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Sample records for platelet storage lesion

  1. An Inhibition of p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Delays the Platelet Storage Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Awatefe, Helen; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Myrup, Andrew; Turgeon, Annette; Wagner, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Platelets during storage undergo diverse alterations collectively known as the platelet storage lesion, including metabolic, morphological, functional and structural changes. Some changes correlate with activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Another MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), is involved in PLT activation. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of platelets stored in plasma in the presence or absence of p38 and ERK MAPK inhibitors. Materials and Methods A single Trima apheresis platelet unit (n = 12) was aliquoted into five CLX storage bags. Two aliquots were continuously agitated with or without MAPK inhibitors. Two aliquots were subjected to 48 hours of interruption of agitation with or without MAPK inhibitors. One aliquot contained the same amount of solvent vehicle used to deliver the inhibitor. Platelets were stored at 20–24°C for 7 days and sampled on Days 1, 4, and 7 for 18 in vitro parameters. Results Inhibition of p38 MAPK by VX-702 leads to better maintenance of all platelet in vitro storage parameters including platelet mitochondrial function. Accelerated by interruption of agitation, the platelet storage lesion of units stored with VX-702 was diminished to that of platelets stored with continuous agitation. Inhibition of ERK MAPK did not ameliorate decrements in any in vitro platelet properties. Conclusion Signaling through p38 MAPK, but not ERK, is associated with platelet deterioration during storage. PMID:23967093

  2. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions.

  3. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets

    PubMed Central

    Baimukanova, Gyulnar; Miyazawa, Byron; Potter, Daniel R.; Muench, Marcus O.; Bruhn, Roberta; Gibb, Stuart L.; Spinella, Philip C.; Cap, Andrew P.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Pati, Shibani

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In current blood banking practices, platelets (PLTs) are stored in plasma at 22°C, with gentle agitation for up to 5 days. To date, the effects of storage and donor variability on PLT regulation of vascular integrity are not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, we examined the donor variability of leukoreduced fresh (Day 1) or stored (Day 5) PLTs on vascular endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, PLT effects on endothelial cell (EC) monolayer permeability were assessed by analyzing transendothelial electrical resistances (TEER). PLT aggregation, a measure of hemostatic potential, was analyzed by impedance aggregometry. In vivo, PLTs were investigated in a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-induced vascular permeability model in NSG mice, and PLT circulation was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS Treatment of endothelial monolayers with fresh Day 1 PLTs resulted in an increase in EC barrier resistance and decreased permeability in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent treatment of EC monolayers with Day 5 PLTs demonstrated diminished vasculoprotective effects. Donor variability was noted in all measures of PLT function. Day 1 PLT donors were more variable in their effects on TEER than Day 5 PLTs. In mice, while all PLTs regardless of storage time demonstrated significant protection against VEGF-A–induced vascular leakage, Day 5 PLTs exhibited reduced protection when compared to Day 1 PLTs. Day 1 PLTs demonstrated significant donor variability against VEGF-A–challenged vascular leakage in vivo. Systemic circulating levels of Day 1 PLTs were higher than those of Day 5 PLTs CONCLUSIONS In vitro and in vivo, Day 1 PLTs are protective in measures of vascular endothelial permeability. Donor variability is most prominent in Day 1 PLTs. A decrease in the protective effects is found with storage of the PLT units between Day 1 and Day 5 at 22°C, thereby suggesting that Day 5 PLTs are diminished in their ability to

  4. High-density lipoprotein 3 and apolipoprotein A-I alleviate platelet storage lesion and release of platelet extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pienimaeki-Roemer, Annika; Fischer, Astrid; Tafelmeier, Maria; Orsó, Evelyn; Konovalova, Tatiana; Böttcher, Alfred; Liebisch, Gerhard; Reidel, Armin; Schmitz, Gerd

    2014-09-01

    Stored platelet (PLT) concentrates (PLCs) for transfusion develop a PLT storage lesion (PSL), decreasing PLT viability and function with profound lipidomic changes and PLT extracellular vesicle (PL-EV) release. High-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3 ) improves PLT homeostasis through silencing effects on PLT activation in vivo. This prompted us to investigate HDL3 and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) as PSL-antagonizing agents. Healthy donor PLCs were split into low-volume standard PLC storage bags and incubated with native (n)HDL3 or apoA-I from plasma ethanol fractionation (precipitate IV) for 5 days under standard blood banking conditions. Flow cytometry, Born aggregometry, and lipid mass spectrometry were carried out to analyze PL-EV release, PLT aggregation, agonist-induced PLT surface marker expression, and PLT and plasma lipid compositions. Compared to control, added nHDL3 and apoA-I significantly reduced PL-EV release by up to -62% during 5 days, correlating with the added apoA-I concentration. At the lipid level, nHDL3 and apoA-I antagonized PLT lipid loss (+12%) and decreased cholesteryl ester (CE)/free cholesterol (FC) ratios (-69%), whereas in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated CE ratios increased (+3%) and CE 16:0/20:4 ratios decreased (-5%). Administration of nHDL3 increased PLT bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate/phosphatidylglycerol (+102%) and phosphatidic acid/lysophosphatidic acid (+255%) ratios and improved thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6-induced PLT aggregation (+5%). nHDL3 and apoA-I improve PLT membrane homeostasis and intracellular lipid processing and increase CE efflux, antagonizing PSL-related reduction in PLT viability and function and PL-EV release. We suggest uptake and catabolism of nHDL3 into the PLT open canalicular system. As supplement in PLCs, nHDL3 or apoA-I from Fraction IV of plasma ethanol fractionation have the potential to improve PLC quality to prolong storage. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Early storage lesions in apheresis platelets are induced by the activation of the integrin αIIbβ₃ and focal adhesion signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Thomas; Iuga, Cristina; Janetzky, Susann; Schwertz, Hansjorg; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Fürll, Birgit; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Steil, Leif

    2012-12-05

    Production and storage of platelet concentrates (PC) induce protein changes in platelets leading to impaired platelet function. This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the development of early platelet storage lesions in apheresis-PCs stored in plasma or additive solution (PAS). Apheresis-PCs from four donors were stored in plasma or in PAS at 22°C (n=4 each). Platelets were analyzed at day 0 (production day) and after 1, 6 and 9 days of storage. Platelet response to agonists (TRAP, collagen, ADP) and to hypotonic shock decreased, CD62P expression increased in both storage media over time. Using DIGE 1550 protein spots were monitored and compared to baseline values at day 0. Platelets in plasma displayed changes in 352 spots (166/day 1, 263/day 6 and 201/day 9); in PAS 325 spots changed (202/day 1, 221/day 6, 200/day 9). LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of 405 platelet proteins revealed 32 proteins changed during storage in plasma (9/day 1, 15/day 6 and 26/day 9) and 28 in PAS (5/day 1, 20/day 6, 26/day 9). Ingenuity pathway analysis found integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling pathways involved in early alterations, being confirmed by Western blotting. Corresponding mRNAs in platelets were identified by next generation sequencing for 84 changed proteins. Integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling cause irreversible early storage lesions in apheresis platelets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  6. Scott Murphy, MD: platelet storage pioneer.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Dr Scott Murphy was a leading authority in the science of platelet storage for transfusion. Among the first to advocate room-temperature storage, his work enabled the extension of platelet shelf life, which facilitated the development of aggressive medical and surgical therapies requiring intensive platelet support. During a 38-year career, he characterized the metabolism of stored platelets, worked to optimize storage conditions, and developed a landmark standard for the assessment of platelet quality. As a clinical hematologist, he was devoted to his patients, providing compassionate, comforting care. He was also a cherished mentor, a sage advisor, a fast friend, and a dedicated family man. Dr Murphy was one of those rare, great, humble men who inspire and enrich everyone around him. Truly one of transfusion medicine's leaders, Scott is remembered by those whose lives he touched for his warmth, wit, and wisdom. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet storage pool deficiency in Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2007-11-01

    Jacobsen syndrome and Paris-Trousseau Syndrome share similar congenital anomalies, thrombocytopenia, giant platelet alpha granules resulting from fusion of smaller organelles, and an 11q terminal deletion at 11q23.3. Similarities in the two cohorts have suggested that the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome is a variant of Jacobsen syndrome, or the same disorder. The present study has pointed out a significant difference between the two syndromes. Platelets from six patients with Jacobsen syndrome were markedly diminished in serotonin adenine nucleotide rich dense bodies, indicating the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency. Since platelet dense bodies are reported to be normal in size, number and distribution in the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome, the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency in six patients evaluated in the present study may distinguish the two disorders.

  8. EXTENDED STORAGE OF PLATELET-RICH PLASMA PREPARED PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR PLASMALYTE

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Background Using bacterial detection or pathogen reduction, extended platelet storage may be licensed if platelet viability is maintained. FDA's post-storage platelet acceptance guidelines are that autologous stored platelet recoveries and survivals should be ≥66% and ≥58%, respectively, of each donor's fresh platelet data. Study Design And Methods Non-leukoreduced platelet concentrates were prepared from whole blood donations. Autologous platelet concentrates from 62 subjects were stored in 100% plasma (n=44) or 20% plasma/80% Plasmalyte (n=18), an acetate based, non-glucose containing crystalloid solution previously used for platelet storage.(1-3) Fresh platelets were obtained on the day the donor's stored platelets were to be transfused. The fresh and stored platelets were alternately radiolabeled with either 51Chromium or 111Indium, and in vitro measurements were performed on the stored platelets. Results FDA's platelet recovery criterion was met for 7 days of plasma storage, but platelet survivals maintained viability for only 6 days. Plasmalyte stored platelets did not meet either acceptance criteria after 6 days of storage. After 7 days of storage, platelet recoveries averaged 43 ± 4% and 30 ± 4% and survivals 4.1 ± 0.4 days and 2.0 ± 0.2 days for plasma and Plasmalyte-stored platelets, respectively (p=0.03 for recoveries and p<0.001 for survivals). Post-storage platelet recoveries correlated with the commonly-used in vitro platelet quality measurements of HSR and Annexin V binding, while survivals correlated with ESC, morphology score, and pH. Conclusion There is a progressive decrease in recoveries and survivals of plasma stored platelets over time. Platelet viability is better maintained in plasma than Plasmalyte. PMID:20456703

  9. Evaluation of store lesion in platelet obtained by apheresis compared to platelet derived from whole blood and its impact on the in vitro functionality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, M; Núñez, M; Mellado, S; Maldonado, M; Wehinger, S

    2015-12-01

    Platelet units for transfusion purposes are obtained manually from whole blood or by apheresis, in an automated process. In both methods, platelets during storage present a characteristics grouped under the name "storage lesion" that are associated with adverse effects on platelet units. Oxidative stress has been claimed to be one of major causes, leading to activation and apoptosis processes affecting their post transfusion functionality. In this work, we observed an association between apheresis and a reduced presence of oxidative stress and better results in functional markers in stored platelets, compared to manually obtained platelets. Then, apheresis which would ensure a greater number of functional platelets during the 5 days of storage, compared to concentrates obtained from whole blood.

  10. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-09

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage.

  11. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS)

    PubMed Central

    Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either 51chromium or 111indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics’ bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage. PMID:24258816

  12. Modelling gas exchange during platelet storage without agitation.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Tormey, C A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model of oxygen distribution within platelet storage bags to evaluate implications of reduced agitation approaches. Based on our model, platelet concentration and surface area most affect internal partial pressure of oxygen, while temperature modifications have least effect, indicating primary potential approaches for optimization of platelet storage with reduced or absent agitation.

  13. EXTENDED STORAGE OF BUFFY-COAT PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR A PLATELET ADDITIVE SOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482

  14. [Changes of platelet aggregation function of apheresis collected platelets and soluble P-selectin during storage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zuo-Ting; Yang, Li-Hong; Tao, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Ming-Shan; Hong, Jun-Ying; Zhou, Wu; Chen, Zeng-Qiang; Dai, Mei-Jie

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the changes of aggregation function of apheresis platelets and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) during storage. 20 samples of apheresis platelets were collected, and the aggregation function were examined by function test and the level of sP-selectin every day in storage of 5 days. The results showed that the aggregation function of platelets declined obviously during storage, there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.01). The max platelet aggregation rate was < or = 3% in the fourth-day group; sP-selectin level in plasma increased with prolong of storage time; there were significant differences between the first-day group and any of the other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, platelets were activated continuously during storage, while its aggregation function declines significantly. The ability of platelet aggregation to response to ADP loses almost completely since the fourth day during platelet storage. It should be paid more attention to the damage of apheresis collected platelets during storage.

  15. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Karl E.; Melin, Travis E.; Liu, Zhi-jian; Hordyk, Peter J.; Benrud, Ryan R.; Geiser, Lauren R.; Cash, Steve E.; Simon Shelley, C.; Howard, David R.; Ereth, Mark H.; Sola-Visner, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4–8°C and 3–5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4–8°C were released back into the blood within 2 h of arousal in the spring with a body temperature of 37°C but were not rapidly cleared from circulation. These released platelets were capable of forming stable clots and remained in circulation for at least 2 days before newly synthesized platelets were detected. Transfusion of autologous platelets stored at 4°C or 37°C showed the same clearance rates in ground squirrels, whereas rat platelets stored in the cold had a 140-fold increase in clearance rate. Our results demonstrate that ground squirrel platelets appear to be resistant to the platelet cold storage lesions observed in other mammals, allowing prolonged storage in cold stasis and preventing rapid clearance upon spring arousal. Elucidating these adaptations could lead to the development of methods to store human platelets in the cold, extending their shelf life. PMID:22492817

  16. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Scott T; Richters, Karl E; Melin, Travis E; Liu, Zhi-jian; Hordyk, Peter J; Benrud, Ryan R; Geiser, Lauren R; Cash, Steve E; Simon Shelley, C; Howard, David R; Ereth, Mark H; Sola-Visner, Martha C

    2012-05-15

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4-8°C and 3-5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4-8°C were released back into the blood within 2 h of arousal in the spring with a body temperature of 37°C but were not rapidly cleared from circulation. These released platelets were capable of forming stable clots and remained in circulation for at least 2 days before newly synthesized platelets were detected. Transfusion of autologous platelets stored at 4°C or 37°C showed the same clearance rates in ground squirrels, whereas rat platelets stored in the cold had a 140-fold increase in clearance rate. Our results demonstrate that ground squirrel platelets appear to be resistant to the platelet cold storage lesions observed in other mammals, allowing prolonged storage in cold stasis and preventing rapid clearance upon spring arousal. Elucidating these adaptations could lead to the development of methods to store human platelets in the cold, extending their shelf life.

  17. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. )

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  18. Proteomics of apheresis platelet supernatants during routine storage: Gender-related differences

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; D‘Alessandroa, Angelo; Burke, Timothy A.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Moore, Ernest E.; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.; West, Bernadette F.; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics has identified potential pathways involved in platelet storage lesions, which correlate with untoward effects in the recipient, including febrile non-haemolytic reactions. We hypothesize that an additional pathway involves protein mediators that accumulate in the platelet supernatants during routine storage in a donor gender-specific fashion. Apheresis platelet concentrates were collected from 5 healthy males and 5 females and routinely stored. The 14 most abundant plasma proteins were removed and the supernatant proteins from days 1 and 5 were analyzed via 1D-SDS-PAGE/nanoLC-MS/MS, before label-free quantitative proteomics analyses. Findings from a subset of 18 proteins were validated via LC-SRM analyses against stable isotope labeled standards. A total of 503 distinct proteins were detected in the platelet supernatants from the 4 sample groups: female or male donor platelets, either at storage day 1 or 5. Proteomics suggested a storage and gender-dependent impairment of blood coagulation mediators, pro-inflammatory complement components and cytokines, energy and redox metabolic enzymes. The supernatants from female donors demonstrated increased deregulation of structural proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and focal adhesion proteins, possibly indicating storage-dependent platelet activation. Routine storage of platelet concentrates induces changes in the supernatant proteome, which may have effects on the transfused patient, some of which are related to donor gender. Biological significance The rationale behind this study is that protein components in platelet releasates have been increasingly observed to play a key role in adverse events and impaired homeostasis in transfused recipients. In this view, proteomics has recently emerged as a functional tool to address the issue of protein composition of platelet releasates from buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates in the blood bank. Despite early encouraging studies on buffy coat-derived platelet

  19. The platelet response to hypotonic shock. Its value as an indicator of platelet viability after storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, B K; Baldini, M G

    1974-01-01

    The nature of the platelet response to osmotic shock and its relationship to platelet viability were studied. Light absorbancy changes of human platelet concentrates exposed to hypotonic shock were measured in a spectrophotometer: a sudden drop of light absorbancy was followed by a reversal of light absorbancy towards normal (reversal reaction). It was confirmed that the reversal reaction is a complex phenomenon dependent on the integrity of biochemical and enzymatic functions of the platelets. It was suppressed by glycolytic inhibitors and by SH-blocking agents. Ouabain had no immediate effect, but with prolonged incubation it depressed the reaction. Suspension of the platelets in a protein-free medium caused a rapid loss of the reversal reaction. Disappearance of the marginal bundle of microtubules by exposure to colchicine did not change the reaction leading to the hypothesis that microfibrils rather than the microtubules may have been responsible for the reversal reaction. The conclusion was derived that the reversal reaction is due to cell volume contraction for which integrity of the platelet contractile protein and energy availability are essential. Platelet storage at 4 degrees C or at 22 degrees C caused a progressive depression of the reversal reaction which was more severe in platelets preserved at 4 C than in those preserved at 22 degrees C, and paralleled the loss of the platelet capacity to survive in vivo. Cryoprotective agents (DMSO, DMAC and glycerol) partially inhibited the reversal reaction. Freezing with these agents caused a more severe depression of the reaction. The least depression was observed with 5 per cent DMSO. The results demonstrated that the reversal reaction is a valid and accurate in vitro indicator of in vivo platelet viability when the results to be compared are limited to a single method of storage. Usefulness of the reversal reaction is reduced when results obtained with different methods of storage are compared.

  20. A Platelet Acquired Storage Pool Disorder Associated with Tamoxifen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Lalitha; Schmaier, Alvin H.

    2012-01-01

    The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen, used in patients with breast cancer, is associated with an increase in arterial and venous thrombotic events, the mechanism of which is not clearly understood. We report a case of a lady who presented with new bruising and prolonged bleeding following a tooth extraction 4–6 weeks after starting tamoxifen. Investigations were consistent with an acquired platelet storage pool disorder. Repeat platelet function analysis was normal, performed 3 months after discontinuation of tamoxifen. We present a previously clinically unreported effect of tamoxifen on platelet function. PMID:23326738

  1. Cytochrome c and resveratrol preserve platelet function during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ekaney, Michael L; Grable, Martin A; Powers, William F; McKillop, Iain H; Evans, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    Donated platelets are stored at 22°C and discarded within 5 days because of diminished function and risk of bacterial contamination. Decline of platelet function has been attributed to decreased mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Resveratrol (Res) and cytochrome c (Cyt c), in combination with hypothermic storage, may extend platelet viability. Platelets from 20 donors were pooled into four independent sets and stored at 22°C or 4°C in the absence or presence of Res (50 μM) or Cyt c (100 μM) for up to 10 days. Sequential measurement of platelet counts, coagulation function (thromboelastography), oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation, glucose-lactate levels, pH, TCO2, and soluble platelet activation markers (CD62P/PF-4) was performed. Platelet function diminished rapidly over time at 22°C versus 4°C (adenosine diphosphate, day 10 [0.6 ± 0.5] vs. [7.8 ± 3.5], arachidonic acid: day 10 [0.5 ± 0.5] vs. [30.1 ± 27.72]). At 4°C, storage treatment with Res or Cyt c limited deterioration in platelet function up to day 10, an effect not observed at 22°C (day 10, 4°C, Con [7.8 ± 3.5] vs. Res [37.3 ± 24.19] vs. Cyt c [45.83 ± 43.06]). Mechanistic analysis revealed oxygen consumption increased in response to Cyt c at 22°C, whereas neither Cyt c or Res affected oxygen consumption at 4°C. Lipid peroxidation was only reduced at 22°C (day 7 and day 10), but remained unchanged at 4°C, or when Res or Cyt c was added. Cytosolic ROS was significantly reduced by pretreatment with Res at 4°C. Total platelet count and soluble activation markers were unchanged during storage and not affected by Res, Cyt c, or temperature. Glucose concentration, pH and TCO2 decreased while lactate levels increased during storage at 22°C but not 4°C. Platelet function is preserved by cold storage for up to 10 days. This function is enhanced by treatment with Res or Cyt c, which supports mitochondrial activity, thus potentially extending platelet shelf life.

  2. Increasing susceptibility of nitric oxide-mediated inhibitory platelet signaling during storage of apheresis-derived platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Kobsar, Anna; Klinker, Erdwine; Kuhn, Sabine; Koessler, Angela; Yilmaz, Pinar; Boeck, Markus; Koessler, Juergen

    2014-07-01

    Storage of platelets (PLTs) affects PLT integrity and functionality, a process named the PLT storage lesion. Normal PLT function essentially depends on the balanced interaction of activating and inhibitory signaling pathways. As there are poor data on the alterations of inhibitory signaling during storage of PLT concentrates, this study investigates the modulation capability of the cyclic nucleotide-mediated inhibitory pathways by use of the nitric oxide donor diethylamine diazenium diolate (DEA/NO). PLTs were obtained from whole blood (WB) and from apheresis-derived PLT concentrates (APCs) stored for 0, 2, and 5 days. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, cyclic nucleotide concentrations, fibrinogen binding, and agonist-induced aggregation were measured without or after stimulation with DEA/NO. DEA/NO-induced VASP phosphorylation was significantly higher in PLTs from APCs on Days 2 and 5 compared to WB, conditioned by a stronger increase of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), but not cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in stored PLTs. A quantity of 5 nmol/L DEA/NO neither influenced thrombin receptor activator peptide 6 and collagen-induced aggregation nor fibrinogen binding in freshly collected PLTs, whereas it significantly inhibited both in stored PLTs. Stored PLTs showed an impairment of intracellular cGMP regulation, resulting in exceeding inhibition of agonist-induced aggregation and fibrinogen binding in the course of storage. The observed effects could be an important mechanism contributing to the storage lesion with reduced activating potential of PLTs. © 2014 AABB.

  3. [Effect of leukocyte contamination on storage of platelet concentrates from buffy coats].

    PubMed

    Klüter, H; Klinger, M; Bauhaus, M; Kirchner, H

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of white cell contamination on thrombocytes prepared from pooled buffy coats over a storage period of 8 days. Using this novel technique, a leukocyte depletion filter can be easily integrated during PC preparation. In a paired study (n = 14) eight ABO-identical BC were pooled in a 2-liter PVC bag within 8 h after whole-blood donation, thoroughly mixed and divided into two identical fractions. After soft-spin centrifugation the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was transferred either (fraction A) using a leukocyte filter (PL 50-HF, Pall) or (fraction B) directly into the storage bag (Pl-732, Baxter), and stored under routine conditions. On days 1, 3, 5, and 8, aliquots of PC were withdrawn for determination of cell count and different biochemical parameters and for morphometric analyses of platelet ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Results showed a lower thrombocyte yield and white cell count (p < 0.01) in fraction A (268 x 10(9) vs. 240 x 10(9); 51.1 x 10(6) vs. 0.04 x 10(6)), whereas no differences between the preparations could be detected by analysis of pH, pCO2, bicarbonate, and in LDH release over the storage period of 8 days. These results were supported in the study on the ultrastructural level where a good morphological integrity of the platelets was observed during the whole storage period in both fractions. In conclusion, storage lesions on platelets due to leukocyte effects are unlikely to occur in PC with white cell counts lower than 10(8)/l.

  4. In vitro study of platelet function confirms the contribution of the ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the lesions observed in riboflavin/UVB-treated platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Sonego, Giona; Crettaz, David; Aliotta, Alessandro; Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Platelet inactivation technologies (PITs) have been shown to increase platelet storage lesions (PSLs). This study investigates amotosalen/ultraviolet (UV)A- and riboflavin/UVB-induced platelet (PLT) lesions in vitro. Particular attention is given to the effect of UVB alone on PLTs. Buffy coat-derived PLT concentrates (PCs) were treated with amotosalen/UVA, riboflavin/UVB, or UVB alone and compared to untreated PCs throughout storage. In vitro PLT function was assessed by blood gas and metabolite analyses, flow cytometry-based assays (CD62P, JC-1, annexin V, PAC-1), hypotonic shock response, and static adhesion to fibrinogen-coated wells. In our experimental conditions, riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs showed the most pronounced differences compared to untreated and amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs. The riboflavin/UVB treatment led to a significant increase of anaerobic glycolysis rate despite functional mitochondria, a significant increase of CD62P on Day 2, and a decrease of JC-1 aggregates and increase of annexin V on Day 7. The expression of active GPIIbIIIa (PAC-1) and the adhesion to fibrinogen was significantly increased from Day 2 of storage in riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs. Importantly, we showed that these lesions were caused by the UVB radiation alone, independently of the presence of riboflavin. The amotosalen/UVA-treated PCs confirmed previously published results with a slight increase of PSLs compared to untreated PCs. Riboflavin/UVB-treated PCs present significant in vitro PSLs compared to untreated PCs. These lesions are caused by the UVB radiation alone and probably involve the generation of reactive oxygen species. The impact of these observations on clinical use must be investigated. © 2015 AABB.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of platelet...

  6. Platelet granule release is associated with reactive oxygen species generation during platelet storage: A direct link between platelet pro-inflammatory and oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat

    2017-08-01

    Upon platelet stimulation with agonists, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhances platelet activation and granule release. Whether ROS generation during platelet storage could be directly correlated with the expression of proinflammatory molecules and granule release has been investigated in this study. PRP-platelet concentrates were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to assess the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin and CD40L during storage. Intracellular ROS generation was also detected in platelet by flowcytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR) 123. Through the dual staining, ROS production was analyzed in either P-selectin positive or negative populations. ROS formation in platelet population was significantly increased by either TRAP (a potent agonist that induces granule release) or PMA (a classic inducer of ROS generation), while the effects of each agonists on P-selectin expression and ROS generation in platelets were comparable. Platelet storage was also associated with the increasing levels of ROS (day 0 vs. day 5; p<0.001) while this increasing pattern was directly correlated with the either expressed P-selectin or CD40L. In addition, in 5 day-stored platelets, samples with ROS levels above 40% showed significantly higher levels of P-selectin and CD40L expression. P-selectin negative population of platelet did not show significant amount of ROS. Our data demonstrated decreased levels of important platelet pro-inflammatory molecules in stored platelets with lower levels of intraplatelet ROS. However, whether quenching of ROS generation during platelet storage can attenuate adverse transfusion reactions raised by platelet pro-inflammatory status is required to be further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling the effects of blood component storage lesions on the quality of haemostatic resuscitation in massive transfusion for trauma.

    PubMed

    Mays, James A; Hess, John R

    2017-03-01

    All blood components undergo loss of potency during storage. These loss-of-potency storage lesions are important in trauma resuscitation because they reduce the haemostatic capacity of mixtures of components that attempt to reconstitute whole blood. Even red cell storage-related loss of potency, which averages 17% with modern additive solutions, is important because 6 units of red cells must be given to achieve the effect of 5 fully potent units. Loss of potency of stored units of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate were summed for dilutional, storage-related, pathogen reduction-related, and splenic sequestration-related causes and expressed as fractional plasma coagulation factor concentrations and platelet counts. Production of reconstituted whole blood from 1:1:1 unit ratios of red cells:plasma:platelets is associated with a 38% loss of plasma coagulation factor concentration and 56% loss of platelets. Storage losses of 17% for red cells, 10% for coagulation factors, and 30% for platelets are additive to pathogen reduction-related losses of 18% for coagulation factors and 30% for platelets. Component preparation and storage-related losses of potency for all blood components are serious problems for trauma resuscitation. Even red cell storage contributes to this problem and this can be made better in ways that can save many lives each year.

  8. Modelling the effects of blood component storage lesions on the quality of haemostatic resuscitation in massive transfusion for trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mays, James A.; Hess, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Background All blood components undergo loss of potency during storage. These loss-of-potency storage lesions are important in trauma resuscitation because they reduce the haemostatic capacity of mixtures of components that attempt to reconstitute whole blood. Even red cell storage-related loss of potency, which averages 17% with modern additive solutions, is important because 6 units of red cells must be given to achieve the effect of 5 fully potent units. Materials and methods Loss of potency of stored units of red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate were summed for dilutional, storage-related, pathogen reduction-related, and splenic sequestration-related causes and expressed as fractional plasma coagulation factor concentrations and platelet counts. Results Production of reconstituted whole blood from 1:1:1 unit ratios of red cells:plasma:platelets is associated with a 38% loss of plasma coagulation factor concentration and 56% loss of platelets. Storage losses of 17% for red cells, 10% for coagulation factors, and 30% for platelets are additive to pathogen reduction-related losses of 18% for coagulation factors and 30% for platelets. Discussion Component preparation and storage-related losses of potency for all blood components are serious problems for trauma resuscitation. Even red cell storage contributes to this problem and this can be made better in ways that can save many lives each year. PMID:28263173

  9. Storage Lesion. Role of Red Cell Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Lee, Janet; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    As stored blood ages intraerythrocytic energy sources are depleted resulting in reduced structural integrity of the membrane. Thus, stored red cells become less deformable and more fragile as they age. This fragility leads to release of cell-free hemoglobin and formation of microparticles, sub-micron hemoglobin-containing vesicles. Upon transfusion, it is likely that additional hemolysis and microparticle formation occurs due to breakdown of fragile red blood cells. Release of cell-free hemoglobin and microparticles leads to increased consumption of nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that modulates blood flow, and may promote inflammation. Stored blood may also be deficient in recently discovered blood nitric oxide synthase activity. We hypothesize that these factors play a potential role in the blood storage lesion. PMID:21496045

  10. Modified CMI, an essential adjunct to CMI of platelet for quality control during preparation and storage of platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ray, Vijayalaxmi; Chaudhary, Rajendra; Singh, Harprit

    2003-10-01

    Changes in platelet indices such as platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and corrected morphological index (CMI) have been correlated with the quality of platelet concentrates during storage but the acceptability criteria for these is not clearly defined. Platelet distribution width (PDW) is a measure of platelet anisocytosis and together with the MPV provides an adjunctive measure of quality. Hence, we investigated the use of the MPV and PDW with and without EDTA in an assessment of the quality of stored platelet concentrates. The differences in platelet count (dPLT), in MPV (dMPV) and in PDW (dPDW) with and without EDTA incubation were calculated. CMI and the modified CMI were further derived using dPLT, dMPV, and dPDW by simple mathematical calculations. We observed a good correlation of the CMI and modified CMI (r=0.966, p<0.01). The dPDWs underwent significant changes during the storage period in addition to changes in dPLT and dMPV. The dPDW provides a test of good power when compared with the dMPV (R(2)=64.1 and 26.1 respectively). We have observed an increment of 92.76% in the dPDW while it was 71% in the dMPV. This clearly shows that the dPDW is a better marker of quality control when compared to the dMPV during processing and storage of platelet concentrates.

  11. Comprehensive review of platelet storage methods for use in the treatment of active hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Milford, Elissa M; Reade, Michael C

    2016-04-01

    This review considers the various methods currently in use, or under investigation, for the storage of platelets intended for use in the treatment of active hemorrhage. The current standard practice of storing platelets at room temperature (RT) (20°C-24°C) optimizes circulating time, but at the expense of hemostatic function and logistical considerations. A number of alternatives are under investigation. Novel storage media additives appear to attenuate the deleterious changes that affect RT stored platelets. Cold storage was originally abandoned due to the poor circulating time of platelets stored at 4°C, but such platelets may actually be more hemostatically effective, with a number of other advantages, compared to RT stored platelets. Periodically re-warming cold stored platelets (temperature cycling, TC) may combine the hemostatic efficacy of cold stored platelets with the longer circulating times of RT storage. Alternatives to liquid storage include cryopreservation (freezing) or lyophilization (freeze-drying). The former has had some limited clinical use and larger clinical trials are underway, while the latter is still in the preclinical stage with promising in vitro and in vivo results. The importance of platelet transfusion in the management of active hemorrhage is now well accepted, so it is timely that platelet storage methods are reviewed with consideration of not only their circulating time, but also their hemostatic efficacy.

  12. Storage pool diseases illuminate platelet dense granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Andrea L; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2016-11-16

    Platelet dense granules (DGs) are membrane bound compartments that store polyphosphate and small molecules such as ADP, ATP, Ca(2+), and serotonin. The release of DG contents plays a central role in platelet aggregation to form a hemostatic plug. Accordingly, congenital deficiencies in the biogenesis of platelet DGs underlie human genetic disorders that cause storage pool disease and manifest with prolonged bleeding. DGs belong to a family of lysosome-related organelles, which also includes melanosomes, the compartments where the melanin pigments are synthesized. These organelles share several characteristics including an acidic lumen and, at least in part, the molecular machinery involved in their biogenesis. As a result, many genes affect both DG and melanosome biogenesis and the corresponding patients present not only with bleeding but also with oculocutaneous albinism. The identification and characterization of such genes has been instrumental in dissecting the pathways responsible for organelle biogenesis. Because the study of melanosome biogenesis has advanced more rapidly, this knowledge has been extrapolated to explain how DGs are produced. However, some progress has recently been made in studying platelet DG biogenesis directly in megakaryocytes and megakaryocytoid cells. DGs originate from an endosomal intermediate compartment, the multivesicular body. Maturation and differentiation into a DG begins when newly synthesized DG-specific proteins are delivered from early/recycling endosomal compartments. The machinery that orchestrates this vesicular trafficking is composed of a combination of both ubiquitous and cell type-specific proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on DG biogenesis. In particular, we focus on the individual human and murine genes encoding the molecular machinery involved in this process and how their deficiencies result in disease.

  13. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-17

    ONR Grant No. N00014-92-J-1244 EVALUATION OF DRIED STORAGE OF PLATELETS FOR TRANSFUSION: PHYSIOLOGIC INTEGRITY AND HEMOSTATIC FUNCTIONALITY. Principal...protection for commercialization of the manufacture and use of lyophilized platelets in transfusion medicine is still pending in U.S. Patent Court and... platelets for correction of bleeding times in thrombocytopenic rabbits. Three different preparations, representing the platelets from a total of six units

  14. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    thrombogenic effects of rehydrated platelets involve the use of thrombocytopenic animals. We plan to use a COBE Spectra Blood Cell Separator apheresis ...34AD-A276 018 DT SFEB 2 199-4 SECOND ANNUAL REPORT F 2 4 February 1, 1993 - January 31, 1994 "Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion...canine platelets and assessment of multiple infusions of non-labelled rehydrated platelets . The attached subcontract report from Dr. Read and

  15. Platelet function testing during 5-day storage of single and random donor plateletpheresis.

    PubMed

    Akay, O Meltem; Gündüz, Eren; Başyiğit, Hatice; Gulbas, Zafer

    2007-06-01

    Platelet concentrates are routinely manufactured from whole blood by differential centrifugation (random donor platelets-RDP) or by plateletpheresis (single donor platelets-SDP). These platelet concentrates have a storage period of 5 days and many different approaches exist to measure the condition of platelets during their storage. In this study, platelet aggregation testing using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen and flow cytometric platelet activation analysis using CD41 FITC and CD62 PE before and after ADP was performed on days 1, 3 and 5 of storage of platelet preparations. Thirty three RDPs, stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags and 18 SDPs stored in Fresenius blood bags were evaluated. In RDPs and in SDPs; ADP and collagen induced PA responses were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to 1st day. CD62 positive platelet percentage after ADP were decreased significantly on the 3rd and 5th days compared to the 1st day in Kansuk bags. Flow cytometric analysis revealed minor changes in CD41 expression after ADP on the 3rd day compared to 1st day and on the 5th day compared to 3rd day. Differences in CD62 positive platelet percentage were not significant between the RDPs and SDPs. Our results suggest that: (1) ADP and collagen induced PA responses decrease both in RDPs and SDPs during storage. (2) Flow cytometric analysis does not show major significant changes in platelet activation after ADP during storage. (3) Continous shaking on the agitator does not cause a significant change in CD62 positive platelet percentage during storage. (4) Platelet aggregation responses in RDPs stored in Baxter and Kansuk blood bags do not differ during storage.

  16. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  20. The Influence of Reserpine and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on Serotonin Storage Organelles of Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Jonathan M.; Rao, Gundu H. R.; White, James G.

    1977-01-01

    The present investigation has evaluated the influence of reserpine on the serotonin-rich organelles bodies) in platelets from dogs, rabbits, and humans. Reserpine markedly depresses the levels of stored serotonin in human and animal platelets, accompanied by a small decrease in platelet ATP but no change in platelet ADP content. Thin sections of human platelets showed no change in the number or morphology of serotonin storage organelles during reserpine therapy, whereas a profound decrease in the size and number of dense bodies occurred in platelets from rabbits treated with reserpine. Dog platelets also showed a decrease in the number and density of serotonin storage organelles after reserpine therapy. The basis for the difference between rabbit and human platelets was explored by fixing platelets in glutaraldehyde and osmium in the presence or absence of the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Most of the dense bodies in fixed human platelets were removed by EDTA while rabbit platelet dense bodies remained essentially intact. The results suggested that the opacity of rabbit platelet dense bodies following fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium relate primarily to their serotonin content, while the electron density of human serotonin storage organelles in fixed cells is due primarily to their calcium content. Further confirmation of this concept came from studies of platelets using the whole mount technique. Rabbit platelet serotonin storage organelles were found to lack the inherent opacity of the human dense bodies, a finding consistent with the lower concentration of calcium in the rabbit organelles. ImagesFigures 1A-DFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figures 5 and 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:405872

  1. Microparticle and mitochondrial release during extended storage of different types of platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Geneviève; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Rousseau, Matthieu; Lévesque, Tania; Boudreau, Luc H; Thibault, Louis; Boilard, Eric

    2016-09-29

    On activation, platelets release vesicles called microparticles (MPs). MPs are heterogeneous with regard to the presence or absence of mitochondria. We quantified MPs in platelet concentrates (PCs) taking their mitochondrial content into account. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), buffy coat (BC) and apheresis (AP) PCs were tested through 7 days of storage. A combination of flow cytometry and spanning-tree progression analysis of density-normalized events (SPADE) was used to determine MP and mitochondrial release during storage. All the PC biochemical parameters complied with transfusion standards at all times. Platelet activation markers increased during storage and were higher for PRP than other types of PCs. Concentrations of MPs and extracellular mitochondria interpreted by SPADE algorithm were significantly higher in PRP than other in PCs and were stable throughout storage. The mode of preparation, rather than storage duration, impacts the release of MPs and mitochondria in PCs.

  2. Essential role of vesicular nucleotide transporter in vesicular storage and release of nucleotides in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Miki; Togawa, Natsuko; Miyaji, Takaaki; Omote, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nucleotides are stored in the dense granules of platelets. The release of nucleotides triggers one of the first steps in a series of cascades responsible for blood coagulation. However, the mechanism of how the nucleotides are accumulated in the granules is still far less understood. The transporter protein responsible for storage of nucleotides in the neuroendocrine cells has been identified and characterized. We hypothesized that the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is also involved in the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets. In this article, we present three lines of evidence that VNUT is responsible for the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets and that vesicular ATP transport is crucial for platelet function, detection and characterization of VNUT activity in platelets isolated from healthy humans and MEG‐01 cells, RNA interference experiments on MEG‐01 cells, and studies on nucleotide transport and release with a selective inhibitor. PMID:24907298

  3. Platelet function in reconstituted whole blood variants: An observational study over 5 days of storage time.

    PubMed

    Ponschab, Martin; Schlimp, Christoph J; Zipperle, Johannes; Gabriel, Christian; Süssner, Susanne; Cadamuro, Janne; Gratz, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Schöchl, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Platelet concentrates (PCs) are usually stored at room temperature under constant gentle agitation. Risk of bacterial contamination limits maximum storage time to 5 days. The objective of the study was to investigate platelet function with regard to storage time in different reconstituted whole blood (RWB) variants. Donated apheresis PCs were stored at 22°C over 5 days. To obtain RWB, apheresis PCs were mixed with plasma-free packed red blood cells (RBCs) and either prethawed fresh frozen plasma (PT) or solvent-detergent plasma (SD) [1:1:1 ratio], or with leukocyte- and platelet-depleted whole blood (LD-WB) as control. Platelet function in RWB variants was assessed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate) on Days 0, 1, 3, and 5 following platelet donation. Platelet aggregometry did not reach the lower limits determined from healthy volunteers in any of the RWB variants. Platelet aggregability measured by ASPI test, ADP test, and COL test declined over storage time in all RWB variants. No differences were observed in the TRAP test. At most measurement time points, LD-RWB provided significantly higher platelet aggregability compared with SD-RWB and PT-RWB (p < 0.01). SD-RWB demonstrated higher platelet aggregability on Day 0 in the ASPI test, ADP test, and TRAP test compared with PT-RWB. Apheresis PCs stored for 5 days at 22°C demonstrated reduced platelet aggregability, as measured by multiple electrode aggregometry when mixed with RBCs and plasma. As platelet aggregation in LD-RWB was superior compared with SD-RWB and PT-RWB variants, it might be possible that additives in RBCs or plasma are responsible for the observed depressed platelet function. Critical evaluation of current massive transfusion recommendations proposing early platelet transfusion is indicated.

  4. Fluorescence nanoscopy of platelets resolves platelet-state specific storage, release and uptake of proteins, opening up future diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Rönnlund, Daniel; Yang, Yang; Blom, Hans; Auer, Gert; Widengren, Jerker

    2012-11-01

    Dysregulation of how platelets store, sequester and release specific proteins seems to be implicated in many disease states, including cancer. Dual-color immunofluorescence stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy with 40 nm resolution is used to map pro-angiogenic VEGF, anti-angiogenic PF-4 and fibrinogen in >300 individual platelets. This reveals that these proteins are stored in a segmented, zonal manner within regional clusters, significantly smaller than the size of an α-granule. No colocalization between the different proteins is observed. Upon platelet activation by thrombin or ADP, the proteins undergo significant spatial rearrangements, including alterations in the size and number of the protein clusters, and specific for a certain protein and the type of activation induced. Following these observations, a simple assignment procedure is used to show that the three distinct states of platelets (non-, ADP- and thrombin-activated) can be identified based on the average size, number and peripheral localization profiles of the regional protein clusters within the platelets. Thus, high-resolution spatial mapping of specific proteins is a useful procedure to detect and characterize deviations in the selective storage, release and uptake of these proteins in the platelets. Since these deviations seem to be specific for, and may even underlie, certain patophysiological states, these findings may have interesting diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  5. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    For in vitro studies assessing the interaction of platelets with implant materials, common and standardized protocols for the preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) are lacking, which may lead to non-matching results due to the diversity of applied protocols. Particularly, the aging of platelets during prolonged preparation and storage times is discussed to lead to an underestimation of the material thrombogenicity. Here, we study the influence of whole blood- and PRP-storage times on changes in platelet morphology and function. Blood from apparently healthy subjects was collected according to a standardized protocol and examined immediately after blood collection, four hours and twenty four hours later. The capability of platelets to adhere and form stable aggregates (PFA100, closure time) was examined in sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood (WB) using the agonists equine type I collagen and epinephrine bitartrate (collagen/epinephrine) as well as equine type I collagen and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (collagen/ADP). Circulating platelets were quantified at each time point. Morphology of platelets and platelet aggregates were visualized microscopically and measured using an electric field multi-channel counting system (CASY). The percentage of activated platelets was assessed by means of P-selectin (CD62P) expression of circulating platelets. Furthermore, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release was measured in platelet poor plasma (PPP) at each time point. Whole blood PFA100 closure times increased after stimulation with collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine. Twenty four hours after blood collection, both parameters were prolonged pathologically above the upper limit of the reference range. Numbers of circulating platelets, measured in PRP, decreased after four hours, but no longer after twenty four hours. Mean platelet volumes (MPV) and platelet large cell ratios (P-LCR, 12 fL - 40 fL) decreased over time. Immediately after blood collection, no debris or platelet

  6. Comparison between in vitro lipid peroxidation in fresh sheep platelets and peroxidative processes during sheep platelet ageing under storage at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Martín-Valmaseda, E M; Sánchez-Yagüe, J; Rodríguez, M C; Gómez, F P; Llanillo, M

    1999-07-15

    Incubation of sheep platelet crude membranes with xanthine oxidase (XO)/hypoxanthine/Fe(2+)-ADP revealed: (i) a fast peroxidative response - with a maximal linear rate of 14 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/mg protein, as evidenced by the thiobarbituric acid test - and a decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the platelet crude membranes; (ii) a decrease in the lipid fluidity in the deep lipid core of the membranes but not at the membrane surface; (iii) a dramatic inhibitory effect on glucose 6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) but not on acetylcholinesterase activity. Platelets were also aged by storage at 4 degrees C in their own plasma or in Seto additive solution. In these media, platelet aggregates were visible and the effects on platelet phospholipids, PUFA, lipid extract fluorescence, crude membrane fluidity and membrane-bound enzyme activities were assessed for comparison with those observed in in vitro lipid peroxidation. The sensitivity of membranes from stored platelets to lipid peroxidation was also assessed. Storage of platelets in plasma for 5 days was associated with different changes in their crude membranes such as decreases in arachidonic acid contents, the decrease not being avoided by the presence of phospholipase A(2) inhibitors, increases in MDA equivalents, conjugated dienes and lipid extract fluorescence, decreases in the amounts of MDA equivalents formed by platelet crude membranes treated with the oxidizing agents, changes in membrane fluidity and inhibition of Glc-6-Pase. All these alterations were less pronounced or even abolished after platelet storage in Seto. These findings suggest that platelet lipid peroxidation due to XO/hypoxanthine/Fe(2+)-ADP and platelet membrane alterations observed after platelet ageing under storage at 4 degrees C share common features. Also, as regards the prevention of peroxidative processes, Seto solution permits better storage of sheep platelets than plasma.

  7. Platelet lysate and chondroitin sulfate loaded contact lenses to heal corneal lesions.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Delfino, Alessio; Riva, Federica; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Marrubini, Giorgio; Musitelli, Giorgio; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2016-07-25

    Hemoderivative tear substitutes contain various ephiteliotrophic factors, such as growth factors (GF), involved in ocular surface homeostasis without immunogenic properties. The aim of the present work was the loading of platelet lysate into contact lenses to improve the precorneal permanence of platelet lysate growth factors on the ocular surface to enhance the treatment of corneal lesions. To this purpose, chondroitin sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, which is normally present in the extracellular matrix, was associated with platelet lysate. In fact, chondroitin sulfate is capable of electrostatic interaction with positively charged growth factors, in particular, with bFGF, IGF, VEGF, PDGF and TGF-β, resulting in their stabilization and reduced degradation in solution. In the present work, various types of commercially available contact lenses have been loaded with chondroitin sulfate or chondroitin sulfate in association with platelet lysate to achieve a release of growth factors directly onto the corneal surface lesions. One type of contact lenses (PureVision(®)) showed in vitro good proliferation properties towards corneal cells and were able to enhance cut closure in cornea constructs.

  8. Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism during platelet storage at 22 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Murphy, S. )

    1990-11-01

    Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism of platelet concentrates (PCs) was studied during storage for transfusion at 22 +/- 2 degrees C over a 7-day period using high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was a steady decrease in platelet adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which was balanced quantitatively by an increase in plasma hypoxanthine. As expected, ammonia accumulated along with hypoxanthine but at a far greater rate. A fall in platelet guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) paralleled the fall in ATP + ADP. When adenine was present in the primary anticoagulant, it was carried over into the PC and metabolized. ATP, GTP, total adenine nucleotides, and total guanine nucleotides declined more slowly in the presence of adenine than in its absence. With adenine, the increase in hypoxanthine concentration was more rapid and quantitatively balanced the decrease in adenine and platelet ATP + ADP. Plasma xanthine rose during storage but at a rate that exceeded the decline in GTP + GDP. When platelet ATP + ADP was labeled with 14C-adenine at the initiation of storage, half of the radioactivity was transferred to hypoxanthine (45%) and GTP + GDP + xanthine (5%) by the time storage was completed. The isotopic data were consistent with the presence of a radioactive (metabolic) and a nonradioactive (storage) pool of ATP + ADP at the initiation of storage with each pool contributing approximately equally to the decline in ATP + ADP during storage. The results suggested a continuing synthesis of GTP + GDP from ATP + ADP, explaining the slower rate of fall of GTP + GDP relative to the rate of rise of plasma xanthine. Throughout storage, platelets were able to incorporate 14C-hypoxanthine into both adenine and guanine nucleotides but at a rate that was only one fourth the rate of hypoxanthine accumulation.

  9. Extended Storage of Pathogen Reduced Platelet Concentrates (PRECON)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Society of Hematology Annual Meeting; Orlando, FL December 5-8, 2015:184 INVENTIONS, PATENTS AND LICENSES: None REPORTABLE OUTCOMES: None OTHER...survivals. Data are reported as the average ±1 S.E.(1) Approximately 80% of the platelets given in the U.S. are transfused into hematology /oncology...Bailey SL, Gettinger. In Vivo Viability of Platelets Stored in Whole Blood at 4°C. Submitted abstract, American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting

  10. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kimberly; Fisher, Bernard J; Fowler, Evan; Fowler, Alpha A; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-07-12

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as "storage lesions". We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized) would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol)-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1) saline (saline); (2) 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC); (3) 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC); or (4) 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation) and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized) significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  11. Platelet adhesion changes during storage studied with a novel method using flow cytometry and protein-coated beads.

    PubMed

    Tynngård, Nahreen; Wallstedt, Maria; Södergren, Anna L; Faxälv, Lars; Ramström, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to set up and evaluate a novel method for studies of platelet adhesion and activation in blood and platelet suspensions such as platelet concentrate (PC) samples using protein-coated polystyrene beads and flow cytometry. To demonstrate its usefulness, we studied PCs during storage. PCs were prepared by aphaeresis technique (n = 7). Metabolic variables and platelet function was measured on day 1, 5, 7 and 12 of storage. Spontaneous and TRAP-6-induced adhesion to fibrinogen- and collagen-coated beads was analyzed by flow cytometry. P-selectin and phosphatidyl serine (PS) expression was assessed on platelets bound to beads as well as on non-adherent platelets. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen beads had increased by day 12 and adhesion to collagen beads at day 7 of storage (p < 0.05). TRAP-6 stimulation significantly increased the platelet adhesion to fibrinogen beads (p < 0.05) as well as the P-selectin and PS exposure on platelets bound to beads (p < 0.01) during the first 7 days of storage, but by day 12, significant changes were no longer induced by TRAP-6 stimulation. We demonstrate that our adhesion assay using protein-coated polystyrene beads can be used to assess the adhesion properties of platelets during storage without the addition of red blood cells. Therefore it may offer a useful tool for future studies of platelet adhesive capacity in transfusion medicine and other settings.

  12. CD62-mediated activation of platelets in cerebral white matter lesions in patients with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Nagato; Mizuno, Toshiki; Yasuike, Hiromi; Matsuno, Hiroyuki; Kawashita, Eri; Tamura, Aiko; Ozaki, Etsuko; Matsui, Daisuke; Watanabe, Isao; Koyama, Teruhide; Miyatani, Fumitaro; Kondo, Masaki; Tokuda, Takahiko; Ohshima, Youichi; Muranishi, Manabu; Akazawa, Kentaro; Takada, Akihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Sanae; Mizuno, Shigeto; Yamada, Kei; Nakagawa, Masanori; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular dementia is related to intracranial arteriosclerosis associated with deep white matter lesions (DWMLs). DWMLs have been linked to thrombogenesis due to sustained platelet activation; therefore, an accurate hematological marker is needed. This study was done to evaluate the usefulness of a new method to examine the function of activated platelets in order to assess DWMLs associated with cognitive decline. A total of 143 individuals (70.4 ± 6.1 years old) who underwent hospital-based health screening using head MRI were evaluated. DWLs were evaluated on T2-weighted and FLAIR images by semi-quantitatively grading them from Grade 0 (none) to Grade 3 (severe) using the Fazekas classification. Cognitive function was evaluated using the MMSE and the word fluency test. Platelet activation was assessed using fluorescence-labeled anti-human platelet monoclonal antibodies and semi-quantitatively determining PAC-1- and CD62P-positive rates by flow cytometry. Significant increases in hypertension and CD62P levels were observed with increasing DWML grade (2.6% in Group 0, 3.1% in Group 1, 4.1% in Group 2, and 5.0% in Group 3). CD62P levels were defined as elevated when they were above the mean+2SD of the Grade 0 group, and the odds ratio of the Grade 2+3 group was 3.03. A significant negative correlation was observed between CD62P levels and word fluency tests or the MMSE score. Elevations in CD62P levels, which reflect platelet function activation, were associated with white matter lesions accompanied by a decline in cognitive function. CD62P levels may be useful as a sensitive clinical marker for the early detection of DWMLs with cognitive decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Current status of additive solutions for platelets.

    PubMed

    Alhumaidan, Hiba; Sweeney, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The storage of platelets in additive solution (PAS) had lagged behind red cell concentrates, especially in North America. The partial or complete removal of anticoagulated plasma and storage of platelet concentrates in AS presents many advantages. The PAS can be formulated to optimize aerobic metabolism or decrease platelet activation, thus abrogating the platelet storage lesion and potentially improving in vivo viability. Plasma removal has been shown to reduce allergic reactions and the plasma harvested could contribute to the available plasma pool for transfusion or fractionation. PAS coupled to pathogen reduction technology results in a platelet product of equivalent hemostatic efficacy to conventionally stored platelets. Given the above, the likely future direction of platelet storage will be in new generation designer PAS with an extended shelf life and a superior safety profile to plasma stored platelets. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of 1-aminoadamantanes on adenine nucleotide and serotonin storage in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Wesemann, W; Muschalek, G; Stöltzing, H; von Pusch, I; Paul, N

    1981-12-01

    The platelet release reaction, the liberation of adenine nucleotides and serotonin (5-HT) from osmiophilic dense granules, can be induced in human platelets by C-alkyl-derivatives of the antiviral and anti-Parkinson drug 1-aminoadamantane (D 1). The release-inducing activity is enhanced with increasing chain length and with the number of C-alkylsubstituents, respectively. The parent compound, D 1, liberates only 5-HT. Analyses of LDH activity in the incubation medium of the platelets and electron micrographs of platelets treated with 1-aminoadamantanes support the assumption that ATP, ADP, and 5-HT are released from the organelles by an exocytosis-like process rather than by destruction of the plasma and organelle membranes. The number of osmiophilic dense granules in platelets isolated from human and rabbit blood is decreased by the action of the drugs. This is in contrast to other subcellular structures where no morphological changes can be observed. The ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation is inhibited by preincubation with 1-aminoadamantanes. The inhibitory activity of the drugs on platelet aggregation parallels the effects observed after induction of the release reaction: the inhibition of platelet aggregation is enhanced with increasing C-alkylation. Hence, the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation can be used to screen for the releasing activity of 1-aminoadamantanes which have, as far as tested, similar effects on 5-HT storage in blood platelets and in the CNS. The time-, temperature, and concentration-dependent 5-HT uptake by platelets (K = 0.75 micro M; V max = 0.22 nmoles/min X 10 9 cells) is noncompetitively inhibited by the drugs with K1-values varying from 10 to 100 micro M depending on the degree of C-alkylation.

  15. Platelets

    MedlinePlus

    ... common disorder of platelet function is caused by aspirin. Aspirin blocks one of the steps required for platelets to stick together. This effect of aspirin is what makes it an effective treatment for ...

