD62P, BPC, MPV, and platelet crit (PCT) show several changes in liver cirrhosis. It is useful to understand the relationship between hepatic cirrhosis severity and CD62P, BPC, MPV, PCT, timely monitoring of CD62P for treatment of hepatic cirrhosis in clinical treatment and prognosis.

  13. A shear gradient-activated microfluidic device for automated monitoring of whole blood haemostasis and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhishek; Graveline, Amanda; Waterhouse, Anna; Vernet, Andyna; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-01-06

    Accurate assessment of blood haemostasis is essential for the management of patients who use extracorporeal devices, receive anticoagulation therapy or experience coagulopathies. However, current monitoring devices do not measure effects of haemodynamic forces that contribute significantly to platelet function and thrombus formation. Here we describe a microfluidic device that mimics a network of stenosed arteriolar vessels, permitting evaluation of blood clotting within small sample volumes under pathophysiological flow. By applying a clotting time analysis based on a phenomenological mathematical model of thrombus formation, coagulation and platelet function can be accurately measured in vitro in patient blood samples. When the device is integrated into an extracorporeal circuit in pig endotoxemia or heparin therapy models, it produces real-time readouts of alterations in coagulation ex vivo that are more reliable than standard clotting assays. Thus, this disposable device may be useful for personalized diagnostics and for real-time surveillance of antithrombotic therapy in clinic.

  14. A shear gradient-activated microfluidic device for automated monitoring of whole blood haemostasis and platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhishek; Graveline, Amanda; Waterhouse, Anna; Vernet, Andyna; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of blood haemostasis is essential for the management of patients who use extracorporeal devices, receive anticoagulation therapy or experience coagulopathies. However, current monitoring devices do not measure effects of haemodynamic forces that contribute significantly to platelet function and thrombus formation. Here we describe a microfluidic device that mimics a network of stenosed arteriolar vessels, permitting evaluation of blood clotting within small sample volumes under pathophysiological flow. By applying a clotting time analysis based on a phenomenological mathematical model of thrombus formation, coagulation and platelet function can be accurately measured in vitro in patient blood samples. When the device is integrated into an extracorporeal circuit in pig endotoxemia or heparin therapy models, it produces real-time readouts of alterations in coagulation ex vivo that are more reliable than standard clotting assays. Thus, this disposable device may be useful for personalized diagnostics and for real-time surveillance of antithrombotic therapy in clinic. PMID:26733371

  15. The Genetics of Common Variation affecting Platelet Development, Function and Pharmaceutical Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Common variant effects on human platelet function and response to anti-platelet treatment have traditionally been studied using candidate gene approaches involving a limited number of variants and genes. These studies have often been undertaken in clinically defined cohorts. More recently, studies have applied genome-wide scans in larger population samples than prior candidate studies, in some cases scanning relatively healthy individuals. These studies demonstrate synergy with some prior candidate gene findings (e.g., GP6, ADRA2A) but also uncover novel loci involved in platelet function. Here, I summarise findings on common genetic variation influencing platelet development, function and therapeutics. Taken together, candidate gene and genome-wide studies begin to account for common variation in platelet function and provide information that may ultimately be useful in pharmacogenetic applications in the clinic. More than 50 loci have been identified with consistent associations with platelet phenotypes in ≥2 populations. Several variants are under further study in clinical trials relating to anti-platelet therapies. In order to have useful clinical applications, variants must have large effects on a modifiable outcome. Regardless of clinical applications, studies of common genetic influences, even of small effect, offer additional insights into platelet biology including the importance of intracellular signalling and novel receptors. Understanding of common platelet-related genetics remains behind parallel fields (e.g., lipids, blood pressure) due to challenges in phenotype ascertainment. Further work is necessary to discover and characterise loci for platelet function, and to assess whether these loci contribute to disease aetiologies or response to therapeutics. PMID:21781261

  16. N-octanoyl-dopamine is a potent inhibitor of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Ait-Hsiko, Lamia; Kraaij, Tineke; Wedel, Johannes; Theisinger, Bastian; Theisinger, Sonja; Yard, Benito; Bugert, Peter; Schedel, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a co-agonist for platelet activation; yet, donor DA treatment is associated with improved transplantation outcome in renal and heart recipients. Recently, N-octanoyl-dopamine (NOD) was developed which displays superior effects compared to DA in terms of graft protecting properties. Whereas DA is a known platelet co-agonist, the effect of NOD on platelet function is unknown. This is a hypothesis generating study with the aim to assess the effects and molecular mechanisms of NOD and NOD-like compounds on platelet function. The influence of DA, NOD, and NOD-like compounds on platelet responses to classical agonists (adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), U46619) was investigated in six healthy donors by applying whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate®) and flow cytometry for Pac-1, CD62P, and CD63 expression. Changes in platelet cAMP concentrations were assessed by ELISA. While DA showed synergy in platelet activation by ADP and U46619, NOD caused significant inhibition of platelet function both in whole blood aggregometry and flow cytometry. The inhibitory effect of NOD was not mediated via cAMP levels. The nonredox-active NOD-analog N-octanoyl-tyramine had no effects on platelet function. Acetylated NOD conferred to NOD by intracellular esterases showed similar inhibitory effects as NOD. In contrast to DA, NOD is a potent inhibitor of platelet function most likely through intracellular redox-active processes. This adds to the overall protective effect of NOD on pre-transplantation injury and makes NOD an attractive candidate compound for donor or organ conditioning prior to transplantation.

  17. Inhibition of platelet function by contrast media: iopamidol and ioxaglate versus iothalamate: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.K.; Rao, V.M.; Willis, J.; Beckett, C.; Steiner, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The effects of an ionic contrast agent, meglumine iothalamate (Conray-60), and two newer low-osmolality radiographic contrast media, sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix) and iopamidol (B-15,000), on platelet aggregation and secretion responses were studied. All three agents inhibited platelet responses during stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and collagen. Platelet function was inhibited by iothalamate at concentrations of 11 mg iodine/ml and above, and by the newer agents at concentrations above 30 mg iodine/ml. Addition of exogenous calcium decreased the iothalamate-induced inhibition of aggregation but did not improve dense granule secretion. These studies indicate that the newer agents inhibit platelet function less than iothalamate does, and that chelation of Ca/sup 2 +/ may not be the major mechanism of platelet inhibition by contrast agents.

  18. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C.; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  19. Label-free functional selectivity assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Ann M; Goral, Vasiliy; Wang, Chaoming; Fang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest class of drug targets. Ligand-directed functional selectivity or biased agonism opens new possibility for discovering GPCR drugs with better efficacy and safety profiles. However, quantification of ligand bias is challenging. Herein, we present five different label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) approaches to assess ligand bias acting at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Multiparametric analysis of the DMR agonist profiles reveals divergent pharmacology of a panel of β2AR agonists. DMR profiling using catechol as a conformational probe detects the presence of multiple conformations of the β2AR. DMR assays under microfluidics, together with chemical biology tools, discover ligand-directed desensitization of the receptor. DMR antagonist reverse assays manifest biased antagonism. DMR profiling using distinct probe-modulated cells detects the biased agonism in the context of self-referenced pharmacological activity map.

  20. Posttranslational Modification Assays on Functional Protein Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Neiswinger, Johnathan; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Cox, Eric; Rho, HeeSool; Jeong, Jun Seop; Zhu, Heng

    2016-10-03

    Protein microarray technology provides a straightforward yet powerful strategy for identifying substrates of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and studying the specificity of the enzymes that catalyze these reactions. Protein microarray assays can be designed for individual enzymes or a mixture to establish connections between enzymes and substrates. Assays for four well-known PTMs-phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation-have been developed and are described here for use on functional protein microarrays. Phosphorylation and acetylation require a single enzyme and are easily adapted for use on an array. The ubiquitylation and SUMOylation cascades are very similar, and the combination of the E1, E2, and E3 enzymes plus ubiquitin or SUMO protein and ATP is sufficient for in vitro modification of many substrates.

  1. Measurement of platelet aggregation functions using whole blood migration ratio in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Sung Hyuk; Han, Miran; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Cho, Chi Hyun; An, Seong Soo A; Lim, Chae Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a major role in maintaining endothelial integrity and hemostasis. Of the various soluble agonists, ADP is an important in vivo stimulus for inducing platelet aggregation. In this study, a simple, rapid, and affordable method was designed for testing bleeding time (BT) and platelet aggregation with a two-channel microfluidic chip. Whole blood migration ratio (MR) from a microchip system was evaluated in comparison to the closure time (CT) from PFA-100 assays (Siemens, Germany) and CD62P expression on platelets. To induce platelet aggregation, a combination of collagen (1.84 mg/ml) and ADP (37.5 mg/ml) were used as agonists. After adding the agonists to samples, whole blood MR from the microchip system was measured. The outcome of the assessment depended on reaction time and agonist concentration. MR of whole blood from the microchip system was significantly correlated with CT from PFA-100 (r = 0.61, p <  0.05, n = 60). In addition, MR was negatively correlated with CD62P expression (r =-0.95, p <  0.05, n = 60). These results suggest that the measurement of MR using agonists is an easy, simple and efficient method for monitoring platelet aggregation in normal and ADP-receptors defective samples, along with the BT test. Thus, usage of the current microfluidic method could expand to diverse applications, including efficacy assessments in platelet therapy.

  2. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count: a flow-cytometric approach.

    PubMed

    Vinholt, P J; Frederiksen, H; Hvas, A-M; Sprogøe, U; Nielsen, C

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Platelet function may influence bleeding risk in thrombocytopenia, but useful tests are needed. A flow cytometric platelet aggregation test independent of the patient platelet count was made. Platelet aggregation was reduced in thrombocytopenic patients with hematological cancer. High platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Background Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited platelet disorders. Then, we included 19 healthy individuals and 20 patients with platelet counts of ≤ 50 × 10(9) L(-1) , diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We measured platelet aggregation and platelet activation by platelet surface expression of activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, P-selectin and CD63 after addition of agonists: collagen-related peptide, thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), and ADP. Results The platelet aggregation assay showed a low intraserial coefficient of variation of ≤ 3%. Similar results were obtained for platelet-rich plasma and isolated platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 10(9) L(-1) ; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27-58) versus 66% (IQR 60-67) for TRAP; 41% (IQR 25-48) versus 70% (IQR 69-72) for collagen-related peptide; and 44% (IQR 30-53) versus 65% (IQR 46-72) for ADP. Platelet activation after

  3. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    For in vitro studies assessing the interaction of platelets with implant materials, common and standardized protocols for the preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) are lacking, which may lead to non-matching results due to the diversity of applied protocols. Particularly, the aging of platelets during prolonged preparation and storage times is discussed to lead to an underestimation of the material thrombogenicity. Here, we study the influence of whole blood- and PRP-storage times on changes in platelet morphology and function. Blood from apparently healthy subjects was collected according to a standardized protocol and examined immediately after blood collection, four hours and twenty four hours later. The capability of platelets to adhere and form stable aggregates (PFA100, closure time) was examined in sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood (WB) using the agonists equine type I collagen and epinephrine bitartrate (collagen/epinephrine) as well as equine type I collagen and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (collagen/ADP). Circulating platelets were quantified at each time point. Morphology of platelets and platelet aggregates were visualized microscopically and measured using an electric field multi-channel counting system (CASY). The percentage of activated platelets was assessed by means of P-selectin (CD62P) expression of circulating platelets. Furthermore, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release was measured in platelet poor plasma (PPP) at each time point. Whole blood PFA100 closure times increased after stimulation with collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine. Twenty four hours after blood collection, both parameters were prolonged pathologically above the upper limit of the reference range. Numbers of circulating platelets, measured in PRP, decreased after four hours, but no longer after twenty four hours. Mean platelet volumes (MPV) and platelet large cell ratios (P-LCR, 12 fL - 40 fL) decreased over time. Immediately after blood collection, no debris or platelet

  4. Detrimental effects of energy drink consumption on platelet and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Worthley, Matthew I; Prabhu, Anisha; De Sciscio, Paolo; Schultz, Carlee; Sanders, Prashanthan; Willoughby, Scott R

    2010-02-01

    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked with sudden cardiac death and, more recently, myocardial infarction. As myocardial infarction is strongly associated with both platelet and endothelial dysfunction, we tested the hypothesis that energy drink consumption alters platelet and endothelial function. Fifty healthy volunteers (34 male, aged 22+/-2 years) participated in the study. Platelet aggregation and endothelial function were tested before, and 1 hour after, the consumption of 250 mL (1 can) of a sugar-free energy drink. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate-induced (1 micromol/L) optical aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma. Endothelial function was assessed via changes in peripheral arterial tonometry and expressed as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Compared with baseline values, there was a significant increase in platelet aggregation following energy drink consumption, while no change was observed with control (13.7+/-3.7% vs 0.3+/-0.8% aggregation, respectively, P <.01). Similarly, RHI decreased following energy drink consumption (-0.33+/-0.13 vs 0.07+/-0.12 RHI [control], P <.05). Mean arterial pressure significantly increased following energy drink consumption, compared with control (P <.05). Heart rate was unaffected by energy drink consumption. Energy drink consumption acutely increases platelet aggregation and decreases endothelial function in healthy young adults. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro study of platelet function confirms the contribution of the ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the lesions observed in riboflavin/UVB-treated platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Sonego, Giona; Crettaz, David; Aliotta, Alessandro; Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Platelet inactivation technologies (PITs) have been shown to increase platelet storage lesions (PSLs). This study investigates amotosalen/ultraviolet (UV)A- and riboflavin/UVB-induced platelet (PLT) lesions in vitro. Particular attention is given to the effect of UVB alone on PLTs. Buffy coat-derived PLT concentrates (PCs) were treated with amotosalen/UVA, riboflavin/UVB, or UVB alone and compared to untreated PCs throughout storage. In vitro PLT function was assessed by blood gas and metabolite analyses, flow cytometry-based assays (CD62P, JC-1, annexin V, PAC-1), hypotonic shock response, and static adhesion to fibrinogen-coated wells. In our experimental conditions, riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs showed the most pronounced differences compared to untreated and amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs. The riboflavin/UVB treatment led to a significant increase of anaerobic glycolysis rate despite functional mitochondria, a significant increase of CD62P on Day 2, and a decrease of JC-1 aggregates and increase of annexin V on Day 7. The expression of active GPIIbIIIa (PAC-1) and the adhesion to fibrinogen was significantly increased from Day 2 of storage in riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs. Importantly, we showed that these lesions were caused by the UVB radiation alone, independently of the presence of riboflavin. The amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs confirmed previously published results with a slight increase of PSLs compared to untreated PCs. Riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs present significant in vitro PSLs compared to untreated PCs. These lesions are caused by the UVB radiation alone and probably involve the generation of reactive oxygen species. The impact of these observations on clinical use must be investigated. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Normal platelet function in platelet concentrates requires non-platelet cells: a comparative in vitro evaluation of leucocyte-rich (type 1a) and leucocyte-poor (type 3b) platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Roides, Breana; Hwang, Julia; Mafilios, Michael; Story, Brooks; Bhattacharyya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic success of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may vary based on the composition and preparation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular components of platelet concentrates produced by a leucocyte-rich (LR-PRP) and a leucocyte-poor PRP systems (LP-PRP). Methods Parameters evaluated included platelet recovery, platelet concentration, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) composition, platelet growth factor release and stimulation of human tendon cell proliferation in vitro. Results Platelet recoveries were 52% for LP-PRP and 89% for LR-PRP. LR-PRP demonstrated greater reproducibility with a 4.2% coefficient of variation (CV) compared with 19.4% for LP-PRP (p<0.001). LR-PRP demonstrated a greater increase in platelet concentration (7.9-fold) than LP-PRP (2.2-fold; p<0.001). LP-PRP showed 5.0-fold reductions in WBCs, while LR-PRP showed a 4.0-fold increase (p<0.001). LP-PRP reduced RBCs to a haematocrit of 0.25, while LR-PRP reduced haematocrit to 11.8. LP-PRP did not coagulate robustly on reactivation with CaCl2, and released significantly lower levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) than whole blood (p<0.03). LP-PRP also did not stimulate tendon cell proliferation greater than whole blood. In contrast, LR-PRP showed increases in each growth factor on activation with CaCl2 (p<0.01) and stimulated greater proliferation (p<0.05) compared with whole blood. Forced activation of LP-PRP with exogenous thrombin rescued the coagulation deficiency and induced greater growth factor release than comparable whole blood (p<0.03). Conclusions These data suggest that non-platelet cellular components in platelet concentrates are important for proper platelet function, including thrombin generation, growth factor release and clot retraction. PMID:27900155

  7. Cyclooxygenase Expression and Platelet Function in Healthy Dogs Receiving Low Dose Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Alicia; Thomason, John; Fritz, Sara; Grady, Jesse; Stokes, John; Wills, Robert; Pinchuk, Lesya; Mackin, Andrew; Lunsford, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Background Low dose aspirin is used to prevent thromboembolic complications in dogs, but some animals are non-responsive to the anti-platelet effects of aspirin (‘aspirin resistance’). Hypothesis/Objectives That low dose aspirin would inhibit platelet function, decrease thromboxane synthesis, and alter platelet cyclooxygenase (COX) expression. Animals Twenty-four healthy dogs Methods A repeated measures study. Platelet function (PFA-100® closure time, collagen/epinephrine), platelet COX-1 and COX-2 expression, and urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) was evaluated prior to and during aspirin administration (1 mg/kg Q24 hours PO, 10 days). Based on prolongation of closure times after aspirin administration, dogs were divided into categories according to aspirin responsiveness: responders, non-responders, and inconsistent responders. Results Low dose aspirin increased closure times significantly (62% by Day 10, P<0.001), with an equal distribution among aspirin responsiveness categories, 8 dogs per group. Platelet COX-1 mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) increased significantly during treatment, 13% on Day 3 (range, −29.7%–136.1%) (P=0.047) and 72% on Day 10 (range, −0.37–210.36%) (P<0.001). Platelet COX-2 MFI increased significantly by 34% (range, −29.2–270.4%) on Day 3 (P = 0.003) and 74% (range, −19.7–226.2%) on Day 10 (P<0.001). Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations significantly (P=0.005, P<0.001) decreased at both time points. There was no difference between aspirin responsiveness and either platelet COX expression or thromboxane production. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Low dose aspirin consistently inhibits platelet function in approximately one third of healthy dogs, despite decreased thromboxane synthesis and increased platelet COX expression in most dogs. Pre-treatment COX isoform expression did not predict aspirin resistance. PMID:23278865

  8. The effects of bupivacaine and pipecoloxylidide on platelet function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Odoom, J A; Sturk, A; Dokter, P W; Bovill, J G; ten Cate, J W; Oosting, J

    1989-07-01

    The influence of bupivacaine and its major metabolite, pipecoloxylidide, on human platelet function was studied in vitro. Significant inhibition of ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation occurred only with concentrations of bupivacaine above 10 micrograms.ml-1. This concentration (10-25 micrograms.ml-1) is much higher than would be expected in routine clinical use of bupivacaine for epidural analgesia. The inhibition of platelet aggregation was associated with a significant decrease in beta-thromboglobulin secretion. In contrast, pipecoloxylidide had no effect on platelet aggregation or the beta-thromboglobulin release. We conclude that the previously reported 30-min time-lag between the maximal plasma concentration of bupivacaine and the inhibition of platelet aggregation is unlikely to be due to a metabolism of bupivacaine to pipecoloxylidide.

  9. Platelet function is modified by common sequence variation in megakaryocyte super enhancers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Romina; Lambourne, John J; Javierre, Biola M; Grassi, Luigi; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Ruklisa, Dace; Rosa, Isabel M; Tomé, Ana R; Elding, Heather; van Geffen, Johanna P; Jiang, Tao; Farrow, Samantha; Cairns, Jonathan; Al-Subaie, Abeer M; Ashford, Sofie; Attwood, Antony; Batista, Joana; Bouman, Heleen; Burden, Frances; Choudry, Fizzah A; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Garner, Stephen F; Haimel, Matthias; Kempster, Carly; Ladopoulos, Vasileios; Lenaerts, An-Sofie; Materek, Paulina M; McKinney, Harriet; Meacham, Stuart; Mead, Daniel; Nagy, Magdolna; Penkett, Christopher J; Rendon, Augusto; Seyres, Denis; Sun, Benjamin; Tuna, Salih; van der Weide, Marie-Elise; Wingett, Steven W; Martens, Joost H; Stegle, Oliver; Richardson, Sylvia; Vallier, Ludovic; Roberts, David J; Freson, Kathleen; Wernisch, Lorenz; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Danesh, John; Fraser, Peter; Soranzo, Nicole; Butterworth, Adam S; Heemskerk, Johan W; Turro, Ernest; Spivakov, Mikhail; Ouwehand, Willem H; Astle, William J; Downes, Kate; Kostadima, Myrto; Frontini, Mattia

    2017-07-13

    Linking non-coding genetic variants associated with the risk of diseases or disease-relevant traits to target genes is a crucial step to realize GWAS potential in the introduction of precision medicine. Here we set out to determine the mechanisms underpinning variant association with platelet quantitative traits using cell type-matched epigenomic data and promoter long-range interactions. We identify potential regulatory functions for 423 of 565 (75%) non-coding variants associated with platelet traits and we demonstrate, through ex vivo and proof of principle genome editing validation, that variants in super enhancers play an important role in controlling archetypical platelet functions.

  10. Platelet function is modified by common sequence variation in megakaryocyte super enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Romina; Lambourne, John J.; Javierre, Biola M.; Grassi, Luigi; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Ruklisa, Dace; Rosa, Isabel M.; Tomé, Ana R.; Elding, Heather; van Geffen, Johanna P.; Jiang, Tao; Farrow, Samantha; Cairns, Jonathan; Al-Subaie, Abeer M.; Ashford, Sofie; Attwood, Antony; Batista, Joana; Bouman, Heleen; Burden, Frances; Choudry, Fizzah A.; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Garner, Stephen F.; Haimel, Matthias; Kempster, Carly; Ladopoulos, Vasileios; Lenaerts, An-Sofie; Materek, Paulina M.; McKinney, Harriet; Meacham, Stuart; Mead, Daniel; Nagy, Magdolna; Penkett, Christopher J.; Rendon, Augusto; Seyres, Denis; Sun, Benjamin; Tuna, Salih; van der Weide, Marie-Elise; Wingett, Steven W.; Martens, Joost H.; Stegle, Oliver; Richardson, Sylvia; Vallier, Ludovic; Roberts, David J.; Freson, Kathleen; Wernisch, Lorenz; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Danesh, John; Fraser, Peter; Soranzo, Nicole; Butterworth, Adam S.; Heemskerk, Johan W.; Turro, Ernest; Spivakov, Mikhail; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Astle, William J.; Downes, Kate; Kostadima, Myrto; Frontini, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Linking non-coding genetic variants associated with the risk of diseases or disease-relevant traits to target genes is a crucial step to realize GWAS potential in the introduction of precision medicine. Here we set out to determine the mechanisms underpinning variant association with platelet quantitative traits using cell type-matched epigenomic data and promoter long-range interactions. We identify potential regulatory functions for 423 of 565 (75%) non-coding variants associated with platelet traits and we demonstrate, through ex vivo and proof of principle genome editing validation, that variants in super enhancers play an important role in controlling archetypical platelet functions. PMID:28703137

  11. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  12. Expression of the PlA2 allele of glycoprotein IIIa and its impact on platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Albert; Warner, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Background The platelet fibrinogen receptor represents the final common pathway of platelet activation, and is formed from two glycoprotein (GP) subunits (GPIIb/IIIa). Carriage of the mutant PlA2 allele of GPIIIa has been shown to confer an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but published studies have disagreed as to the mechanism for this association. Objectives To assess whether carriage of the PlA2 allele conforms to Mendelian patterns of expression and to identify whether carriage of the mutant allele modulates platelet function. Methods Expression of the PlA2 allele was assessed in both healthy subjects (n = 25) and patients with known coronary artery disease (n = 90) through the development and validation of a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Platelet function was assessed in the patient cohort in response to multiple agonists, and these data were analysed in the context of the proteomic data. Results Expression of the wild-type PlA1 allele and mutant PlA2 alleles was readily quantifiable and conformed to Mendelian patterns in both healthy and patient cohorts. Patients who were homozygous for the mutant PlA2 allele had an increased aggregatory response to adenosine diphosphate, collagen, adrenaline, ristocetin, thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 and U46619, when assessed using agonist-concentration response curves. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that carriage of the mutant PlA2 allele mediates an increased risk of cardiovascular events through the modulation of platelet reactivity. PMID:26858830

  13. Remote Assessment of Platelet Function in Patients with Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack

    PubMed Central

    May, Jane; Flaherty, Katie; Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Dovlatova, Natalia; Fox, Sue C.; England, Timothy J.; Krishnan, Kailash; Robinson, Thompson G.; Heptinstall, Stan; Investigators, TARDIS

    2017-01-01

    Background The TARDIS trial assessed the safety and efficacy of intensive versus guideline antiplatelet agents given for one month in patients with acute stroke or TIA. The aim of this substudy was to assess the effect of antiplatelet agents taken at baseline on platelet function reactivity and activation. Methods Platelet function, assessed by remotely measured surface expression of P-selectin, was assessed in patients at their time of randomisation. Data are median fluorescence values. Results The aspirin P-selectin test demonstrated that platelet expression was lower in 494 patients taking aspirin than in 162 patients not: mean 210 (SD 188) versus 570 (435), difference 360.3 (95% CI 312.2–408.4) (2p < 0.001). Aspirin did not suppress P-selectin levels below 500 units in 23 (4.7%) patients. The clopidogrel test showed that platelet reactivity was lower in 97 patients taking clopidogrel than in 585 patients not: 655 (296) versus 969 (315), difference 314.5 (95% CI 247.3–381.7) (2p < 0.001). Clopidogrel did not suppress P-selectin level below 860 units in 24 (24.7%) patients. Conclusions Aspirin and clopidogrel suppress stimulated platelet P-selectin, although one-quarter of patients on clopidogrel have high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Platelet function testing may be performed remotely in the context of a large multicentre trial. Trial registration ISRCTN47823388. PMID:28630782

  14. Remote Assessment of Platelet Function in Patients with Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack.

    PubMed

    Bath, Philip M; May, Jane; Flaherty, Katie; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Dovlatova, Natalia; Fox, Sue C; England, Timothy J; Krishnan, Kailash; Robinson, Thompson G; Sprigg, Nikola; Heptinstall, Stan; Investigators, Tardis

    2017-01-01

    The TARDIS trial assessed the safety and efficacy of intensive versus guideline antiplatelet agents given for one month in patients with acute stroke or TIA. The aim of this substudy was to assess the effect of antiplatelet agents taken at baseline on platelet function reactivity and activation. Platelet function, assessed by remotely measured surface expression of P-selectin, was assessed in patients at their time of randomisation. Data are median fluorescence values. The aspirin P-selectin test demonstrated that platelet expression was lower in 494 patients taking aspirin than in 162 patients not: mean 210 (SD 188) versus 570 (435), difference 360.3 (95% CI 312.2-408.4) (2p < 0.001). Aspirin did not suppress P-selectin levels below 500 units in 23 (4.7%) patients. The clopidogrel test showed that platelet reactivity was lower in 97 patients taking clopidogrel than in 585 patients not: 655 (296) versus 969 (315), difference 314.5 (95% CI 247.3-381.7) (2p < 0.001). Clopidogrel did not suppress P-selectin level below 860 units in 24 (24.7%) patients. Aspirin and clopidogrel suppress stimulated platelet P-selectin, although one-quarter of patients on clopidogrel have high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Platelet function testing may be performed remotely in the context of a large multicentre trial. Trial registration ISRCTN47823388.

  15. Bleeding tendency and platelet function during treatment with romiplostim in children with severe immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Suntsova, Elena V; Demina, Irina M; Ignatova, Anastasia A; Ershov, Nikolay M; Trubina, Natalia M; Dobrynina, Juliya; Serkova, Irina V; Supik, Zhanna S; Orekhova, Ekaterina V; Hachatryan, Lili A; Kotskaya, Natalia N; Pshonkin, Aleksey V; Maschan, Aleksey A; Novichkova, Galina A; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2017-03-07

    It has been suggested that platelet function in chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) may be abnormal. Thrombopoietin mimetics used for treatment can affect it, but the data remain limited. We investigated platelet function of 20 children diagnosed with severe ITP (aged 1-16 years, 12 females and eight males). Platelet functional activity in whole blood was characterized by flow cytometry before and after stimulation with SFLLRN plus collagen-related peptide. Levels of CD42b, PAC1, and CD62P, but not CD61 or annexin V, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in resting platelets of patients before treatment compared with healthy donors. On average, PAC1 and CD62P in patients after activation were also significantly elevated, although some patients failed to activate integrins. Romiplostim (1-15 μg/kg/week s.c.) was prescribed to seven patients, with clinical improvement in six. Interestingly, one patient had clinical improvement without platelet count increase. Eltrombopag (25-75 mg/day p.o.) was given to four patients, with positive response in one. Others switched to romiplostim, with one stable positive response, one unstable positive response, and one non-responding. Platelet quality improved with romiplostim treatment, and their parameters approached the normal values. Our results suggest that platelets in children with severe ITP are pre-activated and abnormal, but improve with treatment.

