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Sample records for platform chemical intermediate

  1. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  2. Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

    2006-11-06

    The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the

  3. Platform biochemicals for a biorenewable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Nikolau, Basil J; Perera, M Ann D N; Brachova, Libuse; Shanks, Brent

    2008-05-01

    The chemical industry is currently reliant on a historically inexpensive, petroleum-based carbon feedstock that generates a small collection of platform chemicals from which highly efficient chemical conversions lead to the manufacture of a large variety of chemical products. Recently, a number of factors have coalesced to provide the impetus to explore alternative renewable sources of carbon. Here we discuss the potential impact on the chemical industry of shifting from non-renewable carbon sources to renewable carbon sources. This change to the manufacture of chemicals from biological carbon sources will provide an opportunity for the biological research community to contribute fundamental knowledge concerning carbon metabolism and its regulation. We discuss whether fundamental biological research into metabolic processes at a holistic level, made possible by completed genome sequences and integrated with detailed structural understanding of biocatalysts, can change the chemical industry from being dependent on fossil-carbon feedstocks to using biorenewable feedstocks. We illustrate this potential by discussing the prospect of building a platform technology based upon a concept of combinatorial biosynthesis, which would explore the enzymological flexibilities of polyketide biosynthesis.

  4. Bio-based production of C2-C6 platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Kim, Byoungjin; Shin, Jae Ho; Choi, Yong Jun; Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Lee, Joungmin; Park, Hye Gwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-10-01

    Platform chemicals composed of 2-6 carbons derived from fossil resources are used as important precursors for making a variety of chemicals and materials, including solvents, fuels, polymers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and foods. Due to concerns regarding our environment and the limited nature of fossil resources, however, increasing interest has focused on the development of sustainable technologies for producing these platform chemicals from renewable resources. The techniques and strategies for developing microbial strains for chemicals production have advanced rapidly, and it is becoming feasible to develop microbes for producing additional types of chemicals, including non-natural molecules. In this study, we review the current status of the bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals, focusing on the microbial production of platform chemicals that have been used for the production of chemical intermediates, building block compounds, and polymers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Gernot; Büchs, Jochen

    2012-09-01

    Naturally occurring lignocellulose can be used as a renewable resource for the sustainable production of platform chemicals that can in turn be converted to valuable fine chemicals, polymers, and fuels. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is a very promising approach due to its high selectivity, mild conditions, and low exergy loss. However, such biocatalytic processes are still seldom applied at the industrial scale since the single conversion steps (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) may exhibit low conversion rates, low efficiencies, or high costs. The biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose to platform chemicals is reviewed in this work. Structures and production rates of lignocellulose are described, and platform chemicals that may be produced from lignocellulose are summarized. Biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is distinguished from conventional non-selective approaches. All essential conversion steps used in biocatalytic approaches (pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation) are reviewed in detail. Finally, potential interactions between these conversion steps are highlighted and the advantages as well as disadvantages of integrated process configurations are elucidated. In conclusion, a comprehensive understanding of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulose is provided in this review.

  6. Chemical Proteomic Platform To Identify Citrullinated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are routinely used for disease diagnosis. Protein citrullination is also increased in cancer and other autoimmune disorders, suggesting that citrullinated proteins may serve as biomarkers for diseases beyond RA. To identify these citrullinated proteins, we developed biotin-conjugated phenylglyoxal (biotin-PG). Using this probe and our platform technology, we identified >50 intracellular citrullinated proteins. More than 20 of these are involved in RNA splicing, suggesting, for the first time, that citrullination modulates RNA biology. Overall, this chemical proteomic platform will play a key role in furthering our understanding of protein citrullination in rheumatoid arthritis and potentially a wider spectrum of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26360112

  7. Developing new platform chemicals: what is required for a new bio-based molecule to become a platform chemical in the bioeconomy?

    PubMed

    Bomtempo, José-Vitor; Chaves Alves, Flavia; de Almeida Oroski, Fabio

    2017-09-21

    This paper proposes a framework with six dimensions that can be useful for evaluating the potential and the current stage of a bio-based platform chemical. The framework considers the technological and strategic challenges to be fulfilled by a company that intends to lead a platform based on a bio-based chemical. A platform chemical should be an intermediate molecule, with a structure able to generate a number of derivatives, that is produced at a competitive cost, capable of allowing exploitation of the scale and scope economies, and inserted within a complete innovation ecosystem that is able to create value with governance mechanisms that are capable of allowing coordination of the innovation process and facilitation of the value capture by the focal company leading the platform, in our case the producer of the platform molecule. Based on these six dimensions, three potential platform chemicals - succinic acid, butanol and farnesene - are compared and discussed. It is possible to identify important differences concerning the technological dimensions and the strategic dimensions as well. Two of the molecules - farnesene and succinic acid - adhere to most of the conditions required to structure a platform chemical. However, the innovation ecosystem is not complete and the governance mechanisms are still under development, so it is not clear if they will be capable of allowing a favorable position for value capture by the platform leader. Butanol structuring for a platform does not seem promising. The potential of the molecule is apparently not high and the strategic initiatives are in general not focused on innovation ecosystem structuring.

  8. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.

  9. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

  10. Time-resolved oxygen production by PSII: chasing chemical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Jürgen; Debus, Richard J; Junge, Wolfgang

    2004-04-12

    Photosystem II (PSII) produces dioxygen from water in a four-stepped process, which is driven by four quanta of light and catalysed by a Mn-cluster and tyrosine Z. Oxygen is liberated during one step, coined S(3)=>S(0). Chemical intermediates on the way from reversibly bound water to dioxygen have not yet been tracked, however, a break in the Arrhenius plot of the oxygen-evolving step has been taken as evidence for its existence. We scrutinised the temperature dependence of (i) UV-absorption transients attributable to the reduction of the Mn-cluster and tyrosine Z by water, and (ii) polarographic transients attributable to the release of dioxygen. Using a centrifugatable and kinetically competent Pt-electrode, we observed no deviation from a linear Arrhenius plot of oxygen release in the temperature range from -2 to 32 degrees C, and hence no evidence, by this approach, for a sufficiently long-lived chemical intermediate. The half-rise times of oxygen release differed between Synechocystis WT* (at 20 degrees C: 1.35 ms) and a point mutant (D1-D61N: 13.1 ms), and the activation energies differed between species (Spinacia oleracea, 30 kJ/mol versus Synechocystis, 41 kJ/mol) and preparations (PSII membranes, 41 kJ/mol versus core complexes, 33 kJ/mol, Synechocystis). Correction for polarographic artefacts revealed, for the first time, a temperature-dependent lag-phase of the polarographic transient (duration at 20 degrees C: 0.45 ms, activation energy: 31 kJ/mol), which was indicative of a short-lived intermediate. It was, however, not apparent in the UV-transients. Thus the "intermediate" was probably newly formed and transiently bound oxygen.

  11. A platform for designing hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Hata, Ryunosuke; Doura, Tomohiro; Nishihara, Tatsuya; Kumagai, Keiko; Akakabe, Mai; Tsuda, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Sando, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarization is a highly promising technique for improving the sensitivity of magnetic resonance chemical probes. Here we report [15N, D9]trimethylphenylammonium as a platform for designing a variety of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probes. The platform structure shows a remarkably long 15N spin–lattice relaxation value (816 s, 14.1 T) for retaining its hyperpolarized spin state. The extended lifetime enables the detection of the hyperpolarized 15N signal of the platform for several tens of minutes and thus overcomes the intrinsic short analysis time of hyperpolarized probes. Versatility of the platform is demonstrated by applying it to three types of hyperpolarized chemical probes: one each for sensing calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and enzyme activity (carboxyl esterase). All of the designed probes achieve high sensitivity with rapid reactions and chemical shift changes, which are sufficient to allow sensitive and real-time monitoring of target molecules by 15N magnetic resonance. PMID:24022444

  12. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth...

  13. Levulinic acid: a valuable platform chemical for fermentative syntheses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2004 the DOE included levulinic acid (LA) as a top platform molecule because of its production from renewable resources in large yields and its broad application potential as a precursor for many valuable chemical derivatives. While LA and its chemical derivatives have high application potential,...

  14. Production of platform chemical itaconic acid from pentose sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated five carbon dicarboxylic acid, has gained importance as a fully sustainable building block chemical (platform chemical) for a wide range of applications in the manufacturing of various synthetic resins, coatings, and polymers. It is currently produ...

  15. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  16. A robust platform for chemical genomics in bacterial systems

    PubMed Central

    French, Shawn; Mangat, Chand; Bharat, Amrita; Côté, Jean-Philippe; Mori, Hirotada; Brown, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    While genetic perturbation has been the conventional route to probing bacterial systems, small molecules are showing great promise as probes for cellular complexity. Indeed, systematic investigations of chemical-genetic interactions can provide new insights into cell networks and are often starting points for understanding the mechanism of action of novel chemical probes. We have developed a robust and sensitive platform for chemical-genomic investigations in bacteria. The approach monitors colony volume kinetically using transmissive scanning measurements, enabling acquisition of growth rates and conventional endpoint measurements. We found that chemical-genomic profiles were highly sensitive to concentration, necessitating careful selection of compound concentrations. Roughly 20,000,000 data points were collected for 15 different antibiotics. While 1052 chemical-genetic interactions were identified using the conventional endpoint biomass approach, adding interactions in growth rate resulted in 1564 interactions, a 50–200% increase depending on the drug, with many genes uncharacterized or poorly annotated. The chemical-genetic interaction maps generated from these data reveal common genes likely involved in multidrug resistance. Additionally, the maps identified deletion backgrounds exhibiting class-specific potentiation, revealing conceivable targets for combination approaches to drug discovery. This open platform is highly amenable to kinetic screening of any arrayable strain collection, be it prokaryotic or eukaryotic. PMID:26792836

  17. Chemical Conversions of Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals over Copper-Silica Nanocomposite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Upare, Pravin P; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong-Min; Hwang, Dong Won; Chang, Jong-San

    2015-07-20

    Biomass and biomass-derived carbohydrates have a high extent of functionality, unlike petroleum, which has limited functionality. In biorefinery applications, the development of methods to control the extent of functionality in final products intended for use as fuels and chemicals is a challenge. In the chemical industry, heterogeneous catalysis is an important tool for the defunctionalization of functionalized feedstocks and biomass-derived platform chemicals to produce value-added chemicals. Herein, we review the recent progress in this field, mainly of vapor phase chemical conversion of biomass-derived C4 -C6 carboxylic acids and esters using copper-silica nanocomposite catalysts. We also demonstrate that these nanocomposite catalysts very efficiently convert biomass-derived platform chemicals into cyclic compounds, such as lactones and hydrofurans, with high selectivities and yields.

  18. Functional Nanostructured Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E

    2006-03-20

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  19. Functional nanostructured platforms for chemical and biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létant, S. E.

    2006-05-01

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  20. Wearable Ring-Based Sensing Platform for Detecting Chemical Threats.

    PubMed

    Sempionatto, Juliane R; Mishra, Rupesh K; Martín, Aida; Tang, Guangda; Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Lu, Xiaolong; Campbell, Alan S; Lyu, Kay Mengjia; Wang, Joseph

    2017-10-11

    This work describes a wireless wearable ring-based multiplexed chemical sensor platform for rapid electrochemical monitoring of explosive and nerve-agent threats in vapor and liquid phases. The ring-based sensor system consists of two parts: a set of printed electrochemical sensors and a miniaturized electronic interface, based on a battery-powered stamp-size potentiostat, for signal processing and wireless transmission of data. A wide range of electrochemical capabilities have thus been fully integrated into a 3D printed compact ring structure, toward performing fast square-wave voltammetry and chronoamperometric analyses, along with interchangeable screen-printed sensing electrodes for the rapid detection of different chemical threats. High analytical performance is demonstrated despite the remarkable miniaturization and integration of the ring system. The attractive capabilities of the wearable sensor ring system have been demonstrated for sensitive and rapid voltammetric and amperometric monitoring of nitroaromatic and peroxide explosives, respectively, along with amperometric biosensing of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. Such ability of the miniaturized wearable sensor ring platform to simultaneously detect multiple chemical threats in both liquid and vapor phases and alert the wearer of such hazards offers considerable promise for meeting the demands of diverse defense and security scenarios.

  1. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C

    2017-02-01

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (>80 g L(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g L(-1)). This review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of IA production. IA biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the TCA cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through the action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) enzyme encoded by the CadA gene in A. terreus. A number of recombinant microorganisms have been developed in an effort to overproduce it. IA is used as a monomer for production of superabsorbent polymer, resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. Its applications as a platform chemical are highlighted. It has a strong potential to replace petroleum-based methylacrylic acid in industry which will create a huge market for IA.

  2. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  3. The Chemical Validation and Standardization Platform (CVSP): large-scale automated validation of chemical structure datasets.