  16. Temperature effects on the activity, shape, and storage of platelets from 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Scott; Lloyd, Sarah; Koch, Anthony; Lin, Xingxing; Dobbs, Katie; Theisen, Thomas; Zuberbuehler, Matt; Bernhardt, Kaley; Gyorfi, Michael; Tenpas, Tanner; Hying, Skyler; Mortimer, Sarah; Lamont, Christine; Lehmann, Marcus; Neeves, Keith

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how a hibernating mammal avoids the formation of blood clots under periods of low blood flow. A microfluidic vascular injury model was performed to differentiate the effects of temperature and shear rate on platelet adhesion to collagen. Human and ground squirrel whole blood was incubated at 15 or 37 °C and then passed through a microfluidic chamber over a 250-µm strip of type I fibrillar collagen at that temperature and the shear rates of 50 or 300 s(-1) to simulate torpid and aroused conditions, respectively. At 15 °C, both human and ground squirrel platelets showed a 90-95% decrease in accumulation on collagen independent of shear rate. At 37 °C, human platelet accumulation reduced by 50% at 50 s(-1) compared to 300 s(-1), while ground squirrel platelet accumulation dropped by 80%. When compared to platelets from non-hibernating animals, platelets from animals collected after arousal from torpor showed a 60% decrease in binding at 37 °C and 300 s(-1), but a 2.5-fold increase in binding at 15 °C and 50 s(-1). vWF binding in platelets from hibernating ground squirrels was decreased by 50% relative to non-hibernating platelets. The source of the plasma that platelets were stored in did not affect the results indicating that the decreased vWF binding was a property of the platelets. Upon chilling, ground squirrel platelets increase microtubule assembly leading to the formation of long rods. This shape change is concurrent with sequestration of platelets in the liver and not the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that ground squirrel platelets are sequestered in the liver during torpor and have reduced binding capacity for plasma vWF and lower accumulation on collagen at low shear rates and after storage at cold temperatures, while still being activated by external agonists. These adaptations would protect the animals from spontaneous thrombus formation during torpor but allow them to restore normal

  17. 5-day storage of platelet concentrates in CLX containers: effect of type of agitation.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E L; Bookbinder, M; Kakaiya, R; Ferri, P; Kiraly, T

    1983-01-01

    To determine the degree of platelet damage produced by different modes of agitation during storage of concentrates for 5 days in CLX blood bags, we studied pH, platelet counts, release of LDH and beta thromboglobulin, morphology and osmotic recovery. Platelets were maintained at 20-24 degrees C on elliptical, 6-rpm circular, 2-rpm circular and flat bed agitators. At 72-120 h platelet concentrates stored on the flat bed shaker had significantly lower pH values than units stored on the elliptical or on either of the circular rotators (p less than 0.05). The percent LDH discharged was highest for the units stored on the elliptical rotator (p less than 0.05). Remaining tests of platelet function were not significantly different for concentrates stored on any of the four agitators. Flat bed shakers were unable to resuspend the platelet 'button' which formed after the final preparative centrifugation. Based on our in vitro studies, we conclude that due to problems with low pH values, flat bed shakers may not be optimal for storing platelet concentrates in CLX blood bags and that some other form of agitation should be used.

  18. Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates (PRECON)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    standard Terumo plt storage bag (PVC plastic ). However, Haemonetics apheresis plts can be stored for 13 days in Haemonetics bags (CLX plastic ). Plt...concentrates will first be stored for 6 days in 65% PAS/35% plasma using our standard Terumo plt storage bag (PVC plastic ) If FDA criteria are met...Preliminary steps to this ultimate goal are to determine the best storage bag and the optimum PAS to plasma ratio to utilize in our Mirasol experiments. Once

  19. Rat red blood cell storage lesions in various additive solutions.

    PubMed

    Jani, Vivek P; Yalcin, Ozlem; Williams, Alexander T; Popovsky, Mark A; Cabrales, Pedro

    2017-06-03

    Small rodent models are routinely used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blood transfusions. Limited comprehensive literature exists about effect of different storage solutions in rat red blood cells (RBCs) characteristics. RBCs undergo time dependent biochemical and biophysical changes during storage known as hypothermic storage lesions (HSLs). This study evaluates the effects of RBC additive solutions (AS) during storage of rat RBCs. Blood was leukoreduced and stored as per manufacturer instructions at 4°C up to 42-days. Three solutions, CPDA-1; AS-1; and AS-7 (SOLX), were evaluated. Biochemical parameters measured included extracellular K +, pH, hemolysis, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), oxygen affinity, ATP, and lactate. Mechanical properties measured included RBC deformability, elongation index (EI), RBC membrane shear elastic modulus (SEM), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), viscosity, and aggregability. There were no differences in biochemical or mechanical parameters at baseline or after one week of storage. However, after two weeks, AS-7 preserved biochemical and mechanical properties as compared to CPDA-1 and AS-1. Changes were observed to be significant after 14-days of storage. AS-7 prevented extracellular K + increase, reduced acidosis, showed lower hemolysis, preserved ATP and 2,3-DPG levels (consequently oxygen affinity), and reduced lactate. AS-7, when compared to CPDA-1 and AS-1, prevented the reduction in RBC deformability and was found to preserve the EI at multiple shear stresses, the membrane SEM, the aggregability and viscosity. Rat RBCs stored with AS-7 presented reduced changes in biochemical and mechanical parameters, when compared with rat RBCs stored in CPDA-1 and AS-1, after as early as two weeks of storage.

  20. Storage of platelet concentrates after high-dose ultraviolet B irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.L.; Beardsley, D.S.; Smith, B.R.; Horne, W.; Johnson, R.; Wooten, T.; Napychank, P.A.; Male, P.; Buchholz, D.H. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of platelet concentrates (PCs) may prevent the development of posttransfusion HLA alloimmunization. As irradiation performed in a blood center or a hospital will probably be associated with a variable postirradiation delay before transfusion, the ability to store PCs after UVB irradiation becomes important. The effects have been studied of a UVB dose of 10,000 mJ per cm2, the dose used in our institution for UVB clinical trials, on PCs pooled and stored for up to 96 hours after irradiation. Results showed that after 96 hours of storage, though there were no changes in pH, platelet count, white cell count, percent discharge of lactate dehydrogenase, or {beta}-thromboglobulin, there were significant decreases in morphology score and osmotic recovery. These changes, however, were not evident after 24 hours of storage. Similarly, there was a 60% decrease in immunoreactive membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib after 96 hours of storage, but these changes were not seen after 48 hours of storage. No changes were seen in levels of GPIIb/IIIa in either group during the 96 hours of storage. On computer-analyzed two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCs irradiated at 10,000 mJ per cm2 and stored for 72 hours had changes in over 50 platelet proteins as compared to those proteins in nonirradiated age-matched control PCs. It can be concluded that UVB irradiation of PCs at 10,000 mJ per cm2 does not lead to significant platelet deterioration after short-term storage (24-48 hours) but is likely to be deleterious after long-term (72-96 hours) storage.

  1. Development of Antifouling and Bactericidal Coatings for Platelet Storage Bags Using Dopamine Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Weinhart, Marie; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haag, Rainer; Brooks, Donald E

    2017-09-29

    Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat. Under mild aqueous conditions, pPVC is first equilibrated with an anchoring polydopamine layer, followed by a DA51-cat layer. Measurements show this coating decreases fibrinogen adsorption to 5% of the control surfaces. One-step coating with DA51-cat does not coat pPVC efficiently although it is sufficient for coating silicon wafers and gold substrates. The dual layer coating on platelet bags resists bacterial biofilm formation and considerably decreases platelet adhesion. A cationic antimicrobial peptide, E6, is conjugated to DA51-cat then coated on silicon wafers and introduces bactericidal activity to these surfaces. Time-of-flight second ion-mass spectroscopy is successfully applied to characterize these surfaces. pPVC is widely used in medical devices; this method provides an approach to controlling biofouling and bacterial growth on it without elaborate surface modification procedures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Photoactivated platelet-rich plasma therapy for a traumatic knee chondral lesion.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Julien; Barnard, Adele; Rotstein, Andrew

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate the effect of combining photoactivation therapy with platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of a traumatic chondral lesion of the knee. A 38-year-old man presented with left-knee pain and swelling following a basketball injury. MRI demonstrated a full-thickness lateral tibial plateau chondral flap with subchondral cyst formation and marrow oedema. The patient underwent a course of photoactivated platelet-rich plasma (PAPRP) injections. Patient outcome measures included the numerical pain rating scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index 3.0 (WOMAC). Following treatment, the patient reported improvement in both pain and function as measured by the numerical pain-rating scale and WOMAC. MRI showed resolution of subchondral bone marrow bruising/oedema. No complications were noted. In this case report, PAPRP injections demonstrated improvement in all recorded outcome measures. Recognising the limitations of a single case report, the results highlight the need for more formal controlled trials to determine the potential use of PAPRP in the treatment of chondral lesions.

  3. Effects of Liquid Storage in a High pH Anticoagulant on the Circulation of Baboon Platelets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-23

    RD-Ri40 463 EFFECTS OF LIQUID STORAGE IN A HIGH PH ANTICOAGULANT ON /II THE CIRCULATION 0 .(U) BOSTON UNIV NAR SCHOOL OF MEDICINE R J MELARAGNO ET AL...EFFECTS OF LIQUID STORAGE IN A HIGH pH ANTICOAGULANT ON THE CIRCULATION OF BABOON PLATELETS by A. J. MELARAGNO, S. HALL, A. DOTY, J. G. WHITE, AND C. R...If neceeary and identify by block number) pH Liquid storage Anticoagulant Circulation Platelets Platelet-rich plasma Baboons Contamination 20

  4. The red cell storage lesion(s): of dogs and men.

    PubMed

    Klein, Harvey G

    2017-03-01

    The advent of preservative solutions permitted refrigerated storage of red blood cells. However, the convenience of having red blood cell inventories was accompanied by a disadvantage. Red cells undergo numerous physical and metabolic changes during cold storage, the "storage lesion(s)". Whereas controlled clinical trials have not confirmed the clinical importance of such changes, ethical and operational issues have prevented careful study of the oldest stored red blood cells. Suggestions of toxicity from meta-analyses motivated us to develop pre-clinical canine models to compare the freshest vs the oldest red blood cells. Our model of canine pneumonia with red blood cell transfusion indicated that the oldest red blood cells increased mortality, that the severity of pneumonia is important, but that the dose of transfused red blood cells is not. Washing the oldest red blood cells reduces mortality by removing senescent cells and remnants, whereas washing fresher cells increases mortality by damaging the red blood cell membrane. An opposite effect was found in a model of haemorrhagic shock with reperfusion injury. Physiological studies indicate that release of iron from old cells is a primary mechanism of toxicity during infection, whereas scavenging of cell-free haemoglobin may be beneficial during reperfusion injury. Intravenous iron appears to have toxicity equivalent to old red blood cells in the pneumonia model, suggesting that intravenous iron and old red blood cells should be administered with caution to infected patients.

  5. Evaluation of adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium for enhancement of platelet function during storage.

    PubMed

    Bynum, James A; Taylor, Ashley S; Peltier, Grantham C; McIntosh, Colby S; Meledeo, Michael A; Dobson, Geoffrey P; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-07-01

    The combination of adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium (Mg2+) (ALM) has demonstrated cardioprotective and resuscitative properties in models of cardiac arrest and hemorrhagic shock that are linked to reduction of metabolic demand. Platelets play a key role in resuscitation strategies for ATC but suffer from loss of function following storage in part owing to mitochondrial exhaustion. This study evaluates whether ALM also demonstrates protective properties in stored platelet preparations. Platelets were tested at (baseline, Day 5, Day 10, and Day 15) at 22°C (room temperature) or 4°C in 100% plasma and platelet additive solution. Adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium treatment or its individual components (A, L, M, or combinations) were added directly to the minibags at baseline for storage. Measurements consisted of blood gas and chemistry analyses, thromboelastography, impedance aggregometry, and flow cytometry. Blood gas and cell analysis, as well as flow cytometry measures, demonstrated only differences between temperature groups starting at Day 5 (p < 0.05) and no differences between treatment groups. Aggregation response to collagen (A only, M only, and ALM high dose) and thrombin receptor activation peptide (A + M, and ALM high dose) was significantly greater at Day 5 compared to respective 4°C (100% plasma) controls (p < 0.05). Thromboelastography analysis revealed significant preservation of all measures (reaction time, maximum amplitude, and angle) at Day 15 for 4°C-stored samples in 100% plasma in both controls (no ALM) and ALM treatment compared to room temperature (p < 0.05); no differences were observed between the ALM and control groups. The mechanism of ALM's protective effect remains unclear; key cellular functions may be required to provide protection. In this study, improvements in collagen and thrombin receptor activation peptide aggregation were seen when compared to 4°C-stored plasma samples although no improvements were seen when compared

  6. Manufacture of pooled platelets in additive solution and storage in an ELX container after an overnight warm temperature hold of platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Alhumaidan, Hiba; Cheves, Tracey; Holme, Stein; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2011-10-01

    The processing of whole blood-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to a platelet concentrate and platelet-poor plasma is currently performed within 8 hours to comply with the requirements to manufacture fresh frozen plasma. Maintaining PRP at room temperature for a longer period can have the advantage of shifting the completion of component manufacture onto day shifts. Pairs of ABO-identical prepooled platelets were manufactured by the PRP method, using the current approach with platelet storage in a CLX HP container (Pall Medical, Covina, CA) and plasma, or a novel approach with an 18- to a 24-hour room temperature hold of the PRP and the manufacture of pooled platelets in a glucose-containing additive solution (AS) and storage in a new ELX container (Pall Medical). Standard in vitro assays were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. The results showed that the AS platelets in ELX have in vitro characteristics that are equivalent or superior to those of the standard product.

  7. Storage of platelets in additive solutions: effects of magnesium and/or potassium.

    PubMed

    de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Schrijver, Johanna G; Bins, Maarten; Gulliksson, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that platelet concentrates (PCs) in a platelet additive solution (PAS) containing citrate, acetate, and sodium chloride (PAS-2) show a significantly higher increase of CD62+ platelets than PCs in other brands of PAS containing Mg(2+) and K(+). To investigate whether this difference can be explained by the presence of Mg(2+) and/or K(+) in the storage medium, we performed paired studies comparing storage of PCs in PAS-2 to PAS-2 with either Mg(2+) or K(+) or both in combination. PCs from pooled buffy coats were prepared in either PAS-2 or PAS-2 with Mg(2+) or K(+) or both in combination (PAS-2 modified). Different volumes of MgCl(2) solution (1 mol/L) and/or KCl solution (1 mol/L) were added to PAS-2 to obtain various concentrations. After preparation and during storage (at Days 3 and 7), pH, pCO(2), pO(2), HCO(3)(-), and CD62 (%) were measured. During 7 days of storage, pH was very stable (6.9-7.2) in all PCs. At Day 7, platelet CD62 expression was 49 percent (PAS-2), 41 percent (PAS-2 with 1.5 mmol/L Mg(2+)), and 38 percent (PAS-2 with 4.5 mmol/L Mg(2+)). With added K(+), at Day 7, expression of CD62 was 55 percent (PAS-2), 39 percent (PAS-2 with 4.5 mmol/L K(+)), and 35 percent (PAS-2 with 9.0 mmol/L K(+)). In PAS-2 modified (PAS-2 with 1.5 mmol/L Mg(2+) and 4.5 mmol/L K(+)) and CPD plasma, the corresponding CD62 values were 23 and 35 percent, respectively. The combination of Mg(2+) and K(+) gave significantly (p < 0.05) lower platelet CD62 expression in the storage medium than in PAS-2. The effects of these differences on platelet metabolism and in vivo properties remain to be investigated.

  8. Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Fabian; Vavken, Patrick; Haenle, Maximilian; von Wehren, Lutz; Pagenstert, Geert; Majewski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction management of intrasubstance meniscal lesions is still controversial. Intrasubstance meniscal lesions can lead to reduced sports activity and meniscal rupture. Physical therapy is often not satisfactory. Therefore new treatment methods are requested. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has the ability to regenerate tissue; this was proved in several experimental studies. Whether percutaneous injections of PRP are effective in intrasubstance meniscal lesions is unknown. We hypothesize that percutaneous PRP injections lead to pain relief and halt of progression on MRI over 6 months in patients with grade 2 meniscal lesions. Materials and methods ten recreational athletes with intrasubstance meniscal lesions (grade II according to Reicher) proven by MR-Imaging (MRI) were treated by percutaneous injections of PRP in the affected meniscal area. Three sequential injections in seven day intervals were performed in every patient. All injections were performed with image converter. Follow-up MRI was done six months after last injection in every patient. Level of sports activity and amount of pain at athletic loads according to numeric rating scale (NRS-11) were noted in each patient before injections and at the time of follow up MRI after six months. The t-test was used to determine statistical differences. Results four of ten patients (40%) showed decrease of meniscal lesion in follow up MRI after six months. Nine of ten patients (90%) complained about short episodes of heavy pain after the injections with average NRS-Score of 7.9 at daily loads after the last injection. Six of ten patients (60%) showed Improvement of NRS-Score at final follow up. Average NRS-Score improved significantly (p=0.027) from 6.9 before injections to 4.5 six month after treatment. Six of ten patients (60%) reported increase of sports activity compared to the situation before injections. In four patients (40%) additional surgical treatment was necessary because of persistent knee pain

  9. Storage of platelets in additive solutions: a pilot in vitro study of the effects of potassium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Gulliksson, H; AuBuchon, J P; Vesterinen, M; Sandgren, P; Larsson, S; Pickard, C A; Herschel, I; Roger, J; Tracy, J E; Langweiler, M

    2002-04-01

    Platelet additive solutions (PAS) have been shown to be suitable for extended platelet storage but have required the carryover of substantial (30%) amounts of plasma for success. Improving platelet quality by optimizing the composition of PAS may allow a reduction to be made in the amount of plasma carried over. Reducing the proportion of plasma carried over would facilitate some methods of viral inactivation and make available greater amounts of plasma for other needs. Platelets from six pools of 25 buffy coat platelet units and five apheresis platelet units were aliquoted for storage in plasma, or converted to PAS units in either a specific additive solution (PAS-III), with 30% or 20% plasma, or a modification of PAS-III containing 5.0 mm potassium and 1.5 mm magnesium (PAS-IIIM), with 30% or 20% plasma. Units were stored at room temperature with agitation for 7 days with in vitro testing for biochemical, haematological and functional parameters. Storage of platelets in PAS-IIIM resulted in a reduced rate of glycolysis and better retention of pH, morphology score and ATP levels. Platelets initially showed less evidence of activation when stored in PAS-IIIM, with reduced P-selectin expression. Storage in PAS-IIIM with 20% (rather than the standard 30%) plasma appeared to result in the retention of in vitro properties, similarly to storage in standard PAS-III with 30% plasma. Storing platelets in an additive solution containing magnesium and potassium improves the functionality of the platelets, as measured by in vitro testing, and may allow a reduction of the amount of plasma required to be carried over to the final unit.

  10. The red cell storage lesion(s): of dogs and men

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Harvey G.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of preservative solutions permitted refrigerated storage of red blood cells. However, the convenience of having red blood cell inventories was accompanied by a disadvantage. Red cells undergo numerous physical and metabolic changes during cold storage, the “storage lesion(s)”. Whereas controlled clinical trials have not confirmed the clinical importance of such changes, ethical and operational issues have prevented careful study of the oldest stored red blood cells. Suggestions of toxicity from meta-analyses motivated us to develop pre-clinical canine models to compare the freshest vs the oldest red blood cells. Our model of canine pneumonia with red blood cell transfusion indicated that the oldest red blood cells increased mortality, that the severity of pneumonia is important, but that the dose of transfused red blood cells is not. Washing the oldest red blood cells reduces mortality by removing senescent cells and remnants, whereas washing fresher cells increases mortality by damaging the red blood cell membrane. An opposite effect was found in a model of haemorrhagic shock with reperfusion injury. Physiological studies indicate that release of iron from old cells is a primary mechanism of toxicity during infection, whereas scavenging of cell-free haemoglobin may be beneficial during reperfusion injury. Intravenous iron appears to have toxicity equivalent to old red blood cells in the pneumonia model, suggesting that intravenous iron and old red blood cells should be administered with caution to infected patients. PMID:28263166

  11. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Red Cell Microparticles and Cell Free Hemoglobin as a Mechanism for the Red Cell Storage Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Donadee, Chenell; Raat, Nicolaas J.H.; Kanias, Tamir; Tejero, Jesús; Lee, Janet S.; Kelley, Eric E.; Zhao, Xuejun; Liu, Chen; Reynolds, Hannah; Azarov, Ivan; Frizzell, Sheila; Meyer, E Michael; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Qu, Lirong; Triulzi, Darrel; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravascular red cell hemolysis impairs NO-redox homeostasis, producing endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation and vasculopathy. Red blood cell storage under standard conditions results in reduced integrity of the erythrocyte membrane, with formation of exocytic microvesicles or “microparticles” and hemolysis, which we hypothesized could impair vascular function and contribute to the putative “storage lesion” of banked blood. Methods and Results We now find that storage of human red blood cells under standard blood banking conditions results in the accumulation of cell free and microparticle-encapsulated hemoglobin which, despite 39 days of storage, remains in the reduced ferrous oxyhemoglobin redox state and stoichiometrically reacts with and scavenges the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Using stopped-flow spectroscopy and laser triggered NO release from a caged NO compound we found that both free hemoglobin and microparticles react with NO about 1000 times faster than with intact erythrocytes. In complementary in vivo studies we show that hemoglobin, even at concentrations below 10 μM (in heme), produces potent vasoconstriction when infused into the rat circulation, while controlled infusions of methemoglobin and cyanomethemoglobin, which do not consume NO, have substantially reduced vasoconstrictor effects. Infusion of the plasma from stored human red cell units into the rat circulation produces significant vasoconstriction related to the magnitude of storage related hemolysis. Conclusions The results of these studies suggest new mechanisms for endothelial injury and impaired vascular function associated with the most fundamental of storage lesions, hemolysis. PMID:21747051

  12. Platelet utilization: a Canadian Blood Services research and development symposium.

    PubMed

    Webert, Kathryn E; Alam, Asim Q; Chargé, Sophie B; Sheffield, William P

    2014-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding platelet biology and in strengthening the clinical evidence base around platelet transfusion thresholds and appropriate platelet dosing. Platelet alloimmunization rates have also declined. Nevertheless, controversies and uncertainties remain that are relevant to how these products can best be used for the benefit of platelet transfusion recipients. Platelets are unique among the blood products directly derived from whole blood or apheresis donations in requiring storage, with shaking, at ambient temperature. Storage is accordingly constrained between the need to limit the growth of any microbes in the product and the need to minimize losses in platelet function associated with storage. Proteomic and genomic approaches are being applied to the platelet storage lesion. Platelet inventory management is made challenging by these constraints. Although bacterial screening has enhanced the safety of platelet transfusions, pathogen reduction technology may offer further benefits. Continuing clinical investigations are warranted to understand the value of transfusing platelets prophylactically or only in response to bleeding in different patient groups and how best to manage the most grievously injured trauma patients. Patients refractory to platelet transfusions also require expert clinical management. The engineering of platelet substitute products is an active area of research, but considerable hurdles remain before any clinical uses may be contemplated. Roles for platelets in biological areas distinct from hemostasis are also emerging. Platelet utilization is variably affected by all of the above factors, by demographic changes, by new medications, and by new patient care approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Light Transmission Aggregometry Does Not Correlate With the Severity of δ-Granule Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Woods, Gary M; Kudron, Elizabeth L; Davis, Kyle; Stanek, Joseph; Kerlin, Bryce A; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2016-10-01

    Delta-granule platelet storage pool deficiency (δ-PSPD) is a poorly studied bleeding diathesis resulting from either decreased granule content or decreased average number of platelet δ-granules. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is commonly used to evaluate for δ-PSPD and platelet electron microscopy (EM) is used to confirm the diagnosis. Currently, little data exist examining the relationship between the likelihood of abnormal platelet aggregation findings, severity of δ-granule deficiency on platelet EM, and severity of bleeding symptoms in patients with δ-PSPD. Patients diagnosed with δ-PSPD by platelet EM who also underwent LTA testing were identified at a single institution for correlation between severity of bleeding, average number of platelet δ-granules, and number of agonist abnormalities on LTA. No statistically significant association was identified between the average number of δ-granules per platelet and likelihood of an abnormal LTA. LTA abnormalities were quite varied and only 50% diagnosed with δ-PSPD on EM had abnormal aggregation testing. Also, no correlation was seen between the number of clinical bleeding symptoms, number of average δ-granules per platelet, and the number of LTA agonist abnormalities. Our findings highlight the difficulties inherent in the laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

  14. Storage of biogenic amines in intact blood platelets of man. Dependence on a proton gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Affolter, H.; Pletscher, A.

    1982-07-01

    The actions of ionophores with different ion specificities and of thrombin on the release of /sup 14/C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptamine, (/sup 3/H)noradrenaline, and endogenous ATP were measured in human platelets suspended in media with various K/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ concentrations. Besides thrombin, those ionophores (monensin, nigericin, and the combination of carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) with nonactin and/or valinomycin) which cause a rapid collapse of H/sup +/ gradients induced a fast and virtually total release of /sup 14/C-labeled 5-hydroxytryptamine and (/sup 3/H)noradrenaline into the various media. FCCP alone, which causes an inversion of the membrane potential to inside negative values, induced a considerably slower amine release. Changes in the K/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ gradients did not lead to amine release, nor did interference with energy transduction by antimycin A with or without glycolysis inhibitors. Monensin and FCCP did not release ATP, whereas thrombin, added before or after incubation of platelets with FCCP and monensin, caused a marked liberation of the nucleotide. It is concluded that in intact human platelets (a) the intragranular storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline mainly depends on the proton gradient across the granular membrane, and (b) ionophores causing a collapse of H/sup +/ gradients induce non-exocytotic release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline from intracellular storage granules.

  15. Maintenance of storage properties of pediatric aliquots of apheresis platelets in fluoroethylene propylene containers.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Myrup, Andrew; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Wagner, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    Platelet (PLT) aliquots for pediatric use have been shown to retain in vitro properties when stored in gas-impermeable syringes for up to 6 hours. As an alternative, PLT aliquots can be stored for longer periods in containers used for storage of whole blood-derived PLTs. These containers are not available separate from whole blood collection sets and PLT volumes less than 35 mL either have not been evaluated or may be unsuitable for PLT storage. Gas-permeable fluoroethylene propylene (FEP) containers have been used in the storage of cell therapy preparations and are available in multiple sizes as single containers but have not been evaluated for PLT storage. A single apheresis unit was divided on Day 3 into small aliquots with volume ranging from 20 to 60 mL, transferred using a sterile connection device, and stored for an additional 2 days either in CLX (control) or in FEP containers. PLT storage properties of PLTs stored in FEP containers were compared to those stored in CLX containers. Standard PLT in vitro assays were performed (n =6). PLT storage properties were either similar to those of CLX containers or differed by less than 20% excepting carbon dioxide levels, which varied less than 60%. Pediatric PLT aliquots of 20, 30, and 60mL transferred on Day 3 into FEP cell culture containers adequately maintain PLT properties for an additional 2days of storage. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Storage of platelets on flatbed agitators in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate.

    PubMed

    Champion, A B; Chong, C; Carmen, R A

    1987-01-01

    Data are presented showing that platelets in polyvinyl chloride blood bags plasticized with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate can be stored on flatbed agitators (shakers) without the pH falling below 6.0. The lowest pH seen after 7 days of storage in 46 units with platelet yields ranging from 3.6 to 13.3 X 10(10) per unit was 6.43. These bags have a O2 transmission rate of 13.3 mumol per hour per bag. Platelet bags with a O2 transmission rate of 7.9 mumol per hour per bag experience a pH fall after 5 days of storage on the shaker in units whose platelet yield on average exceeds 10 X 10(10). Platelets can be stored on first-generation shakers (70 cycles/min, stroke = 1 inch) without an attempt at manual resuspension of the platelet button. The count after 30 minutes on the shaker averaged 89 +/- 15 percent of the expected count, indicating that resuspension was nearly complete after a relatively short period. Red cells, but not platelets, settled out during storage on the shaker.

  17. Collection, storage, inspection and quality control of platelet concentrates obtained by apheresis: The situation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, Azucena; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa; Arroyo, José L; Jurado, María L; Larrea, Luis; Maymo, Rosa M; Monge, Jorge; Muñoz, Carmen; Pajares, Ángel; Yáñez, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Diverse variables are involved in apheresis platelet collection, processing and storage. This survey shows how these are realized in Spain. An analysis of collected data was performed in a questionnaire completed by ten Transfusion Centers (TC) which perform between 50 and 520 apheresis procedures per month. This information comprises the procedures used to collect, inspect and store apheresis platelet concentrates (PC), and quality control data. Macroscopic inspection of PC is performed in all TC, especially during the first few hours post-collection and before distribution. The type of processor, duration of post-collection resting periods and temperature from the time of collection until distribution are similar in all TC. In 80% of TC, PC with small and scarce aggregates are distributed to transfusion services. The presence of clumps is influenced by type of processor, female donor, cold ambient temperature and collection of hyperconcentrated platelets, and is often recurrent in the same donor, although some TC have not found any influential variables. Overall, no objective inspection methods are followed, although there are exceptions. The degree of compliance with quality control parameters, such as the number of units studied, mean platelet yield, residual leukocyte counts and pH at expiry date, is acceptable in all TC. Compliance in terms of number of microbiological culture samples is variable. The usual practice in Spanish TC with respect to the collection, post-collection handling and storage of apheresis PC can be considered uniform, although some specific aspects of analyses should follow more objective methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca(2+) -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca(2+) entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  19. Serial changes in morphology and biochemical markers in platelet preparations with storage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Kaur, Jyotdeep; Thakur, Manish; Dhawan, Hari Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to perform serial assessment of alterations in platelet (PLT) count, morphology and biochemical markers of PLT activation during storage of platelet concentrates (PCs) and to correlate morphological changes with these activation markers. Materials and Methods: Our study included the platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-PC and buffy coat reduced PC (BC-PC) prepared from whole blood (WB) donations and the apheresis platelets (AP-PC). Routinely evaluated in vitro PLT parameters were followed. Morphology score (MS) was performed using the light microscopy, glucose and lactate concentration and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) level were determined using commercial kits. Results: The fall in mean pH from day 0 to the last day of storage was significant (P < 0.001) in all the groups. Glucose utilization was less in PRP-PC prepared from WB donations at Blood Donation Centre [PRP-PC (BDC)] when compared to PRP-PC prepared from WB donations at mobile blood drives [PRP-PC (M)] and BC-PC. Lactate accumulation was almost similar in these groups on day 3 of storage, but it was significantly lower in the AP-PC (67.54 mg/dl) except on day 5. The deterioration in MS (out of 200) was similar for PRP-PC and BC-PC on day 3 (145/144 and 145 respectively), whereas the AP-PC had a score of 161 and 147 on days 4 and 5 respectively. sP-selectin level was significantly higher in PRP-PC (BDC) in comparison to BC-PC (P = 0.001) from day 1 to day 3 and in AP-PC it was not so high (P = 0.067) even on day 5. A negative correlation existed between the MS and sP-selectin level on all days of storage within each group of PC (r = −0.351; P < 0.001) and a positive correlation was found between the MS and pH from day 0 to day 3 (r = 0.680; P = 0.004). Conclusion: The AP-PCs are superior to the BC-PC and PRP-PC with respect to in vitro quality control parameters, morphological changes and biochemical markers of PLT activation. The PRP-PCs prepared from WB donations at

  20. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  1. [Effect of 25 Gy (60)Co Irradiation on the Physico-chemical Property and Functions of the Platelets During Storage].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Lin-Feng; Feng, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Lv, Ying; Ma, Chun-Ya; Wang, Ke; Fu, Li-Hui; Tong, Shan; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Feng, Yan-Nan; Wang, De-Qing

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of the 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation on the physiological and biochemical properties and the functions of the platelets during storage. A total of 15 bags of platelets were apheresis-collected from 15 healthy donors, and each bag of platelets were divided into 2 parts, then the platelets were divided into the control group (without 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation) and the irradiated group (with 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co irradiation) groups. The two groups of platelets were kept under the condition of (22 ± 2) °C and shaken. The Platelet count and pH value were detected on the d 1, d 2, d 3, d 4 and d 5. The variables such as R, K values, α angle and maximal amplitude (MA) were measured by thrombelastography on the same days. Hypotonic shock response (HSR), morphological score were devised. There were no statistically significant difference in Plt counts, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribute width (PDW) and pH between the two groups (P > 0.05), and Plt count decreased on the end of storage. There were no marked changes in HSR level and morphological score between the two groups during storage, and there were no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). In the TEG analysis there were no significant difference of the R, K, α angle and MA values between the two groups (P > 0.05). R value showed upward trend increased along with prolongation of preserved time (P < 0.01), no significant changes in α angle (P > 0.05), K value was slightly higher and MA value was lower in the last day of storage than the days 1-4 (P < 0.01), respectively. 25 Gy ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray irradiation can not damage the physiological, biochemical properties and the functions of the platelets during storage. In order to ensure the best curative effect, it is suggested that no matter the platelets were irradiated or not, the platelets should be used as soon as possible.

  2. The use of platelet rich plasma in the treatment of immature tooth with periapical lesion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ceren; Akgün, Özlem Martı; Altun, Ceyhan; Dinçer, Didem; Özkan, Cansel Köse

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the treatment of an immature permanent tooth with periapical lesion which was treated with regenerative approach using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The root canal of immature human permanent tooth with periapical lesion was gently debrided of necrotic tissue and disinfected with 2.5% NaOCl, and then medicated with triple antibiotic paste comprised of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. When the tooth was asymptomatic, PRP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were placed into the root canal. Six months after PRP treatment, radiographical examination revealed resolution of the radiolucency and progressive thickening of the root wall and apical closure. Our findings suggest that PRP can be used for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with periapical lesion, as part of a regenerative endodontic treatment procedure. PMID:25110649

  3. Biochemical storage lesions occurring in nonirradiated and irradiated red blood cells: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Adams, F; Bellairs, G; Bird, A R; Oguntibeju, O O

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35-42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as "storage lesions." It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  4. Extracting Biological Meaning From Global Proteomic Data on Circulating-Blood Platelets: Effects of Diabetes and Storage Time

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-11-25

    Transfusion of platelets into patients suffering from trauma and a variety of disease is a common medical practice that involves millions of units per year. Partial activation of platelets can result in the release of bioactive proteins and lipid mediators that increase the risk of adverse post-transfusion effects. Type-2 diabetes and storage are two factors known to cause partial activation of platelets. A global proteomic study was undertaken to investigate these effects. In this paper we discuss the methods used to interpret these data in terms of biological processes affected by diabetes and storage. The main emphasis is on the processing of proteomic data for gene ontology enrichment analysis by techniques originally designed for microarray data.

  5. Storage of buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets stored in reformulated PAS supplied by a 20% plasma carry-over.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, P; Mayaudon, V; Payrat, J-M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-04-01

    Platelet additive solutions (PAS) have been shown to be suitable for extended platelet (PLT) storage. Depending on the PAS formulation, the percentage of plasma carry-over contributes to success. Improving PLT quality by optimizing the composition of PAS may allow a reduction to be made in the amount of plasma carried over to the final unit. Reducing the proportion of plasma carried over would probably decrease transfusion of unwanted antibodies and make greater amounts of plasma available for other needs. Platelets from eight pools of 25 buffy coats were aliquoted and prepared for storage in plasma and different PAS units: InterSol and three alternate PAS named PSM1, PSM2 and PSM3. All PAS units were supplied with a 20% plasma carry-over and stored at room temperature with agitation for 9 days with in vitro testing for metabolic, cellular and activation parameters. Results During storage, PLTs stored in InterSol displayed significantly lower glucose concentration (P < 0.01), lower adenosine triphosphate levels (P < 0.01), a higher mean PLT volume (P < 0.01), a lower response to hypotonic shock response activity (P < 0.01) and a higher CD62P expression (P < 0.01) when compared with PLTs stored in plasma and PSM1-3 solutions. pH was maintained at > 6.8 (day 9) and swirling remained at the highest level (score = 2) for all units throughout storage. Our results suggest that PLTs stored in PAS with addition of magnesium, potassium and glucose (PSM2 and PSM3) and 20% plasma carry-over maintained metabolic and cellular characteristics, equivalent to PLTs stored in 100% plasma during 9 days of storage. Our results also suggest that presence of potassium in addition to magnesium or alternatively the concentration of phosphate as well as the supply of additional glucose to normal plasma levels improve in vitro data of PLTs stored in PAS.

  6. Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Gene Polymorphisms are Associated with Coronary Artery Lesions in the Chronic Stage of Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Sin-Jhih; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Tang, Chia-Wan; Liou, Huei-Han; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Kawasaki disease is the most common cause of pediatric acquired heart disease. The role of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in the inflammatory process has been documented. To date, no report has investigated the relationship between coronary artery lesions of Kawasaki disease and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 polymorphisms. A total of 114 Kawasaki disease children with coronary artery lesions and 185 Kawasaki disease children without coronary artery lesions were recruited in this study. The TaqMan assay was conducted to identify the genotype in this case-control study. In three single nucleotide polymorphisms (Leu125Val, Ser563Asn, and Arg670Gly) of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, we found that the Leu-Ser-Arg haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for coronary artery lesions in the chronic stage (odds ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 1.06-8.80, p = 0.039), but not for coronary artery lesions in the acute stage. Analysis based on the diplotypes of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 also showed that Kawasaki disease with one or two alleles of Leu-Ser-Arg had a significantly increased risk of chronic coronary artery lesions (odds ratio 3.38, 95% confidence interval 1.11-10.28, p = 0.032) and had increased platelet counts after Kawasaki disease was diagnosed, as compared to those with other diplotypes. The haplotype of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 Leu-Ser-Arg might be associated with the increased platelet counts and the following risk of chronic coronary artery lesions in a dominant manner in Kawasaki disease.

  7. Platelets are efficient and protective depots for storage, distribution, and delivery of lysosomal enzyme in mice with Hurler Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mei; Han, Jingfen; El-Amouri, Salim S.; Brady, Roscoe O.; Pan, Dao

    2014-01-01

    Use of megakaryocytes/platelets for transgene expression may take advantage of their rapid turnover and protective storage in platelets and reduce the risk of activating oncogenes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs). Here, we show that human megakaryocytic cells could overexpress the lysosomal enzyme, α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), which is deficient in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). Upon megakaryocytic differentiation, the amount of released enzyme increased rapidly and steadily by 30-fold. Using a murine MPS I model, we demonstrated that megakaryocyte/platelets were capable of producing, packaging, and storing large amounts of IDUA with proper catalytic activity, lysosomal trafficking, and receptor-mediated uptake. IDUA can be released directly into extracellular space or within microparticles during megakaryocyte maturation or platelet activation, while retaining the capacity for cross-correction in patient’s cells. Gene transfer into 1.7% of HSCs led to long-term normalization of plasma IDUA and preferential distribution of enzyme in liver and spleen with complete metabolic correction in MPS I mice. Detection of GFP (coexpressed with IDUA) in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes suggested liver delivery of platelet-derived IDUA possibly via the clearance pathway for senile platelets. These findings provide proof of concept that cells from megakaryocytic lineage and platelets are capable of generating and storing fully functional lysosomal enzymes and can also lead to efficient delivery of both the enzymes released into the circulation and those protected within platelets/microparticles. This study opens a door for use of the megakaryocytes/platelets as a depot for efficient production, delivery, and effective tissue distribution of lysosomal enzymes. PMID:24550296

  8. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.

  9. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage

    PubMed Central

    Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions. PMID:26121269

  10. Erythrothrombocytapheresis and plasmathrombocytapheresis with storage in T-sol of platelets collected by the new Amicus cell separator.

    PubMed

    Valbonesi, M; Lercari, G; Florio, G; Carlier, P; Ruzzenenti, M R; Bruni, R; Magnano, E

    1997-05-01

    The Amicus cell separator is the latest apparatus introduced into the international market for high-yield, low WBC contamination and short-procedure time thrombocytapheresis. In its original configuration the apparatus collects platelets for subsequent resuspension in plasma and no collection of PRBC can be carried out along with thrombocytapheresis. In this paper we present the results of plasma-thrombocytapheresis and erythro-thrombocytapheresis after the adaptation of the Amicus to the collection and storage of platelets in a non-plasma medium and the concurrent collection of PRBC. From our study it is concluded that PRBC collection doesn't modify the quality of the platelet product obtained from random donors (platelets pre-count 263x10e3/microliter) in terms of yield which is 4.6x10e11 platelets, WBC contamination (1.3x10e5) or procedure time (63 +/- 26 min.). The quality of the platelet products is satisfactory too, as measured by aggregation induced by collagen and ristocetin or by the substantial stability of membrane glycoproteins (CD62-63-51-36-42B). The concentrate had an average content of 58.8 g of hemoglobin per bag, a final volume of 376 +/- 13 ml, (after the addition of 100 ml of SAG-M) and a normal mechanic and osmotic fragility.

  11. Spherocytic shift of red blood cells during storage provides a quantitative whole cell-based marker of the storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Camille; Dussiot, Michaël; Marin, Mickaël; Morel, Alexandre; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Duez, Julien; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Hermine, Olivier; Colin, Yves; Buffet, Pierre A; Amireault, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Storage lesion may explain the rapid clearance of up to 25% of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) in recipients. Several alterations affect stored RBC but a quantitative, whole cell-based predictor of transfusion yield is lacking. Because RBCs with reduced surface area are retained by the spleen, we quantified changes in RBC dimensions during storage. Using imaging flow cytometry we observed the dimension and morphology of RBCs upon storage, along with that of conventional biochemical and mechanical markers of storage lesion. We then validated these findings using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and quantified the accumulation of microparticles (MPs). Mean projected surface area of the whole RBC population decreased from 72.4 to 68.4 µm(2) , a change resulting from the appearance of a well-demarcated subpopulation of RBCs with reduced mean projected surface (58 µm(2) , 15.2%-19.9% reduction). These "small RBCs" accounted for 4.9 and 23.6% of all RBCs on Days 3 and 42 of storage, respectively. DIC microscopy confirmed that small RBCs had shifted upon storage from discocytes to echinocytes III, spheroechinocytes, and spherocytes. Glycophorin A-positive MPs and small RBCs appeared after similar kinetics. The reduction in surface area of small RBCs is expected to induce their retention by the spleen. We propose that small RBCs generated by MP-induced membrane loss are preferentially cleared from the circulation shortly after transfusion of long-stored blood. Their operator-independent quantification using imaging flow cytometry may provide a marker of storage lesion potentially predictive of transfusion yield. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Clinical effectiveness of combining platelet rich fibrin with alloplastic bone substitute for the management of combined endodontic periodontal lesion.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Lata

    2014-02-01

    The term "endo-perio" lesion has been proposed to describe the destructive lesion resulting from inflammatory products found in varying degrees in both the periodontium and the pulpal tissues. In most of the cases, clinical symptoms disappear following successful endodontic therapy. However failure after conventional root canal treatment calls for surgical intervention. A 35 year old male patient with endo-perio lesion in right maxillary lateral incisor was treated with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and alloplastic bone substitute after conventional endodontic therapy. At the end of 6 months there was gain in clinical attachment, increased radiographic bone fill and reduction in probing depth which was maintained till 18 month follow-up. Present case report aims to evaluate the efficacy of PRF and alloplastic bone substitute in the management of intrabony defect associated with endo-perio lesion in maxillary lateral incisor because the healing potential of PRF and bone graft has not been widely studied in endodontics. The use of PRF allows the clinician to optimize tissue remodelling, wound healing and angiogenesis by the local delivery of growth factors and proteins. The novel technique described here enables the clinician to be benefited from the full regenerative capacity of this autologous biologic material.

  13. Management of an endo perio lesion in a maxillary canine using platelet-rich plasma concentrate and an alloplastic bone substitute

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma concentrate in the management of a cirumferential, infrabony defect associated with an endoperio lesion in a maxillary canine. A 45 year-old male patient with an endoperio lesion in the left maxillary canine was initially treated with endodontic therapy. Following the endodontic treatment, the circumferential, infrabony defect was treated using platelet-rich plasma and an alloplastic bone substitute. At the end of three months, there was a gain in the clinical attachment level and reduction in probing depth. Radiographic evidence showed that there was significant bony fill. The results were maintained at the time of recall nine months later. PMID:20407658

  14. Expression and function of purinergic receptors in platelets from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Koessler, Juergen; Weber, Katja; Koessler, Angela; Yilmaz, Pinar; Boeck, Markus; Kobsar, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The storage of platelets affects platelet integrity and functionality, a process named platelet storage lesion (PSL). Reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation is a typical manifestation of PSL. However, the role of ADP receptors in this context has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate surface expression and function of the purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 in stored platelet concentrates. Material and methods Platelets were obtained from venous whole blood and from apheresis-derived platelet concentrates stored for 0, 2 and 5 days. Purinergic receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Receptor function was determined by calcium-induced fluorescence (P2Y1 and P2X1) or by flow cytometric measurement of the platelet reactivity index (P2Y12). Results The basal surface expression and total content of purinergic receptors remained unchanged throughout storage. After an initial reduction during apheresis, P2X1-mediated calcium flux was maintained, whereas the P2Y1-mediated increase of calcium flux gradually decreased during the course of storage. In contrast, the platelet reactivity index was comparable in freshly obtained and stored platelets. Discussion The function of the P2Y12 receptor is maintained during storage of apheresis-derived platelet concentrates. However, the impairment of P2X1 and especially of P2Y1 receptor function indicated by decreased receptor-mediated calcium flux is an important mechanism contributing to reduced ADP responsiveness of stored platelets. PMID:26674810

  15. Extended storage and glucose exhaustion are associated with apoptotic changes in platelets stored in additive solution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lacey; Schubert, Peter; Tan, Shereen; Devine, Dana V; Marks, Denese C

    2016-02-01

    The storage of platelets (PLTs) in additive solution (AS) may facilitate improved PLT quality and possibly extension of the PLT shelf life. A minimum amount of plasma is required when PLTs are stored in AS, as a source of glucose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of reducing the plasma carryover to 20% on PLT quality when stored in SSP+ for an extended period. Using a pool-and-split design, buffy coat-derived PLTs were stored in either 30% plasma/SSP+ or 20% plasma/SSP+. In vitro analyses were carried out to Day 10. Metabolites and markers of PLT activation and apoptosis were measured using a blood gas analyzer and flow cytometry. PLT apoptotic protein expression was investigated by Western blotting. Glucose exhaustion occurred in the 20% plasma group between Day 7 and Day 10. The surface expression of P-selectin and PAC-1 was comparable on Day 10 in both groups, suggesting that the PLTs were not activated. However, the exposure of phosphatidylserine and the number of phosphatidylserine-positive microparticles were significantly higher in the 20% group on Day 10. The expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bak, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 were higher in the 20% plasma group by Day 7 of storage, compared to the 30% plasma group. Exhaustion of glucose was associated with a proapoptotic phenotype. Results such as these should be considered before extending the PLT shelf life beyond 7 days, particularly when stored in ASs lacking glucose with low plasma carryover. © 2015 AABB.

  16. ( sup 3 H)Dopamine uptake by platelet storage granules in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Rabey, J.M.; Graff, E.; Oberman, Z. ); Lerner, A.; Sigal, M. )

    1992-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)Dopamine (DA) uptake by platelet storage granules was determined in 26 schizophrenic male patients, paranoid type (14 acute stage; 12 in remission) and 20 age-matched, normal controls. maximum velocity (Vmax) of DA uptake was significantly higher in acute patients, than patients in remission or controls (p>0.05). The apparent Michaelis constant (kM) of DA uptake in acute patients was also significantly different from chronic patients a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol produced a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol (10{sup {minus}4}, 10{sup {minus}5} M) did not affect the assay. Considering that a DA disequilibrium in schizophrenia may be expressed not only in the brain, but also in the periphery and that an increased amount of DA accumulated in the vesicles, implies that an increased quantity of catecholamine is available for release, our findings suggest additional evidence for the role of DA overactivity in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  17. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is associated with platelet storage pool deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gunning, William T; Karabin, Beverly L; Blomquist, Thomas M; Grubb, Blair P

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisms have been postulated to explain postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), however, the etiology of this often debilitating disorder remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 181 POTS patients who exhibited/reported bleeding symptoms for a specific platelet (PL) dysfunction disorder, delta granule storage pool deficiency (δ-SPD).Patients were included only if results of blood tests for δ-SPD were available. Electron microscopy was utilized to diagnose δ-SPD. An ELISA assay was used to determine serotonin (5HT) concentration in PLs and medical record review was employed to collect patients' clinical symptoms.The most common bleeding symptom was easy bruising (71%) but frequent nose bleeds, heavy menstrual bleeding, and a family history of bleeding were also commonly reported. Of the patients studied, 81% were diagnosed with δ-SPD. Our investigation of 5HT concentration extracted from PLs revealed significantly lower levels of 5HT in POTS patients when compared to that of control subjects. Our data suggest that patients with POTS have significant comorbidities including bleeding symptoms and/or family bleeding histories, and have diminished PL 5HT levels supporting the hypothesis that POTS is a low 5HT level disorder. While we describe a significant relationship with POTS and δ-SPD, this finding does not constitute an etiology for POTS.Our results establish an additional comorbidity frequently seen in POTS that could explain a number of disparate symptoms often affecting the severity of POTS.

  18. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephen J; Skripchenko, Andrey; Seetharaman, Shalini; Myrup, Andrew; Kurtz, James; Thomas-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    We have previously conducted studies investigating maintenance of apheresis platelet in vitro quality measures during storage under simulated shipping conditions in which agitation was interrupted. This study examines the effect of increasing bag surface area on the preservation of in vitro platelet properties during storage with continuous agitation and with a 30 h interruption of agitation. Apheresis platelets were collected in 100% plasma with the Amicus separator to provide two identical platelet products, each with approximately 4-5 x 10(11) platelets. After collection, the volume was divided equally between 1.0 and 1.3 L PL2410 containers. In an initial study, both products were continuously agitated. In a second study, both products were subjected to a single 30-h period of interrupted agitation between Days 2 and 3 of storage by placement in a standard shipping box at room temperature. In each study, units were assayed during storage for standard in vitro platelet quality measures. Platelets stored in the 1.3 L container maintained slightly greater mean pH during 7 day storage with either continuous agitation (n=6) or with a 30-h interruption of agitation (n=12) than those of similarly treated identical platelets stored in the 1.0 L container. Most noteworthy, in experiments with products stored in the 1.0 L container in which there was a large decrease in pH to levels <6.7 or <6.3 on days 5 or 7, respectively, the pH in the matched product stored in the 1.3 L container was substantially greater (0.17+/-06 and 0.37+/-0.09 pH units greater, n=4, respectively). Other measures showed either small differences or comparability of platelet in vitro parameters with storage in the two containers after an interruption of agitation.

  19. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility. PMID:28053805

  20. Could Microparticles Be the Universal Quality Indicator for Platelet Viability and Function?

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Chipperfield, Kate

    2016-01-01

    High quality means good fitness for the intended use. Research activity regarding quality measures for platelet transfusions has focused on platelet storage and platelet storage lesion. Thus, platelet quality is judged from the manufacturer's point of view and regulated to ensure consistency and stability of the manufacturing process. Assuming that fresh product is always superior to aged product, maintaining in vitro characteristics should preserve high quality. However, despite the highest in vitro quality standards, platelets often fail in vivo. This suggests we may need different quality measures to predict platelet performance after transfusion. Adding to this complexity, platelets are used clinically for very different purposes: platelets need to circulate when given as prophylaxis to cancer patients and to stop bleeding when given to surgery or trauma patients. In addition, the emerging application of platelet-rich plasma injections exploits the immunological functions of platelets. Requirements for quality of platelets intended to prevent bleeding, stop bleeding, or promote wound healing are potentially very different. Can a single measurable characteristic describe platelet quality for all uses? Here we present microparticle measurement in platelet samples, and its potential to become the universal quality characteristic for platelet production, storage, viability, function, and compatibility.

  1. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets and RBC for Transfusion Lyophilization and Other Dehydration Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-21

    committees in June, 1991, followed by generation of inter-institutional patent sharing agreements and notification of the Office of Naval Research of...the surface receptors necessary for normal agglutination and adhesion of platelets. 2. Chemical labeling of dried and rehydrated platelets. Since we are...human system . Additional work needs to be done to evaluate canine rehydrated platelets which are being used in the animal model. The use of this

  2. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets and RBC for Transfusion: Lyophilization and other Dehydration Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-02

    in terms of specific protocol development and in vitro analysis. Whole blood (50-500 mL) collected in citrate anticoagulant (CPDA-l or ACD formulae...was centrifuged to prepare platelet-rich plasma ( PRP ) at 22 0 C. Chilled blood (គ 0 C) was found unacceptable because of poor platelet yields. In some...experiments, the platelet activation inhibitor Prostaglandin E-l was added to the PRP in 300 nM final concentration. This addition produced better

  3. In vitro evaluation of COM.TEC apheresis platelet concentrates using a preparation set and pathogen inactivation over a storage period of five days.

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fröhlich, A; Mayaudon, V; Lin, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro data on platelets collected by apheresis, processed on a preparation set followed by photochemical treatment (PCT). Fifteen single-donor platelet concentrates (PCs) were collected by apheresis (COM.TEC blood cell separator, Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany). The platelets were transferred to the preparation set and plasma was removed after centrifugation to resuspend the platelets in approximately 37% plasma and 63% platelet additive solution InterSol. PCT was done by exposing the platelets to amotosalen HCl followed by illumination with ultraviolet light. Blood cell counts and in vitro PLT function were measured up to 5 days. An average of 3.44 +/- 0.28 x 10(11) platelets were collected in a product volume of 351 +/- 21 mL. Plasma removal resulted in a mean platelet loss of 7.8%. After PCT, a progressive decrease in platelet function was observed. LDH level rose through storage (171 +/- 81 U/L) to levels approximating LDH levels observed post-collection (180 +/- 103 U/L). There was a gradual decrease of the platelets to respond to hypotonic shock response from 90 +/- 9 % post-plasma reduction to 48 +/- 16% at day 5. All PLT units met the European requirements for leukoreduction and the pH limit of 6.8 up to day 5 post-collection. The new preparation set was capable of producing platelet units meeting the requirements for PCT. Despite differences observed in in vitro platelet function parameters, PLTs at storage day 5 fit the German and European guidelines.

  4. Unraveling the Gordian knot: red blood cell storage lesion and transfusion outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L.; Kriebardis, Anastasios G.; Seghatchian, Jerard; Papassideri, Issidora S.; Antonelou, Marianna H.

    2017-01-01

    What is following the impressive progress that has been made? During the last couple of years several tremors have shaken the field of Transfusion Medicine. The epicentres of those tremors were located on novel insights into the RBC storage lesion, on emerging connections between storage lesion and post-transfusion performance and effects, and on acknowledging that storage time is only one (rather than the most prominent) of the parameters which contribute to the progression of storage lesion in any given unit of blood. The optimisation of bio-preservation conditions emerged at the same time with all-new scientific knowledge gained by advances in research tools, implementation of technological innovations, and application of elegant in vitro and in vivo models of transfusion. Simultaneously, one after another, all the reported randomised clinical trials concluded, with spectacular consensus, that there is no significant difference in the rate of adverse clinical events (including death) among patients who underwent transfusion with fresh (and presumably good) or standard of care (and presumably bad) blood. The comparative analysis and comprehension of the aforementioned data would set the context for the next generation of research in blood transfusion science, since the need for safer and more efficient transfusions remains. PMID:28263169

  5. Unraveling the Gordian knot: red blood cell storage lesion and transfusion outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Seghatchian, Jerard; Papassideri, Issidora S; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2017-03-01

    What is following the impressive progress that has been made? During the last couple of years several tremors have shaken the field of Transfusion Medicine. The epicentres of those tremors were located on novel insights into the RBC storage lesion, on emerging connections between storage lesion and post-transfusion performance and effects, and on acknowledging that storage time is only one (rather than the most prominent) of the parameters which contribute to the progression of storage lesion in any given unit of blood. The optimisation of bio-preservation conditions emerged at the same time with all-new scientific knowledge gained by advances in research tools, implementation of technological innovations, and application of elegant in vitro and in vivo models of transfusion. Simultaneously, one after another, all the reported randomised clinical trials concluded, with spectacular consensus, that there is no significant difference in the rate of adverse clinical events (including death) among patients who underwent transfusion with fresh (and presumably good) or standard of care (and presumably bad) blood. The comparative analysis and comprehension of the aforementioned data would set the context for the next generation of research in blood transfusion science, since the need for safer and more efficient transfusions remains.