  16. Apelin: an antithrombotic factor that inhibits platelet function.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frédéric; Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Lopez, Jose Javier; Vatier, Camille; Turpin, Sabrina; Muscat, Adeline; Soulet, Fabienne; Aries, Anne; Jardin, Isaac; Bobe, Régis; Stepanian, Alain; de Prost, Dominique; Dray, Cédric; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Valet, Philippe; Feve, Bruno; Siegfried, Geraldine

    2016-02-18

    Apelin peptide and its receptor APJ are directly implicated in various physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular homeostasis to immune signaling. Here, we show that apelin is a key player in hemostasis with an ability to inhibit thrombin- and collagen-mediated platelet activation. Mice lacking apelin displayed a shorter bleeding time and a prothrombotic profile. Their platelets exhibited increased adhesion and a reduced occlusion time in venules, and displayed a higher aggregation rate after their activation by thrombin compared with wild-type platelets. Consequently, human and mouse platelets express apelin and its receptor APJ. Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways. IV apelin administration induced excessive bleeding and prevented thrombosis in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that apelin and/or APJ agonists could potentially be useful adducts in antiplatelet therapies and may provide a promising perspective for patients who continue to display adverse thrombotic events with current antiplatelet therapies.

  17. Single-step separation of platelets from whole blood coupled with digital quantification by interfacial platelet cytometry (iPC).

    PubMed

    Basabe-Desmonts, L; Ramstrom, S; Meade, G; O'Neill, S; Riaz, A; Lee, L P; Ricco, A J; Kenny, D

    2010-09-21

    IIbβ3) and, relevant to diagnostic applications, platelet adhesion correlates strongly with normal versus abnormal platelet function. A critical function of platelets is to adhere to regions of damage on blood vessel walls; in contrast to conventional flow cytometry, where platelets are suspended in solution, iPC enables physiologically relevant platelet bioassays based on platelet/protein-matrix interactions on surfaces. This technology should be inexpensive to implement in clinical assay format, is readily integrable into fluidic microdevices, and paves the way for high-throughput platelet assays from microliter volumes of whole blood.

  18. Impact of Timing on the Functional Recovery Achieved With Platelet Supplementation After Treatment With Ticagrelor.

    PubMed

    Zafar, M Urooj; Smith, Donald A; Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Chen, Kevin; Lam, David W; Linares-Koloffon, Carlos A; Rey-Mendoza, Juan; Jimenez Britez, Gustavo; Escolar, Gines; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J

    2017-08-01

    American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines advise waiting 5 to 7 days before operating on P2Y12 inhibitor-treated acute coronary syndrome patients, to allow dissipation of its antiplatelet effects. Platelet transfusion is often used to restore hemostasis during operations, but its effectiveness and optimal timing are unclear. We investigated the degree of functional gains obtained from platelet supplementation after loading and maintenance of dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and the influence of timing on this strategy. After baseline platelet testing (Multiplate Analyzer and VerifyNow), cardiovascular disease patients (n=20; 56.9±7.9 years; 65% men; 75% diabetic) received dual antiplatelet therapy as a single loading dose (ticagrelor 180 mg plus aspirin 325 mg) and as daily/maintenance treatment for 5 to 7 days (maintenance therapy: ticagrelor 90 mg BID plus aspirin 81 mg QD). At 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours from (last) dosing, patients' blood samples were supplemented with concentrated platelets from healthy donors in vitro, raising platelet counts by 0% (unsupplemented control), 25%, 50%, and 75%, and the function retested. Reactivity in supplemented samples was compared with respective 0% sample and with the pretreatment baseline. Results under loading dose and maintenance therapy regimens were nearly identical. Platelet reactivity was higher (P<0.05) in nearly all supplemented samples versus respective controls. Aggregations with supplementation were 59% to 79% of baseline at 24 hours and equal to baseline at 48 hours. Platelet reactivity of ticagrelor-treated patients can be restored using concentrated platelets after a loading dose/maintenance therapy in a time-dependent manner under in vitro testing. Although statistically significant improvements are evident 6 hours after (last) dosing, ≤24 hours maybe needed for clinically meaningful restoration in platelet function. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT

  19. Density functional theory for colloidal mixtures of hard platelets, rods, and spheres.

    PubMed

    Esztermann, Ansgar; Reich, Hendrik; Schmidt, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A geometry-based density-functional theory is presented for mixtures of hard spheres, hard needles, and hard platelets; both the needles and platelets are taken to be of vanishing thickness. Geometrical weight functions that are characteristic for each species are given, and it is shown how convolutions of pairs of weight functions recover each Mayer bond of the ternary mixture and hence ensure the correct second virial expansion of the excess free-energy functional. The case of sphere-platelet overlap relies on the same approximation as does Rosenfeld's functional for strictly two-dimensional hard disks. We explicitly control contributions to the excess free energy that are of third order in density. Analytic expressions relevant for the application of the theory to states with planar translational and cylindrical rotational symmetry--e.g., to describe behavior at planar smooth walls--are given. For binary sphere-platelet mixtures, in the appropriate limit of small platelet densities, the theory differs from that used in a recent treatment [L. Harnau and S. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. E 71, 011504 (2004)]. As a test case of our approach we consider the isotropic-nematic bulk transition of pure hard platelets, which we find to be weakly first order, with values for the coexistence densities and the nematic order parameter that compare well with simulation results.

  20. Reduced platelet count, but no major platelet function abnormalities, are associated with loss-of-function ATP-binding cassette-1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Minuz, Pietro; Meneguzzi, Alessandra; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Fava, Cristiano; Calabria, Stefano; Scavone, Mariangela; Benati, Donatella; Poli, Giovanni; Zancanaro, Carlo; Calandra, Sebastiano; Lucchi, Tiziano; Cattaneo, Marco

    2017-08-15

    Loss-of-function mutations of the the ATP-binding cassette-1 (ABCA1) gene are the cause of Tangier disease (TD) in homozygous subjects and familial HDL deficiency (FHD) in heterozygous subjects. These disorders are characterized by reduced plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and altered efflux of cholesterol from cells. Previous studies in TD patients and ABCA1(-/-) murine models reported defects in platelet count, morphology, and function, but the issue is still controversial. We analyzed three subjects with low to very low HDL-C levels due to the loss-of-function mutations of the ABCA1 gene. Two related patients with FHD were heterozygous carriers of two mutations on the same ABCA1 allele; one, with TD, was homozygous for a different mutation. Mild to moderate thrombocytopenia was observed in all the patients. No morphological platelet abnormalities were detected under optical or EM. History of moderate bleeding tendency was recorded only in one of the FHD patients. Only limited alterations in platelet aggregation and activation of the integrin αIIbβ3 were observed in one FHD patient. While α-granule secretion (P-selectin), content, and secretion of platelet δ-granules (serotonin, ATP, and ADP) and thromboxane (TX) A2 synthesis were normal in all the patients, the expression of lysosomal CD63, in response to some agonists, was reduced in TD patients. In conclusion, three patients carrying ABCA1 genetic variants had low platelet count, with the lowest values observed in TD, not associated with major alterations in platelet morphology and response to agonists or bleeding. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Hyperthermia inhibits platelet haemostatic functions and selectively regulates the release of alpha-granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Etulain, J; Lapponi, MJ; Patrucchi, SJ; Romaniuk, MA; Benzadón, R; Klement, GL; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Hyperthermia is one of the main disturbances of homeostasis occurring during sepsis or hypermetabolic states such as cancer. Platelets are important mediators of the inflammation that accompany these processes, but very little is known about the changes in platelet function that occur at different temperatures. Objectives To explore the effect of higher temperatures on platelet physiology. Methods Platelet responses including adhesion, spreading (fluorescence microscopy), αIIbbeta;3 activation (flow cytometry), aggregation (turbidimetry), ATP release (luminescence), thromboxane A2 generation, alpha-granule protein secretion (ELISA), and protein phosphorylation from different signaling pathways (immunoblotting) were studied. Results Preincubation of platelets at temperatures higher than 37°C (38.5°–42°C) inhibited thrombin-induced haemostasis including platelet adhesion, aggregation, ATP release, and thromboxane A2 generation. The expression of P-selectin and CD63, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release were completely inhibited by hyperthermia, whereas von Willebrand factor (vWF) and endostatin levels remained substantially increased at high temperatures. This suggested that release of proteins from platelet granules is modulated not only by classical platelet agonists but also by microenvironmental factors. The observed gradation of response involved not only antiangiogenesis regulators, but also other cargo proteins. Some signaling pathways were more stable than others. While ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation were resistant to changes in temperature, Src, Syk, p38 phosphorylation as well as IkappaB degradation were decreased in a temperature-dependent fashion. Conclusions Higher temperatures, such as those observed with fever or tissue invasion, inhibit the haemostatic functions of platelets and selectively regulate the release of alpha-granule proteins. PMID:21649851

  2. Genomic landscape of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function defects

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Elisa; Norfo, Ruggiero; Pennucci, Valentina; Zini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is a complex, stepwise process that takes place largely in the bone marrow. At the apex of the hierarchy, hematopoietic stem cells undergo a number of lineage commitment decisions that ultimately lead to the production of polyploid megakaryocytes. On average, megakaryocytes release 1011 platelets per day into the blood that repair vascular injuries and prevent excessive bleeding. This differentiation process is tightly controlled by exogenous and endogenous factors, which have been the topics of intense research in the hematopoietic field. Indeed, a skewing of megakaryocyte commitment and differentiation may entail the onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other preleukemic disorders together with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, whereas quantitative or qualitative defects in platelet production can lead to inherited platelet disorders. The recent advent of next-generation sequencing has prompted mapping of the genomic landscape of these conditions to provide an accurate view of the underlying lesions. The aims of this review are to introduce the physiological pathways of megakaryopoiesis and to present landmark studies on acquired and inherited disorders that target them. These studies have not only introduced a new era in the fields of molecular medicine and targeted therapies but may also provide us with a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying normal megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis that can inform efforts to create alternative sources of megakaryocytes and platelets. PMID:26787733

  3. Oral administration of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors impairs GPVI-mediated platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Joseph E.; Healy, Laura D.; Wallisch, Michael; Thierheimer, Marisa L. D.; Loren, Cassandra P.; Pang, Jiaqing; Hinds, Monica T.; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Tec family kinase Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays an important signaling role downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in hematopoietic cells. Mutations in Btk are involved in impaired B-cell maturation in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, and Btk has been investigated for its role in platelet activation via activation of the effector protein phospholipase Cγ2 downstream of the platelet membrane glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Because of its role in hematopoietic cell signaling, Btk has become a target in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma; the covalent Btk inhibitor ibrutinib was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of these conditions. Antihemostatic events have been reported in some patients taking ibrutinib, although the mechanism of these events remains unknown. We sought to determine the effects of Btk inhibition on platelet function in a series of in vitro studies of platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation. Our results show that irreversible inhibition of Btk with two ibrutinib analogs in vitro decreased human platelet activation, phosphorylation of Btk, P-selectin exposure, spreading on fibrinogen, and aggregation under shear flow conditions. Short-term studies of ibrutinib analogs administered in vivo also showed abrogation of platelet aggregation in vitro, but without measurable effects on plasma clotting times or on bleeding in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of Btk significantly decreased GPVI-mediated platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation in vitro; however, prolonged bleeding was not observed in a model of bleeding. PMID:26659727

  4. The Effect of Hyperparathyroid State on Platelet Functions and Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Yorulmaz, Göknur; Akalın, Aysen; Akay, Olga Meltem; Şahin, Garip; Bal, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Coagulation and fibrinolysis defects were reported in primary hyperparathyroid patients. However, there are not enough data regarding platelet functions in this group of patients. Our aim was to evaluate the platelet functions in primary and secondary hyperparathyroid patients and to compare them with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In our study 25 subjects with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 25 subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), and 25 healthy controls were included. Platelet functions of the subjects were evaluated by using platelet-rich plasma and platelet aggregation tests induced with epinephrine, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and ristocetin. Serum P selectin levels, which indicate platelet activation level, were measured in all subjects. Bone mineral densitometry was performed for all patients. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with PHPT and SHPT and the control group regarding the platelet aggregation tests and serum P selectin levels. There was also no significant correlation between parathormone levels and aggregation parameters (ristocetin, epinephrine, collagen, and ADP: respectively p=0.446, 0.537, 0.346, and 0.302) and between P selectin (p=0.516) levels. When we separated the patients according to serum calcium levels, there was also no significant difference between aggregation parameters and serum P selectin levels between the patients with hypercalcemia and the patients with normocalcemia. We could not find any significant correlation between aggregation parameters, P selectin levels, and serum calcium levels in this group of patients. Bone loss was greater in patients with PHPT. Conclusion: There is no significant effect of PHPT or SHPT and serum calcium levels on platelet functions when evaluated by aggregation tests. PMID:26377856

  5. Interaction of a Monoclonal Antibody to Glycoprotein IV (CD36) with Human Platelets and its Effect on Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Legrand, C; Pidard, D; Beiso, P; Tenza, D; Edelman, L

    1991-01-01

    FA6-152, a monoclonal antibody to platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CP IV), was used to quantify the expression of this glycoprotein on platelets, as well as to evaluate its role in platelet aggregation. On resting platelets, 19 400 ± 7700 molecules of the (125)I-labelled IgC could bind per platelet (n = 20). Binding was not modified following stimulation of the platelets with ADP (10 µmol/l) or thrombin (0.1 U/ml). Fab fragments prepared from the antibody by papain digestion also bound to the platelet surface in a saturable manner. Both the intact IgC and its Fab fragments were found to inhibit platelet aggregation and secretion induced by ADP or collagen in platelet-rich plasma and by thrombin in platelet suspensions. Under nonstirred conditions, whereby the release reaction was only minimally affected, the antibody markedly inhibited thrombin-induced surface expression of α-granule thrombospondin (TSP), whereas it did not alter the concomitant expression of α-granule fibrinogen. In addition, electron microscopy revealed a predominant distribution of TSP and T;P IV on pseudopodia and between adherent cells on thrombin-stimulated platelets. These findings thus support the hypothesis that the interaction of TSP with GP IV on the platelet surface is required for an optimal platelet aggregation/secretion process to occur.

  6. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karen J; Chronopoulos, Andriana K; Singh, Indu; Francis, Maureen A; Moriarty, Helen; Pike, Marilyn J; Turner, Alan H; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet activation and function over 6 h in humans. This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supplementation with cocoa flavanols and related procyanidin oligomers would modulate human platelet reactivity and primary hemostasis and reduce oxidative markers in vivo. Thirty-two healthy subjects were assigned to consume active (234 mg cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) or placebo (< or = 6 mg cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) tablets in a blinded parallel-designed study. Platelet function was determined by measuring platelet aggregation, ATP release, and expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens by using flow cytometry. Plasma was analyzed for oxidation markers and antioxidant status. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin and catechin in the active group increased by 81% and 28%, respectively, during the intervention period. The active group had significantly lower P selectin expression and significantly lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the active than in the placebo group (P < 0.05), whereas plasma oxidation markers and antioxidant status did not change in either group. Cocoa flavanol and procyanidin supplementation for 28 d significantly increased plasma epicatechin and catechin concentrations and significantly decreased platelet function. These data support the results of acute studies that used higher doses of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  7. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results.

  8. Recovery Time of Platelet Function After Aspirin Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghun; Kim, Jeong Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Dunuu, Tsagaan; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Sang Joon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure. Materials and methods A total of 212 patients not taking aspirin (control group) and 248 patients with hypertension receiving long-time aspirin treatment at a 100-mg daily dose were prospectively included in the study, which involved stopping aspirin intake before dental extraction. The residual platelet activity and dental bleeding in patients who stopped aspirin intake were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, platelet reactivity recovery time and bleeding risk in patients who stopped taking aspirin every 24 hours for 0 to 5 days (0–143 hours) before dental extraction was also assessed. Results Platelet reactivity normalized 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal. The cut-off value of 49 arbitrary units in the arachidonic acid platelet aggregation test excluded the effect of aspirin with 91% sensitivity and 66% specificity. AUC showed 0.86 (P < 0.001) diagnostic accuracy. The immediate bleeding complications in all treatment groups were similar to those seen in the control group and were successfully managed with local hemostatic measures. Conclusions The antiplatelet effects of aspirin disappeared 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal in our study, and dental extractions may be safely performed in this period when appropriate

  9. Platelet function in whole-blood donors is impaired: the effects of painkillers.

    PubMed

    Curvers, Joyce; Dielis, Arne W J H; Heeremans, Judith; van Wersch, Jan W J

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) or non-aspirin-like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) influence platelet (PLT) function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. In this study, the aim was to address the use of ASA or NSAIDs before donation and the effect on PLT function. Donors were asked questions about recent use of ASA or NSAIDs. Furthermore, PLT function was evaluated by measurement of the closure time (CT) in a PLT function analyzer (PFA-100, Dade Behring) and by aggregometry (response to ADP or arachidonic acid [AA]). Of 100 questioned donors, 22 percent had used ASA (n = 4), NSAIDs (n = 6), or paracetamol (n = 12) before donation. Upon assessment of the PLT function in the PFA-100, 27 donors showed values of greater than 180 seconds, indicative of impaired PLT function. Of these, only 7 had used pain killers before donation. Furthermore, 15 of 22 users had normal CTs. Aggregation after stimulation with AA was absent in 33 PLT-rich samples. Again only 8 had reported use of ASA (3), NSAIDs (1), or paracetamol (4). Of the 22 users, 14 had normal AA aggregation responses. All donor samples showed ADP-induced aggregation, indicating PLT integrity. There was no difference between the group of donors who reported the intake of ASA or NSAIDs and the group of donors who did not with respect to the tested PLT function assays. It is concluded that there is a considerable group of donors that use PLT-influencing medication before donation. A relation between the reported use and impaired PLT function in blood donors could not be established, however. Impaired PLT function as tested may have other causes than intake of ASA or NSAIDs.

  10. Survival and function of transfused platelets. Studies in two patients with congenital deficiencies of platelet membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Jesus M; Vecino, Ana M

    2009-05-01

    Platelets of patients suffering from Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard Soulier Syndrome (BSS) are defective in different membrane glycoproteins. Since these integrins can be identified by monoclonal antibodies, normal infused platelets could be distinguished from defective platelets and followed by using flow cytometry (FC). We studied this aspect in two recipients suffering, one from GT and the other one, who underwent splenectomy, from BSS. One hour after transfusion, normal platelets comprised 17% of the total platelet population in the patient with GT. Aggregation tests detected a measurable response to collagen (increase of 15% of transmittance). The presence of transfused platelets decreased progressively to 0.8% on day 4, which corresponded with a half-life of 2.6 days. Studies performed in the patient suffering from BSS found that 1 hour after transfusion, 53% of the platelet population corresponded to normal platelets. There was a progressive decay until day 6, which corresponded to a half-life of 4.6 days. Aggregation tests also detected a platelet response to ristocetin from 1 hour after transfusion (47% increase of transmittance) to day 3. FC is useful to measure platelet lifespan in these kinds of patients. We also report the first studies of platelet aggregation after platelet transfusion.

  11. Evaluation of blood platelet count and function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Akdemir, F; Okulu, E; Ener, K; Ozayar, A; Gudeloglu, A

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated and compared blood total platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) values of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. A total 57 male patients (mean age 49.7 ± 12 years) with ED and 59 control men (mean age 49.7 ± 10.7 years) were included in the study. All patients were evaluated using medical history with International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, physical examination and routine blood analysis. Total blood count, including white blood cell (WBC), total platelet counts, MPV and PDW parameters, were recorded in both groups. MPV values were detected to be significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 10.7 ± 1 and 9.72 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.001). Similarly, PDW values were significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 14.6 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 1.9, respectively (P = 0.001). However, mean platelet and mean WBC counts were similar in both groups (P = 0.45). We demonstrated that MPV and PDW values significantly increased in patients with ED compared with the control group. According to these findings, platelet function might play an important role in patients with ED that warrants further research.

  12. Multiwavelength UV/visible spectroscopy for the quantitative investigation of platelet quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattley, Yvette D.; Leparc, German F.; Potter, Robert L.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    1998-04-01

    The quality of platelets transfused is vital to the effectiveness of the transfusion. Freshly prepared, discoid platelets are the most effective treatment for preventing spontaneous hemorrhage or for stopping an abnormal bleeding event. Current methodology for the routine testing of platelet quality involves random pH testing of platelet rich plasma and visual inspection of platelet rich plasma for a swirling pattern indicative of the discoid shape of the cells. The drawback to these methods is that they do not provide a quantitative and objective assay for platelet functionality that can be used on each platelet unit prior to transfusion. As part of a larger project aimed at characterizing whole blood and blood components with multiwavelength UV/vis spectroscopy, isolated platelets and platelet in platelet rich plasma have been investigated. Models based on Mie theory have been developed which allow for the extraction of quantitative information on platelet size, number and quality from multi-wavelength UV/vis spectra. These models have been used to quantify changes in platelet rich plasma during storage. The overall goal of this work is to develop a simple, rapid quantitative assay for platelet quality that can be used prior to platelet transfusion to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment. As a result of this work, the optical properties for isolated platelets, platelet rich plasma and leukodepleted platelet rich plasma have been determined.

  13. Comparison between urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 detection and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays for evaluating aspirin response in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, Xiahuan; Feng, Xueru; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare between two established methods of aspirin response, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11dhTXB2) and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to investigate the clinical significance of both methods in predicting cardiovascular events. Urinary 11dhTxB2 assay and arachidonic acid-induced (AA, 0.5mg/ml) platelet aggregation by Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTAAA) assay were measured to evaluate aspirin responses. High-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) was defined as urinary 11dhTxB2>1500pg/mg or AA-induced platelet aggregation≥15.22%-the upper quartile of our enrolled population. The two tests showed a poor correlation for aspirin inhibition (r=0.063) and a poor agreement in classifying HAPR (kappa=0.053). With a mean follow-up time of 12months, cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in HAPR patients who were diagnosed by LTA assay as compared with no-HAPR patients (22.5% versus 10.6%, P=0.039, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.06-5.63). However, the HAPR status, as determined by urinary 11dTXB2 measurement, did not show a significant correlation with outcomes.

  14. Evaluation of platelet function using the in vitro bleeding time and corrected count increment of transfused platelets. Comparison between platelet concentrates derived from pooled buffy coates and apheresis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L; Kristensen, J; Olsson, K; Bring, J; Högman, C F

    1996-01-01

    The functional capacity of transfused platelets was evaluated with in vitro bleeding time (IVBT) and corrected count increment (CCI) in order to compare platelet concentrates (PCs) derived from pooled buffy coats (BC-PCs) with PCs collected by apheresis (A-PCs). The suspension medium in the BC-PCs was 30% CPD plasma and 70% of an additive solution (containing sodium and potassium chloride, sodium citrate and phosphate, mannitol), and in the A-PCs the medium was 100% CPD plasma. IVBT was evaluated using a Thrombostat 4000/2. BC-PC and A-PC were transfused 57 and 41 times, respectively to 36 patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. PCs transfused within 2 days of donation were considered fresh, and those transfused within 3-5 days were considered stored. IVBT was determined before, as well as 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion; CCI was determined 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion. The median pretransfusion IVBT value was 486 s. It was measurable in 21 of 98 (21%) of the transfusions, i.e. below the cutoff limit of 486 s. Ten to 30 min after transfusion, the IVBT showed a measurable reduction in 90% of the transfusions with fresh BC-PCs, 92% of those with fresh a-PCs, 63% of those with stored BC-PCs and 79% of those with stored A-PCs. After 24 h, the corresponding values were 63% for fresh BC-PCs, 50% for fresh A-PCs, 26% for stored BC-PCs and 38% for stored A-PCs. The median value of CCI 10-30 min after transfusion was 20 for fresh BC-PCs, 17 for fresh A-PCs, 16 for stored BC-PCs and 14 for stored A-PCs. The difference in IVBT between fresh and stored BC-PCs was significant (p = 0.032), unlike that between fresh and stored A-PC. After 24 h the corresponding values were 7 for fresh BC-PCs, 4 for fresh A-PCs, 4 for stored BC-PCs and 3 for stored A-PCs. When all transfusions with fresh PCs (BC-PCs + A-PCs) were compared with all transfusions with stored PCs, a statistical difference was demonstrated in both CCI (p = 0.027) and IVBT (p = 0.043). Spearman

  15. Effect of Blood Nitrite and Nitrate Levels on Murine Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Schechter, Alan N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes. PMID:23383344

  16. Effect of blood nitrite and nitrate levels on murine platelet function.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L; Noguchi, Constance T; Schechter, Alan N

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO₂⁻) and nitrate (NO₃⁻) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes.

  17. Functional fibrinogen assay indicates that fibrinogen is critical in correcting abnormal clot strength following trauma.

    PubMed

    Harr, Jeffrey N; Moore, Ernest E; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Chin, Theresa L; Sauaia, Angela; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is emerging as the standard in the management of acute coagulopathies in injured patients. Although TEG is sensitive in detecting abnormalities in clot strength, one shortcoming is differentiating between fibrinogen and platelet contributions to clot integrity. Current American algorithms suggest platelet transfusion, whereas European guidelines suggest fibrinogen concentrates for correcting low clot strength. Therefore, we hypothesized that a TEG-based functional fibrinogen (FF) assay would assess the contribution of fibrinogen and platelets to clot strength and provide insight to transfusion priorities. Blood samples were obtained from trauma patients on arrival to the emergency department or who were admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (n = 68). Citrated kaolin TEG, FF, and von Clauss fibrinogen levels (plasma-based clinical standard) were measured. Correlations were assessed using linear regression models. In vitro studies were also performed with adding fibrinogen concentrates to blood collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10). Functional fibrinogen and citrated kaolin TEG parameters were measured. Functional fibrinogen strongly correlated with von Clauss fibrinogen levels (R = 0.87) and clot strength (R = 0.80). The mean fibrinogen contribution to clot strength was 30%; however, there was a direct linear relationship with fibrinogen level and percent fibrinogen contribution to clot strength (R = 0.83). Traditional TEG parameters associated with fibrinogen activity (α angle and kinetic time) had significantly lower correlations with FF (R = 0.70 and 0.35). Furthermore, platelet count had only a moderate correlation to clot strength (R = 0.51). The addition of fibrinogen concentrate in in vitro studies increased clot strength (MA) (60.44 ± 1.48 to 68.12 ± 1.39) and percent fibrinogen contribution to clot strength (23.8% ± 1.8% to 37.7% ± 2.5%). Functional fibrinogen can be performed rapidly with TEG and correlates well

  18. Platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass using multiple electrode aggregometry: comparison of centrifugal and roller pumps.

    PubMed

    Kehara, Hiromu; Takano, Tamaki; Ohashi, Noburo; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Amano, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood trauma may be lower with centrifugal pumps (CPs) than with roller pumps (RPs) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), because, unlike RPs, CPs do not compress the tubing, and shear stress is considered lower in CPs than in RPs. However, relative platelet function remains unclear. Using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), we compared platelet function with CP and RP. Ten swine underwent CPB for 3 h, with five weaned off using CP and five using RP. Platelet function was measured using MEA, as were hemoglobin concentration and platelet count, before sternotomy, after heparin infusion, 30 min and 3 h after starting CPB, after protamine infusion, and 60 min after stopping CPB. Platelet activation was initiated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin receptor-activating protein 6 (TRAP). Fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and β-thromboglobin (β-TG) concentrations were measured before sternotomy and 60 min after stopping CPB. In the CP group and using ADP, aggregation was significantly reduced 30 min (P = 0.019) and 3 h (P = 0.027) after starting CPB, recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB was stopped. In the RP group, aggregation was significantly decreased 30 min (P = 0.007) and 3 h (P = 0.003) after starting CPB and after protamine administration (P = 0.028). With AA, aggregation significantly decreased 30 min after starting CPB in both the CP (P = 0.012) and RP (P = 0.016) groups, slightly increasing 3 h after starting CPB and after protamine infusion, and recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB cessation. With TRAP, aggregation in the CP and RP groups decreased 30 min after starting the pump, although changes were not significant; aggregation gradually recovered after 3 h and returned to baseline 60 min after the pumps were stopped. There were no significant differences at all sampling points of MEA. In both groups, fibrinogen, PF4, and β-TG concentrations were similar 60 min after pump cessation and before sternotomy

  19. Effects of high flavanol dark chocolate on cardiovascular function and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rull, Gurvinder; Mohd-Zain, Zetty N; Shiel, Julian; Lundberg, Martina H; Collier, David J; Johnston, Atholl; Warner, Timothy D; Corder, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Regular consumption of chocolate and cocoa products has been linked to reduced cardiovascular mortality. This study compared the effects of high flavanol dark chocolate (HFDC; 1064mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) and low flavanol dark chocolate (LFDC; 88mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) on blood pressure, heart rate, vascular function and platelet aggregation in men with pre-hypertension or mild hypertension. Vascular function was assessed by pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry in combination with inhaled salbutamol (0.4mg) to assess changes due to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. HFDC did not significantly reduce blood pressure compared to baseline or LFDC. Heart rate was increased by LFDC compared to baseline, but not by HFDC. Vascular responses to salbutamol tended to be greater after HFDC. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen or the thromboxane analogue U46619 was unchanged after LFDC or HFDC, whereas both chocolates reduced responses to ADP and the thrombin receptor activator peptide, SFLLRNamide (TRAP6), relative to baseline. Pre-incubation of platelets with theobromine also attenuated platelet aggregation induced by ADP or TRAP6. We conclude that consumption of HFDC confers modest improvements in cardiovascular function. Platelet aggregation is modulated by a flavanol-independent mechanism that is likely due to theobromine.