    PubMed

    Karapetyan, Karen; Batchelor, Colin; Sharpe, David; Tkachenko, Valery; Williams, Antony J

    2015-01-01

    There are presently hundreds of online databases hosting millions of chemical compounds and associated data. As a result of the number of cheminformatics software tools that can be used to produce the data, subtle differences between the various cheminformatics platforms, as well as the naivety of the software users, there are a myriad of issues that can exist with chemical structure representations online. In order to help facilitate validation and standardization of chemical structure datasets from various sources we have delivered a freely available internet-based platform to the community for the processing of chemical compound datasets. The chemical validation and standardization platform (CVSP) both validates and standardizes chemical structure representations according to sets of systematic rules. The chemical validation algorithms detect issues with submitted molecular representations using pre-defined or user-defined dictionary-based molecular patterns that are chemically suspicious or potentially requiring manual review. Each identified issue is assigned one of three levels of severity - Information, Warning, and Error - in order to conveniently inform the user of the need to browse and review subsets of their data. The validation process includes validation of atoms and bonds (e.g., making aware of query atoms and bonds), valences, and stereo. The standard form of submission of collections of data, the SDF file, allows the user to map the data fields to predefined CVSP fields for the purpose of cross-validating associated SMILES and InChIs with the connection tables contained within the SDF file. This platform has been applied to the analysis of a large number of data sets prepared for deposition to our ChemSpider database and in preparation of data for the Open PHACTS project. In this work we review the results of the automated validation of the DrugBank dataset, a popular drug and drug target database utilized by the community, and ChEMBL 17 data set

  4. Waveguide infrared spectrometer platform for point and standoff chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Henning, Pat; Landers, Frank; Weling, Ani

    2004-03-01

    Advanced autonomous detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals has long been a major military concern. At present, our capability to rapidly assess the immediate environment is severely limited and our domestic infrastructure is burdened by the meticulous procedures required to rule out false threats. While significant advances have recently been accomplished in remote spectral sensing using rugged FTIRs and point detectors, efforts towards low cost chemical discrimination have been lacking. Foster-Miller has developed a unique waveguide spectrometer which is a paradigm shift from the conventional FTIR approach. The spectrometer provides spectral discrimination over the 3-14 μm range and will be the spectrometer platform for both active and passive detection. Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in infrared fiber-optic probes and the recent development of a waveguide spectrometer to build a novel infrared sensor platform for both point and stand-off chemical sensing. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3-12 μm with resolution at 16 cm-1 or better and overall optical throughput approaching 35%. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning "wedge". The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle (large FOV) light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector (pixel) elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The waveguide spectrometer coupled to ATR probes, flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. We will

  5. Enzymatic Specific Production and Chemical Functionalization of Phenylpropanone Platform Monomers from Lignin.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yukari; Hasegawa, Ryoichi; Kurosawa, Kanako; Maeda, Allyn H; Koizumi, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Qu, Chen; Saito, Kaori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2017-01-20

    Enzymatic catalysis is an ecofriendly strategy for the production of high-value low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well-definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin-model dimers, enzymatic-selective synthesis of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific synthesis of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of β-O-4-cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot. Guaiacylhydroxylpropanone (GHP) and the GHP/syringylhydroxylpropanone (SHP) mixture are exclusive monomers from lignin isolated from softwood (Cryptomeria japonica) and hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus). The intermediate products in the enzymatic reactions show the capacity to accommodate highly heterologous substrates at the substrate-binding sites of the enzymes. To demonstrate the applicability of GHP as a platform chemical for bio-based industries, we chemically generate value-added GHP derivatives for bio-based polymers. Together with these chemical conversions for the valorization of lignin-derived phenylpropanone monomers, the specific and enzymatic production of the monomers directly from natural lignin is expected to provide a new stream in "white biotechnology" for sustainable biorefineries.

  6. Enzymatic Specific Production and Chemical Functionalization of Phenylpropanone Platform Monomers from Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Ryoichi; Kurosawa, Kanako; Maeda, Allyn H.; Koizumi, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Qu, Chen; Saito, Kaori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enzymatic catalysis is an ecofriendly strategy for the production of high‐value low‐molecular‐weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well‐definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin‐model dimers, enzymatic‐selective synthesis of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific synthesis of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of β‐O‐4‐cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot. Guaiacylhydroxylpropanone (GHP) and the GHP/syringylhydroxylpropanone (SHP) mixture are exclusive monomers from lignin isolated from softwood (Cryptomeria japonica) and hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus). The intermediate products in the enzymatic reactions show the capacity to accommodate highly heterologous substrates at the substrate‐binding sites of the enzymes. To demonstrate the applicability of GHP as a platform chemical for bio‐based industries, we chemically generate value‐added GHP derivatives for bio‐based polymers. Together with these chemical conversions for the valorization of lignin‐derived phenylpropanone monomers, the specific and enzymatic production of the monomers directly from natural lignin is expected to provide a new stream in “white biotechnology” for sustainable biorefineries. PMID:27878983

  7. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Hanwell, Marcus D; Curtis, Donald E; Lonie, David C; Vandermeersch, Tim; Zurek, Eva; Hutchison, Geoffrey R

    2012-08-13

    The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be easily extended via a powerful

  8. A novel biochemical platform for fuels and chemicals production from cellulosic biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conventional biochemical platform for biofuels production featuring enzymatic hydrolysis involves five key steps: pretreatment, cellulase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery. Sugars are produced as reactive intermediates for subsequent fermentation to fuels and c...

  9. Use of a biosynthetic intermediate to explore the chemical diversity of pseudo-natural fungal polyketides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Teigo; Tsukada, Kento; Ise, Satomi; Shirata, Naoki; Hashimoto, Makoto; Fujii, Isao; Gomi, Katsuya; Nakagawara, Kosuke; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-09-01

    The structural complexity and diversity of natural products make them attractive sources for potential drug discovery, with their characteristics being derived from the multi-step combination of enzymatic and non-enzymatic conversions of intermediates in each biosynthetic pathway. Intermediates that exhibit multipotent behaviour have great potential for use as starting points in diversity-oriented synthesis. Inspired by the biosynthetic pathways that form complex metabolites from simple intermediates, we developed a semi-synthetic process that combines heterologous biosynthesis and artificial diversification. The heterologous biosynthesis of fungal polyketide intermediates led to the isolation of novel oligomers and provided evidence for ortho-quinonemethide equivalency in their isochromene form. The intrinsic reactivity of the isochromene polyketide enabled us to access various new chemical entities by modifying and remodelling the polyketide core and through coupling with indole molecules. We thus succeeded in generating exceptionally diverse pseudo-natural polyketides through this process and demonstrated an advanced method of using biosynthetic intermediates.

  10. Understanding and regulation of microbial lignolysis for renewable platform chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Seema; Hudson, Corey; Turner, Kevin.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary Bao; Williams, Kelly Porter; Powell, Amy Jo; Alam, Todd Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is often overlooked in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass, but lignin-based materials and chemicals represent potential value-added products for biorefineries that could significantly improve the economics of a biorefinery. Fluctuating crude oil prices and changing fuel specifications are some of the driving factors to develop new technologies that could be used to convert polymeric lignin into low molecular weight lignin and or monomeric aromatic feedstocks to assist in the displacement of the current products associated with the conversion of a whole barrel of oil. Our project of understanding microbial lignolysis for renewable platform chemicals aimed to understand microbial and enzymatic lignolysis processes to break down lignin for conversion into commercially viable drop-in fuels. We developed novel lignin analytics to interrogate enzymatic and microbial lignolysis of native polymeric lignin and established a detailed understanding of lignolysis as a function of fungal enzyme, microbes and endophytes. Bioinformatics pipeline was developed for metatranscryptomic analysis of aridland ecosystem for investigating the potential discovery of new lignolysis gene and gene products.

  11. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be

  12. Discussion of the Separation of Chemical and Relaxational Kinetics of Chemically Activated Intermediates in Master Equation Simulations.

    PubMed

    Döntgen, Malte; Leonhard, Kai

    2017-03-02

    Chemical activation of intermediates, such as hydrogen abstraction products, is emerging as a basis for a fully new reaction type: hot β-scission. While for thermally equilibrated intermediates chemical kinetics are typically orders of magnitude slower than relaxational kinetics, chemically activated intermediates raise the issue of inseparable chemical and relaxational kinetics. Here, this separation problem is discussed in the framework of master equation simulations, proposing three cases often encountered in chemistry: insignificant chemical activation, predominant chemical activation, and the transition between these two limits. These three cases are illustrated via three example systems: methoxy (CH3Ȯ), diazenyl (ṄNH), and methyl formate radicals (CH3OĊO). For diazenyl, it is found that hot β-scission fully replaces the sequence of hydrogen abstraction and β-scission of thermally equilibrated diazenyl. Building on the example systems, a rule of thumb is proposed that can be used to intuitively judge the significance of hot β-scission: if the reverse hydrogen abstraction barrier height is comparable to or larger than the β-scission barrier height, hot β-scission should be considered in more detail.

  13. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  14. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Luning; Sulkes, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O2. Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  15. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  16. Real-Time Intelligent Chemical and Biological Nanosensors on Flexible Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Real-Time Intelligent Chemical and Biological Nanosensors on Flexible Platform by Govind Mallick, Shashi P. Karna, and Pulickel M. Ajayan...TN-325 July 2008 Real-Time Intelligent Chemical and Biological Nanosensors on Flexible Platform Govind Mallick and Shashi P. Karna...NUMBER DRI FY07-WMR-10 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Govind Mallick, Shashi P. Karna, and Pulickel M. Ajayan* 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  17. NMR Crystallography of a Carbanionic Intermediate in Tryptophan Synthase: Chemical Structure, Tautomerization, and Reaction Specificity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbanionic intermediates play a central role in the catalytic transformations of amino acids performed by pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Here, we make use of NMR crystallography—the synergistic combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography, and computational chemistry—to interrogate a carbanionic/quinonoid intermediate analogue in the β-subunit active site of the PLP-requiring enzyme tryptophan synthase. The solid-state NMR chemical shifts of the PLP pyridine ring nitrogen and additional sites, coupled with first-principles computational models, allow a detailed model of protonation states for ionizable groups on the cofactor, substrates, and nearby catalytic residues to be established. Most significantly, we find that a deprotonated pyridine nitrogen on PLP precludes formation of a true quinonoid species and that there is an equilibrium between the phenolic and protonated Schiff base tautomeric forms of this intermediate. Natural bond orbital analysis indicates that the latter builds up negative charge at the substrate Cα and positive charge at C4′ of the cofactor, consistent with its role as the catalytic tautomer. These findings support the hypothesis that the specificity for β-elimination/replacement versus transamination is dictated in part by the protonation states of ionizable groups on PLP and the reacting substrates and underscore the essential role that NMR crystallography can play in characterizing both chemical structure and dynamics within functioning enzyme active sites. PMID:27779384

  18. Chemical exchange rotation transfer imaging of intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm.

    PubMed

    Zu, Zhongliang; Louie, Elizabeth A; Lin, Eugene C; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Does, Mark D; Gore, John C; Gochberg, Daniel F

    2017-10-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amine protons exchanging at intermediate rates and whose chemical shift is around 2 ppm may provide a means of mapping creatine. However, the quantification of this effect may be compromised by the influence of overlapping CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines and hydroxyls. We aimed to investigate the exchange rate filtering effect of a variation of CEST, named chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT), as a means of isolating creatine contributions at around 2 ppm from other overlapping signals. Simulations were performed to study the filtering effects of CERT for the selection of transfer effects from protons of specific exchange rates. Control samples containing the main metabolites in brain, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg white albumen (EWA) at their physiological concentrations and pH were used to study the ability of CERT to isolate molecules with amines at 2 ppm that exchange at intermediate rates, and corresponding methods were used for in vivo rat brain imaging. Simulations showed that exchange rate filtering can be combined with conventional filtering based on chemical shift. Studies on samples showed that signal contributions from creatine can be separated from those of other metabolites using this combined filter, but contributions from protein amines may still be significant. This exchange filtering can also be used for in vivo imaging. CERT provides more specific quantification of amines at 2 ppm that exchange at intermediate rates compared with conventional CEST imaging. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  20. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  1. The delayed contribution of low and intermediate mass stars to chemical galactic enrichment: An analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, I.; Carigi, L.

    2008-10-01

    We find a new analytical solution for the chemical evolution equations, taking into account the delayed contribution of all low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) as one representative star that enriches the interstellar medium. This solution is built only for star formation rate proportional to the gas mass in a closed box model. We obtain increasing C/O and N/O ratios with increasing O/H, behavior impossible to match with the Instantaneous Recycling Approximation (IRA). Our results, obtained by two analytical equations, are very similar to those found by numerical models that consider the lifetimes of each star. This delayed model reproduces successfully the evolution of the C/O-O/H and Y - O relations in the solar vicinity. This analytical approximation is a useful tool to study the chemical evolution of elements produced by LIMS when a galactic chemical evolutionary code is not available.

  2. Chemical and biochemical analysis using microfluidic-localized field platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepaniak, Michael; Abu-Hatab, Nahla; Wellman, Amber; John, Joshy; Connatser, Maggie

    2007-09-01

    Microfluidics offer the advantages of multiplexed analysis on small, inexpensive platforms. We describe herein two distinct optical detection techniques that have the common point of sequestering and measuring analyte signals in highly localized EM fields. The first technique mates a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform with colloidal-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in order to perform parallel, high throughput vibrational spectroscopy. Spectra are acquired for analytes localized in surface plasmon fields associated with conventional and uniquely synthesized cubic silver colloids. SERS studies such as pH of the colloidal solution, and the type of colloid are used to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the method. In addition, a facile passive pumping method is used to deliver Ag colloids and analytes into the channels where all SERS measurements were completed under nondestructive flowing conditions. With this approach, SERS signal reproducibility was found to be better than 7%. A calibration curve for the drug mitoxantrone (resonance enhanced) was generated. The second technique seeks to integrate a passively-pumped, microfluidic, PDMS platform and planar waveguide technology, utilizing magnetic beads as solid supports for fluoro-assays with direct detection of bound analyte within the sample mixture accomplished by selectively driving functionalized beads to a localized evanescent field. Because analyte binding occurs in free solution, the reaction is not diffusion limited and, once magnetically delivered to the evanescent wave, the analyte can be detected with fewer complications arising from non-optically homogeneous, biological matrices. Additionally, the evanescent sensing surface can be easily regenerated by simply removing the bead-retaining magnetic field. Initial testing, optimization and calibration were performed using a model sandwich immunoassay system for the detection of rabbit IgG, with which we demonstrate a

  3. Smart Phones: Platform Enabling Modular, Chemical, Biological, and Explosives Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    solar - blind reagentless standoff chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensor,” Proc. SPIE, 6954, 69540I/1-69540I/9 (2008). [4] K. J. Morey, M...automated field deployable biochemical detector has been designed and implemented using smart phone technology to augment this decision making process...The detection unit is a binary detector that indicates the presence or non-presence of the chemical target of interest. The operating procedure of

  4. Digital microfluidic three-dimensional cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electro wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics (DMF) can be used to develop improved chemical screening platforms using 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Alginate hydrogels are one common method by which a 3D cell culture environment is created. This paper presents a study of alginate gelation on EWOD DMF and investigates designs to obtain uniform alginate hydrogels that can be repeatedly addressed by any desired liquids. A design which allows for gels to be retained in place during liquid delivery and removal without using any physical barriers or hydrophilic patterning of substrates is presented. A proof of concept screening platform is demonstrated by examining the effects of different concentrations of a test chemical on 3D cells in alginate hydrogels. In addition, the temporal effects of the various chemical concentrations on different hydrogel posts are demonstrated, thereby establishing the benefits of an EWOD DMF 3D cell culture and chemical screening platform using alginate hydrogels. PMID:25945142

  5. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, S.; Kawakita, Y.; Shimakura, H.; Ohara, K.; Fukami, T.; Takeda, S.