  6. Understanding platelet function through signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Alan H; Song, Seng; Crow, Andrew R

    2003-01-01

    Platelets are activated by a number of stimuli resulting in the expression and/or activation of surface receptors, secretion of vasoactive substances, adhesion, aggregation, and finally thrombus formation. These events are propagated by a process known as transmembrane signaling, which relays the activating signal from the platelet membrane (eg, von Willebrand Factor binding to glycoprotein Ib) to the inside of the platelet which then serves to activate the platelet via a cascade of biochemical interactions. Inhibition of these transmembrane signaling molecules with a variety of available inhibitors or antagonists can in many cases prevent the platelet from becoming activated. An awareness of the mechanisms involved in platelet transmembrane signaling and the recent availability of new reagents to inhibit signaling may provide us with additional means to prevent platelet activation and perhaps even ameliorate the platelet storage lesion. This review will provide an introduction to the field of platelet transmembrane signaling and give an overview of some of the platelet signaling mechanisms that are relevant to transfusion medicine. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of platelet rich fibrin, hydroxyapatite and PRF membrane in the management of large inflammatory periapical lesion

    PubMed Central

    Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Johns, Dexton Antony; Vidyanath, S; Sam, George

    2013-01-01

    Periapical inflammatory lesion is the local response of bone around the apex of tooth that develops after the necrosis of the pulp tissue or extensive periodontal disease. The final outcome of the nature of wound healing after endodontic surgery can be repair or regeneration depending on the nature of the wound; the availability of progenitor cells; signaling molecules; and micro-environmental cues such as adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix, and associated non-collagenous protein molecules. The purpose of this case report is to add knowledge to the existing literature about the combined use of graft material [platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and hydroxyapatite (HA)] and barrier membrane in the treatment of large periapical lesion. A periapical endodontic surgery was performed on a 45 year old male patient with a swelling in the upper front teeth region and a large bony defect radiologically. The surgical defect was filled with a combination of PRF and HA bone graft crystals. The defect was covered by PRF membrane and sutured. Clinical examination revealed uneventful wound healing. Radiologically the HA crystals have been completely replaced by new bone at the end of 2 years. On the basis of the results obtained in our case report, we hypothesize that the use of PRF in conjunction with HA crystals might have accelerated the resorption of the graft crystals and would have induced the rapid rate of bone formation. PMID:23833463

  8. Combination of platelet rich fibrin, hydroxyapatite and PRF membrane in the management of large inflammatory periapical lesion.

    PubMed

    Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Johns, Dexton Antony; Vidyanath, S; Sam, George

    2013-05-01

    Periapical inflammatory lesion is the local response of bone around the apex of tooth that develops after the necrosis of the pulp tissue or extensive periodontal disease. The final outcome of the nature of wound healing after endodontic surgery can be repair or regeneration depending on the nature of the wound; the availability of progenitor cells; signaling molecules; and micro-environmental cues such as adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix, and associated non-collagenous protein molecules. The purpose of this case report is to add knowledge to the existing literature about the combined use of graft material [platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and hydroxyapatite (HA)] and barrier membrane in the treatment of large periapical lesion. A periapical endodontic surgery was performed on a 45 year old male patient with a swelling in the upper front teeth region and a large bony defect radiologically. The surgical defect was filled with a combination of PRF and HA bone graft crystals. The defect was covered by PRF membrane and sutured. Clinical examination revealed uneventful wound healing. Radiologically the HA crystals have been completely replaced by new bone at the end of 2 years. On the basis of the results obtained in our case report, we hypothesize that the use of PRF in conjunction with HA crystals might have accelerated the resorption of the graft crystals and would have induced the rapid rate of bone formation.

  9. Management of Hepple Stage V Osteochondral Lesion of the Talus with a Platelet-Rich Plasma Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenqi; Li, Tanzhu; Mei, Guohua; Xue, Jianfeng; Zou, Jian; Wang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Haotong; Xu, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    There has been no consensus on the treatment or prognosis of Hepple stage V osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs), especially for lesions greater than 1.5 cm2 in size. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes achieved upon application of a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) scaffold with a cancellous bone autograft for Hepple stage V OLTs. Fourteen patients (mean age, 39 years) were treated with a cancellous bone graft and a PRP scaffold between 2013 and 2015. The mean time to surgical treatment was 23.5 months. Ankle X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging were performed at the final follow-up. Functional outcomes were evaluated according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and Short Form 36 (SF-36) score. The range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint and complications also were recorded. Thirteen patients completed the full follow-up, with a mean follow-up duration of 18 months. MRI demonstrated the complete regeneration of subchondral bone and cartilage in all patients. The postoperative VAS, AOFAS ankle and hindfoot, and SF-36 scores were improved significantly (all P < 0.001) without obvious complications. We suggest that, for the Hepple stage V OLTs, management with cancellous bone graft and PRP scaffold may be a safe and effective treatment. PMID:28401159

  10. Post thaw characterization of umbilical cord blood: markers of storage lesion

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Allison; Spindler, Ralf; Curtsinger, Julie M.; Lindgren, Bruce; Wiederoder, Sara; McKenna, David H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The continued growth in the uses of umbilical cord blood (UCB) will require the development of meaningful post-thaw quality assays. This study examines both conventional and new measures for assessing UCB quality after long-term storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The first arm of the study involved thawing UCB in storage for short (~1 year) and long period of time (> 11 years). Conventional post thaw measures (CFU, TNC, CD34+45+) were quantified in addition to apoptosis. The second arm of the study involved taking units stored in liquid nitrogen and imposing a storage lesion by storing the units in −80°C for various periods of time. After storage lesion, the units were thawed and assessed. RESULTS In the first arm of the study, there was little difference in the post thaw measures between UCB stored for short and long periods of time. There was a slight increase in the percentage of CD34+45+ cells with time in storage and a reduction in the number of cells expressing apoptosis markers. When moved from liquid nitrogen to −80°C storage, the nucleated cell count varied little but there was a distinct drop in frequency of CFU and increase in percentage of cells expressing both early and late markers of apoptosis. CONCLUSION Nucleated cell counts do not reflect damage to hematopoietic progenitors during long-term storage. Expression of caspases and other markers of apoptosis provide an early biomarker of damage during storage, which is consistent with other measures such as CFU and percentage of CD34+45+ cells. PMID:25522958

  11. Enhanced Shear-induced Platelet Aggregation Due to Low-temperature Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    rheometer. PLT aggregation was measured using a flow cytometer as an increase in the forward scatter-side scatter population which is bigger and...500, 2500, or 10,000/second for 120 seconds at 37°C, and PLT aggregation was measured. (A) Flow cytometric plots for the measurement of PLT...platelet aggregation and microaggregate formation in whole blood by flow cytometry. Platelets 2004;15:85-93. 26. Shankaran H, Alexandridis P

  12. Effects of Liquid Storage and Cryopreservation on Platelet Surface Glycoproteins, Light Scatter, and Procoagulant Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    from the donor in sodium citrate and acid citrate dextrose (ACD) anticoagulant (Vacutainers, Becton-Dickinson, San Jose CA) prior to plateletpheresis...Platelets were collected using ACD formula A anticoagulant and the Haemonetics Mobile Collection System (MCS, Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, MA...dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO).5 Peripheral blood platelet-rich-plasma ( PRP ) or plateletpheresis product samples were collected and assayed by flow cytometry.1,2,6,7 A

  13. Steroids and Platelet-Rich Plasma as Coadjuvants to Microfracture for the Treatment of Chondral Lesions in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Espinosa, Maximiliano; Melean, Patricio; Gallegos, Marcela; Conget, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to hyaline cartilage regeneration of the microfracture (MFx) technique plus intraarticular betamethasone (BMS) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Design: Full-thickness chondral defects of 3 × 6 mm2 were surgically performed in both femoral condyles of each knee in 13 New Zealand rabbits and then treated with MFx associated with intraarticular BMS or PRP. At 12 weeks postimplantation, the animals were killed and the condyles were characterized macroscopically, molecularly according to collagen type II and I gene expression (quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction), and histologically (hematoxylin–eosin staining). For the latter, samples were scored using the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological scale. Data of MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated condyles were compared against untreated, MFx-treated, or normal condyles without lesions. Results: Our macroscopic findings showed that in MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups, the defects were filled with an irregular, partially rough tissue similar to the MFx-treated group. No differences in the ratio between collagen type II versus collagen type I expression were observed among groups. Histological changes were observed between MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups versus untreated defects mainly in surface regularity and cell distribution. However, International Cartilage Repair Society score analysis did not support statistical differences between MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups versus MFx-treated group. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the use of intraarticular BMS or PRP as coadjuvants to the microfracture technique in the treatment of acute chondral lesions is not associated with a significant improvement of hyaline cartilage regeneration. PMID:26069625

  14. Value of calcium and phosphate in a bicarbonate-containing platelet additive solution with low plasma levels in maintaining key in vitro platelet storage parameters.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Turgeon, Annette; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Awatefe, Helen; Wagner, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Use of recently developed platelet (PLT) additive solutions (PAS) with 5% plasma levels may reduce the frequency and/or severity of transfusion reactions attributed to plasma. PLTs suspended in bicarbonate-containing PAS-5 with 5% plasma levels can maintain key PLT parameters during 7-day storage. This study evaluates the role of calcium and phosphate, as constituents of PAS-5, in maintaining PLT parameters. An Amicus apheresis PLT unit (n = 13) was equally divided into four 60-mL aliquots in CF-250 polyolefin bags. Four different formulations of PAS-5 were prepared: PAS-5, PAS-5 without phosphate (-PO4 ), PAS-5 without calcium (-Ca), and PAS-5 without Ca and phosphate (-Ca/-PO4 ). PLTs were centrifuged, and the supernatant was expressed and replaced with the respective PAS, yielding PLTs suspended in 95% PAS and 5% plasma. PLTs were stored at 20 to 24ºC with agitation for 7 days. PLT in vitro parameters were evaluated on Days 1, 5, and 7. In PLT PAS-5 aliquots, pH levels were maintained better compared with those in -Ca and -Ca/-PO4 aliquots. Glycolysis was greater in -Ca and -Ca/-PO4 PLT aliquots compared with PAS-5 aliquots. Hypotonic stress response and morphology were less and p-selectin (CD62P) binding was greater in -Ca/-PO4 PLT aliquots. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was greater in -Ca/-PO4 PLTs. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was greater in -Ca and -Ca/-PO4 PLT aliquots during storage. The removal of calcium and phosphate from PAS-5 leads to the activation of p38 MAPK and deterioration of key PLT storage parameters. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Lysophosphatidic acid mediates the rapid activation of platelets and endothelial cells by mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein and accumulates in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Siess, W; Zangl, K J; Essler, M; Bauer, M; Brandl, R; Corrinth, C; Bittman, R; Tigyi, G; Aepfelbacher, M

    1999-06-08

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. It activates endothelial cells and platelets through mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was formed during mild oxidation of LDL and was the active compound in mildly oxidized LDL and minimally modified LDL, initiating platelet activation and stimulating endothelial cell stress-fiber and gap formation. Antagonists of the LPA receptor prevented platelet and endothelial cell activation by mildly oxidized LDL. We also found that LPA accumulated in and was the primary platelet-activating lipid of atherosclerotic plaques. Notably, the amount of LPA within the human carotid atherosclerotic lesion was highest in the lipid-rich core, the region most thrombogenic and most prone to rupture. Given the potent biological activity of LPA on platelets and on cells of the vessel wall, our study identifies LPA as an atherothrombogenic molecule and suggests a possible strategy to prevent and treat atherosclerosis and cardiocerebrovascular diseases.

  16. Storage of washed platelets in BRS-A platelet additive solutions based on two types of clinically available bicarbonated Ringer's solutions with different electrolyte concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Taguchi, Takeshi; Endo, Kimika; Hoshi, Takahiro; Kawashima, Wataru; Horibe, Yasuhito; Urano, Shinichi; Suzuki, Ko; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Itoh, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In Japan, no platelet (PLT) additive solutions (PASs) are officially approved for clinical use although blood centers often receive requests for washed PLTs to reduce adverse reactions. Recently, we developed a novel PAS called BRS-A based on clinically available bicarbonated Ringer's solution (BRS), Bicanate and acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A), which has been shown to maintain the in vitro properties of PLTs in the condition of <5% residual plasma during 7-day storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether another clinically available BRS, Bicarbon with different electrolyte concentrations can be used as a PAS. Two types of BRS-As were prepared by adding 25 mL of ACD-A to 500 mL of Bicanate or Bicarbon BRSs. Bicanate-based BRS-A and Bicarbon-based BRS-A contain 0.9 or 0.5 mmol/L of magnesium chloride, 95.2 or 100.1 mmol/L of sodium chloride, 4.2 or 5.1 mmol/L of trisodium citrate, and 26.6 or 23.8 mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate, respectively; the other components were identical. Apheresis PLTs stored in these solutions with less than 5% plasma for 7-day storage were compared with regard to their in vitro properties. The pH levels of all units were above 7 throughout storage. The mean PLT volume, hypotonic shock response, glucose consumption, lactate production, swirling, and CD62P and CD42b expression were similar during 7-day storage. The bicarbonate levels in Bicarbon-based BRS-A were lower than those in Bicanate-based BRS-A. Differences in concentrations of electrolytes such as magnesium, sodium, citrate, and bicarbonate salts in BRS-A do not affect the in vitro properties of PLTs during 7-day storage. These results indicate that the use of another type of BRS-A based on Bicarbon as a PAS is feasible. Thus, BRS-A can be used in hospitals that do not stock Bicanate but have Bicarbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. pH modulation ameliorates the red blood cell storage lesion in a murine model of transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Seitz, Aaron P; Schuster, Rebecca M; Pritts, Timothy A

    2017-05-15

    Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) induces a series of harmful biochemical and metabolic changes known as the RBC storage lesion. RBCs are currently stored in an acidic storage solution, but the effect of pH on the RBC storage lesion is unknown. We investigated the effect of modulation of storage pH on the RBC storage lesion and on erythrocyte survival after transfusion. Murine pRBCs were stored in Additive Solution-3 (AS3) under standard conditions (pH, 5.8), acidic AS3 (pH, 4.5), or alkalinized AS3 (pH, 8.5). pRBC units were analyzed at the end of the storage period. Several components of the storage lesion were measured, including cell-free hemoglobin, microparticle production, phosphatidylserine externalization, lactate accumulation, and byproducts of lipid peroxidation. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled erythrocytes were transfused into healthy mice to determine cell survival. Compared with pRBCs stored in standard AS3, those stored in alkaline solution exhibited decreased hemolysis, phosphatidylserine externalization, microparticle production, and lipid peroxidation. Lactate levels were greater after storage in alkaline conditions, suggesting that these pRBCs remained more metabolically viable. Storage in acidic AS3 accelerated erythrocyte deterioration. Compared with standard AS3 storage, circulating half-life of cells was increased by alkaline storage but decreased in acidic conditions. Storage pH significantly affects the quality of stored RBCs and cell survival after transfusion. Current erythrocyte storage solutions may benefit from refinements in pH levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Omics markers of the red cell storage lesion and metabolic linkage

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Reisz, Julie; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J.; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of omics technologies in the field of Transfusion Medicine has significantly advanced our understanding of the red cell storage lesion. While the clinical relevance of such a lesion is still a matter of debate, quantitative and redox proteomics approaches, as well quantitative metabolic flux analysis and metabolic tracing experiments promise to revolutionise our understanding of the role of blood processing strategies, inform the design and testing of novel additives or technologies (such as pathogen reduction), and evaluate the clinical relevance of donor and recipient biological variability with respect to red cell storability and transfusion outcomes. By reviewing existing literature in this rapidly expanding research endeavour, we highlight for the first time a correlation between metabolic markers of the red cell storage age and protein markers of haemolysis. Finally, we introduce the concept of metabolic linkage, i.e. the appreciation of a network of highly correlated small molecule metabolites which results from biochemical constraints of erythrocyte metabolic enzyme activities. For the foreseeable future, red cell studies will advance Transfusion Medicine and haematology by addressing the alteration of metabolic linkage phenotypes in response to stimuli, including, but not limited to, storage additives, enzymopathies (e.g. glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency), hypoxia, sepsis or haemorrhage. PMID:28263171

  19. Study on the relationship between mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width with coronary artery lesion in children with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixi; Gao, Fang; Huo, Junming; Yi, Qijian

    2012-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are correlated with platelet function and may be a more sensitive index than platelet number as a marker of clinical interest in various disorders. Therefore, this study was designed to answer the following questions: do MPV and PDW levels change in Kawasaki disease (KD), is there any relation between CAL in children with MPV and PDW and whether MPV and PDW might support a diagnosis of incomplete KD. A total of 309 KD patients and 160 sex-age matched healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. For all subjects following tests were performed: MPV, PDW, platelet count, white blood cells counts (WBC), C reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Patients with CALs were assigned to three groups depending on the extent of CALs which were visualized by echocardiography: dilatation and/or ectasia, aneurysm and giant aneurysms. We compared patients with fever and four or five of the principal criteria (complete KD, cKD) to the other patients (iKD). Compared with healthy controls a significant decrease in MPV and PDW (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) and increase in WBC, platelet count, CRP and ESR (p all < 0.001) was noted in children with KD. There were no statistically differences in MPV and PDW between KD with CALs and KD without CALs (p > 0.05). However, MPV and PDW were significantly lower in patients with iKD than in group with cKD (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). It was first shown that patients with KD have lower MPV and PDW than control subjects. The diagnosis of iKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of lower MPV and PDW.

  20. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets for Transfusion: Physiologic Integrity and Hemostatic Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-27

    investigating a rat model. We have been successful in inducing thrombocytopenia in rats by treatment with an anti-rat thrombocyte antibody. With antibody...retraction that clots formed in the presence of rehydrated platelets undergo. We have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine clots formed in the

  1. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Joanna F.; Bawazir, Waleed M.; Bruce, Lesley J.

    2014-01-01

    Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the “storage lesion”, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. The implications for the quality of stored red cells from such donors is discussed. PMID:24987374

  2. Observations on human smooth muscle cell cultures from hyperplastic lesions of prosthetic bypass grafts: Production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like mitogen and expression of a gene for a platelet-derived growth factor receptor--a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Birinyi, L.K.; Warner, S.J.; Salomon, R.N.; Callow, A.D.; Libby, P. )

    1989-08-01

    Prosthetic bypass grafts placed to the distal lower extremity often fail because of an occlusive tissue response in the perianastomotic region. The origin of the cells that comprise this occlusive lesion and the causes of the cellular proliferation are not known. To increase our understanding of this process we cultured cells from hyperplastic lesions obtained from patients at the time of reexploration for lower extremity graft failure, and we studied their identity and growth factor production in tissue culture. These cultures contain cells that express muscle-specific actin isoforms, shown by immunohistochemical staining, consistent with vascular smooth muscle origin. These cultures also released material that stimulated smooth muscle cell growth. A portion of this activity was similar to platelet-derived growth factor, since preincubation with antibody-to-human platelet-derived growth factor partially blocked the mitogenic effect of medium conditioned by human anastomotic hyperplastic cells. These conditioned media also contained material that competed with platelet-derived growth factor for its receptor, as measured in a radioreceptor assay. Northern blot analysis showed that these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes the A chain but not the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes a platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We conclude that cultured smooth muscle cells from human anastomotic hyperplastic lesions express genes for platelet-derived growth factor A chain and a platelet-derived growth factor receptor and secrete biologically active molecules similar to platelet-derived growth factor.

  3. Development of Novel, Reversible, Non-Toxic Anticoagulants for Greatly Extended Platelet Storage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-19

    assay of pH, pCO 2 ,5P02 , platelet count, hypotonic shock recovery, and aggregation with 2 x 10- ADP. If significant differences were noted between the...agents singly or in combination. Vitamin E (a-tocopherol): No obvious beneficial effect in PC (n=4). Hydrocortisone: No obvious beneficial effect in PC (n...surface-to-volume ratio on PC stored 15 days in CPDA-1 containing PGE-1 + theophylline + aprotinin (means, n=4). S/V Ratio Plt. Count pH pCO 2 PO2

  4. Use of platelet rich plasma in an isolated complete medial collateral ligament lesion in a professional football (soccer) player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eirale, Cristiano; Mauri, Eduardo; Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is derived from centrifuging whole blood to obtain a high platelet concentration containing numerous growth factors. Despite its widespread use, there is still a lack of high-level evidence regarding randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy of PRP in treating ligament injuries. Although there is research showing an improvement in the early stages of healing in the animal model of acute medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee, there is no strong evidence to support the efficacy of PRP injections for treating MCL lesions in humans. In this report, we present a case of an elite football player, treated with multiple PRP local injections followed by rehabilitation, for a high grade MCL lesion of the knee. He was able to resume training at day 18, painfree, with full range of motion and the ability to complete a functional test based on all sport specific movements. He played matches at 25 days with no residual symptoms or functional deficit. There were no further complaints or recurrences at the 16 months follow up. On the basis of this report, we can assume that the treatment of high grade acute MCL lesions of the knee with PRP is a promising therapeutic option to be further explored with good quality Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs).

  5. Intraoperative application Platelet rich fibrin, postoperative injections OF PRP or microfracture only for osteochondral lesions of the knee: a five-year retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Papalia, R; Diaz Balzani, L; Torre, G; Tirindelli, M C; Nobile, C; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage lesions are the most common cause of chronic knee pain. Micro-fracturing is reliable, effective, easy to perform and inexpensive. We propose a novel approach to cartilage lesions where microfractures are performed contextually to intra-operative or post-operative administration of platelet concentrates. We retrospectively evaluate 48 patients divided in 3 groups. Group 1: 15 patients underwent microfractures and intraoperative administration of PRF (PRF group); group 2: 16 microfractures and postoperative injections of PRP (PRP group); group 3: 17 patients with isolated microfractures (Microfractures group). Clinical scores (IKDC, VAS pain) were administered at 2 and 5 years postoperative and MRI was performed to evaluate the lesions of patients according to the MOCART criteria (2006). Patients treated with platelet concentrates achieved better clinical results compared to patients treated with microfracture only. The PRF group showed better results than the PRP group at 2 years, with loss of significance at 5 years. At MOCART score, PRF group obtained better results earlier than the other two groups.

  6. Effect of Cold Storage on Shear-induced Platelet Aggregation and Clot Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the kinetics of clot formation and strength were measured using turbidity and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. RESULTS: PLTaggregation was...to quantify the changes in clot strength due to storage temperature.22 During dynamic mechanical analysis, a steady constant strain of 0.5% is applied...compared with RT storage. Clot Rheology During dynamic mechanical analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the clot, namely, clot strength (G’, elastic

  7. Insights into red blood cell storage lesion: Toward a new appreciation.

    PubMed

    Antonelou, Marianna H; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-12-01

    Red blood cell storage lesion (RSL) is a multifaceted biological phenomenon. It refers to deterioration in RBC quality that is characterized by lethal and sub-lethal, reversible and irreversible defects. RSL is influenced by prestorage variables and it might be associated with variable clinical outcomes. Optimal biopreservation conditions are expected to offer maximum levels of RBC survival and acceptable functionality and bioreactivity in-bag and in vivo; consequently, full appraisal of RSL requires understanding of how RSL changes interact with each other and with the recipient. Recent technological innovation in MS-based omics, imaging, cytometry, small particle and systems biology has offered better understanding of RSL contributing factors and effects. A number of elegant in vivo and in vitro studies have paved the way for the identification of quality control biomarkers useful to predict RSL profile and posttransfusion performance. Moreover, screening tools for the early detection of good or poor "storers" and donors have been developed. In the light of new perspectives, storage time is not the touchstone to rule on the quality of a packed RBC unit. At least by a biochemical standpoint, the metabolic aging pattern during storage may not correspond to the currently fresh/old distinction of stored RBCs. Finally, although each unit of RBCs is probably unique, a metabolic signature of RSL across storage variables might exist. Moving forward from traditional hematologic measures to integrated information on structure, composition, biochemistry and interactions collected in bag and in vivo will allow identification of points for intervention in a transfusion meaningful context.

  8. Role of Siglec-7 in Apoptosis in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Palle, Sabine; Anselme-Bertrand, Isabelle; Arthaud, Charles-Antoine; Chavarin, Patricia; Pozzetto, Bruno; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelets participate in tissue repair and innate immune responses. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are well-characterized I-type lectins, which control apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the expression of Siglec-7 in human platelets isolated from healthy volunteers using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Siglec-7 is primarily expressed on α granular membranes and colocalized with CD62P. Siglec-7 expression was increased upon platelet activation and correlated closely with CD62P expression. Cross-linking Siglec-7 with its ligand, ganglioside, resulted in platelet apoptosis without any significant effects on activation, aggregation, cell morphology by electron microscopy analysis or secretion. We show that ganglioside triggered four key pathways leading to apoptosis in human platelets: (i) mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarization; (ii) elevated expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak proteins with reduced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein; (iii) phosphatidylserine exposure and (iv), microparticle formation. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase, PI3K, or PKC rescued platelets from apoptosis induced by Siglec-7 recruitment, suggesting that the platelet receptors P2Y1 and GPIIbIIIa are essential for ganglioside-induced platelet apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance The present work characterizes the role of Siglec-7 and platelet receptors in regulating apoptosis and death. Because some platelet pathology involves apoptosis (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and possibly storage lesions), Siglec-7 might be a molecular target for therapeutic intervention/prevention. PMID:25230315

  9. Influence of multicomponent apheresis on donors' haematological and coagulation parameters, iron storage and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Macher, S; Sipurzynski-Budraβ, S; Rosskopf, K; Semmelrock, M; Prüller, F; Griesbacher, A; Lanzer, G; Schallmoser, K

    2012-10-01

    Multicomponent collection (MCC) enables production and processing of various blood components during one apheresis session. In this prospective crossover study, the effects of donating platelets (PLTs) and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) on donor's blood cell count, coagulation, PLT function and iron state were analysed. Forty-eight MCCs were performed using two different cell separators (Fenwal Amicus(®), CaridianBCT Trima Accel(®)). Two units of platelet concentrates and one unit of PRBCs were collected during each session. Full blood cell count and iron status were obtained on day 0 before and after apheresis, day 2, day 14 and day 42. PLT function was analysed by aggregometry and rotation thromboelastometry in parallel with coagulation tests before and after MCC and at day 2. Multicomponent collection was well tolerated without adverse side effects. Blood cell count and iron parameters declined and most of them (haemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin, transferrin saturation and ferritin) were significantly below baseline values until at least day 42 after donation. Absent iron stores were seen in 31·3% of the donors. In contrast, PLTs significantly exceeded pre-donation values after 14 days and remained significantly increased for 42 days. After 2 days, coagulation parameters were only slightly (P > 0·05) altered, whereas PLT function was significantly reduced. Multicomponent collection is an obviously safe procedure; however, the significant long-term impact on the donor's blood count and iron store, as well as impaired PLT function, has to be considered in regard to donor safety. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value <0.05. Erythropoietin, when added to red blood cell units, has a half-life >6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19±0.05μmol/L vs. 3.53±0.02μmol/L; p-value=0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77%±3.8% vs. 71%±2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4%±0.3% vs. 22%±0.8%; p-value <0.05). Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value <0.05. Results Erythropoietin, when added to red blood cell units, has a half-life >6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  12. Coagulopathies in Naja naja karachiensis (black Pakistan cobra) bites and its effect on coagulation tests upon storage of platelet-poor plasma.

    PubMed

    Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Razi, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Taous; Najam-Us-saqib, Qazi; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hussain, Muhammad Shahzad; Hussain, Muhammad Sikandar; Karim, Sabiha; Hussain, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of venom from Naja naja karachiensis on platelet-poor plasma, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) / international normalized ratio (INR), thrombin time (TT) and to evaluate its effect on clotting time upon storage of plasma for a specific time period with possible mechanism responsible for that. Prolongation of PT / INR, aPTT and TT was observed when different concentrations of venom were introduced due to degeneration of fibrinogen. Preservation of plasma for three months further prolong clotting time for coagulation tests, however, difference of PT and TT results were not very prominent as compared to aPTT. Minute concentrations of cobra venom and short as well as long storage of platelet-poor plasma badly affects the INR ratio.

  13. Determining the Effect of Preparation and Storage: An Effort to Streamline Platelet Components as a Source of Growth Factors for Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Sonker, Atul; Dubey, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Background In the present study, different methods for preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are investigated in order to standardize the component in terms of growth factor content. The effects of concentration technique and storage duration are also analyzed. Methods PRP was collected from 40 donors by plateletpheresis as well as by the buffy coat and tube method. Concentration of growth factors was performed using double freeze thaw- and CaCl2-induced degranulation techniques. Growth factor estimation was performed using ELISA. Results The levels of growth factors were highest in PRP from buffy coat, moderately lower in plasma gained by plateletpheresis and lowest in that obtained by the tube method. Mean levels of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) AB and BB are significantly higher when CaCl2 was used for concentrating the growth factors. The mean levels of transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor I were higher when applying the double freeze thaw technique. There was a substantial decline in the levels of growth factors during storage. Conclusion The buffy coat method is suitable as preparation method for PRP in most settings. The double freeze thaw technique is better suited as concentration technique as it causes lysis of both platelets and white blood cells for releasing growth factors and is easier to perform. Growth factors are not stable in plasma, thus PRP should be frozen immediately after preparation. PMID:26195931

  14. The effect of stationary versus rocked storage of whole blood on red blood cell damage and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Glackin, Emily M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Alarcon, Louis H; Murdock, Alan; Sperry, Jason

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly, cold-stored whole blood (WB) is being considered for the resuscitation of civilian trauma patients. It is unclear whether the WB should be agitated to enhance the function of the platelets (PLTs) or whether agitation will cause RBC damage. WB units were collected by standard procedures using a PLT-sparing inline leukoreduction filter and stored between 1 and 6°C. On Storage Day 3 each unit was divided into 4 subunits that were stored under one of the following conditions for 21 days: unrocked, manually rocked once daily, continuously rocked end over end, or continuously rocked horizontally. From Day 3 to Day 10, hemolysis and the mechanical fragility index (MFI) for RBC injury were measured daily and again on Days 15 and 21 (n = 9-16 units tested each time). On Days 4 and 10, rapid thromboelastogram (rTEG) measurements were performed (n = 8-10 units tested each time). Hemolysis and MFI increased significantly between Day 3 and Day 21 (p < 0.0001) for all RBC rocking conditions, as well as the unrocked units. Only the manually and horizontally rocked units demonstrated higher hemolysis (on Day 21) and MFI (starting on Day 10) compared to the unrocked units. Only the α-angle and maximum amplitude in the end-over-end rocked units increased significantly between Day 4 and Day 10. There were no significant differences between the rocked and unrocked units on Day 10 for any rTEG variable. Rocking does not appear to enhance in vitro PLT activity in cold-stored WB and can lead to increased hemolysis. © 2015 AABB.

  15. Expression of CD40 ligand on CD4+ T-cells and platelets correlated to the coronary artery lesion and disease progress in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Lu; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Chieh-An; Lin, Mei-Wei; Lee, Chia-Jung; Huang, Li-Tung; Yang, Kuender D

    2003-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome in children. CD40 ligand (CD40L) has been implicated in certain types of vasculitis. We proposed that CD40L expression might be correlated with coronary artery lesions in KD. Blood samples were collected from 43 patients with KD before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and 3 days afterward. Forty-three age-matched febrile children with various diseases were studied in parallel as controls. CD40L expression on T-cells and platelets were detected by flow cytometry, and soluble CD40L (sCD40L) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that CD40L expression on CD4(+) T-cells was significantly higher in patients with KD than in the febrile control (FC) group (28.69 +/- 1.17% vs 4.37 +/- 0.36%). CD40L expression decreased significantly 3 days after IVIG administration (28.69 +/- 1.17% vs 13.53 +/- 0.55%). CD40L expression on platelets from patients with KD was also significantly higher than in the FC group (8.20 +/- 0.41% vs 1.26 +/- 0.12%) and decreased after IVIG therapy. sCD40L levels were also significantly higher in KD patients with those of FC (9.69 +/- 0.45 ng/mL vs 2.25 +/- 0.19 ng/mL) but were not affected by IVIG treatment 3 days afterward (9.69 +/- 0.45 ng/mL vs 9.03 +/- 0.32 ng/mL). More interesting, we found that in KD patients, CD40L expression on CD4(+) T-cells and platelets but not on CD8(+) T-cells or sCD40L was correlated with the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. CD40L might play a role in the immunopathogenesis of KD. IVIG therapy might downregulate CD40L expression, resulting in decrease of CD40L-mediated vascular damage in KD. This implicates that modulation of CD40L expression may benefit to treat KD vasculitis.

  16. Accumulation of CD62P during storage of apheresis platelet concentrates and the role of CD62P in transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shan; Wang, Haibao; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Linfeng; Liu, Bowei

    2015-11-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. Activated platelets have important roles in TRALI and CD62P was identified to be an important indicator of platelet activation. However, the precise roles of CD62P in TRALI have remained elusive. The present study assessed CD62P accumulation during storage of apheresis platelet concentrates (A‑Plts) and established a mouse model of TRALI to further investigate the roles of CD62P in TRALI. The results showed that the CD62P concentration in A‑Plts was increased with the storage time. Mice were treated with monoclonal major histocompatibility complex (MHC)‑1 antibody to induce TRALI. The murine model of TRALI was successfully established as evidenced by pulmonary oedema, accompanied by decreased clearance of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), increased pulmonary and systemic inflammation, elevated lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as increased pulmonary and systemic coagulation in the TRALI group compared with those in the control group. To further determine the role of CD62P in TRALI, mice were treated with anti‑CD62P antibody to knockdown CD62P in vivo. It was found that pulmonary oedema, BALF clearance, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, MPO activity as well as pulmonary and systemic coagulation were decreased in the TRALI + anti‑CD62P antibody group compared with those in the TRALI + isotype antibody group. The present study supported the notion that CD62P is involved in mediating TRALI and may provide an important molecular basis for enhancing the clinical safety and effectiveness of platelet transfusion.

  17. Management of Large Preiapical Lesion with the Combination of Second Generation Platelet Extract and Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tewari, Rajendra Kumar; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Iftekhar, Huma

    2015-01-01

    The pulp tissue necrosis and extensive periodontal diseases leads to the development of the inflammatory periapical lesion which causes a local response of bone around the apex of the tooth. Depends upon the nature of wound and available biological growth factors the outcome will be either regeneration or repair. Being a rich source of growth factors, platelet rich fibrin (PRF) posses many advantages in bone regeneration. The purpose of this case report is to present an attempt to evaluate the healing potential of the combination of PRF and Hydroxyapatite bone graft as opposed to using these materials alone. A periapical endodontic surgery was performed on three patients with a large periapical inflammatory lesion and a large bony defect. The defect was then filled with a combination of PRF and Hydroxyapatite bone graft crystals. Clinical examination exhibited uneventful wound healing. The HA crystals have been replaced by new bone radiographically at the end of two years in Case 1 and Case 2, Case 3 were followed upto one year. On the basis of our cases outcome, we conclude the use of PRF in combination with HA crystals might have accelerate the bone regeneration. PMID:25738094

  18. Platelet preservation: agitation and containers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    For platelets to maintain their in vitro quality and in vivo effectiveness, they need to be stored at room temperature with gentle agitation in gas-permeable containers. The mode of agitation affects the quality of the platelets, and a gentle method of agitation, either a circular or a flat bed movement, provides the best results. Tumblers or elliptical agitators induce platelet activation and subsequent damage. As long as the platelets remain in suspension, the agitation speed is not important. Agitation of the platelet concentrates ensures that the platelets are continuously oxygenated, that sufficient oxygen can enter the storage container and that excess carbon dioxide can be expelled. During transportation of platelet concentrates, nowadays over long distances where they are held without controlled agitation, platelets may tolerate a certain period without agitation. However, evidence is accumulating that during the time without agitation, local hypoxia surrounding the platelets may induce irreversible harm to the platelets. Over the decades, more gas-permeable plastics have been used to manufacture platelet containers. The use of different plastics and their influence on the platelet quality both in vitro and in vivo is discussed. The improved gas-permeability has allowed the extension of platelet storage from 3 days in the early 1980s, to currently at least 7 days. In the light of new developments, particularly the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, the use of platelet additive solutions and the availability of improved automated separators, further (renewed) research in this area is warranted.

  19. Platelets: handle with care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S

    2016-10-01

    Platelets are delicate cells that require careful handling between collection, preparation and transfusion. This review addresses practical questions relating to platelet concentration, resting time after collection, total time and number of periods without agitation and temperature. The bags in which platelets are stored are made from gas-permeable plastic to allow sufficient oxygen for the platelets to maintain aerobic respiration. Manufacturers have assigned limits for platelet content and concentration, and these must not be exceeded. There is no strong evidence for or against the resting of platelets post-collection and pre-agitation, but platelets should not be over-wrapped during this period as this compromises gas exchange; a short rest period of up to 1 h may allow the separation of minor aggregates. It is necessary to transport platelet concentrates (e.g. from manufacturing site to hospital), but these periods without gas exchange must be limited to avoid excessive damage to the platelets. Current data support a total of 24 h of transportation per component but with no individual period lasting more than 8 h. Platelets need to be stored at 20-24 °C based on evidence that colder storage leads to irreversible changes on the platelet membrane, resulting in phagocytosis of the platelets following transfusion. Storage at warmer temperatures may lead to an increase in bacterial risk. On the basis of this review, the UK Guidelines for Blood Transfusion Services have been updated to ensure that platelets are handled in the most appropriate way to ensure that efficacious components are provided for patients.

  20. Short term storage stability at room temperature of two different platelet-rich plasma preparations from equine donors and potential impact on growth factor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Gregor; Geburek, Florian; Gosheger, Georg; Eveslage, Maria; Serrano, Daniela; Streitbürger, Arne; Johannlükens, Sara; Menzel, Dirk; Mischke, Reinhard

    2017-01-05

    The increasing interest in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) based therapies is as yet accompanied by inconsistent information regarding nearly all aspects of handling and application. Among these storage stability of processed platelet-rich products may be the basis for a more flexible application mode. The objective of this study was (1) to estimate the storage stability of growth factors platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in both, a single-step softspin centrifugation-based pure-PRP (P-PRP, ACP®), and a gravity filtration system-based leukocyte-rich-PRP (L-PRP, E-PET), over a six hours time span after preparation at room temperature and (2) to identify possible factors influencing these growth factor concentrations in an equine model. Growth factor concentrations remained stable over the entire investigation period in L-PRP as well as P-PRP preparations revealing a mean of 3569 pg/ml PDGF-BB for E-PET and means of 1276 pg/ml PDGF-BB and 5086 pg/ml TGF-ß1 for ACP®. Pearson correlations yielded no significant impact of whole blood platelet (PLT), white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts on resulting cytokine values. In case of ACP® no significant dependencies between PLT, WBC and RBC counts of the processed platelet-rich product and resulting cytokine content occurred with exception of TGF-ß1 concentrations showing a strong correlation with the WBC content. PDGF-BB content of E-PET preparations showed a strong positive correlation with PLT and a strong negative with WBC of these preparations but not with RBC. L-PRP ad modum E-PET and P-PRP ad modum ACP® are applicable over at least a six hours time span at room temperature without loss of growth factor content. Based on the results of this study factors influencing the resulting growth factor concentrations still remain questionable. Additional studies implicating a further standardization of preparation protocols are necessary to identify

  1. Determination of thromboxane formation, soluble CD40L release and thrombopoietin clearance in apheresis platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Folker; Baertl, Anja; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zimmermann, Norbert; Weber, Artur Aron; Lorenz, Horst; Giers, Günther

    2012-01-01

    All deleterious changes in platelet morphology, structure and function that occur in platelet concentrates (PC) during storage are titled as the 'platelet storage lesion'. No single in vitro test currently available is sufficient in assessing these changes of platelet quality. The release of soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L), the formation of thromboxane (TXB2) and the thrombopoietin (TPO) clearance reflect different aspects of platelet metabolism and activitiy, and were used to examine platelet quality in apheresis platelet products. At days 1, 3 and 5, in single-donor apheresis platelet products (n = 10) under routine storage conditions, sCD40L (measured by ELISA) and TXB2 (measured by RIA) were determined after platelet stimulation (recalcification and clot formation). TPO (measured by ELISA) was determined after an incubation time of 5 h at 37°C with platelet-rich plasma (adjusted initial TPO concentration of about 500 pg/mL). Results were related to a therapeutic unit (TU = 2 × 10(11) platelets). Immediately after platelet preparation, sCD40L release was 41 ± 7.6 ng/TU, TXB2 formation 1688 ± 374 ng/TU and TPO clearance 1.22 ± 0.32 ng/h/TU. At days 1, 3 and 5, sCD40L was reduced to 89 ± 7%, 71 ± 12% and 57 ± 9%, TXB2 release to 91 ± 6%, 74 ± 12% and 58 ± 9% and TPO clearance to 90 ± 15%, 84 ± 5% and 79 ± 10% of the respective control values. In conclusion, in single-donor apheresis PC, sCD40L release and TXB2 formation as well as TPO clearance by the platelets were dependent on storage duration and reduced to about 60% to 80% of the respective control values after a storage period for 5 days. These findings are in line with literature data, indicating that a loss of platelet functionality of about 30% will occur after 5 days of storage.

  2. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions. PMID:26949396

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB has neurorestorative effects and modulates the pericyte response in a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Padel, Thomas; Özen, Ilknur; Boix, Jordi; Barbariga, Marco; Gaceb, Abderahim; Roth, Michaela; Paul, Gesine

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease where the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to specific motor deficits. There is an unmet medical need for regenerative treatments that stop or reverse disease progression. Several growth factors have been investigated in clinical trials to restore the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway damaged in PD. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a molecule that recruits pericytes to stabilize microvessels, was recently investigated in a phase-1 clinical trial, showing a dose-dependent increase in dopamine transporter binding in the putamen of PD patients. Interestingly, evidence is accumulating that PD is paralleled by microvascular changes, however, whether PDGF-BB modifies pericytes in PD is not known. Using a pericyte reporter mouse strain, we investigate the functional and restorative effect of PDGF-BB in a partial 6-hydroxydopamine medial forebrain bundle lesion mouse model of PD, and whether this restorative effect is accompanied by changes in pericyte features. We demonstrate that a 2-week treatment with PDGF-BB leads to behavioural recovery using several behavioural tests, and partially restores the nigrostriatal pathway. Interestingly, we find that pericytes are activated in the striatum of PD lesioned mice and that these changes are reversed by PDGF-BB treatment. The modulation of brain pericytes may contribute to the PDGF-BB-induced neurorestorative effects, PDGF-BB allowing for vascular stabilization in PD. Pericytes might be a new cell target of interest for future regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of autologous bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells, and platelet rich plasma, for treating surgically induced lesions of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Barrachina, L; Ranera, B; Remacha, A R; Moreno, B; de Blas, I; Sanz, A; Vázquez, F J; Vitoria, A; Junquera, C; Zaragoza, P; Rodellar, C

    2017-06-01

    Several therapies have been investigated for equine tendinopathies, but satisfactory long term results have not been achieved consistently and a better understanding of the healing mechanism elicited by regenerative therapies is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the separate effects of autologous bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and platelet rich plasma (PRP), for treating lesions induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses. Lesions were created surgically in both SDFTs of the forelimbs of 12 horses and were treated with BM-MSCs (six tendons), AT-MSCs (six tendons) or PRP (six tendons). The remaining six tendons received lactated Ringer's solution as control. Serial ultrasound assessment was performed prior to treatment and at 2, 6, 10, 20 and 45 weeks post-treatment. At 45 weeks, histopathology and gene expression analyses were performed. At week 6, the ultrasound echogenicity score in tendons treated with BM-MSCs suggested earlier improvement, whilst all treatment groups reached the same level at week 10, which was superior to the control group. Collagen orientation scores on histological examination suggested a better outcome in treated tendons. Gene expression was indicative of better tissue regeneration after all treatments, especially for BM-MSCs, as suggested by upregulation of collagen type I, decorin, tenascin and matrix metalloproteinase III mRNA. Considering all findings, a clear beneficial effect was elicited by all treatments compared with the control group. Although differences between treatments were relatively small, BM-MSCs resulted in a better outcome than PRP and AT-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishing proof of concept: Platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate may improve cartilage repair following surgical treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Niall A; Murawski, Christopher D; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Savage-Elliott, Ian; Kennedy, John G

    2012-07-18

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in the athletic patient. They present a challenging clinical problem as cartilage has a poor potential for healing. Current surgical treatments consist of reparative (microfracture) or replacement (autologous osteochondral graft) strategies and demonstrate good clinical outcomes at the short and medium term follow-up. Radiological findings and second-look arthroscopy however, indicate possible poor cartilage repair with evidence of fibrous infill and fissuring of the regenerative tissue following microfracture. Longer-term follow-up echoes these findings as it demonstrates a decline in clinical outcome. The nature of the cartilage repair that occurs for an osteochondral graft to become integrated with the native surround tissue is also of concern. Studies have shown evidence of poor cartilage integration, with chondrocyte death at the periphery of the graft, possibly causing cyst formation due to synovial fluid ingress. Biological adjuncts, in the form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), have been investigated with regard to their potential in improving cartilage repair in both in vitro and in vitro settings. The in vitro literature indicates that these biological adjuncts may increase chondrocyte proliferation as well as synthetic capability, while limiting the catabolic effects of an inflammatory joint environment. These findings have been extrapolated to in vitro animal models, with results showing that both PRP and BMAC improve cartilage repair. The basic science literature therefore establishes the proof of concept that biological adjuncts may improve cartilage repair when used in conjunction with reparative and replacement treatment strategies for osteochondral lesions of the talus.

  6. Management of Dens Invaginatus Type II Associated with Immature Apex and Large Periradicular Lesion Using Platelet-rich Fibrin and Biodentine.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shruti; Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2017-07-13

    Dens invaginatus (DI) poses peculiar challenges in endodontic treatment of teeth because of distortion of pulpal space. A case of Oehlers type II DI with open apex and large periapical lesion is reported. The case was managed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), operating microscope, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), and Biodentine. A 15-year-old male patient presented with palatal swelling. Pulp sensibility testing of right maxillary lateral incisor was negative. Intraoral periapical digital radiograph revealed an Oehlers type II DI with open apex and periapical radiolucency. A CBCT scan was performed to study the anatomy, determine the true extent of the periapical lesion, and form a treatment plan. A diagnosis of Oehlers type II DI with pulp necrosis and acute periapical abscess was made. Two-visit endodontic treatment was performed. In the first visit, the invaginated central mass was removed under operating microscope, chemo-mechanical preparation was done, and double antibiotic paste dressing was placed. In the second visit, the canal was sealed with apical matrices of PRF and Biodentine as filling material. The patient was asymptomatic and radiographs revealed continued healing of the osseous defect at follow-up visits. A CBCT scan at 30 months showed complete continuity of periodontal ligament space, healing of labial and palatal cortical plates, and formation of intercortical bone. The advances in endodontic armamentarium and technology, like CBCT and operating microscope, have made successful treatment of challenging cases possible. PRF and Biodentine as apical matrices and filling material, respectively, proved to be effective in the present case. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of human factor VIII under control of the platelet-specific alphaIIb promoter in megakaryocytic cell line as well as storage together with VWF.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q; Wilcox, D A; Fahs, S A; Kroner, P A; Montgomery, R R

    2003-05-01

    Hemophilia A, which results in defective or deficient factor VIII (FVIII) protein, is one of the genetic diseases that has been addressed through gene therapy trials. FVIII synthesis does not occur in normal megakaryocytes. In hemophilia patients who have inhibitors to FVIII activity, megakaryocytes could be a protected site of FVIII synthesis and subsequent release. Since von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a carrier protein for FVIII, we hypothesize that by directing FVIII synthesis to megakaryocytes, it would traffick together with VWF to storage in megakaryocyte alpha-granules and the platelets derived from these cells. Such synthesis would establish a protected, releasable alpha-granule pool of FVIII together with VWF. When platelets are activated in a region of local vascular damage, FVIII and VWF could potentially be released together to provide improved local hemostatic effectiveness. To direct FVIII expression to the megakaryocyte lineage, we designed a FVIII expression cassette where the human B-domain deleted FVIII cDNA was placed under the control of the megakaryocytic/platelet-specific glycoprotein IIb (alphaIIb) promoter. We demonstrated by means of a functional FVIII activity assay that the biosynthesis of FVIII occurred normally in Dami cells transfected with FVIII. FVIII production was higher when driven by the alphaIIb promoter compared to the CMV promoter, and was increased about 8-fold following PMA treatment of the transfected Dami cells. Immunofluorescence staining of the transfected cells showed that FVIII stored together with VWF in the granules. The data indicate that the megakaryocytic compartment of hematopoietic cells may represent a potential target of gene therapy for hemophilia A-especially in those patients who have developed inhibitors to plasma FVIII.

  8. Proteome changes in platelets after pathogen inactivation--an interlaboratory consensus.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Michel; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Devine, Dana V; Gachet, Christian; Greinacher, Andreas; Lion, Niels; Schubert, Peter; Steil, Leif; Thiele, Thomas; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Völker, Uwe; Zolla, Lello

    2014-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) of platelet concentrates (PCs) reduces the proliferation/replication of a large range of bacteria, viruses, and parasites as well as residual leucocytes. Pathogen-inactivated PCs were evaluated in various clinical trials showing their efficacy and safety. Today, there is some debate over the hemostatic activity of treated PCs as the overall survival of PI platelets seems to be somewhat reduced, and in vitro measurements have identified some alterations in platelet function. Although the specific lesions resulting from PI of PCs are still not fully understood, proteomic studies have revealed potential damages at the protein level. This review merges the key findings of the proteomic analyses of PCs treated by the Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology, the Intercept Blood System, and the Theraflex UV-C system, respectively, and discusses the potential impact on the biological functions of platelets. The complementarities of the applied proteomic approaches allow the coverage of a wide range of proteins and provide a comprehensive overview of PI-mediated protein damage. It emerges that there is a relatively weak impact of PI on the overall proteome of platelets. However, some data show that the different PI treatments lead to an acceleration of platelet storage lesions, which is in agreement with the current model of platelet storage lesion in pathogen-inactivated PCs. Overall, the impact of the PI treatment on the proteome appears to be different among the PI systems. Mirasol impacts adhesion and platelet shape change, whereas Intercept seems to impact proteins of intracellular platelet activation pathways. Theraflex influences platelet shape change and aggregation, but the data reported to date are limited. This information provides the basis to understand the impact of different PI on the molecular mechanisms of platelet function. Moreover, these data may serve as basis for future developments of PI technologies for PCs. Further studies

  9. Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation on Development of the Storage Lesion and Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    drawings, specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation or convey any rights or permission to manufacture ...their use after thawing and removal of glycerol is currently limited to 14 days due in part to concerns about bacterial contamination [7,8]. The...were cultured at the end of 42 days of storage to ensure no bacterial contamination had occurred. 3.2 Biochemical Measurements Samples from

  10. [Platelets and arterial thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François; Wiesel, Marie-Louise

    2003-01-01

    The pathological mechanisms involved in arterial thrombus formation are similar to the mechanisms involved in physiological hemostasis. Arterial thrombosis is initiated following lesion of the vessel wall, either through rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque containing lipids, adhesive proteins and tissue factor or after angioplasty exposing the thrombogenic subendothelial matrix. Platelets play a major role in arterial thrombus formation through ADP secretion and thrombin generation on their activated surface. Arterial thrombosis is a frequent complication of atherosclerotic lesions and leads to acute ischemic events. These events are therapeutic emergencies which require administration of antithrombotic drugs inhibiting platelet functions and thrombin.

  11. The impact of platelet transfusion characteristics on posttransfusion platelet increments and clinical bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, Darrell J; Assmann, Susan F; Strauss, Ronald G; Ness, P M; Hess, John R; Kaufman, Richard M; Granger, Suzanne; Slichter, Sherrill J

    2012-06-07

    Platelet characteristics, such as platelet dose, platelet source (apheresis vs pooled), platelet donor-recipient ABO compatibility, and duration of platelet storage, can affect posttransfusion platelet increments, but it is unclear whether these factors impact platelet transfusion efficacy on clinical bleeding. We performed secondary analyses of platelet transfusions given in the prospective randomized Platelet Dose Study, which included 1272 platelet-transfused hematology-oncology patients who received 6031 prophylactic platelet transfusions. The primary outcome of these analyses was time from first transfusion to first World Health Organization ≥ grade 2 bleeding. Platelet transfusion increments were assessed at 0.25 to 4 hours and 16 to 32 hours after platelet transfusion. There were 778 patients evaluable for analysis of time to bleeding. Adjusted models showed that randomized dose strategy, platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage did not predict this outcome. Platelet increments were generally higher for transfusions of apheresis platelets, ABO-identical platelets, and platelets stored 3 days versus 4 to 5 days. Thus, although platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage exert a modest impact on both absolute and corrected posttransfusion platelet increments, they have no measurable impact on prevention of clinical bleeding. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128713.

  12. The impact of platelet transfusion characteristics on posttransfusion platelet increments and clinical bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Susan F.; Strauss, Ronald G.; Ness, P. M.; Hess, John R.; Kaufman, Richard M.; Granger, Suzanne; Slichter, Sherrill J.

    2012-01-01

    Platelet characteristics, such as platelet dose, platelet source (apheresis vs pooled), platelet donor-recipient ABO compatibility, and duration of platelet storage, can affect posttransfusion platelet increments, but it is unclear whether these factors impact platelet transfusion efficacy on clinical bleeding. We performed secondary analyses of platelet transfusions given in the prospective randomized Platelet Dose Study, which included 1272 platelet-transfused hematology-oncology patients who received 6031 prophylactic platelet transfusions. The primary outcome of these analyses was time from first transfusion to first World Health Organization ≥ grade 2 bleeding. Platelet transfusion increments were assessed at 0.25 to 4 hours and 16 to 32 hours after platelet transfusion. There were 778 patients evaluable for analysis of time to bleeding. Adjusted models showed that randomized dose strategy, platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage did not predict this outcome. Platelet increments were generally higher for transfusions of apheresis platelets, ABO-identical platelets, and platelets stored 3 days versus 4 to 5 days. Thus, although platelet source, ABO compatibility, and duration of storage exert a modest impact on both absolute and corrected posttransfusion platelet increments, they have no measurable impact on prevention of clinical bleeding. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128713. PMID:22496156

  13. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of disorders caused by problems with platelet granules. Granules are little sacs inside the platelet in which ... function are stored. There are two types of granules: alpha granules and dense granules. Some storage pool ...

  14. Blood storage affects the detection of cellular prion protein on peripheral blood leukocytes and circulating dendritic cells in part by promoting platelet satellitism.