  20. Minimal amounts of kindlin-3 suffice for basal platelet and leukocyte functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Klapproth, Sarah; Moretti, Federico A; Zeiler, Marlis; Ruppert, Raphael; Breithaupt, Ute; Mueller, Susanna; Haas, Rainer; Mann, Matthias; Sperandio, Markus; Fässler, Reinhard; Moser, Markus

    2015-12-10

    Hematopoietic cells depend on integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling, which is induced by kindlin-3 and talin-1. To determine whether platelet and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions require specific thresholds of kindlin-3, we generated mouse strains expressing 50%, 10%, or 5% of normal kindlin-3 levels. We report that in contrast to kindlin-3-null mice, which die perinatally of severe bleeding and leukocyte adhesion deficiency, mice expressing as little as 5% of kindlin-3 were viable and protected from spontaneous bleeding and infections. However, platelet adhesion and aggregation were reduced in vitro and bleeding times extended. Similarly, leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and bacterial clearance were diminished. Quantification of protein copy numbers revealed stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1 in platelets and neutrophils, indicating that reduction of kindlin-3 in our mouse strains progressively impairs the cooperation with talin-1. Our findings show that very low levels of kindlin-3 enable basal platelet and neutrophil functions, whereas in stress situations such as injury and infection, platelets and neutrophils require a maximum of functional integrins that is achieved with high and stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1.

  1. Platelet microparticles: detection and assessment of their paradoxical functional roles in disease and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry; Goubran, Hadi Alphonse; Chou, Ming-Li; Devos, David; Radosevic, Mirjana

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing research on and clinical interest in the physiological role played by platelet microparticles (PMPs). PMPs are 0.1-1-μm fragments shed from plasma membranes of platelets that are undergoing activation, stress, or apoptosis. They have a phospholipid-based structure and express functional receptors from platelet membranes. As they are the most abundant microparticles in the blood and they express the procoagulant phosphatidylserine, PMPs likely complement, if not amplify, the functions of platelets in hemostasis, thrombosis, cancer, and inflammation, but also act as promoters of tissue regeneration. Their size and structure make them instrumental in platelet-cell communications as a delivery tool of platelet-borne bioactive molecules including growth factors, other signaling molecules and micro (mi)RNA. PMPs can therefore be a pathophysiological threat or benefit to the cellular environment when interacting with the blood vasculature. There is also increasing evidence that PMP generation is triggered during blood collection, separation into components, and storage, a phenomenon potentially leading to thrombotic and inflammatory side effects in transfused patients. Evaluating PMPs requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures to avoid artifactual generation and ensure accurate assessment of the number, size repartitioning, and functional properties. This review describes the physical and functional methods developed for analyzing and quantifying PMPs. It then presents the functional roles of PMPs as markers or triggers of diseases like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and discusses the possible detrimental immunological impact of their generation in blood components. Finally we review the potential function of PMPs in tissue regeneration and the prospects for their use in therapeutic strategies for human health.

  2. Effects of Firocoxib, Flunixin Meglumine, and Phenylbutazone on Platelet Function and Thromboxane Synthesis in Healthy Horses.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Brenna N; Thomason, John M; Hurdle, Holly M; Wills, Robert W; Fontenot, Robin L

    2016-11-01

    Determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis immediately after drug administration and following 5 days of NSAID administration in healthy horses. Randomized cross-over study. Healthy adult horses (n=9; 6 geldings and 3 mares). Horses received either flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), or firocoxib (loading dose of 0.27 mg/kg IV on day 1, then 0.09 mg/kg IV every 24 hours for 4 days) for a total of 5 days. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration (day 0), 1 hour after initial NSAID administration (day 1), and then 1 hour post-NSAID administration on day 5. Platelet function was assessed using turbidimetric aggregometry and a platelet function analyzer. Serum thromboxane B2 concentrations were determined by commercial ELISA kit. A minimum 14 day washout period occurred between trials. At 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, or phenylbutazone, there was no significant effect on platelet aggregation or function using turbidimetric aggregometry or a platelet function analyzer. There was, however, a significant decrease in thromboxane synthesis at 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone that was not seen with firocoxib. Preoperative administration of flunixin meglumine, phenylbutazone, or firocoxib should not inhibit platelet function based on our model. The clinical implications of decreased thromboxane B2 synthesis following flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administration are undetermined. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Physical proximity and functional interplay of PECAM-1 with the Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIa on the platelet plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Thai, Le M; Ashman, Leonie K; Harbour, Stacey N; Hogarth, P Mark; Jackson, Denise E

    2003-11-15

    We and others have recently defined that Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) functions as a negative regulator of platelet-collagen interactions involving the glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor gamma chain (GPVI/FcR-gamma chain) signaling pathway.1,2 In this study, we hypothesized that PECAM-1 may be physically and functionally associated with Fc gamma RIIa on the platelet membrane. The functional relationship between PECAM-1 and Fc gamma RIIa was assessed by determining the effect of anti-PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody Fab fragments on Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet aggregation and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HITS)-mediated platelet aggregation. Preincubation of washed platelets with monoclonal antibody fragments of 2BD4 directed against PECAM-1 and IV.3 directed against Fc gamma RIIa completely blocked Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet aggregation and HITS-mediated platelet aggregation, whereas anti-CD151 antibody had no blocking effect. Coengagement of Fc gamma RIIa and PECAM-1 resulted in negative regulation of Fc gamma RIIa-mediated phospholipase C gamma 2 activation, calcium mobilization, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the physical proximity of Fc gamma RIIa and PECAM-1 was confirmed by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation studies. These results indicate that PECAM-1 and Fc gamma RIIa are colocalized on the platelet membrane and PECAM-1 down-regulates Fc gamma RIIa-mediated platelet responses.

  4. Mice Lacking the ITIM-Containing Receptor G6b-B Exhibit Macrothrombocytopenia and Aberrant Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Bem, Danai; Finney, Brenda; Heising, Silke; Gissen, Paul; White, James G.; Berndt, Michael C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Douglas, Michael R.; Campbell, Robert D.; Watson, Steve P.; Senis, Yotis A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are highly reactive cell fragments that adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) and prevent excessive blood loss by forming clots. Paradoxically, megakaryocytes, which produce platelets in the bone marrow, remain relatively refractory to the ECM-rich environment of the bone marrow despite having the same repertoire of receptors as platelets. These include the ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif)–containing collagen receptor complex, which consists of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the Fc receptor γ-chain, and the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibition motif)–containing receptor G6b-B. We showed that mice lacking G6b-B exhibited macrothrombocytopenia (reduced platelet numbers and the presence of enlarged platelets) and a susceptibility to bleeding as a result of aberrant platelet production and function. Platelet numbers were markedly reduced in G6b-B–deficient mice compared to those in wild-type mice because of increased platelet turnover. Furthermore, megakaryocytes in G6b-B–deficient mice showed enhanced metalloproteinase production, which led to increased shedding of cell-surface receptors, including GPVI and GPIba. In addition, G6b-B–deficient megakaryocytes exhibited reduced integrin-mediated functions and defective formation of proplatelets, the long filamentous projections from which platelets bud off. Together, these findings establish G6b-B as a major inhibitory receptor regulating megakaryocyte activation, function, and platelet production. PMID:23112346

  5. Bcl-xL-inhibitory BH3 mimetics can induce a transient thrombocytopathy that undermines the hemostatic function of platelets.

    PubMed

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jarman, Kate E; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Hua, My; Qiao, Jianlin; White, Michael J; Josefsson, Emma C; Alwis, Imala; Ono, Akiko; Willcox, Abbey; Andrews, Robert K; Mason, Kylie D; Salem, Hatem H; Huang, David C S; Kile, Benjamin T; Roberts, Andrew W; Jackson, Shaun P

    2011-08-11

    BH3 mimetics are a new class of proapo-ptotic anticancer agents that have shown considerable promise in preclinical animal models and early-stage human trials. These agents act by inhibiting the pro-survival function of one or more Bcl-2-related proteins. Agents that inhibit Bcl-x(L) induce rapid platelet death that leads to thrombocytopenia; however, their impact on the function of residual circulating platelets remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the BH3 mimetics, ABT-737 or ABT-263, induce a time- and dose-dependent decrease in platelet adhesive function that correlates with ectodomain shedding of the major platelet adhesion receptors, glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI, and functional down-regulation of integrin α(IIb)β(3). Analysis of platelets from mice treated with higher doses of BH3 mimetics revealed the presence of a subpopulation of circulating platelets undergoing cell death that have impaired activation responses to soluble agonists. Functional analysis of platelets by intravital microscopy revealed a time-dependent defect in platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury that correlated with an increase in tail bleeding time. Overall, these studies demonstrate that Bcl-x(L)-inhibitory BH3 mimetics not only induce thrombocytopenia but also a transient thrombocytopathy that can undermine the hemostatic function of platelets.

  6. Pathogen inactivation treatment of plasma and platelet concentrates and their predicted functionality in massive transfusion protocols.

    PubMed

    Arbaeen, Ahmad F; Schubert, Peter; Serrano, Katherine; Carter, Cedric J; Culibrk, Brankica; Devine, Dana V

    2017-05-01

    Trauma transfusion packages for hemorrhage control consist of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets at a set ratio. Although pathogen reduction improves the transfusion safety of platelet and plasma units, there is an associated reduction in quality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of riboflavin/ultraviolet light-treated plasma or platelets in transfusion trauma packages composed of red blood cell, plasma, and platelet units in a ratio of 1:1:1 in vitro by modeling transfusion scenarios for trauma patients and assessing function by rotational thromboelastometry. Pathogen-reduced or untreated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate units produced in plasma were used in different combinations with red blood cells in trauma transfusion packages. After reconstitution of these packages with hemodiluted blood, the hemostatic functionality was analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry. Hemostatic profiles of pathogen-inactivated buffy coat platelet concentrate and plasma indicated decreased activity compared with their respective controls. Reconstitution of hemodiluted blood (hematocrit = 20%) with packages that contained treated or nontreated components resulted in increased alpha and maximum clot firmness and enhanced clot-formation time. Simulating transfusion scenarios based on 30% blood replacement with a transfusion trauma package resulted in a nonsignificant difference in rotational thromboelastometry parameters between packages containing treated and nontreated blood components (p ≥ 0.05). Effects of pathogen inactivation treatment were evident when the trauma package percentage was 50% or greater and contained both pathogen inactivation-treated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate. Rotational thromboelastometry investigations suggest that there is relatively little impact of pathogen inactivation treatment on whole blood clot formation unless large amounts of treated components are used. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Activation of the platelet collagen receptor integrin alpha(2)beta(1): its mechanism and participation in the physiological functions of platelets.

    PubMed

    Jung, S M; Moroi, M

    2000-10-01

    When platelets are stimulated by agonists, integrin alpha(2)beta(1) (GP Ia/IIa), one of the platelet collagen receptors, is activated to forms with high affinities for its ligand collagen. Here we describe our studies to characterize the binding kinetics of the activated integrin forms and the activation mechanism. Under low agonist concentrations, integrin alpha(2)beta(1) is activated through a mechanism involving ADP/ADP receptors; and under high agonist concentrations, multiple signaling pathways are involved in its activation. Such differences in mechanism at low and high agonist concentrations are also suggested in the activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), the platelet fibrinogen receptor. We describe our flow adhesion studies, from which evidence was obtained about the involvement of integrin alpha(2)beta(1) activation in the physiological function of platelets, adhesion and thrombus formation.

  8. Functional Comparison of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell- and Blood-Derived GPIIbIIIa Deficient Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jessica; Sandrock-Lang, Kirstin; Gärtner, Florian; Jung, Christian Billy; Zieger, Barbara; Parrotta, Elvira; Kurnik, Karin; Sinnecker, Daniel; Wanner, Gerhard; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Massberg, Steffen; Moretti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a versatile tool to model genetic diseases and are a potential source for cell transfusion therapies. However, it remains elusive to which extent patient-specific hiPSC-derived cells functionally resemble their native counterparts. Here, we generated a hiPSC model of the primary platelet disease Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), characterized by dysfunction of the integrin receptor GPIIbIIIa, and compared side-by-side healthy and diseased hiPSC-derived platelets with peripheral blood platelets. Both GT-hiPSC-derived platelets and their peripheral blood equivalents showed absence of membrane expression of GPIIbIIIa, a reduction of PAC-1 binding, surface spreading and adherence to fibrinogen. We demonstrated that GT-hiPSC-derived platelets recapitulate molecular and functional aspects of the disease and show comparable behavior to their native counterparts encouraging the further use of hiPSC-based disease models as well as the transition towards a clinical application. PMID:25607928

  9. Physical inactivity and platelet function in humans and brown bears: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Arinell, K; Blanc, S; Welinder, K G; Støen, O-G; Evans, A L; Fröbert, O

    2017-07-31

    Physical inactivity increases the risk of thromboembolism. However, good standardized human models on inactivity are in short supply and experimental models are few. Our objective was to investigate how standardized bed rest affects platelet aggregation in humans and to investigate if aggregation is altered in a translational model system - the hibernating brown bear (Ursus arctos). We collected blood from (1) healthy male volunteers participating in a 21-day bed rest study in head-down tilt position (-6°) 24 h a day; (2) free-ranging brown bears captured during winter hibernation and again during active state in summer. We analyzed platelet function using multiple electrode platelet aggregometry. In total, 9 healthy male volunteers (age 31.0 ± 6.4 years) and 13 brown bears (7 females and 6 males, age 2.8 ± 0.6 years) were included. In hibernating bears adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, thrombin receptor activating peptide, and collagen impedance aggregometry tests were all halved compared to summer active state. In human volunteers no statistically significant changes were found between baseline and the end of bed rest. In human male volunteers 3 weeks of bed rest did not affect platelet function. In hibernating brown bears platelet aggregation was halved compared to summer and we hypothesize that this is a protective measure to avoid formation of thrombi under periods of low blood flow.

  10. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  11. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils.

  12. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Context High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL, and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Results Compared to control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI. Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids, namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1, 2.1 and 2.4-fold increase respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from T2D patients inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from T2D patients. PMID:25794249

  13. Oral administration of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors impairs GPVI-mediated platelet function.

    PubMed

    Rigg, Rachel A; Aslan, Joseph E; Healy, Laura D; Wallisch, Michael; Thierheimer, Marisa L D; Loren, Cassandra P; Pang, Jiaqing; Hinds, Monica T; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2016-03-01

    The Tec family kinase Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays an important signaling role downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in hematopoietic cells. Mutations in Btk are involved in impaired B-cell maturation in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, and Btk has been investigated for its role in platelet activation via activation of the effector protein phospholipase Cγ2 downstream of the platelet membrane glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Because of its role in hematopoietic cell signaling, Btk has become a target in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma; the covalent Btk inhibitor ibrutinib was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of these conditions. Antihemostatic events have been reported in some patients taking ibrutinib, although the mechanism of these events remains unknown. We sought to determine the effects of Btk inhibition on platelet function in a series of in vitro studies of platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation. Our results show that irreversible inhibition of Btk with two ibrutinib analogs in vitro decreased human platelet activation, phosphorylation of Btk, P-selectin exposure, spreading on fibrinogen, and aggregation under shear flow conditions. Short-term studies of ibrutinib analogs administered in vivo also showed abrogation of platelet aggregation in vitro, but without measurable effects on plasma clotting times or on bleeding in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of Btk significantly decreased GPVI-mediated platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation in vitro; however, prolonged bleeding was not observed in a model of bleeding. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL and HDL from patients with T2D on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Compared with control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI). Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC), namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE, and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1-, 2.1-, and 2.4-fold increase, respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Our results suggest that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from patients with T2D inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from patients with T2D.

  15. The effect of doubling the dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on platelet function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and platelet hyperreactivity during treatment with 75 mg of ASA: a subanalysis of the AVOCADO study.

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Marek; Postuła, Marek; Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agnieszka; Trzepla, Ewa; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Członkowski, Andrzej; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes are at 2- to 4-fold higher risk of cardiovascular disease than those without diabetes. High platelet reactivity (HPR) plays a pivotal role in atherothrombotic complications of diabetes. Polish and American diabetes associations recommend treating high-risk diabetic patients with low doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Unfortunately, some patients show HPR despite treatment with ASA. To determine the effect of doubling the dose of ASA on platelet reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes and HPR despite treatment of with 75 mg of ASA. 304 type 2 diabetes patients treated with 75 mg of ASA were enrolled into the prospective, randomised, open-label Aspirin Versus/Or Clopidogrel in Aspirin-resistant Diabetics inflammation Outcomes (AVOCADO) study. Platelet reactivity was assessed by Platelet Function Analyser (PFA)-100®, VerifyNow® Aspirin Assay, and serum thromboxane B2 (sTXB2) and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (u11dhTXB2) level measurements. Patients with HPR determined by collagen/epinephrine-induced closure time (CEPI-CT) measured by PFA-100® were randomised in a 2:3 ratio to receive 150 mg of ASA (Group 1) or 75 mg of clopidogrel (Group 2), respectively. Platelet reactivity was assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Complete clinical data and blood samples were ultimately available for 260 of 304 patients initially enrolled to the study. Subsequently, six patients were excluded from the analysis based on suspected ASA non-compliance (sTXB2 level > 7200 pg/mL). Among 254 patients finally included into analysis, HPR was found in 90 (35.4%) patients of whom 38 patients were randomised to Group 1 and 52 patients to Group 2. Doubling the dose of ASA resulted in a significant CEPI-CT prolongation (Delta 111 s, p < 0.001) and reduction of sTXB2 level (Delta -101.3 pg/mL, p = 0.001) but did not significantly affect results of other platelet function tests

  16. Inhibition of platelet function: does it offer a chance of better cancer progression control?

    PubMed

    Sierko, Ewa; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z

    2007-10-01

    Thrombocytosis is frequently (10 to 57%) observed in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis are not yet fully elucidated, tumor-derived factors with thrombopoietin-like activity, growth factors, platelet-derived microparticles, and factors released from bone marrow endothelial cells as well as growth factors secreted by megakaryocytes (acting via an autocrine loop) are claimed to influence this process. The course of cancer is strongly associated with hypercoagulable state, which results from direct influences of tumor cells themselves and various indirect mechanisms. Activated platelets provide procoagulant surface amplifying the coagulation process. It is well documented that proteins of the hemostatic system influence different steps of metastasis, angiogenesis, and proteolytic events. Much less is known about the role of platelets in tumor growth and their possible contribution to prevention of tumor cells from the host immune system. Multidirectional activities of platelets during tumor development and metastatic dissemination create a possibility of introducing antiplatelet agents in anticancer therapy. The spectrum of plausible therapies includes antibodies against glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, direct thrombin inhibitors, protease activated receptor-1 targeted therapy, as well as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors. However, there is no sufficient information on a specific type of cancer where progression does depend on platelet function. Despite numerous experimental studies conducted, to date none of the new specific antiplatelet agents were tested in clinical trials in a cancer patient population.

  17. A detailed examination of platelet function inhibition by nitric oxide in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Robert; Krueger, Julia; Filipović, Milos R; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Calatzis, Andreas; Weiss, Dominik R; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether novel instruments such as multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can be used for measurement of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on platelets (PLTs) has not been examined. Therefore, we compared the effects of NO concentrations (1, 10, and 100 microM) on the PLT aggregation response to ADP, arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, ristocetin, and thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP6) using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and examined the effects of NO using the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100. The response of PLTs to ADP and AA was strongly inhibited by all NO concentrations in LTA and MEA. The inhibition of the responses to ristocetin and collagen was detectable in MEA at lower NO concentrations than in LTA. However, the typically increasing lag phase between collagen addition and the aggregation response in the presence of NO was more obvious in LTA. TRAP caused a reproducible early response in the presence of NO in LTA which was followed by rapid PLT disaggregation, whereas even 100 microM NO did not inhibit the response to TRAP in MEA. Finally, NO prolonged the in-vitro bleeding time remarkably more in the PFA-100 collagen-epinephrin cartridge than in the collagen-ADP cartridge. Whole blood versus PLT rich plasma, citrate versus hirudin, and high versus low shear influenced the effects of NO. This shows that a careful selection of models and potentially a combination of different methods is appropriate for a differentiated evaluation of pharmacological or physiological mechanisms of NO-donors or of NO-inhibitors.

  18. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae infection and moxalactam on platelet function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S L; Courtney, J T; Kenal, K A

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, children with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis received moxalactam or ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Of 41 children, 6 had prolonged bleeding times (greater than 6 min), and 7 of 9 tested had abnormal platelet aggregation at hospital admission. At the end of therapy, no children in the ampicillin-chloramphenicol group, compared with 5 of 22 moxalactam-treated children (23%) (P = 0.08), had prolonged bleeding times (6.5 to 7.5 min). Our data suggest that H. influenzae meningitis and treatment with moxalactam may each have an effect on platelet function in children. PMID:3579263

  19. Deletion of GLUT1 and GLUT3 Reveals Multiple Roles for Glucose Metabolism in Platelet and Megakaryocyte Function.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Trevor P; Campbell, Robert A; Funari, Trevor; Dunne, Nicholas; Balderas Angeles, Enrique; Middleton, Elizabeth A; Chaudhuri, Dipayan; Weyrch, Andrew S; Abel, E Dale

    2017-07-25

    Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO]) specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased. Thrombosis and platelet activation were decreased through impairment at multiple activation nodes, including Ca(2+) signaling, degranulation, and integrin activation. DKO mice developed thrombocytopenia, secondary to impaired pro-platelet formation from megakaryocytes, and increased platelet clearance resulting from cytosolic calcium overload and calpain activation. Systemic treatment with oligomycin, inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, induced rapid clearance of platelets, with circulating counts dropping to zero in DKO mice, but not wild-type mice, demonstrating an essential role for energy metabolism in platelet viability. Thus, substrate metabolism is essential for platelet production, activation, and survival. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of varying nitric oxide release to prevent platelet consumption and preserve platelet function in an in vivo model of extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Skrzypchak, Amy M; Lafayette, Nathan G; Bartlett, Robert H; Zhou, Zhengrong; Frost, Megan C; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Reynolds, Melissa M; Annich, Gail M

    2007-05-01

    The gold standard for anticoagulation during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) remains systemic heparinization and the concomitant risk of bleeding in an already critically ill patient could lead to death. Normal endothelium is a unique surface that prevents thrombosis by the release of antiplatelet and antithrombin agents. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most potent, reversible antiplatelet agents released from the endothelium. Nitric oxide released from within a polymer matrix has been proven effective for preventing platelet activation and adhesion onto extracorporeal circuits. However, the critical NO release (NO flux) threshold for thrombus prevention during ECC has not yet been determined. Using a 4-hour arteriovenous (AV) rabbit model of ECC, we sought to find this threshold value for ECC circuits, using an improved NO-releasing coating (Norel-b). Four groups of animals were tested at variable NO flux levels. Hourly blood samples were obtained for measurement of arterial blood gases, platelet counts, fibrinogen levels and platelet function (via aggregometry). A custom-built AV circuit was constructed with 36 cm of poly(vinyl)chloride (PVC) tubing, a 14 gauge (GA) angiocatheter for arterial access and a modified 10 French (Fr) thoracic catheter for venous access. The Norel-b coating reduced platelet activation and thrombus formation, and preserved platelet function - in all circuits that exhibited an NO flux of 13.65 x 10(10) mol x cm(-2) x min(-1). These results were significant when compared with the controls. With the Norel-b coating, the NO flux from the extracorporeal circuit surface can be precisely controlled by the composition of the polymer coating used, and such coatings are shown to prevent platelet consumption and thrombus formation while preserving platelet function in the animal.

  1. Model of trauma-induced coagulopathy including hemodilution, fibrinolysis, acidosis, and hypothermia: Impact on blood coagulation and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Shenkman, Boris; Budnik, Ivan; Einav, Yulia; Hauschner, Hagit; Andrejchin, Mykhaylo; Martinowitz, Uriel

    2017-02-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is commonly seen among patients with severe injury. The dynamic process of TIC is characterized by variability of the features of the disease. A model of TIC was created. Hemodilution was produced by mixing the blood with 40% Tris/saline solution, fibrinolysis by treating the blood with 160 ng/mL tPA, acidosis by adding 1.2 mg/mL lactic acid achieving pH 7.0 to 7.1, and hypothermia by running the assay at 31°C. Intact blood tested at 37°C served as control. Clot formation was evaluated using rotation thromboelastometry. Platelet adhesion and aggregation were assayed at a shear rate of 1800 s using Impact-R device. Clotting time was not affected by any of the TIC constituents used. Clotting initiation was reduced by hemodilution and further reduced by additive hypothermia. The propagation phase of blood clotting was reduced by hemodilution, further reduced by additive hypothermia, and maximally reduced if additionally combined with fibrinolysis. No effect of fibrinolysis on clot propagation was observed at 37°C. Maximum clot firmness was reduced by hemodilution, further reduced by additive fibrinolysis, and maximally reduced if additionally combined with hypothermia. No effect of hypothermia on clot strength was observed in the absence of fibrinolysis. Platelet adhesion (percentage of surface coverage) and aggregation (aggregate size) under flow condition were reduced by hemodilution and further reduced by additive acidosis. Introduction of tPA to diluted blood had no effect on platelet function. The study revealed a differential effect of TIC constituents-hemodilution, hypothermia, fibrinolysis, and acidosis-on clot formation and platelet function. The effect of one factor may influence that of another factor. These data may be helpful to better understand the pathogenesis of TIC and to elaborate an individually tailored treatment strategy. A new model of TIC is created. Contribution of various constituents to pathogenesis of

  2. Inhibitory effects of Cyperus digitatus extract on human platelet function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms of antiplatelet action of Cyperus digitatus. The antiplatelet action of C. digitatus was studied on platelet function: secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and sCD40L release. The platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by CDA (ethyl acetate extract) at 0.1 mg/ml and after the incubation of whole blood with CDA, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 96 ± 3% (p < 0.001). At the same concentration, CDA significantly decreased sCD40L levels. The mechanism of antiplatelet action of CDA could be by NF-κB inhibition and that is cAMP independent. In conclusion, C. digitatus extract may serve as a new source of antiplatelet agents for food and nutraceutical applications.

  3. Postoperative Decrease in Platelet Counts Is Associated with Delayed Liver Function Recovery and Complications after Partial Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Oshiro, Yukio; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Sakashita, Shingo; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral platelet counts decrease after partial hepatectomy; however, the implications of this phenomenon are unclear. We assessed if the observed decrease in platelet counts was associated with postoperative liver function and morbidity (complications grade ≤ II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification). We enrolled 216 consecutive patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for primary liver cancers, metastatic liver cancers, benign tumors, and donor hepatectomy. We classified patients as either low or high platelet percentage (postoperative platelet count/preoperative platelet count) using the optimal cutoff value calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and analyzed risk factors for delayed liver functional recovery and morbidity after hepatectomy. Delayed liver function recovery and morbidity were significantly correlated with the lowest value of platelet percentage based on ROC analysis. Using a cutoff value of 60% acquired by ROC analysis, univariate and multivariate analysis determined that postoperative lowest platelet percentage ≤ 60% was identified as an independent risk factor of delayed liver function recovery (odds ratio (OR) 6.85; P < 0.01) and morbidity (OR, 4.90; P < 0.01). Furthermore, patients with the lowest platelet percentage ≤ 60% had decreased postoperative prothrombin time ratio and serum albumin level and increased serum bilirubin level when compared with patients with platelet percentage ≥ 61%. A greater than 40% decrease in platelet count after partial hepatectomy was an independent risk factor for delayed liver function recovery and postoperative morbidity. In conclusion, the decrease in platelet counts is an early marker to predict the liver function recovery and complications after hepatectomy.