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  6. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl.

    PubMed

    Tahara, S; Kawakita, Y; Shimakura, H; Ohara, K; Fukami, T; Takeda, S

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag-Cl and ionic Rb-Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag-Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb-Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag-Ag and Rb-Rb correlations, SAgAg(Q) and SRbRb(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while SAgRb(Q) for the Ag-Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  7. Chemical Stability of Glass Seal Interfaces in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Weil, K. Scott; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2004-06-01

    In intermediate temperature planar SOFC stacks, the interconnect, which is typically made from cost-effective oxidation resistant high temperature alloys, is typically sealed to the ceramic PEN (Positive electrode-Electrolyte-Negative electrode) by a sealing glass. To maintain ther structural stability and minimize the degradation of stack performance, the sealing glass has to be chemically compatible with the PEN and alloy interconnects. In the present study, the chemical compatibility of a barium-calcium-aluminosilicate (BCAS) based glass-ceramic (specifically developed as a sealant in SOFC stacks) with a number of selected oxidation resistant high temperature alloys (and the YSZ electrolyte) was evaluated. This paper reports the results of that study, with a particular focus on Crofer22 APU, a new ferritic stainless steel that was developed specifically for SOFC interconnect applications.

  8. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescent Chemical and Biological Sensors: An Organic Light-Emitting Diode-Based Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, J.; Shinar, R.

    The chapter describes the development, advantages, challenges, and potential of an emerging, compact photoluminescence-based sensing platform for chemical and biological analytes, including multiple analytes. In this platform, the excitation source is an array of organic light-emitting device (OLED) pixels that is structurally integrated with the sensing component. Steps towards advanced integration with additionally a thin-film-based photodetector are also described. The performance of the OLED-based sensing platform is examined for gas-phase and dissolved oxygen, glucose, lactate, ethanol, hydrazine, and anthrax lethal factor.

  9. Cantilever transducers as a platform for chemical and biological sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2004-07-01

    Since the late 1980s there have been spectacular developments in micromechanical or microelectro-mechanical (MEMS) systems which have enabled the exploration of transduction modes that involve mechanical energy and are based primarily on mechanical phenomena. As a result an innovative family of chemical and biological sensors has emerged. In this article, we discuss sensors with transducers in a form of cantilevers. While MEMS represents a diverse family of designs, devices with simple cantilever configurations are especially attractive as transducers for chemical and biological sensors. The review deals with four important aspects of cantilever transducers: (i) operation principles and models; (ii) microfabrication; (iii) figures of merit; and (iv) applications of cantilever sensors. We also provide a brief analysis of historical predecessors of the modern cantilever sensors.

  10. Honeywell's organic air vehicle chemical-biological sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Barry E.; Krafthefer, Brian; Knee, Daniel; Fulton, Vaughn M.; Law, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) today are mostly used for reconnaissance and sometimes weapons delivery. Remote sensing of chemical-biological (CB) agents is another beneficial use of UAVs. While remote sensing of CB agents can be done by LIDAR spectroscopy, this technology is less spatially precise and less sensitive than actual measurements on a collected sample. One family of UAVs of particularly unique benefit for CB sampling and in-flight analysis is the Honeywell family of Organic Air Vehicles (OAVs). This vehicle with its ability to hover and stare has the unique ability among UAVs to collect and analyze chem-bio samples from a specific location over extended periods of time. Such collections are not possible with other micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) that only operate in fly-by mode. This paper describes some of the Honeywell OAV features that are conducive to CB detection.

  11. A chemical biosynthesis design for an antiatherosclerosis drug by acyclic tocopherol intermediate analogue based on "isoprenomics".

    PubMed

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Daisuke; Otsuki, Mamoru; Otomo, Naoki; Shirai, Tadashi; Abe, Chiaki; Nakata, Eiji; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Phytyl quinols, namely acyclic tocopherols, are key intermediates of tocopherol biosynthesis, but their biological activities remain unclear. We therefore investigated the structure-activity relationship of phytyl quinols to apply a chemical biosynthesis design for an antiatherosclerosis drug based on isoprenomics. We have achieved the biosynthesis-oriented design and synthesis of alpha- (TX-2254) and beta-(TX-2247) phytyl quinol as an unnatural intermediate, other gamma- (TX-2242) and delta-(TX-2231) phytyl quinol as a natural one. Geometry optimization and Molecular orbital (MO) calculation of TX-2254 showed a unique right-angle structure; however, MO energy of TX-2254 and d-alpha-tocopherol were very similar. Radical reactivity of TX-2231 was equal to dl-alpha-tocopherol, whereas TX-2254, TX-2247, and TX-2231 showed lower reactivity than dl-alpha-tocopherol. All four phytyl quinols showed almost the same moderate inhibitory activity against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation instead of their different degree of C-methylation with character different from tocopherols. In vivo toxicities of phytyl quinols against chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vasculature were hardly observed. We proposed phytyl quinols were possible antioxidants in plants and animals, like vitamin E.

  12. Ion-radical intermediates of the radiation-chemical transformations of organic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.; Sosulin, Ilya S.; Saenko, Elizaveta V.; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2016-07-01

    The spectral features and reactions of ion-radical intermediates produced from organic carbonates in low-temperature matrices were investigated by EPR spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. It was shown that radical cations of diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate underwent intramolecular hydrogen transfer to yield alkyl-type species, as was suggested previously. Meanwhile, radical cation of EC demonstrates a ring cleavage even at 77 K, while radical cation of PC is probably intrinsically stable and undergo an ion-molecule reaction with a neighboring neutral molecule in dimers or associates. Radical anions were obtained in glassy matrices of diethyl ether or perdeuteroethanol. The radical anions of linear carbonates show photoinduced fragmentation to yield the corresponding alkyl radicals; such process may also occur directly under radiolysis. Radical anions of cyclic carbonates are relatively stable and yield only trace amounts of fragmentation products under similar conditions.

  13. Methyldichloroborane evidenced as an intermediate in the chemical vapour deposition synthesis of boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, G; Patel, S; Chollon, G; Leyssale, J-M; Alotta, D; Bertrand, N; Vignoles, G L

    2011-09-01

    The most recent ceramic-matrix composites (CMC) considered for long-life applications as thermostructural parts in aerospace propulsion contain, among others, boron-rich phases like boron carbide. This compound is prepared by thermal Chemical Vapour Infiltration (CVI), starting from precursors like boron halides and hydrocarbons. We present a study aiming at a precise knowledge of the gas-phase composition in a hot-zone LPCVD reactor fed with BCl3, CH4 and H2, which combines experimental and theoretical approaches. This work has brought strong evidences of the presence of Methydichloroborane (MDB, BCl2CH3) in the process. It is demonstrated that this intermediate, the presence of which had never been formally proved before, appears for processing temperatures slightly lower than the deposition temperature of boron carbide. The study features quantum chemical computations, which provide several pieces of information like thermochemical and kinetic data, as well as vibration and rotation frequencies, reaction kinetics computations, and experimental gas-phase characterization of several species by FTIR, for several processing parameter sets. The main results are presented, and the place of MDB in the reaction scheme is discussed.

  14. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish

    2017-01-01

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra- methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) or a mixture of ( γ-Fe 2 O 3 + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 ∘C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  15. Mapping Proteome-Wide Targets of Environmental Chemicals using Reactivity-Based Chemoproteomic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Bateman, Leslie A.; Ford, Breanna; Heslin, Ann; Fisher, Karl J.; Dalvie, Esha D.; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    We are exposed to a growing number of chemicals in our environment, most of which have not been characterized in terms of their toxicological potential or mechanisms. Here, we employ a chemoproteomic platform to map the cysteine reactivity of environmental chemicals using reactivity-based probes to mine for hyper-reactive hotspots across the proteome. We show that environmental contaminants such as monomethylarsonous acid and widely used pesticides such as chlorothalonil and chloropicrin possess common reactivity with a distinct set of proteins. Many of these proteins are involved in key metabolic processes, suggesting that these targets may be particularly sensitive to environmental electrophiles. We show that the widely used fungicide chlorothalonil specifically inhibits several metabolic enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and energetics, leading to dysregulated lipid metabolism in mice. Our results underscore the utility of using reactivity-based chemoproteomic platforms to uncover novel mechanistic insights into the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26496688

  16. Chemically Activated Formation of Organic Acids in Reactions of the Criegee Intermediate with Aldehydes and Ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W.; Green, William H.

    2013-08-08

    Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, .CH2OO.) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between .CH2OO. and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48–51 kcal mol-1 lower in energy, formed via 1,3- cycloaddition of .CH2OO. across the CQO bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O–O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO o CH3CHO o CH3COCH3 (the highest yield being 10-4 times lower than the initial .CH2OO. concentration). At low pressures, chemically activated formation of organic acids (formic acid in the case of HCHO and CH3COCH3, formic and acetic acid in the case of CH3CHO) was found to be the major product channel in agreement with recent direct measurements. Collisional energy transfer parameters and the barrier heights for SOZ reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

  17. Chemically activated formation of organic acids in reactions of the Criegee intermediate with aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W; Green, William H

    2013-10-21

    Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, ˙CH2OO˙) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between ˙CH2OO˙ and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48-51 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy, formed via 1,3-cycloaddition of ˙CH2OO˙ across the C=O bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O-O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO < CH3CHO < CH3COCH3 (the highest yield being 10(-4) times lower than the initial ˙CH2OO˙ concentration). At low pressures, chemically activated formation of organic acids (formic acid in the case of HCHO and CH3COCH3, formic and acetic acid in the case of CH3CHO) was found to be the major product channel in agreement with recent direct measurements. Collisional energy transfer parameters and the barrier heights for SOZ reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

  18. Geochemistry of the Deep Water Bamboo Coral Isidella; Intermediate Depth and Surface Ocean Chemical Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, H. J.; Jang, N. A.; Adkins, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of deep water corals have provided a wealth of data on past ocean circulation and chemical changes. Information obtained from these carbonate precipitating organisms generally reflects ambient conditions at the depth of growth. The bamboo coral, Isidella sp., belongs to a group of deep water Octocorals that live at intermediate ocean depths ( ˜200-1500m) and produce a calcite skeleton that is divided by proteinaceous gorgonin internodes. Because, the calcite and organic regions of the skeleton are precipitated simultaneously, their chemistries are temporally coupled. Stable isotope, radiocarbon and 210Pb data were obtained from several specimens of Isidella sp. that were collected in fishing dredges from the outer continental shelf near Pt. Reyes, CA (38° N 123.4° W ˜220 m). 210Pb analyses on one of the specimens suggests the coral was ~15-80 years old. δ 13C and δ 18O data from the calcite skeleton display the typical nonequilibrium covariation that has been described previously, thereby limiting the use of these data in reconstructing environmental temperatures. Although δ 13C analyses of the organic internodes produced typical marine values of -16.9+/-0.1‰ (n=17), δ 15N values were unusually high, 13.8+/-0.4‰ . Because the internode geochemistry records the organic chemistry of sinking particulate matter ingested by the coral, the enriched δ 15N data reflect the chemistry of local upwelled NO3 that was strongly influenced by subsurface denitrification. AMS analyses of the center and outer edge of the skeleton (branch diameter = 2.2 cm) and adjacent organic internodes (growth proceeds from center outwards) yield 14C ages of 2065 and 2000+/-35 years for the calcite (Δ 14C = -226.4 and -220.3‰ ) and 785 and 765+/-35 years for the organic node (Δ 14C = -93.1 and -90.7‰ ) respectively. The calcite AMS ages record the 14C reservoir age of upper N. Pacific thermocline waters whereas the organic data record the surface ocean

  19. The Microphenotron: a robotic miniaturized plant phenotyping platform with diverse applications in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Thomas; Fozard, Susan; Holroyd, Geoff H; French, Andrew P; Pound, Michael P; Bigley, Christopher J; James Taylor, C; Forde, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Chemical genetics provides a powerful alternative to conventional genetics for understanding gene function. However, its application to plants has been limited by the lack of a technology that allows detailed phenotyping of whole-seedling development in the context of a high-throughput chemical screen. We have therefore sought to develop an automated micro-phenotyping platform that would allow both root and shoot development to be monitored under conditions where the phenotypic effects of large numbers of small molecules can be assessed. The 'Microphenotron' platform uses 96-well microtitre plates to deliver chemical treatments to seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and is based around four components: (a) the 'Phytostrip', a novel seedling growth device that enables chemical treatments to be combined with the automated capture of images of developing roots and shoots; (b) an illuminated robotic platform that uses a commercially available robotic manipulator to capture images of developing shoots and roots; (c) software to control the sequence of robotic movements and integrate these with the image capture process; (d) purpose-made image analysis software for automated extraction of quantitative phenotypic data. Imaging of each plate (representing 80 separate assays) takes 4 min and can easily be performed daily for time-course studies. As currently configured, the Microphenotron has a capacity of 54 microtitre plates in a growth room footprint of 2.1 m(2), giving a potential throughput of up to 4320 chemical treatments in a typical 10 days experiment. The Microphenotron has been validated by using it to screen a collection of 800 natural compounds for qualitative effects on root development and to perform a quantitative analysis of the effects of a range of concentrations of nitrate and ammonium on seedling development. The Microphenotron is an automated screening platform that for the first time is able to combine large numbers of individual chemical

  20. Direct Probing of Criegee Intermediates from Gas-Phase Ozonolysis Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Herrmann, Hartmut; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-09-27

    Criegee intermediates (CIs), mainly formed from gas-phase ozonolysis of alkenes, are considered as atmospheric oxidants besides OH and NO3 radicals as well as ozone. Direct CI measurement techniques are inevitably needed for reliable assessment of CIs' role in atmospheric processes. We found that CIs from ozonolysis reactions can be directly probed by means of chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a detection limit of about 10(4)-10(5) molecules cm(-3). Results from quantum chemical calculations support the experimental findings. The simplest CI, CH2OO, is detectable as an adduct with protonated ethers, preferably with protonated tetrahydrofuran. Kinetic measurements yielded k(CH2OO + SO2) = (3.3 ± 0.9) × 10(-11) and k(CH2OO + acetic acid) = (1.25 ± 0.30) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 295 ± 2 K, in very good agreement with recent measurements using diiodomethane photolysis for CH2OO generation. CIs from the ozonolysis of cyclohexene, acting as surrogate for cyclic terpenes, are followed as protonated species (CI)H(+) using protonated amines as reagent ions. Kinetic investigations indicate a different reactivity of cyclohexene-derived CIs compared with that of simple CIs, such as CH2OO. It is supposed that the aldehyde group significantly influences the CI reactivity of the cyclohexene-derived CIs. The direct CI detection method presented here should allow study of the formation and reactivity of a wide range of different CIs formed from atmospheric ozonolysis reactions.