    PubMed

    Glier, Hana; Holada, Karel

    2012-06-29

    Flow cytometry represents an attractive approach for developing currently unavailable screening tests for prion diseases. Several studies have reported significant differences in the binding of antibodies directed against cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to blood cells of prion-infected subjects compared with healthy controls. However, flow cytometry data usually show large individual variations in detected PrP(C) levels in both infected and control groups, rendering the interpretation of individual patient data difficult. To determine how pre-analytical variables, such as the choice of anticoagulant, whether or not the blood was stored, and the storage temperature, affect the detection of PrP(C) in blood cells. Blood from healthy donors was collected in EDTA or citrate anticoagulant and processed either immediately or after storage overnight at room temperature or at 4°C. The expression of PrP(C) by T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes and circulating dendritic cells was evaluated using quantitative flow cytometry with the PrP(C) monoclonal antibodies AG4 and AH6. The anticoagulation of blood with citrate resulted in decreased levels of PrP(C) on monocytes but not the other cell types. The storage of blood prior to analysis led to a significant decrease in the levels of PrP(C) on the cells studied, although there were substantial differences between the cell populations. This decrease was more pronounced when using mAb AG4, which targets the N-terminal portion of the PrP(C) molecule, or following storage at room temperature. Moreover, we identified platelet satellitism on leukocytes, especially on monocytes and granulocytes, as an additional factor contributing to the heterogeneity of PrP(C) detection in stored blood. Our study demonstrates that the storage of blood prior to analysis greatly affects the detection of PrP(C) by flow cytometry. To limit the inclusion of storage-generated artifacts, we recommend the processing of blood samples immediately after their

  15. Platelet Interaction with Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Julia Barbara; Schrottmaier, Waltraud Cornelia; Salzmann, Manuel; Assinger, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Summary Beyond their traditional role in haemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are increasingly recognised as immune modulatory cells. Activated platelets and platelet-derived microparticles can bind to leukocytes, which stimulates mutual activation and results in rapid, local release of platelet-derived cytokines. Thereby platelets modulate leukocyte effector functions and contribute to inflammatory and immune responses to injury or infection. Platelets enhance leukocyte extravasation, differentiation and cytokine release. Platelet-neutrophil interactions boost oxidative burst, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and phagocytosis and play an important role in host defence. Platelet interactions with monocytes propagate their differentiation into macrophages, modulate cytokine release and attenuate macrophage functions. Depending on the underlying pathology, platelets can enhance or diminish leukocyte cytokine production, indicating that platelet-leukocyte interactions represent a fine balanced system to restrict excessive inflammation during infection. In atherosclerosis, platelet interaction with neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells accelerates key steps of atherogenesis by promoting leukocyte extravasation and foam cell formation. Platelet-leukocyte interactions at sites of atherosclerotic lesions destabilise atherosclerotic plaques and promote plaque rupture. Leukocytes in turn also modulate platelet function and production, which either results in enhanced platelet destruction or increased platelet production. This review aims to summarise the key effects of platelet-leukocyte interactions in inflammation, infection and atherosclerosis. PMID:27226790

  16. Storage of platelet concentrates from pooled buffy coats made of fresh and overnight-stored whole blood processed on the novel Atreus 2C+ system: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Per; Callaert, Martine; Shanwell, Agneta; Gulliksson, Hans

    2008-04-01

    The Atreus 2C+ system (Gambro BCT) automatically separates whole blood (WB) into buffy coat (BC), red blood cells (RBC), and plasma and transfers the components into separate containers. After processing with the Atreus, 4 to 6 BC units can be pooled and processed into leukoreduced platelets (PLTs) by use of the automated OrbiSac BC system (Gambro BCT). The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate the effects of holding either WB or BC overnight before preparation of PLTs by use of the Atreus 2C+ system for BC preparation. A standard routine procedure involving conventional blood containers for the preparation of BC combined with the OrbiSac process (top-and-top system; Terumo) was used as a reference. WB was either processed within 8 hours after collection ("fresh blood") or stored overnight before processing. WB units were separated into BC, RBC, and plasma units and transferred into individual containers. Either the BC or the WB units rested overnight at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Six ABO-identical BCs, obtained from either fresh or overnight-stored WB, were pooled and processed with the OrbiSac BC system to obtain leukoreduced PLTs. In total, 20 Atreus and 10 reference (leukoreduced PLTs) samples were analyzed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in glucose consumption, lactate production, mean PLT volume, LDH activity, bicarbonate, ATP, RANTES, and the expression of CD62p and CD42b between groups was detected. pH was maintained at greater than 7.0 (Day 7). Swirling remained at the highest levels (score, 2) for all units throughout storage. PLTs derived from BCs, obtained from either fresh or overnight-stored WB processed on the novel automated Atreus 2C+ system, were equivalent to control PLTs with regard to PLT in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. Stable recovery of PLTs and satisfactory PLT content according to current standards were also found.

  17. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for five days released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol’s beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function. PMID:26683619

  18. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function.

  19. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  20. Platelet activation of platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Soleimany Ferizhandy

    2011-02-01

    Preparation for storage may cause platelet activation. The quality of platelet concentrates plays an important role in transfusion therapy. Platelet concentrates are produced by different centrifugation methods; buffy coat (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates-BC) and plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates-APC). Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: platelet, WBC and RBC counts pH, volume, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and Annexin V. The present paper compares the quality of both platelet preparations in vitro. In this experimental study, 30 platelet concentrates were harvested with the Haemonetics MCS plus and 30 units via the buffy coat (BC) method. The percentages of Annexin V expression, PF4 levels, platelet, WBC and RBC counts, pH and volume were measure immediately after collection and after 3 days of storage. During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed, no significant pH or RBC, difference in comparison with apheresis preparations (p>0.05). During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed a significant increase in the PF4 and Annexin V expression, compared to the apheresis preparations on day three (p<0.05). The kinetics of PF4 and Annexin V levels are influenced by the method used to prepare platelets for storage. The different levels of PF4 and Annexin V in BCs and APCs clearly demonstrates a progressive activation of BC platelets exceeding that of APC. However, in vivo studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  1. Platelet Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... donating platelets, can I still donate blood? What blood types should donate platelets? Can I donate plasma at ... Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood ...

  2. Dysbaric osteonecrosis: a consequence of intravascular bubble formation, endothelial damage, and platelet thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Slichter, S J; Stegall, P; Smith, K; Huang, T W; Harker, L A

    1981-10-01

    Survival and turnover of platelets, fibrinogen, and plasminogen were measured in association with hyperbaric exposure in man. In addition, kinetic and vascular studies were carried out in a hyperbaric swine model to assess the role of vascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of dysbaric osteonecrosis. In man, significant increases in platelet and fibrinogen consumption were directly associated with dive depth and with repetitive exposure at lesser depths. The increased destruction of platelets and fibrinogen was not accompanied by reduced blood levels because of compensatory shifts in production rats and distribution between circulating and storage compartments. Platelet consumption was substantially greater than fibrinogen destruction with respect to both severity and duration. Platelet function inhibitors decreased platelet consumption. Increased fibrinogen consumption was sometimes associated with reduced plasminogen survival, but levels of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products were never measurably altered from normal values. The relationships among platelet and fibrinogen consumption, vascular changes, and dysbaric osteonecrosis were studied in hyperbaric swine. Consumption of hemostatic factors was most severe with rapid, uncontrolled decompression, low oxygen concentrations, and deeper or repetitive dives. Platelet consumption induced by hyperbaric exposure resolved spontaneously with time, suggesting a repair process after the simulated diving conditions were discontinued. Interruption of increased platelet and fibrinogen consumption in the swine model required either moderation of the dive profile or a combination of drugs that inhibit platelet function (dipyridamole or sudoxicam) together with an anticoagulant (warfarin or heparin). Repeated hyperbaric exposure under conditions that uniformly produced femoral osteonecrosis and consumption of platelets and fibrinogen was associated with detectable endothelial injury and arterial intimal lesion

  3. Development of white blood cell fragments, during the preparation and storage of platelet concentrates, as measured by using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M J; van der Schoot, C E; Pietersz, R N I; Huijgens, P C; van der Meer, P F; Reesink, H W

    2004-11-01

    White blood cell (WBC) fragments may cause human leucocyte antigen (HLA) immunization in recipients. We investigated the occurrence and production of WBC fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) and plasma units, during storage and filtration, by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry. To study the occurrence of WBC fragments, 'male' WBCs were spiked into double-filtered 'female' PCs in a concentration series of 0.03-100 WBCs/microl (n = 4 per level). To study the production of WBC fragments, 'male' WBCs were spiked into 'female' plasma units to 4 x 10(9) WBCs/l and stored at room temperature prior to filtration (n = 4 per storage time; t = 0, 24 or 48 h). DNA was measured by both albumin real-time PCR and Y real-time PCR. Intact WBCs were counted by using flow cytometry. The number of WBC fragments was calculated by subtracting cell-free DNA (real-time PCR on supernatant) and intact WBCs (flow cytometry) from the total DNA amount (real-time PCR). Spiking of 'male' WBCs into 'female' PCs showed that the Y real-time PCR is linear and has a reproducible quantitative range down to 0.03 WBC/microl, but that the albumin-PCR, in unspiked samples, revealed a total of 6-10 WBC equivalents/microl (eq/microl). After centrifugation, half of this was observed as cell-free DNA in the supernatant, suggesting that the remaining DNA is derived from WBC fragments. The number of intact WBCs, amount of cell-free DNA and number of WBC fragments after filtration increased significantly when filtration was delayed for up to 48 h, from 0.1 WBC/microl, 1.3 WBC eq/microl and 0.6 WBC eq/microl at t = 0 h to 25 WBC/microl, 38 WBC eq/microl and 57 WBC eq/microl at t = 48 h, respectively. WBC fragments occur in WBC-reduced PCs and increase when products are stored, prior to filtration, up to levels that are equivalent to the amounts of intact WBCs that induce HLA immunization (i.e. > 5 x 10(6)/unit).

  4. Dynamic light scattering can determine platelet function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet transfusions are life-saving procedures for patients who are bleeding or undergoing chemotherapy. The effectiveness of transfusions depends on the number of platelets transfused and the platelet function. Platelet function correlates with proportion of discoid to activated platelets, morphology response to temperature stress, and inversely correlates with microparticle content. ThromboLUX is a novel device that determines platelet function by measuring all of these characteristics using dynamic light scattering (DLS). During periods of stress, such as decreased temperature, cytoskeletal rearrangements will cause normal, discoid platelets to activate and become spiny spheres. The formation of pseudopods of various lengths facilitates the clotting cascade and also increases the apparent size of platelets. ThromboLUX uses a 37-20-37 C temperature cycle that mimics the bleeding, storage, and transfusion process. As the temperature fluctuates, DLS will measure the changing platelet hydrodynamic radius and the size of any microparticles present. ThromboLUX analysis of platelet concentrates in vitro would allow determination of high platelet function units before transfusion and would therefore improve transfusion outcomes and patient safety. This study examined how DLS is able to distinguish between discoid and activated platelets as well as measure the parameters that contribute to high platelet function.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma supplemented revascularization of an immature tooth associated with a periapical lesion in a 40-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The present case report is the first of its kind that documents the successful outcome of "revascularization," a regeneration-based treatment protocol in a mature adult patient. It belies the myth that "revascularization" should only be done in children and young, adolescent patients. The misconception that stem cells number as well as viability in older age group patients will not allow revascularization to be successful is also contradicted by this case. The paper highlights all the mechanisms that come into play and the enhancing of regenerative response by supplementation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

  6. Platelet fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Castaldi, P. A.; Caen, J.

    1965-01-01

    Platelet fibrinogen has been studied in normal, thrombasthenic, and hypofibrinogenaemic subjects. It has been differentiated into adsorbed (plasma) and extractable (intraplatelet) fractions. Isotopic studies suggest that exchange does not occur between intraplatelet and plasma fibrinogen and it appears possible that the intra-platelet fraction may be derived from the megakaryocyte. Six of nine thrombasthenic patients were found to have a severe deficiency of both adsorbed and extractable fibrinogen. Since the remaining three had near-normal platelet fibrinogen and all nine failed to aggregate it is improbable that the failure to adsorb fibrinogen is responsible for the defect in aggregation. Magnesium partially corrects adhesion to fibrin and clot retraction by these platelets, but has not been found to influence their fibrinogen adsorption. It is considered that the basic platelet surface defect, of varying severity, is responsible for the abnormalities of adsorption, aggregation, and adhesion in thrombasthenia. In the case of congenital hypofibrinogenaemia, fibrinogen transfusion corrects the long bleeding time, platelet-adsorbed fibrinogen, and the ability of platelets to spread on glass. It is possible that fibrinogen influences the surface properties of human platelets, although the final mechanism is not determined. Images PMID:5835438

  7. Osmotic stability of blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Fantl, P

    1968-09-01

    1. Hypotonic solutions added to human platelet-containing plasma cause a transient decrease of absorbancy of light at 610 mmu which is followed by a gradual increase of absorbancy.2. When platelets are stored for 7 hr at 4 degrees C the absorbancy changes with variations of osmolarity and their aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) remain the same. However, the reversal of absorbancy declines during storage of platelet-containing plasma.3. Platelets are not aggregated by stearate. Platelets appear to be only slightly affected by stearate concentration higher than 0.8 mM, but oleate has no effect.4. Hypertonic solutions of NaCl and urea cause increase in absorbancy of platelet-containing human plasma. Hypertonic sucrose solutions produce no more change than isotonic solutions. Hypertonic NaCl produces permanent increases in absorbancy. In human platelet-containing plasma the increased absorbancy caused by hypertonic urea is transient and declines.5. The osmotic platelet changes occur in isolated platelets as well as in platelet-containing plasma.6. The absorbancy of frozen and thawed platelet-containing plasma is not significantly altered by hypotonic solutions but the absorbancy changes caused by hypertonic solutions are similar to that of unfrozen plasma.7. The immediate absorbancy changes caused by hypo- and by hypertonic solutions are the same at 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C and are therefore probably of a physical nature. The reversal of absorbancy and aggregation of platelets by added adenosine diphosphate have Q(10) > 1 and are therefore probably of a chemical-enzymic nature.8. Divalent cations and contact activation are not required for the osmotic platelet changes and 10(-3)M-Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) do not interfere. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, electron transfer, sodium, potassium activated adenosine triphosphatases and adenosine triphosphate do not inhibit reversal of absorbancy of platelets exposed to hypotonic solutions. Cyanide, 5 x 10

  8. Osmotic stability of blood platelets

    PubMed Central

    Fantl, P.

    1968-01-01

    1. Hypotonic solutions added to human platelet-containing plasma cause a transient decrease of absorbancy of light at 610 mμ which is followed by a gradual increase of absorbancy. 2. When platelets are stored for 7 hr at 4° C the absorbancy changes with variations of osmolarity and their aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) remain the same. However, the reversal of absorbancy declines during storage of platelet-containing plasma. 3. Platelets are not aggregated by stearate. Platelets appear to be only slightly affected by stearate concentration higher than 0·8 mM, but oleate has no effect. 4. Hypertonic solutions of NaCl and urea cause increase in absorbancy of platelet-containing human plasma. Hypertonic sucrose solutions produce no more change than isotonic solutions. Hypertonic NaCl produces permanent increases in absorbancy. In human platelet-containing plasma the increased absorbancy caused by hypertonic urea is transient and declines. 5. The osmotic platelet changes occur in isolated platelets as well as in platelet-containing plasma. 6. The absorbancy of frozen and thawed platelet-containing plasma is not significantly altered by hypotonic solutions but the absorbancy changes caused by hypertonic solutions are similar to that of unfrozen plasma. 7. The immediate absorbancy changes caused by hypo- and by hypertonic solutions are the same at 5° C and 30° C and are therefore probably of a physical nature. The reversal of absorbancy and aggregation of platelets by added adenosine diphosphate have Q10 > 1 and are therefore probably of a chemical-enzymic nature. 8. Divalent cations and contact activation are not required for the osmotic platelet changes and 10-3 M-Cu2+ and Zn2+ do not interfere. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, electron transfer, sodium, potassium activated adenosine triphosphatases and adenosine triphosphate do not inhibit reversal of absorbancy of platelets exposed to hypotonic solutions. Cyanide, 5 × 10-3 M, fluoride, 1

  9. Assessment of quality of platelets preserved in plasma and platelet additive solution: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Munirah Binti; Hashim, Hasna Binti; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2016-01-01

    Background: A use of platelet additives solution (PAS) improves storage conditions so as to give increased shelf life to platelets and to maintain hemostatic function. Objective: The present study was aimed to compare in vitro quality of platelet rich plasma (PRP)-derived platelet concentrate (PC) during extended period of storage in plasma and in additive solution (Composol PS and Fresenius). Study Design: Randomized 19 PCs each were used in the study for plasma and PAS as the storage medium. The measurement parameters, including pH, total white blood cell (WBC) count, total platelet count, and platelet activation rate, were studied on day 1, day 5, and day 8 of the storage period. The sterility test was carried out on the eighth day of storage. Results: pH of PC suspended in PAS was significantly lower as compared to that in plasma (P < 0.001) for all the three days of sampling. The WBC count, both in plasma and in PAS, showed an acceptable values of being <0.2 Χ 109 /unit during the storage period. Platelet count in PAS was higher as compared to that in plasma, though it was not statistically significant. While both the groups showed increased platelet activation rate during the storage, the PCs suspended in PAS showed significantly higher platelet activation rate (p0.001). Results from sterility test showed no bacterial growth in the PCs in both the groups. Conclusion: Most parameters studied on platelet storage in suspending medium of native plasma and PAS remained well within the acceptable limits. However, the pH values and platelet activation rate significantly differed in PAS as compared with plasma. PMID:27011678

  10. Splenic release of platelets contributes to increased circulating platelet size and inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Li-Ping; Su, Yidan; Tsai, Alan; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Ming; Lambert, Gavin W; Kiriazis, Helen; Gao, Wei; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized by a rapid increase in circulating platelet size but the mechanism for this is unclear. Large platelets are hyperactive and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We determined mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-monocyte conjugation (PMC) using blood samples from patients, and blood and the spleen from mice with AMI. We further measured changes in platelet size, PMC, cardiac and splenic contents of platelets and leucocyte infiltration into the mouse heart. In AMI patients, circulating MPV and PMC increased at 1-3 h post-MI and MPV returned to reference levels within 24 h after admission. In mice with MI, increases in platelet size and PMC became evident within 12 h and were sustained up to 72 h. Splenic platelets are bigger than circulating platelets in normal or infarct mice. At 24 h post-MI, splenic platelet storage was halved whereas cardiac platelets increased by 4-fold. Splenectomy attenuated all changes observed in the blood, reduced leucocyte and platelet accumulation in the infarct myocardium, limited infarct size and alleviated cardiac dilatation and dysfunction. AMI-induced elevated circulating levels of adenosine diphosphate and catecholamines in both human and the mouse, which may trigger splenic platelet release. Pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme, β1-adrenergic receptor or platelet P2Y12 receptor reduced platelet abundance in the murine infarct myocardium albeit having diverse effects on platelet size and PMC. In conclusion, AMI evokes release of splenic platelets, which contributes to the increase in platelet size and PMC and facilitates myocardial accumulation of platelets and leucocytes, thereby promoting post-infarct inflammation.

  11. Comparison of the platelet-rich plasma and buffy coat protocols for preparation of canine platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Guillaume L; Jandrey, Karl E; Burges, Julie; Bremer, Daphne; Tablin, Fern

    2014-12-01

    Platelet (PLT) concentrates (PC) can be produced via the buffy coat (BC) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) protocols. The 2 methods have not been compared with canine blood. The aims of the study were to compare the PLT, WBC, and RBC concentrations, in vitro PLT function, and markers of platelet storage lesion (PSL) in canine PC generated by 2 different protocols, and determine microbial growth throughout storage. PC from 8 healthy donor dogs were produced using 2 standard protocols, PRP and BC. PLT, WBC, and RBC counts, optical aggregometry assays, and PSL markers (pH, pCO2 , HCO3 , lactate and glucose concentrations, and LDH activity) were determined on storage days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were also performed. Mean PLT counts were comparable between protocols and remained stable throughout storage up to day 7, while median WBC and RBC counts on day 0 were significantly higher in the BC-PC group (17,800 WBCs/μL; 195,000 RBCs/μL) than in the PRP-PC group (200 WBCs/μL; 10,000 RBCs/μL) (P = .012). In PRP-PC aggregometry, the median slope and amplitude in response to γ-thrombin and convulxin (+ ADP) were significantly decreased, and virtually absent in BC-PC during storage. PSL markers (lactate, LDH activity) were higher in BC-PC. Aerobic bacterial growth was observed in 2 PRP-PC and 1 BC-PC. This in vitro study suggests that PRP-PC had lesser WBC and RBC contamination and superior PLT function compared with BC-PC. In vivo studies are required to address safety and efficacy of PRP-PC. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Platelet Function in Basset Hound Hereditary Thrombopathy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Chrono -Lume. Thromb Res 32(5):509, 1983. Mills DCB. Platelet aggregation and the adenylate cyclase system. In Platelets and Thromosis, DCB Mills and FI ...44 Figure ATP release to varying ADP concentrations ............. 9 Chrono -Lume potentiation of aggregation...............l0 Platelet ATP release...hours of blood collection. Storage pool adenine nucleotide release was monitored using the Lumi- Aggregometer ( Chrono -Log Corp., Havertown, Pa

  13. PLATELET FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Thon, Jonathan N.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is the underlying cause of a number of major clinical conditions and genetic disorders worldwide. While therapeutic agents that bind and stimulate the thrombopoietin receptor are currently available, the development of drugs that directly stimulate megakaryocytes to generate platelets has lagged behind. To improve the management of thrombocytopenia, we will need to define the cell biological pathways that drive the production of platelets from megakaryocytes. This review integrates the latest research of platelet biogenesis and focuses on the molecular pathways that power and regulate proplatelet production. PMID:20620432

  14. The platelet defect in leukemia. Platelet ultrastructure, adenine nucleotide metabolism, and the release reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, D H; Graham, R C; Baunach, D

    1975-01-01

    The ultrastructure and adenine nucleotide metabolism of platelets from patients with acute leukemia were studied to elucidate possible mechanisms for the platelet dysfunction observed in this clinical setting. Nonstimulated (resting) platelets from leukemic patients varied greatly in size; exhibited marked variation in the number of alpha granules present per cell; had poorly delineated circumferential bands of microtubules; and often grossly dilated open channel systems or cytoplasmic vacuolization. The intracellular concentrations of ATP and ADP were significantly below normal, and the specific radioactivity of ATP and ADP of nonstimulated platelets in leukemia was equivalent to or exceeded that seen in stimulated normal platelets. Addition of ADP or collagen to platelets from leukemic patients was followed by retarded and incomplete shape change, delayed and incomplete centripetal migration of subcellular organelles, impaired degranulation, and the formation of loose aggregates composed of relatively few platelets. Stimulation of "leukemic" platelets with collagen led to the release of significantly subnormal amounts of ATP and ADP and no significant change in the specific radioactivity of the intracellular nucleotides. In contrast to the results in normal platelets, the conversion of ATP to inosine monophosphate and hypoxanthine in platelets in leukemia failed to increase significantly with collagen stimulation. The results indicate that abnormalities exist in the storage pool of adenine nucleotides and the release mechanism of platelets in acute leukemia. These defects appear to contribute to an impairment in the release reaction in these platelets. Many of the ultrastructural and metabolic defects seen in acute leukemia occur in platelets in preleukemia. Images PMID:45818

  15. Human platelets frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen: biological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Herve, P; Potron, G; Droule, C; Beduchaud, M P; Masse, M; Coffe, C; Bosset, J F; Peters, A

    1981-01-01

    Platelets were frozen using glycerol (3% in plasma) as a cryoprotective agent, a rapid cooling rate, and liquid nitrogen for storage. The cryopreserved platelets were thawed at 42 C and infused without washing. The results indicate that the quality of the thawed platelets is equivalent to platelets stored for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature. The availability of HLA phenotyped leukocyte poor platelets can reduce the frequency of sensitization to strong antigens and provide clinically effective platelets for alloimmunized patients.

  16. Cobalt hydroxide/oxide hexagonal ring-graphene hybrids through chemical etching of metal hydroxide platelets by graphene oxide: energy storage applications.

    PubMed

    Nethravathi, C; Rajamathi, Catherine R; Rajamathi, Michael; Wang, Xi; Gautam, Ujjal K; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-03-25

    The reaction of β-Co(OH)2 hexagonal platelets with graphite oxide in an aqueous colloidal dispersion results in the formation of β-Co(OH)2 hexagonal rings anchored to graphene oxide layers. The interaction between the basic hydroxide layers and the acidic groups on graphene oxide induces chemical etching of the hexagonal platelets, forming β-Co(OH)2 hexagonal rings. On heating in air or N2, the hydroxide hybrid is morphotactically converted to porous Co3O4/CoO hexagonal ring-graphene hybrids. Porous NiCo2O4 hexagonal ring-graphene hybrid is also obtained through a similar process starting from β-Ni0.33Co0.67(OH)2 platelets. As electrode materials for supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries, these materials exhibit a large capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  17. Platelet function, activation and apoptosis during and after apheresis.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Rania; Sayed, Douaa; Galal, Hanan; Shaker, Sanaa

    2010-10-01

    Platelets are known to undergo shape change, activation, release reaction and apoptosis/necrosis during processing and storage. Apheresis may have a deleterious impact on platelet achievability and functional integrity. Platelet concentrates from 50 male volunteers obtained by COBE spectra were screened for platelet activation (CD62 and CD154) and apoptosis (phosphatidylserine detected by Annexin V). Donor samples before separation, during apheresis and at the third day of storage were used as baseline donor samples. Platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the expression of activation markers in two different samples (during separation samples and third day samples). Although the increase in Annexin V expression was not so observable, it showed a significant increase also. There was marked decline in the platelet aggregation. The correlations between the values of CD62, CD154 and Annexin V were detected in baseline samples and increased during separation and at the third day of platelets storage. Correlation between values of platelet aggregation to collagen and Annexin V was relevant only in the baseline samples. No other correlations were encountered between platelet aggregation and markers of activation and apoptosis during apheresis and storage. Initial platelet activation induced by apheresis may have an impact on phosphatidylserine expression with no impact on aggregation function of platelets during storage.

  18. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  19. Aging of platelets stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Smethurst, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    A goal of platelet storage is to maintain the quality of platelets from the point of donation to the point of transfusion - to suspend the aging process. This effort is judged by clinical and laboratory measures with varying degrees of success. Recent work gives encouragement that platelets can be maintained ex vivo beyond the current 5 -7 day shelf life whilst maintaining their quality, as measured by posttransfusion recovery and survival. However, additional measures are needed to validate the development of technologies that may further reduce the aging of stored platelets, or enhance their hemostatic properties.

  20. Thermosensitive eyedrops containing platelet lysate for the treatment of corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Mori, Michela; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla

    2012-04-15

    Corneal lesions cause significant pain and visual impairment and, in many cases, are unresponsive to conventional treatments. Platelet lysate (PL) is an haemoderivative rich in growth factors (GFs) that are released by platelets after freeze-thawing destruction of platelet rich plasma (PRP). The aim of the present work was to develop thermosensitive and mucoadhesive eyedrops to maintain and prolong the contact of platelet lysate (PL) with cornea ulcers. A sterile vehicle based on chondroitin sulphate sodium (CS) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was developed. An extemporaneous loading of the vehicle with PL was performed and the obtained formulation was able to quickly thermogelify at about 32 °C and was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties. ELISA evidenced that the growth factor PDGF AB was compatible with the vehicle and stable in the formulation up to 15 days of storage at 2-8 °C. In vitro wound healing and proliferation test (performed using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCE)) showed that the formulation enhanced cell growth and put in evidence a synergistic effect of CS and PL in stimulating cell proliferation. The overall results indicate that PL loaded in thermosensitive and mucoadhesive eyedrops can be profitably employed to treat corneal lesions.

  1. The origin and function of platelet glycosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Patel-Hett, Sunita; Josefsson, Emma C.; Bennett, Eric P.; Italiano, Joseph E.; Clausen, Henrik; Hartwig, John H.; Hoffmeister, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are megakaryocyte subfragments that participate in hemostatic and host defense reactions and deliver pro- and antiangiogenic factors throughout the vascular system. Although they are anucleated cells that lack a complex secretory apparatus with distinct Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum compartments, past studies have shown that platelets have glycosyltransferase activities. In the present study, we show that members of 3 distinct glycosyltransferase families are found within and on the surface of platelets. Immunocytology and flow cytometry results indicated that megakaryocytes package these Golgi-derived glycosyltransferases into vesicles that are sent via proplatelets to nascent platelets, where they accumulate. These glycosyltransferases are active, and intact platelets glycosylate large exogenous substrates. Furthermore, we show that activation of platelets results in the release of soluble glycosyltransferase activities and that platelets contain sufficient levels of sugar nucleotides for detection of glycosylation of exogenously added substrates. Therefore, the results of the present study show that blood platelets are a rich source of both glycosyltransferases and donor sugar substrates that can be released to function in the extracellular space. This platelet-glycosylation machinery offers a pathway to a simple glycoengineering strategy improving storage of platelets and may serve hitherto unknown biologic functions. PMID:22613794

  2. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  3. Functional assessment of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after long-term storage at -20 °C without any preservation agent.

    PubMed

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Aslan, Cem; Isik, Daghan; Caliskan, Gorkem; Arslan, Banu; Durgun, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic wounds, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, and in cosmetic medicine; however, the preparation of platelet-rich plasma is both time-consuming and requires invasive intervention. Additional costs are introduced if special equipment is used during preparation. The aim of the present study is to test whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preserves the feature of growth factor release when stored at -20 °C after preparation. Autologous PRP concentrates were prepared using whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy subjects and divided into three parts to form three groups. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and P-Selectin levels were immediately analysed in the control group. The other groups were defined as the experimental groups and were stored at -20 °C and analysed on the 7th and the 14th days. The same growth factors were tested in the experimental groups. The growth factors (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β) and P-selectin levels were significantly decreased in the autologous PRP samples stored at -20 °C compared to the control group. The growth factor levels on days 7 and 14 suggest that autologous PRP can be stored at -20 °C without preservative agents, although in vivo studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the detected growth factor levels.

  4. Binding of activated platelets to WBCs in vivo after transfusion.

    PubMed

    Gutensohn, Kai; Geidel, Katja; Brockmann, Marc; Siemensen, Margaux; Krueger, William; Kroeger, Nico; Kuehnl, Peter

    2002-10-01

    During preparation and storage of apheresis concentrates, platelets are being activated. One of the alterations that occur during this process is an increased expression of P-selectin (CD62p) on the cytoplasmic surface of platelets. This neoepitope represents a ligand for the binding of platelets to WBCs. It has been suggested that the activation of platelets is associated with the sequestration of platelets after transfusion. In this in vivo study, the binding of platelets to WBCs was analyzed following transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs). Double apheresis concentrates were prepared with two different cell separators. One of the split products was stored for 1 to 2 days and the other one for 3 to 5 days. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze the degree of platelet activation in vitro, and also to measure the extent of platelet binding to WBC subclasses in vivo after transfusion into patients. The results of this study show that platelet activation occurs during apheresis and storage of PCs. After transfusion of the PCs, no significant binding of platelets to T or B-cells could be detected. However, a significant binding of platelets to monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes occurs. While in Baxter PCs stored for 1-2 days the amount of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in vivo was higher compared to COBE PCs, no such difference could be detected anymore for the PCs stored for 3-5 days. This study demonstrates that binding of activated platelets occurs to monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes but not to T- and B-cells in the circulation after transfusion. In addition, the interaction of platelets and WBCs is dependent on the degree of P-selectin expression. Platelets showing a higher degree of activation adhere to WBCs to a higher degree than nonactivated platelets.

  5. Modified expression of surface glyconjugates in stored human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, A.; Ganguly, P.

    1987-05-01

    Platelets are anucleated cells which play an important part in blood coagulation and thrombosis. These cells may be stored in the blood bank for only 4/5 days. In order to improve the storage of platelets, it is essential to first understand the changes in these cells due to storage. In this work, human platelets were stored in autologous plasma at 4/sup 0/ or 22/sup 0/ and their surface changes were monitored with three lectins - wheat germ afflutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LL). Blood was drawn from healthy donors and platelet rich plasma (PRP) was collected by slow speed centrifugation. Platelets stored at either temperature for different times showed increased sensitivity to agglutination by WGA after 34-48 hrs. Lectins, Con A and LL, which were not agglutinating to fresh platelets readily caused agglutination after 48-72 hrs. The platelets stored for 25 hrs or longer period were insensitive to thrombin but showed enhanced aggregation with WGA. Labelling of surface glycoconjugates of stored platelets with /sup 3/H-boro-hydride revealed progressive loss of a glycoprotein of Mr 150,000 (GPIb infinity) together with the appearance of components of Mr 69,000; Mr 60,000; Mr 25,000. New high molecular weight glycoproteins were also detected only in stored platelets. The author studies clearly indicate that modification or altered expression of platelets surface glycoproteins may be one factor of storage related dysfunction of platelets.

  6. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH IRON STORAGE DISEASE IN CAPTIVE EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS).

    PubMed

    Leone, Angelique M; Crawshaw, Graham J; Garner, Michael M; Frasca, Salvatore; Stasiak, Iga; Rose, Karrie; Neal, Dan; Farina, Lisa L

    2016-03-01

    Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) are one of many species within zoologic collections that frequently develop iron storage disease. The goals of this retrospective multi-institutional study were to determine the tissue distribution of iron storage in captive adult Egyptian fruit bats and the incidence of intercurrent neoplasia and infection, which may be directly or indirectly related to iron overload. Tissue sections from 83 adult Egyptian fruit bats were histologically evaluated by using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and Prussian blue techniques. The liver and spleen consistently had the largest amount of iron, but significant amounts of iron were also detected in the pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, and lung. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 11) was the most common neoplasm, followed by cholangiocarcinoma (4). Extrahepatic neoplasms included bronchioloalveolar adenoma (3), pulmonary carcinosarcoma (1), oral sarcoma (1), renal adenocarcinoma (1), transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (1), mammary gland adenoma (1), and parathyroid adenoma (1). There were also metastatic neoplasms of undetermined primary origin that included three poorly differentiated carcinomas, a poorly differentiated sarcoma, and a neuroendocrine tumor. Bats with hemochromatosis were significantly more likely to have HCC than bats with hemosiderosis (P = 0.032). Cardiomyopathy was identified in 35/77 bats with evaluable heart tissue, but no direct association was found between cardiac damage and the amount of iron observed within the liver or heart. Hepatic abscesses occurred in multiple bats, although a significant association was not observed between hemochromatosis and bacterial infection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first publication providing evidence of a positive correlation between hemochromatosis and HCC in any species other than humans.

  7. Mildly oxidized HDL decrease agonist-induced platelet aggregation and release of pro-coagulant platelet extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tafelmeier, M; Fischer, A; Orsó, E; Konovalova, T; Böttcher, A; Liebisch, G; Matysik, S; Schmitz, G

    2017-05-01

    Stored platelet concentrates (PLCs) for therapeutic purpose, develop a platelet storage lesion (PSL), characterized by impaired platelet (PLT) viability and function, platelet extracellular vesicle (PL-EV) release and profound lipidomic changes. Whereas oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) activates PLTs and promotes atherosclerosis, effects linked to oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) are poorly characterized. PLCs from blood donors were treated with native (nHDL) or mildly oxidized HDL (moxHDL) for 5days under blood banking conditions. Flow cytometry, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), aggregometry, immunoblot analysis and mass spectrometry were carried out to analyze PL-EV and platelet exosomes (PL-EX) release, PLT aggregation, protein expression, and PLT and plasma lipid composition. In comparison to total nHDL, moxHDL significantly decreased PL-EV release by -36% after 5days of PLT storage and partially reversed agonist-induced PLT aggregation. PL-EV release positively correlated with PLT aggregation. MoxHDL improved PLT membrane lipid homeostasis through enhanced uptake of lysophospholipids and their remodeling to corresponding phospholipid species. This also appeared for sphingomyelin (SM) and d18:0/d18:1 sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) at the expense of ceramide (Cer) and hexosylceramide (HexCer) leading to reduced Cer/S1P ratio as PLT-viability indicator. This membrane remodeling was associated with increased content of CD36 and maturation of scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1) protein in secreted PL-EVs. MoxHDL, more potently than nHDL, improves PLT-membrane lipid homeostasis, partially antagonizes PL-EV release and agonist-induced PLT aggregation. Altogether, this may be the result of more efficient phospho- and sphingolipid remodeling mediated by CD36 and SR-B1 in the absence of ABCA1 on PLTs. As in vitro supplement in PLCs, moxHDL has the potential to improve PLC quality and to prolong storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of discontinuation of 7-day storage of apheresis platelets (PASSPORT) on recipient safety: an illustration of the need for proper risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; Dumont, Larry J; Tomasulo, Peter; Bianco, Celso; Katz, Louis; Benjamin, Richard J; Gajic, Ognjen; Brecher, Mark E

    2009-05-01

    Seven-day stored apheresis platelets (APs) were withdrawn from the US market after detection of two culture-positive units from 2571 tested at outdate in the PASSPORT surveillance study. The impact of this discontinuation on recipient safety was explored using mathematical modeling. Risk models for septic transfusion reactions (STRs) and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were developed. Key assumptions were 400,000 annual APs transfused, equivalent STR risk for platelets (PLTs) stored for 5 days or more and zero for PLTs stored for less than 5 days, whole blood-derived PLTs (WBplts) administered in 5-unit pools, a 4.6-fold higher risk of false-negatives with surrogate versus culture-based bacterial testing, an AP TRALI risk between 1 per 1000 and 1 per 10,000, and a delay in TRALI risk reduction implementation in some centers by 6 to 12 months due to limited PLT availability. STR risk could increase, decrease, or remain the same depending on the percentage of inventory replaced by surrogate-tested WBplts versus culture-tested apheresis or whole blood PLTs. A delay in TRALI risk reduction implementation is likely to result in a comparable or greater risk during the delayed implementation period than the safety achieved with regard to STRs, even in the most favorable case scenario. A comprehensive risk assessment should have been conducted before the decision to discontinue PASSPORT. Risk assessments using accepted methods (and actual data when available) should precede any major blood safety decisions.

  9. [Glycoproteins, inherited diseases of platelets, and the role of platelets in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita

    2013-02-01

    Recognition that platelets have a glycocalyx rich in membrane glycoproteins prompted the discovery in France that inherited bleeding syndromes due to defects of platelet adhesion and aggregation were caused by deficiencies in major receptors at the platelet surface. Identification of the alpha IIb beta3 integrin prompted the development of powerful anti-thrombotic drugs that have gained worldwide use. Since these discoveries, the genetic causes of many other defects of platelet function and production have been elucidated, with the identification of an ADP receptor, P2 Y12, another widespread target for anti-thrombotic drugs. Discovery of the molecular basis of a rare disease of storage of biologically active proteins in platelet alpha-granules has been accompanied by the recognition of the roles of platelets in inflammation, the innate immune system and tissue repair, opening new avenues for therapeutic advances.

  10. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B; Weitz, David A; Italiano, Joseph E

    2014-09-18

    Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition,micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs.

  11. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L.; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R.; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B.; Weitz, David A.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition, micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25606631

  12. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003552.htm Platelet-associated antibodies blood test To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a ...

  13. Improving platelet transfusion safety: biomedical and technical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Chavarin, Patricia; Laperche, Syria; Morel, Pascal; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Pozzetto, Bruno; Lozano, Miguel; Blumberg, Neil; Osselaer, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Platelet concentrates account for near 10% of all labile blood components but are responsible for more than 25% of the reported adverse events. Besides factors related to patients themselves, who may be particularly at risk of side effects because of their underlying illness, there are aspects of platelet collection and storage that predispose to adverse events. Platelets for transfusion are strongly activated by collection through disposal equipment, which can stress the cells, and by preservation at 22 °C with rotation or rocking, which likewise leads to platelet activation, perhaps more so than storage at 4 °C. Lastly, platelets constitutively possess a very large number of bioactive components that may elicit pro-inflammatory reactions when infused into a patient. This review aims to describe approaches that may be crucial to minimising side effects while optimising safety and quality. We suggest that platelet transfusion is complex, in part because of the complexity of the “material” itself: platelets are highly versatile cells and the transfusion process adds a myriad of variables that present many challenges for preserving basal platelet function and preventing dysfunctional activation of the platelets. The review also presents information showing - after years of exhaustive haemovigilance - that whole blood buffy coat pooled platelet components are extremely safe compared to the gold standard (i.e. apheresis platelet components), both in terms of acquired infections and of immunological/inflammatory hazards. PMID:26674828

  14. Evaluation of in vitro storage properties of apheresis platelets suspended in a bicarbonate-containing additive solution with low levels of plasma and stored with a 24-hour interruption of agitation.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, A; Turgeon, A; Thompson-Montgomery, D; Awatefe, H; Wagner, S J

    2014-05-01

    PLT additive solutions (PAS) are useful for reducing the frequency and/or severity of plasma-associated transfusion reactions. A new PAS solution, PAS-5, containing 5% plasma, maintains in vitro PLT properties during 7-day storage. Periods with interruption of agitation (IA) ≤24 h routinely occur during PLT shipment and do not usually compromise platelet quality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the properties of PLTs stored for 7 days in 95% PAS-5/5% plasma subjected to a 24-h IA. Double apheresis Amicus units (n = 12) were collected using a manual PAS-5 addition to hyperconcentrated PLTs. PLT units were equally divided in two containers. Control and test PLTs were stored with continuous agitation at 20-24°C except for 24-h IA period for test units between days 2-3. During storage, levels of glucose, lactate, mitochondrial membrane potential and aggregation significantly differed in test units compared to those of control. The pH levels of test PLTs were less than those of control units with 7/12 test units having pHs <6·2 on Day 7 compared to 1/12 control units. Morphology score, GP1bα expression, ESC values, superoxide production were also less, and activation was greater in test PLTs than those of control. All other parameters were similar between test and control units. PLTs stored in PAS-5 solution containing 5% plasma with a 24-h IA results in marked decrements in many in vitro PLT quality parameters during 7-day storage. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Blood platelet kinetics and platelet transfusion.

    PubMed

    Aster, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of citrate anticoagulant in the 1920s and the development of plastic packs for blood collection in the 1960s laid the groundwork for platelet transfusion therapy on a scale not previously possible. A major limitation, however, was the finding that platelet concentrates prepared from blood anticoagulated with citrate were unsuitable for transfusion because of platelet clumping. We found that this could be prevented by simply reducing the pH of platelet-rich plasma to about 6.5 prior to centrifugation. We used this approach to characterize platelet kinetics and sites of platelet sequestration in normal and pathologic states and to define the influence of variables such as anticoagulant and ABO incompatibility on post-transfusion platelet recovery. The "acidification" approach enabled much wider use of platelet transfusion therapy until alternative means of producing concentrates suitable for transfusion became available.

  16. Blood platelet kinetics and platelet transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of citrate anticoagulant in the 1920s and the development of plastic packs for blood collection in the 1960s laid the groundwork for platelet transfusion therapy on a scale not previously possible. A major limitation, however, was the finding that platelet concentrates prepared from blood anticoagulated with citrate were unsuitable for transfusion because of platelet clumping. We found that this could be prevented by simply reducing the pH of platelet-rich plasma to about 6.5 prior to centrifugation. We used this approach to characterize platelet kinetics and sites of platelet sequestration in normal and pathologic states and to define the influence of variables such as anticoagulant and ABO incompatibility on post-transfusion platelet recovery. The “acidification” approach enabled much wider use of platelet transfusion therapy until alternative means of producing concentrates suitable for transfusion became available. PMID:24177466

  17. Hereditary sideroblastic anemia with associated platelet abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soslau, G; Brodsky, I

    1989-12-01

    A 62 year old male (R.H.) presented with a mild anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) and a history of multiple hemorrhagic episodes. The marrow had 40-50% sideroblasts. Marrow chromosomes were normal. His wife was hematologically normal, while one daughter, age 30 years, had a sideroblastic anemia (Hb 11-12 gm%) with 40-50% sideroblasts in the marrow. Her anemia was first noted at age 15 years. Administration of vitamin B6 did not correct the anemia in either the father or daughter. Platelet abnormalities inherited jointly with this disorder are described for the first time. Both R.H. and his daughter had prolonged bleeding times, with normal PTT, PT times, fVIII:C, fVIII:Ag levels, and vWF multimers, which may rule out a von Willebrand's disease. They have normal platelet numbers but abnormally low platelet adhesiveness and greatly depressed ADP, collagen, and epinephrine responsiveness. Response to ristocetin was in the low normal range, and aggregation with thrombin was normal. While desmopressin completely normalized R.H.'s bleeding time, none of these platelet parameters were improved. No differences in the SDS PAGE protein patterns of RH platelets could be detected in comparison to normal samples. His platelets took up and released serotonin (5HT) normally, and electron micrographs defined no morphological abnormalities. However, no ATP was released from platelets activated with collagen, and when followed by thrombin about fourfold greater ATP was released by control platelets as compared to RH platelets. The dense granule fraction derived from RH platelets contained about 20% the level of ATP, 40% the level of ADP, and 50% the level of 5HT detected in a normal sample. The results indicate that the bleeding disorder is related to a non-classical heritable storage pool defect. The connection between the inherited sideroblastic anemia and platelet defects is obscure.

  18. Microfluidic Flow Chambers Using Reconstituted Blood to Model Hemostasis and Platelet Transfusion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Van Aelst, Britt; Feys, Hendrik B; Devloo, Rosalie; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle

    2016-03-19

    Blood platelets prepared for transfusion gradually lose hemostatic function during storage. Platelet function can be investigated using a variety of (indirect) in vitro experiments, but none of these is as comprehensive as microfluidic flow chambers. In this protocol, the reconstitution of thrombocytopenic fresh blood with stored blood bank platelets is used to simulate platelet transfusion. Next, the reconstituted sample is perfused in microfluidic flow chambers which mimic hemostasis on exposed subendothelial matrix proteins. Effects of blood donation, transport, component separation, storage and pathogen inactivation can be measured in paired experimental designs. This allows reliable comparison of the impact every manipulation in blood component preparation has on hemostasis. Our results demonstrate the impact of temperature cycling, shear rates, platelet concentration and storage duration on platelet function. In conclusion, this protocol analyzes the function of blood bank platelets and this ultimately aids in optimization of the processing chain including phlebotomy, transport, component preparation, storage and transfusion.

  19. The role of platelets and megakaryocytes in bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Raphael; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Blood platelets have been known for more than a century as important partners for successful metastatic dissemination of solid tumors. Cancer cell-induced platelet activation is a key event responsible for prometastatic activity of platelets. Blocking platelet aggregation inhibits the progression of skeletal metastases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. The establishment and progression of bone metastases are strongly influenced by the bone remodeling process. Growth factors and cytokines released upon platelet activation may contribute to both skeletal tumor growth and osteolytic lesions. Megakaryocytes are platelet precursors located in the bone marrow that control bone mass through direct stimulation of osteoblast functions and indirect inhibition of osteoclast activities. Considering growing evidence for their role in the metastatic cascade, platelets and/or megakaryocytes may provide new therapeutic opportunities to help limit bone metastases.

  20. Pooled platelet concentrates: an alternative to single donor apheresis platelets?

    PubMed

    Pietersz, R N I

    2009-10-01

    Three types of platelet concentrates (PC) are compared: PC either processed with the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or the Buffy coat (BC) method from whole blood units and PC obtained by apheresis. Leuko-reduction (LR) pre-storage is advocated to improve quality of the PC during storage and reduce adverse reactions in recipients. Standardization of methods allow preparation of PC with comparable yields of approximately 400 x 10(9) platelets in pooled non-LR-PRP, approximately 370 x 10(9) in pooled LR-BC-PC and in LR apheresis PC the number of platelets can be targeted on 350 x 10(9) or more with devices of various manufacturers. While viral transmission can be prevented by outstanding laboratory tests, the risk of bacterial contamination should be reduced by improved arm disinfection, deviation of the first 20-30 ml of blood and culture or rapid detection assays of the PC pre-issue. In a large prospective multicenter trial no significant difference was observed between cultures of apheresis PC (n = 15,198): 0.09% confirmed positive units versus 0.06% in pooled BC-PC (n = 37,045), respectively. Though platelet activation as measured by CD62 expression may differ in vitro in PC obtained with various apheresis equipment, and also between PC processed with the two whole blood methods there is scarce literature about the clinical impact of these findings. In conclusion the final products of LR-PC derived from whole blood or obtained by apheresis can be comparable, provided the critical steps of the processing method are identified and covered and the process is in control.

  1. The Medich giant platelet syndrome: two new cases.

    PubMed

    Gunning, William; Dole, Mukund; Brecher, Martin; White, James G

    2013-01-01

    Hypogranular platelet disorders in human subjects are relatively rare. They include the gray platelet syndrome, αδ storage pool deficiency, the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and the white platelet syndrome. Perhaps the rarest of them all is the Medich giant platelet disorder. No additional cases of this condition have been reported since description of the first case in 2004. This study describes two children with thrombocytopenia and giant, hypogranular platelets found shortly after birth. Electron microscopic study of their platelets revealed sheets of membrane wrapped into tubes resembling scrolls. The scroll-like structures were open at both ends and often filled with glycogen particles. The abnormal structures are identical to those found in the initial case. As a result, the disorder can now be referred to as the Medich giant platelet syndrome.

  2. Multiwavelength UV/visible spectroscopy for the quantitative investigation of platelet quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattley, Yvette D.; Leparc, German F.; Potter, Robert L.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    1998-04-01

    The quality of platelets transfused is vital to the effectiveness of the transfusion. Freshly prepared, discoid platelets are the most effective treatment for preventing spontaneous hemorrhage or for stopping an abnormal bleeding event. Current methodology for the routine testing of platelet quality involves random pH testing of platelet rich plasma and visual inspection of platelet rich plasma for a swirling pattern indicative of the discoid shape of the cells. The drawback to these methods is that they do not provide a quantitative and objective assay for platelet functionality that can be used on each platelet unit prior to transfusion. As part of a larger project aimed at characterizing whole blood and blood components with multiwavelength UV/vis spectroscopy, isolated platelets and platelet in platelet rich plasma have been investigated. Models based on Mie theory have been developed which allow for the extraction of quantitative information on platelet size, number and quality from multi-wavelength UV/vis spectra. These models have been used to quantify changes in platelet rich plasma during storage. The overall goal of this work is to develop a simple, rapid quantitative assay for platelet quality that can be used prior to platelet transfusion to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment. As a result of this work, the optical properties for isolated platelets, platelet rich plasma and leukodepleted platelet rich plasma have been determined.

  3. Human Platelet Senescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-30

    electrophoresis platelet subpopulations membranes enrichment of platelet collections with miigathrombocytes 20. A DST RAC T (Cpntinue on reverse&. "~gaU...label which enters megakaryocytes but not peripheral blood platelets. Platelets re- leased from the bone marrow however, do contain the isotope . With...their own platelet-rich plasma (anticoagulated with ACD-A) at 800 RP’M) 1200 RPM, 1600 RPM, 1800 RPM and 2000 RPM in a Sorvall RC3 Centrifugue . The

  4. [In vitro platelet production].

    PubMed

    Dunois-Lardé, C; Baruch, D

    2011-04-01

    This review aims at presenting a state of the art on platelet functions, not only in well-characterized hemostasis and thrombosis, but also in various domains such as inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, source of growth factors, metastasis and vascular remodelling. This multivalent phenotype of platelets suggests new potential applications of platelets. The second objective is to present new advances in platelet formation from megakaryocytes and direct platelet release, as initially shown by our group and more recently by others.

  5. Automated cold temperature cycling improves in vitro platelet properties and in vivo recovery in a mouse model compared to continuous cold storage.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Gelderman, Monique P; Awatefe, Helen; Turgeon, Annette; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Cheng, Chunrong; Vostal, Jaroslav G; Wagner, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Platelets (PLTs) stored at cold temperatures (CTs) for prolonged time have dramatically reduced bacterial growth but poor survival when infused. A previous study demonstrated that human PLTs stored with manual cycling between 4 °C (12 hr) and 37 °C (30 min) and infused into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice had survivals similar to or greater than those stored at room temperature (RT). In this study, the in vitro and in vivo properties of PLTs stored in an automated incubator programmed to cycle between 5 °C (11 hr) and 37 °C (1 hr) were evaluated. A Trima apheresis unit (n = 12) was aliquoted (60 mL) in CLX bags. One sample was stored with continuous agitation (RT), a second sample was stored at 4-6 °C without agitation (CT), and a third sample was placed in an automated temperature cycler with 5 minutes of agitation during the warm-up period (thermocycling [TC]). PLTs were assayed for several relevant quality variables. On Day 7, PLTs were infused into SCID mice and in vivo recovery was assessed at predetermined time points after transfusion. The glucose consumption rate, morphology score, hypotonic shock recovery level, and aggregation levels were increased and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulations were decreased in TC-PLTs compared to those of CT-PLTs. The pH and Annexin V binding were comparable to those of RT-PLTs. All TC-PLTs had greater recovery than CT-PLTs and were comparable to RT-PLTs. PLTs stored under automated TC conditions have improved in vivo recovery and improved results for a number of in vitro measures compared to CT-PLTs. © 2015 AABB.

  6. Platelets: cell proliferation and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ross, R

    1979-04-01

    Intimal smooth muscle proliferation is the hallmark of the lesions of atherosclerosis. Endothelial injury is postulated to precede this intimal smooth muscle proliferative response, which is mediated by a potent mitogenic factor derived from adherence, aggregation, and release by platelets at sites of endothelial injury. Smooth muscle proliferation is accompanied by varying amounts of connective tissue formation and intracellular and extracellular lipid deposition, dependent upon the risk factors encountered in each patient. The platelet-derived mitogen (PF) is a stable, cationic, relatively low molecular weight (10,000-30,000) protein that has been partially purified by ion exchange chromotography and gel filtration. Less than 100 ng of PF/ml culture medium can stimulate sparse 3T3 cells or smooth muscle cells, but not endothelial cells, to undergo multiple cell divisions in the presence of 5% cell-free, plasma-derived serum. The latter contains no mitogenic activity. The interaction of the platelet mitogen and plasma-derived components, including lipoproteins, plays a critical role in smooth muscle proliferation in vitro and in vivo in the induction of the lesions of atherosclerosis.

  7. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  8. Effect of Mirasol pathogen reduction technology system on in vitro quality of MCS+ apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Maria Adele; Llohn, Abid Hussain; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın; Skogheim, Ruby; Ødegaard, Elna Rathe; Nybruket, Monica Jenssen; Flesland, Annika; Mousavi, Seyed Ali

    2013-10-01

    Reducing the risk of pathogen transmission to transfusion recipients is one of the great concerns in transfusion medicine. Important among the measures suggested to minimise pathogen transmission is pathogen reduction technology (PRT) systems. The present study examined the effects of Mirasol PRT system on MCS+ apheresis platelets in vitro quality measures during a seven-day storage period at 22°C. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in platelet concentrations between the control and treated platelet concentrates (PCs) during the storage period. Glucose and lactate levels were measured to determine metabolic activities of control and treated platelets. In both control and treated platelets, the amount of glucose consumed and lactate produced increased significantly with storage time, but glucose consumption and lactate production rates were significantly higher in treated platelets compared with control platelets. The mean pH of treated PCs was decreased at all time points relative to control PCs but remained within acceptable limits. The expression of P-selectin was also higher in Mirasol PRT treated platelets throughout the storage period, but differences were not statistically significant on Days 1 and 4. Finally, visual inspection of swirling indicated that Mirasol PRT treatment of platelets is associated with platelet shape change. Overall, our results show that MCS+ apheresis platelets treated with Mirasol PRT can preserve adequate in vitro properties for at least 5 days of storage.

  9. Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 3 in Ashkenazi Jews and Other Non–Puerto Rican Patients with Hypopigmentation and Platelet Storage-Pool Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huizing, Marjan; Anikster, Yair; Fitzpatrick, Diana L.; Jeong, Anna B.; D’Souza, Maria; Rausche, Melanie; Toro, Jorge R.; Kaiser-Kupfer, Muriel I.; White, James G.; Gahl, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), consisting of oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis due to the absence of platelet dense granules, displays extensive locus heterogeneity. HPS1 mutations cause HPS-1 disease, and ADTB3A mutations cause HPS-2 disease, which is known to involve abnormal intracellular vesicle formation. A third HPS-causing gene, HPS3, was recently identified on the basis of homozygosity mapping of a genetic isolate of HPS in central Puerto Rico. We now describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of eight patients with HPS-3 who are of non–Puerto Rican heritage. Five are Ashkenazi Jews; three of these are homozygous for a 1303+1G→A splice-site mutation that causes skipping of exon 5, deleting an RsaI restriction site and decreasing the amounts of mRNA found on northern blotting. The other two are heterozygous for the 1303+1G→A mutation and for either an 1831+2T→G or a 2621-2A→G splicing mutation. Of 235 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, one was heterozygous for the 1303+1G→A mutation. One seven-year-old boy of German/Swiss extraction was compound heterozygous for a 2729+1G→C mutation, causing skipping of exon 14, and resulting in a C1329T missense (R396W), with decreased mRNA production. A 15-year-old Irish/English boy was heterozygous for an 89-bp insertion between exons 16 and 17 resulting from abnormal splicing; his fibroblast HPS3 mRNA is normal in amount but is increased in size. A 12-year-old girl of Puerto Rican and Italian background has the 3,904-bp founder deletion from central Puerto Rico on one allele. All eight patients have mild symptoms of HPS; two Jewish patients had received the diagnosis of ocular, rather than oculocutaneous, albinism. These findings expand the molecular diagnosis of HPS, provide a screening method for a mutation common among Jews, and suggest that other patients with mild hypopigmentation and decreased vision should be examined for HPS. PMID:11590544

  10. Loss of 111Indium as indicator of platelet injury

    SciTech Connect

    Joist, J.H.; Baker, R.K.