  4. Point-of-care genetic profiling and/or platelet function testing in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collet, Jean-Philippe; Kerneis, Mathieu; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; O'Connor, Stephen A; Silvain, Johanne; Mansencal, Nicolas; Brugier, Delphine; Abtan, Jérémie; Barthélémy, Olivier; Vignalou, Jean-Baptiste; Payot, Laurent; Rousseau, Hélène; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate that the sequential use of the Verigene® rapid CYP2C19 test for genetic profiling and the VerifyNowTM bedside test for platelet function measurement in ACS patients may optimise P2Y12 inhibition. "Rapid" (CYP2C19*1/*1 or CYP2C19*17 carriers, n=211) and "slow" metabolisers (CYP2C19*2 carriers, n=58) were first put on clopidogrel and prasugrel for ≥ 2 weeks, respectively. Patients with low platelet reactivity (PRU<30) on prasugrel or high platelet reactivity (>208 PRU) on clopidogrel were then switched to clopidogrel and prasugrel, respectively. Our objectives were (i) to demonstrate that the proportion of "rapid" metabolisers on 75 mg of clopidogrel within 30-208 (PRU) of P2Y12 inhibition is non-inferior to "slow" metabolisers on prasugrel 10 mg and (ii) to evaluate the same end-point after switching drugs. The proportion of "rapid" and "slow" metabolisers within 30-208 PRU of P2Y12 inhibition was 71% and 56.9%, respectively, an absolute difference of +14.1% (95% CI, -0.05% to 28.28%) with a non-inferiority margin greater than the predefined margin of -10%. Among patients out of target, all but one "slow" metabolisers displayed low-on prasugrel platelet reactivity while the majority of "rapid" metabolisers (68%) displayed high-on clopidogrel platelet reactivity. After switching, the proportion of patients within 30-208 PRU of P2Y12 inhibition was 83.6% and 79.3% in "rapid" and "slow" metabolisers, respectively (+4.3%, 95% CI -7.3% to 15.9%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a loose relationship between genotype and platelet function phenotype approaches but that they are complementary to select prasugrel or clopidogrel MD in stented ACS patients.

  5. Evaluation of adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium for enhancement of platelet function during storage.

    PubMed

    Bynum, James A; Taylor, Ashley S; Peltier, Grantham C; McIntosh, Colby S; Meledeo, Michael A; Dobson, Geoffrey P; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-07-01

    The combination of adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium (Mg2+) (ALM) has demonstrated cardioprotective and resuscitative properties in models of cardiac arrest and hemorrhagic shock that are linked to reduction of metabolic demand. Platelets play a key role in resuscitation strategies for ATC but suffer from loss of function following storage in part owing to mitochondrial exhaustion. This study evaluates whether ALM also demonstrates protective properties in stored platelet preparations. Platelets were tested at (baseline, Day 5, Day 10, and Day 15) at 22°C (room temperature) or 4°C in 100% plasma and platelet additive solution. Adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium treatment or its individual components (A, L, M, or combinations) were added directly to the minibags at baseline for storage. Measurements consisted of blood gas and chemistry analyses, thromboelastography, impedance aggregometry, and flow cytometry. Blood gas and cell analysis, as well as flow cytometry measures, demonstrated only differences between temperature groups starting at Day 5 (p < 0.05) and no differences between treatment groups. Aggregation response to collagen (A only, M only, and ALM high dose) and thrombin receptor activation peptide (A + M, and ALM high dose) was significantly greater at Day 5 compared to respective 4°C (100% plasma) controls (p < 0.05). Thromboelastography analysis revealed significant preservation of all measures (reaction time, maximum amplitude, and angle) at Day 15 for 4°C-stored samples in 100% plasma in both controls (no ALM) and ALM treatment compared to room temperature (p < 0.05); no differences were observed between the ALM and control groups. The mechanism of ALM's protective effect remains unclear; key cellular functions may be required to provide protection. In this study, improvements in collagen and thrombin receptor activation peptide aggregation were seen when compared to 4°C-stored plasma samples although no improvements were seen when compared

  6. Hemostatic function of apheresis platelets stored at 4 °C and 22 °C

    PubMed Central

    Reddoch, Kristin M.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Fedyk, Criselda G.; Aden, James K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Cap, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better than standard-of-care room temperature storage. Benefits could include lower transfusion-related complications, decreased costs, improved hemostasis in acutely bleeding patients, and extended shelf-life. In this study, we compared the effects of 22°C and 4°C storage on the functional and activation status of apheresis platelets (APs). Methods APs (n = 5 per group) were stored for 5 days at 22°C with agitation (RT) versus at 4°C with agitation (4C+AG) and without (4C). Measurements included platelet counts, mean platelet volume, blood gas analytes, aggregation response, thromboelastography, TxB2 and sCD40L release, activation markers and microparticle formation. Results Sample pH levels were within acceptable limits for storage products (pH 6.2-7.4). Platelet glucose metabolism (P < 0.05), aggregation response (ADP: RT 0; 4C+AG 5.0 ± 0.8; 4C 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05), and clot strength (MA: RT 58 ± 2; 4C+AG 63 ± 2; 4C 67 ± 2; P < 0.05) were better preserved at 4°C compared to RT storage. Refrigerated samples were more activated compared to RT (P < 0.05), although TxB2 (P < 0.05) and sCD40L release (P < 0.05) were higher at RT. Agitation did not improve the quality of 4°C-stored samples. Conclusion AP stored at 4°C maintain more viable metabolic characteristics, are hemostatically more effective, and release fewer pro-inflammatory mediators than AP stored at RT over 5 days. Given the superior bacteriologic safety of refrigerated products, these data suggest that cold-stored platelets may improve outcomes for acutely bleeding patients. PMID:24169210

  7. CFU-Mk content of immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells, evaluated with an adapted serum-free methylcellulose assay, is predictive of platelet lineage reconstitution in children with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Boiret, N; Kanold, J; Fouassier, M; Bons, J M; Halle, P; Rapatel, C; Berger, J; Pireyre, P; Blanzat, V; Travade, P; Bonhomme, J; Demeocq, F; Berger, M G

    2000-08-01

    Immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation is now frequently used to support autologous hematopoiesis after myeloablative therapy, its feasability having been proved by several groups. However, we and others observed delayed platelet recovery. We hypothesized that immunoselection processing might induce selective loss of megakaryocyte progenitors, or a decrease in their proliferation. We used a colony-forming units megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) assay to evaluate these consequences and predict platelet recovery in patients. In CD34+ PBPCs from 10 children with solid tumors, we observed no selective loss in CFU-Mk numbers during immunoselection processing and no impairment of clonogenicity. The CFU-Mk yield (59.2 +/- 11.3%) was at least similar to the CD34+ yield (44.2 +/- 3.8%). We assessed the predictive value of CFU-Mk numbers infused for recovery of platelet lineage. We found an inverse correlation between the time taken to reach a platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L and only the CFU-Mk dose (r = -0.71; p = 0.022) among the different type of progenitors, including colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), burst-forming units erythrocyte (BFU-E) and colony-forming units-mixed (CFU-Mix). These findings suggest that CFU-Mk number could be used as sole predictive functional parameter for platelet reconstitution in children after immunoselection of CD34+ cells, in particular for low CD34+ cell dose, and thus as an indicator for initial quality of hematopoietic cells before in vitro expansion.

  8. The level of heparin-induced antibodies in correlation with the result of the flow cytometric functional assay in the patients with suspected HIT.

    PubMed

    Maličev, Elvira; Maček Kvanka, Marjeta; Klemenc, Polona; Rožman, Primož

    2017-09-13

    Heparin can induce the formation of antibodies against a heparin complex with a platelet factor 4 (PF4), leading to platelet activation and the development of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT). Because screening ELISA does not discriminate between platelet activating and non-activating anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies, each positive result is confirmed by an additional functional assay. We analysed 1004 sera of patients with suspected HIT. Optical density (OD) values of ELISA-positive results were correlated with the risk for a positive result with our functional flow cytometric assay. Only 10.7% were ELISA positive and 59.8% of those were positive with the functional assay. The positive functional assay was found in 23.4% of patients with OD<1.0, in 57.7% with 1.02.0. Although our results showed that higher ELISA OD values increasethe possibility of the presence of platelet-activating anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies - , there is no need for improving ELISA cut-off value for positive result. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Performance of the platelet function analyser PFA-100 in testing abnormalities of primary haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P; Robinson, M S; Mackie, I J; Joseph, J; McDonald, S J; Liesner, R; Savidge, G F; Pasi, J; Machin, S J

    1999-01-01

    The PFA-100 device is a new instrument for the in-vitro testing of platelet function. Primary haemostasis is stimulated by recording the closure time taken for platelets to seal a 150 microm aperture in the centre of a membrane coated with collagen and either epinephrine or ADP. Patients with type 3 von Willebrand's disease (n = 4) all had infinitely prolonged closure times (> 200 s) with both types of cartridge. A patient with afibrinogenemia exhibited only slightly prolonged closure times of 111 and 166 s for the ADP and epinephrine membranes, respectively. Patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (n = 6) and Bernard Soulier syndrome (n = 2) had grossly prolonged closure times (> 200 s) with both types of cartridges. These results confirmed that the PFA-100 system was highly dependent on normal von Willebrand factor, glycoprotein Ib and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa levels but not on plasma fibrinogen. Patients with storage pool disease (n = 6) and Hermansky Pudlak syndrome (n = 7) had prolonged closure times with the epinephrine cartridge. There was no evidence of enhanced platelet function in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, in sickle-cell disease or thalassemia. However, ingestion of aspirin resulted in a near consistent and significant prolongation of the closure time for the epinephrine cartridge but not for the ADP cartridge in both normal subjects and patients. The test offers a reliable, reproducible, rapid and simple means of assessing high-shear platelet function in vitro.

  10. Towards Personalized Medicine Based on Platelet Function Testing for Stent Thrombosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Godschalk, Thea Cornelia; Hackeng, Christian Marcus; ten Berg, Jurriën Maria

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) is a severe and feared complication of coronary stenting. Patients who have suffered from ST are usually treated according to the “one-size-fits-all” dosing regimen of aspirin and clopidogrel. Many ST patients show high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) despite this antiplatelet therapy (APT). It has been shown that HPR is a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events. Therefore, ST patients with HPR are at a high risk for recurrent atherothrombotic events. New insights into the variable response to clopidogrel and the advent of stronger P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor have changed the attention from a fixed APT treatment strategy towards “personalized APT strategies.” Strategies can be based on platelet function testing, which gives insight into the overall response of a patient to APT. At our outpatient ST clinic, we practice personalized APT based on platelet function testing to guide the cardiologist to a presumed optimal antiplatelet treatment of ST patients. Beside results of platelet function testing, comedication, clinical characteristics, and genetics have to be considered to decide on personalized APT. Ongoing studies have yet to reveal the optimal personalized APT strategy for cardiologists to prevent their patients from atherothrombotic and bleeding events. PMID:23320159

  11. Platelet function alterations and their relation to P-selectin (CD62P) expression in children with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Zuhal K; Orhan, Mehmet F; Büyükavcı, Mustafa

    2011-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) may cause platelet aggregation dysfunction and this can be reversed by iron therapy. On the other hand, it has been reported that the platelet fractions carrying the platelet activation markers, CD62P and CD63, are increased in thalassemic patients and there is a significant correlation between the increased levels of soluble P-selectin and free iron in sickle cell disease. This study was performed to investigate the alterations of platelet functions and whether iron deficiency results in diminished expression of activation marker (P-selectin; CD62P) leading to platelet aggregation dysfunction in children with IDA. Hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices (mean erythrocyte volume and red blood cell distribution width), serum levels of iron, transferrin and ferritin, platelet aggregation tests (with ADP, collagen, and ristocetin), PFA-100 closure time, and CD62P expression were evaluated in fasting blood samples of 22 children with IDA and 20 children without anemia. CD62P expression was detected by flow cytometry in normal and 5 μmol/l ADP-activated platelets. Mean closure times were longer in the patient group than control. In platelet aggregation tests, mean values of maximum aggregation times by ristocetin, ADP, and collagen were also more prolonged in patient group. Ristocetin-induced maximum aggregation rates (amplitude) were significantly higher in patients. However, ADP and collagen induction did not produce the same effect. CD62P expressions were significantly higher on activated platelets of the patient group, although they were similar in both groups before activation by ADP. These findings suggest that platelet aggregation and adhesion have been delayed in children with IDA; however, platelet function abnormalities are not associated with CD62P expression on platelet surface.

  12. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation.

  13. The role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaque on platelet EP(3) and EP(4) receptor activation and platelet function in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Schober, Lisa J; Khandoga, Anna L; Dwivedi, Suman; Penz, Sandra M; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brandl, Richard; Siess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component. Macrophages accumulating in atherosclerotic arteries produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a main inflammatory mediator. Platelets express inhibitory receptors (EP(2), EP(4)) and a stimulatory receptor (EP(3)) for this prostanoid. Recently, it has been reported in ApoE(-/-) mice that PGE(2) accumulating in inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions might contribute to atherothrombosis after plaque rupture by activating platelet EP(3), and EP(3) blockade has been proposed to be a promising new approach in anti-thrombotic therapy. The aim of our investigation was to study the role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaques on human platelet function and thrombus formation. Plaque PGE(2) might either activate or inhibit platelets depending on stimulation of either EP(3) or EP(4), respectively. We found that the two EP(3)-antagonists AE5-599 (300 nM) and AE3-240 (300 nM) specifically and completely inhibited the synergistic effect of the EP(3)-agonist sulprostone on U46619-induced platelet aggregation in blood. However, these two EP(3)-antagonists neither inhibited atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa exposure, dense and alpha granule secretion in blood nor reduced plaque-induced platelet thrombus formation under arterial flow. The EP(4)-antagonist AE3-208 (1-3 μM) potentiated in combination with PGE(2) (1 μM) ADP-induced aggregation, demonstrating that PGE(2) enhances platelet aggregation when the inhibitory EP(4)-receptor is inactivated. However, plaque-induced platelet aggregation was not augmented after platelet pre-treatment with AE3-208, indicating that plaque PGE(2) does not stimulate the EP(4)-receptor. We found that PGE(2) was present in plaques only at very low levels (15 pg PGE(2)/mg plaque). We conclude that PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic lesions does not modulate (i.e. stimulate or inhibit) atherothrombosis in blood after plaque rupture.

  14. Functional self-association of von Willebrand factor during platelet adhesion under flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Brian; Sixma, Jan J.; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2002-01-01

    We have used recombinant wild-type human von Willebrand factor (VWF) and deletion mutants lacking the A1 and A3 domains, as well as specific function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, to demonstrate a functionally relevant self-association at the interface of soluble and surface-bound VWF. Platelets perfused at the wall shear rate of 1,500 s1 over immobilized VWF lacking A1 domain function failed to become tethered to the surface when they were in a plasma-free suspension with erythrocytes, but adhered promptly if soluble VWF with functional A1 domain was added to the cells. The same results were observed when VWF was immobilized onto collagen through its A3 domain and soluble VWF with deleted A3 domain was added to the cells. Thus, VWF bound to glass or collagen sustains a process of homotypic self-association with soluble VWF multimers that, as a result, can mediate platelet adhesion. The latter finding demonstrates that direct immobilization on a substrate is not a strict requirement for VWF binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib. The dynamic and reversible interaction of surface-bound and soluble VWF appears to be specifically homotypic, because immobilized BSA, human fibrinogen, and fibronectin cannot substitute for VWF in the process. Our findings highlight a newly recognized role of circulating VWF in the initiation of platelet adhesion. The self-assembly of VWF multimers on an injured vascular surface may provide a relevant contribution to the arrest of flowing platelets opposing hemodynamic forces, thus facilitating subsequent thrombus growth.

  15. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation.

    PubMed

    Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Breuss, Johannes M; Olcaydu, Damla; Chrenek, Peter; Stockinger, Hannes; Fuertbauer, Elke; Moser, Markus; Haiko, Paula; Fässler, Reinhard; Alitalo, Kari; Binder, Bernd R; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2010-05-13

    During embryonic development, lymph sacs form from the cardinal vein, and sprout centrifugally to form mature lymphatic networks. Separation of the lymphatic from the blood circulation by a hitherto unknown mechanism is essential for the homeostatic function of the lymphatic system. O-glycans on the lymphatic endothelium have recently been suggested to be required for establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin. We found that platelet aggregates build up in wild-type embryos at the separation zone of podoplanin(+) lymph sacs and cardinal veins, but not in podoplanin(-/-) embryos. Thus, podoplanin(-/-) mice develop a "nonseparation" phenotype, characterized by a blood-filled lymphatic network after approximately embryonic day 13.5, which, however, partially resolves in postnatal mice. The same embryonic phenotype is also induced by treatment of pregnant mice with acetyl salicylic acid, podoplanin-blocking antibodies, or by inactivation of the kindlin-3 gene required for platelet aggregation. Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system.

  16. Guidelines for the laboratory investigation of heritable disorders of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul; Mackie, Ian; Mumford, Andrew; Briggs, Carol; Liesner, Ri; Winter, Mark; Machin, Sam

    2011-10-01

    The guideline writing group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. MEDLINE was systematically searched for publications in English up to the Summer of 2010 using key words platelet, platelet function testing and platelet aggregometry. Relevant references generated from initial papers and published guidelines/reviews were also examined. Meeting abstracts were not included. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised and agreed by consensus. Further comment was made by members of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of approximately 40 UK haematologists, the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Society for Haematology Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. Criteria used to quote levels and grades of evidence are as outlined in appendix 7 of the Procedure for Guidelines Commissioned by the BCSH [http://www.bcshguidelines.com/BCSH_PROCESS/EVIDENCE_LEVELS_AND_GRADES_OF_RECOMMENDATION/43_GRADE.html]. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on platelet function testing in patients with suspected bleeding disorders. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients receiving antiplatelet therapy and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Platelets Cellular and Functional Characteristics in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Alexander; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Testa, Luca; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Liu, Tong; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Yavuz, Senol; de Oliveira Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros; Baker, William L.; Jang, Jae-Sik; Gong, Mengqi; Benedetto, Umberto; Dohmen, Pascal M.; D’Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Deshmukh, Abhishek J.; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Calkins, Hugh; Stone, Gregg W.

    2017-01-01

    Background This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of platelet cellular and functional characteristics including platelet count (PC), MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet factor 4, beta thromboglobulin (BTG), and p-selectin with the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and consequent stroke. Material/Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating platelet characteristics in patients with paroxysmal, persistent and permanent atrial fibrillations. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Results Literature search of all major databases retrieved 1,676 studies. After screening, a total of 73 studies were identified. Pooled analysis showed significant differences in PC (weighted mean difference (WMD)=−26.93 and p<0.001), MPV (WMD=0.61 and p<0.001), PDW (WMD=−0.22 and p=0.002), BTG (WMD=24.69 and p<0.001), PF4 (WMD=4.59 and p<0.001), and p-selectin (WMD=4.90 and p<0.001). Conclusions Platelets play a critical and precipitating role in the occurrence of AF. Whereas distribution width of platelets as well as factors of platelet activity was significantly greater in AF patients compared to SR patients, platelet count was significantly lower in AF patients. PMID:28302997

  18. The first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of human platelet protein composition allows the comparative analysis of structural and functional pathways.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Julia M; Vaudel, Marc; Gambaryan, Stepan; Radau, Sonja; Walter, Ulrich; Martens, Lennart; Geiger, Jörg; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René P

    2012-10-11

    Antiplatelet treatment is of fundamental importance in combatting functions/dysfunction of platelets in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Dysfunction of anucleate platelets is likely to be completely attributable to alterations in posttranslational modifications and protein expression. We therefore examined the proteome of platelets highly purified from fresh blood donations, using elaborate protocols to ensure negligible contamination by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and plasma. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we created the first comprehensive and quantitative human platelet proteome, comprising almost 4000 unique proteins, estimated copy numbers for ∼ 3700 of those, and assessed intersubject (4 donors) as well as intrasubject (3 different blood samples from 1 donor) variations of the proteome. For the first time, our data allow for a systematic and weighted appraisal of protein networks and pathways in human platelets, and indicate the feasibility of differential and comprehensive proteome analyses from small blood donations. Because 85% of the platelet proteome shows no variation between healthy donors, this study represents the starting point for disease-oriented platelet proteomics. In the near future, comprehensive and quantitative comparisons between normal and well-defined dysfunctional platelets, or between platelets obtained from donors at various stages of chronic cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases will be feasible.

  19. Pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor and clopidogrel: the platelet function substudy from the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Schneider, David J; Bhatt, Deepak L; French, William J; Price, Matthew J; Saucedo, Jorge F; Shaburishvili, Tamaz; Huber, Kurt; Prats, Jayne; Liu, Tiepu; Harrington, Robert A; Becker, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    Cangrelor is an intravenous antagonist of the P2Y(12) receptor characterized by rapid, potent, predictable, and reversible platelet inhibition. However, cangrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials. A prospectively designed platelet function substudy was performed in a selected cohort of patients to provide insight into the pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor, particularly in regard to whether cangrelor therapy may interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel. This pre-defined substudy was conducted in a subset of patients from the CHAMPION-PCI trial (n = 230) comparing cangrelor with 600 mg of clopidogrel administered before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and from the CHAMPION-PLATFORM trial (n = 4) comparing cangrelor at the time of PCI and 600 mg clopidogrel given after the PCI. Pharmacodynamic measures included P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 testing (primary endpoint marker), platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry following 5 and 20 μmol/L adenosine diphosphate stimuli, and markers of platelet activation determined by flow cytometry. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI. The main trial was stopped early limiting enrollment in the platelet substudy. A total of 167 patients had valid pharmacodynamic assessments for the primary endpoint. The percent of individuals achieving <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI was higher with cangrelor + clopidogrel (32/84, 38.1 %) compared with placebo + clopidogrel (21/83, 25.3 %), but this was not statistically significant (difference:12.79 %, 95 % CI: -1.18 %, 26.77 %;p = 0.076). All pharmacodynamic markers as well as the prevalence of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity were significantly lower

  20. Influence of low-dose proton pump inhibitors administered concomitantly or separately on the anti-platelet function of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Nishino, Masafumi; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Umemura, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) at low doses can effectively prevent gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin and are widely used in Japan for gastroprotection in patients taking anti-platelet agents. We examined the influence of different PPIs at low doses administered concomitantly or separately on anti-platelet functions of clopidogrel. In 41 healthy Japanese volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes who took clopidogrel 75 mg in the morning alone, or with omeprazole 10 mg, esomeprazole 10 mg, lansoprazole 15 mg, or rabeprazole 10 mg, either concomitantly in the morning or separately in the evening, we measured the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA, %) using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at 4 h after the last clopidogrel dose on Day 7 of each regimen. IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime, approximately 4 h after clopidogrel, was also measured. Mean IPAs in those concomitantly receiving omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole or rabeprazole (47.2 ± 21.1%, 43.2 ± 20.2%, 46.4 ± 18.8%, and 47.3 ± 19.2%, respectively) were significantly decreased compared with those receiving clopidogrel alone (56.0%) (all ps < 0.001). This decrease was observed when PPIs were administered separately in the evening. However, IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime was 51.6%, which was markedly similar to that of clopidogrel alone (p = 0.114). All tested PPIs reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel when administered concomitantly. Our preliminary data suggest that administration of rabeprazole 4 h following clopidogrel may minimize potential drug-drug interactions.

  1. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase in platelets: regulating integrin function and α-granule secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Tanya; Stevens, Joanne M.; Jordan, Peter A.; Jones, Sarah; Barrett, Natasha E.; St-Arnaud, Rene; Frampton, Jonathan; Dedhar, Shoukat; Gibbins, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in the regulation of a range of fundamental biological processes such as cell survival, growth, differentiation, and adhesion. In platelets ILK associates with β1- and β3-containing integrins, which are of paramount importance for the function of platelets. Upon stimulation of platelets this association with the integrins is increased and ILK kinase activity is up-regulated, suggesting that ILK may be important for the coordination of platelet responses. In this study a conditional knockout mouse model was developed to examine the role of ILK in platelets. The ILK-deficient mice showed an increased bleeding time and volume, and despite normal ultrastructure the function of ILK-deficient platelets was decreased significantly. This included reduced aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions. Furthermore, although early collagen stimulated signaling such as PLCγ2 phosphorylation and calcium mobilization were unaffected in ILK-deficient platelets, a selective defect in α-granule, but not dense-granule, secretion was observed. These results indicate that as well as involvement in the control of integrin affinity, ILK is required for α-granule secretion and therefore may play a central role in the regulation of platelet function. PMID:18772455

  2. Viable pregnancies beyond 28 weeks gestation in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage have reduced platelet function.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Mark A; Flood, Karen; Burke, Naomi; Murray, Aoife; Cotter, Brian; Muellers, Siglinde; Dicker, Patrick; Fletcher, Patricia; Geary, Michael; Malone, Fergal D; Kenny, Dermot

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize platelet function in pregnant patients with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) in the third trimester of a subsequent viable pregnancy, a time at which platelet dysfunction may be associated with an increased obstetric risk. A prospective study was performed comparing 30 viable pregnancies that had reached at least 28 weeks' gestation amongst patients who had a background history of unexplained RM, with 30 healthy pregnant controls at a similar gestational age. Platelet function was determined by means of platelet aggregation in response to 5 different agonists at multiple concentrations. Amongst the 30 RM patients with ongoing viable pregnancies, we demonstrated significantly reduced platelet aggregation compared to the pregnant controls in the third trimester. For three out of five agonists, we demonstrated statistically significantly decreased platelet aggregation and for all five agonists we demonstrated significantly decreased platelet aggregation in the postnatal period. There were no obvious differences in obstetric outcomes. This study shows that women with a history of unexplained RM have reduced platelet function after 28 weeks' gestation in their subsequent pregnancies compared to healthy pregnant controls, but without this difference leading to any obvious increase in adverse obstetric risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aptamer-functionalized silver nanoparticles for scanometric detection of platelet-derived growth factor-BB.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongting; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yaju; Dong, Shiyu; Li, Wei; Qiang, Weibing; Xu, Danke

    2014-02-17

    In this work, we reported a scanometric assay system based on the aptamer-functionalized silver nanoparticles (apt-AgNPs) for detection of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) protein. The aptamer and ssDNA were bound with silver nanoparticles by self-assembly of sulfhydryl group at 5' end to form the apt-AgNPs probe. The apt-AgNPs probe can catalyze the reduction of metallic ions in color agent to generate metal deposition that can be captured both by human eyes and a flatbed scanner. Two different color agents, silver enhancer solution and color agent 1 (10 mM HAuCl4+2 mM hydroquinone) were used to develop silver and gold shell on the surface of AgNPs separately. The results demonstrated that the formation of Ag core-Au shell structure had some advantages especially in the low concentrations. The apt-AgNPs probe coupled with color agent 1 showed remarkable superiority in both sensitivity and detection limit compared to the apt-AuNPs system. The apt-AgNPs system also produced a wider linear range from 1.56 ng mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) for PDGF-BB with the detection limit lower than 1.56 ng mL(-1). The present strategy was applied to the determination of PDGF-BB in 10% serum, and the results showed that it had good specificity in complex biological media.

  4. Cyclophilin A is an important mediator of platelet function by regulating integrin αIIbβ3 bidirectional signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; Soe, Nwe Nwe; Sowden, Mark; Xu, Yingqian; Modjeski, Kristina; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Kim, Yeonghwan; Smolock, Elaine M; Morrell, Craig N; Berk, Bradford C

    2014-05-05

    Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is an important mediator in cardiovascular diseases. It possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity (PPIase) and chaperone functions, which regulate protein folding, intracellular trafficking and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Platelet glycoprotein receptor αIIbβ3 integrin activation is the common pathway for platelet activation. It was our objective to understand the mechanism by which CyPA-regulates αIIbβ3 activation in platelets. Mice deficient for CyPA (CyPA-/-) had prolonged tail bleeding time compared to wild-type (WT) controls despite equivalent platelet numbers. In vitro studies revealed that CyPA-/- platelets exhibited dramatically decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. In vivo, formation of occlusive thrombi following FeCl3 injury was also significantly impaired in CyPA-/- mice compared with WT-controls. Furthermore, CyPA deficiency inhibited flow-induced thrombus formation in vitro. Flow cytometry demonstrated that thrombin-induced ROS production and αIIbβ3 activation were reduced in CyPA-/- platelets. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed ROS-dependent increased association of CyPA and αIIbβ3. This association was dependent upon the PPIase activity of CyPA. Significantly, fibrinogen-platelet binding, platelet spreading and cytoskeleton reorganisation were also altered in CyPA-/- platelets. Moreover, CyPA deficiency prevented thrombin-induced αIIbβ3 and cytoskeleton association. In conclusion, CyPA is an important mediator in platelet function by regulation of αIIbβ3 bidirectionalsignalling through increased ROS production and facilitating interaction between αIIbβ3 and the cell cytoskeleton.