  1. Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapsford, Kim E.

    Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

  2. Renewable platform chemicals from directional microwave-assisted liquefaction coupling stepwise extraction of waste biomass

    Treesearch

    Junfeng Feng; Chungyun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Directional microwave-assisted liquefaction and stepwise extraction are introduced for producing platform chemicals: aromatics and monosaccharides. When sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst, a 45% monosaccharides yield and a 29% aromatics yield were obtained from bamboo with 0.3 g catalyst per 18 g methanol and 2 g bamboo at 160 °C with 10 min. Approximately 78–86 wt%...

  3. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural products-prompted chemical biology: phenotypic screening and a new platform for target identification.

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 1993 to 2016The exploitation of small molecules from natural sources, such as microbial metabolites, has contributed to the discovery of not only new drugs but also new research tools for chemical biology. My research team has discovered several novel bioactive small molecules using in vivo cell-based phenotypic screening, and has investigated their modes of action using chemical genetics and chemical genomics. This highlight focuses on our recent discoveries and chemical genetics approaches for bioactive microbial metabolites that target cancer cells, the cancer microenvironment and cell membrane signalling. In addition, the development of two new platforms, 5-sulfonyl tetrazole-based and thiourea-modified amphiphilic lipid-based probe technologies, to identify the cellular targets of these molecules is also discussed.

  5. Toward the realization of a compact chemical sensor platform using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthoff, Ellen L.; Marcus, Logan S.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    The Army is investigating several spectroscopic techniques (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) that could allow for an adaptable sensor platform. Traditionally, chemical sensing platforms have been hampered by the opposing concerns of increasing sensor capability while maintaining a minimal package size. Current sensors, although reasonably sized, are geared to more classical chemical threats, and the ability to expand their capabilities to a broader range of emerging threats is uncertain. Recently, photoacoustic spectroscopy, employed in a sensor format, has shown enormous potential to address these ever-changing threats, while maintaining a compact sensor design. In order to realize the advantage of photoacoustic sensor miniaturization, light sources of comparable size are required. Recent research has employed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in combination with MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell designs. The continuous tuning capability of QCLs over a broad wavelength range in the mid-infrared spectral region greatly expands the number of compounds that can be identified. Results have demonstrated that utilizing a tunable QCL with a MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell produces favorable detection limits (ppb levels) for chemical targets (e.g., dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), vinyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane). Although our chemical sensing research has benefitted from the broad tuning capabilities of QCLs, the limitations of these sources must be considered. Current commercially available tunable systems are still expensive and obviously geared more toward laboratory operation, not fielding. Although the laser element itself is quite small, the packaging, power supply, and controller remain logistical burdens. Additionally, operational features such as continuous wave (CW) modulation and laser output powers while maintaining wide tunability are not yet ideal for a variety of sensing applications. In this paper, we will discuss our continuing evaluation of QCL technology as it matures

  6. Renewable platform chemicals from directional microwave-assisted liquefaction coupling stepwise extraction of waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junfeng; Hse, Chungyun; Yang, Zhongzhi; Wang, Kui; Jiang, Jianchun; Xu, Junming

    2017-11-01

    Directional microwave-assisted liquefaction and stepwise extraction are introduced for producing platform chemicals: aromatics and monosaccharides. When sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst, a 45% monosaccharides yield and a 29% aromatics yield were obtained from bamboo with 0.3g catalyst per 18g methanol and 2g bamboo at 160°C with 10min. Approximately 78-86wt% of the six biomass materials were converted into liquid products. After the stepwise extraction and precipitation process, the yields of monosaccharide derivatives and three phenolic compound fractions were 39-45% and 28-32%, respectively. Monosaccharides from holocellulose collected with a high purity of methyl glycosides were higher than 90%. Aromatic derivatives with different weight-molecular distributions were separated into three fractions with more than 80% phenolics. As their similar chemical properties within each fraction, platform chemicals have great commercial potential for producing high-quality chemicals and biofuels using mild upgrading conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Tox21 robotic platform for assessment of environmental chemicals - from vision to reality

    PubMed Central

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Miller, Nicole; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Itkin, Misha; Kavlock, Robert J.; Austin, Christopher P.; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R.; Xia, Menghang

    2013-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the US Tox21 inter-agency collaboration has made great progress in developing and evaluating cellular models for the evaluation of environmental chemicals as a proof of principle. Currently, the program has entered its production phase (Tox21 Phase II) focusing initially on the areas of modulation of nuclear receptors and stress response pathways. During Tox21 Phase II, the set of chemicals to be tested has been expanded to nearly 10,000 (10K) compounds and a fully automated screening platform has been implemented. The Tox21 robotic system combined with informatics efforts is capable of screening and profiling the collection of 10K environmental chemicals in triplicate in a week. In this article, we describe the Tox21 screening process, compound library preparation, data processing, and robotic system validation. PMID:23732176

  8. The Tox21 robotic platform for the assessment of environmental chemicals--from vision to reality.

    PubMed

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Miller, Nicole; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Itkin, Misha; Kavlock, Robert J; Austin, Christopher P; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Xia, Menghang

    2013-08-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the US Tox21 inter-agency collaboration has made great progress in developing and evaluating cellular models for the evaluation of environmental chemicals as a proof of principle. Currently, the program has entered its production phase (Tox21 Phase II) focusing initially on the areas of modulation of nuclear receptors and stress response pathways. During Tox21 Phase II, the set of chemicals to be tested has been expanded to nearly 10,000 (10K) compounds and a fully automated screening platform has been implemented. The Tox21 robotic system combined with informatics efforts is capable of screening and profiling the collection of 10K environmental chemicals in triplicate in a week. In this article, we describe the Tox21 screening process, compound library preparation, data processing, and robotic system validation.

  9. Plant oils as platform chemicals for polyurethane synthesis: current state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Juan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

    2010-11-08

    Plant oils are already one of the most important platform chemicals for the chemical industry due to its universal availability, inherent biodegradability, and low price. Nowadays, plant oils are already a commercial source of multifunctional monomers and oligomers for polyurethane synthesis, and the design of novel biobased polyols derived from them is an active area of research. By taking advantage of the wide variety of possibilities for chemical modification of plant oils, there is a broad palette of strategies to functionalize its structure with hydroxyl groups. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively overview recent developments on the preparation of biobased polyols from plant oils, covering from the general epoxidation and ring-opening approach to novel routes based on thiol-ene click chemistry as well as to highlight the properties of polyurethanes obtained from them.

  10. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a platform for renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Clomburg, James M; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the long-term viability of biorefineries, it is essential to go beyond the carbohydrate-based platform and develop complementing technologies capable of producing fuels and chemicals from a wide array of available materials. Glycerol, a readily available and inexpensive compound, is generated during biodiesel, oleochemical, and bioethanol production processes, making its conversion into value-added products of great interest. The high degree of reduction of carbon atoms in glycerol confers the ability to produce fuels and reduced chemicals at higher yields when compared to the use of carbohydrates. This review focuses on current engineering efforts as well as the challenges involved in the utilization of glycerol as a carbon source for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  11. Developing the Biomolecular Screening Facility at the EPFL into the Chemical Biology Screening Platform for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Turcatti, Gerardo

    2014-05-01

    The Biomolecular Screening Facility (BSF) is a multidisciplinary laboratory created in 2006 at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) to perform medium and high throughput screening in life sciences-related projects. The BSF was conceived and developed to meet the needs of a wide range of researchers, without privileging a particular biological discipline or therapeutic area. The facility has the necessary infrastructure, multidisciplinary expertise and flexibility to perform large screening programs using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and chemical collections in the areas of chemical biology, systems biology and drug discovery. In the framework of the National Centres of Competence in Research (NCCR) Chemical Biology, the BSF is hosting 'ACCESS', the Academic Chemical Screening Platform of Switzerland that provides the scientific community with chemical diversity, screening facilities and know-how in chemical genetics. In addition, the BSF started its own applied research axes that are driven by innovation in thematic areas related to preclinical drug discovery and discovery of bioactive probes.

  12. On the nature of the reaction intermediate in the HIV-1 protease: a quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, V.; Raugei, S.; Piana, S.; Carloni, P.

    2008-07-01

    Several mechanistic aspects of Aspartic Proteases' enzymatic reaction are currently highly controversial. There is general consensus that the first step of the reaction involves a nucleophilic attack of a water molecule to the substrate carbonyl carbon with subsequent formation of a metastable intermediate (INT). However, the exact nature of this intermediate is subject of debate. While ab initio and QM/MM calculations predict that INT is a neutral gem-diol specie, empirical valence bond calculations suggest that the protein frame can stabilize a charged oxyanion intermediate. Here the relative stability of the gem diol and oxyanion intermediate is calculated by performing density functional and post-Hartree-Fock calculations. The robustness of the results is assessed by increasing the size of the system and of the basis set and by performing QM/MM calculations that explicitly include protein/solvent electrostatic effects. Our results suggest that the neutral gem-diol intermediate is 20-30 kcal/mol more stable than the charged oxyanion. It is therefore concluded that only the neutral specie is populated during the enzymatic reaction.

  13. Equipping small robotic platforms with highly sensitive more accurate nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Andrew J.; Mabesa, Jose R., Jr.; Hughes, Chantelle; Gorsich, David J.; Auner, Gregory W.

    2003-09-01

    On the battlefield and on the home front there exists an increased Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) threat. There has been an ongoing effort to develop methods in detecting the presence of NBC agents. The utilization of small robotic platforms equipped with NBC sensors is one way to aid in reconnaisance missions along with inspecting suspicious areas and vehicles. The U.S. Army's Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS) and iRobot's Packbot are two low profile robotic platforms that are being investigated by the U.S. Army TARDEC's Robotic Mobility Laboratory (TRML) to perform such tasks. There currently exists a variety of testing methods used in detecting NBC agents, which each have advantages and disadvantages. These different methods, along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in this paper. Traditional NBC type sensing systems are large requires a large vehicle or a trailer to be transported. To integrate these sensors into small robotic systems, they need to require less power and shrunk in size. Some commercially available products and ongoing research at government and academic laboratories are looking at improving NBC based detection systems are discussed in this paper for the integration of robotic platforms.

  14. Biomethane: The energy storage, platform chemical and greenhouse gas mitigation target.

    PubMed

    Bagi, Zoltán; Ács, Norbert; Böjti, Tamás; Kakuk, Balázs; Rákhely, Gábor; Strang, Orsolya; Szuhaj, Márk; Wirth, Roland; Kovács, Kornél L

    2017-08-01

    Results in three areas of anaerobic microbiology in which methane formation and utilization plays central part are reviewed. a.) Bio-methane formation by reduction of carbon dioxide in the power-to-gas process and the various possibilities of improvement of the process is a very intensively studied topic recently. From the numerous potential methods of exploiting methane of biological origin two aspects are discussed in detail. b.) Methane can serve as a platform chemical in various chemical and biochemical synthetic processes. Particular emphasis is put on the biochemical conversion pathways involving methanotrophs and their methane monooxygenase-catalyzed reactions leading to various small molecules and polymeric materials such as extracellular polysaccharides, polyhydroxyalkanoates and proteins. c.) The third area covered concerns methane-consuming reactions and methane emission mitigation. These investigations comprise the anaerobic microbiology of ruminants and approaches to diminishing methane emissions from ruminant animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. SH-SAW Sensor Platform for Chemical Detection in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Casalnuovo, Steve; Cernosek, Richard; Josse, Fabien; Ricco, Antonio; Zhou, Rongnong

    1999-07-20

    Chemically sensitive polymers coated on delay lines utilizing shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors are investigated for the detection of organic analytes in liquid environments. The SH-SAW sensor platform was designed and fabricated on 36{degree} rotated Y-cut LiTaO{sub 3}. By depositing a SiO{sub 2} dielectric layer over the entire device prior to applying the polymer film, partial electrical passivation of the interdigital transducers (IDT) is obtained while increasing the mass sensitivity of the device. Changes in the mechanical properties of the chemically sensitive polymer materials were clearly detectable through a frequency shift at least one order of magnitude larger than that of a coated-quartz crystal resonator (QCR) in a similar experiment.

  16. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  17. A recursive microfluidic platform to explore the emergence of chemical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Doran, David; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marc; Turk-MacLeod, Rebecca; Cooper, Geoffrey J T

    2017-01-01

    We propose that a chemically agnostic approach to explore the origin of life, using an automated recursive platform based on droplet microfluidics, could be used to induce artificial chemical evolution by iterations of growth, speciation, selection, and propagation. To explore this, we set about designing an open source prototype of a fully automated evolution machine, comprising seven modules. These modules are a droplet generator, droplet transfer, passive and active size sorting, splitter, incubation chamber, reservoir, and injectors, all run together via a LabVIEWTM program integration system. Together we aim for the system to be used to drive cycles of droplet birth, selection, fusion, and propagation. As a proof of principle, in addition to the working individual modules, we present data showing the osmotic exchange of glycylglycine containing and pure aqueous droplets, showing that the fittest droplets exhibit higher osomolarity relative to their neighbours, and increase in size compared to their neighbours. This demonstrates the ability of our platform to explore some different physicochemical conditions, combining the efficiency and unbiased nature of automation with our ability to select droplets as functional units based on simple criteria.