    1981-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that platelets can be labeled with 111Inoxine with high labeling efficiency and that 111In is not liberated from labeled platelets during the platelet release reaction or prolonged in vitro storage. In view of these findings, we examined the potential usefulness of loss of 111In from labeled platelets as an indicator of platelet damage by comparing the loss of 111In with that of 51Cr and LDH (in some experiments also with platelet factor 3 availability) under different conditions of platelet injury. When washed human platelets labeled with either 51Cr-chromate or 111In-oxine were exposed to increasing concentrations of detergents (Triton X-100, lysolecithin), threshold, rate, and extent of loss of 111In, 51Cr and, LDH were similar. In contrast, when labeled platelets were depleted of metabolic energy by incubation in glucose-free Tyrode albumin solution or glucose-depleted plasma in the presence of antimycin A and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, loss of 51Cr (and PF3a) occurred earlier and progressed at a faster rate than that of 111In or LDH. Similar results were obtained when platelets were exposed to increasing concentrations of PlA1 antibody, causing complement-mediated immune injury. The findings indicate that with certain agents that cause rapid platelet disruption (lysis), different platelet constituents are lost at similar rates. However, under conditions of more subtle or slowly progressive platelet injury, small molecules such as adenine nucleotides (51Cr) may escape earlier and at faster rates than larger molecules such as LDH or 111In-binding platelet protein. Thus, neither 111In loss nor LDH loss appear to be suitable indicators for sublytic or prelytic platelet injury.

  11. Platelet CD40L mediates thrombotic and inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Dirk; Zernecke, Alma; Seijkens, Tom; Soehnlein, Oliver; Beckers, Linda; Munnix, Imke C. A.; Wijnands, Erwin; Goossens, Pieter; van Kruchten, Roger; Thevissen, Larissa; Boon, Louis; Flavell, Richard A.; Noelle, Randolph J.; Gerdes, Norbert; Biessen, Erik A.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Weber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40L), identified as a costimulatory molecule expressed on T cells, is also expressed and functional on platelets. We investigated the thrombotic and inflammatory contributions of platelet CD40L in atherosclerosis. Although CD40L-deficient (Cd40l−/−) platelets exhibited impaired platelet aggregation and thrombus stability, the effects of platelet CD40L on inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis were more remarkable. Repeated injections of activated Cd40l−/− platelets into Apoe−/− mice strongly decreased both platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and decreased plasma CCL2 levels compared with wild-type platelets. Moreover, Cd40l−/− platelets failed to form proinflammatory platelet-leukocyte aggregates. Expression of CD40L on platelets was required for platelet-induced atherosclerosis as injection of Cd40l−/− platelets in contrast to Cd40l+/+ platelets did not promote lesion formation. Remarkably, injection of Cd40l+/+, but not Cd40l−/−, platelets transiently decreased the amount of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in blood and spleen. Depletion of Tregs in mice injected with activated Cd40l−/− platelets abrogated the athero-protective effect, indicating that CD40L on platelets mediates the reduction of Tregs leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. We conclude that platelet CD40L plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, not only by affecting platelet-platelet interactions but especially by activating leukocytes, thereby increasing platelet-leukocyte and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. PMID:20705757

  12. Redox Proteomics and Platelet Activation: Understanding the Redox Proteome to Improve Platelet Quality for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Giona; Abonnenc, Mélanie; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Blood banks use pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies to increase the safety of platelet concentrates (PCs). The characteristics of PI-treated PCs slightly differ from those of untreated PCs, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. One possible cause is the generation of oxidative stress during the PI process. This is of great interest since reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as second messengers in platelet functions. Furthermore, there are links between protein oxidation and phosphorylation, another mechanism that is critical for cell regulation. Current research efforts focus on understanding the underlying mechanisms and identifying new target proteins. Proteomics technologies represent powerful tools for investigating signaling pathways involving ROS and post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, while quantitative techniques enable the comparison of the platelet resting state versus the stimulated state. In particular, redox cysteine is a key player in platelet activation upon stimulation by different agonists. This review highlights the experiments that have provided insights into the roles of ROS in platelet function and the implications for platelet transfusion, and potentially in diseases such as inflammation and platelet hyperactivity. The review also describes the implication of redox mechanism in platelet storage considerations. PMID:28208668

  13. Clinical application of radiolabelled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents papers on the clinical applications of radiolabelled platelets. The papers are grouped into six sections on platelet labelling techniques, radiolabelled platelets in cardiology, monitoring of antiplatelet therapy, platelet scintigraphy in stroke patients, platelet scintigraphy in angiology, and platelet scintigraphy in hematology and other clinical applications, including renal transplant rejection.

  14. Platelet-mimetic strategies for modulating the wound environment and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Platelets closely interface with the immune system to fight pathogens, target wound sites, and regulate tissue repair. Natural platelet levels within the body can be depleted for a variety of reasons, including excessive bleeding following traumatic injury, or diseases such as cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Platelet transfusions are commonly used to improve platelet count and hemostatic function in these cases, but transfusions can be complicated by the contamination risks and short storage life of donated platelets. Lyophilized platelets that can be freeze-dried and stored for longer periods of time and synthetic platelet-mimetic technologies that can enhance or replace the functions of natural platelets, while minimizing adverse immune responses have been explored as alternatives to transfusion. Synthetic platelets typically comprise nanoparticles surface-decorated with peptides or ligands to recreate specific biological characteristics of platelets, including targeting of wound and disease sites and facilitating platelet aggregation. Recent efforts in synthetic platelet design have additionally focused on matching platelet shape and mechanics to recreate the marginalization and clot contraction capabilities of natural platelets. The ability to specifically tune the properties of synthetic platelet-mimetic materials has shown utility in a variety of applications including hemostasis, drug delivery, and targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics. PMID:27190260

  15. Platelet function testing in hirudin and BAPA anticoagulated blood.

    PubMed

    Mani, Helen; Hellis, Mirna; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2011-03-01

    Sodium citrate is the most commonly used anticoagulant for platelet function testing. However, the use of citrated blood for platelet function analysis has been criticized due to creation of a non-physiological milieu. Moreover, platelet function measurements performed with citrated blood need to be completed within 4 h after blood collection. Alternatively, hirudin and recently, a dual thrombin/factor Xa inhibitor benzylsulfonyl-D-Arg-Pro-4-amidinobenzylamide (BAPA), can be used to improve the reactivity after prolonged storage of platelets. The present study investigated platelet function tests using hirudin and BAPA anticoagulated blood. Blood was obtained from 30 healthy individuals and 20 patients on aspirin or clopidogrel therapy, and stored for 2, 12, 24 or 48 h. Light transmission aggregometry and impedance platelet aggregometry were performed using adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid as agonists. The vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay was evaluated. Platelet aggregation measurements of healthy individuals and patients showed stable platelet aggregation values induced by arachidonic acid, after 24 h, when hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood was used. However, citrated blood resulted in significantly reduced platelet response after 12 h. ADP-induced light transmission aggregation of healthy individuals and patients exhibited unchanged platelet aggregation after 12 h using hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood, while significantly reduced platelet response was observed after 12 h when using citrated blood. In contrast, measurement of ADP-induced aggregation by use of impedance aggregometry resulted in reduced stability over 12 h using hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood. The VASP assay exhibited no significant changes in results over a storage period of 48 h, independent of the anticoagulants used. Use of hirudin or BAPA anticoagulated blood resulted in improvement of stability of platelet function measurements.

  16. Platelet activation in the postoperative period after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, David I; Shimbo, Daichi; Kawut, Steven M; Sarkar, Joydeep; Hurlitz, Georg; D'Ovidio, Frank; Lederer, David J; Wilt, Jessie S; Arcasoy, Selim M; Pinsky, David J; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Sonett, Joshua R

    2008-03-01

    During lung transplantation, cells in the pulmonary parenchyma are subjected to ischemia, hypothermic storage, and reperfusion injury. Platelets, whose granular contents include adhesion receptors, chemokines, and coactivating substances that activate inflammatory and coagulant cascades, likely play a critical role in the lung allograft response to ischemia and reperfusion. The platelet response to the pulmonary allograft, however, has never been studied. Here we report significant platelet activation immediately after lung transplantation. We performed a prospective cohort study comparing markers of platelet activation in patients undergoing lung transplantation and patients undergoing nontransplant thoracotomy. Plasma levels of soluble P-selectin, soluble CD40 ligand, and platelet-leukocyte conjugates were measured before surgery, after skin closure, and at 6 postoperative hours. Both soluble P-selectin and soluble CD40 ligand levels increased significantly after lung transplantation but not after thoracotomy. Additionally, platelet-monocyte conjugate fluorescence was significantly higher after lung transplantation than after thoracotomy alone. These findings suggest that platelet activation is significantly increased after lung transplantation beyond that expected from the postoperative state. The increase in circulating platelet-monocyte conjugates suggests an important interaction between platelets and inflammatory cells. Further research should examine whether platelet activation affects early graft function after lung transplantation.

  17. Platelet gel in cutaneous radiation dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Iervolino, Vincenzo; Di Costanzo, Gaetano; Azzaro, Rosa; Diodato, Anna Maria; Di Macchia, Catia Addolorata; Di Meo, Tommaso; Petruzziello, Arnolfo; Loquercio, Giovanna; Muto, Paolo; Apice, Gaetano; Cacciapuoti, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy, alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery, is a fundamental and irreplaceable method of treating tumours. Nonetheless, although the technological advances made during recent years and the associated improvements in this type of treatment have reduced the incidence of complications, 5-15 % of patients still experience damage to the healthy tissues exposed to radiation. Cutaneous and mucosal lesions are severe collateral effects of radiotherapy that have an enormous impact on a patient's quality of life. Unfortunately, however, the efficacy of conventional treatments, while demonstrably useful in acute lesions, remains disputed in chronic cases. Nevertheless, numerous studies and clinical findings have demonstrated that topical, non-transfusional plasma-rich platelet gel is able to accelerate the regeneration and repair of tissues through the action of the various growth factors contained within the alpha granules of platelets. We therefore set out to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet gel, chosen for its limited cost and ease of preparation, in chronic cutaneous radiation dermatitis. "Home-made" platelet gel was produced by treating platelets with autologous thrombin. The safety of the product was ensured by microbiological tests. The autologous platelet gel was applied topically once a week, for a mean duration of 35 days, to chronic third- and fourth-degree (European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events score) cutaneous radiation dermatitis in a group of ten patients previously treated for moderate-to-high grade (histology G2-G3) limb sarcoma by tumour excision and post-surgical radiotherapy (dose 50-64 Gy). The radiation dermatitis had appeared at different intervals after treatment and had all proved resistant to conventional treatments. The autologous platelet gel was found to be successful in seven out of the ten patients treated. The various phases of the healing

  18. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M. C.; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. Study design and methods The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Results Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. Conclusion PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor

  19. Stored platelets alter glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid species, which are differentially transferred to newly released extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pienimaeki-Roemer, Annika; Ruebsaamen, Katharina; Boettcher, Alfred; Orsó, Evelyn; Scherer, Max; Liebisch, Gerhard; Kilalic, Dzenan; Ahrens, Norbert; Schmitz, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    Stored platelet concentrates (PLCs) for transfusion develop a platelet storage lesion (PSL), resulting in decreased platelet (PLT) viability and function. The processes leading to PSL have not been described in detail and no data describe molecular changes occurring in all three components of stored PLCs: PLTs, PLC extracellular vesicles (PLC-EVs), and plasma. Fifty PLCs from healthy individuals were stored under standard blood banking conditions for 5 days. Changes in cholesterol, glycerophospholipid, and sphingolipid species were analyzed in PLTs, PLC-EVs, and plasma by mass spectrometry and metabolic labeling. Immunoblots were performed to compare PLT and PLC-EV protein expression. During 5 days, PLTs transferred glycerophospholipids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids to newly formed PLC-EVs, which increased corresponding lipids by 30%. Stored PLTs significantly increased ceramide (Cer; +53%) and decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate (-53%), shifting sphingolipid metabolism toward Cer. In contrast, plasma accumulated minor sphingolipids. Compared to PLTs, fresh PLC-EVs were enriched in lysophosphatidic acid (60-fold) and during storage showed significant increases in cholesterol, sphingomyelin, dihydrosphingomyelin, plasmalogen, and lysophosphatidylcholine species, as well as accumulation of apolipoproteins A-I, E, and J/clusterin. This is the first detailed analysis of lipid species in all PLC components during PLC storage, which might reflect mechanisms active during in vivo PLT senescence. Stored PLTs reduce minor sphingolipids and shift sphingolipid metabolism toward Cer, whereas in the plasma fraction minor sphingolipids increase. The composition of PLC-EVs resembles that of lipid rafts and confirms their role as carriers of bioactive molecules and master regulators in vascular disease. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  1. The omnipotent platelet.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L A

    1996-03-01

    This information was derived from the increase in platelets of patients following fractures and/or bone surgery and in conjunction with a vast amount of published literature. The increase in numbers of platelets reflects the extent of bone involvement, especially noted in the hip, knee, post-coronary artery bypass graft, and multiple fractures. The role of the platelet in any and all tissues, i.e. soft tissue or bone, whether beneficial or detrimental, is multifunctional. The platelet responds to all physiologic and pathologic states and, if tissue involved is sufficient, the role of the platelet becomes obvious.

  2. Expired and Pathogen-Inactivated Platelet Concentrates Support Differentiation and Immunomodulation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir-Buch, Sandra Mjoll; Sigurgrimsdottir, Hildur; Lieder, Ramona; Sigurjonsson, Olafur Eysteinn

    2015-01-01

    Platelet lysates have been reported as suitable cell culture supplement for cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The demand for safe and animal-free cultures of MSCs is linked to the potential application of MSCs in clinics. While the use of platelet lysates offers an alternative to animal serum in MSC cultures, obtaining supplies of fresh platelet concentrates for lysate production is challenging and raises concerns due to the already existing shortage of platelet donors. We have previously demonstrated that expired platelet concentrates may represent a good source of platelets for lysate production without competing with blood banks for platelet donors. The INTERCEPT Blood System™ treatment of platelet concentrates allows for prolonged storage up to 7 days, using highly specific technology based on amotosalen and UV-A light. The INTERCEPT system has therefore been implemented in blood processing facilities worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of INTERCEPT-treated, expired platelet concentrates, processed into platelet lysates, for the culture of MSCs compared to nontreated expired platelets. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured in media supplemented with either platelet lysates from traditionally prepared expired platelet concentrates or in platelet lysates from expired and pathogen-inactivated platelet concentrates. The effects of pathogen inactivation on the ability of the platelets to support MSCs in culture were determined by evaluating MSC immunomodulation, immunophenotype, proliferation, and trilineage differentiation. Platelet lysates prepared from expired and pathogen-inactivated platelet concentrates supported MSC differentiation and immunosuppression better compared to traditionally prepared platelet lysates from expired platelet units. Pathogen inactivation of platelets with the INTERCEPT system prior to use in MSC culture had no negative effects on MSC immunophenotype or proliferation. In conclusion, the use of expired

  3. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  4. Platelet Transfusion – The New Immunology of an Old Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A.; Heal, Joanna M.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P.; Blumberg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-β1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy. PMID:25699046

  5. Platelet transfusion - the new immunology of an old therapy.

    PubMed

    Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A; Heal, Joanna M; Spinelli, Sherry L; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P; Blumberg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-β1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy.

  6. Improving the bacteriological safety of platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Blajchman, Morris A; Goldman, Mindy; Baeza, Federico

    2004-01-01

    Despite the increased application of aseptic techniques for blood collection and the preparation of platelet concentrates, morbidity and mortality arising from the transfusion of bacterially contaminated allogeneic platelet products persist. This problem exists because stored platelet concentrates represent a nearly ideal growth medium for bacteria and because they are stored at temperatures (22 degrees +/- 2 degrees C) that facilitate bacterial growth. The presence of bacteria in blood components including platelets has been a problem for many decades and currently is the most common microbiological cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. A variety of strategies have been devised and/or proposed in an attempt to try to reduce the risk of transfusion-associated sepsis. These include pretransfusion bacterial detection, efforts to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, the optimization of blood product processing and storage, reducing recipient exposure, and the introduction of pathogen inactivation methodology. With regard to doing bacterial detection, a number of automated detection systems have become available to test for contaminated platelet components, but their utility to some extent is restricted by the time they take to indicate the presence of bacteria and/or their lack of sensitivity to detect initially low bacterial loads. A variety of other approaches has been shown to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and include filtration to remove leukocytes and bacteria, diversion of the initial aliquot of blood during donation, and improved donor skin disinfection. Platelet pathogen inactivation methods under investigation include the addition of L-carnitine, gamma-irradiation, riboflavin plus UVA irradiation, and amotosalen HCl plus UVA irradiation. The latter process is licensed for clinical use with platelets in some countries in Europe. All of these approaches, either collectively or individually, hold considerable promise

  7. Formaldehyde-fixation of platelets for flow cytometric measurement of phosphatidylserine exposure is feasible.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Sophie; Alberio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Strong platelet activation results in a redistribution of negatively charged phospholipids from the cytosolic to the outer leaflet of the cellular membrane. Annexin V has a high affinity to negatively charged phospholipids and can be used to identify procoagulant platelets. Formaldehyde fixation can cause factitious Annexin V binding. Our aim was to evaluate a method for fixing platelets avoiding additional Annexin V binding. We induced expression of negatively charged phospholipids on the surface of a fraction of platelets by combined activation with convulxin and thrombin in the presence of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and calcium. Aliquots of resting and activated platelets were fixed with a low concentration, calcium-free formaldehyde solution. Both native platelets and fixed platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry immediately and after a 24-h storage at 4°C. We observed that the percentage of Annexin V positive resting platelets ranged from 1.5 to 9.3% for the native samples and from 0.4 to 12.8% for the fixed samples (P=0.706, paired t-test). The amount of Annexin V positive convulxin/thrombin activated platelets varied from 12.9 to 35.4% without fixation and from 15.3 to 36.3% after formalin fixation (P=0.450). After a 24-h storage at 4°C, Annexin V positive platelets significantly increased both in the resting and in the convulxin/thrombin activated samples of native platelets (both P<0.001), while results for formalin fixed platelets did not differ from baseline values (P=0.318 for resting fixed platelets; P=0.673 for activated fixed platelets). We conclude that platelet fixation with a low concentration, calcium-free formaldehyde solution does not alter the proportion of Annexin V positive platelets. This method can be used to investigate properties of procoagulant platelets by multicolor flow-cytometric analysis requiring fixation steps.

  8. Platelets and cancer: a casual or causal relationship: revisited

    PubMed Central

    Menter, David G.; Tucker, Stephanie C.; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K.; Crissman, John D.; Honn, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets arise as subcellular fragments of megakaryocytes in bone marrow. The physiologic demand, presence of disease such as cancer, or drug effects can regulate the production circulating platelets. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. The most critical biological platelet response is serving as “First Responders” during the wounding process. The exposure of extracellular matrix proteins and intracellular components occurs after wounding. Numerous platelet receptors recognize matrix proteins that trigger platelet activation, adhesion, aggregation, and stabilization. Once activated, platelets change shape and degranulate to release growth factors and bioactive lipids into the blood stream. This cyclic process recruits and aggregates platelets along with thrombogenesis. This process facilitates wound closure or can recognize circulating pathologic bodies. Cancer cell entry into the blood stream triggers platelet-mediated recognition and is amplified by cell surface receptors, cellular products, extracellular factors, and immune cells. In some cases, these interactions suppress immune recognition and elimination of cancer cells or promote arrest at the endothelium, or entrapment in the microvasculature, and survival. This supports survival and spread of cancer cells and the establishment of secondary lesions to serve as important targets for prevention and therapy. PMID:24696047

  9. Platelets and cancer: a casual or causal relationship: revisited.

    PubMed

    Menter, David G; Tucker, Stephanie C; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Crissman, John D; Honn, Kenneth V

    2014-03-01

    Human platelets arise as subcellular fragments of megakaryocytes in bone marrow. The physiologic demand, presence of disease such as cancer, or drug effects can regulate the production circulating platelets. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. The most critical biological platelet response is serving as "First Responders" during the wounding process. The exposure of extracellular matrix proteins and intracellular components occurs after wounding. Numerous platelet receptors recognize matrix proteins that trigger platelet activation, adhesion, aggregation, and stabilization. Once activated, platelets change shape and degranulate to release growth factors and bioactive lipids into the blood stream. This cyclic process recruits and aggregates platelets along with thrombogenesis. This process facilitates wound closure or can recognize circulating pathologic bodies. Cancer cell entry into the blood stream triggers platelet-mediated recognition and is amplified by cell surface receptors, cellular products, extracellular factors, and immune cells. In some cases, these interactions suppress immune recognition and elimination of cancer cells or promote arrest at the endothelium, or entrapment in the microvasculature, and survival. This supports survival and spread of cancer cells and the establishment of secondary lesions to serve as important targets for prevention and therapy.

  10. Proteomic analysis of platelets treated with gamma irradiation versus a commercial photochemical pathogen reduction technology.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Cristina; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Girelli, Gabriella; Zolla, Lello

    2013-08-01

    Several strategies are currently being tested to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission associated with platelet (PLT) transfusion. Within the framework of the Italian Platelet Technology Assessment Study, we investigated the variations of the protein profiles (proteomics) of apheresis PLT concentrates (PCs) upon treatment with riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light (Mirasol; 6.24 J/mL; 280-400 nm). Control, gamma-irradiated, and Mirasol-treated apheresis PCs were assayed on Days 1 and 5 of storage by means of gel-based analytical approaches (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) and mass spectrometry-based identification of significant (p < 0.05 analysis of variance) differential proteins. Supernatants were then assayed for metabolism and oxidative stress-related metabolites through multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Only a handful of modifications could be observed in the PLT proteome profiles in response to the Mirasol treatment, which included proteins involved in oxidative stress responses, PLT metabolism, and activation. Results confirmed increased metabolic rate and oxidative stress in the supernatants of treated PLTs (both gamma irradiated and Mirasol treated). From this investigation, it emerges that, from a proteomics standpoint, gamma irradiation results in the acceleration of PLT storage lesions and the Mirasol treatment only moderately exacerbates these phenomena. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Platelet clinical proteomics: Facts, challenges, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    García, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, proteomics has been applied to platelet clinical research. Platelets are small enucleated cells that play a fundamental role in hemostasis. In a pathological context, unwanted platelet activation is related to various diseases, primarily thrombosis, but also cancer metastasis, inflammation, immunity, and neurodegenerative diseases. The absence of a nucleus is one of the reasons why proteomics can be considered an ideal analytical tool for platelet research. Indeed, platelet proteomics has allowed the identification of many novel signaling proteins and receptors, several of which are being pursued as potential therapeutic targets. Encouraged by this success, several research groups have recently initiated clinical proteomics studies covering diseases where platelets are involved in some way, such as coronary artery disease, storage pool diseases, uremia, cystic fibrosis, and Alzheimer disease. The goal was to identify platelet biomarkers and drug targets that can help to improve the treatment/diagnosis of the disease and provide further mechanistic evidences of the role platelets play in the pathology. The present article will comment on the recent progress of clinical proteomics in the context of platelet research, challenges, and perspectives for the future ahead.

  12. Evaluation of the post-transfusion platelet increment and safety of riboflavin-based pathogen reduction technology (PRT) treated platelet products stored in platelet additive solution for 5 days or less versus 6-7 days.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Alesia; Lindgren, Bruce; Marschner, Susanne; Aznar, Marivi; Zalba, Saioa; Sánchez, Piva; Ayape, María Luisa; Olavarría, Eduardo; Antelo, Maria Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Platelets are stored routinely for 5 days or less and extended platelet storage time could improve product availability. This study compared platelet count increments (CI24hs) of riboflavin plus UV-light (PRT) treated platelet products in platelet additive solution stored for 5 days or less to products stored for 6-7 days. This was a retrospective study comparing CI24hs between two groups. Hematology patients received PRT treated platelet products stored for <5 days, or for 6-7 days. Platelet counts and adverse events during and up to 24 hours after transfusion were recorded and compared between the groups. Ninety-seven patients received 168 transfusions of <5 day old PRT-treated platelets and 49 patients received 74 transfusions of 6-7 day old PRT-treated platelets. There was no statistically significant difference in CI24hs between the <5 day (median 6000) and 6-7 day storage group (median 8000) (p-value = 0.509). One mild fever was documented in the <5 day storage group. CI24hs are similar for PRT-treated PLTs stored in PAS for <5 or 6-7 days. Studies to further evaluate clinical outcomes such as bleeding are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional fractionation of platelets.

    PubMed

    Haver, V M; Gear, A R

    1981-02-01

    Studies of platelet populations suggest that they are heterogeneous in size, age, and metabolic parameters. In an attempt to correlate these parameters with efficiency of aggregation, a new technique, functional fractionation, was developed. Platelet populations are separated by their differential reactivity to aggregating agents. For example, low doses of ADP (0.1 to 0.7 microM) are added to stirred PRP, after which gentle centrifugation is used to remove aggregates from single unreacted platelets. The loose aggregates can be readily dispersed for comparison of the physical or biochemical properties of the reacted versus unreacted platelets. It was found that reactive platelets were larger (6.5 micrometer3) than unreacted platelets (5.51 micrometer3). No significant difference in density existed between the two populations, and no release of [14C]serotonin from prelabeled platelets occurred during functional fractionation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size difference and revealed that in both populations platelets were structurally intact with a normal discoid shape and no significant difference in organelle content. Human platelets most reactive to ADP were also enriched in glycogen (3.6-fold), ATP (1.6-fold), and ADP (twofold), compared with less reactive cells. These "reactive" cells took up more 51[Cr] and contained 1.9 times more surface sialic acid. In an in vivo aging experiment, rats were injected with 75[Se]methionine. Shortly after labeling (1 day), the most reactive platelets possessed the highest amount of 75[Se]. These results reveal that functionally active platelets, which are also larger, are more active metabolically than less reactive platelets, possess a higher negative surface charge, and may be a younger population.

  14. Endotoxin Interactions with Platelets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    irreversible aggregation of human platelets (Hamberg and Sainuelsson 1974; Hlamberg et al 1975). Acetylsalicylic acid , an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase aud...exposure to endotoxin (100 ttg/nil). To simulate the lipopolysac- charide of endotoxin, several different fatty acids were added individually to platelet...platelet lytic capability. Similarity, iflegaradt doses of ganima radiation 6wCo destroy fatty acid groups on lipid A (L. Bertok, personal communication

  15. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  16. Platelet size in man.

    PubMed

    Paulus, J M

    1975-09-01

    The shape and parameters of platelet size distributions were studied in 50 normal persons and 97 patients in order to test the proposed thesis that platelet size heterogeneity results mainly from aging in the circulation. This thesis was contradicted (1) by size distributions of age-homogeneous, newly-born cell populations which were lognormal with increased (instead of decreased) dispersion of volumes and (2) by the macrothrombocytosis found in some populations with normal age distribution. For these reasons, thrombocytopoiesis appeared to play the major role in determining platelet size. A model was built in which the volume variation of platelet territories due to megakaryocyte growth and membrane demarcation at each step of maturation was a random proportion of the previous value of the volume. This model explains the lognormal shape of both newborn and circulating platelet size distributions. It also implies that (1) the mean and standard deviation of platelet logvolumes depend on the rates of volume change of the individual platelet territories (growth rate minus demarcation rate) as well as on megakaryocyte maturation time; (2) platelet hyperdestruction causes an increase in the mean and dispersion of the rates of territory volume change; (3) Mediterranean macrothrombocytosis and some hereditary macrothrombocytotic thrombocytopenias or dysthrombocytopoieses reflect a diminished rate of territory demarcation, and (4) platelet size heterogeneity is caused mainly by the variations in territory growth and demarcation and not by aging in the circulation.

  17. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    SciTech Connect

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered.

  18. Platelets enhance neutrophil transendothelial migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Platelets are increasingly recognized as important mediators of inflammation in addition to thrombosis. While platelets have been shown to promote neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to endothelium in various inflammatory models, it is unclear whether platelets enhance neutrophil transmigration across inflame...

  19. Preserved functional and biochemical characteristics of platelet components prepared with amotosalen and ultraviolet A for pathogen inactivation.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Béatrice; Ohlmann, Philippe; Chafey, Philippe; Ravanat, Catherine; Eckly, Anita; Maurer, Eric; Mangin, Pierre; Isola, Hervé; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Platelet concentrate (PC) functionality decreases during storage. This is referred to as the storage lesion. Pathogen inactivation may accelerate or induce lesions, potentially accounting for reduced viability. Our aim was to characterize functional and biochemical properties of platelets (PLTs) from photochemically treated buffy-coat PCs (PCT-PCs) compared to those from conventional PCs. Four PCT-PCs and four conventional PCs were stored for 6.5 days and PLT function and proteomic profiles were examined at various time points during storage. To evaluate their intrinsic properties, samples of stored PLTs were taken, washed, and suspended in Tyrode's buffer before testing. PLT counts and morphology were conserved although a slight increase in the PLT volume was observed after PCT. Glycoprotein (GP) IIbIIIa, IaIIa, and VI expression remained stable while GPIbα declined similarly in both types of PCs. A steep decrease (50%) in GPV occurred on Day 1.5 in PCT-PCs and Day 2.5 in control PCs. For both PCT- and control PCs, P-selectin expression and activated GPIIbIIIa remained low during storage. PCT- and control PCs were fully responsive to aggregation agonists up to Day 4.5 and exhibited similar perfusion functionality. Mitochondrial membrane potential and annexin A5 binding of PCT-PCs and control PCs were comparable. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry profiles for 1882 protein spots revealed only three proteins selectively changed in PCT-PCs compared to control-PCs. Washed treated and untreated PCs have similar functional, morphologic, and proteomic characteristics provided that PLTs are suspended in an appropriate medium during testing. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-07-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and (3H)PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of (3H)PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation).

  1. PLATELET CONCENTRATES PREPARED AFTER A 20 TO 24 HOUR HOLD OF THE WHOLE BLOOD AT 22°C

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bolgiano, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Background The FDA requires that red cells must be refrigerated within 8 hours of whole blood collection. Longer storage of whole blood at 22°C before component preparation would have many advantages. Study Design And Methods Two methods of holding whole blood for 20 to 24 hours at room temperature were evaluated; i.e., refrigerated plates or a 23°C incubator. After extended whole blood storage, platelet concentrates were prepared from platelet-rich-plasma on day 1 post-donation, and the platelets were stored for 6 more days. On day 7 of platelet storage, blood was drawn from each subject to prepare fresh platelets. The stored and fresh platelets were radiolabeled and transfused into their donor. Results Eleven subjects’ whole blood was stored using refrigerated Compocool plates and 10 using an incubator. Post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 47 ± 13% versus 53 ± 11% and survivals averaged 4.6 ± 1.7 days versus 4.7 ± 0.9 days for Compocool versus incubator storage, respectively (p=N.S.). Using all results, post-storage platelet recoveries averaged 75 ± 10% of fresh and survivals 57 ± 13% of fresh; platelet recoveries met FDA guidelines for post-storage platelet viability but not survivals. Conclusion Seven-day post-storage platelet viability is comparable when whole blood is stored for 22 ± 2 hour at 22°C using either refrigerated plates or an incubator to maintain temperature prior to preparing platelet concentrates. PMID:22320682

  2. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  3. Platelet Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Lordkipanidzé, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally developed for diagnosis of bleeding disorders, platelet function assays have become increasingly used in basic research on platelet physiology, in phenotype-genotype associations in bleeding disorders, in drug development as surrogate endpoints of efficacy of new antiplatelet therapy, and to an extent, in the monitoring of antiplatelet therapy in clinical practice to predict thrombotic and bleeding risk. A multiplicity of platelet function assays is available to measure the level of platelet activity in various settings. These include assays that are restricted to a specialized laboratory as well as point-of-care instruments meant to investigate platelet function at patient bedside. Unlike tests that determine a defined quantity or measurement of a clinical biomarker (e.g., cholesterol or blood pressure), platelet function testing assesses the dynamics of living cells, which immediately presents a series of unique problems to any laboratory or clinic. This article presents currently used platelet function assays and discusses important variables to take into account when performing these assays, including preanalytical issues and difficulties in interpreting platelet function test results.

  4. Alloimmune refractoriness to platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G

    1997-11-01

    Patients who are transfused on multiple occasions with red cells or platelets may develop platelet-reactive alloantibodies and experience decreased clinical responsiveness to platelet transfusion. This situation, conventionally described as "refractoriness to platelet transfusions," is defined by an unsatisfactory low post-transfusion platelet count increment. If antibodies to HLAs are detected, improved clinical outcomes may result from transfusions of HLA-matched or donor-recipient cross-matched platelets. Because refractoriness is an expected, frequently occurring phenomenon, prevention of HLA alloimmunization is an important management strategy. Prevention strategies include efforts to decrease the number of transfusions, filtration of cellular components to reduce the number of HLA-bearing leukocytes, or pretransfusion ultraviolet B irradiation of cellular components to decrease their immunogenicity. Other investigational approaches include reducing the expression of HLAs on transfused platelets, inducing a transient reticuloendothelial system blockade by infusions of specialized immunoglobulin products, or transfusing semisynthetic platelet substitutes (thromboerythrocytes, thrombospheres) or modified platelets (infusible platelet membranes, lyophilized platelets).

  5. The sticky platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Benjamín; Ruíz-Arguelles, Guillermo J; Castillo-Martínez, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    The sticky platelets syndrome (SPS) is a procoagulant condition based on either arterial, venous, or capillary thrombi caused by hyperesponsive and hyperaggregable platelets. This is a frequent disease, which often remains clinically inapparent, until stressful events or combination with other factors increase the risk of developing SPS. The condition is due to a congenital platelet defect with autosomal dominant characteristics, leading to the increased platelet aggregability when they are challenged with epinephrine and adenosine diphosphate. Nowadays classification of this disorder is based on platelet reactivity to both ADP and epinephrine (SPS type 1), epinephrine alone (SPS type 2), and ADP alone (SPS type 3). The diagnoses of the syndrome depend on the functional aggregometer assay. This condition should be taken into account whenever a patient with thrombophilia is considered.

  6. Evaluation of two instruments for noninvasive platelet concentrate quality assessment.

    PubMed

    George, V; Holme, S; Moroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The Platelet Monitoring System (PMS) and the Non-invasive Assessment of Platelet Shape and Concentration (NAPSAC) instruments which relate light scattering characteristics of platelet concentrates (PC) to platelet concentration and shape, were evaluated to determine their accuracy in assessing platelet quality during storage from 1 to 7 days. The results were correlated with platelet concentration, % discs and pH on 121 PC stored in PL732 containers. NAPSAC output is in the form of platelet concentration and % discs. When NAPSAC and standard method values were compared, correlation coefficients (r) did not exceed 0.76 for counts and 0.62 for % discs. PMS output is in the form of lights with red indicating poor quality and green or amber indicating acceptable quality. Sensitivity of the PMS instrument did not exceed 83% and specificity did not exceed 63%. Mean platelet number, % discs and pH were comparable for units triggering red versus green or amber lights. In a separate study, 13 PL732 PC stored 5 days and transfused autologously were evaluated on the PMS. Three red light units exhibited recovery and survival times similar to those observed with PC triggering green/amber lights. These data indicate that neither instrument adequately assesses the quality of PL732 PC.

  7. Anti-platelet therapy is efficacious in treating endometriosis induced in mouse.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sun-Wei; Ding, Ding; Liu, Xishi

    2016-10-01

    In light of recent findings showing that platelets play important roles in the development of endometriosis in general and in fibrogenesis in particular, this study investigated the efficacy of Ozagrel, a TXA2 synthase inhibitor, in a murine model of endometriosis. In addition, another mouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of timing of platelet depletion and of sequential depletion of platelets and macrophages on the development of endometriosis. It was found that both the Ozagrel treatment and different platelet depletion schemes resulted in significant reduction in lesion growth (all P-values <0.01) along with improved hyperalgesia in mice with induced endometriosis. They also significantly reduced the expression of markers of proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrosis as well as decreased macrophage infiltration in endometriotic lesions (all P-values <0.05). Compared with untreated mice, pre-emptive depletion of platelets as well as platelet depletion after induction resulted in significant reduction in lesion weight (both P-values <0.001), while sequential depletion of platelets and macrophages yielded similar reduction. These results, in conjunction with other roles that platelets play in the development of endometriosis, strongly argue for the potential of anti-platelet therapy in treating endometriosis. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Essential Roles of Dopamine and Serotonin in Tooth Repair: Functional Interplay Between Odontogenic Stem Cells and Platelets.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Anne; Alleaume-Butaux, Aurélie; Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Goldberg, Michel; Schneider, Benoît; Launay, Jean-Marie; Kellermann, Odile

    2015-08-01

    Characterizing stem cell intrinsic functions is an ongoing challenge for cell therapies. Here, we report that two independent A4 and H8 stem cell lines isolated from mouse molar pulp display the overall functions of bioaminergic cells. Both clones produce neurotrophins and synthesize, catabolize, store, and transport serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and dopamine (DA). They express 5-HT1D,2B,7 and D1,3 autoreceptors, which render pulpal stem cells competent to respond to circulating 5-HT and DA. We show that injury-activated platelets are the source of systemic 5-HT and DA necessary for dental repair since natural dentin reparation is impaired in two rat models with monoamine storage-deficient blood platelets. Moreover, selective inhibition of either D1, D3, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT7 receptor within the pulp of wild-type rat molars after lesion alters the reparative process. Altogether our data argue that 5-HT and DA coreleased by pulp injury-activated platelets are critical for stem cell-mediated dental repair through 5-HT and DA receptor signalings. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  9. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    PubMed

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  10. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. State Univ. of New York, Buffalo )

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  11. Platelet interaction with polymerizing fibrin.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, S; Regoeczi, E; Stewart, G J; Senyl, A F; Mustard, J F

    1972-03-01

    Interaction of washed pig, rabbit, or human platelets with fibrinogen was studied during its transition to fibrin using photometric, isotopic, and electron microscopic techniques. Untreated fibrinogen and fully polymerized fibrin had no detectable effect on platelets. Fibrinogen, incubated with low concentrations of reptilase or thrombin, formed intermediate products which readily became associated with platelets and caused their aggregation. Neutralization of the thrombin did not prevent this interaction. In the absence of fibrinogen, reptilase did not affect platelets. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was accompanied by small losses of platelet constituents (serotonin, adenine nucleotides, platelet factor 4, and lactic dehydrogenase). This loss did not appear to be the result of the platelet release reaction. Inhibitors of the release reaction or of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation did not prevent the interaction of platelets with polymerizing fibrin. Apyrase or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) reduced the extent of platelet aggregation by polymerizing fibrin, but the amount of protein associated with platelets was slightly increased. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) or ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA).Fibers formed in solutions of polymerizing fibrin were larger in the presence than in the absence of washed platelets, suggesting that platelets affect fibrin polymerization. The adherence of platelets to polymerizing fibrin may be responsible for the establishment of links between platelets and fibrin in hemostatic plugs and thrombi.

  12. Platelets in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    In patients with critical illness, thrombocytopenia is a frequent laboratory abnormality. However frequent this may occur, a low platelet count is not an epiphenomenon, but a marker with further significance. It is always important to assess the proper cause for thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients because different underlying disorders may precipitate different diagnostic and therapeutic management strategies. Platelets are part of the first-line defense of the body against bleeding; hence, thrombocytopenia may increase the risk of hemorrhage. In case of systemic inflammatory syndromes, such as the response to sepsis, disseminated intravascular platelet activation may occur. This will contribute to microvascular failure and thereby play a role in the development of organ dysfunction. Platelets are circulating blood cells that will normally not interact with the intact vessel wall but that may swiftly respond to endothelial disruption (which is often part of the pathogenesis of critical illness) by adhering to subendothelial structures, followed by interaction with each other, thereby forming a platelet aggregate. The activated platelet (phospholipid) membrane may form a suitable surface on which further coagulation activation may occur. A low platelet count is a strong and independent predictor of an adverse outcome in critically ill patients, thereby facilitating a simple and practically risk assessment in these patients and potentially guiding the use of complex or expensive treatment strategies.

  13. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  14. Lovastatin induces platelet apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Ming; Chen, Mengxing; Zhou, Ling; Zhao, Lili; Hu, Renping; Yan, Rong; Dai, Kesheng

    2016-03-01

    Statins are widely used in the prevention of atherosclerosis and treatment of coronary artery disease because of pleiotropic effects on thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage occurred in some statin-treated patients, but the reason remains unclear. In the current study, we show that lovastatin dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, leading to up-regulation of Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-XL, and activation of caspase-3/8/9. Lovastatin treatment did not increase the surface expression of P-selectin or PAC-1 binding but led to strongly reduced collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. The integrin αIIbβ3 antagonist, RGDS, inhibited lovastatin-induced apoptosis in both human platelets and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing integrin αIIbβ3. The number of circulating platelets in mice was significantly reduced after intraperitoneal injections with lovastatin. Taken together, these data indicate that lovastatin induced caspase-dependent platelet apoptosis. Lovastatin does not incur platelet activation, whereas impairs platelet function and reduces circulating platelets in vivo, suggesting the possible pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage in patients treated with statins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  16. Assessment of the correlation of platelet morphology with in vivo recovery and survival.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Paul D; Anderson, Garth; Avery, Nancy; Clark, Pamela; Bonner, Robert F

    2005-08-01

    There is continuing interest in the development of in vitro tests evaluating the in vivo function, recovery, and survival of platelets stored for transfusion. A recent forum concluded that no completely reliable test exists, although discoid morphology indicates a platelet's good health. We evaluated a novel device, the NAPSAC (Noninvasive Assessment of Platelet Shape and Concentration), designed to determine noninvasively the proportion of discoid platelets in a stored concentrate, as well as platelet concentration. Twenty-eight plateletapheresis concentrates stored 24 hours in PL-146 were evaluated. Percent discoid platelet results were correlated with radiolabeled autologous recovery and survival performed using 111Indium oxyquinoline and calculated using linear (L) and multiple-hit (M) models. pH of 8 concentrates was raised at the end of storage with 6N NaOH. Platelet concentration measured by NAPSAC and Coulter Thrombocounter C was compared in 256 plateletapheresis products. Percent discoid platelets at 24 hours did not correlate significantly with platelet recovery or survival (recovery L = 0.29, M = 0.28; survival L = 0.16, M = 0.03). Raising the pH (mean 6.38 to 6.94) resulted in a significant increase in percent discoid platelets (21% to 41%). Platelet concentration values for both methods studied were linearly correlated with a slope of 1.01 +/- 0.03, r = 0.81. Percent discoid platelets was not predictive of posttransfusion platelet recovery or survival. The results suggest that non-discoid platelets may survive posttransfusion and even revert to discoid shape, since raising the pH approximately doubled the percent of discoid platelets. The NAPSAC was shown to be a reliable instrument for noninvasively determining platelet concentration in PL-146 concentrates.

  17. Lipidomic and proteomic characterization of platelet extracellular vesicle subfractions from senescent platelets.

    PubMed

    Pienimaeki-Roemer, Annika; Kuhlmann, Katja; Böttcher, Alfred; Konovalova, Tatiana; Black, Anne; Orsó, Evelyn; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Platelets (PLTs) in stored PLT concentrates (PLCs) release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs) induced by senescence and activation, resembling the PLT storage lesion. No comprehensive classification or molecular characterization of senescence-induced PL-EVs exists to understand PL-EV heterogeneity. PL-EVs from 5-day-stored PLCs from healthy individuals were isolated and subfractionated by differential centrifugation, filtration, and density gradient ultracentrifugation into five PLT microvesicle (PL-MV) subfractions (Fraction [F]1-F5) and PLT exosomes (PL-EXs). PL-EV size, concentration, and composition were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, flow cytometry, and lipid and protein mass spectrometry. Protein data were verified by Western blot. PL-EVs showed overlapping mean particle sizes of 180 to 260 nm, but differed significantly in composition. Less dense, intermediate, and dense PL-MVs enriched specific lipidomic and proteomic markers related to the plasma membrane, intracellular membranes, PLT granules, mitochondria, and PLT activation. α-Synuclein (81% of total) accumulated in F1 and F2, amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein in F3 and F4 (84%), and apolipoprotein (Apo)E (88%) and ApoJ (92%) in F3 to F5. PL-EXs enriched lipid species and proteins, with high abundance of lipid raft, PLT adhesion, and immune response-related markers. Differential lipid and protein compositions of PL-EVs suggest their unique cellular origins and functions, partly overlapping with PLT granule secretion. Dense PL-MVs might represent autophagic vesicles released during PLT activation and apoptosis and PL-EXs resemble lipid rafts, with a potential role in PLT aggregation and immunity. Segregation of α-synuclein and Aβ precursor protein, ApoE, and ApoJ into less dense and dense PL-MVs, respectively, show their differential carrier role of neurologic disease-related cargo. © 2014 AABB.

  18. Platelet Dynamics during Natural and Pharmacologically Induced Torpor and Forced Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    de Vrij, Edwin L.; Vogelaar, Pieter C.; Goris, Maaike; Houwertjes, Martin C.; Herwig, Annika; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-conserving behavior in winter characterized by two phases: torpor and arousal. During torpor, markedly reduced metabolic activity results in inactivity and decreased body temperature. Arousal periods intersperse the torpor bouts and feature increased metabolism and euthermic body temperature. Alterations in physiological parameters, such as suppression of hemostasis, are thought to allow hibernators to survive periods of torpor and arousal without organ injury. While the state of torpor is potentially procoagulant, due to low blood flow, increased viscosity, immobility, hypoxia, and low body temperature, organ injury due to thromboembolism is absent. To investigate platelet dynamics during hibernation, we measured platelet count and function during and after natural torpor, pharmacologically induced torpor and forced hypothermia. Splenectomies were performed to unravel potential storage sites of platelets during torpor. Here we show that decreasing body temperature drives thrombocytopenia during torpor in hamster with maintained functionality of circulating platelets. Interestingly, hamster platelets during torpor do not express P-selectin, but expression is induced by treatment with ADP. Platelet count rapidly restores during arousal and rewarming. Platelet dynamics in hibernation are not affected by splenectomy before or during torpor. Reversible thrombocytopenia was also induced by forced hypothermia in both hibernating (hamster) and non-hibernating (rat and mouse) species without changing platelet function. Pharmacological torpor induced by injection of 5′-AMP in mice did not induce thrombocytopenia, possibly because 5′-AMP inhibits platelet function. The rapidness of changes in the numbers of circulating platelets, as well as marginal changes in immature platelet fractions upon arousal, strongly suggest that storage-and-release underlies the reversible thrombocytopenia during natural torpor. Possibly, margination of platelets

  19. Membrane phase transition of intact human platelets: correlation with cold-induced activation.

    PubMed

    Tablin, F; Oliver, A E; Walker, N J; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H

    1996-08-01

    Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we have determined the phase transition temperature (Tm) of lipids in intact human platelets and have shown that it occurs between 15 and 18 degrees C, the temperature at which cold activation of platelets has previously been reported (Zucker and Borrelli, 1954, Blood, 28:602-608; White and Krivit, 1967, Blood, 30:625-635). The temperature at which the platelets pass through Tm is highly correlated with initial platelet shape change. However, shape change continues after the cells have passed through the phase transition. Cold-induced activation has previously prevented long-term storage of platelets at 4 degrees C. Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) isolated from polar fishes previously have been used to prevent ice crystal growth during freezing of tissues as well as leakage of solutes from liposomes as they were chilled through their Tm. We sought to determine if these AFGPs were able to stabilize platelets for long-term storage at 4 degrees C. Incubating platelets with antifreeze glycoproteins during long-term storage and rapid rewarming to 37 degrees C abrogated granule secretion associated with cold activation in a dose-dependent manner. This work suggests that AFGPs may be a possible solute for use in long-term low temperature storage of platelets.

  20. Use of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation for decontamination of platelet concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Wiesehahn, G.P.; Morel, P.A.; Corash, L. )

    1989-07-01

    Transmission of viral diseases through blood products remains an unsolved problem in transfusion medicine. We have developed a psoralen photochemical system for decontamination of platelet concentrates in which platelets are treated with long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). Bacteria, RNA viruses, and DNA viruses ranging in genome size from 1.2 x 10(6) daltons, encompassing the size range of human pathogens, were inoculated into platelet concentrates and subjected to treatment. This system inactivated 25 to 30 logs/h of bacteria Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, 6 logs/h of bacteriophage fd, 0.9 log/h of bacteriophage R17 and 1.1 logs/h of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in platelet concentrates maintained in standard storage bags. Platelet integrity and in vitro function before, immediately following photochemical treatment, and during prolonged storage after treatment, were evaluated by measuring: (1) extracellular pH; (2) platelet yields; (3) extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels; (4) platelet morphology; (5) platelet aggregation responsiveness; (6) thromboxane beta-2 (TXB-2) production; (7) dense body secretion; and (8) alpha granule secretion. These assays demonstrated that this photochemical inactivation system inactivated bacteria and viruses in platelet concentrates with minimal adverse effects on the in vitro function of platelets in comparison to untreated control concentrates maintained under current, standard blood bank conditions.

  1. pH value promotes growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2008-05-01

    The platelet (PLT) storage lesion is characterized metabolically by a pH value associated with lactic acid generation. PLT storage conditions support the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most common organism implicated in bacterial contamination of PLT concentrates (PCs). Here, different factors that influence bacterial growth in PCs are discussed and the relation between pH values of PCs and citrate plasma (CP) is studied, with emphasis on bacterial proliferation. The PLT lesion with regard to pH decrease and lactic acid production was monitored during storage and correlated to bacterial proliferation properties. A total of 115 coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially S. epidermidis isolates, were characterized for their proliferation in different blood components (CP, buffy coat-derived, and apheresis PCs). Furthermore, the influence of donor-specific, product-specific, species-specific, and strain-specific factors on bacterial proliferation was investigated. PCs showed a lower pH value in comparison to plasma during storage. Bacterial proliferation in PCs and the failure to grow in CP were determined with all organisms tested. No correlation to donor-specific, species-specific, or strain-specific factors was observed. Lowering the pH of CP resulted in bacterial proliferation, whereas a pH increase in the PC unit inhibited the proliferation of S. epidermidis. With emphasis on bacterial proliferation, the significant difference between PC and CP is the presence of metabolizing PLTs. The pH values of stored PLTs, but not those of stored plasma, support the growth of S. epidermidis.

  2. Platelet-delivered therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lyde, R; Sabatino, D; Sullivan, S K; Poncz, M

    2015-06-01

    We have proposed that modified platelets could potentially be used to correct intrinsic platelet defects as well as for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to sights of vascular injury. Ectopic expression of proteins within α-granules prior to platelet activation has been achieved for several proteins, including urokinase, factor (F) VIII, and partially for FIX. Potential uses of platelet-directed therapeutics will be discussed, focusing on targeted delivery of urokinase as a thromboprophylactic agent and FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A patients with intractable inhibitors. This presentation will discuss new strategies that may be useful in the care of patients with vascular injury as well as remaining challenges and limitations of these approaches.

  3. A Computerized Prediction Model of Hazardous Inflammatory Platelet Transfusion Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Sebban, Marc; Fromont, Elisa; Chavarin, Patricia; Absi, Lena; Pozzetto, Bruno; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet component (PC) transfusion leads occasionally to inflammatory hazards. Certain BRMs that are secreted by the platelets themselves during storage may have some responsibility. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we identified non-stochastic arrangements of platelet-secreted BRMs in platelet components that led to acute transfusion reactions (ATRs). These data provide formal clinical evidence that platelets generate secretion profiles under both sterile activation and pathological conditions. We next aimed to predict the risk of hazardous outcomes by establishing statistical models based on the associations of BRMs within the incriminated platelet components and using decision trees. We investigated a large (n = 65) series of ATRs after platelet component transfusions reported through a very homogenous system at one university hospital. Herein, we used a combination of clinical observations, ex vivo and in vitro investigations, and mathematical modeling systems. We calculated the statistical association of a large variety (n = 17) of cytokines, chemokines, and physiologically likely factors with acute inflammatory potential in patients presenting with severe hazards. We then generated an accident prediction model that proved to be dependent on the level (amount) of a given cytokine-like platelet product within the indicated component, e.g., soluble CD40-ligand (>289.5 pg/109 platelets), or the presence of another secreted factor (IL-13, >0). We further modeled the risk of the patient presenting either a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction or an atypical allergic transfusion reaction, depending on the amount of the chemokine MIP-1α (<20.4 or >20.4 pg/109 platelets, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This allows the modeling of a policy of risk prevention for severe inflammatory outcomes in PC transfusion. PMID:24830754

  4. High shear flow induces migration of adherent human platelets.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Bjoern F; Schmidt, Christine; Urban, Benjamin; Bigalke, Boris; Schwanitz, Laura; Koch, Miriam; Seizer, Peter; Schaller, Martin; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lindemann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Shear forces are generated in all parts of the vascular system and contribute directly and indirectly to vascular disease progression. Endothelial cells are able to adapt to flow conditions, and are known to polarize and migrate in response to shear forces. Platelets exposed to shear stress are activated and release bioactive molecules from their alpha granules. So far, platelets have been considered to be static cells that do not leave the site of tight adhesion. However, we have recently been able to demonstrate the capacity of platelets to migrate in response to stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1). In this project, we have demonstrated that platelets accumulate in areas with a high concentration of SDF-1 under flow conditions and respond to high shear stress by cellular polarization, cytoskeletal reorganisation, and flow-directed migration. In this context, we have shown increased Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) phosphorylation and intracellular redistribution of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) under high-shear stress conditions. The effect of flow-induced platelet migration has not previously been recognized and offers a new role for platelets as mobile cells. Their migratory potential may enable platelets to cover intimal lesions and contribute to vascular repair.

  5. Platelets in the Alzheimer's disease brain: do they play a role in cerebral amyloid angiopathy?

    PubMed

    Kniewallner, Kathrin M; Ehrlich, Daniela; Kiefer, Andreas; Marksteiner, Josef; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and intracellular tau tangles. AD-related pathology is often accompanied by vascular changes. The predominant vascular lesions in AD are cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and arteriosclerosis. Platelets circulate along the vessel wall responding immediately to vascular injury. The aim of the present study was to explore the presence and migration of platelets (thrombocytes) to sites of small vascular bleedings and/or to beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. We infused fluorescently labeled red PKH26 mouse platelets into transgenic Alzheimer mice overexpressing APP with Swedish/Dutch/Iowa mutations (APP_SDI) and explored if platelets migrate into the brain. Further we studied whether platelets accumulate in the vicinity of β-amyloid plaques. Our animal data shows that infused platelets are found in the liver and partly in the lung, while in the brain platelets were visible to a minor degree. In mice, we did not observe a significant association of platelets with beta-amyloid plaques or vessels. In the brain of Alzheimer postmortem patients platelets could be detected by immunohistochemistry for CD41 and CD62P, but the majority was found in vessels with or without beta-amyloid load, and only a few single platelets migrated deeper into the brain. Our findings suggest that platelets do not migrate into the brains of Alzheimer disease but are concentrated in brain vessels.