  5. Structure of von Willebrand factor and its function in platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Z M

    2001-06-01

    The adhesive protein von Willebrand factor mediates the initiation and progression of thrombus formation at sites of vascular injury. von Willebrand factor is synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes as a very large polymer composed of identical subunits. In the plasma, it appears as a series of multimers of regularly decreasing molecular mass, from several thousand to 500 kDa. The size of circulating von Willebrand factor multimers is controlled by proteolytic cleavage carried out by a specific protease. The biological functions of von Willebrand factor are exerted through specific domains that interact with extracellular matrix components and cell membrane receptors to promote the initial tethering and adhesion of platelets to subendothelial surfaces, as well as platelet aggregation. Moreover, von Willebrand factor binds the procoagulant co-enzyme, factor VIII, contributing to its stability and, indirectly, to its function in the generation of fibrin. This chapter presents a review of current knowledge on the structure, biosynthesis and functions of von Willebrand factor.

  6. Increased platelet reactivity in patients with late-stage metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Niamh M; Egan, Karl; McFadden, Siobhan; Grogan, Liam; Breathnach, Oscar S; O'Leary, John; Hennessy, Bryan T; Kenny, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Platelet hyperreactivity is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of thrombosis, a risk that increases with disease progression. While cancer patients show evidence of platelet activation in vivo, few studies have extensively assessed whether these patients display platelet hyperreactivity. We hypothesized that patients with metastatic cancer would display platelet hyperreactivity, reflecting their associated high risk of thrombosis. In a cohort of patients with metastatic cancer (n = 13), we assessed platelet function using well-established assays of platelet reactivity (agonist-induced platelet aggregation, spontaneous platelet aggregation, and agonist-induced P-selectin expression). In comparison with healthy controls (n = 10), patients with metastatic cancer displayed global platelet hyperreactivity. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation responses to ADP (adenosine diphosphate), epinephrine, collagen, arachidonic acid, and PAR-1 (protease-activated receptor-1) activating peptide, as well as spontaneous platelet aggregation, were significantly increased in patients with metastatic cancer. Furthermore, agonist-induced platelet P-selectin expression was also significantly increased within the patient cohort. We demonstrate that patients with metastatic cancer are characterized by global platelet hyperreactivity, a factor that may contribute to their increased risk of thrombosis. We assessed platelet function in a cohort of patients with metastatic cancer (n = 13) using well-established assays of platelet reactivity. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation and activation in response to platelet agonists, as well as spontaneous platelet aggregation, was significantly increased in cancer patients compared with healthy controls. We demonstrate that patients with metastatic cancer are characterized by global platelet hyperreactivity, a factor that may contribute to their increased risk of thrombosis. PMID

  7. Grafting of phosphorylcholine functional groups on polycarbonate urethane surface for resisting platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Feng, Yakai; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Miao; Shi, Changcan; Khan, Musammir; Guo, Jintang

    2013-07-01

    In order to improve the resistance of platelet adhesion on material surface, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was grafted onto polycarbonate urethane (PCU) surface via Michael reaction to create biomimetic structure. After introducing primary amine groups via coupling tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA) onto the polymer surface, the double bond of MPC reacted with the amino group to obtain MPC modified PCU. The modified surface was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results verified that MPC was grafted onto PCU surface by Michael reaction method. The MPC grafted PCU surface had a low water contact angle and a high water uptake. This means that the hydrophilic PC functional groups improved the surface hydrophilicity significantly. In addition, surface morphology of MPC grafted PCU film was imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results showed that the grafted surface was rougher than the blank PCU surface. In addition, platelet adhesion study was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The PCU films after treated with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated that much fewer platelets adhered to the MPC-grafted PCU surface than to the blank PCU surface. The antithrombogenicity of the MPC-grafted PCU surface was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The result suggested that the MPC modified PCU may have potential application as biomaterials in blood-contacting and some subcutaneously implanted devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Honokiol as a specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI antagonist on human platelets: Functional ex vivo and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Yen, Ting-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Li, Jiun-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Honokiol, derived from Magnolia officinalis, has various pharmacological properties. Platelet activation plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. Honokiol has been reported to inhibit collagen-stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation. However, detailed further studies on the characteristics and functional activity of honokiol in platelet activation are relatively lacking. In the present study, honokiol specifically inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca+2 ion mobilization stimulated with collagen or convulxin, an agonist of glycoprotein (GP) VI, but not with aggretin, an agonist of integrin α2β1. Honokiol also attenuated the phosphorylation of Lyn, PLCγ2, PKC, MAPKs, and Akt after convulxin stimulation. Honokiol have no cytotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Honokiol diminished the binding of anti-GP VI (FITC-JAQ1) mAb to human platelets, and it also reduced the coimmunoprecipitation of GP VI-bound Lyn after convulxin stimulation. The surface plasmon resonance results revealed that honokiol binds directly to GP VI, with a KD of 289 μM. Platelet function analysis revealed that honokiol substantially prolonged the closure time in human whole blood and increased the occlusion time of thrombotic platelet plug formation in mice. In conclusion, honokiol acts as a potent antagonist of collagen GP VI in human platelets, and it has therapeutic potential in the prevention of the pathological thrombosis. PMID:28054640

  9. Honokiol as a specific collagen receptor glycoprotein VI antagonist on human platelets: Functional ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Yen, Ting-Lin; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Li, Jiun-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2017-01-05

    Honokiol, derived from Magnolia officinalis, has various pharmacological properties. Platelet activation plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. Honokiol has been reported to inhibit collagen-stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation. However, detailed further studies on the characteristics and functional activity of honokiol in platelet activation are relatively lacking. In the present study, honokiol specifically inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca(+2) ion mobilization stimulated with collagen or convulxin, an agonist of glycoprotein (GP) VI, but not with aggretin, an agonist of integrin α2β1. Honokiol also attenuated the phosphorylation of Lyn, PLCγ2, PKC, MAPKs, and Akt after convulxin stimulation. Honokiol have no cytotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Honokiol diminished the binding of anti-GP VI (FITC-JAQ1) mAb to human platelets, and it also reduced the coimmunoprecipitation of GP VI-bound Lyn after convulxin stimulation. The surface plasmon resonance results revealed that honokiol binds directly to GP VI, with a KD of 289 μM. Platelet function analysis revealed that honokiol substantially prolonged the closure time in human whole blood and increased the occlusion time of thrombotic platelet plug formation in mice. In conclusion, honokiol acts as a potent antagonist of collagen GP VI in human platelets, and it has therapeutic potential in the prevention of the pathological thrombosis.

  10. 14-3-3ζ regulates the mitochondrial respiratory reserve linked to platelet phosphatidylserine exposure and procoagulant function

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Darbousset, Roxane; Cranmer, Susan L.; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Orive, Stephanie L.; Sturgeon, Sharelle; Yuan, Yuping; Yao, Yu; Krycer, James R.; Woodcock, Joanna; Maclean, Jessica; Pitson, Stuart; Zheng, Zhaohua; Henstridge, Darren C.; van der Wal, Dianne; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Berndt, Michael C.; Andrews, Robert K.; James, David E.; Lopez, Angel F.; Jackson, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of adaptor proteins regulate diverse cellular functions including cell proliferation, metabolism, adhesion and apoptosis. Platelets express numerous 14-3-3 isoforms, including 14-3-3ζ, which has previously been implicated in regulating GPIbα function. Here we show an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating arterial thrombosis. Interestingly, this thrombosis defect is not related to alterations in von Willebrand factor (VWF)–GPIb adhesive function or platelet activation, but instead associated with reduced platelet phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and procoagulant function. Decreased PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient platelets is associated with more sustained levels of metabolic ATP and increased mitochondrial respiratory reserve, independent of alterations in cytosolic calcium flux. Reduced platelet PS exposure in 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice does not increase bleeding risk, but results in decreased thrombin generation and protection from pulmonary embolism, leading to prolonged survival. Our studies define an important role for 14-3-3ζ in regulating platelet bioenergetics, leading to decreased platelet PS exposure and procoagulant function. PMID:27670677

  11. [In vitro platelet production].

    PubMed

    Dunois-Lardé, C; Baruch, D

    2011-04-01

    This review aims at presenting a state of the art on platelet functions, not only in well-characterized hemostasis and thrombosis, but also in various domains such as inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, source of growth factors, metastasis and vascular remodelling. This multivalent phenotype of platelets suggests new potential applications of platelets. The second objective is to present new advances in platelet formation from megakaryocytes and direct platelet release, as initially shown by our group and more recently by others.

  12. Impact of high-dose statins on vitamin D levels and platelet function in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Pergolini, Patrizia; Rolla, Roberta; Nardin, Matteo; Schaffer, Alon; Barbieri, Lucia; Daffara, Veronica; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    Statins represent a pivotal treatment in coronary artery disease, offering a reduction in cardiovascular risk even beyond their lipid-lowering action. However, the mechanism of these "pleiotropic" benefits of statins is poorly understood. Vitamin D has been suggested as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and vascular protecting effects of statins. Aim of present study was to assess the impact of a high-intensity statin therapy on vitamin D levels and platelet function in patients with coronary artery disease. Patients discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy and high-intensity statins after an ACS or elective PCI were scheduled for main chemistry and vitamin D levels assessment at 30-90days post-discharge. Vitamin D (25-OHD) dosing was performed by chemiluminescence method through the LIAISON® Vitamin D assay (Diasorin Inc). Platelet function was assessed by Multiplate® (multiple platelet function analyser; Roche Diagnostics AG). Among 246 patients included, 142 were discharged on a new statin therapy or with an increase in previous dose (Inc-S), while 104 were already receiving a high-dose statin at admission, that remained unchanged (Eq-S). Median follow-up was 75.5days. Patients in the Inc-S group were younger (p=0.01), smokers (p<0.001), with a less frequent history of hypercholesterolemia (p=0.05), diabetes (p=0.03), hypertension (p=0.02), or previous cardiovascular events (p<0.001). They were more often admitted for an acute coronary syndrome (p<0.001) and used less anti-hypertensive drugs or nitrates. Higher total circulating calcium was observed in the Inc-S group (p=0.004), while baseline vitamin D levels were similar in the 2 groups (p=0.30). A significant reduction in the circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was observed in the Inc-S group. Vitamin D levels increased in the Inc-S patients but not in the Eq-S group (delta-25OHD: 23.2±20.5% vs 3.1±4.7%, p=0.003), with a linear relationship between the

  13. Assessment of neonatal platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Groberg, Sandra M.; Lattimore, Susan; Recht, Michael; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Haley, Kristina M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Acquired and inherited bleeding disorders may present in the neonatal period with devastating lifelong effects. Diagnosing bleeding disorders in the neonatal population could aid in preventing and treating the associated complications. However, currently available platelet function testing is limited in neonates owing to difficulties obtaining adequate blood volume, lack of normal reference ranges, and an incomplete understanding of the neonatal platelet functional phenotype. Objective Develop small-volume, whole blood platelet function assays to quantify and compare neonatal and adult platelet function. Methods and Results Peripheral blood was obtained from healthy, full-term neonates at 24-hours of life. Platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation were measured via flow cytometry. Platelet adhesion and aggregation were assessed under static and flow conditions. As compared to adult platelets, peripheral neonatal platelet P-selectin expression and integrin glycoprotein (GP) IIbIIIa activation was significantly reduced in response to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-agonists thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP-6), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), and U46619 and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-signaling pathway agonists collagen-related peptide (CRP) and rhodocytin. Neonatal platelet aggregation was markedly reduced in response to TRAP-6, ADP, U46619, CRP, and rhodocytin compared to adult platelets. The extent of neonatal and adult platelet adhesion and aggregate formation under static and shear conditions on collagen and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were similar. Conclusions As compared to adult platelets, we found neonatal platelet activation and secretion were blunted in response to GPCR- or ITAM-agonists, while the extent of neonatal platelet adhesion and aggregate formation was similar to adult platelets. PMID:26806373

  14. A Cell-Based Assay to Assess Hemichannel Function

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Srinivasan; Fiori, Mariana C.; Cuello, Luis G.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of connexin hemichannels is involved in the pathophysiology of disorders that include deafness, stroke, and cardiac infarct. This aspect makes hemichannels an attractive therapeutic target. Unfortunately, most available inhibitors are not selective or isoform specific, which hampers their translational application. The absence of a battery of useful inhibitors is due in part to the absence of simple screening assays for the discovery of hemichannel-active drugs. Here, we present an assay that we have recently developed to assess hemichannel function. The assay is based on the expression of functional human connexins in a genetically modified bacterial strain deficient in K+ uptake. These modified cells do not grow in low-K+ medium, but functional expression of connexin hemichannels allows K+ uptake and growth. This cell-growth-based assay is simple, robust, and easily scalable to high-throughput multi-well platforms. PMID:28356896

  15. Adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine modified with boron cluster pharmacophores as new classes of human blood platelet function modulators.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Wojtczak, Błazej A; Sułowska, Zofia; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2010-05-03

    Novel types of adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine derivatives containing boron clusters at positions C2', N6, or C8 were synthesized. The effect of these modified compounds on platelet function was studied. Modification of adenosine at the C2' position with a para-carborane cluster (C(2)B(10)H(11)) results in efficient inhibition of platelet function, including aggregation, protein secretion, and P-selectin expression induced by thrombin or ADP. These preliminary findings and the new chemistry proposed form the basis for the development of a new class of adenosine analogues that modulate human blood platelet activities.

  16. [Regulation of the functional and mechanical properties of platelet and red blood cells by nitric oxide donors].

    PubMed

    Shamova, E V; Bichan, O D; Drozd, E S; Gorudko, I V; Chizhik, S A; Shumaev, K B; Cherenkevich, S N; Vanin, A F

    2011-01-01

    The effect of NO donors (sodium nitroprusside, S-nitrosoglutathione, dinitrosyl-iron complexes) on the functional and mechanical properties of human platelets and red blood cells has been investigated. It has been established by atomic force microscopy that NO donor-induced platelet disaggregation is accompanied by changes in the elastic properties of cells. It has been shown that, in the presence of NO donors, the detergent-induced hemolysis of red blood cells is delayed, and the elasticity modulus of these cells decreases. The results obtained indicate that NO donors regulate the structural and functional properties of platelets and red blood cells.

  17. The effect of platelet lysate fibrinogen on the functionality of MSCs in immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copland, Ian B; Garcia, Marco A; Waller, Edmund K; Roback, John D; Galipeau, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) represents an attractive alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the ex vivo expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, there is controversy whether MSCs propagated in unfractionated PL retain their immunosuppressive properties. Since fibrinogen can be a major component of PL, we hypothesized that the fibrinogen content in PL negatively affects the suppressor function of MSCs. Pools of outdated plateletpheresis products underwent a double freeze-thaw centrifugation and filtration to produce unfractionated platelet lysates (uPL), followed by a temperature controlled clotting procedure to produce a fibrinogen depleted platelet lysate (fdPL). Fibrinogen depletion affected neither the mitogenic properties of PL or growth factor content, however fdPL was less prone to develop precipitate over time. Functionally, fibrinogen interacted directly with MSCs, dose dependently increased IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 protein production, and compromised the ability of MSCs to up-regulate indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), as well as, mitigate T-cell proliferation. Similarly uPL expanded MSCs showed a reduced capability of inducing IDO and suppressing T-cell proliferation compared to FBS expanded MSCs. Replacing uPL with fdPL largely restored the immune modulating effects of MSCs. Together these data suggest that fibrinogen negatively affects the immunomodulatory functions of MSCs and fdPL can serve as non-xenogenic mitogenic supplement for expansion of clinical grade MSCs for immune modulation.

  18. Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Yan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Schlappi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-05-17

    Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) and a precipitate B (PB) fraction were obtained and compared. Reliability of the preparation process was validated by pharmacodynamic experiments. A rat/mouse thrombosis and blood stasis model was developed for this study, and EA and PB effects on thrombosis, platelet functions and blood coagulation activities were analyzed. It was observed that the EA fraction had significantly better inhibitory effects than the PB fraction on thrombosis (p<0.05), platelet aggregation function (p<0.01) and anticoagulation activity (p<0.05-0.01). The results obtained here showed that EA fraction from Dragon's Blood contained pharmacologically effective compounds with antithrombotic effects, partially improving platelet function and anticoagulation activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions of gallic acid, resveratrol, quercetin and aspirin at the platelet cyclooxygenase-1 level. Functional and modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Crescente, Marilena; Jessen, Gisela; Momi, Stefania; Höltje, Hans-Dieter; Gresele, Paolo; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    While resveratrol and quercetin possess antiplatelet activity, little is known on the effect of gallic acid on platelets. We studied the interactions of these three different polyphenols among themselves and with aspirin, at the level of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Both functional (in vitro and in vivo) and molecular modelling approaches were used. All three polyphenols showed comparable antioxidant activity (arachidonic acid [AA]-induced intraplatelet ROS production); however, resveratrol and quercetin, but not gallic acid, inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation. Gallic acid, similarly to salicylic acid, the major aspirin metabolite, prevented inhibition of AA-induced platelet function by aspirin but, at variance with salicylic acid, also prevented inhibition by the other two polyphenols. Molecular modelling studies, performed by in silico docking the polyphenols into the crystal structure of COX-1, suggested that all compounds form stable complexes into the COX-1 channel, with slightly different but functionally relevant interaction geometries. Experiments in mice showed that gallic acid administered before aspirin, resveratrol or quercetin fully prevented their inhibitory effect on serum TxB(2). Finally, a mixture of resveratrol, quercetin and gallic acid, at relative concentrations similar to those contained in most red wines, did not inhibit platelet aggregation, but potentiated sub-inhibitory concentrations of aspirin. Gallic acid interactions with other polyphenols or aspirin at the level of platelet COX-1 might partly explain the complex, and possibly contrasting, effects of wine and other components of the Mediterranean diet on platelets and on the pharmacologic effect of low-dose aspirin.

  20. Do we need more research on platelet function in South Asian immigrants?

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sunita

    2010-12-01

    South Asian Immigrants (SAIs) have high rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors. This is alarming as i) SAIs are the 2nd fastest growing Asian immigrant population in the US; ii) CAD prevalence is 2 times higher than in other immigrant populations; iii) at any risk factor level, SAIs are at a greater risk of CAD; and iv) Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor and associated co-morbidity in SAIs. Although clinical guidelines for CAD prevention recommend risk management based on Framingham Risk Scores (FRS), available data suggest that FRS underestimate CAD risk in SAIs. This review presents an overview of platelet related research in SAIs, its importance in predicting CAD risk and methods of diagnosis. Further we provide discussion on the importance of platelet function assessment for more appropriate stratification of SAIs based on cardiovascular risk.

  1. Platelet mitochondrial function in Parkinson's disease. The Royal Kings and Queens Parkinson Disease Research Group.

    PubMed

    Krige, D; Carroll, M T; Cooper, J M; Marsden, C D; Schapira, A H

    1992-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that defective function of the mitochondrial enzyme NADH CoQ reductase (complex I) is involved not only in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity, but also in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Complex I deficiency has been identified in PD substantia nigra and appears to be disease-specific and selective for the substantia nigra within the central nervous system. We describe a method for preparation of an enriched mitochondrial fraction from 60 mL blood. Using this technique, we analyzed respiratory chain function in 25 patients with PD and 15 matched control subjects. We confirm a previous report of a specific complex I deficiency in PD platelet mitochondria. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in complex I activity in the PD group compared with the control group (p = 0.005), the defect was mild (16%); it was not possible to distinguish PD from control values on an individual basis. This deficiency is not detectable in platelet whole-cell homogenates, presumably reflecting the relative insensitivity of this preparation and the limited decrease in complex I activity in PD. The presence of a mild complex I defect in platelets together with a more severe defect in substantia nigra suggests either that the pharmacological characteristics shared by these two tissues render them susceptible to a particular toxin or toxins, or that the defect is widely distributed and other biochemical events enhance the deficiency in substantia nigra.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Can the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 test substitute for the template bleeding time in routine clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Francis, J; Francis, D; Larson, L; Helms, E; Garcia, M

    1999-01-01

    The bleeding time (BT) is widely used in clinical medicine as a screening test of platelet function, although its deficiencies in such a role are well recognized. The Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 measures the ability of platelets activated in a high-shear environment to occlude an aperture in a membrane treated with collagen and epinephrine (CEPI) or collagen and ADP (CADP). The time taken for flow across the membrane to stop (closure time) is recorded. This study compared the PFA-100 with the BT as a screening test of platelet dysfunction in 113 hospital inpatients. The PFA-100 test was performed initially using the CEPI cartridge; CADP tests were performed on those with abnormal (> 163 s) CEPI closure times. Whole blood platelet aggregation studies and chart review were performed on patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results did not agree.Abnormal bleeding times and PFA-100 results were obtained in 20.4% and 35.4% of patients, respectively. The results of BT and PFA-100 agreed in 74.3% of patients. Of the 29 patients in whom the BT and PFA-100 results were discordant, whole blood platelet aggregation studies supported the PFA-100 result in 25 (86.2%). The PFA-100 was more sensitive to aspirin-induced platelet dysfunction and was more rapidly and cheaply performed than the BT. Since the PFA-100 test reflects platelet function better than the BT, we conclude that this test could replace the BT as a first-line screening test for platelet dysfunction in clinical practice.

  3. Effects of clopidogrel therapy on whole blood platelet aggregation, the Plateletworks® assay and coagulation parameters in cats with asymptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    den Toom, M L; van Leeuwen, M W; Szatmári, V; Teske, E

    2017-12-01

    Although scientific evidence is limited, clopidogrel is frequently used as prophylaxis for arterial thromboembolism in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Evaluating effects of clopidogrel therapy in asymptomatic cats with HCM on (1) conventional whole blood aggregation (WBA), (2) alternative platelet aggregation assessed with tubes of the Plateletworks® assay and (3) standard coagulation parameters. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Fourteen asymptomatic HCM cats were randomly allocated to receive placebo (n = 5) or clopidogrel (18.75 mg/cat q24h, n = 9) as part of a larger study. Aggregation responses (to 20 µM adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and 10 µg/ml collagen) in WBA and the Plateletworks® assay and standard coagulation parameters were evaluated at baseline and after seven days of therapy. Clopidogrel therapy significantly reduced aggregation responses to ADP and collagen in the Plateletworks® agonists tubes (ADP and collagen: P < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce aggregation responses to ADP and collagen in the WBA technique (ADP: P = 0.07, collagen: P = 0.30). Clopidogrel therapy did not show a significant effect on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin, D-dimers and fibrinogen concentrations. Clopidogrel therapy at a dose of 18.75 mg/cat q24h for seven days causes a significant decrease in in vitro platelet aggregation evaluated with the Plateletworks® assay, without affecting standard coagulation parameters in cats with asymptomatic HCM.

  4. Pneumatic tube system transport does not alter platelet function in optical and whole blood aggregometry, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and fibrinogen in patients on anti-platelet drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Münch, Andreas; Niedrist, Tobias; Mahla, Elisabeth; Metzler, Helfried; Prüller, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess pneumatic tube system (PTS) alteration on platelet function by the light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and whole blood aggregometry (WBA) method, and on the results of platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Materials and methods Venous blood was collected into six 4.5 mL VACUETTE® 9NC coagulation sodium citrate 3.8% tubes (Greiner Bio-One International GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) from 49 intensive care unit (ICU) patients on dual anti-platelet therapy and immediately hand carried to the central laboratory. Blood samples were divided into 2 Groups: Group 1 samples (N = 49) underwent PTS (4 m/s) transport from the central laboratory to the distant laboratory and back to the central laboratory, whereas Group 2 samples (N = 49) were excluded from PTS forces. In both groups, LTA and WBA stimulated with collagen, adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA) and thrombin-receptor-activated-peptide 6 (TRAP-6) as well as platelet count, PT, APTT, and fibrinogen were performed. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between blood samples with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) PTS transport (P values from 0.064 – 0.968). The AA-induced LTA (bias: 68.57%) exceeded the bias acceptance limit of ≤ 25%. Conclusions Blood sample transportation with computer controlled PTS in our hospital had no statistically significant effects on platelet aggregation determined in patients with anti-platelet therapy. Although AA induced LTA showed a significant bias, the diagnostic accuracy was not influenced. PMID:28392742

  5. [Changes in platelet function in children with acute or chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Mareev, O V; Diudina, O Iu

    2004-01-01

    Children with a compensated or uncompensated form of acute or chronic tonsillitis demonstrate high platelet aggregation resultant in faster formation of platelet aggregates, an increased maximum size of these aggregates, faster achievement of the maximum platelet aggregation. Local drug therapy, combined drug + ultrasound and laser therapy failed to normalize platelet aggregation. The best effect on platelet aggregation was obtained in combined treatment with ultrasound and laser.

  6. Comparison of the effects of a balanced crystalloid-based and a saline-based tetrastarch solution on canine whole blood coagulation and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Reuteler, Annina; Axiak-Flammer, Shannon; Howard, Judith; Adamik, Katja-Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) solution in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL), or a saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation. Prospective, randomized study. University teaching hospital. Thirty-seven client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia for arthroscopy or imaging studies. Dogs received a 15 mL/kg intravenous bolus of HES-SAL (n = 13), HES-BAL (n = 14), or a modified Ringer's solution (n = 10) over 30-40 minutes. Coagulation was analyzed using a Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (closure time [CtPFA ]), and whole blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM) with extrinsically (ex-tem and fib-tem) and intrinsically (in-tem) activated assays, which assessed clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximal clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index (LI). Coagulation samples were assayed prior to fluid administration (T0), and 5 minutes (T1), and 3 hours (T2) following fluid bolus administration, respectively. Both HES solutions resulted in impaired platelet function as indicated by a significant prolongation of CtPFA at T1 as compared to T0, but which resolved by T2. An IV bolus of Ringer's solution did not alter platelet function. In both HES groups, whole blood coagulation was significantly impaired at T1 as indicated by a significant increase in in-tem CFT, and a significant decrease in ex-tem, in-tem, and fib-tem MCF compared to T0. Furthermore, a significant increase in ex-tem CFT at T1 compared to T0 was found in the HES-SAL group. With the exception of in-tem MCF after HES-BAL, these effects were not present at T2. No significant differences were found in CtPFA or any ROTEM variable at any time point between HES-SAL and HES-BAL. Administration of a single bolus of 15 mL/kg 6% HES 130/0.42 results in significant but short-lived impairment of canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation, regardless of carrier solution. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  7. VerifyNow and VASP phosphorylation assays give similar results for patients receiving clopidogrel, but they do not always correlate with platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bidet, Audrey; Jais, Catherine; Puymirat, Etienne; Coste, Pierre; Nurden, Alan; Jakubowski, Joseph; Nurden, Paquita

    2010-01-01

    Point-of-care testing permits an evaluation of the efficacy of drugs used in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). An increased risk of thrombosis after coronary stenting for ACS patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel has been linked to high platelet reactivity and, for certain patients, poor drug response. The objective of our study was to compare the VerifyNow-P2Y12 device with the VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) phosphorylation assay and ADP-induced platelet aggregation as assessed by light transmission aggregometry in a group of 81 ACS patients (100 tests) treated in our hospital. There was a good correlation between VerifyNow-P2Y12 and VASP especially during the chronic phase of one month or more after the ischemic event, whereas discordance was sometimes seen with platelet aggregometry. The rapidity and ease of use of the VerifyNow device suggests that it has a valuable place in point-of-care testing of ACS patients.