  18. Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile platform chemical

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yu; Brown, Heather M.; Huang, Xiwen; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Amonette, James E.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2009-06-20

    The ability to use cellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals currently derived from petroleum depends critically on the development of effective low-temperature processes. While HMF, as a versatile platform chemical suitable for use in polymer synthesis or production of liquid biofuels, can currently be made from fructose and glucose, synthesis of HMF directly from raw natural cellulose represents the last major barrier toward the development of a sustainable HMF platform. Here we report an unprecedented single-step pathway that depolymerizes cellulose rapidly under mild conditions and converts the resulting glucose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A pair of metal chlorides (CuCl2 and CrCl2) dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at temperatures of 80-120°C catalyzes cellulose depolymerization and the subsequent glucose conversion to HMF with 95% selectivity among recoverable products (at 56% HMF yield). Cellulose depolymerization, which can also be catalyzed by other metalchloride pairs such as CuCl2 paired with PdCl2, CrCl3, or FeCl3, occurs at a rate that is more than one order of magnitude faster than conventional acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. In contrast, single-metal chlorides at the same total loading showed low activity under similar conditions. Mechanistic studies suggest that the C2 hydrogen of the imidazolium ring is activated by the paired metal-chloride catalysts.

  19. A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, John David

    This dissertation is concerned with the development of a novel, versatile optical sensor platform for optical metrology and chemical sensing. We demonstrate the feasibility of embedding optical components between bonded silicon wafers with receptor cavities and optical windows to create a self-contained sensor microsystem that can be used for in-situ measurement of hostile environments. Arrays of these sensors internal to a silicon wafer can enable optical sensing for in-situ, real-time mapping and process development for the semiconductor industry in the form of an instrumented substrate. Single-die versions of these optical sensor platforms can also enable point-of-care diagnostics, high throughput disease screening, bio-warfare agent detection, and environmental monitoring. Our first discussion will focus on a single-wavelength interferometry-based prototype sensor. Several applications are demonstrated using this single wavelength prototype: refractive index monitoring, SiO2 plasma etching, chemical mechanical polishing, photoresist cure and dissolution, copper etch end-point detection, and also nanopore wetting phenomena. Subsequent sections of this dissertation will describe efforts to improve the optical sensor platform to achieve multi-wavelength sensing function. We explore the use of an off-the-shelf commercial RGB sensor for colorimetric monitoring of copper and aluminum thin-film etchings. We then expand upon our prior work and concepts to realize a fully integrated, chip-sized microspectrometer with a photon engine based on a diffraction grating. The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a working prototype with dimensions < 1 mm thick using standard planar microfabrication techniques is described. Proof-of-concept demonstrations indicate the working principle of dispersion, although with a low spectral resolution of 120 nm. With working knowledge of the issues of the first prototype, we present an improved 5-channel microspectrometer with a

  20. Glucose and Fructose to Platform Chemicals: Understanding the Thermodynamic Landscapes of Acid-Catalysed Reactions Using High-Level ab Initio Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Kim, Taijin; Low, John; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-12-28

    Molecular level understanding of acid-catalysed conversion of sugar molecules to platform chemicals such as hydroxy-methyl furfural (HMF), furfuryl alcohol (FAL), and levulinic acid (LA) is essential for efficient biomass conversion. In this paper, the high-level G4MP2 method along with the SMD solvation model is employed to understand detailed reaction energetics of the acid-catalysed decomposition of glucose and fructose to HMF. Based on protonation free energies of various hydroxyl groups of the sugar molecule, the relative reactivity of gluco-pyranose, fructo-pyranose and fructo-furanose are predicted. Calculations suggest that, in addition to the protonated intermediates, a solvent assisted dehydration of one of the fructo-furanosyl intermediates is a competing mechanism, indicating the possibility of multiple reaction pathways for fructose to HMF conversion in aqueous acidic medium. Two reaction pathways were explored to understand the thermodynamics of glucose to HMF; the first one is initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH group and the second one through an enolate intermediate involving acyclic intermediates. Additionally, a pathway is proposed for the formation of furfuryl alcohol from glucose initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH position, which includes a C–C bond cleavage, and the formation of formic acid. The detailed free energy landscapes predicted in this study can be used as benchmarks for further exploring the sugar decomposition reactions, prediction of possible intermediates, and finally designing improved catalysts for biomass conversion chemistry in the future.

  1. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D; Ballou, D P; Massey, V

    2001-09-18

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a bacterial flavoenzyme, carries out an oxygen insertion reaction on cyclohexanone to form a seven-membered cyclic product, epsilon-caprolactone. The reaction catalyzed involves the four-electron reduction of O2 at the expense of a two-electron oxidation of NADPH and a two-electron oxidation of cyclohexanone to form epsilon-caprolactone. Previous studies suggested the participation of either a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide or a flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate during the enzymatic catalysis [Ryerson, C. C., Ballou, D. P., and Walsh, C. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 2644-2655]. However, there was no kinetic or spectral evidence to distinguish between these two possibilities. In the present work we used double-mixing stopped-flow techniques to show that the C4a-flavin-oxygen adduct, which is formed rapidly from the reaction of oxygen with reduced enzyme in the presence of NADP, can exist in two states. When the reaction is carried out at pH 7.2, the first intermediate is a flavin C4a-peroxide with maximum absorbance at 366 nm; this intermediate becomes protonated at about 3 s(-1) to form what is believed to be the flavin C4a-hydroperoxide with maximum absorbance at 383 nm. These two intermediates can be interconverted by altering the pH, with a pK(a) of 8.4. Thus, at pH 9.0 the flavin C4a-peroxide persists mainly in the deprotonated form. Further kinetic studies also demonstrated that only the flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate could oxygenate the substrate, cyclohexanone. The requirement in catalysis of the deprotonated flavin C4a-peroxide, a nucleophile, is consistent with a Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement mechanism for the enzymatic oxygenation of cyclohexanone. In the course of these studies, the Kd for cyclohexanone to the C4a-peroxyflavin form of CHMO was determined to be approximately 1 microM. The rate-determining step in catalysis was shown to be the release of NADP from the oxidized enzyme.

  2. Computational analysis of the mechanism of chemical reactions in terms of reaction phases: hidden intermediates and hidden transition States.

    PubMed

    Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2010-05-18

    (A(n,s) < 0) the curving of the path, and thus the structural changes of the reaction complex. URVA can show the mechanism of a reaction expressed in terms of reaction phases, revealing the sequence of chemical processes in the reaction complex and making it possible to determine those electronic factors that control the mechanism and energetics of the reaction. The magnitude of adiabatic curvature coupling coefficients is related to strength and polarizability of the bonds being broken. Transient points along the reaction path are associated with hidden intermediates and hidden transition states, which can be converted into real intermediates and transition states when the reaction conditions or the substitution pattern of the reaction complex are appropriately changed. Accordingly, URVA represents a theoretical tool with tremendous experimental potential, offering the chemist the ability to assert greater control over reactions.

  3. Chemical sensor platform for non-invasive monitoring of activity and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Solovei, Dmitry; Žák, Jaromír; Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-14

    A non-invasive solution for monitoring of the activity and dehydration of organisms is proposed in the work. For this purpose, a wireless standalone chemical sensor platform using two separate measurement techniques has been developed. The first approach for activity monitoring is based on humidity measurement. Our solution uses new humidity sensor based on a nanostructured TiO2 surface for sweat rate monitoring. The second technique is based on monitoring of potassium concentration in urine. High level of potassium concentration denotes clear occurrence of dehydration. Furthermore, a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) was developed for this sensor platform to manage data transfer among devices and the internet. The WBAN coordinator controls the sensor devices and collects and stores the measured data. The collected data is particular to individuals and can be shared with physicians, emergency systems or athletes' coaches. Long-time monitoring of activity and potassium concentration in urine can help maintain the appropriate water intake of elderly people or athletes and to send warning signals in the case of near dehydration. The created sensor system was calibrated and tested in laboratory and real conditions as well. The measurement results are discussed.

  4. Chemical Sensor Platform for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Activity and Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Solovei, Dmitry; Žák, Jaromír; Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive solution for monitoring of the activity and dehydration of organisms is proposed in the work. For this purpose, a wireless standalone chemical sensor platform using two separate measurement techniques has been developed. The first approach for activity monitoring is based on humidity measurement. Our solution uses new humidity sensor based on a nanostructured TiO2 surface for sweat rate monitoring. The second technique is based on monitoring of potassium concentration in urine. High level of potassium concentration denotes clear occurrence of dehydration. Furthermore, a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) was developed for this sensor platform to manage data transfer among devices and the internet. The WBAN coordinator controls the sensor devices and collects and stores the measured data. The collected data is particular to individuals and can be shared with physicians, emergency systems or athletes' coaches. Long-time monitoring of activity and potassium concentration in urine can help maintain the appropriate water intake of elderly people or athletes and to send warning signals in the case of near dehydration. The created sensor system was calibrated and tested in laboratory and real conditions as well. The measurement results are discussed. PMID:25594591

  5. InfVis--platform-independent visual data mining of multidimensional chemical data sets.

    PubMed

    Oellien, Frank; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gasteiger, Johann

    2005-01-01

    The tremendous increase of chemical data sets, both in size and number, and the simultaneous desire to speed up the drug discovery process has resulted in an increasing need for a new generation of computational tools that assist in the extraction of information from data and allow for rapid and in-depth data mining. During recent years, visual data mining has become an important tool within the life sciences and drug discovery area with the potential to help avoiding data analysis from turning into a bottleneck. In this paper, we present InfVis, a platform-independent visual data mining tool for chemists, who usually only have little experience with classical data mining tools, for the visualization, exploration, and analysis of multivariate data sets. InfVis represents multidimensional data sets by using intuitive 3D glyph information visualization techniques. Interactive and dynamic tools such as dynamic query devices allow real-time, interactive data set manipulations and support the user in the identification of relationships and patterns. InfVis has been implemented in Java and Java3D and can be run on a broad range of platforms and operating systems. It can also be embedded as an applet in Web-based interfaces. We will present in this paper examples detailing the analysis of a reaction database that demonstrate how InfVis assists chemists in identifying and extracting hidden information.

  6. SBRC-Nottingham: sustainable routes to platform chemicals from C1 waste gases

    PubMed Central

    Burbidge, Alan; Minton, Nigel P.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC)-Nottingham (www.sbrc-nottingham.ac.uk) was one of the first three U.K. university-based SBRCs to be funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the recommendations made in the U.K.'s Synthetic Biology Roadmap. It was established in 2014 and builds on the pioneering work of the Clostridia Research Group (CRG) who have previously developed a range of gene tools for the modification of clostridial genomes. The SBRC is primarily focussed on the conversion of single carbon waste gases into platform chemicals with a particular emphasis on the use of the aerobic chassis Cupriavidus necator. PMID:27284026

  7. SBRC-Nottingham: sustainable routes to platform chemicals from C1 waste gases.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Alan; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC)-Nottingham (www.sbrc-nottingham.ac.uk) was one of the first three U.K. university-based SBRCs to be funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the recommendations made in the U.K.'s Synthetic Biology Roadmap. It was established in 2014 and builds on the pioneering work of the Clostridia Research Group (CRG) who have previously developed a range of gene tools for the modification of clostridial genomes. The SBRC is primarily focussed on the conversion of single carbon waste gases into platform chemicals with a particular emphasis on the use of the aerobic chassis Cupriavidus necator. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Hydrogenolysis goes bio: from carbohydrates and sugar alcohols to platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Agnieszka M; Weinberg, Kamil; Palkovits, Regina

    2012-03-12

    In view of the diminishing oil resources and the ongoing climate change, the use of efficient and environmentally benign technologies for the utilization of renewable resources has become indispensible. Therein, hydrogenolysis reactions offer a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. These reactions result in the cleavage of C-C and C-O bonds by hydrogen and allow direct access to valuable platform chemicals already integrated in today's value chains. Thus, hydrogenolysis bears the potential to bridge currently available technologies and future biomass-based refinery concepts. This Review highlights past and present developments in this field, with special emphasis on the direct utilization of cellulosic feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species. PMID:24473268

  10. Yeast Synthetic Biology Platform Generates Novel Chemical Structures as Scaffolds for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has been heralded as a new bioengineering platform for the production of bulk and specialty chemicals, drugs, and fuels. Here, we report for the first time a series of 74 novel compounds produced using a combinatorial genetics approach in baker’s yeast. Based on the concept of “coevolution” with target proteins in an intracellular primary survival assay, the identified, mostly scaffold-sized (200–350 MW) compounds, which displayed excellent biological activity, can be considered as prevalidated hits. Of the molecules found, >75% have not been described previously; 20% of the compounds exhibit novel scaffolds. Their structural and physicochemical properties comply with established rules of drug- and fragment-likeness and exhibit increased structural complexities compared to synthetically produced fragments. In summary, the synthetic biology approach described here represents a completely new, complementary strategy for hit and early lead identification that can be easily integrated into the existing drug discovery process. PMID:24742115

  11. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed.

  12. Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Calculations Accelerated on a Hybrid Multicore CPU-GPU Computing Platform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2012-07-10

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiempirical quantum chemical calculations can be accelerated significantly by leveraging the graphics processing unit (GPU) as a coprocessor on a hybrid multicore CPU-GPU computing platform. Semiempirical calculations using the MNDO, AM1, PM3, OM1, OM2, and OM3 model Hamiltonians were systematically profiled for three types of test systems (fullerenes, water clusters, and solvated crambin) to identify the most time-consuming sections of the code. The corresponding routines were ported to the GPU and optimized employing both existing library functions and a GPU kernel that carries out a sequence of noniterative Jacobi transformations during pseudodiagonalization. The overall computation times for single-point energy calculations and geometry optimizations of large molecules were reduced by one order of magnitude for all methods, as compared to runs on a single CPU core.