  6. Platelet interaction with modified articular cartilage. Its possible relevance to joint repair.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker-Franklin, D; Drosenberg, L

    1977-01-01

    During studies concerned with the platelet-collagen interaction, it was observed that platelets did not adhere to bovine or human articular cartilage and that cartilage did not induce platelet aggregation in vivo or in vitro. To study the mechanism responsible for this observation, the role of proteoglycans was examined. Purified cartilage collagen proved to be fully active as a platelet aggregant. Addition of small amounts of proteoglycan subunit (PGS) blocked platelet aggregation, whereas chondroitin sulfate, a major glycosaminoglycan component of cartilage matrix, impaired platelet aggregation only at concentrations which resulted in a marked increase in viscosity. Moreover, PGS abolished aggregation of platelets by polylysine but did not prevent aggregation by ADP, suggesting that PGS may block strategically placed lysine sites on the collagen molecule. Treatment of fresh articular cartilage with proteolytic enzymes rendered the tissue active as a platelet aggregant. In vivo experiments demonstrated that surgical scarification of rabbit articular cartilage does not result in adhesion of autologous platelets. Treatment of rabbit knee joints with intraarticular trypsin 1 wk before the injection of blood resulted in adhesion and aggregation of platelets on the surface of the lesions. Since there is evidence from other studies that some degree of cartilage healing may take place after initiation of an inflammatory response, it is postulated that induction of platelet-cartilage interaction may eventuate in cartilage repair. Images PMID:557500

  7. Platelets and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Simeone, Paola; Liani, Rossella; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and increased in vivo platelet activation with enhanced thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis has been reported in patients with impairment of glucose metabolism even in the earlier stages of disease and in the preclinical phases. In this regards, platelets appear as addresses and players carrying and transducing metabolic derangement into vascular injury. The present review critically addresses key pathophysiological aspects including (i) hyperglycemia, glycemic variability and insulin resistance as determinants and predictors of platelet activation, (ii) inflammatory mediators derived from platelets, such as soluble CD40 ligand, soluble CD36, Dickkopf-1 and probably soluble receptor for advanced glycation-end-products (sRAGE), which expand the functional repertoire of platelets from players of hemostasis and thrombosis to powerful amplifiers of inflammation by promoting the release of cytokines and chemokines, cell activation, and cell-cell interactions; (iii) molecular mechanisms underpinning the less-than-expected antithrombotic protection by aspirin (ASA), despite regular antiplatelet prophylaxis at the standard dosing regimen, and (iv) stratification of patients deserving different antiplatelet strategies, based on the metabolic phenotype. Taken together, these pathophysiological aspects may contribute to the development of promising mechanism-based therapeutic strategies to reduce the progression of atherothrombosis in diabetic subjects.

  8. Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates GPIbα metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage in mice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, A J Gerard; Josefsson, Emma C; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Liu, Qiyong Peter; Falet, Hervé; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Cifuni, Stephen M; Sackstein, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Wagner, Denisa D; Hartwig, John H; Hoffmeister, Karin M

    2012-02-02

    When refrigerated platelets are rewarmed, they secrete active sialidases, including the lysosomal sialidase Neu1, and express surface Neu3 that remove sialic acid from platelet von Willebrand factor receptor (VWFR), specifically the GPIbα subunit. The recovery and circulation of refrigerated platelets is greatly improved by storage in the presence of inhibitors of sialidases. Desialylated VWFR is also a target for metalloproteinases (MPs), because GPIbα and GPV are cleaved from the surface of refrigerated platelets. Receptor shedding is inhibited by the MP inhibitor GM6001 and does not occur in Adam17(ΔZn/ΔZn) platelets expressing inactive ADAM17. Critically, desialylation in the absence of MP-mediated receptor shedding is sufficient to cause the rapid clearance of platelets from circulation. Desialylation of platelet VWFR therefore triggers platelet clearance and primes GPIbα and GPV for MP-dependent cleavage.

  9. Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates GPIbα metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, A. J. Gerard; Josefsson, Emma C.; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Liu, Qiyong Peter; Falet, Hervé; Bergmeier, Wolfgang; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Sackstein, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Wagner, Denisa D.; Hartwig, John H.

    2012-01-01

    When refrigerated platelets are rewarmed, they secrete active sialidases, including the lysosomal sialidase Neu1, and express surface Neu3 that remove sialic acid from platelet von Willebrand factor receptor (VWFR), specifically the GPIbα subunit. The recovery and circulation of refrigerated platelets is greatly improved by storage in the presence of inhibitors of sialidases. Desialylated VWFR is also a target for metalloproteinases (MPs), because GPIbα and GPV are cleaved from the surface of refrigerated platelets. Receptor shedding is inhibited by the MP inhibitor GM6001 and does not occur in Adam17ΔZn/ΔZn platelets expressing inactive ADAM17. Critically, desialylation in the absence of MP-mediated receptor shedding is sufficient to cause the rapid clearance of platelets from circulation. Desialylation of platelet VWFR therefore triggers platelet clearance and primes GPIbα and GPV for MP-dependent cleavage. PMID:22101895

  10. Nitric oxide released from activated platelets inhibits platelet recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, J E; Loscalzo, J; Barnard, M R; Alpert, C; Keaney, J F; Michelson, A D

    1997-01-01

    Vessel injury and thrombus formation are the cause of most ischemic coronary syndromes and, in this setting, activated platelets stimulate platelet recruitment to the growing thrombus. Recently, a constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been identified in human platelets. To further define the capacity of platelets to produce nitric oxide (NO), as well as to study the role of this NO in platelet recruitment, we adapted a NO-selective microelectrode for use in a standard platelet aggregometer, thereby permitting simultaneous measurement of platelet aggregation and NO production. Treatment of platelets with the NO synthase inhibitor -NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), reduced NO production by 92+/-8% in response to 5 microM ADP compared to control but increased aggregation by only 15+/-2%. In contrast, L-NAME had a more pronounced effect on platelet recruitment as evidenced by a 35+/-5% increase in the extent of aggregation, a 33+/-3% decrease in cyclic GMP content, and a 31+/-5% increase in serotonin release from a second recruitable population of platelets added to stimulated platelets at the peak of NO production. To study platelet recruitment accurately, we developed an assay that monitors two platelet populations simultaneously. Nonbiotinylated platelets were incubated with L-NAME or vehicle and activated with ADP. At peak NO production, biotinylated platelets were added. As measured by three-color flow cytometry, there was a 56+/-11% increase in the number of P selectin- positive platelets in the nonbiotinylated population treated with L-NAME as compared to control. When biotinylated platelets were added to the L-NAME-treated nonbiotinylated population, the number of P selectin positive biotinylated plate-lets increased by 180+/-32% as compared to biotinylated platelets added to the control. In summary, stimulated platelets produce NO that modestly inhibits platelet activation but markedly inhibits additional platelet recruitment. These data suggest

  11. Intraoperative hemodilution and autologous platelet rich plasma collection: two techniques for collecting fresh autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, D J; Ness, P M

    1995-03-01

    Intraoperative hemodilution (IH) and autologous platelet rich plasma (APRP) collection are two techniques used to obtain autologous blood in the operating room. They have been used to reduce allogeneic blood exposure in patients undergoing both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Both components have the advantage of providing fresh blood not subject to the storage lesion. Whole blood (IH) or platelet rich plasma is removed from the patient as anesthesia is induced and replaced with acellular fluid. The blood is transfused back after bypass or major bleeding has ceased. Although used commonly, the data supporting the use of either technique are controversial. Methodologic problems which have confounded studies evaluating their utility include: poorly defined transfusion criteria, concommitant use of other blood conservation techniques (i.e. cell salvage, pharmacologic agents, hypothermia, controlled hypotension) and changing transfusion practices with greater tolerance of normovolemic anemia. Randomized controlled studies with well defined up to date transfusion criteria are needed to identify patients likely to benefit from these techniques.

  12. Commercially available blood storage containers.

    PubMed

    Prowse, C V; de Korte, D; Hess, J R; van der Meer, P F

    2014-01-01

    Plastic blood bags improve the safety and effectiveness of blood component separation and storage. Progress towards optimal storage systems is driven by medical, scientific, business and environmental concerns and is limited by available materials, consumer acceptance and manufacturing and regulatory concerns. Blood bag manufacturers were invited to submit lists of the bags they manufacture. The lists were combined and sorted by planned use. The lists were analysed by experts to assess the degree to which the products attend to scientific problems. Specific issues addressed included the use of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood bags, the size, material and thickness of platelet bags, and the fracture resistance of plasma bags. Alternatives to DEHP for red blood cell (RBC) storage exist, but are mostly in a developmental stage. Plastic bags (DEHP-free, PVC-free) for platelet storage with better gas diffusion capabilities are widely available. Alternatives for plasma storage with better fracture resistance at low temperatures exist. Most RBC products are stored in DEHP-plasticized PVC as no fully satisfactory alternative exists that ensures adequate storage with low haemolysis. A variety of alternative platelet storage systems are available, but their significance - other than improved oxygen transport - is poorly understood. The necessity to remove DEHP from blood bags still needs to be determined.

  13. The 24-hour shelf-life of cytapheresis platelet concentrates stored in polyvinyl chloride containers should be extended only with caution.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G; Snyder, E L; Eckermann, I; Stewart, L

    1987-01-01

    A recent publication suggested that the 24-hour allowable shelf-life of apheresis platelet concentrates collected by open-system techniques be extended to 48 hours because platelets collected in this fashion usually remain sterile for that length of time. The current studies, however, show that the quality of platelet concentrates deteriorates rapidly after storage for more than 24 hours in the relatively small-volume, polyvinyl chloride containers of currently marketed, open-system software, as evidenced by the falling pH, the disintegration of platelets, and the inability of platelets to recover from hypotonic shock. Platelets were markedly defective within 48 hours. Thus, it seems unwise to extend the shelf-life of such platelet concentrates beyond 24 hours solely because they are likely to remain sterile. Collection techniques and software must also be modified to ensure satisfactory platelet quality before the period of storage should be extended.

  14. Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise?

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Ray, Deepanjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding. Aim A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients. Materials and Methods Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted. Results Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater. Conclusion Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers. PMID:26266124

  15. Clinical uses of radiolabeled platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.; Christian, P.E.; Baker, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    Platelets were first successfully radiolabeled in 1953. At that time, investigators were primarily interested in developing a technique to accurately measure platelet life span in both normal and thrombocytopenic patients. Studies using platelets labeled with /sup 51/Cr have shown shortened platelet survival times in a number of diseases including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. More recently, labels such as /sup 111/In have been developed that allow in vivo imaging of platelets. Indium-111 platelets are being used to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism and clotting disorders, and to improve the clinical diagnosis of these diseases.

  16. In vitro Quality of Platelets with Low Plasma Carryover Treated with Ultraviolet C Light for Pathogen Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lacey; Hyland, Ryan; Tan, Shereen; Tolksdorf, Frank; Sumian, Chryslain; Seltsam, Axel; Marks, Denese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system uses shortwave ultraviolet C light (UVC, 254 nm) to inactivate pathogens in platelet components. Plasma carryover influences pathogen inactivation and platelet quality following treatment. The plasma carryover in the standard platelets produced by our institution are below the intended specification (<30%). Methods A pool and split study was carried out comparing untreated and UVC-treated platelets with <30% plasma carryover (n = 10 pairs). This data was compared to components that met specifications (>30% plasma). The platelets were tested over storage for in vitro quality. Results Platelet metabolism was accelerated following UVC treatment, as demonstrated by increased glucose consumption and lactate production. UVC treatment caused increased externalization of phosphatidylserine on platelets and microparticles, activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor (PAC-1 binding), and reduced hypotonic shock response. Platelet function, as measured with thrombelastogram, was not affected by UVC treatment. Components with <30% plasma were similar to those meeting specification with the exception of enhanced glycolytic metabolism. Conclusion This in vitro analysis demonstrates that treatment of platelets with <30% plasma carryover with the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system affects some aspects of platelet metabolism and activation, although in vitro platelet function was not negatively impacted. This study also provides evidence that the treatment specifications of plasma carryover could be extended to below 30%. PMID:27403091

  17. Reduction of bacteria and human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 infectivity of platelet suspension in plasma using xenon flash-pulse light in a bench-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideki; Shiba, Masayuki; Niibe, Yoshiyuki; Tadokoro, Kenji; Satake, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Current pathogen reduction systems for platelet concentrates (PCs) require addition of chemical compounds and/or reduction of plasma content in PCs. We have investigated a new method using xenon (Xe) flash-pulse light without additional compounds or plasma replacement. An aliquot of apheresis platelets (PLTs) in plasma inoculated with bacteria or human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) was irradiated with Xe flash-pulse light (Xe flash phototreatment). Bacterial growth was monitored up to 6 days of storage, whereas HIV-1 infectivity was assayed just after treatment. Pairs of Xe flash-phototreated and untreated PCs were examined for PLT lesion during the storage period. Under the current conditions, a low titer (1.8 colony-forming units [CFUs]/mL) of Staphylococcus aureus did not proliferate during the 6-day storage period, but grew in some cases at high-titer (24.0 CFUs/mL) inoculation. HIV-1 infectivity was reduced by 1.8 log. PLT recovery of the treated PCs was lower than untreated ones. An increase of mean PLT volume and glucose consumption, together with a decrease of hypotonic shock response and pH, were enhanced by the treatment. CD62P- and PAC-1-positive PLTs increased after the treatment, indicating the induction of PLT activation. Among biologic response modifiers, soluble CD40 ligand was significantly increased in the treated PCs on Day 6. Xe flash phototreatment could prevent bacterial proliferation and reduce HIV-1 infectivity in 100% plasma PCs without any additional compounds, but enhanced PLT storage lesions. Further improvement is required to increase the potency of pathogen inactivation with reducing PLT damage. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Platelet interactions with Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Skerl, K G; Calderone, R A; Sreevalsan, T

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of human platelets and Candida albicans was studied. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained from freshly drawn blood or outdated platelet concentrates. From the platelet-rich plasma, a platelet extract was derived which stimulated germ tube formation by C. albicans when incubated with yeast cells at 37 degrees C. The active component(s) was heat stable, trypsin sensitive, and ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease insensitive, and possessed cationic properties since it readily attached to carboxymethyl-Sephadex. The active component(s) seemed to bind to heparin also, since germ tube-promoting activity was eluted from a heparin-cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column. In addition, platelet-derived growth factor (Collaborative Research, Inc.) stimulated germination when incubated with low amounts (0.4% final concentration) of bovine calf serum. The aggregation of platelets, prepared as platelet-rich plasma by C. albicans cell wall or alkali-extracted cell wall fractions, was also studied. Aggregation of platelets was observed when cell wall or cell wall fractions were incubated with platelet-poor plasma at 37 degrees C for 20 min and then added to platelet-rich plasma. The component of platelet-poor plasma which promoted aggregation of platelets by C. albicans cell wall or alkali-extracted fractions was inactivated at 56 degrees C (30 min) and by cobra venom factor, indicating a role for the alternate complement pathway in the aggregation response. PMID:7037646

  19. Evaluation of platelets prepared by apheresis and stored for 5 days. In vitro and in vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shanwell, A.; Gulliksson, H.; Berg, B.K.; Jansson, B.A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1989-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of storage on apheresis platelets collected with a closed-system blood cell separator, an in vitro investigation was performed, with measurements of pH, lactate, ATP, the ratio of ATP to the total adenine nucleotide content, and adenylate kinase. Unmodified apheresis platelets and apheresis platelets with plasma added were compared with conventional platelets stored in PL-1240 or PL-732 plastic containers. During 6 days of storage, there were similar changes in all variables with one exception: the extracellular activity of adenylate kinase was lower in apheresis platelets with plasma than in the other three groups (p less than 0.01). In vivo studies were carried out with 111Indium-labeled autologous platelets in eight volunteers. Apheresis platelets with 100 mL of plasma added were stored in two 1000-mL containers (PL-732) at 22 degrees C during agitation. Platelets from one of the containers were labeled with 111Indium and transfused into the volunteer within 24 hours. Platelets from the other container were labeled after 5 days of storage and transfused into the same donor. There were no significant differences between apheresis platelets stored for 1 day and those stored for 5 days: the mean percentage of recovery was 58.4 and 57.6 percent, t1/2 was 69 and 67 hours, and the survival time was 5.5 and 5.6 days, respectively.

  20. Optimization of platelet concentrate quality: application of proteomic technologies to donor management.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Peter; Culibrk, Brankica; Karwal, Simrath; Slichter, Sherrill J; Devine, Dana V

    2012-12-05

    Quality management of blood products is essential for blood banking. It is influenced by both processing and donor characteristics and assured by monitoring routine in vitro parameters to defined product specifications. However, these measures correlate poorly with the in vivo behavior of transfused platelets and cannot be used to select optimal donors. Since radiolabeled platelet recovery and survival studies are expensive and time consuming, there is an ongoing search for simpler measures that predict platelet transfusion outcomes. We performed a pilot study using semi-qualitative proteomics to assess changes in the platelet protein profile of donors with either acceptable or unacceptable in vivo radiolabeled autologous platelet recovery and survival measurements. Proteins changing during a 9-day storage period included cytoskeletal elements talin, vinculin and moesin as well as signal transduction proteins 14-3-3, RhoGDI and Rap1. Two of nine donations exhibited a decrease in these proteins and poor in vivo platelet recovery and survival whereas the remaining donors showed acceptable platelet recovery and survival and expected protein profiles. Analyses revealed a significant correlation between protein levels of Rap1 and RhoGDI during storage and platelet recovery and survival. This study provides for the first time preliminary data showing evidence of the utility of protein profiling to predict platelet transfusion quality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  1. Platelets in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Elizabeth; Rondina, Matthew T

    2016-12-02

    Sepsis is a dynamic, acute, infectious disease syndrome characterized by dysregulated thrombo-inflammatory responses. The high mortality associated with sepsis has been recognized since the earliest clinicians' writings. Despite this, advances in the treatment of sepsis have been more modest. This is limited, in part, by the heterogeneity in the definition, population, presentation, and causal factors of infectious syndromes. Given the persistently high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, a better understanding of the dysregulated cellular biology underpinning sepsis is needed. Platelets are small, anucleate cells that have hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune-mediating properties. Platelets are the second most common circulating blood cell, and emerging evidence suggests that platelets serve as sentinel and effector cells during infectious syndromes. Nevertheless, the molecular and functional changes that occur in platelets during sepsis, and their impact on the clinical course of infected patients, remain incompletely understood. In this review, we first highlight the complex and dynamic pathophysiology characteristics of acute, systemic infections and we then discuss established and emerging evidence of the roles of platelets in sepsis. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelets and platelet-like particles mediate intercellular RNA transfer

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Antonina; Beaulieu, Lea M.; Vitseva, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis is clearly established; however, the mechanisms by which platelets mediate inflammatory and immune pathways are less well understood. Platelets interact and modulate the function of blood and vascular cells by releasing bioactive molecules. Although the platelet is anucleate, it contains transcripts that may mirror disease. Platelet mRNA is only associated with low-level protein translation; however, platelets have a unique membrane structure allowing for the passage of small molecules, leading to the possibility that its cytoplasmic RNA may be passed to nucleated cells. To examine this question, platelet-like particles with labeled RNA were cocultured with vascular cells. Coculture of platelet-like particles with activated THP-1, monocytic, and endothelial cells led to visual and functional RNA transfer. Posttransfer microarray gene expression analysis of THP-1 cells showed an increase in HBG1/HBG2 and HBA1/HBA2 expression that was directly related to the transfer. Infusion of wild-type platelets into a TLR2-deficient mouse model established in vivo confirmation of select platelet RNA transfer to leukocytes. By specifically transferring green fluorescent protein, we also observed external RNA was functional in the recipient cells. The observation that platelets possess the capacity to transfer cytosolic RNA suggests a new function for platelets in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. PMID:22596260

  3. Platelet interaction with bacteria. V. Ultrastructure of congenital afibrinogenemic platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, C. C.; White, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Platelets from a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia (CA) were tested in their native plasma for reactivity in vitro to Staphylococcus aureus 502A. Previous studies of the interactions between normal human platelets and this organism have shown rapid irreversible aggregation responses in which the bacteria were regularly trapped between aggregating platelets. Engulfment of microbes by single normal platelets in a process akin to phagocytosis was a very rare occurrence. In contrast, CA platelets showed a delayed aggregation response to contact with this microorganism. The CA platelets were also much more sensitive to the concentration of bacteria than were normal platelets. Electron microscopy showed that individual CA platelets often engulfed the stimulatory organism rather than participating in aggregation. Postfixation staining with a colloidal tracer, lanthanum nitrate, indicated that the bacteria were sequestered in the open canalicular system of the CA platelets in a manner analogous to that previously observed with latex particles. Restoration of normal levels of human fibrinogen to the CA platelet-rich plasma corrected the delay in aggregation but did not eliminate the frequent engulfment of bacteria by the CA platelets. These findings indicate that fibrinogen is an important, although not essential, cofactor in the response of human platelets to contact with this common bacterial pathogen. Images p[209]-a Figures 6 and 7 Figures 8 and 9 Figures 10 and 11 Figures 12 and 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7350814

  4. Association of Adiposity Indices with Platelet Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weihong; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Xu, Tian; Fang, Weimin; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Xiulou; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Tangchun; Yang, Handong; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of inflammatory tissue lesions. It can affect platelet function. While mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) are sample platelet indices, they may reflect subcinical platelet activation. To investigated associations between adiposity indices and platelet indices, 17327 eligible individuals (7677 males and 9650 females) from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study (DFTJ-Cohort Study, n=27009) were included in this study, except for 9682 individuals with missing data on demographical, lifestyle, physical indicators and diseases relative to PDW and MPV. Associations between adiposity indices including waist circumstance (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI), and MPV or PDW in the participants were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. There were significantly negative associations between abnormal PDW and WC or WHtR for both sexes (ptrend<0.001 for all), as well as abnormal MPV and WC or WHtR among female participants (ptrend<0.05 for all). In the highest BMI groups, only females with low MPV or PDW were at greater risk for having low MPV (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.10, 1.62 ptrend<0.001) or PDW (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.14, 1.58, ptrend<0.001) than those who had low MPV or PDW in the corresponding lowest BMI group. The change of PDW seems more sensitive than MPV to oxidative stress and hypoxia. Associations between reduced PDW and MPV values and WC, WHtR and BMI values in Chinese female adults may help us to further investigate early changes in human body. PMID:26058081

  5. Spleen function and platelet kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Klonizakis, I; Peters, A M; Fitzpatrick, M L; Kensett, M J; Lewis, S M; Lavender, J P

    1981-01-01

    In patients suffering from various platelet abnormalities, quantitative scanning after injection of indium-111 (111In) labelled platelets showed three different patterns of platelet destruction and distribution. In patients with a normal platelet life span but with evidence of increased splenic pooling, the spleen tended to be the main site of destruction. In patients with a moderately reduced platelet life span, the distribution of destruction in the system and variable destruction in the marrow. However, because of its rapidity this destruction was difficult to quantify, and it was difficult in these cases to distinguish reliably between spleen pool, sequestration, and destruction. Destruction of platelets on the liver appeared to be unimportant in all three groups. 111In, because of its physical characteristics, is preferable to chromium-51 as a platelet label in the assessment of abnormal platelet kinetics. Images PMID:7240424

  6. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    mice and mice transfused with Syk inhibitor-treated platelets . Platelet lodging was remarkably decreased in lungs of mice transfused with Syk...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet ...30September2012–29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Human Platelets and Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Myatt S.; Walsh, Peter N.

    1979-01-01

    Because human platelets participate in the contact phase of intrinsic coagulation and contain a Factor XI-like coagulant activity, the nature of the Factor XI-like activity was examined and compared with purified plasma Factor XI. The platelet factor XI-like activity was sedimented with the particulate fraction of a platelet lysate, was inactivated by heat (t1/2 3.5 min, 56°C), was not a nonspecific phospholipid activity, and was destroyed by treatment with Triton X-100. Isolated platelet membranes were four-fold enriched in Factor XI activity and similarly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The Factor XI-like activity of platelet membranes was detected only when assayed in the presence of kaolin, which suggests that it is present in an unactivated form and can participate in contact activation. Concanavalin A inhibited the Factor XI-like activity of platelet lysates and platelet membranes but not of plasma or purified Factor XI. A platelet membrane-Factor XI complex was isolated after incubation of membranes with purified Factor XI. The Factor XI activity of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex was inhibited by concanavalin A, whereas unbound plasma Factor XI retained activity. An antibody raised against plasma Factor XI inhibited the in vitro Factor XI activity of plasma and of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex but had no effect on the endogenous Factor XI-like activity of washed lysed platelets or isolated platelet membranes. Washed platelets and isolated platelet membranes obtained from a Factor XI-deficient donor without a history of excessive bleeding had normal quantities of platelet Factor XI-like activity and normal behavior in the contact phase of coagulation (collagen-induced coagulant activity). These results indicate that platelet membranes contain an endogenous Factor XI-like activity that is functionally distinct from plasma Factor XI. PMID:447822

  8. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  9. Lyophilized Platelets: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    and protozoan infections; alloimmunization resulting in refracto- riness to future platelet transfusions; and graft-versus-host disease . The...for preparation of lyophilized platelets has recently been described.7 Freeze-dried platelets retain native von Willebrand factor-mediated adhesion

  10. Thrombocytopenia: A Destruction of Platelets.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Edythe M

    Platelets, or megakaryocytes, are irregular, disk-shaped cell fragments circulating in the blood. They are a primary component in maintaining hemostasis. Low platelet counts, or thrombocytopenia, leave patients at an increased risk of hemorrhage. This article discusses various etiologies of disorders of low platelets and current therapies for management.

  11. FlnA-null megakaryocytes prematurely release large and fragile platelets that circulate poorly

    PubMed Central

    Jurak Begonja, Antonija; Hoffmeister, Karin M.; Hartwig, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Filamin A (FlnA) is a large cytoplasmic protein that crosslinks actin filaments and anchors membrane receptors and signaling intermediates. FlnAloxP PF4-Cre mice that lack FlnA in the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage have a severe macrothrombocytopenia because of accelerated platelet clearance. Macrophage ablation by injection of clodronate-encapsulated liposomes increases blood platelet counts in FlnAloxP PF4-Cre mice and reveals the desintegration of FlnA-null platelets into microvesicles, a process that occurs spontaneously during storage. FlnAloxP PF4-Cre bone marrows and spleens have a 2.5- to 5-fold increase in MK numbers, indicating increased thrombopoiesis in vivo. Analysis of platelet production in vitro reveals that FlnA-null MKs prematurely convert their cytoplasm into large CD61+ platelet-sized particles, reminiscent of the large platelets observed in vivo. FlnA stabilizes the platelet von Willebrand factor receptor, as surface expression of von Willebrand factor receptor components is normal on FlnA-null MKs but decreased on FlnA-null platelets. Further, FlnA-null platelets contain multiple GPIbα degradation products and have increased expression of the ADAM17 and MMP9 metalloproteinases. Together, the findings indicate that FlnA-null MKs prematurely release large and fragile platelets that are removed rapidly from the circulation by macrophages. PMID:21652675

  12. FlnA-null megakaryocytes prematurely release large and fragile platelets that circulate poorly.

    PubMed

    Jurak Begonja, Antonija; Hoffmeister, Karin M; Hartwig, John H; Falet, Hervé

    2011-08-25

    Filamin A (FlnA) is a large cytoplasmic protein that crosslinks actin filaments and anchors membrane receptors and signaling intermediates. FlnA(loxP) PF4-Cre mice that lack FlnA in the megakaryocyte (MK) lineage have a severe macrothrombocytopenia because of accelerated platelet clearance. Macrophage ablation by injection of clodronate-encapsulated liposomes increases blood platelet counts in FlnA(loxP) PF4-Cre mice and reveals the desintegration of FlnA-null platelets into microvesicles, a process that occurs spontaneously during storage. FlnA(loxP) PF4-Cre bone marrows and spleens have a 2.5- to 5-fold increase in MK numbers, indicating increased thrombopoiesis in vivo. Analysis of platelet production in vitro reveals that FlnA-null MKs prematurely convert their cytoplasm into large CD61(+) platelet-sized particles, reminiscent of the large platelets observed in vivo. FlnA stabilizes the platelet von Willebrand factor receptor, as surface expression of von Willebrand factor receptor components is normal on FlnA-null MKs but decreased on FlnA-null platelets. Further, FlnA-null platelets contain multiple GPIbα degradation products and have increased expression of the ADAM17 and MMP9 metalloproteinases. Together, the findings indicate that FlnA-null MKs prematurely release large and fragile platelets that are removed rapidly from the circulation by macrophages.

  13. Megakaryocytes and platelets in alpha-granule disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, M P; Cramer, E M; Savidge, G F

    1997-02-01

    This chapter summarizes research data contributing to current understanding of disorders affecting alpha-granules of megakaryocytes and platelets. Diagnostic features of the gray platelet syndrome are well defined. Combined evidence suggests a defect, specific to the megakaryocyte cell lineage, causing a cytoskeletal abnormality and defective targeting of endogenously synthesized proteins to the alpha-granule. The abnormalities linked by signal transduction pathways. von Willebrand disease and afibrinogenaemia are disorders which highlight the functional importance of platelet storage pools of von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, essential ligands in the process of adhesion and aggregation. The abnormality in the factor V Quebec disorder leads to a degradation of most proteins contained within the alpha-granule. The familial platelet disorder Paris-Trousseau thrombocytopenia is the only alpha-granule disorder associated with a cytogenetic abnormality, and it presents a useful model for exploring the genetic influence on regulation of thrombopoiesis. Study of these syndromes has elucidated aspects of the physiology of normal megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation, including storage organelle biosynthesis.

  14. Sustained production of beta-glucuronidase from localized sites after AAV vector gene transfer results in widespread distribution of enzyme and reversal of lysosomal storage lesions in a large volume of brain in mucopolysaccharidosis VII mice.

    PubMed

    Skorupa, A F; Fisher, K J; Wilson, J M; Parente, M K; Wolfe, J H

    1999-11-01

    The lysosomal storage disorders are a large group of inherited diseases that involve central nervous system degeneration. The disease in the brain has generally been refractory to treatment, which will require long-term correction of lesions dispersed throughout the central nervous system to be effective. A promising approach is somatic gene therapy but the methods have so far been inadequate because they have only achieved short-term or localized improvements. A potential approach to overcome these limitations is to obtain sustained high level expression and secretion of the missing normal enzyme from a small group of cells for export to neighboring diseased cells, which might allow the therapeutic protein to reach distal sites. We tested this in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly disease) using an adeno-associated virus vector. After a single treatment the vector continuously produced the normal enzyme from infected cells at the injection sites. The secreted enzyme was disseminated along most of the neuraxis, resulting in widespread reversal of the hallmark pathology. An extensive sphere of correction surrounding the transduction sites was created, suggesting that a limited number of appropriately spaced sites of gene transfer may provide overlapping spheres of enzyme diffusion to cover a large volume of brain tissue.

  15. Reactions Induced by Platelet Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Kiefel, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Summary Platelet transfusions play a central role in therapeutic regimens for patients with hematologic/oncologic diseases who develop severe thrombocytopenia either in the course of their disease or following cytostatic therapy. Like other blood components, platelet transfusions have achieved a high degree of safety as far as transmission of viral diseases is concerned. However, transfusion of platelet concentrates is accompanied by a high frequency of febrile and anaphylactoid reactions. In rare cases, recipients of platelet concentrates are threatened by severe reactions as septic complications due to bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates, transfusion-related acute lung injury and severe anaphylactic episodes. PMID:21512624

  16. Cbl proteins in platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Lorena; Tsygankov, Alexander; Sanjay, Archana; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a fundamental role in hemostasis. Their functional responses have to be tightly controlled as any disturbance may lead to bleeding disorders or thrombosis. It is thus important to clearly identify and understand the signaling mechanisms involved in platelet function. An important role of c-Cbl and Cbl-b ubiquitin ligases in platelet functional responses and in hematological malignancies has been recently described. Cbl proteins perform negative and positive regulation of several signaling pathways in platelets. In this review, we explore the role of Cbl proteins in platelet functional responses.

  17. Human Platelet Senescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-30

    s by thP Spleen. We have recently made the interest inro o!bservat ion that the spleen preferentially sequesters mega- thrombocytes (o,7) (se...follow:ini th,’ inj,.cti(,n ,f anti-platelet antihody. Electron microscopy of blood from pati. with micrnthr’bteocyte, peaks reveal very small intact

  18. Platelet transport in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyssat, Mathilde; Le Goff, Anne; Blin, Antoine; Pujos, Justine; Magniez, Aurélie; Baruch, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Blood platelets are small enucleated cells responsible for the arrest of bleeding. These cells have the ability to tether and translocate on injured vascular endothelium, thanks to a specific interaction between a receptor of their membrane and a protein expressed by the cells composing the inner wall of the vessel, the von Willebrand factor (VWF). Others cells have such abilities of rolling. Leucocytes, for example, translocate on surface due to a specific interaction between selectin molecules and their respective glycoprotein ligands. These kinds of cells present two modes of transport: they can either be advected by the flux, or translocate on surfaces due to specific ligand-receptor interactions. Our work consists first in studying experimentally the transport of platelets along a microchannel and then in modeling this particular cell transport. Due to these two modes of transport along a channel, platelets adhering to the surface are not equally distributed along the channel axis. We describe the evolution of the density of platelets with time and distance.

  19. Transfusion of Human Platelets Treated with Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology Does Not Induce Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Caudrillier, Axelle; Mallavia, Beñat; Rouse, Lindsay; Marschner, Susanne; Looney, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed in an effort to make the blood supply safer, but there is controversy as to whether it may induce structural or functional changes to platelets that could lead to acute lung injury after transfusion. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human platelets that were then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. P-selectin expression was higher in the Mirasol PRT-treated platelets compared to control platelets on storage day 5, but not storage day 1. Transfusion of control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated platelets (day 5 of storage, 109 platelets per mouse) into NOD/SCID mice did not result in lung injury, however transfusion of storage day 5 platelets treated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide increased both extravascular lung water and lung vascular permeability. Transfusion of day 1 platelets did not produce lung injury in any group, and LPS priming 24 hours before transfusion had no effect on lung injury. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury, NOD/SCID mice were susceptible to acute lung injury when challenged with H-2Kd monoclonal antibody vs. isotype control antibody. Using lung intravital microscopy, we did not detect a difference in the dynamic retention of platelets in the lung circulation in control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated groups. In conclusion, Mirasol PRT produced an increase in P-selectin expression that is storage-dependent, but transfusion of human platelets treated with Mirasol PRT into immunodeficient mice did not result in greater platelet retention in the lungs or the development of acute lung injury.

  20. Activated platelets signal chemokine synthesis by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, A S; Elstad, M R; McEver, R P; McIntyre, T M; Moore, K L; Morrissey, J H; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A

    1996-01-01

    Human blood monocytes adhere rapidly and for prolonged periods to activated platelets that display P-selectin, an adhesion protein that recognizes a specific ligand on leukocytes, P-selectin glycoprotein-1. We previously demonstrated that P-selectin regulates expression and secretion of cytokines by stimulated monocytes when it is presented in a purified, immobilized form or by transfected cells. Here we show that thrombin-activated platelets induce the expression and secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and IL-8 by monocytes. Enhanced monokine synthesis requires engagement of P-selectin glycoprotein-1 on the leukocyte by P-selectin on the platelet. Secretion of the chemokines is not, however, directly signaled by P-selectin; instead, tethering of the monocytes by P-selectin is required for their activation by RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed presumed secreted), a platelet chemokine not previously known to induce immediate-early gene products in monocytes. Adhesion of monocytes to activated platelets results in nuclear translocation of p65 (RelA), a component of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors that binds kappaB sequences in the regulatory regions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-8, and other immediate-early genes. However, expression of tissue factor, a coagulation protein that also has a kappaB sequence in the 5' regulatory region of its gene, is not induced in monocytes adherent to activated platelets. Thus, contact of monocytes with activated platelets differentially affects the expression of monocyte products. These experiments suggest that activated platelets regulate chemokine secretion by monocytes in inflammatory lesions in vivo and provide a model for the study of gene regulation in cell-cell interactions. PMID:8617886

  1. Rho GTPases in platelet function.

    PubMed

    Aslan, J E; McCarty, O J T

    2013-01-01

    The Rho family of GTP binding proteins, also commonly referred to as the Rho GTPases, are master regulators of the platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function. These low-molecular-weight or 'small' GTPases act as signaling switches in the spatial and temporal transduction, and amplification of signals from platelet cell surface receptors to the intracellular signaling pathways that drive platelet function. The Rho GTPase family members RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 have emerged as key regulators in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in platelets and play key roles in platelet aggregation, secretion, spreading and thrombus formation. Rho GTPase regulators, including GEFs and GAPs and downstream effectors, such as the WASPs, formins and PAKs, may also regulate platelet activation and function. In this review, we provide an overview of Rho GTPase signaling in platelet physiology. Previous studies of Rho GTPases and platelets have had a shared history, as platelets have served as an ideal, non-transformed cellular model to characterize Rho function. Likewise, recent studies of the cell biology of Rho GTPase family members have helped to build an understanding of the molecular regulation of platelet function and will continue to do so through the further characterization of Rho GTPases as well as Rho GAPs, GEFs, RhoGDIs and Rho effectors in actin reorganization and other Rho-driven cellular processes. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Applications of ultraviolet light in the preparation of platelet concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Pamphilon, D.H.; Corbin, S.A.; Saunders, J.; Tandy, N.P.

    1989-06-01

    Passenger lymphocytes in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce the formation of lymphocytotoxic antibodies (LCTAbs) and subsequent refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can prevent lymphocytes' acting as stimulator or responder cells in mixed-lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) and could theoretically prevent LCTAb formation in vivo. A system has been devised for the delivery of UV irradiation to PCs; platelet storage characteristics and MLRs were evaluated in UV-irradiated PCs harvested from healthy donors with the Haemonetics V50 and PCS cell separators. MLR and response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation were abolished by a dose of 3000 joules per m2 at a mean wavelength of 310 nm. Platelet aggregatory responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ristocetin, collagen and epinephrine, hypotonic shock response, and pH showed no important differences when control PCs and PCs irradiated as above were compared during 5 days of storage in Fenwal PL-1240 packs. Lactate production during storage was significantly higher in UV-treated PCs (p less than 0.001), but values did not exceed 20 mmol per L. UV transmission at 310 nm in standard blood product containers, including the Fenwal PL-146, PL-1240, and PL-732, was low (less than 30%), but it was acceptable in the Delmed Cryostorage and DuPont SteriCell packs (greater than 50%). UV irradiation may provide a simple and inexpensive means of producing nonimmunogenic PCs.

  3. Increased platelet deposition on atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    van Zanten, G H; de Graaf, S; Slootweg, P J; Heijnen, H F; Connolly, T M; de Groot, P G; Sixma, J J

    1994-01-01

    , laminin, and thrombospondin in the vessel wall had no effect on platelet adhesion. We conclude that the increased thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic lesions is due to changes in quantity and nature of collagen types I and/or III. Images PMID:8113399

  4. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  5. Arf6 controls platelet spreading and clot retraction via integrin αIIbβ3 trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunjie; Joshi, Smita; Xiang, Binggang; Kanaho, Yasunori; Li, Zhenyu; Bouchard, Beth A.; Moncman, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet and megakaryocyte endocytosis is important for loading certain granule cargo (ie, fibrinogen [Fg] and vascular endothelial growth factor); however, the mechanisms of platelet endocytosis and its functional acute effects are understudied. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate–ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small guanosine triphosphate–binding protein that regulates endocytic trafficking, especially of integrins. To study platelet endocytosis, we generated platelet-specific Arf6 knockout (KO) mice. Arf6 KO platelets had less associated Fg suggesting that Arf6 affects αIIbβ3-mediated Fg uptake and/or storage. Other cargo was unaffected. To measure Fg uptake, mice were injected with biotinylated- or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled Fg. Platelets from the injected Arf6 KO mice showed lower accumulation of tagged Fg, suggesting an uptake defect. Ex vivo, Arf6 KO platelets were also defective in FITC-Fg uptake and storage. Immunofluorescence analysis showed initial trafficking of FITC-Fg to a Rab4-positive compartment followed by colocalization with Rab11-positive structures, suggesting that platelets contain and use both early and recycling endosomes. Resting and activated αIIbβ3 levels, as measured by flow cytometry, were unchanged; yet, Arf6 KO platelets exhibited enhanced spreading on Fg and faster clot retraction. This was not the result of alterations in αIIbβ3 signaling, because myosin light-chain phosphorylation and Rac1/RhoA activation were unaffected. Consistent with the enhanced clot retraction and spreading, Arf6 KO mice showed no deficits in tail bleeding or FeCl3-induced carotid injury assays. Our studies present the first mouse model for defining the functions of platelet endocytosis and suggest that altered integrin trafficking may affect the efficacy of platelet function. PMID:26738539

  6. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P) translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet proteome in dengue

  7. Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue.

    PubMed

    Trugilho, Monique Ramos de Oliveira; Hottz, Eugenio Damaceno; Brunoro, Giselle Villa Flor; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Salazar, Gustavo Adolfo; Zimmerman, Guy A; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T; Perales, Jonas

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Platelets are blood cells classically known as effectors of hemostasis which have been increasingly recognized to have major immune and inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the phenotype and effector functions of platelets in dengue pathogenesis are not completely understood. Here we used quantitative proteomics to investigate the protein content of platelets in clinical samples from patients with dengue compared to platelets from healthy donors. Our assays revealed a set of 252 differentially abundant proteins. In silico analyses associated these proteins with key molecular events including platelet activation and inflammatory responses, and with events not previously attributed to platelets during dengue infection including antigen processing and presentation, proteasome activity, and expression of histones. From these results, we conducted functional assays using samples from a larger cohort of patients and demonstrated evidence for platelet activation indicated by P-selectin (CD62P) translocation and secretion of granule-stored chemokines by platelets. In addition, we found evidence that DENV infection triggers HLA class I synthesis and surface expression by a mechanism depending on functional proteasome activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cell-free histone H2A released during dengue infection binds to platelets, increasing platelet activation. These findings are consistent with functional importance of HLA class I, proteasome subunits, and histones that we found exclusively in proteome analysis of platelets in samples from dengue patients. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of the platelet proteome in dengue

  8. Typing for human platelet alloantigens.

    PubMed

    Juji, T; Saji, H; Satake, M; Tokunaga, K

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies to platelet alloantigens, and sometimes to isoantigens, induce severe clinical problems such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and refractoriness to platelet transfusions (PTR). For example, NAIT affects approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is essential, therefore, to screen pregnant women for platelet antibodies in order to save babies' lives. Almost 40 years ago, two platelet alloantigen systems were discovered using relatively simple methods, namely the platelet agglutination test and the complement fixation test. However, these methods were not sensitive enough to identify all antibodies in mothers and patients, even in those with severe clinical problems. Tremendous effort has been devoted to establish more sensitive and reliable methods. In recent years, excellent new serological and immunochemical methods have been established and several new platelet antigen systems have been discovered. Simultaneously, newly developed molecular genetic techniques have been introduced for the typing and analysis of human platelet alloantigen systems. These methods allow DNA typing for cases in which serological typing is not available. In this article, the history of studies on human platelet alloantigen systems and isoantigens, the nomenclature of platelet alloantigen systems and their alleles, the present status of antibody detection and typing techniques and, finally, ethnic variations in platelet antigen profiles are reviewed.

  9. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  10. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  11. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  12. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  13. Soluble Mediators in Platelet Concentrates Modulate Dendritic Cell Inflammatory Responses in an Experimental Model of Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Perros, Alexis J; Christensen, Anne-Marie; Flower, Robert L; Dean, Melinda M

    2015-10-01

    The transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs) is widely used to treat thrombocytopenia and severe trauma. Ex vivo storage of PCs is associated with a storage lesion characterized by partial platelet activation and the release of soluble mediators, such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), RANTES, and interleukin (IL)-8. An in vitro whole blood culture transfusion model was employed to assess whether mediators present in PC supernatants (PC-SNs) modulated dendritic cell (DC)-specific inflammatory responses (intracellular staining) and the overall inflammatory response (cytometric bead array). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was included in parallel cultures to model the impact of PC-SNs on cell responses following toll-like receptor-mediated pathogen recognition. The impact of both the PC dose (10%, 25%) and ex vivo storage period was investigated [day 2 (D2), day 5 (D5), day 7 (D7)]. PC-SNs alone had minimal impact on DC-specific inflammatory responses and the overall inflammatory response. However, in the presence of LPS, exposure to PC-SNs resulted in a significant dose-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-12, IL-6, IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β and storage-associated suppression of the production of DC IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-8. For the overall inflammatory response, IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and inflammatory protein (IP)-10 were significantly suppressed and IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1β significantly increased following exposure to PC-SNs in the presence of LPS. These data suggest that soluble mediators present in PCs significantly suppress DC function and modulate the overall inflammatory response, particularly in the presence of an infectious stimulus. Given the central role of DCs in the initiation and regulation of the immune response, these results suggest that modulation of the DC inflammatory profile is a probable mechanism contributing to transfusion-related complications.

  14. Hypothermia and Platelet Dysfunction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery, other major surgery, multiple trauma, cold exposure, and neonatal cold injury.1Ŗ The hemorrhagic diathesis...associated with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery is considered to be primarily a platelet function defect.I6,17,23 We have...cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery.,8,24 Consistent with this data, other investigators have recently reported that normothermic cardiopulmonary

  15. Human Platelet Senescence Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    ability to measure certain enzymes to their oxidation-reduc other enzymes which can be measured by o phosphatase , acid phosphatase , chymotryp...alkaline sin, trypsin, esterases (17)); M use of n A or wheat germ agglutinin in the second etect specific carbohydrate constituents. We have...Von Willebrand factor. Nurden and Caen also demonstrated that GPI was rich in sialic acid (5) and probably responsible for the platelets’ surface

  16. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    PubMed

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  17. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  18. Lysophosphatidic acids. Influence on platelet aggregation and intracellular calcium flux.

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, J. M.; Kindom, S. E.; Peterson, D. A.; Peller, J.; Krantz, K. E.; White, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Decanoyl-, palmitoyl-, and oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) were studied for their effects on platelet aggregation and intracellular calcium flux. Palmitoyl-LPA and oleoyl-LPA both caused a concentration-dependent aggregation of human blood platelets at concentrations of 12--300 microM. Aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was enhanced at slightly lower concentrations. First-wave aggregation induced by these LPAs was not blocked by aspirin, indomethacin, or heparin, suggesting similarities to ADP aggregation. However, in washed platelets with a high calcium concentration, no serotonin secretion was observed, even though full aggregation occurred, suggesting that aggregation was not due to released ADP. This concept was supported by studies of platelets deficient in the storage pool of ADP and serotonin, which had a normal first-wave aggregation response to palmitoyl-LPA. Aggregation induced by palmitoyl LPA was inhibited by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), theophylline, and ethylenediaminotetraacetate (EDTA), though in the presence of EDTA shape change occurred. Aggregation stimulated by palmitoyl-LPA or oleoyl-LPA was characterized by changes in the shape of the platelets with development of pseudopods and centralization of granules closely surrounded by contractile microfilaments and supporting microtubules. The addition of palmitoyl-LPA and oleoyl-LPA, but not decanoyl-LPA, caused the release of calcium from a platelet membrane fraction that contains elements of the intracellular calcium storage system and actively concentrates this cation in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and magnesium. It is suggested that LPAs cause aggregation by stimulating the release of calcium intracellularly. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Text-Figure 6 PMID:112871

  19. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulate Platelets and Facilitate Thrombus Formation through Platelet CLEC-2: Implications in Atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Osamu; Hokamura, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiaki; Osada, Makoto; Tsukiji, Nagaharu; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Umemura, Kazuo; Asada, Yujiro; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Ozaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The platelet receptor CLEC-2 is involved in thrombosis/hemostasis, but its ligand, podoplanin, is expressed only in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated CLEC-2 ligands in vessel walls. Recombinant CLEC-2 bound to early atherosclerotic lesions and normal arterial walls, co-localizing with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry showed that recombinant CLEC-2, but not an anti-podoplanin antibody, bound to VSMCs, suggesting that CLEC-2 ligands other than podoplanin are present in VSMCs. VSMCs stimulated platelet granule release and supported thrombus formation under flow, dependent on CLEC-2. The time to occlusion in a FeCl3-induced animal thrombosis model was significantly prolonged in the absence of CLEC-2. Because the internal elastic lamina was lacerated in our FeCl3-induced model, we assume that the interaction between CLEC-2 and its ligands in VSMCs induces thrombus formation. Protein arrays and Biacore analysis were used to identify S100A13 as a CLEC-2 ligand in VSMCs. However, S100A13 is not responsible for the above-described VSMC-induced platelet activation, because S100A13 is not expressed on the surface of normal VSMCs. S100A13 was released upon oxidative stress and expressed in the luminal area of atherosclerotic lesions. Suspended S100A13 did not activate platelets, but immobilized S100A13 significantly increased thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces. Taken together, we proposed that VSMCs stimulate platelets through CLEC-2, possibly leading to thrombus formation after plaque erosion and stent implantation, where VSMCs are exposed to blood flow. Furthermore, we identified S100A13 as one of the ligands on VSMCs. PMID:26418160

  20. Human blood platelets at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, D. MACN.; Ausprunk, D.; Blevins, D.; Chao, F. C.; Curby, W.

    1987-01-01

    A set of freshly collected and separated human platelet suspensions were transported, in three types of plastic containers, on a 6 day, 2 hr mission of the orbiter Columbia to study the effect of prolonged exposure of human blood cells to microgravity. A controlled environment at a temperature of 22 + or - 1 deg with air flow was provided and another set of samples held on the ground acted as controls. Paired comparisons of platelets at ug versus controls at lxg revealed superior platelet survival at microgravity. When viewed in terms of plastic type, ug platelets in containers fabricated from PVC-TOTM displayed the best overall postflight viability.

  1. Platelets can enhance vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Nathalie; Paré, Alexandre; Farndale, Richard W; Schumacher, H Ralph; Nigrovic, Peter A; Lacroix, Steve; Boilard, Eric

    2012-08-09

    Platelets survey blood vessels, searching for endothelial damage and preventing loss of vascular integrity. However, there are circumstances where vascular permeability increases, suggesting that platelets sometimes fail to fulfill their expected function. Human inflammatory arthritis is associated with tissue edema attributed to enhanced permeability of the synovial microvasculature. Murine studies have suggested that such vascular leak facilitates entry of autoantibodies and may thereby promote joint inflammation. Whereas platelets typically help to promote microvascular integrity, we examined the role of platelets in synovial vascular permeability in murine experimental arthritis. Using an in vivo model of autoimmune arthritis, we confirmed the presence of endothelial gaps in inflamed synovium. Surprisingly, permeability in the inflamed joints was abrogated if the platelets were absent. This effect was mediated by platelet serotonin accumulated via the serotonin transporter and could be antagonized using serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. As opposed to the conventional role of platelets to microvascular leakage, this demonstration that platelets are capable of amplifying and maintaining permeability adds to the rapidly growing list of unexpected functions for platelets.

  2. Human blood platelets at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, D. MACN.; Ausprunk, D.; Blevins, D.; Chao, F. C.; Curby, W.

    1987-01-01

    A set of freshly collected and separated human platelet suspensions were transported, in three types of plastic containers, on a 6 day, 2 hr mission of the orbiter Columbia to study the effect of prolonged exposure of human blood cells to microgravity. A controlled environment at a temperature of 22 + or - 1 deg with air flow was provided and another set of samples held on the ground acted as controls. Paired comparisons of platelets at ug versus controls at lxg revealed superior platelet survival at microgravity. When viewed in terms of plastic type, ug platelets in containers fabricated from PVC-TOTM displayed the best overall postflight viability.

  3. Platelet effects on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ashley N; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    Growing understanding of the role of thrombocytosis, high platelet turnover, and the presence of activated platelets in the circulation in cancer progression and metastasis has brought megakaryocytes into focus. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. However, before megakaryocyte/platelet-directed therapies can be considered for clinical use, understanding of the mechanism and biology of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in malignancy is required. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical implications, biological significance, and mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in the context of ovarian cancer.

  4. Comparison of platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Caitlin M; Werre, Stephen R; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2015-04-01

    (1) To compare the performance of 4 platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates and (2) to evaluate the ability of the Magellan platelet rich plasma (PRP) system to concentrate equine platelets. Experimental study to assess method agreement. Adult mixed breed horses (n = 32). Acid citrate dextrose-A anti-coagulated whole blood was collected and PRP produced using the Magellan system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Platelets were quantified using 4 counting methods: optical scatter (Advia 2120), impedance (CellDyn 3700), hand counting, and fluorescent antibody flow cytometry. Platelet concentrations were compared using Passing and Bablok regression analyses and mixed model ANOVA. Significance was set at P < .05. Platelet concentrations measured in identical PRP samples were consistently higher for the Advia 2120 than the CellDyn 3700. Systematic and proportional biases were observed between these 2 automated methods when analyzed by regression analysis of the larger sample size. No bias (systematic or proportional) was observed among any of the other counting methods. Despite the bias detected between the 2 automated systems, there were no significant differences on average among the 4 counting methods evaluated, based on the ANOVA. The Magellan system consistently generated high platelet concentrations as well as higher than expected WBC concentrations. The Magellan system delivered desirably high platelet concentrations; however, WBC concentrations may be unacceptably high for some orthopedic applications. All 4 platelet counting methods tested were equivalent on average and therefore suitable for quantifying platelets in equine PRP used for clinical applications. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags. II. Survival studies.

    PubMed

    KISSMEYER-NIELSEN, F; MADSEN, C B

    1961-11-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P(32) in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P(32). The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible.

  6. Electron opaque structures in human platelets: which are or are not dense bodies?

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2008-09-01

    The dense bodies, also referred to as delta (delta) granules, present in human platelets are the storage sites for adenine nucleotides and serotonin. Stored products released following activation are important for platelet aggregation during hemostasis. Dense bodies are easily detected in thin sections of properly fixed platelets and in unfixed, unstained whole mount preparations. It is important to determine their presence and frequency with accuracy because they are absent or markedly reduced in platelet storage pool deficiency disorders. The present study has demonstrated that identification of dense bodies as not a simple matter. There are electron dense structures, including dense rings, glycosomes, "fuzzy" balls, chains, clusters and other dense elements, that may confuse the determination of true dense bodies. Even some alpha granules are sufficiently electron dense to be confused with delta granules when using densitometric techniques. The present work may prevent investigators from making diagnostic errors.

  7. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    PubMed

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-06-22

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process.

  8. Leukoreduction of platelet concentrates using a 'polishing' filter.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, P F; Pietersz, R N; Reesink, H W

    2000-01-01

    Filters for removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) usually have a large volume to guarantee sufficient leukoreduction. In this study, a small filter, with a volume of only 8 ml and therefore minimal platelet loss, for leukoreduction of PCs was investigated. This filter has a 'limited' leukoreducing capacity, hence the filter is called a 'polishing' filter. PCs were made from 5 pooled buffy coats in either plasma or additive solution (PAS-II). After centrifugation, the platelet-rich supernatant was expressed on an automated separator (Compomat G4) to an empty transfer bag. The content of this transfer bag was filtered into the platelet storage bag, either by expression by lowering the top press of the Compomat G4, or by gravity by hanging it on a filtration rack. Leukocyte counts before and after filtration revealed a mean leukoreducing capacity for the filter of 2.67 log(10) and a platelet loss of only 2% for PCs in PAS-II (n = 50), and for PCs in plasma a 3.43 log(10) leukoreduction with 3% platelet loss (n = 30). Expression of the PCs both in plasma and PAS-II through the filter using the Compomat G4 resulted in 10/10 units containing <5x10(6) leukocytes, but 1/10 PCs contained >1x10(6) leukocytes for both solutions. Filtration by gravity resultet in 40/40 units with <1x10(6) leukocytes for PCs in plasma, and 60/60 units with <1x10(6) for PCs in PAS-II. The 'polishing' filter allows reliable, standardized and automated production of PCs, both in plasma and additive solution with minimal platelet loss, and containing uniformly <1x10(6) leukocytes, provided the filtration procedure is performed by gravity.

  9. Quantitative study of starving platelets in a minimal medium: maintenance by acetate or plasma but not by glucose.

    PubMed

    Whisson, M E; Nakhoul, A; Howman, P; Niu, X; Guppy, M

    1993-06-01

    The requirement of donor platelets for fuels, plasma and calcium were studied using platelets washed, filtered to remove leucocytes and resuspended in a new glucose-free minimal platelet storage medium with low citrate (3 mmol/l), low buffer capacity and no calcium. This is the first study of platelets stored without plasma, glucose or calcium and it was shown that platelets continued to aggregate with collagen plus adrenaline for 48 h and showed only a 50% fall in 'swirl index', an objective morphology score, after 3 days, showing that by these criteria human platelets do not require glucose. Sodium acetate extended the storage time by between 2 and 4 days, depending on the index parameter. This is the first evidence showing that failure of platelets in these conditions is at least partly due to exhaustion of fuel, and the first evidence that acetate prolongs in vitro survival. As little as 10% low-glucose plasma extended the storage time, but it was no better than acetate. New observations using this system included a very rapid fall in pH during resuspension of the washed platelet pellet, a rising pH in the absence of added fuel and an increased pH with added acetate.