  8. Reversible electropermeabilisation of human and rat blood platelets: evaluation of morphological and functional integrity 'in vitro' and 'in vivo'.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Crawford, N

    1989-06-06

    A high-voltage discharge procedure has been developed for permeabilising the plasma membranes of both human and rat blood platelets. The cells can be resealed by incubation at 37 degrees C, show less than 4% loss of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) implying minimal cell lysis and also have well maintained morphological and functional integrity. The prototype apparatus used at field strengths between 6 and 8 kV/cm produces membrane pores which allow free diffusion of low molecular weight substances such as adenine nucleotides, inositol phosphate and fluorescent dyes. Two properties, namely Ca2+-induced secretion of granule stored 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced release of intracellularly sequestered 45Ca, which are both well expressed immediately after permeabilisation, are essentially abolished after resealing. The efficiency of permeabilisation and resealing can be simply monitored by shifts in 'apparent platelet volume' using a resistive particle counter (Coulter). Permeabilised platelets show a shift in modal volumes from a control range 4-7 fl to 10-15 fl. Resealing restores these modal volumes to the original control range. Encapsulation of the fluorochrome, Lucifer yellow (Mr 550), during permeabilisation revealed that after resealing greater than 85% of rat platelets, and close to 100% human platelets, contained the encapsulated dye. The initial rates and % aggregation responses of both human and rat platelets to collagen, thrombin and the thromboxane A2-mimetic U46619 remained essentially normal after permeabilisation and resealing further illustrating the maintenance of functional competence following treatment. Resealed rat platelets reinfused into the circulation after labelling with [111In]indium oxine gave survival curves similar to those of control platelets. Therefore, this reversible permeabilisation procedure may allow the use of autologous or heterologous platelets as carrier vehicles for the delivery of drugs

  9. Effects of in vitro hemodilution of canine blood on platelet function analysis using the PFA-100.

    PubMed

    Clancey, Noel; Burton, Shelley; Horney, Barbara; Mackenzie, Allan; Nicastro, Andrea; Côté, Etienne

    2009-12-01

    The platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 is a point-of-care instrument previously evaluated in humans and dogs. In both species, artificially prolonged platelet closure time (CT) occurs with anemia. Reliability of the analyzer in dogs becomes a concern when the HCT is between 0.25 and 0.35 L/L. The objective of this study was to further define the level of HCT at which CT is prolonged, using in vitro diluted canine blood. Citrated whole blood samples were collected from 22 healthy dogs. Initial HCT was determined and autologous platelet-rich plasma was added to samples to achieve HCTs of 0.33, 0.30, and 0.27 L/L. CT was determined in duplicate on the PFA-100 using collagen/adenosine-5'-diphosphate cartridges. Compared with the initial CT in samples with HCT 0.39-0.54 L/L (CT mean+/-SD=57.8+/-5.75 seconds), significantly prolonged CTs were found in hemodiluted samples with HCT 0.33 L/L (61.1+/-4.64 seconds), 0.30 L/L (64.3+/-6.79 seconds), and 0.27 L/L (70.8+/-7.90 seconds) (P=0.029; repeated measures ANOVA). Although statistical differences were found, further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of the mild prolongation in CT associated with mild anemia. Until then, dogs with HCTs slightly <0.35 L/L should be evaluated cautiously for platelet dysfunction using the PFA-100.

  10. Flow cytometry-based platelet function testing is predictive of symptom burden in a cohort of bleeders.

    PubMed

    Boknäs, Niklas; Ramström, Sofia; Faxälv, Lars; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2017-09-12

    Platelet function disorders (PFDs) are common in patients with mild bleeding disorders (MBDs), yet the significance of laboratory findings suggestive of a PFD remain unclear due to the lack of evidence for a clinical correlation between the test results and the patient phenotype. Herein, we present the results from a study evaluating the potential utility of platelet function testing using whole-blood flow cytometry in a cohort of 105 patients undergoing investigation for MBD. Subjects were evaluated with a test panel comprising two different activation markers (fibrinogen binding and P-selectin exposure) and four physiologically relevant platelet agonists (ADP, PAR1-AP, PAR4-AP, and CRP-XL). Abnormal test results were identified by comparison with reference ranges constructed from 24 healthy controls or with the fifth percentile of the entire patient cohort. We found that the abnormal test results are predictive of bleeding symptom severity, and that the greatest predictive strength was achieved using a subset of the panel, comparing measurements of fibrinogen binding after activation with all four agonists with the fifth percentile of the patient cohort (p = 0.00008, hazard ratio 8.7; 95% CI 2.5-40). Our results suggest that whole-blood flow cytometry-based platelet function testing could become a feasible alternative for the investigation of MBDs. We also show that platelet function testing using whole-blood flow cytometry could provide a clinically relevant quantitative assessment of platelet-related hemostasis.

  11. CD40L expression in plasma of volunteers following LPS administration: A comparison between assay of CD40L on platelet microvesicles and soluble CD40L.

    PubMed

    Mobarrez, Fariborz; Sjövik, Carolina; Soop, Anne; Hållström, Lars; Frostell, Claes; Pisetsky, David S; Wallén, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a transmembrane protein that is mainly expressed on activated T cells and platelets. This protein, however, may also be shed from cells and circulate in the blood in a soluble form. "Soluble CD40L" has attracted interest as a biomarker as it can interact with CD40 and elicit cellular responses involved in the pathophysiology of various thrombotic and inflammatory conditions. As platelets can release microvesicles following activation, we investigated the expression of CD40L on circulating microvesicles as well as CD40L in plasma, in an experimental model of inflammation in healthy volunteers (i.e., intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration). We studied CD40L quantified as CD40L-positive platelet microvesicles by flow cytometry, and as CD40L in plasma ("soluble CD40L") by an ELISA. Results of these studies showed that levels of CD40L exposed on platelet microvesicles were significantly increased after lipopolysaccharide administration. ELISA measurements of CD40L in plasma ("soluble CD40L") did not show any significant increase in plasma levels over time. Separation of soluble and vesicle-bound CD40L by high-speed centrifugation indicated that the ELISA can also detect CD40L on microvesicles, as a trend toward increased concentrations were observed in the pellet of high-speed centrifuged samples (i.e., in samples in which microvesicles are enriched). Together, these findings suggest that platelet microvesicles are a source of CD40L in the circulation and that CD40L exposure on platelet microvesicles increases following experimentally induced inflammation. Our data also suggest that determining levels of CD40L on microvesicles in plasma samples may provide a more sensitive detection of changes in CD40L expression than measurement of "soluble CD40L" in plasma with an ELISA. In addition, information regarding the cellular source of CD40L can be obtained with a flow cytometry-based microvesicle assay in a way not possible with an ordinary

  12. Megakaryocyte and platelet production from human cord blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Robert, Amélie; Cortin, Valérie; Garnier, Alain; Pineault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The cloning of thrombopoietin together with advances in the culture of hematopoietic stem cells have paved the way for the study of megakaryopoiesis, ongoing clinical trials and, in the future, for the potential therapeutic use of ex vivo produced blood substitutes, such as platelets. This chapter describes a 14-day culture protocol for the production of human megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets, and assays that can be used to characterize the functional properties of the platelets produced ex vivo. CD34(+) cells isolated from cord blood cells are grown in a serum-free medium supplemented with newly developed cytokine cocktails optimized for MK differentiation, expansion, and maturation. Detailed methodologies for flow cytometry analysis of MKs and platelets, for the purification of platelets and functional assays, are presented together with supporting figures. The chapter also provides a brief review on megakaryocytic differentiation and ex vivo MK cultures.

  13. Aspirin exposure reveals novel genes associated with platelet function and cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Voora, Deepak; Cyr, Derek; Lucas, Joseph; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Dungan, Jennifer; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Katz, Richard; Newby, L Kristin; Kraus, William E; Becker, Richard C; Ortel, Thomas L; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop ribonucleic acid (RNA) profiles that could serve as novel biomarkers for the response to aspirin. Aspirin reduces death and myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that aspirin interacts with biological pathways that may underlie these events. Aspirin was administered, followed by whole-blood RNA microarray profiling, in a discovery cohort of healthy volunteers (HV1) (n = 50) and 2 validation cohorts of healthy volunteers (HV2) (n = 53) and outpatient cardiology patients (OPC) (n = 25). Platelet function was assessed using the platelet function score (PFS) in HV1 and HV2 and the VerifyNow Aspirin Test (Accumetrics, Inc., San Diego, California) in OPC. Bayesian sparse factor analysis identified sets of coexpressed transcripts, which were examined for associations with PFS in HV1 and validated in HV2 and OPC. Proteomic analysis confirmed the association of validated transcripts in platelet proteins. Validated gene sets were tested for association with death or MI in 2 patient cohorts (n = 587 total) from RNA samples collected at cardiac catheterization. A set of 60 coexpressed genes named the "aspirin response signature" (ARS) was associated with PFS in HV1 (r = -0.31, p = 0.03), HV2 (r = -0.34, Bonferroni p = 0.03), and OPC (p = 0.046). Corresponding proteins for the 17 ARS genes were identified in the platelet proteome, of which 6 were associated with PFS. The ARS was associated with death or MI in both patient cohorts (odds ratio: 1.2 [p = 0.01]; hazard ratio: 1.5 [p = 0.001]), independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with traditional risk factors, reclassification (net reclassification index = 31% to 37%, p ≤ 0.0002) was improved by including the ARS or 1 of its genes, ITGA2B. RNA profiles of platelet-specific genes are novel biomarkers for identifying patients who do not respond adequately to aspirin and who are at risk for death or MI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  14. Tamoxifen Directly Inhibits Platelet Angiogenic Potential and Platelet-Mediated Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kelly E; Forward, Jodi A; Tippy, Mason D; Ceglowski, Julia R; El-Husayni, Saleh; Kulenthirarajan, Rajesh; Machlus, Kellie R; Mayer, Erica L; Italiano, Joseph E; Battinelli, Elisabeth M

    2017-04-01

    Platelets, which are mainly known for their role in hemostasis, are now known to play a crucial role in metastasis. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen and its metabolites have been shown to directly impact platelet function, suggesting that this drug has additional mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tamoxifen exerts antitumor effects through direct platelet inhibition. This study found that pretreatment with tamoxifen leads to a significant inhibition of platelet activation. Platelets exposed to tamoxifen released significantly lower amounts of proangiogenic regulator vascular endothelial growth factor. In vitro angiogenesis assays confirmed that tamoxifen pretreatment led to diminished capillary tube formation and decreased endothelial migration. Tamoxifen and its metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, also significantly inhibited the ability of platelets to promote metastasis in vitro. Using a membrane-based array, we identified several proteins associated with angiogenesis metastasis that were lower in activated releasate from tamoxifen-treated platelets, including angiogenin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, epidermal growth factor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, platelet-derived growth factor dimeric isoform BB, whereas antiangiogenic angiopoietin-1 was elevated. Platelets isolated from patients on tamoxifen maintenance therapy were also found to have decreased activation responses, diminished vascular endothelial growth factor release, and lower angiogenic and metastatic potential. We demonstrate that tamoxifen and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen directly alter platelet function leading to decreased angiogenic and metastatic potential. Furthermore, this study supports the idea of utilizing targeted platelet therapies to inhibit the platelet's role in angiogenesis and malignancy. © 2017 American Heart

  15. Alterations of platelet functions in children and adolescents with iron-deficiency anemia and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Galila M; Ibrahim, Wafaa E; Kassim, Nevine A; Ragab, Iman A; Saad, Abeer A; Abdel Raheem, Heba G

    2015-01-01

    Several changes in platelets have been reported in patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), so a relationship between iron metabolism and thrombopoiesis should be considered. We aimed to study the alterations of platelet functions in patients with IDA by assessment of platelet aggregation with epinephrine, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ristocetin and by measuring platelet function analyzer-100 (PFA-100) closure time together with the effect of iron therapy on the same tests. A follow-up study was conducted in Ain Shams University Children's hospital in the period from June 2011 to June 2012 including 20 patients with confirmed IDA and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control. Bleeding manifestations were reported. Laboratory analysis included complete blood count, assessment of iron status by measuring serum iron, TIBC and ferritin, assessment of platelet functions by PFA-100 closure time and platelet aggregation with collagen, ADP and ristocetin. Patients with IDA were treated by oral iron therapy 6 mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate and post-therapeutic re-assessment was done. Mean age of IDA patients was 5.7 ± 4.2 years. Bleeding manifestations were more common in patients group. Mean PFA-100 closure times (with epinephrine) were significantly longer in patients (179.1 ± 86.4 seconds) compared to control group (115 ± 28.5 seconds) (p < 0.05). Platelet aggregation by ADP (38.1 ± 22.2%), epinephrine (19.7 ± 14.2%) and ristocetin (58.8 ± 21.4%) were significantly reduced in patients compared to control (62.7 ± 6.2, 63.3 ± 6.9, 73.8 ± 8.3, respectively; p < 0.001). After treatment platelet aggregation tests induced by ADP (64.78 ± 18.25%), and epinephrine (55.47 ± 24%) were significantly increased in patients with IDA compared to before treatment (39.44 ± 21.85%, 20.33 ± 14.58%; p < 0.001). PFA-100 closure time as well showed significant decreased after treatment (118.4 ± 27.242) compared to before treatment (186.2 ± 90.35; p < 0.05). A negative

  16. Acute impact of conventional and eccentric cycling on platelet and vascular function in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Chasland, Lauren C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Maiorana, Andrew J; Dawson, Ellen Adele; Dembo, Lawrence; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2017-03-16

    Evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise therapy for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Such patients have increased atherothrombotic risk. Exercise can transiently increase platelet activation and reactivity and decrease vascular function in healthy participants, although data in CHF is scant. Eccentric (ECC) cycling is a novel exercise modality which may be particularly suited to patients with CHF, but the acute impacts of ECC on platelet and vascular function are currently unknown. Our null hypothesis was that ECC and concentric (CON) cycling, performed at matched external workloads, would not induce changes in platelet or vascular function in patients with CHF. Eleven patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) took part in discrete bouts of ECC and CON cycling. Before and immediately after exercise, vascular function was assessed by measuring diameter and flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Platelet function was measured by the flow cytometric determination of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation and granule exocytosis in the presence and absence of platelet agonists. ECC increased baseline artery diameter (pre: 4.0±0.8mm vs post: 4.2±0.7mm, P=0.04) and decreased FMD%. When changes in baseline artery diameter were accounted for the decrease in FMD post-ECC was no longer significant. No changes were apparent after CON. Neither ECC nor CON resulted in changes to any platelet function measures (all P>0.05). These results suggest both ECC and CON cycling at a moderate intensity and short duration can be performed by patients with HFrEF, without detrimental impacts on vascular or platelet function.

  17. Measurement of platelet P-selectin for remote testing of platelet function during treatment with clopidogrel and/or aspirin.

    PubMed

    Fox, S C; May, J A; Shah, A; Neubert, U; Heptinstall, S

    2009-06-01

    There is great interest in assessing the efficacy of treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin in patients with cardiovascular disease using procedures that can be used in a remote setting. Here we have established methods to assess the effects of clopidogrel and aspirin on platelets based on measurements of platelet P-selectin. Platelets were stimulated in whole blood by adding the combination of adenosine diphosphate and the TXA(2) mimetic U46619 (ADP/U4, designed to assess P2Y(12) inhibition) or the combination of arachidonic acid and epinephrine (AA/Epi, designed to assess COX-1 inhibition). The stimulated samples were then fixed using a fixative solution that provides stability for at least 9 days, and sent to a central laboratory for analysis of P-selectin by flow cytometry. Measurements were performed in blood from healthy volunteers and patients with cardiovascular disease. The inhibitory effects of clopidogrel and aspirin were assessed ex vivo and the effects of the direct acting P2Y(12) antagonist cangrelor and aspirin were assessed in vitro. Measurements of platelet aggregation were also performed for comparison. In healthy volunteers clopidogrel ex vivo and cangrelor in vitro markedly inhibited P-selectin expression induced by ADP/U4. Aspirin did not inhibit and did not interfere with the effects of clopidogrel or cangrelor using this test. There was very little overlap of results obtained in the absence and presence of clopidogrel or cangrelor. In contrast, over half of 42 patients with cardiovascular disease did not respond well to clopidogrel treatment, although cangrelor was still effective. Aspirin markedly inhibited P-selectin expression induced by AA/Epi. Clopidogrel had much less effect and did not interfere with the effects of aspirin. There was no overlap of results obtained in the absence and presence of aspirin. Aspirin provided near-complete inhibition in 29 of 30 patients with cardiovascular disease. Aggregometry measurements agreed well with

  18. The importance of platelets in the expression of monocyte tissue factor antigen measured by a new whole blood flow cytometric assay.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Alexander, M; May, K; Francis, D A; Warnes, G; Biggerstaff, J; Francis, J L

    1996-01-01

    Previous methods for the determination of monocyte tissue factor (TF) have been technically complex, difficult to standardize, prone to spuriously elevated results and difficult to implement in a clinical laboratory environment. We report the development of a two-color whole blood cytometric technique that overcomes many of these disadvantages. The assay uses small volumes of citrated blood (1.0 ml), can be performed in under one hour (if endotoxin stimulation is not performed), is reproducible (CV = 5%) and uses methodology commonly available in clinical laboratories. Baseline (mean +/- SD) expression of monocyte TF in normal subjects was very low (1.1 +/- 0.95%, Mean Fluorescence [Mean FL] 0.20 +/- 0.01) making relatively small increases easy to detect. Monocyte TF expression following endotoxin (LPS) stimulation for 1 h was 34.6 +/- 11.2% (Mean FL 0.32 +/- 0.04). LPS-stimulated activity varied between subjects (21-68%) but was remarkably consistent for individual subjects (CV = 5.4%). Stimulated monocyte TF expression was directly proportional to the platelet count and was reduced by platelet protective anticoagulants and by ingestion of aspirin. Non LPS-stimulated monocyte TF was markedly increased, in a dose-dependent manner, by adding collagen to whole blood. This was apparently associated with platelet-monocyte binding and could be abolished by anti-P-Selectin. We conclude that the whole blood flow cytometric assay of monocyte TF may be a valuable tool for clinical use and a useful model system for evaluating the humoral and cellular factors governing monocyte TF expression in a natural environment.

  19. Platelet factor 4 and interleukin-8 CXC chemokine heterodimer formation modulates function at the quaternary structural level.

    PubMed

    Nesmelova, Irina V; Sham, Yuk; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; van Eijk, Loes I; Wu, Guoping; Slungaard, Arne; Mortari, Frank; Griffioen, Arjan W; Mayo, Kevin H

    2005-02-11

    The apparent complexity of biology increases as more biomolecular interactions that mediate function become known. We have used NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling to provide direct evidence that tetrameric platelet factor-4 (PF4) and dimeric interleukin-8 (IL8), two members of the CXC chemokine family, readily interact by exchanging subunits and forming heterodimers via extension of their antiparallel beta-sheet domains. We further demonstrate using functional assays that PF4/IL8 heterodimerization has a direct and significant consequence on the biological activity of both chemokines. Formation of heterodimers enhances the anti-proliferative effect of PF4 on endothelial cells in culture, as well as the IL8-induced migration of CXCR2 vector-transfected Baf3 cells. These results suggest that CXC chemokine biology, and perhaps cytokine biology in general, may be functionally modulated at the molecular level by formation of heterodimers. This concept, in turn, has implications for designing chemokine/cytokine variants with modified biological properties.

  20. A System for Performing High Throughput Assays of Synaptic Function

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Chris M.; Sivula, Michael; Levenson, Jonathan M.; Rose, David M.; Li, Bing; Sirianni, Ana C.; Xia, Eva; Ryan, Timothy A.; Gerber, David J.; Cottrell, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbiased, high-throughput screening has proven invaluable for dissecting complex biological processes. Application of this general approach to synaptic function would have a major impact on neuroscience research and drug discovery. However, existing techniques for studying synaptic physiology are labor intensive and low-throughput. Here, we describe a new high-throughput technology for performing assays of synaptic function in primary neurons cultured in microtiter plates. We show that this system can perform 96 synaptic vesicle cycling assays in parallel with high sensitivity, precision, uniformity, and reproducibility and can detect modulators of presynaptic function. By screening libraries of pharmacologically defined compounds on rat forebrain cultures, we have used this system to identify novel effects of compounds on specific aspects of presynaptic function. As a system for unbiased compound as well as genomic screening, this technology has significant applications for basic neuroscience research and for the discovery of novel, mechanism-based treatments for central nervous system disorders. PMID:21998743

  1. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating −18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  2. Alterations in platelet function and cell-derived microvesicles in recently menopausal women: relationship to metabolic syndrome and atherogenic risk.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Litwiller, Robert D; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Owen, Whyte G; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Heit, John A; Hodis, Howard N; Harman, S Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    A woman's risk for metabolic syndrome (MS) increases at menopause, with an associated increase in risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that early menopause-related changes in platelet activity and concentrations of microvesicles derived from activated blood and vascular cells provide a mechanistic link to the early atherothrombotic process. Thus, platelet functions and cellular origin of blood-borne microvesicles in recently menopausal women (n = 118) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were correlated with components of MS and noninvasive measures of cardiovascular disease [carotid artery intima medial thickness (CIMT), coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, and endothelial reactive hyperemic index (RHI)]. Specific to individual components of the MS pentad, platelet number increased with increasing waist circumference, and platelet secretion of ATP and expression of P-selectin decreased with increasing blood glucose (p = 0.005) and blood pressure (p < 0.05), respectively. Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with monocyte- and endothelium-derived microvesicles (p < 0.05). Platelet-derived and total procoagulant phosphatidylserine-positive microvesicles, and systolic blood pressure correlated with CIMT (p < 0.05), but not with CAC or RHI. In summary, among recently menopausal women, specific platelet functions and concentrations of circulating activated cell membrane-derived procoagulant microvesicles change with individual components of MS. These cellular changes may explain in part how menopause contributes to MS and, eventually, to cardiovascular disease.

  3. Identification of ITGA2B and ITGB3 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Their Influences on the Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Qian; Ji, Shun-Dong; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate ITGA2B and ITGB3 genetic polymorphisms and to evaluate the variability in the platelet function in healthy Chinese subjects. The genetic sequence of the entire coding region of the ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes was investigated. Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content, bleeding time, and coagulation indexes were detected. Thirteen variants in the ITGA2B locus and 29 variants in the ITGB3 locus were identified in the Chinese population. The rs1009312 and rs2015049 were associated with the mean platelet volume. The rs70940817 was significantly correlated with the prothrombin time. The rs70940817 and rs112188890 were related with the activated partial thromboplastin time, and ITGB3 rs4642 was correlated with the thrombin time and fibrinogen. The minor alleles of rs56197296 and rs5919 were associated with decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and rs55827077 was related with decreased GPIIb/IIIa per platelet. The rs1009312, rs2015049, rs3760364, rs567581451, rs7208170, and rs117052258 were related with bleeding time. Further studies are needed to explore the clinical importance of ITGA2B and ITGB3 SNPs in the platelet function. PMID:27965976

  4. Intramyocardial injection of platelet gel promotes endogenous repair and augments cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ke; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Shen, Deliang; Tseliou, Eleni; Ionta, Vittoria; Smith, Jeremy; Galang, Giselle; Sun, Baiming; Houde, Christiane; Marbán, Eduardo

    2012-01-17

    This study sought to explore the therapeutic potential of platelet gel for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure. Current therapy relies on prompt reperfusion and blockage of secondary maladaptive pathways by small molecules. Platelet gels are biomaterials rich in cytokines and growth factors, which can be manufactured in an autologous manner and are effective in various models of wound healing. However, the potential utility of platelet gel in cardiac regeneration has yet to be tested. Platelet gel was derived from syngeneic rats and its morphology, biocompatibility, secretion of beneficial factors, and in vivo degradation profile were characterized. After delivery into infarcted rat hearts, the gel was efficiently infiltrated by cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Gel-treated hearts exhibited enhanced tissue protection, greater recruitment of endogenous regeneration, higher capillary density, and less compensatory myocyte hypertrophy. The cardiac function of control-injected animals deteriorated over the 6-week time course, while that of platelet gel-injected animals did not. In addition, the gel did not exacerbate inflammation in the heart. Intramyocardial injection of autologous platelet gel ameliorated cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction. The striking functional benefits, the simplicity of manufacturing, and the potentially autologous nature of this biomaterial provide impetus for further translation. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of roles for the Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Ly-GDI in platelet function: a spatial systems approach.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh T P; Thierheimer, Marisa L D; Babur, Özgün; Rocheleau, Anne D; Huang, Tao; Pang, Jiaqing; Rigg, Rachel A; Mitrugno, Annachiara; Theodorescu, Dan; Burchard, Julja; Nan, Xiaolin; Demir, Emek; McCarty, Owen J T; Aslan, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    On activation at sites of vascular injury, platelets undergo morphological alterations essential to hemostasis via cytoskeletal reorganizations driven by the Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA. Here we investigate roles for Rho-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor proteins (RhoGDIs) in platelet function. We find that platelets express two RhoGDI family members, RhoGDI and Ly-GDI. Whereas RhoGDI localizes throughout platelets in a granule-like manner, Ly-GDI shows an asymmetric, polarized localization that largely overlaps with Rac1 and Cdc42 as well as microtubules and protein kinase C (PKC) in platelets adherent to fibrinogen. Antibody interference and platelet spreading experiments suggest a specific role for Ly-GDI in platelet function. Intracellular signaling studies based on interactome and pathways analyses also support a regulatory role for Ly-GDI, which is phosphorylated at PKC substrate motifs in a PKC-dependent manner in response to the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein (GP) VI-specific agonist collagen-related peptide. Additionally, PKC inhibition diffuses the polarized organization of Ly-GDI in spread platelets relative to its colocalization with Rac1 and Cdc42. Together, our results suggest a role for Ly-GDI in the localized regulation of Rho GTPases in platelets and hypothesize a link between the PKC and Rho GTPase signaling systems in platelet function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The Feverfew plant-derived compound, parthenolide enhances platelet production and attenuates platelet activation through NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sahler, Julie; Bernard, Jamie J; Spinelli, Sherry L; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P

    2011-05-01

    Few treatments are available that can safely and effectively stimulate new platelet production for thrombocytopenic patients. Additionally, recipients of transfused platelets may experience an inflammatory response due to stored platelets becoming unnecessarily activated, thus creating the need for suitable agents that will dampen undesirable platelet activation. We investigated the effect of the feverfew plant-derived compound, parthenolide on platelet production and platelet activation because of its well-studied ability to induce apoptosis or differentiation in some types of cancer. Parthenolide was used to treat human megakaryoblastic cell lines, primary human and mouse megakaryocytes. Resulting platelet production and function was measured via flow cytometry. The two most common parthenolide signaling mechanisms, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB inhibition, were assessed within the megakaryocytes using reactive oxygen species, glutathione and luciferase reporter assays. The influence of parthenolide on ex vivo platelet activation was tested with parthenolide pretreatment followed by collagen or thrombin activation. The resulting P-selectin surface expression and released soluble CD40 ligand was measured. Parthenolide stimulates functional platelet production from human megakaryocyte cell lines, and from primary mouse and human megakaryocytes in vitro. Parthenolide enhances platelet production via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling in megakaryocytes and is independent of the parthenolide-induced oxidative stress response. Additionally, parthenolide treatment of human peripheral blood platelets attenuated activation of stimulated platelets. Overall, these data reveal that parthenolide has strong potential as a candidate to enhance platelet production and to dampen undesirable platelet activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet-activating factor receptor contributes to antileishmanial function of miltefosine.

    PubMed

    Gangalum, Pallavi R; de Castro, Waldionê; Vieira, Leda Q; Dey, Ranadhir; Rivas, Luis; Singh, Shailza; Majumdar, Subrata; Saha, Bhaskar

    2015-06-15

    Miltefosine [hexadecylphosphocholine (HPC)] is the only orally bioavailable drug for the disease visceral leishmaniasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Although miltefosine has direct leishmanicidal effects, evidence is mounting for its immune system-dependent effects. The mechanism of such indirect antileishmanial effects of miltefosine remains to be discovered. As platelet-activating factor and HPC share structural semblances and both induce killing of intracellular Leishmania, we surmised that platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor had a significant role in the antileishmanial function of miltefosine. The proposition was supported by molecular dynamic simulation of HPC docking into PAF receptor and by comparison of its leishmanicidal function on PAF receptor-deficient macrophages and mice under HPC treatment. We observed that compared with wild-type macrophages, the PAF receptor-deficient macrophages showed 1) reduced binding of a fluorescent analog of HPC, 2) decreased TNF-α production, and 3) lower miltefosine-induced killing of L. donovani. Miltefosine exhibited significantly compromised leishmanicidal function in PAF receptor-deficient mice. An anti-PAF receptor Ab led to a significant decrease in miltefosine-induced intracellular Leishmania killing and IFN-γ production in a macrophage-T cell coculture system. These results indicate significant roles for PAF receptor in the leishmanicidal activity of HPC. The findings open new avenues for a more rational understanding of the mechanism of action of this drug as well as for improved therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Assessment of platelet function in patients receiving tirofiban early after primary coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kupó, Péter; Aradi, Dániel; Tornyos, Adrienn; Tőkés-Füzesi, Margit; Komócsi, András

    2016-01-01

    Background Following percutaneous coronary intervention, combined antiplatelet therapy is necessary. Platelet function testing (PFT) has prognostic value and may be applied in the risk assessment of acute coronary syndrome. In case of combined antiplatelet therapy, PFT may require special laboratory methods, as different antiplatelet agents may influence test results. Materials and methods Platelet functions were measured in stent thrombosis-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients receiving aspirin, clopidogrel, and tirofiban. The first sampling was obtained immediately after the termination of administration of tirofiban. The second sample was drawn at a randomly assigned time between 1 and 6 h. The third sampling was done after a minimum of 24 h of tirofiban cessation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced aggregations were measured. Results Thirty-seven patients were included. Both TRAP- and ADP-induced aggregation values were significantly lower immediately after tirofiban termination, than after 24 h [TRAP: 26.41 ± 25.00 units (U) vs. 109.86 ± 23.69 U, p < 0.0001; ADP: 17.43 ± 10.10 U vs. 43.92 ± 23.35 U, p ≤ 0.0001]. Elimination half-life of tirofiban and clopidogrel were 1.34 ± 0.49 and 1.269 ± 0.78, respectively. Conclusion ADP-induced residual platelet reactivity is significantly influenced by the presence of concurrent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. In patients receiving combined antiplatelet treatment, ADP-receptor-specific efficiency measurements are valid only after total elimination of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. PMID:28180001

  9. [Effect of 25 Gy (60)Co Irradiation on the Physico-chemical Property and Functions of the Platelets During Storage].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Lin-Feng; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Lv, Ying; Ma, Chun-Ya; Wang, Ke; Fu, Li-Hui; Tong, Shan; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Feng, Yan-Nan; Wang, De-Qing

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of the 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation on the physiological and biochemical properties and the functions of the platelets during storage. A total of 15 bags of platelets were apheresis-collected from 15 healthy donors, and each bag of platelets were divided into 2 parts, then the platelets were divided into the control group (without 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation) and the irradiated group (with 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation) groups. The two groups of platelets were kept under the condition of (22 ± 2) °C and shaken. The Platelet count and pH value were detected on the d 1, d 2, d 3, d 4 and d 5. The variables such as R, K values, α angle and maximal amplitude (MA) were measured by thrombelastography on the same days. Hypotonic shock response (HSR), morphological score were devised. There were no statistically significant difference in Plt counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribute width (PDW) and pH between the two groups (P > 0.05), and Plt count decreased on the end of storage. There were no marked changes in HSR level and morphological score between the two groups during storage, and there were no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). In the TEG analysis there were no significant difference of the R, K, α angle and MA values between the two groups (P > 0.05). R value showed upward trend increased along with prolongation of preserved time (P < 0.01), no significant changes in α angle (P > 0.05), K value was slightly higher and MA value was lower in the last day of storage than the days 1-4 (P < 0.01), respectively. 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray irradiation can not damage the physiological, biochemical properties and the functions of the platelets during storage. In order to ensure the best curative effect, it is suggested that no matter the platelets were irradiated or not, the platelets should be used as soon as possible.