  13. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-29

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species.

  14. Chemical and Structural Analysis of an Antibody Folding Intermediate Trapped during Glycan Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human IgG Fc glycosylation modulates immunological effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. Engineering of Fc glycans therefore enables fine-tuning of the therapeutic properties of monoclonal antibodies. The N-linked glycans of Fc are typically complex-type, forming a network of noncovalent interactions along the protein surface of the Cγ2 domain. Here, we manipulate the mammalian glycan-processing pathway to trap IgG1 Fc at sequential stages of maturation, from oligomannose- to hybrid- to complex-type glycans, and show that the Fc is structurally stabilized following the transition of glycans from their hybrid- to complex-type state. X-ray crystallographic analysis of this hybrid-type intermediate reveals that N-linked glycans undergo conformational changes upon maturation, including a flip within the trimannosyl core. Our crystal structure of this intermediate reveals a molecular basis for antibody biogenesis and provides a template for the structure-guided engineering of the protein–glycan interface of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:23025485

  15. Microfluidic platforms employing integrated fluorescent or luminescent chemical sensors: a review of methods, scope and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Simon A.; Nagl, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Herein we critically review microfluidic platforms that contain integrated fluorescent or luminescent chemical sensor assemblies. These were employed in particular for miniaturized oxygen and pH sensing. Microchips with optical temperature sensing capability are also covered since these share many concepts and applications. Other analytes and derived parameters from the above analytes are found in some sensing approaches in microfluidics. After an introduction, the work is structured into three main chapters dealing with the fabrication and microintegration of these sensors, readout and detection strategies, and applications of these microsystems. The fabrication is discussed with a focus on soft lithography-based approaches in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or PDMS and glass hybrid devices that form the majority of work so far. Alternative approaches, particularly using glass or quartz as the main chip material are also covered. Detection techniques employed to date are the subject of the next chapter, where simple intensity as well as lifetime- or wavelength-referenced schemes are presented and the utility of image-based sensing on the microscale is discussed. Lastly, exciting applications of these microfluidic chips are highlighted. Luminescent oxygen and pH sensing has been of particular interest in the field of microbioreactors but other areas are also of interest, particularly chemical reactors and electrophoresis. Optical temperature sensing is discussed and its use in fundamental studies as well as in enzyme reactors. Integrated microsystems with biosensing capabilities and some for monitoring of metal ions and other analytes are also presented.

  16. Silicon micro sensors as integrated readout platform for colorimetric and fluorescence based opto-chemical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Matthias; Martan, Tomas; Brodersen, Olaf

    2012-02-01

    Opto-chemical transducer almost offers unlimited possibilities for detection of physical quantities. New technologies and research show a steady increasing of publications in the area of sensoric principles. For transfer to real world applications the optical response has to be converted into an electrical signal. An exceptional opto chemical transducer loses the attraction if complex and expensive instruments for analysis are requires. Therefore, the readout system must be very compact and producible for low cost. In this presentation, the technology platform as a solution for these problems will be presented. We combine micro structuring of silicon, photodiode fabrication, chip in chip mounting and novel assembly technologies for creation of a flexible sensor platform. This flexible combination of technologies allows fabricating a family of planar optical remission sensors. With variation of design and modifications, we are able to detect colorimetric, fluorescent properties of an sensitive layer attached on the sensor surface. In our sensor with typical size of 6mm x 6mm x 1mm different emitting sources based on LED's or laser diodes, multiple detection cannels for the remitted light and also measurement of temperature are included. Based on these sensors we proof the concept by demonstrating sensors for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia based on colorimetric and fluorescent changes in the transducer layer. In both configurations, LED's irradiated the sensitive polymer layer through a transparent substrate. The absorption or fluorescence properties of dyed polymer are changed by the chemical reaction and light response is detected by PIN diodes. The signal shift is analyzed by using a computer controlled evaluation board of own construction. Accuracy and reliability of the remission sensor system were verified and the whole sensor system was experimentally tested in the range of concentrations from 50 ppm up to 100 000 ppm for CO2 and O2 Furthermore, we develop

  17. Silicon micro sensors as integrated readout platform for colorimetric and fluorescence based opto-chemical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Matthias; Martan, Tomas; Brodersen, Olaf

    2011-09-01

    Opto-chemical transducer almost offers unlimited possibilities for detection of physical quantities. New technologies and research show a steady increasing of publications in the area of sensoric principles. For transfer to real world applications the optical response has to be converted into an electrical signal. An exceptional opto chemical transducer loses the attraction if complex and expensive instruments for analysis are requires. Therefore, the readout system must be very compact and producible for low cost. In this presentation, the technology platform as a solution for these problems will be presented. We combine micro structuring of silicon, photodiode fabrication, chip in chip mounting and novel assembly technologies for creation of a flexible sensor platform. This flexible combination of technologies allows fabricating a family of planar optical remission sensors. With variation of design and modifications, we are able to detect colorimetric, fluorescent properties of an sensitive layer attached on the sensor surface. In our sensor with typical size of 6mm x 6mm x 1mm different emitting sources based on LED's or laser diodes, multiple detection cannels for the remitted light and also measurement of temperature are included. Based on these sensors we proof the concept by demonstrating sensors for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia based on colorimetric and fluorescent changes in the transducer layer. In both configurations, LED's irradiated the sensitive polymer layer through a transparent substrate. The absorption or fluorescence properties of dyed polymer are changed by the chemical reaction and light response is detected by PIN diodes. The signal shift is analyzed by using a computer controlled evaluation board of own construction. Accuracy and reliability of the remission sensor system were verified and the whole sensor system was experimentally tested in the range of concentrations from 50 ppm up to 100 000 ppm for CO2 and O2 Furthermore, we develop

  18. Status of reactive non-heme metal-oxygen intermediates in chemical and enzymatic reactions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kallol; Pfaff, Florian Felix; Wang, Bin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-10-08

    Selective functionalization of unactivated C-H bonds, water oxidation, and dioxygen reduction are extremely important reactions in the context of finding energy carriers and conversion processes that are alternatives to the current fossil-based oil for energy. A range of metalloenzymes achieve these challenging tasks in biology by using cheap and abundant transition metals, such as iron, copper, and manganese. High-valent metal-oxo and metal-dioxygen (superoxo, peroxo, and hydroperoxo) cores act as active intermediates in many of these processes. The generation of well-described model compounds can provide vital insights into the mechanisms of such enzymatic reactions. This perspective provides a focused rather than comprehensive review of the recent advances in the chemistry of biomimetic high-valent metal-oxo and metal-dioxygen complexes, which can be related to our understanding of the biological systems.

  19. Chemical alloying and light-induced collapse of intermediate phases in chalcohalide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Boolchand, P.; Jackson, K. A.; Micoulaut, M.

    2007-06-01

    The elastic behaviour of binary GexSe1-x glasses, examined in Raman scattering experiments earlier, has shown glasses at x<0.20 to be in the flexible phase, those at x>0.25 to be in the stressed-rigid phase and those in the 0.20intermediate phase (IP). The IP width in mean-coordination-number space, Δr = 0.10. We have now examined ternary Ge1/4Se3/4-yIy glasses in Raman scattering and modulated DSC experiments, and find that the IP width dramatically collapses by an order of magnitude to Δr = 0.009(2). Alloying iodine for Se serves to scission the network backbone progressively as mixed Ge(Se)4-mIm tetrahedra (m-units) emerge with 1intermediate range order prevailing in the IP and reversibly destroy it.

  20. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  1. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  2. Simulating the Atmospheric Impact of Criegee Intermediates: Implementation of new understanding in atmospheric chemical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloss, William; Newland, Mike; Rickard, Andrew; Vereecken, Luc; Evans, Mathew; Munoz, Amalia; Rodenas, Mila

    2016-04-01

    Unsaturated hydrocarbons - alkenes - account for about 90% of global VOC. Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCI) are thought to be formed in the atmosphere mainly from reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone. SCI have been shown in laboratory and chamber experiments to rapidly oxidise SO2 and NO2, providing a potentially important gas phase oxidation route for these species in the atmosphere. They have also been implicated in the formation of aerosol and organic acids. However, the importance of SCI reactions with traces gases is critically dependent on the relative ratio of the rate constants for the reactions of the SCI with these and other trace gases, with H2O, and for unimolecular decomposition, which vary between SCIs, and between geometric isomers. The selection of reactions and rate constants is critically important in determining the calculated impact of SCI processes upon atmospheric composition and chemistry. Since the recent resurgence in interest in this chemistry, a number of model studies have been performed, with SCI mechanisms of varying comprehensiveness and accuracy, as the understanding of the community has evolved from new laboratory, theoretical and chamber studies, and field observations. Here we present an assessment of the dependence of modelled SCI abundance, behaviour and impacts upon the Criegee mechanism adopted, in the context of (a) the accepted status quo prior to the laboratory and field studies of Welz et al. and Mauldin et al., (b) changes to the SCI mechanism reflecting new kinetics for key bimolecular reactions, e.g. with SO2 and NO2; (c) emerging understanding of the interactions of SCI with water vapour and their unimolecular decomposition and (d) reactions with other atmospheric trace gases. The modelled SCI behaviour is compared with the results from recent chamber studies, and the resulting calculated SCI abundance and impacts evaluated for urban and forested atmospheric boundary layer scenarios.

  3. Systematic engineering of TCA cycle for optimal production of a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hydroxybutyric acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-11-01

    To address climate change and environmental problems, it is becoming increasingly important to establish biorefineries for the production of chemicals from renewable non-food biomass. Here we report the development of Escherichia coli strains capable of overproducing a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hybroxybutyric acid (4-HB). Because 4-HB production is significantly affected by aeration level, genome-scale metabolic model-based engineering strategies were designed under aerobic and microaerobic conditions with emphasis on oxidative/reductive TCA branches and glyoxylate shunt. Several different metabolic engineering strategies were employed to develop strains suitable for fermentation both under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. It was found that microaerobic condition was more efficient than aerobic condition in achieving higher titer and productivity of 4-HB. The final engineered strain produced 103.4g/L of 4-HB by microaerobic fed-batch fermentation using glycerol. The aeration-dependent optimization strategy of TCA cycle will be useful for developing microbial strains producing other reduced derivative chemicals of TCA cycle intermediates.

  4. Reactive Intermediates: Molecular and MS-Based Approaches to Assess the Functional Significance of Chemical:Protein Adducts1

    PubMed Central

    Monks, Terrence J.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2014-01-01

    Biologically reactive intermediates formed as endogenous products of various metabolic processes are considered important factors in a variety of human diseases, including Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders, diabetes and complications thereof, and other inflammatory-associated diseases. Chemical-induced toxicities are also frequently mediated via the bioactivation of relatively stable organic molecules to reactive electrophilic metabolites. Indeed, chemical-induced toxicities have long been known to be associated with the ability of electrophilic metabolites to react with a variety of targets within the cell, including their covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues in proteins, and nucleotides within DNA. Although we possess considerable knowledge of the various biochemical mechanisms by which chemicals undergo metabolic bioactivation, we understand far less about the processes that couple bioactivation to toxicity. Identifying specific sites within a protein that are targets for adduction can provide the initial information necessary to determine whether such adventitious post-translational modifications significantly alter either protein structure and/or function. To address this problem we have developed MS-based approaches to identify specific amino acid targets of electrophile adduction (electrophile-binding motifs), coupled with molecular modeling of such adducts, to determine the potential structural and functional consequences. Where appropriate, functional assays are subsequently conducted to assess protein function. PMID:23222993

  5. [Changes in chemical composition, biosynthesis and structure of secretion of intermediate area of chicken stomach with A-avitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Dusheiko, A A; Khmutovakiĭ, O A; Blazhevich, M A; Solodova, E V; Chernukhina, L A; Zabeliu, E M

    1978-01-01

    In the intermediate area of the chicken stomach with A-avitaminosis the amount of the secretion increases and its chemical composition changes sharply: the content of water, lipids, hexolamines and suphates lowers. By means of 14-C-acetate, 35S-methionine and 35S-sulphate it is established that renewal of the secretion is inhibited. The electron-microscopic examinations showed that the secret is homogenous in normalcy but with A-avitaminosis it acquires a honeycomb structure, its physicochemical properties being changed: it becomes rigid, cuticle-like. As a result there appear deep cracks reaching mucosa, which lead to formation of erosions and ulcers. An assumption is advanced that the initial disturbances of the secretion might be not related to protein component (as the ratio of amino acids in it's almost unchanged) and depend on the carbohydrate and lipid components. The hypothesis of de Luc et al. as to the transport and intermediatory function of vitamin A in biosynthesis of glycosamineglycanes, glycolipids and glycolipoproteins is questioned. Vitamin A may take part in these processes but not as an intermediator of metabolic systems but as the level of biological structures (for instance, the Golgi apparatus and others) which organize these systems and coordinate their function.

  6. Blue holes: Windows into chemical and physical hydrogeologic processes in karst of modern carbonate platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Spellman, P.