  10. [STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLATELETS AND PLATELET-DERIVED MICROVESICLES].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Mordakhanova, E R; Andrianova, I A; Litvinov, R I

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are the anucleated blood cells, wich together with the fibrin stop bleeding (hemostasis). Cellular microvesicles are membrane-surrounded microparticles released into extracellular space upon activation and/or apoptosis of various cells. Platelet-derived macrovesicles from the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathophysiology of platelet-derived macrovesicles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the ultrastructure of parental platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles formed in vitro by quiescent cells as well as by cells stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187. Using transmission electron microscopy of human platelets and isolated microvesicles, we analyzed the intracellular origin, steps of formation, structural diversity, and size distributions of the subcellular particles. We have revealed that thrombin, unlike other stimuli, not only induced vesiculation of the plasma membrane but also caused break-up of the cells followed by formation of microparticles that are comparable with microvesicles by size. A fraction of these microparticles contained cellular organelles surrounded by a thin membrane. The size of platelet-derived macrovesicles varied from 30 nm to 500 nm, however, the size distributions depended on the nature of a cell-activating stimulus. The results obtained provide new information about the formation of platelet-derived macrovesicles and their structural diversity, wich is important to understand their multiple functions in normal and disease states.

  11. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Human Platelets Freeze-Preserved with Dimethylsulfoxide at -80 C,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    platelets from individual units of ND- or CPD-collected blood and to pooi th. platelets. Mother approach is to use plateletpheresis to collect and...DM50 at about 2 C per minute by storage in a • -80 C mechanical refrigerator for 24 hours (Valeri , 1974). In this study plateletpheresis was used to...Clin . Res. 20:571, 1972. • - . Szymanski , 1. 0., Patti . K., and Kliman , A.: Efficacy of the Lathom Blood ~~ Processor to perforn plateletpheresis

  12. Platelet Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Potential Mediator of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, James P; Ambruso, Daniel R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Silliman, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Objective The occurrence of non-hemolytic transfusion reactions is highest with platelet and plasma administration. Some of these reactions are characterized by endothelial leak, especially transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Elevated concentrations of inflammatory mediators secreted by contaminating leukocytes during blood product storage may contribute to such reactions, but platelet-secreted mediators may also contribute. We hypothesized that platelet storage leads to accumulation of the endothelial permeability mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that intravascular administration of exogenous VEGF leads to extensive binding to its lung receptors. Methods Single donor, leukocyte-reduced apheresis platelet units were sampled over 5 days of storage. VEGF protein content of the centrifuged supernatant was determined by ELISA, and the potential contribution of VEGF from contaminating leukocytes was quantified. Isolated-perfused rat lungs were used to study the uptake of radiolabeled VEGF administered intravascularly, and the effect of unlabeled VEGF on lung leak. Results There was a time-dependent release of VEGF into the plasma fraction of the platelet concentrates (62 ± 9 pg/ml on day one, 149 ± 23 pg/ml on day 5; mean ± SEM, p<0.01, n=8) and a contribution by contaminating leukocytes was excluded. Exogenous 125I-VEGF bound avidly and specifically to the lung vasculature, and unlabeled VEGF in the lung perfusate caused vascular leak. Conclusion Rising concentrations of VEGF occur during storage of single donor platelet concentrates due to platelet secretion or disintegration, but not due to leukocyte contamination. Exogenous VEGF at these concentrations rapidly binds to its receptors in the lung vessels. At higher VEGF concentrations, VEGF causes vascular leak in uninjured lungs. These data provide further evidence that VEGF may contribute to the increased lung permeability seen in TRALI associated with platelet products. PMID

  13. Platelets as delivery systems for disease treatments

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qizhen; Montgomery, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are small, anucleate, discoid shaped blood cells that play a fundamental role in hemostasis. Platelets contain a large number of biologically active molecules within cytoplasmic granules that are critical to normal platelet function. Because platelets circulate in blood through out the body, release biological molecules and mediators on demand, and participate in hemostasis as well as many other pathophysiologic processes, targeting expression of proteins of interest to platelets and utilizing platelets as delivery systems for disease treatment would be a logical approach. This paper reviews the genetic therapy for inherited bleeding disorders utilizing platelets as delivery system, with a particular focus on platelet-derived FVIII for hemophilia A treatment. PMID:20619307

  14. Endothelial injury and platelet thrombosis in mesenteric arteries of rats: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Maes, L; Andries, R; Bourgain, R H

    1986-01-01

    For several years, an in vivo model for the induction and on-line quantification of arterial platelet thrombosis in mesenteric arteries of a small laboratory animal species has been developed in our laboratory. In the present paper, we further document the intimal lesions and the ADP superfusion-induced local platelet thrombus as seen in the scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology of the intimal lesion, induced by electric current, shows a circular or slightly oval denuded area, affecting about 15-20 endothelial cells. The edge of this lesion is often occupied by partially disrupted and detached endothelial cells. The successive embolizations of several ADP thrombi clean this edge and augment the denuded area. The final lesion never exceeds the area of 30-40 endothelial cells. ADP-induced platelet thrombi in invariably appear as loose, sponge-like platelet aggregates, very bloodstream-lined, anchored on the denuded subendothelium. There is an excellent correlation between the in vivo light microscopic observations and the actual ultrastructure of this platelet mass.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma as treatment for persistent ocular epithelial defects.

    PubMed

    Ronci, Corrado; Ferraro, Angelo Salvatore; Lanti, Alessandro; Missiroli, Filippo; Sinopoli, Silvia; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Cipriani, Chiara; De Felici, Cecilia; Ricci, Federico; Ciotti, Marco; Cudillo, Laura; Arcese, William; Adorno, Gaspare

    2015-06-01

    Platelet- rich plasma (PRP) exhibits regenerative proprieties in wound healing but the biochemical mechanisms are unclear. In this study, autologous PRP with a mean value of 338 × 10(3) platelets/µL was used to treat corneal lesions of different aetiology, while homologous PRP with 1 × 10(6) platelets/µL was used to treat cornel lesions induced by a graft versus host disease. The impact of platelet count on the levels of PDGF AA and BB, VEGF, and EGF in the two PRPs was evaluated after a cycle of freezing/thawing. Treated corneal lesions healed or improved. The levels of PDGF AA and BB, VEGF, and EGF in the autologous PRP raised from 296 ± 61; 201.8 ± 24; 53 ± 14 and 8.9 ± 2 to 1017 ± 253; 924.7 ± 222; 101 ± 46.5 and 174 ± 15.5 pg/mL, while in the homologous PRP were 3.4, 4.5, 3.2 and 2 folds higher, respectively. High level of platelet counts seems not required to treat corneal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of random versus apheresis platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Andreu, G; Vasse, J; Sandid, I; Tardivel, R; Semana, G

    2007-12-01

    The respective use of random (RPC) and apheresis (APC) platelet concentrates is highly heterogeneous among countries, ranging from 10 to 98% RPC in countries supposed to provide a similar transfusion service to patients. Moreover, when considering each country in the past 10 years, one can observe that some have changed their policy, switching from a majority of APC to RPC or vice versa. This presentation intends to analyse which factors may impact such decisions. For many years, the only available platelet component was a RPC obtained from whole blood donation by a two centrifugation steps process, the "platelet rich plasma" or PRP method. Since the beginning of the 1970s, APCs became available, with in fact many different techniques leading to many APCs that may not be equivalent. Since the end of the 1980s, a new method of RPC preparation was developed, using the buffy-coat (BC-PC), providing a blood component with highly preserved platelet functions as compared to RPCs prepared by the PRP technique. Finally, the use of each of these components either native, or leuco-reduced, or suspended in a storage solution, or processed with a pathogen inactivation technique adds new layers of complexity to compare them. Innumerable references can be found in the literature describing in vitro functional parameters of platelet concentrates. Although it is clear that BC-RPC retain much more their in vitro functions than PRP-RPC, indicating that no one should use the latter any more, it is much more difficult to distinguish differences between other PCs. Conversely, only a very few studies have been published related to a comparison of clinical efficacy of RPC versus APC, the endpoints being mainly CCI. Similarly to the in vitro studies, although RPC prepared with the PRP method show the lowest CCIs, no clear difference exists between "modern" RPC and APC. Another factor that may impact policy decision is the occurrence of adverse reactions in recipients. When considering

  17. Platelets actively sequester angiogenesis regulators

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tai-Tung; Cassiola, Flavia; Kikuchi, Lena; Cervi, David; Podust, Vladimir; Italiano, Joseph E.; Wheatley, Erin; Abou-Slaybi, Abdo; Bender, Elise; Almog, Nava; Kieran, Mark W.; Folkman, Judah

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials with antiangiogenic agents have not been able to validate plasma or serum levels of angiogenesis regulators as reliable markers of cancer presence or therapeutic response. We recently reported that platelets contain numerous proteins that regulate angiogenesis. We now show that accumulation of angiogenesis regulators in platelets of animals bearing malignant tumors exceeds significantly their concentration in plasma or serum, as well as their levels in platelets from non–tumor-bearing animals. This process is selective, as platelets do not take up a proportional amount of other plasma proteins (eg, albumin), even though these may be present at higher concentrations. We also find that VEGF-enriched Matrigel pellets implanted subcutaneously into mice or the minute quantities of VEGF secreted by microscopic subcutaneous tumors (0.5-1 mm3) result in an elevation of VEGF levels in platelets, without any changes in its plasma levels. The profile of other angiogenesis regulatory proteins (eg, platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor) sequestered by platelets also reflects the presence of tumors in vivo before they can be macroscopically evident. The ability of platelets to selectively take up angiogenesis regulators in cancer-bearing hosts may have implications for the diagnosis and management of many angiogenesis-related diseases and provide a guide for antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:19036702

  18. Platelet compatibility of magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Chie; Mochizuki, Akira

    2017-09-01

    Lately, Mg alloys have been investigated as a new class of biomaterials owing to their excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility. It has previously been reported that the in vitro compatibility of a Mg alloy containing aluminum and zinc (AZ) alloy with the blood coagulation system is excellent due to Mg(2+) ions eluting from the alloy. In this study, the compatibility of the AZ alloy with platelets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flow cytometry. In the flow cytometry analysis, the platelets were stained using PAC-1 and P-selectin antibodies. SEM images and PAC-1 analyses showed no negative effects on the platelets, whereas P-selectin analysis showed marked platelet activation. To understand these contradictory results, the amount of β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) released from the platelets was investigated. From that investigation, it was concluded that platelets are markedly activated by the alloys. In addition to clarifying divergent results depending on the analysis method used, the effects of Mg(2+) ions and pH on platelet activation were studied. These results show that platelet activation is caused by an increase in pH at the alloy surface owing to the erosion of the alloy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologic nanoparticles and platelet reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M; Hunter, Larry W; Chu, Kevin; Kaul, Vivasvat; Squillace, Phillip D; Lieske, John C; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2009-01-01

    Aim Nanosized particles (NPs) enriched in hydroxyapatite and protein isolated from calcified human tissue accelerate occlusion of endothelium-denuded arteries when injected intravenously into rabbits. Since platelet aggregation and secretory processes participate in normal hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular remodeling, experiments were designed to determine if these biologic NPs alter specific platelet functions in vitro. Methods Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from citrate anticoagulated human blood. Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion were monitored in response to thrombin receptor agonists peptide (10 μM) or convulxin (50 μg/ml) prior to and following 15 min incubation with either control solution, human-derived NPs, bovine-derived NPs or crystals of hydroxyapatite at concentrations of 50 and 150 nephelometric turbidity units. Results Incubation of platelets for 15 min with either human- or bovine-derived NPs reduced aggregation induced by thrombin receptor activator peptide and convulxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Hydroxyapatite caused a greater inhibition than either of the biologically derived NPs. Human-derived NPs increased ATP secretion by unstimulated platelets during the 15 min incubation period. Conclusion Effects of bovine-derived and hydroxyapatite NPs on basal release of ATP were both time and concentration dependent. These results suggest that biologic NPs modulate both platelet aggregation and secretion. Biologically derived NPs could modify platelet responses within the vasculature, thereby reducing blood coagulability and the vascular response to injury. PMID:19839809

  20. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions.

  1. Platelet coagulation-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter N

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical mechanisms by which activated platelets participate in exposing receptors for the assembly of enzyme-cofactor-substrate complexes at all stages of the blood coagulation cascade are reviewed. Information derived from studies conducted during the last 30 years supports the concept that the initiation of blood coagulation is triggered by exposure of tissue factor at injury sites, leading to the generation of minute quantities of thrombin (limited by tissue factor pathway inhibitor), sufficient to activate platelets, factors XI, VIII, and V, and trigger the consolidation pathway (i.e., the sequential activation of factors XI, IX, X, and prothrombin on the activated platelet surface), leading to the generation of sufficient thrombin to convert fibrinogen to fibrin and effect hemostasis. Platelets localize coagulation to the hemostatic thrombus and protect coagulation enzymes from inhibition by both plasma and platelet inhibitors (e.g., protease nexin 2), thus preventing disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  2. Von Willebrand factor availability in platelet concentrates stored for 5 days.

    PubMed

    Cesar, J M; García-Avello, A; Monteagudo, J; Espinosa, J I; Lodos, J C; Castillo, R; Navarro, J L

    1994-02-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) availability was assessed in platelet concentrates (PCs). After 5 days of storage, 82 +/- 9% of basal levels of ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo) remained in PCs. vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) increased up to 166 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) in the same period. Autoradiograph pattern of vW:Ag showed an increase in low molecular weight multimers, and fast migrating multimeric forms were visualized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis on day 5. Studies carried out in platelet free plasma stored as PCs showed similar changes in vWF:RCo but increments in vWF:Ag were not detected. These data indicate that PCs maintain vWF:RCo levels of clinical value even after 5 days of storage and suggest that vWF comes out from platelets to plasma during storage.

  3. Evidence that abnormal platelet functions in human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome are the result of a lack of dense bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, F.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Lebret, M.; Klebanoff, C.; Buriot, D.; Griscelli, C.; Levy-Toledano, S.; Caen, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The structure and functions of platelets from three patients with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome were examined. Electron-microscopic observations revealed a large reduction in the number of serotonin-storage granules or dense bodies but otherwise normal ultrastructure and normal amounts of alpha-granules and catalase-positive granules. The number of mepacrine-labeled granules was also reduced. Platelets contained normal amounts of beta-thromboglobulin and Platelet Factor 4. The platelet release reaction studied with thrombin as the inducer was impaired. The serotonin uptake by the patients' platelets was low and not inhibited by reserpine, and its metabolism was increased. These findings clearly show that platelets from human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome are deficient in the storage pool of dense granule substances and suggest that this granule defect has an influence on the release mechanism of other granule constituents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6222656

  4. Platelets and angiogenesis in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sierko, Ewa; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that platelets play an important role in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Thrombocytosis is a frequent finding in cancer patients (10-57%). Although the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis are not yet fully elucidated, tumor-derived factors with thrombopoietin-like activity and growth factors, platelet-derived microparticles, and factors secreted from bone marrow endothelial cells, as well as growth factors released by megakaryocytes (acting via an autocrine loop), are postulated to influence this process. The progression of cancer is associated with hypercoagulability, which results from direct influences of tumor cells and diverse indirect mechanisms. Activated platelets serve as procoagulant surfaces amplifying the coagulation reactions. It is well known that hemostatic proteins are involved in different steps of the angiogenic process. Furthermore, platelets adhering to endothelium facilitate adhesion of mononuclear cells (which exert various proangiogenic activities) to endothelial cells and their transmigration to the extravascular space. It was also documented that platelets induce angiogenesis in vivo. Platelets are a rich source of proangiogenic factors. They also store and release angiogenesis inhibitors. In addition, platelets express surface growth factor receptors, which may regulate the process of angiogenesis. Platelets also contribute directly to the process of basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteolysis by releasing proteinases, or indirectly via inducing endothelial cells and tumor cells to release proteolytic enzymes, as well as through the proteolytic activities of platelet-derived growth factors. The multidirectional activities of platelets in the process of new blood vessel formation during tumor development and metastasis formation may create the possibility of introducing antiplatelet agents for antiangiogenic therapy in cancer patients. Thus far experimental studies employing inhibitors of

  5. Surface modification of platelet concentrate bags to reduce biofilm formation and transfusion sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Nieuwenhuis, Joels S T; Dempsey-Hibbert, Nina; Liauw, Christopher M; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-09-07

    Bacterial contamination of blood products poses a major risk in transfusion medicine, including transfusions involving platelet products. Although testing systems are in place for routine screening of platelet units, the formation of bacterial biofilms in such units may decrease the likelihood that bacteria will be detected. This work determined the surface properties of p-PVC platelet concentrate bags and investigated how these characteristics influenced biofilm formation. Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two species commonly implicated in platelet contamination, were used to study biofilm growth. The platelet concentrate bags were physically flattened to determine if reducing the surface roughness altered biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that the flattening process of the platelet bags affected the chemistry of the surface and reduced the surface hydrophobicity. Flattening of the surfaces resulted in a reduction in biofilm formation for both species after 5 days, with S. marcescens demonstrating a greater reduction. However, there was no significant difference between the smooth and flat surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. marcescens and no significant differences between any of the surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. epidermidis. The results suggest that flattening the p-PVC surfaces may limit potential biofilm formation for the current duration of platelet storage time of 5 days. It is hoped that this work will enhance the understanding of how surface properties influence the development of microbial biofilms in platelet concentrate bags in order to devise a solution to discourage biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of texture of platelet bags on bacterial and platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Schubert, Peter; Fallah Toosi, Salma; Chen, Zhongming; Culibrk, Brankica; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Devine, Dana V; Brooks, Donald E

    2016-11-01

    Missed detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis contamination in platelet (PLT) storage bags by the standard 24-hour-postcollection BacT/ALERT screening test has been documented. A slow growth rate and the strong tendency of this bacterium to adhere to surfaces can contribute to missed detection of the pathogen. Topography of two different PLT storage bag surfaces, textured (rough) and smooth surfaces of Terumo 80440 bags (designated A15), was studied. Adhesion of biofilm-positive and -negative S. epidermidis strains on these surfaces was evaluated under static conditions. Quality of stored PLTs in A15 bags under blood bank conditions was compared for two different bag orientations (rough vs. smooth surface down) on Days 2, 5, and 7 of storage. PLT adhesion on the surfaces was evaluated after 7 days of storage. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation were significantly higher on the rough surfaces of A15 bags compared to the smooth surfaces. After 7 days of storage in A15 bags, PLTs showed similar metabolite levels, pH, and response capacity in the bags with different orientation and more PLT adhesion and aggregation was observed on rough surfaces. Higher bacterial adhesion on rough surfaces can contribute to missed detection of bacterial strains that tend to adhere on surfaces. PLT adhesion and aggregation on rough surfaces can affect the quality and safety of PLTs by promoting more bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Analyzing the platelet proteome.

    PubMed

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P

    2004-08-01

    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  8. Platelets generated from human embryonic stem cells are functional in vitro and in the microcirculation of living mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shi-Jiang; Li, Feng; Yin, Hong; Feng, Qiang; Kimbrel, Erin A; Hahm, Eunsil; Thon, Jonathan N; Wang, Wei; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung; Lanza, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21221130

  9. Platelets generated from human embryonic stem cells are functional in vitro and in the microcirculation of living mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi-Jiang; Li, Feng; Yin, Hong; Feng, Qiang; Kimbrel, Erin A; Hahm, Eunsil; Thon, Jonathan N; Wang, Wei; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung; Lanza, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and atherothrombosis. Owing to their short storage time, there is constant demand for this life-saving blood component. In this study, we report that it is feasible to generate functional megakaryocytes and platelets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on a large scale. Differential-interference contrast and electron microscopy analyses showed that ultrastructural and morphological features of hESC-derived platelets were indistinguishable from those of normal blood platelets. In functional assays, hESC-derived platelets responded to thrombin stimulation, formed microaggregates, and facilitated clot formation/retraction in vitro. Live cell microscopy demonstrated that hESC-platelets formed lamellipodia and filopodia in response to thrombin activation, and tethered to each other as observed in normal blood. Using real-time intravital imaging with high-speed video microscopy, we have also shown that hESC-derived platelets contribute to developing thrombi at sites of laser-induced vascular injury in mice, providing the first evidence for in vivo functionality of hESC-derived platelets. These results represent an important step toward generating an unlimited supply of platelets for transfusion. Since platelets contain no genetic material, they are ideal candidates for early clinical translation involving human pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Types and sources of fuels for platelets in a medium containing minimal added fuels and a low carryover plasma.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Whisson, M E; Guppy, M

    1997-06-01

    The storage of platelets in synthetic media can result in plasma savings and reduced transfusion reactions. Accordingly, a wide range of storage formulations have been developed with the aim of replacing at least a proportion of the plasma in the storage medium. However, the concentrations and types of fuels in the carryover plasma, and the utilization of these fuels by platelets in storage, has not been investigated. We have developed a system which can measure total ATP turnover, and the contribution to total ATP turnover by the oxidation of various fuels and by lactate production, in a bag of partially purified platelets in a buffered saline with minimal carryover citrate phosphate double dextrose (CP2D) plasma. Carryover plasma was about 1% and the final platelet suspension contained, on average, 0.62 mM glucose, 9.6 mg/l free fatty acids, 32 mg/l triglycerides and 0.23 mM total amino acids. The oxidation of carbohydrate (glucose, glycogen and lactate) accounted for 60% of total ATP turnover. The platelets also produced lactate (<6% of total ATP turnover) and consumed free fatty acids and amino acids/proteins (15.2% of total ATP turnover). Therefore we have identified the fuels that account for about 80% of oxygen consumption and ATP turnover by platelets in a medium with low carryover plasma. The implications of these data for storage strategies are discussed.

  11. Platelet function and constituents of platelet rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M H; Malhotra, A; Brighton, T; Walsh, W R; Lindeman, R

    2013-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapies require blood to be processed prior to application, however, the full assessment of the output of platelet sequestration devices is lacking. In this study the products of the Autologous Fluid Concentrator (Circle BiologicsTM, Minneapolis, MN) and the Gravitational Platelet Separation System (GPS, Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) were evaluated in terms of platelet viability and PRP constituents. The AFC and GPS produced 6.4 (±1.0) ml and 6.3 (±0.4) ml of PRP, with platelet recovery of 46.4% (±14.7%) and 59.8% (±24.2%) producing fold increases of platelets of 4.19 (±1.62) and 5.19 (±1.62), respectively. Fibrinogen concentration was increased above baseline PPP produced with the AFC. pH was lower for both of the processed samples than for whole blood. White Blood Cell count was increased around 5 fold. Functional tests showed preserved viability with both devices. This represents essential knowledge that every treating physician should have before they can confidently administer PRP therapy produced by any method. These are the first published results of platelet function for the GPS system and the first performance results of the AFC system. The PRP produced is classified according to broad classifications as Leukocyte-PRP (L-PRP) for both devices.

  12. Automated platelet aggregation analysis using a digitizer.

    PubMed

    Kohler, C A; Zoltan, B J

    1984-09-01

    A method of rapidly entering, reducing, and interpreting data collected in platelet aggregation studies has been developed. The standard aggregometer output is a chart recording of light transmittance (or optical density) as a function of time following the addition of an aggregating agent to a cuvette containing platelet-rich plasma or washed, suspended platelets. Two problems associated with aggregation studies are the proper calibration of the aggregometer and recorder to insure that comparisons of data can be made from experiment to experiment and the need to find a convenient way to analyze and summarize the data generated. In this method, the chart recorder is calibrated using reference cuvettes containing water or a suspension of latex beads of a known optical density. Since the analysis and interpretation of aggregation curves can be a time-consuming task, a standard digitizer has been interfaced to a computer, allowing the X,Y coordinates of the data, and, thus, the time-aggregation history of the sample, to be entered into the computer. The cursor of the digitizer is traced over the aggregation curve and the X,Y coordinates are transferred either at operator-selectable points or at fixed time intervals. A computer program (AGGPAD) calculates and stores several variables (e.g., sample baseline density, the magnitude of the aggregation, time to peak aggregation, maximum aggregation rate, and maximum deaggregation rate) that can be easily retrieved. The system reduces analysis time by a factor of five and allows for automated data storage and retrieval. The method is applicable to any computer and hardware costs are below $1000.00.

  13. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the care of sports injuries: our experience with ultrasound-guided injection

    PubMed Central

    Bernuzzi, Gino; Petraglia, Federica; Pedrini, Martina Francesca; De Filippo, Massimo; Pogliacomi, Francesco; Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Costantino, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma is being used more frequently to promote healing of muscle injuries. The growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma accelerate physiological healing processes and the use of these factors is simple and minimally invasive. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma in muscle strains and the absence of side effects. Materials and methods Fifty-three recreational athletes were enrolled in the study. The patients were recruited from the Emergency Room in the University Hospital at Parma according to a pre-defined protocol. Every patient was assessed by ultrasound imaging to evaluate the extent and degree of muscle injuries. Only grade II lesions were treated with three ultrasound-guided injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma every 7 days. Platelet concentrate was produced according to standard methods, with a 10% variability in platelet count. The platelet gel for clinical use was obtained by adding thrombin to the concentrates under standardised conditions. Outcomes assessed were: pain reduction, muscle function recovery and return to sports activity, ultrasound-imaging tissue healing, relapses, local infections, and any side effect during the treatment. Results In all cases muscle lesions healed fully on ultrasound-imaging, the pain disappeared, and muscle function recovery was documented with a return to sports activity. A single patient had a relapse 1 year after treatment. Discussion Platelet-rich plasma injected into the injury site is one of the most important factors rendering the treatment effective. To maximise its efficacy the preliminary ultrasound must be done accurately to localise the lesion and guide the needle into the corresponding lesion. According to the current results, which document full muscle recovery and no relapse except for one case, platelet-rich plasma ultrasound-guided injection represents a valid mini-invasive treatment for

  14. Intratumoral consumption of indium-111 labeled platelets in a patient with hemangiomatosis and intravascular coagulation (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Warrell, R.P. Jr.; Kempin, S.J.; Benua, R.S.; Reiman, R.E.; Young, C.W.

    1983-12-15

    Previous studies regarding sites of platelet destruction in patients with the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome are conflicting. The authors recently studied an adult patient with multiple large hemangiomata, thrombocytopenia, and intravascular coagulation by external imaging following the injection of autologous Indium-111 labeled platelets. Sequential images showed prompt accumulation of platelet-associated radioactivity in areas within the right hemithorax which corresponded to certain tumors noted on the chest roentgenogram. Despite the presence of multiple other lesions in bone and soft tissues, platelet radioactivity was otherwise normally confined to liver and spleen. Using data obtained from serial images, it was shown that radioactivity within the thoracic masses actually increased over time. These data indicate that platelet consumption occurred as an active process and that localization was not a result of tumor vascularity. It is concluded that platelets are locally consumed within certain hemangiomata. However, within the same individual, there may exist considerable heterogeneity among these tumors with respect to platelet-trapping ability. In similar patients with multiple tumors, indium-platelet scanning might be used to direct local therapy to particular lesions in an effort to correct the thrombocytopenia.

  15. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-02-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH/sub 2/ from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and (/sup 125/I)-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the (/sup 125/I)antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10/sup 9/ platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency.

  16. Shiga toxin binds to activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S A; Polanowska-Grabowska, R K; Fujii, J; Obrig, T; Gear, A R L

    2004-03-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with acute renal failure in children and can be caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli. Thrombocytopenia and formation of renal thrombi are characteristic of HUS, suggesting that platelet activation is involved in its pathogenesis. However, whether Shiga toxin directly activates platelets is controversial. The present study evaluates if potential platelet sensitization during isolation by different procedures influences platelet interaction with Shiga toxin. Platelets isolated from sodium citrate anticoagulated blood were exposed during washing to EDTA and higher g forces than platelets prepared from acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma. Platelet binding of Stx was significantly higher in EDTA-washed preparations relative to ACD-derived platelets. Binding of Stx was also increased with ACD-derived platelets when activated with thrombin (1 U mL-1) and exposure of the Gb3 Stx receptor was detected only on platelets subjected to EDTA, higher g forces or thrombin. EDTA-exposed platelets lost their normal discoid shape and were larger. P-selectin (CD62P) exposure was significantly increased in EDTA-washed preparations relative to ACD-derived platelets, suggesting platelet activation. Taken together, these results suggest that direct binding of Stx occurs only on 'activated' platelets rather than on resting platelets. The ability of Stx to interact with previously activated platelets may be an important element in understanding the pathogenesis of HUS.

  17. Mechanisms of hemolysis-associated platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Helms, C. C.; Marvel, M.; Zhao, W.; Stahle, M.; Vest, R.; Kato, G. J.; Lee, J. S.; Christ, G.; Gladwin, M. T.; Hantgan, R. R.; Kim-Shapiro, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Intravascular hemolysis occurs after blood transfusion, in hemolytic anemias and other conditions, and is associated with hypercoagulable states. Hemolysis has been shown to potently activate platelets in vitro and in vivo and several mechanisms have been suggested to account for this including (1) direct activation by hemoglobin, (2) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), (3) scavenging of nitric oxide by released hemoglobin, and (4) release of intraerythrocytic ADP. Objective The aim of the current study is to elucidate the mechanism of hemolysis-mediated platelet activation. Methods We used flow cytometry to detect PAC-1 binding to activated platelets for in vitro experiments and a Siemens’ Advia 120 hematology system to assess platelet aggregation using platelet counts from in vivo experiments in a rodent model. Results We show that Hb does not directly activate platelets. However, ADP bound to Hb can cause platelet activation. Furthermore, platelet activation due to shearing of RBCs is reduced in the presence of apyrase which metabolizes ADP to AMP. Use of ROS scavengers did not affect platelet activation. We also show that cell free Hb does enhance platelet activation by abrogating the inhibitory effect of NO on platelet activation. In vivo infusions of ADP and purified (ADP-free) Hb as well as hemolysate result in platelet aggregation as evidenced by decreased platelet counts. Conclusion Two primary mechanisms account for red blood cell hemolysis-associated platelet activation: ADP release which activates platelets and cell-free hemoglobin release which enhances platelet activation by lowering NO bioavailability. PMID:24119131

  18. Platelets effects on tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Goubran, Hadi A; Stakiw, Julie; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    Unlike other blood cells, platelets are small anucleate structures derived from marrow megakaryocytes. Thought for almost a century to possess solely hemostatic potentials, platelets, however, play a much wider role in tissue regeneration and repair and interact intimately with tumor cells. On one hand, tumor cells induce platelet aggregation (TCIPA), known to act as the trigger of cancer-associated thrombosis. On the other hand, platelets recruited to the tumor microenvironment interact, directly, with tumor cells, favoring their proliferation, and, indirectly, through the release of a wide palette of growth factors, including angiogenic and mitogenic proteins. In addition, the role of platelets is not solely confined to the primary tumor site. Indeed, they escort tumor cells, helping their intravasation, vascular migration, arrest, and extravasation to the tissues to form distant metastasis. As expected, nonspecific or specific inhibition of platelets and their content represents an attractive novel approach in the fight against cancer. This review illustrates the role played by platelets at primary tumor sites and in the various stages of the metastatic process.

  19. Studies on Human Platelet Gangliosides

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Aaron J.; Ullman, Harris L.; Safier, Lenore B.

    1972-01-01

    Gangliosides, glycosphingolipids which contain sialic acid, were studied in human platelets. They represented 0.5% of the platelet lipids and accounted for 6% of the total neuraminic acid content of platelets. Three major ganglioside fractions were identified and characterized. Ganglioside I was hematoside (G6) and comprised 92% of the platelet gangliosides. It contained glucose, galactose, and sialic acid in molar ratios of 1:1:1 and no hexosamine. The major fatty acid was behenate (22:0). Ganglioside I was also identified in isolated platelet granules and membranes. Ganglioside II (5%) contained glucose, galactose, sialic acid, and hexosamines (molar ratios 1:2:1:1). The hexosamines were glucosamine (72%) and galactosamine (28%). It was therefore designated as ganglioside lacto-N-neotetraose. Ganglioside III (2%) contained disialosyllactosyl ceramide (G3A) as well as two other gangliosides which could not be precisely characterized. Gangliosides I, II, and III were susceptible to the action of Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase as evidenced by full recovery of sialic acid in its free form after incubation. Neutral platelet glycolipids were qualitatively examined by thin-layer chromatography. The major component was lactosyl ceramide. Interactions of gangliosides I and III and serotonin-14C were examined in an equilibrium dialysis system at 4°C. The gangliosides bound serotonin-14C in relatively small quantities, whereas control lipids were negative. The binding was essentially unchanged by reverse dialysis, ultracentrifugation and subsequent thin-layer chromatography. The results are comparable to the previously observed nonmetabolic interactions between whole platelets and serotonin in the cold. It is suggested that the orientation and specific distribution of platelet membrane glycolipids may be important determinants of the unique surface properties of platelets. Images PMID:4341436

  20. Platelet function in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Bernardo, Esther; Feltes, Gisela; Escaned, Javier; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; De Agustín, José Alberto; Vivas, David; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TK) includes a transient left ventricular dysfunction without obstructive coronary disease, sometimes after stressful situations with elevated cathecolamines. Since catecholamines activate platelets we aimed to study the platelet influence in a TK setting. We included 32 patients with a TK diagnosis, 13 with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 18 healthy volunteers. Once consent informed was obtained, blood samples were extracted and processed (at admission and after 3 months follow-up). Clinical, ecg, echocardiographic and angiographic features were thoroughly recorded.Previous treatment before admission was similar between groups. No differences were observed in clinical features or any of the acute markers studied regarding platelet reactivity between TK compared to ACS. After follow-up, aggregation levels and platelet reactivity showed differences, mainly due to the antithrombotic therapy prescribed at discharge, but similar to volunteers. Circulating epinephrine during the acute phase was significantly higher in TK (p < 0.001). Patients with higher levels of epinephrine had elevated platelet activation and aggregation after 3 months. No differences were observed in Takotsubo acute platelet aggregation compared to patients with ACS, in spite of higher blood levels of adrenaline. Takotsubo patients had elevated platelet aggregation and activation compared with ACS patients at 3 months follow-up because they were less frequently on chronic clopidogrel and ASA. However, they had similar platelet aggregation and activation levels to healthy volunteers despite treatment with low-dose ASA. Takotsubo patients who had higher levels of adrenaline in the acute phase displayed increased platelet reactivity during follow-up.

  1. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  2. Probing platelet factor 4 alpha-granule targeting.

    PubMed

    Briquet-Laugier, V; Lavenu-Bombled, C; Schmitt, A; Leboeuf, M; Uzan, G; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, A; Rosa, J-P

    2004-12-01

    The storage mechanism of endogenous secretory proteins in megakaryocyte alpha-granules is poorly understood. We have elected to study the granule storage of platelet factor 4 (PF4), a well-known platelet alpha-granule protein. The reporter protein green fluorescent protein (GFP), PF4, or PF4 fused to GFP (PF4-GFP), were transfected in the well-characterized mouse pituitary AtT20 cell line, and in the megakaryocytic leukemic DAMI cell line. These proteins were also transduced using a lentiviral vector, in human CD34+ cells differentiated into megakaryocytes in vitro. Intracellular localization of expressed proteins, and colocalization studies were achieved by laser scanning confocal microscopy and immuno-electronmicroscopy. In preliminary experiments, GFP, a non-secretory protein (no signal peptide), localized in the cytoplasm, while PF4-GFP colocalized with adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-containing granules in AtT20 cells. In the megakaryocytic DAMI cell line and in human megakaryocytes differentiated in vitro, PF4-GFP localized in alpha-granules along with the alpha granular protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). The signal peptide of PF4 was not sufficient to specify alpha-granule storage of PF4, since when PF4 signal peptide was fused to GFP (SP4-GFP), GFP was not stored into granules in spite of its efficient translocation to the ER-Golgi constitutive secretory pathway. We conclude that the PF4 storage pathway in alpha-granules is not a default pathway, but rather a regular granule storage pathway probably requiring specific sorting mechanisms. In addition PF4-GFP appears as an appropriate probe with which to analyze alpha-granule biogenesis and its alterations in the congenital defect gray platelet syndrome.

  3. Platelet and red blood cell indices in Harris platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naina, Harris V K; Harris, Samar

    2010-01-01

    Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) or macro thrombocytopenias are relatively rare, but their prevalence is likely underestimated from complexities of diagnosis and a spectrum of subclinical phenotypes. Harris platelet syndrome (HPS) is the most common IGPD reported from the Indian subcontinent. Of note there are an increased number of hemoglobinopathies reported from the geographic location. We analysed red blood cell and platelet indices of blood donors with HPS from the north eastern part of India and compared them with blood indices of blood donors of south India. We found a statistically significant lower platelet count in blood donors with HPS (median, range) 132 (71-267) vs. 252 (160-478) as compared to donors from south India (P < 0.001). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was higher in donors with HPS 13.1, (range 12-21.9 fl) as compared to donors from south India 7.35 (range 6-9.2 fl) (P < 0.001). This study showed that blood donors with HPS had a low median platelet bio-mass 0.17 (0.10-0.38%) vs. 0.19 (0.13-0.28%) in donors from south India. The platelet distribution width (PDW) was 17.4 (14.9-19.6) in donors with HPS vs. 16.38 (15.2-18.5) in south Indian blood donors (P < 0.001). Thirty-three donors with HPS had a normal platelet count with MPV more than 12 fL. Only donors with HPS had giant platelets and thrombocytopenia on peripheral blood smear examination. None of these donors had Dohle body inclusion in their leukocytes. Compared to donors from south India, donors with HPS had a significantly lower hemoglobin 13.8 (12-16.3 gm/dL) vs. 14.8 (12-18) respectively (P < 0.001) while red distribution width (RDW) was higher in HPS 13.6 (11.5-16.7) vs. 12.8 (11.4-15.1). However we did not find any statistically significant difference in MCV, MCH, MCHC between the two groups. Peripheral blood smear did not show any obvious abnormal red blood cell morphology. In the blood donors with HPS we found a statistically higher MPV

  4. The Platelet Function Defect of Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-24

    fibrinolytic and coagulation systems occur during CPB,1 a platelet function defect is generally considered to be the primary CPB-induced hemostatic...platelets.39 OKM5 (provided by Dr. Patricia Rao, Ortho Diagnostic Systems , Raritan, NJ) is directed against platelet membrane GPIV.40 Flow Cytometric...22 after degranulation.7-14-16-18 Utilizing washed platelet systems , Nieuwenhuis et al.14 found a modest increase during CPB of the platelet

  5. Pulmonary platelet thrombi and vascular pathology in acute chest syndrome in patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Anea, Ciprian B.; Lyon, Matthew; Lee, Itia A.; Gonzales, Joyce N.; Adeyemi, Amidat; Falls, Greer; Kutlar, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests a role for platelets in sickle cell disease (SCD). Despite the proinflammatory, occlusive nature of platelets, a role for platelets in acute chest syndrome (ACS), however, remains understudied. To provide evidence and potentially describe contributory factors for a putative link between ACS and platelets, we performed an autopsy study of 20 SCD cases—10 of whom died from ACS and 10 whose deaths were not ACS‐related. Pulmonary histopathology and case history were collected. We discovered that disseminated pulmonary platelet thrombi were present in 3 out of 10 of cases with ACS, but none of the matched cases without ACS. Those cases with detected thrombi were associated with significant deposition of endothelial vWF and detection of large vWF aggregates adhered to endothelium. Potential clinical risk factors were younger age and higher platelet count at presentation. However, we also noted a sharp and significant decline in platelet count prior to death in each case with platelet thrombi in the lungs. In this study, neither hydroxyurea use nor perimortem transfusion was associated with platelet thrombi. Surprisingly, in all cases, there was profound pulmonary artery remodeling with both thrombotic and proliferative pulmonary plexiform lesions. The severity of remodeling was not associated with a severe history of ACS, or hydroxyurea use, but was inversely correlated with age. We thus provide evidence of undocumented presence of platelet thrombi in cases of fatal ACS and describe clinical correlates. We also provide novel correlates of pulmonary remodeling in SCD. Am. J. Hematol. 91:173–178, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26492581

  6. Genomic landscape of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function defects

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Elisa; Norfo, Ruggiero; Pennucci, Valentina; Zini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is a complex, stepwise process that takes place largely in the bone marrow. At the apex of the hierarchy, hematopoietic stem cells undergo a number of lineage commitment decisions that ultimately lead to the production of polyploid megakaryocytes. On average, megakaryocytes release 1011 platelets per day into the blood that repair vascular injuries and prevent excessive bleeding. This differentiation process is tightly controlled by exogenous and endogenous factors, which have been the topics of intense research in the hematopoietic field. Indeed, a skewing of megakaryocyte commitment and differentiation may entail the onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other preleukemic disorders together with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, whereas quantitative or qualitative defects in platelet production can lead to inherited platelet disorders. The recent advent of next-generation sequencing has prompted mapping of the genomic landscape of these conditions to provide an accurate view of the underlying lesions. The aims of this review are to introduce the physiological pathways of megakaryopoiesis and to present landmark studies on acquired and inherited disorders that target them. These studies have not only introduced a new era in the fields of molecular medicine and targeted therapies but may also provide us with a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying normal megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis that can inform efforts to create alternative sources of megakaryocytes and platelets. PMID:26787733

  7. Inherited platelet disorders and oral health.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marie-Cécile; Kemoun, Philippe; Cousty, Sarah; Sie, Pierre; Payrastre, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Accumulation of platelets at the site of vascular injury is the first step in the formation of hemostatic plugs, which play a pivotal role in preventing blood loss after injury. Platelet adhesion at sites of injury results in spreading, secretion, recruitment of additional platelets, and formation of platelet aggregates. Inherited platelet disorders are rare causes of bleeding syndromes, ranging from mild bruising to severe hemorrhage. The defects can reflect deficiency or dysfunction of platelet surface glycoproteins, granule contents, cytoskeletal proteins, platelet pro-coagulant function, and signaling pathways. For instance, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Glanzmann thrombasthenia are attributed to deficiencies of glycoprotein Ib/IX/V and GPIIb/IIIa, respectively, and are rare but severe platelet disorders. Inherited defects that impair platelet secretion and/or signal transduction are among the most common forms of mild platelet disorders and include gray platelet syndrome, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and Chediak-Higashi syndrome. When necessary, desmopressin, antifibrinolytic agents, and transfusion of platelets remain the most common treatment of inherited platelet disorders. Alternative therapies such as recombinant activated factor VII are also available for a limited number of situations. In this review, we will discuss the management of patients with inherited platelet disorders in various clinical situations related to dental cares, including surgical intervention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Autologous platelet-labeling in thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Sinzinger, H.; Virgolini, I.; Vinazzer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Field studies performed with peripheral platelets obtained from 6 male volunteers aged 23 to 29 years revealed an extraordinary dependence of labeling efficiency on incubation time and platelet concentration after {sup 111}In-oxine platelet labeling. Since the monitoring of in vivo-platelet function in patients with thrombocytopenia may cause problems due to insufficient labeling results and homologous platelets may show a different in vivo behaviour to autologous ones, we have searched for the minimal amount of platelets necessary to allow appropriate labeling and imaging in patients with thrombocytopenia. In 15 patients with untreated thrombocytopenia aged 14 to 79 years demonstrating a mean peripheral platelet count of 2.509 +/- 1.45 x 10(4) cells/microliters autologous {sup 111}In-oxine platelet labeling was performed. The results indicate that approximately 1 x 10(8) (concentrated) platelets/ml are necessary to obtain an adequate labeling efficiency and recovery. This platelet concentration can be easily achieved by drawing one more Monovette of whole blood per each 5 x 10(4) platelets/microliter peripheral platelet count less than 2 x 10(5)/microliter. It is concluded, that calculation of the required number of platelets in advance, variation of the blood volume drawn and the volume of incubation buffer allow informative, qualitative and quantitative results using autologous platelets. The method presented effectively circumvents the requirement of homologous platelets for radiolabeling in thrombocytopenia.

  9. Disruption of SEMA4D ameliorates platelet hypersensitivity in dyslipidemia and confers protection against the development of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Stalker, Timothy J.; Fong, Karen P.; Jiang, Hong; Tran, Anh; Crichton, Irene; Lee, Eric K.; Neeves, Keith B.; Maloney, Sean F.; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Pure, Ellen; Diamond, Scott L.; Brass, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In dyslipidemic states, platelets become hyperreactive, secreting molecules that promote atherosclerosis. We have shown that the semaphorin family member, sema4D (CD100) is expressed on the surface of platelets and proposed that its role includes promoting thrombus growth by binding to nearby platelets and endothelial cells, both of which express sema4D receptors. Here we tested the hypothesis that deleting sema4D will attenuate the adverse consequences of dyslipidemia on platelets and the vessel wall. Methods Platelet function and atherosclerotic lesion formation were measured in LDLR(-/-) and sema4D(-/-)LDLR(-/-) mice after 6 months on a high fat diet. Results All of the mice developed the dyslipidemia expected on this diet in the absence of functional LDL receptors. However, when compared to LDLR(-/-) mice, sema4D(-/-)LDLR(-/-) mice had reduced lipid deposition in the descending aorta, a 6-fold decrease in the frequency of arterial occlusion and a reduction to near wild type levels in the accumulation of platelets following injury. These differences were retained ex vivo, with a marked decrease in platelet accumulation on collagen under flow and in platelet aggregation. Conclusions These results show that loss of sema4D expression reduces the platelet hyperactivity otherwise found in dyslipidemia, and confers protection against the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:19390055

  10. Platelet serotonin modulates immune functions.

    PubMed

    Mauler, M; Bode, C; Duerschmied, D

    2016-01-01

    This short review addresses immune functions of platelet serotonin. Platelets transport serotonin at a high concentration in dense granules and release it upon activation. Besides haemostatic, vasotonic and developmental modulation, serotonin also influences a variety of immune functions (mediated by different serotonin receptors). First, platelet serotonergic effects are directed against invading pathogens via activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, modulation of cytokine release, and recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation by induction of selectin expression on endothelial cells. Second, serotonin levels are elevated in autoimmune diseases, such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis, and during tissue regeneration after ischemia of myocardium or brain. Specific antagonism of serotonin receptors appears to improve survival after myocardial infarction or sepsis and to attenuate asthmatic attacks in animal models. It will be of great clinical relevance if these findings can be translated into human applications. In conclusion, targeting immune modulatory effects of platelet serotonin may provide novel therapeutic options for common health problems.

  11. Magnesium Sulfate as an Alternative In Vitro Anticoagulant for the Measurement of Platelet Parameters?

    PubMed

    Mannuß, Steffen; Schuff-Werner, Peter; Dreißiger, Katrin; Kohlschein, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There are conflicting reports on the reliable measurement of platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV) using EDTA or citrate. The anticoagulant properties of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) are known from the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate MgSO4 as an in vitro anticoagulant for platelet count, MPV, platelet distribution width, and platelet activation. Whole blood from volunteers was anticoagulated by EDTA, citrate, or MgSO4 Platelets were counted by the XE 5000 (Sysmex, Norderstedt, Germany) impedance and fluorescence optical technique. The mean impedance platelet counts were 227.7, 197.0, and 201.1 × 10(9)/L in EDTA-, citrate-, or MgSO4-anticoagulated blood, respectively. The counts were 4.7% higher (EDTA) after 3 hours of storage but 4% lower in citrate-anticoagulated blood. The counts in magnesium samples remained stable. The MPV was 10.4 fL (EDTA), 9.5 fL (citrate), and 9.3 fL (MgSO4). EDTA samples showed cell swelling within the first 3 hours. This was lower in citrate and only marginal in magnesium samples. High activation of platelets was observed only in EDTA samples. Magnesium anticoagulation might be advantageous for more reliable MPV measurements. Although platelet count is underestimated when the impedance method is used, the platelet count reveals similar results when measured by the fluorescent optical method. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: platelet-related biologic features.

    PubMed

    Dohan, David M; Choukroun, Joseph; Diss, Antoine; Dohan, Steve L; Dohan, Anthony J J; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Gogly, Bruno

    2006-03-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates, with simplified processing and without biochemical blood handling. In this second article, we investigate the platelet-associated features of this biomaterial. During PRF processing by centrifugation, platelets are activated and their massive degranulation implies a very significant cytokine release. Concentrated platelet-rich plasma platelet cytokines have already been quantified in many technologic configurations. To carry out a comparative study, we therefore undertook to quantify PDGF-BB, TGFbeta-1, and IGF-I within PPP (platelet-poor plasma) supernatant and PRF clot exudate serum. These initial analyses revealed that slow fibrin polymerization during PRF processing leads to the intrinsic incorporation of platelet cytokines and glycanic chains in the fibrin meshes. This result would imply that PRF, unlike the other platelet concentrates, would be able to progressively release cytokines during fibrin matrix remodeling; such a mechanism might explain the clinically observed healing properties of PRF.

  13. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Negative T cells than B6.lpr mice. This suggests that the absence of PF4 alleviates some tissue damage in the lupus prone mice. 6...mice with PF4-/- mice may alleviate multi organ dysfunction in Lupus prone mice. Reportable Outcomes Nothing to report Conclusions We have...dysfunction in lupus models. We have evaluated the relationship between Syk and platelets and have thus far identified a role for Syk in platelet lodging in

  14. Cilostazol Inhibits Accumulation of Triglyceride in Aorta and Platelet Aggregation in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideki; Uehara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Ayako; Nagano, Chifumi; Niimi, Manabu; Miyakoda, Goro; Nagano, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Cilostazol is clinically used for the treatment of ischemic symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral arterial obstruction and for the secondary prevention of brain infarction. Recently, it has been reported that cilostazol has preventive effects on atherogenesis and decreased serum triglyceride in rodent models. There are, however, few reports on the evaluation of cilostazol using atherosclerotic rabbits, which have similar lipid metabolism to humans, and are used for investigating the lipid content in aorta and platelet aggregation under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of cilostazol on the atherosclerosis and platelet aggregation in rabbits fed a normal diet or a cholesterol-containing diet supplemented with or without cilostazol. We evaluated the effects of cilostazol on the atherogenesis by measuring serum and aortic lipid content, and the lesion area after a 10-week treatment and the effect on platelet aggregation after 1- and 10-week treatment. From the lipid analyses, cilostazol significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids in serum, and moreover, the triglyceride content in the atherosclerotic aorta. Cilostazol significantly reduced the intimal atherosclerotic area. Platelet aggregation was enhanced in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Cilostazol significantly inhibited the platelet aggregation in rabbits fed both a normal diet and a high cholesterol diet. Cilostazol showed anti-atherosclerotic and anti-platelet effects in cholesterol-fed rabbits possibly due to the improvement of lipid metabolism and the attenuation of platelet activation. The results suggest that cilostazol is useful for prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic diseases with the lipid abnormalities. PMID:22761774

  15. [Platelet-washing solution optimization].

    PubMed

    Grossin, E; Chamfly, V

    2005-10-01

    Different washing and homogénéisation solutions are hereby analysed by comparing the evolution of functional indicators during the preservation of washed aphaeresis platelet concentrates: physiological pH 4.5 and 6 solutions, buffered physiological pH 6.8 glucose solution, and two physiological pH 7 citrate solutions with acetate. Prior acidification of platelet concentrates proved to be essential. Two washings with manual or automated technique, guarantee residual proteins at a level of less than 0.5 g. Solutions T-Sol Baxter or SSP Macopharma allow us to obtain a product that meet the PSL specifications. Routine since June 2004, washings are done with a physiological pH 6 solution, then homogeneised with T-Sol solution. Platelet recovery, swirling phenomenon, lack of agrgegates, pH maintenance, low increase in the platelet average volume and maintenance of intra-cell potassium level, suggest that platelet entirety is preserved beyond the product's expiration date. The platelet transfusion yield of these products is satisfactory.

  16. Propionibacterium acnes lacks the capability to proliferate in platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Störmer, M; Kleesiek, K; Dreier, J

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is considered to be one of the most frequent contaminants of platelet concentrates (PCs) when anaerobic culture-based detection methods are used. But Propionibacteria are often detected too late when blood products have already been transfused. Therefore, its transfusion relevance is still demanding clarification because studies of the outcome of patients transfused with P. acnes-contaminated PCs are still uncommon. In this study, we monitored clinical effects in patients after transfusion of PCs, which were detected too late in sterility testing. Furthermore, we assessed the bacterial proliferation of Propionibacterium species seeded into PCs to clarify their significance for platelet bacteria screening. In the look-back process, we followed the route of the putative contaminated PC units from storage to transfusion. In the in vitro study, PCs were inoculated with 1-100 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml of clinical isolates of Propionibacteria (n = 10). Sampling was performed during 10-day aerobic storage at 22 degrees C. The presence of bacteria was assessed by plating culture and automated BacT/Alert culture system. Propionibacterium acnes shows slow or no growth under PC storage conditions. Clinical signs of adverse events after transfusion of potentially contaminated PC units were not reported. Propionibacteria do not proliferate under PC storage conditions and therefore may be missed or detected too late when blood products have already been transfused.

  17. Comparative evaluation of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma and pure platelet-rich plasma for cartilage regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengliang; Yin, Wenjing; Zhang, Yuelei; Qi, Xin; Chen, Yixuan; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the last decade. However, the potential harmful effects of leukocytes in PRP on cartilage regeneration have seldom been studied in vitro, and not at all in vivo yet. The objective of the present study is to compare the effects of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) on cartilage repair and NF-κB pathway, in order to explore the mechanism underlying the function of leukocytes in PRP in cartilage regeneration. The constituent analysis showed that P-PRP had significantly lower concentrations of leukocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with L-PRP. In addition, cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated P-PRP promoted growth and chondrogenesis of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) significantly compared with L-PRP. Despite similarity in macroscopic appearance, the implantation of P-PRP combining rBMSC in vivo yielded better cartilage repair results than the L-PRP group based on histological examination. Importantly, the therapeutic effects of PRP on cartilage regeneration could be enhanced by removing leukocytes to avoid the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Thus, PRP without concentrated leukocytes may be more suitable for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions. PMID:28265109

  18. Future innovations in anti-platelet therapies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, N E; Holbrook, L; Jones, S; Kaiser, W J; Moraes, L A; Rana, R; Sage, T; Stanley, R G; Tucker, K L; Wright, B; Gibbins, J M

    2008-01-01

    Platelets have long been recognized to be of central importance in haemostasis, but their participation in pathological conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation is now also well established. The platelet has therefore become a key target in therapies to combat cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet therapies are used widely, but current approaches lack efficacy in a proportion of patients, and are associated with side effects including problem bleeding. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding the regulation of platelet function, including the characterization of new ligands, platelet-specific receptors and cell signalling pathways. It is anticipated this progress will impact positively on the future innovations towards more effective and safer anti-platelet agents. In this review, the mechanisms of platelet regulation and current anti-platelet therapies are introduced, and strong, and some more speculative, potential candidate target molecules for future anti-platelet drug development are discussed. PMID:18587441

  19. Unraveling mechanisms that control platelet production.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Joseph E

    2013-02-01

    Platelets are formed by giant precursor cells called megakaryocytes that reside within the bone marrow. The generation of platelets, and their release into the bloodstream by megakaryocytes, requires a complex series of remodeling events powered by the cytoskeleton to result in the release of many platelets from a single megakaryocyte. Abnormalities in this process can result in thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and can lead to increased risk of bleeding. This review describes the process of platelet production in detail and discusses new insights into novel platelet biology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Platelets: essential components of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ramadan A.; Wuescher, Leah M.; Worth, Randall G.