  10. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    thrombogenic effects of rehydrated platelets involve the use of thrombocytopenic animals. We plan to use a COBE Spectra Blood Cell Separator apheresis ...34AD-A276 018 DT SFEB 2 199-4 SECOND ANNUAL REPORT F 2 4 February 1, 1993 - January 31, 1994 "Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion...canine platelets and assessment of multiple infusions of non-labelled rehydrated platelets . The attached subcontract report from Dr. Read and

  11. Human Platelets Exhibit Chemotaxis using Functional N-Formyl Peptide Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    activated phagocytes. Therefore, we examined the chemotactic migration of platelets qualita- tively by videomicroscopy . Platelets in medium were al- lowed...significantly decreased M. Czapiga et al. /Experimental Hematology 33 (2005) 73–84 79Figure 3. Videomicroscopy of human platelets in response to formyl...selected platelets during videomicroscopy from the time of the addition of fMLF (104 M in 1 µL) or PBS. Movement between markers represents 10 frames

  12. Platelet function in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Hoda Ahmed; Sadek, Samiaa Hamdy; Nafady, Asmaa Abdel Hakim

    2016-03-22

    The effect of association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes (DM) on platelet function has not been studied before. To evaluate the effect of the association between COPD and DM on platelet function and C reactive protein (CRP). This case control study was carried out on 110 stable COPD patients who were classified into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. In addition to 40 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched individuals. Chest X-ray, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gases were done for COPD patients. CRP and complete blood count (CBC) were measured in both patient and control groups. Mean Platelet volume (MPV), Platelet distribution width (PDW), Platelet crit (PCT) and CRP were significantly higher in COPD patients either non-diabetic or diabetic compared to control group. Moreover MPV and CRP markers were significantly higher in COPD diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic. There was no significant difference in various laboratory data among different stages of COPD either diabetic or non-diabetic (P >0.05). In COPD patients, MPV was a significantly positively correlated with CRP and PDW (r= 0.346, P<0.001; r=0.510, P<0.001 respectively) and negatively correlated with PLT count (r= -0.294, P=0.002). MPV. PDW, PCT and CRP were significantly higher in COPD patients either non -diabetic or diabetic. Platelet function may be modified by the systemic inflamattion that associated with COPD. Platelet activation as a prothrombotic sequence of this disease may be used as novel therapeutic target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Functional assay using lectin gene targeting technologies (over-expression).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Motohiro; Kawasaki, Toshisuke

    2014-01-01

    Function of lectin depends on its amino acid sequence of carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), conformation, and extracellular/intracellular localization. Altering lectin gene expression by over-expression or knockdown is a powerful tool for analyzing its cellular function. Here, we describe a method of lectin gene over-expression, taking a C-type lectin, mannan-binding protein (MBP), as an example. Carbohydrate-binding ability of MBP, its subcellular localization, and functional co-localization with ligand glycoprotein are assayed comparing with an inactive mutant MBP.

  14. An association of platelet indices with blood pressure in Beijing adults: Applying quadratic inference function for a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Yan, Yan; Cao, Kai; Liu, Xiangtong; Chen, Sipeng; Xu, Qin; Liu, Long; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Aoshuang; Ping, Zhao; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    The quadratic inference function (QIF) method becomes more acceptable for correlated data because of its advantages over generalized estimating equations (GEE). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between platelet indices and blood pressure using QIF method, which has not been studied extensively in real data settings.A population-based longitudinal study was conducted in Beijing from 2007 to 2012, and the median of follow-up was 6 years. A total of 6515 cases, who were aged between 20 and 65 years at baseline and underwent routine physical examinations every year from 3 Beijing hospitals were enrolled to explore the association between platelet indices and blood pressure by QIF method. The original continuous platelet indices were categorized into 4 levels (Q1-Q4) using the 3 quartiles of P25, P50, and P75 as a critical value. GEE was performed to make a comparison with QIF.After adjusting for age, usage of drugs, and other confounding factors, mean platelet volume was negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (Equation is included in full-text article.)in males and positively linked with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Equation is included in full-text article.). Platelet distribution width was negatively associated with SBP (Equation is included in full-text article.). Blood platelet count was associated with DBP (Equation is included in full-text article.)in males.Adults in Beijing with prolonged exposure to extreme value of platelet indices have elevated risk for future hypertension and evidence suggesting using some platelet indices for early diagnosis of high blood pressure was provided.

  15. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  16. The effects of clopidogrel and omeprazole on platelet function in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Thames, B E; Lovvorn, J; Papich, M G; Wills, R; Archer, T; Mackin, A; Thomason, J

    2017-04-01

    Omeprazole is used concurrently with clopidogrel to reduce gastrointestinal adverse effects. In humans, the concurrent use of these two drugs can reduce the antiplatelet efficacy of clopidogrel. Our objective was to determine the effects of omeprazole and clopidogrel on platelet function in healthy dogs. A crossover study utilized turbidimetric aggregometry (ADP and collagen) and the PFA-100(®) with the collagen/ADP cartridge to evaluate platelet function in eight healthy dogs during the administration of clopidogrel (1 mg/kg/24 h p.o.), omeprazole (1 mg/kg/24 h p.o.), and a combination of clopidogrel and omeprazole. Drug metabolite concentrations were also measured. Compared to pretreatment, on Days 3 and 5, with ADP as the agonist, there was a significant decrease in maximum amplitude on aggregometry for both clopidogrel and clopidogrel/omeprazole groups. The following revealed no significant differences between clopidogrel and clopidogrel/omeprazole groups when compared on Days 3 and 5: maximum amplitude on aggregometry with ADP or collagen agonists, and PFA-100(®) closure times. When compared to the clopidogrel group, clopidogrel metabolite concentrations in the clopidogrel/omeprazole group were significantly higher on Days 3 and 5. The concurrent administration of omeprazole and clopidogrel in healthy dogs was associated with an increase in the plasma concentration of an inactive metabolite of clopidogrel, but does not significantly alter the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel.

  17. Defining predictive values using three different platelet function tests for CYP2C19 phenotype status on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Zhe; Kim, Moo Hyun; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Published data suggests that the presence of CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss of function (LOF) alleles is indicative of increased platelet aggregation and a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events after clopidogrel administration. We sought to determine cut-off values using three different assays for prediction of the CYP2C19 phenotype in Korean percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. We enrolled 244 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation who were receiving clopidogrel and aspirin maintenance therapy for one month or more. Platelet reactivity was assessed with light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (VN). The CYP2C19 genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and snapshot method. The frequency of CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers was 58.6%. The cut-off values from LTA, MEA and VerifyNow for the identification of LOF allele carriers were as follows: 10 µM ADP-induced LTA ≥ 48 %, VN>242 PRU and MEA ≥ 37 U. Between the three tests, correlation was higher between LTA vs. VN assays (r=0.69) and LTA vs. MEA (r=0.56), with moderate agreement (κ=0.46 and κ=0.46), but between VN assay and MEA, both devices using whole blood showed a lower correlation (r=0.42) and agreement (κ=0.3). Our results provide guidance regarding cut-off levels for LTA, VerifyNow and MEA assays to detect the CYP2C19 LOF allele in patients during dual antiplatelet maintenance therapy.

  18. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  19. Correlation Between the CYP2C19 Phenotype Status and the Results of Three Different Platelet Function Tests in Cardiovascular Disease Patients Receiving Antiplatelet Therapy: An Emphasis on Newly Introduced Platelet Function Analyzer-200 P2Y Test

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhua; Choi, Jae-Lim; Guo, Long Zhe; Goh, Ri-Young; Kim, Bo-Ram; Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Moo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background An association has been reported between CYP2C19 polymorphism and the altered antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel. We investigated this association using the newly introduced platelet function analyzer (PFA)-200 (INNOVANCE PFA-200 System; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) P2Y test. Methods Polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and the degree of inhibition of platelet function were determined in 83 patients. Three different platelet function tests were used to evaluate the degree of platelet inhibition and to check the association with genotype. Results The post-procedure PFA-200 values of extensive metabolizers (EM) patients (285.3±38.8) were higher than those of intermediate metabolizers (IM) and poor metabolizers (PM) patients (227.7±98.3 and 133.7±99.2, respectively; P=0.024). Light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and the VerifyNow system showed that the post-procedure values for EM patients were lower than those of IM and PM patients (LTA: 24.4±15.7, 34.1±17.6, and 42.2±16.9, respectively, P<0.001; VerifyNow: 133.2±60.5, 171.5±42.6, and 218.7±59.3, respectively, P<0.001). The high residual platelet reactivity (HPR) rates were significantly different among the EM, IM, and PM groups using PFA-200 (PM:IM:EM=82.4:40.6:11.8, P<0.001). Conclusions Approximately, 59.0% of Korean patients with cardiovascular disease receiving clopidogrel had CYP2C19 loss-of-function genotypes classified as IM or PM, and the frequency was similar to the data from Asian people. The PFA-200, LTA, and VerifyNow platelet function tests revealed evidence of a significant association between the efficacy of clopidogrel and CYP2C19 genotypes. PMID:26522758

  20. Effects of tranexamic acid on platelet function and thrombin generation (ETAPlaT): WOMAN trial sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has the potential to reduce bleeding and a large randomized placebo controlled trial of its effect in women with PPH (The WOMAN trial) is underway. TXA might also affect coagulation factors and platelets.  Objectives. To examine the effect of TXA on thrombin generation, platelet function, fibrinogen, D-dimer and coagulation factors in women with PPH.  Methods. We will conduct a sub-study within the WOMAN trial. Women with clinically diagnosed primary PPH after vaginal or caesarean delivery are eligible for inclusion. Blood samples will be collected at baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of study treatment. Using platelet poor plasma we will measure thrombin generation, fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor V and VIII, and Von Willebrand factor. Platelet function will be evaluated in whole blood using Multiplate® tests. Outcomes. The primary outcome is the effect of TXA on thrombin generation. Secondary outcomes include the effect of TXA on platelet function, fibrinogen, D-dimer and coagulation factors. PMID:28090594

  1. Clopidogrel Resistance by P2Y12 Platelet Function Testing in Patients Undergoing Neuroendovascular Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nordeen, Jerah D.; Patel, Alden V.; Darracott, Robert M.; Johns, Gretchen S.; Taussky, Philipp; Tawk, Rabih G.; Miller, David A.; Freeman, William D.; Hanel, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess clopidogrel resistance and whether “intensified” antiplatelet therapy guided by platelet inhibition tests during neuroendovascular procedures would reduce ischemic complications. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, who underwent neuroendovascular (NV) procedures and had P2Y12 platelet function testing from October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. The primary end-point was to determine P2Y12 resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients who underwent NV procedures. Secondary objectives included incidence of hemorrhagic and ischemic events and a correlation between resistance and genetic CYP2C19 testing. Results: 160 patients underwent P2Y12 platelet function tests. Eighty-one patients (81/160, 50.6%) met inclusion criteria. Platelet function tests identified 64 patients (79%) as non-resistant (≥20% P2Y12 inhibition) and 17 (21%) as resistant (<20% inhibition) after initial clopidogrel loading. There was an increased rate of death when a complication occurred in the resistant group by 30 day (17% versus 3%; p=0.059) and 90 day follow-up (23% versus 4%; p=0.032). There was no significant association found between complication and loading dose (p=0.0721). Conclusions: 21% of patients undergoing NV procedures were resistant to clopidogrel. Intensifying antiplatelet therapy to achieve ≥20% inhibition on platelet function testing did not result in higher numbers of ischemic or hemorrhagic events, but there was a trend toward more death in the resistant group by 30 and 90 days of those experiencing complication(s). Author Justifications: Jerah D. Nordeen, Pharm.D.: Primary author Alden V. Patel, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Robert M. Darracott, Pharm.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Gretchen S. Johns, M.D.: Contributor of professional content, study design Philipp Taussky, M.D.: Contributor of professional

  2. Overview of Platelet Physiology: Its Hemostatic and Nonhemostatic Role in Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2014-01-01

    Platelets are small anucleate cell fragments that circulate in blood playing crucial role in managing vascular integrity and regulating hemostasis. Platelets are also involved in the fundamental biological process of chronic inflammation associated with disease pathology. Platelet indices like mean platelets volume (MPV), platelets distributed width (PDW), and platelet crit (PCT) are useful as cheap noninvasive biomarkers for assessing the diseased states. Dynamic platelets bear distinct morphology, where α and dense granule are actively involved in secretion of molecules like GPIIb , IIIa, fibrinogen, vWf, catecholamines, serotonin, calcium, ATP, ADP, and so forth, which are involved in aggregation. Differential expressions of surface receptors like CD36, CD41, CD61 and so forth have also been quantitated in several diseases. Platelet clinical research faces challenges due to the vulnerable nature of platelet structure functions and lack of accurate assay techniques. But recent advancement in flow cytometry inputs huge progress in the field of platelets study. Platelets activation and dysfunction have been implicated in diabetes, renal diseases, tumorigenesis, Alzheimer's, and CVD. In conclusion, this paper elucidates that platelets are not that innocent as they keep showing and thus numerous novel platelet biomarkers are upcoming very soon in the field of clinical research which can be important for predicting and diagnosing disease state. PMID:24729754

  3. The role of peroxides as modulators of human blood platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, R.L.; Hess, M.L. )

    1990-02-26

    The ability to peroxidize lipid in the vicinity of arterial walls has been demonstrated through oxidation of the LDL-particle by monocytes/macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. The authors questioned what effect increased levels of peroxides might have on platelet function. Platelet aggregation, studied trubidometrically, was initiated by arachidonic acid (AA) alone or in the presence of a low concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (which by itself could not initiate aggregation). Aggregation was analyzed quantitatively by measuring the time it took to reach 1/2 the maximal extent of aggregation (T1/2Max). Using the minimal concentration of AA still able to initiate aggregation (0.2-0.45 mM) the T1/2Max was 112{+-}35 (n=10). With 50% of the respective AA conc. plus 17 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the T1/2Max was 52{+-}21. Under similar circumstances, the amount of AA able to initiate aggregation could be reduced by 80% with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These effects could be duplicated by glucose oxidase, 0.015-0.15 IU, and could be eliminated by the addition of catalase (<25 U/ml) at any time prior to the start of aggregation. With non-aggregating concentrations of AA alone, synthesis of Thromboxane B{sub 2} was negligible; with aggregation by the same AA plus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} it was 550{+-}79 pg/10{sup 3} platelets. Both aggregation and TxB{sub 2} synthesis were completely inhibited by aspirin or indomethacin, and by the antioxidants phenol and nor-dihydroguaretic acid, at concentrations known to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In platelets with a defect in the second wave of ADP induced aggregation, but having normal aggregation with added AA (indicating the cyclooxygenase-thromboxane axis was intact), sub-aggregating concentrations of AA, plus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in brisk aggregation.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 differentially modulates human platelet function through the prostanoid EP2 and EP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Giovanna; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Rutella, Sergio; Ranelletti, Franco O; Pocaterra, Davide; Lancellotti, Stefano; Habib, Aida; Patrono, Carlo; Rocca, Bianca

    2011-02-01

    Activated human platelets synthesize prostaglandin (PG) E(2), although at lower rate than thromboxane A(2). PGE(2) acts through different receptors (EP1-4), but its role in human platelet function remains poorly characterized compared with thromboxane. We studied the effect of PGE(2) and its analogs on in vitro human platelet function and platelet and megakaryocyte EP expression. Platelets preincubated with PGE(2) or its analogs were stimulated with agonists and studied by optical aggregometry. Intraplatelet calcium mobilization was investigated by the stopped flow method; platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), P-selectin, and microaggregates were investigated by flow cytometry. PGE(2) at nanomolar concentrations dose-dependently increased the slope (velocity) of the secondary phase of ADP-induced platelet aggregation (EC(50), 25.6 ± 6 nM; E(max) of 100 ± 19% increase versus vehicle-treated), without affecting final maximal aggregation. PGE(2) stabilized reversible aggregation induced by low ADP concentrations (EC(50), 37.7 ± 9 nM). The EP3 agonists, 11-deoxy-16,16-dimethyl PGE(2) (11d-16dm PGE(2)) and sulprostone enhanced the secondary wave of ADP-induced aggregation, with EC(50) of 48.6 ± 10 nM (E(max), 252 ± 51%) and 5 ± 2 nM (E(max), 300 ± 35%), respectively. The EP2 agonist butaprost inhibited ADP-induced secondary phase slopes (IC(50), 40 ± 20 nM). EP4 stimulation had minor inhibitory effects. 11d-16dm PGE(2) alone raised intraplatelet Ca(2+) and enhanced ADP-induced Ca(2+) increase. 11d-16dm PGE(2) and 17-phenyltrinor PGE(2) (EP3 > EP1 agonist) at nanomolar concentrations counteracted PGE(1)-induced VASP phosphorylation and induced platelet microaggregates and P-selectin expression. EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 were expressed on human platelets and megakaryocytes. PGE(2) through different EPs finely modulates human platelet responsiveness. These findings should inform the rational selection of novel antithrombotic strategies based on EP

  5. High-content live-cell imaging assay used to establish mechanism of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)--mediated inhibition of platelet production.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Devine, Matthew T; Jurak Begonja, Antonija; Tibbitts, Jay; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-09-06

    Proplatelet production represents a terminal stage of megakaryocyte development during which long, branching processes composed of platelet-sized swellings are extended and released into the surrounding culture. Whereas the cytoskeletal mechanics driving these transformations have been the focus of many studies, significant limitations in our ability to quantify the rate and extent of proplatelet production have restricted the field to qualitative analyses of a limited number of cells over short intervals. A novel high-content, quantitative, live-cell imaging assay using the IncuCyte system (Essen BioScience) was therefore developed to measure the rate and extent of megakaryocyte maturation and proplatelet production under live culture conditions for extended periods of time. As proof of concept, we used this system in the present study to establish a mechanism by which trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an Ab-drug conjugate currently in clinical development for cancer, affects platelet production. High-content analysis of primary cell cultures revealed that T-DM1 is taken up by mouse megakaryocytes, inhibits megakaryocyte differentiation, and disrupts proplatelet formation by inducing abnormal tubulin organization and suppressing microtubule dynamic instability. Defining the pathways by which therapeutics such as T-DM1 affect megakaryocyte differentiation and proplatelet production may yield strategies to manage drug-induced thrombocytopenias.

  6. Targeted drug delivery to circulating tumor cells via platelet membrane-functionalized particles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiahe; Ai, Yiwei; Wang, Lihua; Bu, Pengcheng; Sharkey, Charles C.; Wu, Qianhui; Wun, Brittany; Roy, Sweta; Shen, Xiling; King, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastases in distant organs via hematogenous dissemination. Fundamental studies in the past decade have suggested that neutralization of CTCs in circulation could represent an effective strategy to prevent metastasis. Current paradigms of targeted drug delivery into a solid tumor largely fall into two main categories: unique cancer markers (e.g. overexpression of surface receptors) and tumor-specific microenvironment (e.g. low pH, hypoxia, etc.). While relying on a surface receptor to target CTCs can be greatly challenged by cancer heterogeneity, targeting of tumor microenvironments has the advantage of recognizing a broader spectrum of cancer cells regardless of genetic differences or tumor types. The blood circulation, however, where CTCs transit through, lacks the same tumor microenvironment as that found in a solid tumor. In this study, a unique “microenvironment” was confirmed upon introduction of cancer cells of different types into circulation where activated platelets and fibrin were physically associated with blood-borne cancer cells. Inspired by this observation, synthetic silica particles were functionalized with activated platelet membrane along with surface conjugation of tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing ligand cytokine, TRAIL. Biomimetic synthetic particles incorporated into CTC-associated micro-thrombi in lung vasculature and dramatically decreased lung metastases in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. Our results demonstrate a “Trojan Horse” strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis. PMID:26519648

  7. Norepinephrine-mediated regulation of 5HT1 receptor functioning in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Trincavelli, M L; Cuboni, S; Montali, M; Santaguida, S; Lucacchini, A; Martini, C

    2008-07-01

    Adaptive changes in serotonergic 5HT1 receptor signalling are believed to underlie the therapeutic effectiveness of antidepressant drugs. Since cells are continuously exposed to neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, spatially and temporally integrated, the responsiveness of a receptor system is dependent upon the physio-pathological state of the cell and the interaction between different neurotransmitters. In the present work, we investigated heterologous regulation of 5HT1 receptors induced by norepinephrine (NE) in human platelets. NE platelet treatment induced a time and concentration dependent 5HT1 receptor desensitisation mediated by both alpha and beta receptors through activation of intracellular protein kinases. In particular NE, through PKC activation, regulated 5HT1 receptor phosphorylation on threonine residues, causing in turn serotonin receptor-G protein uncoupling and functional responsiveness drop. These results suggest that high NE levels (released i.e. during stress disorders) may play an important role in regulating the 5HT1 responsiveness and in controlling effectiveness of drugs acting on these neurotransmitter systems.

  8. Influence of multicomponent apheresis on donors' haematological and coagulation parameters, iron storage and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Macher, S; Sipurzynski-Budraβ, S; Rosskopf, K; Semmelrock, M; Prüller, F; Griesbacher, A; Lanzer, G; Schallmoser, K

    2012-10-01

    Multicomponent collection (MCC) enables production and processing of various blood components during one apheresis session. In this prospective crossover study, the effects of donating platelets (PLTs) and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) on donor's blood cell count, coagulation, PLT function and iron state were analysed. Forty-eight MCCs were performed using two different cell separators (Fenwal Amicus(®), CaridianBCT Trima Accel(®)). Two units of platelet concentrates and one unit of PRBCs were collected during each session. Full blood cell count and iron status were obtained on day 0 before and after apheresis, day 2, day 14 and day 42. PLT function was analysed by aggregometry and rotation thromboelastometry in parallel with coagulation tests before and after MCC and at day 2. Multicomponent collection was well tolerated without adverse side effects. Blood cell count and iron parameters declined and most of them (haemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin, transferrin saturation and ferritin) were significantly below baseline values until at least day 42 after donation. Absent iron stores were seen in 31·3% of the donors. In contrast, PLTs significantly exceeded pre-donation values after 14 days and remained significantly increased for 42 days. After 2 days, coagulation parameters were only slightly (P > 0·05) altered, whereas PLT function was significantly reduced. Multicomponent collection is an obviously safe procedure; however, the significant long-term impact on the donor's blood count and iron store, as well as impaired PLT function, has to be considered in regard to donor safety. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. [Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of the effect of very high frequency electromagnetic waves on platelet functional activity].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Maĭborodin, A V; Volin, M V; Krenitskiĭ, A P; Tupikin, V D

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis was made of the effect of two kinds of EMI MMD-radiation: EMI MMD-waves, generated by a vehicle "Jav-1 M" (42.2 and 53.5 HHz), and EMI MMD-waves exerting influence with frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and nitric oxide absorption (150.176-150.644 HHz), obtained with a specially created generator, with respect to their influence on the functional ability of platelets of unstable angina pectoris patients. It was shown that in vitro EMI MMD-fluctuations with frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and nitric oxide absorption exert a stronger inhibiting influence on the functional activity of platelets of unstable angina pectoris patients. Features of the action of various kinds of EMI MMD-effect on the activative-high-speed characteristics of platelet aggregation are shown.

  10. Platelet function testing during 5-day storage of single and random donor plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    Akay, O Meltem; Gündüz, Eren; Başyiğit, Hatice; Gulbas, Zafer

    2007-06-01

    Platelet concentrates are routinely manufactured from whole blood by differential centrifugation (random donor platelets-RDP) or by plateletpheresis (single donor platelets-SDP). These platelet concentrates have a storage period of 5 days and many different approaches exist to measure the condition of platelets during their storage. In this study, platelet aggregation testing using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen and flow cytometric platelet activation analysis using CD41 FITC and CD62 PE before and after ADP was performed on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage of platelet preparations. Thirty three RDPs, stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags and 18 SDPs stored in Fresenius blood bags were evaluated. In RDPs and in SDPs; ADP and collagen induced PA responses were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to 1st day. CD62 positive platelet percentage after ADP were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to the 1st day in Kansuk bags. Flow cytometric analysis revealed minor changes in CD41 expression after ADP on the 3rd day compared to 1st day and on the 5th day compared to 3rd day. Differences in CD62 positive platelet percentage were not significant between the RDPs and SDPs. Our results suggest that: (1) ADP and collagen induced PA responses decrease both in RDPs and SDPs during storage. (2) Flow cytometric analysis does not show major significant changes in platelet activation after ADP during storage. (3) Continous shaking on the agitator does not cause a significant change in CD62 positive platelet percentage during storage. (4) Platelet aggregation responses in RDPs stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags do not differ during storage.

  11. Gender, race and diet affect platelet function tests in normal subjects, contributing to a high rate of abnormal results.

    PubMed

    Miller, Connie H; Rice, Anne S; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F

    2014-06-01

    To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2-6 occasions at 2 week intervals using four methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyser (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P < 0·0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P < 0·0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8·5% of specimens without such exposures (P = 0·0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Impact of blood products on platelet function in patients with traumatic injuries: a translational study.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Hanne Hee; Grand, Alexandra G; Viggers, Sandra; Baer, Lisa A; Solbeck, Sacha; Cotton, Bryan A; Matijevic, Nena; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Stensballe, Jakob; Fox, Erin E; Chen, Tzu-An; Holcomb, John B; Johansson, Pär I; Cardenas, Jessica C; Wade, Charles E

    2017-06-15

    Reductions in platelet (PLT) count and function are associated with poor outcomes in trauma patients. We proposed to determine if patients expected to receive blood products have a decrease in PLT function higher than expected based on the reduction in PLT count, and if the reduction in function could be associated with the donor plasma/supernatant received. PLT count and function were measured on admission to the emergency department and intensive care unit in severely injured patients expected to receive a transfusion. PLT function was measured by Multiplate aggregometry in response to five agonists. Function was corrected for alterations in count. In vitro studies were conducted in the blood of normal subjects to assess the effect of dilutions with AB donor plasma on PLT function. Forty-six patients were enrolled, with 87% requiring a transfusion. Median Injury Severity Score was 23 (13, 29) and mortality 15%. PLT count and function were decreased from emergency department to intensive care unit admission by 25% and 58%, respectively. Decreases in function persisted after adjustment for count. Patients requiring large volumes of blood products had reductions in function that were disproportionately greater. Reductions in PLT function were greatest after transfusion of PLTs. In in vitro studies with a 30% dilution by autologous plasma caused a relational reduction in function, whereas allogenic plasma resulted in greater decreases that were highly variable between donors. Within hours of injury a decrease in both PLT count and function occurs, that is aggravated with the administration of blood products, with transfusion of PLTs showing the greatest effect. The effect on PLT function of allogenic transfused plasma appears to be highly donor related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of single-dose sertraline on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system, autonomic nervous system, and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Thorben; Frankhauser, Pascal; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Pharmacological treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is thought to decrease coronary risk in patients with depressive disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor intake may (1) attenuate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system, (2) improve disturbances of the autonomous nervous system, and (3) dampen the aggregability of platelets. There is only limited information about the influence of acute treatment with SSRIs on these systems, which is especially important for the initiation of therapy in high-risk cardiac patients. We compared the reaction of these systems to physical stress with single-dose SSRI treatment (100 mg) with that of placebo treatment. Using a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled design, we assessed HPA system activity via serum cortisol and corticotropin as well as sympathetic nervous system by determining serum norepinephrine and epinephrine levels at baseline and as a response to stress. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provided information on sympathetic/parasympathetic balance. Platelet activity was measured via flow-cytometric determination of platelet surface activation markers along with the serotonin (5-HT) uptake of platelets. We studied 12 healthy young men under placebo and verum conditions. We found higher HPA system activity at baseline and after physical activity under sertraline when compared with placebo, no difference in sympathetic nervous system activity after physical exertion and only slightly heightened baseline epinephrine values after sertraline intake. No difference was seen between sertraline and placebo intake regarding platelet activity and 5-HT uptake, HRV, blood pressure, and HR. Initiating sertraline treatment increases HPA system activity and epinephrine concentrations. We found no clinically relevant effect of single-dose sertraline treatment on autonomous nervous function, platelet activity, or platelet 5-HT uptake. These findings may not be extrapolated to

  14. Cellular prion protein in blood platelets associates with both lipid rafts and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Brouckova, Adela; Holada, Karel

    2009-11-01

    The recently shown transmissibility of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) by blood transfusion emphasises the need for better understanding of the cellular prion protein (PrPc) in blood. A substantial amount of cell-associated PrPc in blood resides in platelets. Platelet activation leads to up-regulation of PrPc on the platelet surface and its release on exosomes and microparticles. The sub-cellular localisation and function of platelet PrPc, however, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the association of PrPc with platelet lipid rafts and the platelet cytoskeleton. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy showed that the signals of PrPc and P-selectin, both of which occupy intracellular alpha granules, were separated on the membrane, suggesting organisation in different membrane domains. A flotation assay of platelet lysates demonstrated that a relatively small portion of platelet PrPc floats with lipid rafts, regardless of platelet activation status. This was reversed by depolymerisation of the platelet cytoskeleton, which led to flotation of most platelet PrPc, suggesting that interactions with the cytoskeleton prevent flotation of PrPc rafts. This association of PrPc with the platelet cytoskeleton was confirmed by its presence in both the isolated membrane skeleton and actin cytoskeleton. Platelet activation significantly increased the amount of PrPc associated with the cytoskeleton. Our results indicate that the localisation of PrPc in platelets is complex, with the majority of PrPc present within platelet lipid rafts linked to the platelet cytoskeleton. This localisation places PrPc in a position where it can interact with proteins involved in platelet signalling and eventually with vCJD prions.