    2011-12-01

    Potable water is extracted from thin freshwater lenses that float on saltwater underlying many modern carbonate platforms. Protection of these thin aquifers is critical for the sustainable use of the limited water resources. The fresh water lenses are frequently intersected by dissolution and collapse features, commonly referred to as blue holes in the Bahamas. These features offer windows into physical and chemical processes within and below the freshwater lenses and provide opportunities to study natural and anthropogenic changes to the fresh water quantity and quality. Blue holes also efficiently link surface and subsurface environments and allow fluxes of organic carbon and oxygen into the aquifers. Remineralization of the organic carbon should increase pCO2, reduce pH, and thus enhance dissolution of the aquifer rocks. Enhanced dissolution requires exchange of water between the blue holes and the aquifer porosity, but most modern carbonate platforms have hydraulic gradients as low as 10-5 and lack allogenic recharge, thereby limiting processes to drive exchange. We measured chemical compositions and levels of water in blue holes and wells on San Salvador Island and Rum Cay, Bahamas to develop new techniques to estimate aquifer characteristics and water quality of modern carbonate platforms. On both islands, dampened amplitudes and lags of tides at wells (representing matrix permeability) and blue holes (representing conduit permeability) relative to the ocean indicate approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude greater hydraulic conductivity of conduits than the aquifer matrix. Tidal flow modified by this aquifer heterogeneity exchanges water between blue holes and aquifer rocks at tidal frequency. At Ink Well Blue Hole, on San Salvador Island, organic carbon remineralization is observed as an increase from around 50 to 70 mg/g dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decrease in δ13CDIC values from around -10 to -15% with depth across the halocline. This

  7. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Moens, L.; Elliott, D.C.; Wang, Y.; Neuenscwander, G.G.; Fitzpatrick, S.W.; Bilski, R.J.; Jarnefeld, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced cost effectively and in high yield from renewable feedstocks in a new industrial process. The technology is being demonstrated on a one ton/day scale at a facility in South Glens Falls, New York. Low cost LA can be used as a platform chemical for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This research has demonstrated that LA can be converted to methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), a solvent and fuel extender. MTHF is produced in {gt}80% molar yield via a single stage catalytic hydrogenation process. A new preparation of {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (DALA), a broad spectrum herbicide from LA has also been developed. Each step in this new process proceeds in high ({gt}80%) yield and affords DALA (as the hydrochloride salt) in greater than 90% purity, giving a process that could be commercially viable. LA is also being investigated as a starting material for the production of diphenolic acid (DPA), a direct replacement for bisphenol A.

  8. Production of Phloroglucinol, a Platform Chemical, in Arabidopsis using a Bacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghany, Salah E.; Day, Irene; Heuberger, Adam L.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene; PG) and its derivatives are phenolic compounds that are used for various industrial applications. Current methods to synthesize PG are not sustainable due to the requirement for carbon-based precursors and co-production of toxic byproducts. Here, we describe a more sustainable production of PG using plants expressing a native bacterial or a codon-optimized synthetic PhlD targeted to either the cytosol or chloroplasts. Transgenic lines were analyzed for the production of PG using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. Phloroglucinol was produced in all transgenic lines and the line with the highest PhlD transcript level showed the most accumulation of PG. Over 80% of the produced PG was glycosylated to phlorin. Arabidopsis leaves have the machinery to glycosylate PG to form phlorin, which can be hydrolyzed enzymatically to produce PG. Furthermore, the metabolic profile of plants with PhlD in either the cytosol or chloroplasts was altered. Our results provide evidence that plants can be engineered to produce PG using a bacterial gene. Phytoproduction of PG using a bacterial gene paves the way for further genetic manipulations to enhance the level of PG with implications for the commercial production of this important platform chemical in plants. PMID:27924918

  9. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR MEMBERS OF THE M6 (NGC 6405) OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Albayrak, B.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L. E-mail: balbayrak@ankara.edu.tr E-mail: Jacques.Richer@umontreal.ca

    2016-03-15

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500–5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the H{sub β} profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are

  11. Investigation of Chemical Exchange at Intermediate Exchange Rates using a Combination of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) and Spin-Locking methods (CESTrho)

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Feliks; Singh, Anup; Cai, Keija; Haris, Mohammad; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange imaging is important as it allows for visualization and quantification of the distribution of specific metabolites with conventional MRI. Current exchange mediated MRI methods suffer from poor contrast as well as confounding factors that influence exchange rates. In this study we developed a new method to measure proton exchange which combines chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T1ρ magnetization preparation methods (CESTrho). We demonstrated that this new CESTrho sequence can detect proton exchange in the slow to intermediate exchange regimes. It has a linear dependence on proton concentration which allows it to be used to quantitatively measure changes in metabolite concentration. Additionally, the magnetization scheme of this new method can be customized to make it insensitive to changes in exchange rate while retaining its dependency on solute concentration. Finally, we showed the feasibility of using CESTrho in vivo. This sequence is able to detect proton exchange at intermediate exchange rates and is unaffected by the confounding factors that influence proton exchange rates thus making it ideal for the measurement of metabolites with exchangeable protons in this exchange regime. PMID:22009759

  12. Investigation of chemical exchange at intermediate exchange rates using a combination of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking methods (CESTrho).

    PubMed

    Kogan, Feliks; Singh, Anup; Cai, Keija; Haris, Mohammad; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2012-07-01

    Proton exchange imaging is important as it allows for visualization and quantification of the distribution of specific metabolites with conventional MRI. Current exchange mediated MRI methods suffer from poor contrast as well as confounding factors that influence exchange rates. In this study we developed a new method to measure proton exchange which combines chemical exchange saturation transfer and T(1)(ρ) magnetization preparation methods (CESTrho). We demonstrated that this new CESTrho sequence can detect proton exchange in the slow to intermediate exchange regimes. It has a linear dependence on proton concentration which allows it to be used to quantitatively measure changes in metabolite concentration. Additionally, the magnetization scheme of this new method can be customized to make it insensitive to changes in exchange rate while retaining its dependency on solute concentration. Finally, we showed the feasibility of using CESTrho in vivo. This sequence is able to detect proton exchange at intermediate exchange rates and is unaffected by the confounding factors that influence proton exchange rates thus making it ideal for the measurement of metabolites with exchangeable protons in this exchange regime.

  13. Intermediate-metallicity, high-velocity stars and Galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. G.; Smith, I. M.

    2003-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectra were obtained of 10 high-proper-motion stars having -1 <~[Fe/H] < 0, and a comparable number of disc stars. All but two of the high-proper-motion stars were confirmed to have [Fe/H] > -1.0, some approaching solar metallicity, but, even so, earlier measurements overestimated the metallicities and velocities of some of these stars. Models of stellar populations were used to assign membership probabilities to the Galactic components to which the high-velocity stars might belong. Many were found to be more probably thick-disc than halo objects, despite their large space motions, and two might be associated with the inner Galaxy. It may be necessary to reassess contamination of previous halo samples, such as those used to define the metallicity distribution, to account for contamination by high-velocity thick-disc stars, and to consider possible subcomponents of the halo. The change in [α/Fe] ratios at [Fe/H]~=-1.0 is often used to constrain the degree and timing of Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis in Galactic chemical-evolution models. [Ti/Fe] values were measured for eight of the high-velocity stars. Both high- and low-[Ti/Fe] halo stars exist; likewise high- and low-[Ti/Fe] thick-disc stars exist. We conclude that the [Ti/Fe]`break' is not well defined for a given population; nor is there a simple, continuous evolutionary sequence through the break. Implications for the interpretation of the [α/Fe] break in terms of SN Ia time-scales and progenitors are discussed. The range of [Ti/Fe] found for high-velocity (low rotation) thick-disc stars contrasts with that for the low-velocity (high rotation) thick-disc sample studied by Prochaska et al.

  14. S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine: a novel chemical modification of tissue proteins by a Krebs cycle intermediate.

    PubMed

    Alderson, Nathan L; Wang, Yuping; Blatnik, Matthew; Frizzell, Norma; Walla, Michael D; Lyons, Timothy J; Alt, Nadja; Carson, James A; Nagai, Ryoji; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2006-06-01

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) has been identified as a chemical modification in plasma proteins, in the non-mercaptalbumin fraction of human plasma albumin, in human skin collagen, and in rat skeletal muscle proteins and urine. 2SC increases in human skin collagen with age and is increased in muscle protein of diabetic vs. control rats. The concentration of 2SC in skin collagen and muscle protein correlated strongly with that of the advanced glycation/lipoxidation end-product (AGE/ALE), N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). 2SC is formed by a Michael addition reaction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups with fumarate at physiological pH. Fumarate, but not succinate, inactivates the sulfhydryl enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in vitro, in concert with formation of 2SC. 2SC is the first example of spontaneous chemical modification of protein by a metabolic intermediate in the Krebs cycle. These observations identify fumarate as an endogenous electrophile and suggest a role for fumarate in regulation of metabolism.

  15. Ultrafiltration, a useful method for isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation exemplified with the total synthesis of Sortase AΔN59.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fang-kun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrafiltration was employed to facilitate the isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation. Depending on the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane used, molecules with different sizes could be purified, separated, or concentrated by the ultrafiltration process. Total chemical synthesis of the polypeptide chain of the enzyme Sortase AΔN59 was used as an example of the application of ultrafiltration in chemical protein synthesis. Sortase A is a ligase that catalyzes transpeptidation reactions between proteins that have C-terminal LPXTG recognition sequence and Gly5- on the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Ultrafiltration technique facilitated synthesis of Sortase AΔN59 and was a promising tool in isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation.

  16. A cell-free testing platform to screen chemicals of potential neurotoxic concern across twenty vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Arini, Adeline; Mittal, Krittika; Dornbos, Peter; Head, Jessica; Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Basu, Niladri

    2017-06-08

    There is global demand for new in vitro testing tools for ecological risk assessment. The objective of the present study was to apply a set of cell-free neurochemical assays to screen many chemicals across many species in a relatively high-throughput manner. The platform assessed 7 receptors and enzymes that mediate neurotransmission of γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, glutamate, and acetylcholine. Each assay was optimized to work across 20 vertebrate species (5 fish, 5 birds, 7 mammalian wildlife, 3 biomedical species including humans). We tested the screening assay platform against 80 chemicals (23 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 20 metal[loid]s, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated organic compounds, 15 pesticides). In total, 10 800 species-chemical-assay combinations were tested, and significant differences were found in 4041 cases. All 7 assays were significantly affected by at least one chemical in each species tested. Among the 80 chemicals tested, nearly all resulted in a significant impact on at least one species and one assay. The 5 most active chemicals were prochloraz, HgCl2 , Sn, benzo[a]pyrene, and vinclozolin. Clustering analyses revealed groupings according to chemicals, species, and chemical-assay combinations. The results show that cell-free assays can screen a large number of samples in a short period of time in a cost-effective manner in a range of animals not easily studied using traditional approaches. Strengths and limitations of this approach are discussed, as well as next steps. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Monash Chemical Yields Project (Monχey) Element production in low- and intermediate-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Carolyn; Lattanzio, John; Angelou, George; Campbell, Simon W.; Church, Ross; Constantino, Thomas; Cristallo, Sergio; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Stancliffe, Richard

    The Monχey project will provide a large and homogeneous set of stellar yields for the low- and intermediate- mass stars and has applications particularly to galactic chemical evolution modelling. We describe our detailed grid of stellar evolutionary models and corresponding nucleosynthetic yields for stars of initial mass 0.8 M⊙ up to the limit for core collapse supernova (CC-SN) ~ 10 M⊙. Our study covers a broad range of metallicities, ranging from the first, primordial stars (Z = 0) to those of super-solar metallicity (Z = 0.04). The models are evolved from the zero-age main-sequence until the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the nucleosynthesis calculations include all elements from H to Bi. A major innovation of our work is the first complete grid of heavy element nucleosynthetic predictions for primordial AGB stars as well as the inclusion of extra-mixing processes (in this case thermohaline) during the red giant branch. We provide a broad overview of our results with implications for galactic chemical evolution as well as highlight interesting results such as heavy element production in dredge-out events of super-AGB stars. We briefly introduce our forthcoming web-based database which provides the evolutionary tracks, structural properties, internal/surface nucleosynthetic compositions and stellar yields. Our web interface includes user- driven plotting capabilities with output available in a range of formats. Our nucleosynthetic results will be available for further use in post processing calculations for dust production yields.

  18. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates.

    PubMed

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production.

  19. Intermediate added salt levels as sodium reduction strategy: Effects on chemical, microbial, textural and sensory quality of polony.

    PubMed

    Cluff, M; Kobane, I A; Bothma, C; Hugo, C J; Hugo, A

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of intermediate added salt levels (1.33% w/w and 1.84% w/w) as a strategy for reducing the total sodium content of polony, an emulsified, heat-treated meat product, which is reliant on the various functions of salt normally included at a 2.5% (w/w) level. Chemical, microbial, and textural stability over 180days as well as sensory quality were evaluated. At 1.84% (w/w) added salt content, the product was indistinguishable from the positive control except for a slightly wetter cutting surface. A level of 1.33% (w/w) added salt showed similar results, except for a slight variation in initial moisture content and a much wetter cutting surface. The hardest texture was achieved at 1.33% (w/w) added salt up to 90days of shelf-life. Consumers had a slight preference for a lower salt content. From this research it can be recommended that salt reduction as sole approach in sodium reduction should be evaluated for meat products in limiting the possibly costly and negatively perceived use of sodium replacers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure of viroid replicative intermediates: physico-chemical studies on SP6 transcripts of cloned oligomeric potato spindle tuber viroid.

    PubMed

    Steger, G; Tabler, M; Brüggemann, W; Colpan, M; Klotz, G; Sänger, H L; Riesner, D

    1986-12-22

    The structure and structural transitions of transcripts of cloned oligomeric viroid were studied in physico-chemical experiments and stability calculations. Transcripts of (+) and (-) polarity, from unit up to sixfold length, were synthesized from DNA clones of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) with the SP6 transcription system. Their structural properties were investigated by optical denaturation curves, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electron microscopy, sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium and velocity sedimentation. Secondary structures of the RNAs and theoretical denaturation curves were calculated using an energy optimization program. The secondary structure of lowest free energy for unit length and oligomeric transcripts is a rod-like structure similar to that of the mature circular viroids. When this structure is used as a model for calculations, there is a large degree of agreement between the theoretical and the experimental denaturation curves. At high temperatures, however, (+) strand transcripts exhibited a transition which was more stable than expected from the calculations or than was known from curves of mature viroids. This transition arises from a rearrangement of the central conserved region of viroids to a helical region of 28 stable base pairs either intermolecularly leading to bimolecular complexes, or intramolecularly giving rise to a branched secondary structure. The rearrangement could be detected by electron microscopy, HPLC, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The helical region serves to divide up the oligomeric (+) strand into structural units which may be recognized by cleavage and ligation enzymes which process the oligomeric intermediates to circular mature viroids.