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate cell fragments known for their central role in coagulation and vascular integrity. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that platelets contribute to diverse immunological processes extending beyond the traditional view of platelets as fragmentary mediators of hemostasis and thrombosis. There is recent evidence that platelets participate in: 1) intervention against microbial threats; 2) recruitment and promotion of innate effector cell functions; 3) modulating antigen presentation; and 4) enhancement of adaptive immune responses. In this way, platelets should be viewed as the underappreciated orchestrator of the immune system. This review will discuss recent and historical evidence regarding how platelets influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27818580

  1. The role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaque on platelet EP(3) and EP(4) receptor activation and platelet function in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Schober, Lisa J; Khandoga, Anna L; Dwivedi, Suman; Penz, Sandra M; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brandl, Richard; Siess, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component. Macrophages accumulating in atherosclerotic arteries produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a main inflammatory mediator. Platelets express inhibitory receptors (EP(2), EP(4)) and a stimulatory receptor (EP(3)) for this prostanoid. Recently, it has been reported in ApoE(-/-) mice that PGE(2) accumulating in inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions might contribute to atherothrombosis after plaque rupture by activating platelet EP(3), and EP(3) blockade has been proposed to be a promising new approach in anti-thrombotic therapy. The aim of our investigation was to study the role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaques on human platelet function and thrombus formation. Plaque PGE(2) might either activate or inhibit platelets depending on stimulation of either EP(3) or EP(4), respectively. We found that the two EP(3)-antagonists AE5-599 (300 nM) and AE3-240 (300 nM) specifically and completely inhibited the synergistic effect of the EP(3)-agonist sulprostone on U46619-induced platelet aggregation in blood. However, these two EP(3)-antagonists neither inhibited atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa exposure, dense and alpha granule secretion in blood nor reduced plaque-induced platelet thrombus formation under arterial flow. The EP(4)-antagonist AE3-208 (1-3 μM) potentiated in combination with PGE(2) (1 μM) ADP-induced aggregation, demonstrating that PGE(2) enhances platelet aggregation when the inhibitory EP(4)-receptor is inactivated. However, plaque-induced platelet aggregation was not augmented after platelet pre-treatment with AE3-208, indicating that plaque PGE(2) does not stimulate the EP(4)-receptor. We found that PGE(2) was present in plaques only at very low levels (15 pg PGE(2)/mg plaque). We conclude that PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic lesions does not modulate (i.e. stimulate or inhibit) atherothrombosis in blood after plaque rupture.

  2. Impact of reticulated platelets on antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is independent of platelet turnover.

    PubMed

    Stratz, Christian; Nührenberg, Thomas; Amann, Michael; Cederqvist, Marco; Kleiner, Pascal; Valina, Christian M; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald

    2016-10-28

    Reticulated platelets are associated with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines. It is uncertain whether this interaction is caused by a decreased drug exposure due to high platelet turnover reflected by elevated levels of reticulated platelets or by intrinsic properties of reticulated platelets. This study sought to investigate if the impact of reticulated platelets on early antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is mainly caused by platelet turnover as previously suggested. Elective patients undergoing coronary intervention were randomised to loading with clopidogrel 600 mg or prasugrel 60 mg (n=200). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet reactivity was determined by impedance aggregometry before, at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and at day 1 after loading. Immature platelet count was assessed as marker of reticulated platelets by flow cytometry. Platelet reactivity increased with rising levels of immature platelet count in both groups. This effect was more distinctive in patients on clopidogrel as compared to patients on prasugrel. Overall, immature platelet count correlated well with on-treatment platelet reactivity at all time-points (p < 0.001). These correlations did not change over time in the entire cohort as well as in patients treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel indicating an effect independent of platelet turnover (comparison of correlations 120 minutes/day 1: p = 0.64). In conclusion, the association of immature platelet count with impaired antiplatelet response to thienopyridines is similar early and late after loading. This finding suggests as main underlying mechanism another effect of reticulated platelets on thienopyridines than platelet turnover.

  3. Detection of platelet alloimmunity with a platelet-associated IgG assay

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Bishop, J.; Baldini, M.G.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescence PA-IgG assay was used to detect alloimmunity to platelets. The assay identified serum alloantibodies in 10 out of 14 multitransfused patients and for two of three infants with neonatal thrombocytopenia. The correct separation of all multitransfused patients into alloimmune and nonalloimmune groups by the PA-IgG assay was substantiated with chromium-51-labeled platelet survival studies. The allogeneic nature of the serum antibodies was demonstrated by progressive absorption of the antibody with increasing numbers of allogeneic platelets but not with autologous platelets. The sensitivity of the PA-IgG assay for detection of serum alloantibodies was superior to that of platelet aggregation, platelet serotonin release, and lymphocytotoxicity testing. In dilution experiments with alloimmune serum, elevated levels of serum PA-IgG could still be detected on donor platelets when platelet aggregation and serotonin release tests became negative. Platelet survival studies with selected platelets performed in the 10 alloimmunized, multitransfused patients confirmed the results of the PA-IgG assays, predicting alloimmunity to the donor platelets. In contrast, platelet aggregation, platelet serotonin release, and lymphocytotoxicity testing indicated alloimmunity for 50% or less of the patients. Reduced platelet survival times were also seen with HLA A- and HLA B-matched donor platelets when donor-recipient incompatibility was demonstrated by the PA-IgG assay. Thus the PA-IgG assay provides a sensitive method to detect serum platelet alloantibodies and may offer a technique in platelet crossmatching.

  4. Composition of growth factors and cytokines in lysates obtained from fresh versus stored pathogen-inactivated platelet units.

    PubMed

    Sellberg, Felix; Berglund, Erik; Ronaghi, Martin; Strandberg, Gabriel; Löf, Helena; Sommar, Pehr; Lubenow, Norbert; Knutson, Folke; Berglund, David

    2016-12-01

    Platelet lysate is a readily available source of growth factors, and other mediators, which has been used in a variety of clinical applications. However, the product remains poorly standardized and the present investigation evaluates the composition of platelet lysate obtained from either fresh or stored pathogen-inactivated platelet units. Platelet pooled units (n = 10) were obtained from healthy blood donors and tested according to standard procedures. All units were pathogen inactivated using amotosalen hydrochloride and UVA exposure. Platelet lysate was subsequently produced at two separate time-points, either from fresh platelet units or after 5 days of storage, by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The following mediators were determined at each time-point: EGF, FGF-2, VEGF, IGF-1, PDGF-AB/BB, BMP-2, PF4, TGF-β isoform 1, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, 1L-17A, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The concentration of growth factors and cytokines was affected by time in storage. Notably, TGF-β, PDGF-AB/BB, and PF4 showed an increase of 27.2% (p < 0.0001), 29.5% (p = 0.04) and 8.2% (p = 0.0004), respectively. A decrease was seen in the levels of IGF-1 and FGF-2 with 22% (p = 0.041) and 11% (p = 0.01), respectively. Cytokines were present only in very low concentrations and all other growth factors remained stable with time in storage. The composition of mediators in platelet lysate obtained from pathogen-inactivated platelet units differs when produced from fresh and stored platelet units, respectively. This underscores the need for further standardization and optimization of this important product, which potentially may influence the clinical effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Hemostatic function of apheresis platelets stored at 4 °C and 22 °C

    PubMed Central

    Reddoch, Kristin M.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Fedyk, Criselda G.; Aden, James K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Cap, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better than standard-of-care room temperature storage. Benefits could include lower transfusion-related complications, decreased costs, improved hemostasis in acutely bleeding patients, and extended shelf-life. In this study, we compared the effects of 22°C and 4°C storage on the functional and activation status of apheresis platelets (APs). Methods APs (n = 5 per group) were stored for 5 days at 22°C with agitation (RT) versus at 4°C with agitation (4C+AG) and without (4C). Measurements included platelet counts, mean platelet volume, blood gas analytes, aggregation response, thromboelastography, TxB2 and sCD40L release, activation markers and microparticle formation. Results Sample pH levels were within acceptable limits for storage products (pH 6.2-7.4). Platelet glucose metabolism (P < 0.05), aggregation response (ADP: RT 0; 4C+AG 5.0 ± 0.8; 4C 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05), and clot strength (MA: RT 58 ± 2; 4C+AG 63 ± 2; 4C 67 ± 2; P < 0.05) were better preserved at 4°C compared to RT storage. Refrigerated samples were more activated compared to RT (P < 0.05), although TxB2 (P < 0.05) and sCD40L release (P < 0.05) were higher at RT. Agitation did not improve the quality of 4°C-stored samples. Conclusion AP stored at 4°C maintain more viable metabolic characteristics, are hemostatically more effective, and release fewer pro-inflammatory mediators than AP stored at RT over 5 days. Given the superior bacteriologic safety of refrigerated products, these data suggest that cold-stored platelets may improve outcomes for acutely bleeding patients. PMID:24169210

  6. Platelet function tests: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Liotta, Agatina Alessandrello; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation - adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation - have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered.

  7. Relationships between platelet counts, platelet volumes and reticulated platelets in patients with ITP: evidence for significant platelet count inaccuracies with conventional instrument methods.

    PubMed

    Diquattro, M; Gagliano, F; Calabrò, G M; Tommasi, M; Scott, C S; Mancuso, G; Palma, B; Menozzi, I

    2009-04-01

    The platelet count has a primary role in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). This study analysed the accuracy of ITP patient platelet counts determined by Abbott CD-Sapphire (impedance/optical) and Bayer Advia 120 (optical) analyses, compared with a reference immunoplatelet method. Instrument platelet estimates showed broad equivalence in the higher range of observed values, but significant discrepancies against the immunoplatelet count were seen when platelet counts were <10 x 10(9)/l. CD-Sapphire mean platelet volume (MPV) results revealed increased (>12 fl) platelet volumes in eight of eight ITP patients with counts of <20 x 10(9)/l compared with 6/6 and 5/13 patients with platelet counts of 20-50 and >50 x 10(9)/l. In contrast, Bayer Advia MPV values showed no relationship with the platelet count. Increased reticulated platelets were associated with an increasing CD-Sapphire MPV (R(2) = 0.61) and a decreasing platelet count. High (>40%) reticulated platelet values were seen in 9/9 patients with immunoplatelet counts of <20 x 10(9)/l compared with 0/19 patients with platelet counts above 20 x 10(9)/l. There may be a need for caution in the interpretation of platelet counts in ITP patients obtained with conventional instrument methods, and therapeutic decisions should ideally be validated by reference immunoplatelet procedures.

  8. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  9. Interaction of inorganic nanoparticles of lunar soil simulant with blood platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Kasatkina, Ludmila; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy; Slenzka, Klaus

    Blood platelets play a central role in the physiology of primary hemostasis and in the patholog-ical processes of arterial thrombosis. Also, blood platelets contain neuronal high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 -3) and are able to uptake glutamate, thereby playing possible physiological role in extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS as an additional powerful target for excessive neurotoxic glutamate accumulation and storage. The health effects of lunar soil exposure are almost completely unknown, whereas the observations suggest that it can be deleterious to human physiology. It is important that the components of lunar soil may be internalized with lipid fractions of the lung epithelium, which in turn may help ions to overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of JSC-1a Lunar Soil Simulant (LSS) (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, USA) on platelets isolated from rabbit blood. We revealed that platelets were not indifferent to the expo-sure to LSS. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the incubation of platelets with LSS resulted in an upper shift of platelet spot in histograms presenting cell size (FS) and granularity (SS) as x and y coordinates, thereby demonstrating apparent increase in platelet granularity. Analysis of control platelet preparation did not reveal the alterations in platelet size and granularity during the same incubation period. LSS scatter per se did not cover area of platelet prepara-tion in histogram. Using Zetasizer Nanosystem (Malvern Instruments) with helium-neon laser for dynamic light scattering (DLS), the platelet size before and after the addition of LSS was measured. We have found the increase in the mean size of the population of platelets from 2.45 ±0.09 µm in control to 3.0 ± 0.25 µm in the presence of LSS. Thus, we report that inorganic nanoparticles of LSS bind to blood platelets and this fact may have considerable harmful conse-quences to human

  10. Effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet deposition in carotid atherosclerosis: assessment by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Etani, H.; Uehara, A.; Uyama, O.; Yoneda, S.; Kamada, T.; Kusunoki, M.

    1986-11-01

    The antiplatelet effects of aspirin and ticlopidine were studied by a dual-tracer method, using indium-111 labeled platelets and technetium-99m human serum albumin, in a group of 12 patients with suspected ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of platelet accumulation at the carotid bifurcation was expressed as the ratio of radioactivity of indium-111 platelets deposited on the vascular wall to those circulating in the blood-pool (PAI, platelet accumulation index), 48 hr after injection of labeled platelets. PAI values were measured before (baseline studies) and after the antithrombotic therapies (aspirin studies: 325 mg bid for 22.3 +/- 1.3 days, ticlopidine studies: 100 mg tid for 21.8 +/- 2.1 days). At the baseline, the mean PAI value at 24 carotid bifurcations in the patient group was 15.7 +/- 15.3% (mean +/- S.D.) compared to -4.3 +/- 9.1 at 24 carotid bifurcations in 12 normal subjects (p less than 0.01). We defined the upper limit for a normal PAI (%) value to be +13.9, namely the mean PAI plus 2 SD for the carotid bifurcation in normal subjects and used this value for semiquantitative analysis. At the baseline, significant elevation of PAI (more than 13.9%; positive scintigram) was observed at 12 of 24 vessels, while 12 other regions were negative (less than 13.9%). In the lesions with positive scintigraphic results at the baseline, the mean PAI (%) value from the baseline, aspirin and ticlopidine studies was 29.5 +/- 7.0, 11.2 +/- 8.5 (p less than 0.01 versus baseline) and 21.4 +/- 21.3 (not significant from baseline), respectively.

  11. CD8+ T cells induce platelet clearance in the liver via platelet desialylation in immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jihua; Liu, Xuena; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xu; Han, Panpan; Zhou, Hai; Shao, Linlin; Hou, Yu; Min, Yanan; Kong, Zhangyuan; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Yu; Liu, Xinguang; Ni, Heyu; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In addition to antiplatelet autoantibodies, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the increased platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Recent studies have highlighted that platelet desialylation leads to platelet clearance via hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs). Whether CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation in ITP remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells towards platelets and platelet desialylation in ITP. We found that the desialylation of fresh platelets was significantly higher in ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells than those without cytotoxicity and controls. In vitro, CD8+ T cells from ITP patients with positive cytotoxicity induced significant platelet desialylation, neuraminidase-1 expression on the platelet surface, and platelet phagocytosis by hepatocytes. To study platelet survival and clearance in vivo, CD61 knockout mice were immunized and their CD8+ splenocytes were used. Platelets co-cultured with these CD8+ splenocytes demonstrated decreased survival in the circulation and increased phagocytosis in the liver. Both neuraminidase inhibitor and ASGPRs competitor significantly improved platelet survival and abrogated platelet clearance caused by CD8+ splenocytes. These findings suggest that CD8+ T cells induce platelet desialylation and platelet clearance in the liver in ITP, which may be a novel mechanism of ITP. PMID:27321376

  12. Effect of photodynamic therapy on mouse platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuannong; Chi, Shunji; Deng, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Junlin; Ha, Xian-wen

    1993-06-01

    Normal mice received hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) i.v. prior to red light irradiation and the platelet-rich plasma was prepared and irradiated by red light. The platelets were processed for EM examination and stereological analysis. It was shown the 16 hrs after irradiation almost all platelets were necrotized; 8 hours after irradiation about one fourth of the platelets were necrotized and the remaining were considerably damaged. Immediately after irradiation a small number of platelets became necrotic and most other platelets were swollen and deformated, showing significantly increased mean area, perimeter and short axis, and mean cell volume and cell surface area. The findings indicate that platelets are highly sensitive to PDT action and can be directly and rapidly damaged by PDT even in the absence of vascular endothelial cells. The early platelet photoactivation may play an important role in the initiation of early vascular damage and microcirculatory alterations induced by PDT in vivo.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: gray platelet syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... play a role in the formation of alpha-granules, which are sacs inside platelets that contain growth ... that causes bleeding, the proteins stored in alpha-granules help platelets stick to one another to form ...

  14. Patterning surfaces for controlled platelet adhesion and detection of dysfunctional platelets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Shi, Qiang; Wong, Shing-Chung; Hou, Jianwen; Shi, Hengchong; Yin, Jinghua

    2013-06-01

    Platelets play a fundamental role in thrombus formation and in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis. Patterning surfaces for controlled platelet adhesion paves the way for adhesion and activation mechanisms in platelets and detection of platelet functional defects. Here, a new and simple method based on controlled polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) on the surface of styrene-block-(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-styrene (SEBS) is shown. The competition between polymerization and degradation enables platelet adhesion on SEBS to be switched on and off. The adhesive sites of the platelets can be down to single cell level, and the dysfunctional platelets can be quantitatively detected.

  15. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelium in two models of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE(-/-) mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE(-/-) mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate.

  16. High Fat Diet Induces Adhesion of Platelets to Endothelium in Two Models of Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Díaz, Natalia; Albornoz, María Eliana; Huilcaman, Ricardo; Morales, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all global deaths. It is currently accepted that, in the atherogenic process, platelets play an important role, contributing to endothelial activation and modulation of the inflammatory phenomenon, promoting the beginning and formation of lesions and their subsequent thrombotic complications. The objective of the present work was to study using immunohistochemistry, the presence of platelets, monocytes/macrophages, and cell adhesion molecules (CD61, CD163, and CD54), in two stages of the atheromatous process. CF-1 mice fed a fat diet were used to obtain early stages of atheromatous process, denominated early stage of atherosclerosis, and ApoE−/− mice fed a fat diet were used to observe advanced stages of atherosclerosis. The CF-1 mice model presented immunostaining on endothelial surface for all three markers studied; the advanced atherosclerosis model in ApoE−/− mice also presented granular immunostaining on lesion thickness, for the same markers. These results suggest that platelets participate in atheromatous process from early stages to advance d stages. High fat diet induces adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells in vivo. These findings support studying the participation of platelets in the formation of atheromatous plate. PMID:25328689

  17. Platelet Activation: The Mechanisms and Potential Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Sim, Eun-Hye; Goh, Ri-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2016-01-01

    Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, mediating inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Our knowledge about how platelets modulate inflammatory and immunity has greatly improved in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the pathways of platelet activation and potential application of platelet activation biomarkers to diagnosis and prediction of disease states. PMID:27403440

  18. All-Aluminum Transverse Platelet Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-25

    to the low density material. The 1xx$nafter described lightweight platelet injector includes an aluminum transverse platelet faceplate joined to an... aluminum body 15 with the electron beam 20 welds 21. This allows the fabrication of an all aluminum transverse platelet iinjector capable of replacing the...1 87 1-93 Serial No _ 872,?193 Filing 1)’ 25Jan 78( * Inventg/ Samuel E./Adair --: i - ------ NOC E . . . / All- Aluminum Transverse Platelet

  19. Selection of donor platelets for alloimmunized patients using a platelet-associated IgG assay

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Steiner, M.; Baldini, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescence platelet-associated immunoglobulin-G (PA-IgG) assay was used to detect alloimmunity to platelets in 8/12 multitransfused patients and to perform platelet crossmatching in the 8 alloimmunized patients. The correct separation of multitransfused patients into alloimmune and nonalloimmune groups was substantiated with chromium-51-labeled platelet survival studies. For 5 alloimmunized patients, compatible and incompatible donor platelets were demonstrated by PA-IgG crossmatching and were confirmed by platelet survival studies. With the other 3 alloimmunized patients, only Pa-IgG incompatible donor platelets were found. Survival studies with 5 of these incompatible donor platelets showed markedly reduced survival times on 4 occasions. Pa-IgG compatible donor platelets survived 3.5 to 8.7 days, while Pa-IgG incompatible platelets showed survival times of 0.1 to 2.4 days.

  20. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  1. Dengue platelets meet Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

    PubMed

    Bray, Paul F

    2013-11-14

    In this issue of Blood, Hottz et al provide compelling evidence that dengue virus (DV) induces (1) platelet synthesis of interleukin-1b (IL-1b); (2) platelet-derived IL-1b–containing microvesicles (MVs) that increase vascular permeability; and (3) DV-triggered inflammasome activation in platelets.

  2. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON RABBIT PLATELETS

    PubMed Central

    Des Prez, Roger M.; Bryant, Richard E.

    1966-01-01

    The divalent ion requirements of rabbit platelet injury by endotoxin have been defined by the use of various anticoagulant solutions and have been compared to the divalent ion requirements of platelet injury produced by addition of antigen to immune platelet-rich plasma. The endotoxin-platelet interaction takes place in citrated blood. Platelet damage by antigen is inhibited by citrate, but preincubation of antigen and immune platelet-poor plasma in the absence of citrate results in a substance, presumably antigen-antibody complement complex, which then does injure platelets in the presence of citrate. Neither endotoxin nor preincubated antigen injures platelets in the presence of sodium EDTA in concentrations sufficient to interact with all divalent cations present in plasma. These observations have been interpreted by viewing the platelet-endotoxin interaction as a consequence of platelet phagocytosis of endotoxin, a reaction not requiring complement but requiring definite small concentrations of divalent cations. The interaction of antigen and platelets is regarded as a two phase reaction, the first requiring the participation of complement and concentrations of divalent cation larger than those provided in citrated plasma, the second requiring smaller concentrations of divalent cation, no further participation of complement, and active in citrated plasma. This second phase is regarded as representing platelet phagocytosis of immune complexes. PMID:5951281

  3. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Multiscale model of platelet translocation and collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Mody, Nipa A.; King, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    The tethering of platelets on the injured vessel surface mediated by glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) - Von Willebrand factor (vWF) bonds, as well as the interaction between flowing platelets and adherent platelets, are two key events that take place immediately following blood vessel injury. This early-stage platelet deposition and accumulation triggers the initiation of hemostasis, a self-defensive mechanism to prevent the body from excessive blood loss. To understand and predict this complex process, one must integrate experimentally determined information on the mechanics and biochemical kinetics of participating receptors over very small time frames (1-1000 μs) and length scales (10-100 nm), to collective phenomena occurring over seconds and tens of microns. In the present study, a unique three dimensional multiscale computational model, Platelet Adhesive Dynamics (PAD), was applied to elucidate the unique physics of (i) a non-spherical, disk-shaped platelet interacting and tethering onto the damaged vessel wall followed by (ii) collisional interactions between a flowing platelet with a downstream adherent platelet. By analyzing numerous simulations under different physiological conditions, we conclude that the platelet's unique spheroid-shape provides heterogeneous, orientation-dependent translocation (rolling) behavior which enhances cell-wall interactions. We also conclude that platelet-platelet near field interactions are critical for cell-cell communication during the initiation of microthrombi. The PAD model described here helps to identify the physical factors that control the initial stages of platelet capture during this process.

  5. Automatic detection of immature platelets for decision making regarding platelet transfusion indications for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saigo, Katsuyasu; Sakota, Yasuyuki; Masuda, Yukako; Matsunaga, Kyoko; Takenokuchi, Mariko; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Makoto; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Tsutomu; Kubota, Yoshitsugu; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2008-04-01

    Immature or reticulated platelets are known as a clinical marker of thrombopoiesis. Recently, an automatic method was established to detect reticulated platelets as immature platelet fraction (IPF) by means of hematology analyzer XE-2100. We assessed the effects of IPF detection after chemotherapy for various pediatric malignant disorders of 16 patients. Our results indicate that IPF should be considered a useful marker of imminent platelet recovery so that unnecessary platelet transfusion can be avoided.

  6. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  7. Monitoring of Platelet Activation in Platelet Concentrates Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neumüller, Josef; Meisslitzer-Ruppitsch, Claudia; Ellinger, Adolf; Pavelka, Margit; Jungbauer, Christof; Renz, Renate; Leitner, Gerda; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective The quality of platelet concentrates (PC) is important for the in vivo recovery of thrombostasis in patients suffering from bleeding disorders and in tumor patients after chemotherapy. In this respect, activated platelets (PLT) cannot display their full functionality in the recipient and even can cause adverse effects. Therefore, we developed a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method for quality assessment of PC. Methods Score values taken from panorama TEM images describe the progress of PLT activation. To exemplify this method, i) 19 apheresis PC isolated with the Baxter Amicus system (BA) were compared with 14 PC obtained from pooled buffy coats (BC). ii) The score values of 33 PC derived from BA as well from BC were compared with flow-cytometric CD62P determinations by cross correlation. iii) Changes in the score value profiles during storage of a single pathogen-reduced BA PC were monitored over a period of 7 days. Results The TEM evaluation described allows for demonstrating particular PLT activation stages. i) Significant differences between the percentages of the score values 0, 1 and 2 could be demonstrated in both processing groups. No significant differences were found comparing these two groups. ii) A weak correlation could be shown when comparing the percentages of score values 2 plus 3 with the percentage of CD62P-positive PLT. iii) The pathogen reduction affected slightly the score profiles during storage due to an increase of dead PLT. Conclusion Our investigations demonstrate the unique detailed quality information of PC obtained by the TEM method. This method can be performed in every routine electron microscopy laboratory. PMID:23652838

  8. Mouse prenatal platelet-forming lineages share a core transcriptional program but divergent dependence on MPL.

    PubMed

    Potts, Kathryn S; Sargeant, Tobias J; Dawson, Caleb A; Josefsson, Emma C; Hilton, Douglas J; Alexander, Warren S; Taoudi, Samir

    2015-08-06

    The thrombopoietic environment of the neonate is established during prenatal life; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of platelet-forming cell development during embryogenesis is critical to understanding the etiology of early-onset thrombocytopenia. The recent discovery that the first platelet-forming cells of the conceptus are not megakaryocytes (MKs) but diploid platelet-forming cells (DPFCs) revealed a previously unappreciated complexity in thrombopoiesis. This raises important questions, including the following. When do conventional MKs appear? Do pathogenic genetic lesions of adult MKs affect DPFCs? What role does myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL), a key regulator of adult megakaryopoiesis, play in prenatal platelet-forming lineages? We performed a comprehensive study to determine the spatial and temporal appearance of prenatal platelet-forming lineages. We demonstrate that DPFCs originate in the yolk sac and then rapidly migrate to other extra- and intraembryonic tissues. Using gene disruption models of Gata1 and Nfe2, we demonstrate that perturbing essential adult MK genes causes an analogous phenotype in the early embryo before the onset of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell-driven (definitive) hematopoiesis. Finally, we present the surprising finding that DPFC and MK commitment from their respective precursors is MPL independent in vivo but that completion of MK differentiation and establishment of the prenatal platelet mass is dependent on MPL expression.

  9. Aspirin, platelets, and cancer: The point of view of the internist.

    PubMed

    Santilli, F; Boccatonda, A; Davì, G

    2016-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests the beneficial effect of aspirin against some types of cancer, particularly of the gastrointestinal tract, and it has been provided for an effect both in cancer prevention as well as in survival improvement of cancer patients. Aspirin benefits increase with duration of treatment, especially after 10years of treatment. The inhibition of platelet activation at sites of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions could be the primary mechanism of action of low-dose aspirin. Indeed, the formation of tumor cell-induced platelet aggregates may favor immune evasion, by releasing angiogenic and growth factors, and also by promoting cancer cell dissemination. Moreover, platelets may contribute to aberrant COX-2 expression in colon carcinoma cells, thereby contributing to downregulation of oncosuppressor genes and upregulation of oncogenes, such as cyclin B1. Platelet adhesion to cancer cells leads also to an increased expression of genes involved in the EMT, such as the EMT-inducing transcription factors ZEB1 and TWIST1 and the mesenchymal marker vimentin. The aspirin-mediated inactivation of platelets may restore antitumor reactivity by blocking the release of paracrine lipid and protein mediators that induce COX-2 expression in adjacent nucleated cells at sites of mucosal injury. Thus, recent findings suggest interesting perspectives on "old" aspirin and NSAID treatment and/or "new" specific drugs to target the "evil" interactions between platelets and cancer for chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of fibroblast extracellular matrix calcification on platelet adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, J N; Melchior, A; Endt-Knauer, H; Schrör, K; Fischer, J W; Weber, A-A

    2008-09-01

    Calcified atherosclerotic lesions are more prone to rupture during angioplasty than non-calcified lesions and are associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications following angioplasty. This study investigates the possible role of extracellular matrix (ECM) calcification for platelet adhesion. Human cultured fibroblasts (CRL-1635) were subjected to beta-glycerophosphate (10 mM) for 10 to 16 days. Calcification was visualized by von Kossa staining and quantified by the O-cresolphthalein complexone method. Adhesion of calcein-labelled platelets was measured by fluorescence microscopy at static conditions and in a parallel-flow chamber at a shear rate of 1000 s(-1). beta-glycerophosphate treatment resulted in a marked calcification of the ECM. In parallel, a small, albeit significant increase in platelet adhesion under static conditions was observed. In contrast, at flow conditions, the area covered by thrombi was significantly lower when calcified ECM was used. The number of thrombi was not significantly different which is compatible with a smaller thrombus size. Taken together, it appears unlikely that calcification of atherosclerotic lesions contributes to thrombotic complications by an increased platelet adhesion.

  11. Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates (PRECON)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    female) must agree to use an effective method of contraception during the course of the study. The following methods of contraception will be...considered ‘effective’ when self-reported by subject; abstinence, intrauterine contraception devices, hormonal methods, barrier methods or history of

  12. [Benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Pickhard, A; Reiter, R

    2013-05-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are grouped in lesions arising from the epithelium like papillomas, lesions affecting the Reinke's space (nodules, polyps, cysts, Reinkes's edema as a form of chronic laryngitis) and lesions affecting the arytenoid (granulomas). A multifactorial genesis is assumed. Main symptoms are dysphonia and hyperfunctional vocal behavior that might also be a cause of these lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The effect of ex vivo anticoagulants on whole blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Madeleine L; Potura, Lukasz; Scharbert, Gisela; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle A

    2009-02-01

    Pre- and intraoperative platelet function monitoring is increasingly recommended in order to detect risk factors for bleeding and to target coagulation management. The ideal anticoagulant for accurate platelet aggregometry remains controversial. The aim of this experimental trial was to compare platelet aggregability in whole blood stored in citrate, heparin and direct thrombin inhibitors. Whole blood was drawn from 11 healthy adult volunteers who had not taken any medication in the previous 14 days. Blood was stored in trisodium citrate, unfractionated heparin, melagatran, lepirudin and argatroban. Platelet aggregation was performed using the impedance aggregometer Multiplate (Dynabyte, Munich, Germany) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP), collagen, arachidonic acid and ristocetin as agonists. Samples were analysed immediately after blood sampling (baseline), as well as 30 and 120 min afterwards. At baseline there were no significant differences in aggregability between samples containing direct thrombin inhibitors and heparin. In contrast, aggregation in response to all agonists except for ristocetin was significantly impaired in citrated blood. During storage the response to arachidonic acid and collagen was maintained by direct thrombin inhibitors and heparin, whereas ADP-, TRAP- and ristocetin-induced aggregation varied considerably over time in all ex vivo anticoagulants tested. Pre-analytical procedures should be standardized because storage duration and anticoagulants significantly affect platelet aggregability in whole blood. For point-of-care monitoring with immediate analysis after blood withdrawal all tested direct thrombin inhibitors as well as unfractionated heparin can be used as anticoagulants whereas citrate is not recommended.

  14. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×10(3)/µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×10(3)/µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08-4.6, P=0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). PC <248.010×10(3)/µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia.

  15. Platelet count and platelet indices in women with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    AlSheeha, Muneera A; Alaboudi, Rafi S; Alghasham, Mohammad A; Iqbal, Javed; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not completely understood, the utility of different platelets indices can be utilized to predict preeclampsia. Objective To compare platelet indices, namely platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and PC to MPV ratio in women with preeclampsia compared with healthy controls. Setting Qassim Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design A case–control study. Sixty preeclamptic women were the cases and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were the controls. Results There was no significant difference in age, parity, and body mass index between the study groups. Sixteen and 44 of the cases were severe and mild preeclampsia, respectively. There was no significant difference in PDW and MPV between the preeclamptic and control women. Both PC and PC to MPV ratios were significantly lower in the women with preeclampsia compared with the controls. There was no significant difference in the PC, PDW, MPV, and PC to MPV ratio when women with mild and severe preeclampsia were compared. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the PC cutoff was 248.0×103/µL for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (P=0.019; the area under the ROC curve was 62.4%). Binary regression suggests that women with PC <248.010×103/µL were at higher risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio =2.2, 95% confidence interval =1.08–4.6, P=0.03). The PC/MPV cutoff was 31.2 for diagnosis of preeclampsia (P=0.035, the area under the ROC curve was 62.2%). Conclusion PC <248.010×103/µL and PC to MPV ratio 31.2 are valid predictors of preeclampsia. PMID:27920548

  16. Applications and limits of platelet-rich plasma in sports related injuries.

    PubMed

    Stanco, D; Vigano', M; Croiset, S J; De Girolamo, L

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising alternative approach based on the efficacy of autologous growth factors to accelerate tissue healing, allowing a fast recovery after muscles, ligaments, tendon or cartilage lesions. This literature review begin focusing on the role of platelets growth factors in these tissue healing and on the available preparation methods for PRP. Moreover we consider the in vitro and in vivo study on PRP, some of the most important therapeutic applications and limitations. Although several preclinical studies show promising results, clinical studies still show controversial results. Further studies are required to define the efficacy and to specify the way of using PRP in the orthopaedic practice.

  17. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Immunofluorescence as Indicators of Platelet Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-23

    Studies were performed to determine if the increase in MPV was due to the presence of alloantibodies or if it was due to ABO isoagglutinins anti-A and...blood group types (Tables IA and 1B). Sera from donors with blood group type 0 containing anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins always caused type A...platelets to swell (range 7-24%) (Table 1A). Mixtures of B and 0 platelets with sera containing anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins demonstrated no change or

  18. Mimicking adhesive functionalities of blood platelets using ligand-decorated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Modery, Christa L; Wong, Timothy L; Dzuricky, Michael; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2012-06-20

    Platelet transfusion is used for treating a variety of bleeding complications. Natural platelet-based transfusion products have very short storage life (3-7 days) and high risks of biological contamination and side effects. Consequently, there is significant clinical interest in synthetic platelet-mimetic constructs that can promote hemostasis, while allowing convenient large-scale production, easy portability, long storage life, and minimal biological risks. To this end, research efforts are being directed toward particles that can amplify aggregation of activated platelets or can mimic platelet's ability to undergo adhesion to various vascular matrix proteins. Here, we report on a synthetic construct design that combines the mimicry of platelet's shear-dependent adhesion to vWF and shear-independent adhesion to collagen under flow, on a single particle. For this, we have used 150-nm-diameter liposomes as model particles and have decorated their surface simultaneously with vWF-binding and collagen-binding recombinant protein fragments or synthetic peptide motifs. We demonstrate in vitro that these surface-modified liposomes are able to adhere onto vWF surfaces in a shear-dependent fashion and onto collagen surfaces in a shear-independent fashion under flow. Moreover, when the vWF-binding and the collagen-binding were integrated on a single liposomal platform, the resultant heteromultivalent liposomes showed significantly enhanced adhesion to a vWF/collagen mixed surface compared to liposomes bearing vWF-binding or collagen-binding ligands only, as long as the ligand motifs did not spatially interfere with each other. Altogether, our results establish the feasibility of efficiently mimicking platelet's dual adhesion mechanisms on synthetic particles.

  19. Platelet actively cooled thermal management devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueggenburg, H. H.; Hidahl, J. W.; Kessler, E. L.; Rousar, D. C.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of 28 years of actively-cooled platelet thermal management devices design and development history is presented. Platelet devices are created by bonding together thin metal sheets (platelets) which contain chemically-etched coolant pasages. The bonding process produces an intricate and precise matrix of coolant passages and structural walls contained within a monolithic structure. Thirteen specific applications for platelet thermal management devices are described. These devices are cooled using convective, film, and transpiration cooling techniques. Platelet thermal management devices have been fabricated from a variety of metals, cooled with a variety of fluids, and operated at heat fluxes up to 200 Btu/sq in.-sec.

  20. Hemolysis after ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Chow, M P; Yung, C H; Hu, H Y; Tzeng, C H

    1991-08-01

    An 18 year old girl, with acute myeloid leukemia, developed progressive hemolysis after receiving multiple transfusions with ABO-incompatible platelets. It was caused by passive transfusion of anti-A and -B isoagglutinin from the donor plasma. Her hemoglobin level returned to normal after giving group compatible or pooled and reduced volume platelet concentrates. Transfusing group-incompatible platelets is not contraindicated, but donor plasma reduction should be considered for those patients who need prolonged platelet support. Testing for isoagglutinin titer in group O donors is an alternate method to reduce the incidence of plasma-induced hemolysis in group-incompatible platelet transfusions.

  1. Variations of the Platelet Count in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchasin, Sidney; Wallerstein, Ralph O.; Aggeler, Paul M.

    1964-01-01

    Platelet counts were obtained in 675 patients with different hematological and other medical disorders. An indirect venous blood dry slide method which gave a normal range of 200 to 400 × 103 per cu mm was used. Platelet counts varied considerably in disease: In 20 patients, exclusive of myeloproliferative disorders, platelet counts in excess of 1,000 × 103 per cu mm were observed; in 20 patients, exclusive of leukemia and megaloblastic anemia, platelet counts were below 100 × 103 per cu mm. In general, platelet counts varied with the leukocyte count, but not with the degree of anemia. PMID:14180504

  2. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.

    PubMed

    Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A

    1983-05-01

    1 Palmitaldehyde, olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids induced rapid shape change and dose-dependent biphasic aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma; aggregation was reversible at low doses and irreversible at high doses of the acetal phosphatidic acids. The palmitaldehyde congener elicited monophasic dose-dependent aggregation of sheep platelets in platelet-rich plasma.2 The threshold concentration for palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid (PGAP)-induced platelet aggregation was 2.5-5 muM for human platelets and 0.25-0.5 muM for sheep platelets. PGAP was 4-5 times as potent versus human platelets as the olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids, which were equipotent.3 PGAP-induced irreversible aggregation of [(14)C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([(14)C]-5-HT)-labelled human platelets in platelet-rich plasma was accompanied by release of 44.0+/-2.4% (s.e.) of the platelet [(14)C]-5-HT; reversible aggregation was not associated with release. In contrast, PGAP-induced release of [(14)C]-5-HT-labelled sheep platelets was dose-dependent.4 The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist, 2-methylthio-AMP, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, aspirin, abolished PGAP-induced second phase aggregation and release in human platelets but did not affect the first, reversible, phase of aggregation. Both the first and second phases of PGAP-induced aggregation were abolished by chlorpromazine, by the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, mepacrine, and by nmolar concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)); these agents abolished the second, but not the first phase of ADP-induced aggregation.5 The related phospholipids, lecithin, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid, at <100 muM, neither induced aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma, nor modified PGAP-induced aggregation; 1-palmityl lysophosphatidic acid elicited aggregation of human platelets at a threshold concentration of 100 muM.6 It is concluded that the acetal phosphatidic acids

  3. Platelet activity and outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Naidech, Andrew M; Bernstein, Richard A; Levasseur, Kimberly; Bassin, Sarice L; Bendok, Bernard R; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P; Alberts, Mark J

    2009-03-01

    There are few data on platelet function in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We prospectively enrolled 69 patients with ICH and measured platelet function on admission. Aspirin use before ICH was associated with reduced platelet activity. Less platelet activity was associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (516.5 [interquartile range (IQR), 454-629.25] vs 637 [IQR, 493-654] aspirin reaction units; p = 0.04) and death at 14 days (480.5 [IQR, 444.5-632.5] vs 626 [IQR, 494-652] aspirin reaction units; p = 0.04). Objective measures of platelet function on admission are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage and death after ICH.

  4. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzano, D.; Hwang, K.; Catalano, P.; Aster, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 . 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets . 7.57 mu3, LD platelets . 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  5. Evidence that platelet buoyant density, but not size, correlates with platelet age in man.

    PubMed

    Mezzano, D; Hwang, K; Catalano, P; Aster, R H

    1981-01-01

    Following infusion of 51Cr-labeled autologous platelets into normal subjects, high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet cohorts were isolated by prolonged centrifugation in isosmotic arabino-galactan (Stractan). Specific radio-activity of LD platelets declined rapidly post-infusion (T1/2 = 1.5 days), but specific radioactivity of HD platelets remained constant or increased over a 3--4-day period and gradually declined for 6--7 days thereafter. These differences were exaggerated when platelet cohorts enriched in LD or HD cells by slow centrifugation in high-density albumin were labeled and transfused. Mean survival of a platelet cohort enriched with HD cells was significantly (P less than 0.02) shorter (7.73 days) than that of a cohort enriched with LD cells (9.33) days). In normal subjects treated with aspirin, capacity for thromboxane synthesis was regained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) in LD than in HD platelets. HD and LD platelets differed only slightly in mean volume (HD platelets = 7.57 mu3, LD platelets = 6.87 mu3, 0.05 less than P less than 0.01). We believe the most logical interpretation of these findings is that under normal conditions in man, newly formed platelets are less dense on the average than total platelets and become more dense as they age in the circulation. Thus, specific radioactivity of LD platelets declines rapidly as these platelets move into a more dense compartment and are replaced by newly formed, unlabelled cells; specific radioactivity of HD platelets remains constant or increases as labelled platelets enter this compartment in numbers equal to or greater than the number leaving it at the end of their life span. The similarity in mean volumes of LD and HD platelets suggests that platelet size is unrelated to platelet age under normal conditions.

  6. Pathogen-Reduced, Extended Platelet Storage in Platelet Additive Solution (PAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    method of contraception during the course of the study. The following methods of contraception will be considered ‘effective’ when self-reported by...subject; abstinence, intrauterine contraception devices, hormonal methods, barrier methods or history of sterilization. Exclusion Criteria Healthy

  7. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    5. Klinger, M.H., and W. Jelkmann. 2002. Role of blood platelets in infection and inflammation. Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the...official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 22:913-922. 6. Kulkarni, S., K.J. Woollard, S. Thomas, D. Oxley, and

  8. Platelet Cryopreservation Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    plateletpheresis methods or cell separators. In recent studies, the corrected count increment following 66 transfusions of frozen platelets collected using the...Haemonetics Model 30 processor (Haemonetics Corp., Natick, Mass.) was 12,3000 (range 0-36,800) compared to a mean CCI of 11,7000 (0-34,900) using manual plateletpheresis technique (N = 211).

  9. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Daljit; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Marwaha, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Different methods of platelet concentrate preparations leave behind certain number of residual leukocytes, accounting for most of the febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, especially in multitransfused patients. Various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 are generated during storage and have been implicated for these adverse effects. We have studied the levels of these cytokines and their correlation with leucocyte contents in platelet concentrates prepared by three different methods. Study Design and Methods: Five pools of platelet rich plasma platelet concentrates (PRP-PC) and buffy-coat platelet concentrates (BC-PC) each were prepared and divided into two halves. One half of the pool was leucofiltered (LF), whereas the other half was stored as such. Ten apheresis units were also included in the study. All the platelet concentrates were assessed for leucocyte load and cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) on different days of storage (0, 3, and 5) using Nageotte chamber and commercially available immunoassays respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant rise in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) in nonleucofiltered (NLF) random donor platelet concentrates (RDPs) (PRP-PC and BC-PC) during storage (day 3 and 5) whereas LF RDP concentrates (PRP-PC and BC-PC) and apheresis platelet concentrates (AP-PC) did not show any significant rise in cytokine levels (on day 3 and 5) over the baseline values at day 0. Conclusion: This data suggests that although AP-PCs are superior to PRP-PC (NLF) and BC-PC (NLF) in terms of in vitro quality control parameters and cytokine generation during storage, BC-PC mode of platelet preparation followed by leucofiltration is the best method to store platelets and minimise the cytokine accumulation. This strategy is best suited for transfusion in multitransfused hematooncologic patients, who cannot afford single

  10. The decellularized porcine heart valve matrix in tissue engineering: platelet adhesion and activation.

    PubMed

    Kasimir, Marie-Theres; Weigel, Guenter; Sharma, Jyotindra; Rieder, Erwin; Seebacher, Gernot; Wolner, Ernst; Simon, Paul

    2005-09-01

    An approach in tissue engineering of heart valves is the use of decellularized xenogeneic matrices to avoid immune response after implantation. The decellularization process must preserve the structural components of the extracellular matrix to provide a biomechanically stable scaffold. However, it is known that in vascular lesions platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix components occurs and platelet activation is induced. In the present study we examined the effects of a decellularized porcine heart valve matrix on thrombocyte activation and the influence of re-endothelialisation in vitro. Porcine pulmonary conduits were decellularized using Triton X-100, Na-deoxycholate and Igepal CA-630 followed by a ribonuclease digestion. Cryostat sections of decellularized heart valves with and without seeding with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with platelet rich plasma. Samples were either stained with fluorescent antibodies for CD41 and PAC-I (recognizing the activated fibrinogen receptor) or fixed with glutaraldehyde. Thereafter, the samples were processed for laser scanning microscopy (LSM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Examination by LSM showed numerous platelets with co-localized staining for CD41 and PAC-1 on the nonseeded decellularized heart valve matrix whereas after seeding with endothelial cells no platelet activation was detected. SEM revealed platelet adhesion and aggregate formation only on the surface of the non-seeded or partially denuded matrix specimens. We show in this study that the decellularized porcine matrix acts as a platelet-activating surface. Seeding with endothelial cells effectively abolishes the platelet adhesion and activation and therefore is necessary to eliminate thrombogenicity in tissue engineered heart valves.

  11. Evidence of platelet activation in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheremata, William A; Jy, Wenche; Horstman, Lawrence L; Ahn, Yeon S; Alexander, J Steven; Minagar, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Objective A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS) patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previously, we presented evidence of platelet activation in a small cohort of treatment-naive MS patients. Methods In this report, 92 normal controls and 33 stable, untreated MS patients were studied. Platelet counts, measures of platelet activation [plasma platelet microparticles (PMP), P-selectin expression (CD62p), circulating platelet microaggragtes (PAg)], as well as platelet-associated IgG/IgM, were carried out. In addition, plasma protein S activity was measured. Results Compared to controls, PMP were significantly elevated in MS (p < 0.001) and CD62p expression was also markedly elevated (p < 0.001). Both are markers of platelet activation. Platelet-associated IgM, but not IgG, was marginally elevated in MS (p = 0.01). Protein S in MS patients did not differ significantly from normal values. Conclusion Platelets are significantly activated in MS patients. The mechanisms underlying this activation and its significance to MS are unknown. Additional study of platelet activation and function in MS patients is warranted. PMID:18588683

  12. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Delaney, M. Keegan; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Du, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets are activated by adhesion to adhesive proteins like von Willebrand factor and collagen, or by soluble platelet agonists like ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. These adhesive proteins and soluble agonists induce signal transduction via their respective receptors. The various receptor-specific platelet activation signaling pathways converge into common signaling events, which stimulate platelet shape change, granule secretion, and ultimately induce the “inside-out” signaling process leading to activation of the ligand binding function of integrin αIIbβ3. Ligand binding to integrin αIIbβ3 mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers “outside-in” signaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction. It has become increasingly evident that agonist-induced platelet activation signals also crosstalk with integrin “outside-in” signals to regulate platelet responses. Platelet activation involves a series of rapid positive feedback loops that greatly amplify initial activation signals, and enable robust platelet recruitment and thrombus stabilization. Recent studies have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of these processes. PMID:21071698

  13. What can proteomics tell us about platelets?

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Julia M; Gambaryan, Stepan; Watson, Stephen P; Jurk, Kerstin; Walter, Ulrich; Sickmann, Albert; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Zahedi, René P

    2014-03-28

    More than 130 years ago, it was recognized that platelets are key mediators of hemostasis. Nowadays, it is established that platelets participate in additional physiological processes and contribute to the genesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data indicate that the platelet proteome, defined as the complete set of expressed proteins, comprises >5000 proteins and is highly similar between different healthy individuals. Owing to their anucleate nature, platelets have limited protein synthesis. By implication, in patients experiencing platelet disorders, platelet (dys)function is almost completely attributable to alterations in protein expression and dynamic differences in post-translational modifications. Modern platelet proteomics approaches can reveal (1) quantitative changes in the abundance of thousands of proteins, (2) post-translational modifications, (3) protein-protein interactions, and (4) protein localization, while requiring only small blood donations in the range of a few milliliters. Consequently, platelet proteomics will represent an invaluable tool for characterizing the fundamental processes that affect platelet homeostasis and thus determine the roles of platelets in health and disease. In this article we provide a critical overview on the achievements, the current possibilities, and the future perspectives of platelet proteomics to study patients experiencing cardiovascular, inflammatory, and bleeding disorders.

  14. Inhibition of activated protein C by platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Jane, S M; Mitchell, C A; Hau, L; Salem, H H

    1989-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC), an anticoagulant that acts by inactivating Factors Va and VIIIa, is dependent on a suitable surface for its action. In this study we examined the ability of human platelets to provide this surface and support APC-mediated anticoagulant effects. The activity of APC was examined in three systems: the Factor Xa recalcification time of Al(OH)3 adsorbed plasma, studies of thrombin generation in recalcified plasma, and assessment of the rate of inactivation of purified Factor Va. In comparison with phospholipid, intact platelets required significantly greater concentrations of APC to achieve a similar degree of anticoagulation. When washed platelet membranes were substituted for intact platelets, adequate support of APC was observed and the anticoagulant effect was similar to that obtained with phospholipid. Platelet releasate obtained by stimulation of platelets with thrombin and epinephrine contained an inhibitor that interfered with the ability of phospholipid and washed platelet membranes to catalyze the anticoagulant effects of APC. A noncompetitive inhibition was suggested by Dixon plot analysis of the interaction between platelet releasate and APC. The activity of the platelet APC inhibitor was immediate and was not enhanced by heparin, distinguishing it from the circulating protein C inhibitor. The presence of this inhibitor in the platelet and its release with platelet stimulation emphasizes the procoagulant role of this cell. PMID:2910909

  15. Platelets and viruses: an ambivalent relationship.

    PubMed

    Flaujac, Claire; Boukour, Siham; Cramer-Bordé, Elisabeth

    2010-02-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication of viral infections providing evidence that interaction of platelets with viruses is an important pathophysiological phenomenon. Multiple mechanisms are involved depending on the nature of the viruses involved. These include immunological platelet destruction, inappropriate platelet activation and consumption, and impaired megakaryopoiesis. Viruses bind platelets through specific receptors and identified ligands, which lead to mutual alterations of both the platelet host and the viral aggressor. We have shown that HIV-1 viruses are internalized specifically in platelets and megakaryocytes, where they can be either sheltered, unaltered (with potential transfer of the viruses into target organs), or come in contact with platelet secretory products leading to virus destruction and facilitated platelet clearance. In this issue, we have reviewed the various pathways that platelets use in order to interact with viruses, HIV and others. This review also shows that more work is still needed to precisely identify platelet roles in viral infections, and to answer the challenge of viral safety in platelet transfusion.

  16. The biogenesis of platelets from megakaryocyte proplatelets

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sunita R.; Hartwig, John H.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    Platelets are formed and released into the bloodstream by precursor cells called megakaryocytes that reside within the bone marrow. The production of platelets by megakaryocytes requires an intricate series of remodeling events that result in the release of thousands of platelets from a single megakaryocyte. Abnormalities in this process can result in clinically significant disorders. Thrombocytopenia (platelet counts less than 150,000/μl) can lead to inadequate clot formation and increased risk of bleeding, while thrombocythemia (platelet counts greater than 600,000/μl) can heighten the risk for thrombotic events, including stroke, peripheral ischemia, and myocardial infarction. This Review will describe the process of platelet assembly in detail and discuss several disorders that affect platelet production. PMID:16322779

  17. Numerical simulation of platelet margination in microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of platelets to vascular walls is the first step in clotting. This process critically depends on the preferential concentration of platelets near walls. The presence of red blood cells, which are the predominant blood constituents, is known to affect the steady state platelet concentration and the dynamic platelet margination, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood to-day. We use a direct numerical simulation to study the platelet margination process, with particular emphasis on the Stokesian hydrodynamic interactions among red cells, platelets, and vessel walls. Well-known mechanical models are used for the shearing and bending stiffness of red cell membranes, and the stiffer platelets are modeled as rigid discoids. A boundary integral formulation is used to solve the flow field, where the numerical solution procedure is accelerated by a parallel O(N N) smooth particle-mesh Ewald method. The effects of red cell hematocrit and deformability will be discussed.

  18. Thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Malte; Sallmon, Hannes; Kling, Pamela J; Bührer, Christoph; Dame, Christof

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal thrombocytopenia is widespread in preterm and term neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units, with up to one-third of infants demonstrating platelet counts <150 × 10(9)/L. Thrombocytopenia may arise from maternal, placental or fetal/neonatal origins featuring decreased platelet production, increased consumption, or both mechanisms. Over the past years, innovations in managing neonatal thrombocytopenia were achieved from prospectively obtained clinical data on thrombocytopenia and bleeding events, animal studies on platelet life span and production rate and clinical use of fully automated measurement of reticulated platelets (immature platelet fraction). This review summarizes the pathophysiology of neonatal thrombocytopenia, current management including platelet transfusion thresholds and recent developments in megakaryopoietic agents. Furthermore, we propose a novel index score for bleeding risk in thrombocytopenic neonates to facilitate clinician's decision-making when to transfuse platelets.

  19. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count: a flow-cytometric approach.

    PubMed

    Vinholt, P J; Frederiksen, H; Hvas, A-M; Sprogøe, U; Nielsen, C

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Platelet function may influence bleeding risk in thrombocytopenia, but useful tests are needed. A flow cytometric platelet aggregation test independent of the patient platelet count was made. Platelet aggregation was reduced in thrombocytopenic patients with hematological cancer. High platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Background Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited platelet disorders. Then, we included 19 healthy individuals and 20 patients with platelet counts of ≤ 50 × 10(9) L(-1) , diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We measured platelet aggregation and platelet activation by platelet surface expression of activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, P-selectin and CD63 after addition of agonists: collagen-related peptide, thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), and ADP. Results The platelet aggregation assay showed a low intraserial coefficient of variation of ≤ 3%. Similar results were obtained for platelet-rich plasma and isolated platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 10(9) L(-1) ; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27-58) versus 66% (IQR 60-67) for TRAP; 41% (IQR 25-48) versus 70% (IQR 69-72) for collagen-related peptide; and 44% (IQR 30-53) versus 65% (IQR 46-72) for ADP. Platelet activation after

  20. Platelet activation patterns in platelet size sub-populations: differential responses to aspirin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mangalpally, Kiran Kumar R; Siqueiros-Garcia, Alan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Dong, Jing-Fei; Kleiman, Neal S; Guthikonda, Sasidhar

    2010-10-01

    Circulating platelets are heterogeneous in size and structure. Whether this translates into differences in platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. Hence, we decided to investigate the activation patterns among different platelet populations differentiated by size, and to compare the inhibitory effects of aspirin in these populations. Circulating platelets from 9 healthy volunteers were separated by size and stratified into the largest and smallest quintiles. Platelets were stimulated with 75 μM arachidonic acid (AA), 10 μM ADP or 25 μM TRAP. Alpha-granule protein secretion and expression (P-selectin, VWF, fibrinogen), surface-protein activation (activated integrin αIIbβ3) were assessed. Platelet thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) synthesis following AA stimulation was measured in vitro before and after incubation with 265 μM aspirin. Reticulated (juvenile) platelets were assessed using thiazole orange staining. A greater number of large platelets in the largest quintile were reticulated compared with the smallest quintile (6.1 ± 2.8% vs. 1.2 ± 1.5% respectively, p < 0.001). Larger platelets also synthesized more TxB(2) than small platelets both before (1348 ± 276 pg/mL vs. 1023 ± 214 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.01) and after aspirin (1029 ± 190 pg/mL vs. 851 ± 159 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.03). After stimulation with each agonist, a greater proportion of large platelets bound fibrinogen, VWF, P-selectin and activated integrin αIIbβ3 than small platelets both in the presence and in the absence of in vitro aspirin. In an in vitro setting, large platelets appear to be more active than small platelets and continue to be more active even after in vitro aspirin. Platelets exhibit heterogeneity in size and structure. Whether this translates into platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. We evaluated platelet functional properties and the effects of aspirin on separated platelet subpopulations in an in vitro setting

  1. Mean platelet volume as an indicator of platelet rejuvenation following bone-marrow transplantation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seanger, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    Thrombocytopenia of unpredictable duration and severity is an expected outcome of the radiation/chemotherapy protocols performed prior to bone-marrow transplantation. Serial evaluation of the platelet count and mean platelet volume of patients diagnosed with acute leukemia demonstrated the mean