  15. Blood platelet function in canine acute pancreatitis with reference to treatment with Nafamostat mesilate (FUT-175).

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, A; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, A; Gabryelewicz, A; Bielawiec, M

    1992-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nafamostat mesilate (FUT-175) on some blood platelet properties during the first hours of acute experimental pancreatitis (AEP) in dogs. A significant decrease in platelet count, hyperaggregability of platelets by ADP and PAF as well as an increased level of TXB2, were found in the early stage of AEP. No changes in platelet aggregation induced with AA were demonstrated. FUT-175 prevented a decrease in platelet number and inhibited platelet aggregation induced with ADP, PAF and AA when it was given immediately after induction of AEP. No evident changes in TXB2 levels in dogs treated with FUT-175 were found. Our results indicate that the positive effect of FUT-175 in AEP in part depends on its antiaggregatory action.

  16. Unidirectional transfer of prostaglandin endoperoxides between platelets and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, A I; Crawford, D D; Gimbrone, M A

    1984-01-01

    An important determinant of platelet-vessel wall interactions is the local balance of production of endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and platelet thromboxane (TX) A2, labile eicosanoids with opposing effects on hemostasis. Disputed evidence suggests that platelet-derived prostaglandin endoperoxide intermediates may be utilized as substrates for vascular PGI2 synthesis. Using several different approaches, we have found that platelets can transfer endoperoxides to cultured endothelial cells for efficient conversion to PGI2, but a reciprocal transfer of endothelial endoperoxides for utilization by platelet thromboxane synthetase does not occur under the same experimental conditions. However, platelets can utilize arachidonic acid released by endothelial cells for lipoxygenase metabolism. We have directly demonstrated the production of [3H]6-keto-PGF1 alpha (the breakdown product of [3H]PGI2) by aspirin-treated endothelial cells in the presence of platelets stimulated with [3H]arachidonic acid. In coincubation experiments using either arachidonate or ionophore A23187 as a stimulus, radioimmunoassay of the net production of arachidonic acid metabolites showed that 6-keto-PGF1 alpha generation by aspirin-treated endothelial cells in the presence of platelets may actually exceed its generation by uninhibited endothelial cells alone. In functional assays, platelet aggregation was inhibited in the presence of aspirin-treated endothelial cells after stimulation with either arachidonate or ionophore A23187. In contrast, the inverse experiments, using aspirin-treated platelets and uninhibited endothelial cells, failed to demonstrate platelet utilization of endothelial endoperoxides for TXA2 production by any of the above methods. These studies thus provide evidence that efficient unidirectional transfer and utilization of platelet-derived endoperoxides for endothelial PGI2 production can occur. This process may serve to amplify PGI2 generation adjacent to areas of vascular

  17. A structural basis for the inhibition of collagen-stimulated platelet function by quercetin and structurally related flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice; Moraes, Leonardo A; Kemp, Charles F; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Molecular mechanisms underlying the links between dietary intake of flavonoids and reduced cardiovascular disease risk are only partially understood. Key events in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, particularly thrombosis, are inhibited by these polyphenolic compounds via mechanisms such as inhibition of platelet activation and associated signal transduction, attenuation of generation of reactive oxygen species, enhancement of nitric oxide production and binding to thromboxane A2 receptors. In vivo, effects of flavonoids are mediated by their metabolites, but the effects and modes of action of these compounds are not well-characterized. A good understanding of flavonoid structure–activity relationships with regard to platelet function is also lacking. Experimental approach: Inhibitory potencies of structurally distinct flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and catechin) and plasma metabolites (tamarixetin, quercetin-3′-sulphate and quercetin-3-glucuronide) for collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine secretion were measured in human platelets. Tyrosine phosphorylation of total protein, Syk and PLCγ2 (immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses), and Fyn kinase activity were also measured in platelets. Internalization of flavonoids and metabolites in a megakaryocytic cell line (MEG-01 cells) was studied by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Key results: The inhibitory mechanisms of these compounds included blocking Fyn kinase activity and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ2 following internalization. Principal functional groups attributed to potent inhibition were a planar, C-4 carbonyl substituted and C-3 hydroxylated C ring in addition to a B ring catechol moiety. Conclusions and implications: The structure–activity relationship for flavonoids on platelet function presented here may be exploited to design selective inhibitors of cell signalling. PMID:20148891

  18. Changes in pre- and post-donation platelet function in plateletpheresis donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Yu, X; Cai, Y; Liu, L

    2017-06-06

    This study aimed to investigate the changes of platelet (PLT) function and coagulation time before and after plateletpheresis donation. The healthy donors were divided into four groups according to the annual number of plateletpheresis donation: 20 times group, 15 times group, 10 times group and 5 times group. The healthy non-blood donors were selected as controls. The donation interval was 14 days. The blood samples were collected before plateletpheresis donation and after 30min, 7 d, and 14 d of donation for determination of coagulation time, PLT function, plasma protein, serum iron and blood routine change. After 30min of plateletpheresis donation, the PLT function decreased and the coagulation time was prolonged. However, PLT function recovered to the pre-collection after 7 d of plateletpheresis donation and coagulation time recovered to the pre-collection after 14 d of plateletpheresis donation. Additionally, there was no difference regarding blood coagulation time and PLT function among blood donors and controls. The plasma protein and serum iron levels in 20 times and 15 times groups were within the normal reference range. The frequency of plateletpheresis donation will not affect PLT function, coagulation time, plasma protein and serum iron in donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p < 0.01. Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  20. In vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Alexander A; Maschler, Stephanie; Schöchl, Herbert; Flöricke, Felix; Görlinger, Klaus; Zanger, Klaus; Kienbaum, Peter

    2011-02-10

    Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p < 0.01. Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) and to 6.6 ± 3.4 mm (HT

  1. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  2. Roles of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in megakaryopoiesis and platelet function: studies using a megakaryocyte lineage–specific FAK knockout

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, Ian S.; Fox, Norma E.; Prévost, Nicolas; Sear, Katherine; Shattil, Sanford J.

    2008-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a key role in mediating signaling downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors. In this study, we determined the roles of FAK in vivo by generating a megakaryocyte lineage–specific FAK-null mouse (Pf4-Cre/FAK-floxed). Megakaryocyte and platelet FAK expression was ablated in Pf4-Cre/FAK-floxed mice without affecting expression of the FAK homologue PYK2, although PYK2 phosphorylation was increased in FAK−/− megakaryocytes in response to fibrinogen. Megakaryopoiesis is greatly enhanced in Pf4-Cre/FAK-floxed mice, with significant increases in megakaryocytic progenitors (CFU-MK), mature megakaryocytes, megakaryocyte ploidy, and moderate increases in resting platelet number and platelet recovery following a thrombocytopenic stress. Thrombopoietin (Tpo)–mediated activation of Lyn kinase, a negative regulator of megakaryopoiesis, is severely attenuated in FAK-null megakaryocytes compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, Tpo-mediated activation of positive megakaryopoiesis regulators such as ERK1/2 and AKT is increased in FAK-null megakaryocytes, providing a plausible explanation for the observed increases in megakaryopoiesis in these mice. In Pf4-Cre/FAK-floxed mice, rebleeding times are significantly increased, and FAK-null platelets exhibit diminished spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. These studies establish clear roles for FAK in megakaryocyte growth and platelet function, setting the stage for manipulation of this component of the Tpo signaling apparatus for therapeutic benefit. PMID:17925492

  3. High-intensity Interval Training Improves Mitochondrial Function and Suppresses Thrombin Generation in Platelets undergoing Hypoxic Stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hua; Chang, Shao-Chiang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Huang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2017-06-23

    This study elucidates how high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) affect mitochondrial functionality and thrombin generation (TG) in platelets following hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min). Forty-five healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage either HIT (3-minute intervals at 40% and 80%VO2max, n = 15) or MCT (sustained 60%VO2max, n = 15) for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL, n = 15) that did not received exercise intervention. Before the intervention, HE (i) reduced the ATP-linked O2 consumption rate (OCR), the reserve capacity of OCR, and the activities of citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), (ii) lowered mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) and elevated matrix oxidant burden (MOB) in platelets, and (iii) enhanced dynamic TG in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which responses were attenuated by pretreating PRP with oligomycin or rotenone/antimycin A. However, 6-week HIT (i) increased mitochondrial OCR capacity with enhancing the CS and SDH activities and (ii) heightened mitochondrial MP with depressing MOB in platelets following HE, compared to those of MCT and CTL. Moreover, the HIT suppressed the HE-promoted dynamic TG in PRP. Hence, we conclude that the HIT simultaneously improves mitochondrial bioenergetics and suppresses dynamic TG in platelets undergoing hypoxia.

  4. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. State Univ. of New York, Buffalo )

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  5. Fibronectin unfolded by adherent but not suspended platelets: An in vitro explanation for its dual role in haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Khon; Gyenes, Marianna; Hollenberg, Cornelis P; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Van Vo, Toi; Stoldt, Volker R

    2015-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a dimeric adhesive glycoprotein, which is present both in plasma and the extracellular matrix can interact with platelets and thus contribute to platelet adhesion and aggregation. It has been shown that FN can decrease platelet aggregation but enhance platelet adhesion, suggesting a dual role of FN in haemostasis. The prevalent function(s) of FN may be determined by its fibril form. To explore the suggested dual role of this adhesive protein for haemostasis in further detail, we now tested for any differences of adherent and suspended platelets with regard to their effect to unfold and assemble FN upon interaction. Platelet aggregation and adhesion assays were performed using washed platelets in the presence of exogenous FN. Addition of plasma FN reduced platelet aggregation in response to collagen or PMA by 50% or 25% but enhanced platelet adhesion onto immobilized collagen, as compared to control experiments. Analyses by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) demonstrated that adherent platelets but not suspended platelets were capable of unfolding FN during 3h incubation. Fluorescence microscopy and deoxycholate (DOC) solubility assays demonstrated that FN fibrils formed only on the surfaces of adherent platelets. In addition, platelets adherent onto FN revealed a significantly higher activity of specific Src phosphorylation (pY418) than platelets in suspension. These data suggest (1) that the function of FN in haemostasis is prevalent to its assembly, unfolding and subsequent fibril formation on the surface of adherent platelets and (2) that outside-in signaling contributes to the interaction of platelets and FN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges in the Development of Functional Assays of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tiefenauer, Louis; Demarche, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Lipid bilayers are natural barriers of biological cells and cellular compartments. Membrane proteins integrated in biological membranes enable vital cell functions such as signal transduction and the transport of ions or small molecules. In order to determine the activity of a protein of interest at defined conditions, the membrane protein has to be integrated into artificial lipid bilayers immobilized on a surface. For the fabrication of such biosensors expertise is required in material science, surface and analytical chemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Specifically, techniques are needed for structuring surfaces in the micro- and nanometer scale, chemical modification and analysis, lipid bilayer formation, protein expression, purification and solubilization, and most importantly, protein integration into engineered lipid bilayers. Electrochemical and optical methods are suitable to detect membrane activity-related signals. The importance of structural knowledge to understand membrane protein function is obvious. Presently only a few structures of membrane proteins are solved at atomic resolution. Functional assays together with known structures of individual membrane proteins will contribute to a better understanding of vital biological processes occurring at biological membranes. Such assays will be utilized in the discovery of drugs, since membrane proteins are major drug targets.

  7. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  8. Platelet-derived CXCL12 regulates monocyte function, survival, differentiation into macrophages and foam cells through differential involvement of CXCR4–CXCR7

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, S N I; Seizer, P; Schlegel, F; Büttcher, M; Sindhu, N A; Müller, S; Mack, A; Gawaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Platelets store and release CXCL12 (SDF-1), which governs differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into either endothelial or macrophage-foam cells. CXCL12 ligates CXCR4 and CXCR7 and regulates monocyte/macrophage functions. This study deciphers the relative contribution of CXCR4–CXCR7 in mediating the effects of platelet-derived CXCL12 on monocyte function, survival, and differentiation. CXCL12 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) that ligate CXCR4–CXCR7 induced a dynamic bidirectional trafficking of the receptors, causing CXCR4 internalization and CXCR7 externalization during chemotaxis, thereby influencing relative receptor availability, unlike MCP-1. In vivo we found enhanced accumulation of platelets and platelet-macrophage co-aggregates in peritoneal fluid following induction of peritonitis in mice. The relative surface expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, and CXCR7 among infiltrated monocytes was also enhanced as compared with peripheral blood. Platelet-derived CXCL12 from collagen-adherent platelets and recombinant CXCL12 induced monocyte chemotaxis specifically through CXCR4 engagement. Adhesion of monocytes to immobilized CXCL12 and CXCL12-enriched activated platelet surface under static and dynamic arterial flow conditions were mediated primarily through CXCR7 and were counter-regulated by neutralizing platelet-derived CXCL12. Monocytes and culture-derived-M1–M2 macrophages phagocytosed platelets, with the phagocytic potential of culture-derived-M1 macrophages higher than M2 involving CXCR4–CXCR7 participation. CXCR7 was the primary receptor in promoting monocyte survival as exerted by platelet-derived CXCL12 against BH3-mimetic induced apoptosis (phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential). In co-culture experiments with platelets, monocytes predominantly differentiated into CD163+ macrophages, which was attenuated upon CXCL12 neutralization and CXCR4/CXCR7 blocking antibodies

  9. Characterization of a Novel Function-Blocking Antibody Targeted Against The Platelet P2Y1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Alshbool, Fatima Z.; Lin, Olivia A.; Alshehri, Abdullah M.; Javaherizadeh, Payam; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Platelet hyperactivity is associated with vascular disease and contributes to the genesis of thrombotic disorders. ADP plays an important role in platelet activation, and activates platelets through two G-Protein Coupled Receptors, the Gq-coupled P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), and the Gi-coupled P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R). While the involvement of the P2Y1R in thrombogenesis is well established, there are no antagonists that are currently available for clinical use. Approach and Results Our goal is to determine whether a novel antibody targeting the ligand binding domain, i.e., second extracellular loop (EL2) of the P2Y1R [abbreviated as EL2Ab] could inhibit platelet function and protect against thrombogenesis. Our results revealed that the EL2Ab does indeed inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EL2Ab was found to inhibit integrin GPIIb-IIIa activation, dense and alpha granule secretion and phosphatidylserine exposure. These inhibitory effects translated into protection against thrombus formation, as evident by a prolonged time for occlusion in a FeCl3 induced thrombosis model, but this was accompanied by a prolonged tail bleeding time. We also observed a dose dependent displacement of the radiolabelled P2Y1R antagonist [3H]MRS25000 from its ligand binding site by EL2Ab. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that EL2Ab binds to and exhibits P2Y1R-dependent function-blocking activity in the context of platelets. These results add further evidence for a role of the P2Y1R in thrombosis and validate the concept that targeting it is a relevant alternative or complement to current antiplatelet strategies. PMID:25593131

  10. In vitro platelet function of platelet concentrates prepared using three different apheresis devices determined by impedance and optical aggregometry.

    PubMed

    Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Eichelberger, Beate; Horvath, Michaela; Jilma, Bernd; Panzer, Simon

    2009-08-01

    Septic transfusion reactions to apheresis platelets (PLTs) continue to occur despite preventive measures. This study evaluated the effect of two operational changes designed to reduce bacterial risk: 1) introducing inlet-line sample diversion on two-arm procedures and 2) increasing the sample volume cultured from 4 to 8 mL from all donations. Aerobic culture results and septic transfusion reactions reported between December 1, 2006, and July 31, 2008 (Period 2), were compared to March 1, 2004, to May 31, 2006 (Period 1). During Period 2, a total of 781,936 apheresis PLT collections were cultured, of which 130 donations (1:6015) were confirmed positive and 9 (1:86,882) had negative culture results but were associated with 11 septic reactions. Confirmed-positive cultures from two-arm procedures decreased (27.2 to 14.7 per 10⁵ collections; odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.70) in Period 2, owing to a lower rate of skin flora contamination. Detection of contamination of one-arm collections significantly increased by 54% in Period 2 (13.7 vs. 21.1 per 10⁵ collections; OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05-2.27). Fewer septic transfusion reactions occurred in Period 2, but the difference did not reach significance (1.7 vs. 1.2 per 10⁵ donations; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.30-1.53). Inlet-line diversion decreased bacterial contamination during two-arm collections by more than 46%. Concurrently, doubling the sample volume was associated with a 54% relative increase in culture sensitivity. These interventions act cooperatively to decrease bacterial risk.

  11. Evidence that abnormal platelet functions in human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome are the result of a lack of dense bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, F.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Lebret, M.; Klebanoff, C.; Buriot, D.; Griscelli, C.; Levy-Toledano, S.; Caen, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The structure and functions of platelets from three patients with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome were examined. Electron-microscopic observations revealed a large reduction in the number of serotonin-storage granules or dense bodies but otherwise normal ultrastructure and normal amounts of alpha-granules and catalase-positive granules. The number of mepacrine-labeled granules was also reduced. Platelets contained normal amounts of beta-thromboglobulin and Platelet Factor 4. The platelet release reaction studied with thrombin as the inducer was impaired. The serotonin uptake by the patients' platelets was low and not inhibited by reserpine, and its metabolism was increased. These findings clearly show that platelets from human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome are deficient in the storage pool of dense granule substances and suggest that this granule defect has an influence on the release mechanism of other granule constituents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6222656

  12. Statistical analysis plan for the WOMAN-ETAPlaT study: Effect of tranexamic acid on platelet function and thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Dallaku, Kastriot; Shakur, Haleema; Edwards, Phil; Beaumont, Danielle; Roberts, Ian; Huque, Sumaya; Delius, Maria; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life-threatening complication for women, and the leading cause of maternal mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic used worldwide to treat uterine haemorrhage and to reduce blood loss in general surgery. TXA may have effects on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors as a result of its inhibition on the plasmin. Methods. WOMAN ETAPlaT is a sub-study of the World Maternal Antifibrinolitic trial (WOMAN trial). All adult women clinically diagnosed with PPH after a vaginal delivery or caesarean section, are eligible for inclusion in the study. Blood samples will be collected at the baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of study treatment is given. Platelet function will be evaluated in whole blood immediately after sampling with Multiplate® tests (ADPtest and TRAPtest). Thrombin generation, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors vW, V and VIII will be analysed using platelet poor plasma. Results. Recruitment to WOMAN ETAPlaT started on 04 November 2013 and closed on 13 January 2015, during this time  188 patients were recruited. The final participant follow-up was completed on 04 March 2015. This article introduces the statistical analysis plan for the study, without reference to unblinded data.   Conclusion. The data from this study will provide evidence for the effect of TXA on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors in women with PPH. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00872469; ISRCTN76912190 PMID:28413832

  13. Statistical analysis plan for the WOMAN-ETAPlaT study: Effect of tranexamic acid on platelet function and thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Dallaku, Kastriot; Shakur, Haleema; Edwards, Phil; Beaumont, Danielle; Roberts, Ian; Huque, Sumaya; Delius, Maria; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-12-15

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life-threatening complication for women, and the leading cause of maternal mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic used worldwide to treat uterine haemorrhage and to reduce blood loss in general surgery. TXA may have effects on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors as a result of its inhibition on the plasmin. Methods. WOMAN ETAPlaT is a sub-study of the World Maternal Antifibrinolitic trial (WOMAN trial). All adult women clinically diagnosed with PPH after a vaginal delivery or caesarean section, are eligible for inclusion in the study. Blood samples will be collected at the baseline and 30 minutes after the first dose of study treatment is given. Platelet function will be evaluated in whole blood immediately after sampling with Multiplate® tests (ADPtest and TRAPtest). Thrombin generation, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and coagulation factors vW, V and VIII will be analysed using platelet poor plasma. Results. Recruitment to WOMAN ETAPlaT started on 04 November 2013 and closed on 13 January 2015, during this time  188 patients were recruited. The final participant follow-up was completed on 04 March 2015. This article introduces the statistical analysis plan for the study, without reference to unblinded data.   Conclusion. The data from this study will provide evidence for the effect of TXA on thrombin generation, platelet function and coagulation factors in women with PPH. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00872469; ISRCTN76912190.

  14. York platelet syndrome is a CRAC channelopathy due to gain-of-function mutations in STIM1

    PubMed Central

    Markello, Thomas; Chen, Dong; Kwan, Justin Y.; Horkayne-Szakaly, Iren; Morrison, Alan; Simakova, Olga; Maric, Irina; Lozier, Jay; Cullinane, Andrew R.; Kilo, Tatjana; Meister, Lynn; Pakzad, Kourosh; Bone, William; Chainani, Sanjay; Lee, Elizabeth; Links, Amanda; Boerkoel, Cornelius; Fischer, Roxanne; Toro, Camilo; White, James G.; Gahl, William A; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry is the major route of replenishment of intracellular Ca2+ in animal cells in response to depletion of Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is primarily mediated by the Ca2+ selective release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel which consists of the pore-forming subunits ORAI1–3 and the Ca2+ sensors, STIM1 and STIM2. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in STIM1 or ORAI1 result in immune deficiency and nonprogressive myopathy. Heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in STIM1 cause non-syndromic myopathies as well as syndromic forms of miosis and myopathy with tubular aggregates and Stormorken syndrome; some of these syndromic forms are associated with thrombocytopenia. Increased concentration of Ca2+ as a result of store-operated Ca2+ entry is essential for platelet activation. York Platelet syndrome (YPS) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, striking ultrastructural platelet abnormalities including giant electron opaque organelles and massive, multi-layered target bodies and deficiency of platelet Ca2+ storage in delta granules. We present clinical and molecular findings in 7 YPS patients from 4 families, demonstrating that YPS patients have a chronic myopathy associated with rimmed vacuoles and heterozygous gain-of-function STIM1 mutations. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of STIM1-related human disorders and define the molecular basis of YPS. PMID:25577287

  15. PDK1 selectively phosphorylates Thr(308) on Akt and contributes to human platelet functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Dangelmaier, Carol; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Liverani, Elizabetta; Jin, Jianguo; Bray, Paul; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a member of the protein A,G and C (AGC) family of proteins, is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that can phosphorylate and activate other protein kinases from the AGC family, including Akt at Thr308, all of which play important roles in mediating cellular responses. The functional role of PDK1 or the importance of phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 for its activity has not been investigated in human platelets. In this study, we tested two pharmacological inhibitors of PDK1, BX795 and BX912, to assess the role of Thr308 phosphorylation on Akt. PAR4-induced phosphorylation of Akt onThr308 was inhibited by BX795 without affecting phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. The lack of Thr308 phosphorylation on Akt also led to the inhibition of PAR4-induced phosphorylation of two downstream substrates of Akt, viz. GSK3β and PRAS40. In vitro kinase activity of Akt was completely abolished if Thr308 on Akt was not phosphorylated. BX795 caused inhibition of 2-MeSADP-induced or collagen-induced aggregation, ATP secretion and thromboxane generation. Primary aggregation induced by 2-MeSADP was also inhibited in the presence of BX795. PDK1 inhibition also resulted in reduced clot retraction indicating its role in outside-in signalling. These results demonstrate that PDK1 selectively phosphorylates Thr308 on Akt thereby regulating its activity and plays a positive regulatory role in platelet physiological responses. PMID:24352480

  16. A novel role for the fibrinogen Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif in platelet function.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Róisín; McManus, Ciara A; Lambert, Matthew; Tilley, Thea; Devocelle, Marc; Brennan, Marian; Kerrigan, Steven W; Cox, Dermot

    2015-02-01

    The integrin αIIbβ3 on resting platelets can bind to immobilised fibrinogen resulting in platelet spreading and activation but requires activation to bind to soluble fibrinogen. αIIbβ3 is known to interact with the general integrin-recognition motif RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) as well as the fibrinogen-specific γ-chain dodecapeptide; however, it is not known how fibrinogen binding triggers platelet activation. NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine) is another integrin-recognition sequence present in fibrinogen and this study aims to determine if it plays a role in the interaction between fibrinogen and αIIbβ3. NGR-containing peptides inhibited resting platelet adhesion to fibrinogen with an IC50 of 175 µM but failed to inhibit the adhesion of activated platelets to fibrinogen (IC50> 500 µM). Resting platelet adhesion to mutant fibrinogens lacking the NGR sequences was reduced compared to normal fibrinogen under both static and shear conditions (200 s⁻¹). However, pre-activated platelets were able to fully spread on all types of fibrinogen. Thus, the NGR motif in fibrinogen is the site that is primarily responsible for the interaction with resting αIIbβ3 and is responsible for triggering platelet activation.

  17. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 mediates endothelial-cardiomyocyte communication and regulates cardiac function.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Margaret E; Collins, Caitlin; Makarewich, Catherine A; Chen, Zhongming; Rojas, Mauricio; Willis, Monte S; Houser, Steven R; Tzima, Ellie

    2015-01-19

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by impaired contractility of cardiomyocytes, ventricular chamber dilatation, and systolic dysfunction. Although mutations in genes expressed in the cardiomyocyte are the best described causes of reduced contractility, the importance of endothelial-cardiomyocyte communication for proper cardiac function is increasingly appreciated. In the present study, we investigate the role of the endothelial adhesion molecule platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) in the regulation of cardiac function. Using cell culture and animal models, we show that PECAM-1 expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) regulates cardiomyocyte contractility and cardiac function via the neuregulin-ErbB signaling pathway. Conscious echocardiography revealed left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and systolic dysfunction in PECAM-1(-/-) mice in the absence of histological abnormalities or defects in cardiac capillary density. Despite deficits in global cardiac function, cardiomyocytes isolated from PECAM-1(-/-) hearts displayed normal baseline and isoproterenol-stimulated contractility. Mechanistically, absence of PECAM-1 resulted in elevated NO/ROS signaling and NRG-1 release from ECs, which resulted in augmented phosphorylation of its receptor ErbB2. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with conditioned media from PECAM-1(-/-) ECs resulted in enhanced ErbB2 activation, which was normalized by pre-treatment with an NRG-1 blocking antibody. To determine whether normalization of increased NRG-1 levels could correct cardiac function, PECAM-1(-/-) mice were treated with the NRG-1 blocking antibody. Echocardiography showed that treatment significantly improved cardiac function of PECAM-1(-/-) mice, as revealed by increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening. We identify a novel role for PECAM-1 in regulating cardiac function via a paracrine NRG1-ErbB pathway. These data highlight the importance of tightly regulated cellular communication for proper

  18. Investigation of function similarities between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and platelet calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatases with the inhibitors quercetin and calmidazolium

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T.H.; Campbell, K.P.; White, G.C. II

    1987-12-01