  1. Facile preparation of surface-exchangeable core@shell iron oxide@gold nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction: use of gold shell as the intermediate platform for versatile adsorbents with varying self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaping; Qi, Li; Shen, Ying; Ma, Huimin

    2014-02-06

    The core@shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with exchangeable self-assembled monolayers have been developed for mode switching magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The adsorbents were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation to prepare magnetic cores followed by sonolysis to produce gold shells. Functionalization of Fe3O4@Au NPs surface was realized through self-assembly of commercially available low molecular weight thiol-containing ligands using gold shells as intermediate platform and the dynamic nature of Au-S chemistry allowed substituent of one thiol-containing ligand with another simply by thiol exchange process. The resultant adsorbents were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, contact angle measurement, and vibrating sample magnetometry. To evaluate the versatile performance of the developed MSPE adsorbents, they were applied for normal-phase SPE followed by reversed-phase SPE. A few kinds of diphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were employed as model analytes, respectively. The predominant parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, wide dynamic linear range (6.25-1600 μg L(-1) for diphenols and 1.56-100 μg L(-1) for PAHs) with good linearity (r(2)≥0.989) and low detection limits (0.34-16.67 μg L(-1) for diphenols and 0.26-0.52 μg L(-1) for PAHs) were achieved. The advantage of the developed method is that the Fe3O4@Au NPs could be reutilized for preconcentrating diverse target analytes in different SPE modes sequentially simply through treatment with desired thiol-containing ligands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Potential Platforms for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Chemical Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenyang

    field favours more than the richness of exposed nitrogen atoms for the interactions between MOFs and CO2 molecules, which provides a new perspective for future design of new MOFs and other types of porous materials for CO2 capture. Meanwhile, to address the water/moisture stability issue of MOFs, remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel clusters is achieved by strengthening the bonding between organic ligands and triangular inorganic copper trimers, which in turn enhances the stability of the whole MOF network and provides a better understanding of the mechanism promoting prospective suitable MOFs with enhanced water stability. In contrast with CO2 capture by sorbent materials, the chemical transformation of the captured CO2 into value-added products represents an alternative which is attractive and sustainable, and has been of escalating interest. The nanospace within MOFs not only provides the inner porosity for CO2 capture, but also engenders accessible room for substrate molecules for catalytic purpose. It is demonstrated that high catalytic efficiency for chemical fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates under ambient conditions is achieved on MOF-based nanoreactors featuring a high-density of well-oriented Lewis active sites. Furthermore, described for the first time is that CO 2 can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of a MOF to generate carboxylate groups. This proof-of-concept study contributes a different perspective to the current landscape of CO2 capture and transformation. In closing, the overarching goal of this work is not only to seek efficient MOF adsorbents for CO2 capture, but also to present a new yet attractive scenario of CO2 utilization on MOF platforms.

  3. UV/ozone-oxidized large-scale graphene platform with large chemical enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sung; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2011-12-27

    We fabricated a highly oxidized large-scale graphene platform using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and UV/ozone-based oxidation methods. This platform offers a large-scale surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate with large chemical enhancement in SERS and reproducible SERS signals over a centimeter-scale graphene surface. After UV-induced ozone generation, ozone molecules were reacted with graphene to produce oxygen-containing groups on graphene and induced the p-type doping of the graphene. These modifications introduced the structural disorder and defects on the graphene surface and resulted in a large chemical mechanism-based signal enhancement from Raman dye molecules [rhodamine B (RhB), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and crystal violet (CV) in this case] on graphene. Importantly, the enhancement factors were increased from ∼10(3) before ozone treatment to ∼10(4), which is the largest chemical enhancement factor ever on graphene, after 5 min ozone treatment due to both high oxidation and p-doping effects on graphene surface. Over a centimeter-scale area of this UV/ozone-oxidized graphene substrate, strong SERS signals were repeatedly and reproducibly detected. In a UV/ozone-based micropattern, UV/ozone-treated areas were highly Raman-active while nontreated areas displayed very weak Raman signals.

  4. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for radiochemistry: potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels.

    PubMed

    Bruchet, Anthony; Taniga, Vélan; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Goutelard, Florence; Mariet, Clarisse

    2013-11-15

    The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the microfluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ≈97%), the use of the centrifugal microfluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ≈250. Thanks to their unique "easy-to-use" features, centrifugal microfluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the downscaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance).

  5. Development of metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon as a 3D nanofabrication platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Owen James

    The considerable interest in nanomaterials and nanotechnology over the last decade is attributed to Industry's desire for lower cost, more sophisticated devices and the opportunity that nanotechnology presents for scientists to explore the fundamental properties of nature at near atomic levels. In pursuit of these goals, researchers around the world have worked to both perfect existing technologies and also develop new nano-fabrication methods; however, no technique exists that is capable of producing complex, 2D and 3D nano-sized features of arbitrary shape, with smooth walls, and at low cost. This in part is due to two important limitations of current nanofabrication methods. First, 3D geometry is difficult if not impossible to fabricate, often requiring multiple lithography steps that are both expensive and do not scale well to industrial level fabrication requirements. Second, as feature sizes shrink into the nano-domain, it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately maintain those features over large depths and heights. The ability to produce these structures affordably and with high precision is critically important to a number of existing and emerging technologies such as metamaterials, nano-fluidics, nano-imprint lithography, and more. To overcome these limitations, this study developed a novel and efficient method to etch complex 2D and 3D geometry in silicon with controllable sub-micron to nano-sized features with aspect ratios in excess of 500:1. This study utilized Metal-assisted Chemical Etching (MaCE) of silicon in conjunction with shape-controlled catalysts to fabricate structures such as 3D cycloids, spirals, sloping channels, and out-of-plane rotational structures. This study focused on taking MaCE from a method to fabricate small pores and silicon nanowires using metal catalyst nanoparticles and discontinuous thin films, to a powerful etching technology that utilizes shaped catalysts to fabricate complex, 3D geometry using a single lithography

  6. Sexual Deception in the Eucera-Pollinated Ophrys leochroma: A Chemical Intermediate between Wasp- and Andrena-Pollinated Species.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Monica; Rakosy, Demetra; Martel, Carlos; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons. The phylogeny of Ophrys shows that its evolution was marked by episodes of rapid diversification coinciding with shifts to different pollinator groups: from wasps to Eucera and consequently to Andrena and other bees. To gain further insights, we studied pollinator attraction in O. leochroma in the context of intra- and inter-generic pollinator shifts, radiation, and diversification in the genus Ophrys. Our model species, O. leochroma, is pollinated by Eucera kullenbergi males and lies in the phylogeny between the wasp and Andrena-pollinated species; therefore, it is a remarkable point to understand pollinator shifts. We collected surface extracts of attractive E. kullenbergi females and labellum extracts of O. leochroma and analyzed them by using gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We also performed field bioassays. Our results show that O. leochroma mimics the sex pheromone of its pollinator's female by using aldehydes, alcohols, fatty acids, and non-polar compounds (hydrocarbons). Therefore, in terms of the chemistry of pollinator attraction, Eucera-pollinated Ophrys species might represent an intermediate stage between wasp- and Andrena-pollinated orchid species.

  7. Two-dimensional silver nanodot array fabricated using nanoporous alumina for a chemical sensor platform of localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Kim, T.-R.; Ji, M.-G.; Lee, S.; Woo, D.; Choi, Y.-W.

    2016-03-01

    The noble metal nanostructure has attracted significant attention because of their potential applications as sensitive sensor platform blocks for biological and chemical sensing. The unique optical property of the metal nanostructure is originated from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The fabrication of metal nanostructure is a key issue for sensor applications of LSPR. In this paper, fabrication technique of two-dimensional Ag nanodot array on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate via the nanoporous alumina mask and the utilization as a platform for LSPR chemical sensor was studied. Well-ordered Ag nanodot array with approximately 65 nm diameter in periodic pattern of 105 nm was fabricated using the nanoporous alumina with through-holes as an evaporation mask. The LSPR of Ag nanodot array on ITO glass substrate was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The LSPR wavelength-shifts owing to the concentration variances of Methylene Blue (MB) adsorbed on Ag nanodot arrays were examined for application of chemical sensor.

  8. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of the carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate.

    PubMed

    Rohles, Christina Maria; Gießelmann, Gideon; Kohlstedt, Michael; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2016-09-13

    The steadily growing world population and our ever luxurious life style, along with the simultaneously decreasing fossil resources has confronted modern society with the issue and need of finding renewable routes to accommodate for our demands. Shifting the production pipeline from raw oil to biomass requires efficient processes for numerous platform chemicals being produced with high yield, high titer and high productivity. In the present work, we established a de novo bio-based production process for the two carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate on basis of the lysine-hyperproducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LYS-12. Upon heterologous implementation of the Pseudomonas putida genes davA, encoding 5-aminovaleramidase and davB, encoding lysine monooxygenase, 5-aminovalerate production was established. Related to the presence of endogenous genes coding for 5-aminovalerate transaminase (gabT) and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 5-aminovalerate was partially converted to glutarate. Moreover, residual L-lysine was secreted as by-product. The issue of by-product formation was then addressed by deletion of the lysE gene, encoding the L-lysine exporter. Additionally, a putative gabT gene was deleted to enhance 5-aminovalerate production. To fully exploit the performance of the optimized strain, fed-batch fermentation was carried out producing 28 g L(-1) 5-aminovalerate with a maximal space-time yield of 0.9 g L(-1) h(-1). The present study describes the construction of a recombinant microbial cell factory for the production of carbon-5 platform chemicals. Beyond a basic proof-of-concept, we were able to specifically increase the production flux of 5-aminovalerate thereby generating a strain with excellent production performance. Additional improvement can be expected by removal of remaining by-product formation and bottlenecks, associated to the terminal pathway, to generate a strain being applicable as centerpiece for a bio

  9. The Markyt visualisation, prediction and benchmark platform for chemical and gene entity recognition at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Martin; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gael; Rabal, Obdulia; Vazquez, Miguel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Valencia, Alfonso; Krallinger, Martin; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical text mining methods and technologies have improved significantly in the last decade. Considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the main challenges of biomedical literature retrieval and extraction and proposing solutions to problems of practical interest. Most notably, community-oriented initiatives such as the BioCreative challenge have enabled controlled environments for the comparison of automatic systems while pursuing practical biomedical tasks. Under this scenario, the present work describes the Markyt Web-based document curation platform, which has been implemented to support the visualisation, prediction and benchmark of chemical and gene mention annotations at BioCreative/CHEMDNER challenge. Creating this platform is an important step for the systematic and public evaluation of automatic prediction systems and the reusability of the knowledge compiled for the challenge. Markyt was not only critical to support the manual annotation and annotation revision process but also facilitated the comparative visualisation of automated results against the manually generated Gold Standard annotations and comparative assessment of generated results. We expect that future biomedical text mining challenges and the text mining community may benefit from the Markyt platform to better explore and interpret annotations and improve automatic system predictions. Database URL: http://www.markyt.org, https://github.com/sing-group/Markyt PMID:27542845

  10. A versatile microreactor platform featuring a chemical-resistant microvalve array for addressable multiplex syntheses and assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zhishan; Xia, Yongmei; Srivannavit, Onnop; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Zhou, Xiaochuan; Gao, Xiaolian; Gulari, Erdogan

    2006-08-01

    A versatile microreactor platform featuring a novel chemical-resistant microvalve array has been developed using combined silicon/polymer micromachining and a special polymer membrane transfer process. The basic valve unit in the array has a typical 'transistor' structure and a PDMS/parylene double-layer valve membrane. A robust multiplexing algorithm is also proposed for individual addressing of a large array using a minimal number of signal inputs. The in-channel microvalve is leakproof upon pneumatic actuation. In open status it introduces small impedance to the fluidic flow, and allows a significantly larger dynamic range of flow rates (~ml min-1) compared with most of the microvalves reported. Equivalent electronic circuits were established by modeling the microvalves as PMOS transistors and the fluidic channels as simple resistors to provide theoretical prediction of the device fluidic behavior. The presented microvalve/reactor array showed excellent chemical compatibility in the tests with several typical aggressive chemicals including those seriously degrading PDMS-based microfluidic devices. Combined with the multiplexing strategy, this versatile array platform can find a variety of lab-on-a-chip applications such as addressable multiplex biochemical synthesis/assays, and is particularly suitable for those requiring tough chemicals, large flow rates and/or high-throughput parallel processing. As an example, the device performance was examined through the addressed synthesis of 30-mer DNA oligonucleotides followed by sequence validation using on-chip hybridization. The results showed leakage-free valve array addressing and proper synthesis in target reactors, as well as uniform flow distribution and excellent regional reaction selectivity.

  11. Fabrication of heterogeneous nanomaterial array by programmable heating and chemical supply within microfluidic platform towards multiplexed gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daejong; Kang, Kyungnam; Kim, Donghwan; Li, Zhiyong; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    A facile top-down/bottom-up hybrid nanofabrication process based on programmable temperature control and parallel chemical supply within microfluidic platform has been developed for the all liquid-phase synthesis of heterogeneous nanomaterial arrays. The synthesized materials and locations can be controlled by local heating with integrated microheaters and guided liquid chemical flow within microfluidic platform. As proofs-of-concept, we have demonstrated the synthesis of two types of nanomaterial arrays: (i) parallel array of TiO2 nanotubes, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires, and (ii) parallel array of ZnO nanowire/CuO nanospike hybrid nanostructures, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires. The laminar flow with negligible ionic diffusion between different precursor solutions as well as localized heating was verified by numerical calculation and experimental result of nanomaterial array synthesis. The devices made of heterogeneous nanomaterial array were utilized as a multiplexed sensor for toxic gases such as NO2 and CO. This method would be very useful for the facile fabrication of functional nanodevices based on highly integrated arrays of heterogeneous nanomaterials.

  12. Fabrication of heterogeneous nanomaterial array by programmable heating and chemical supply within microfluidic platform towards multiplexed gas sensing application.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daejong; Kang, Kyungnam; Kim, Donghwan; Li, Zhiyong; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-30

    A facile top-down/bottom-up hybrid nanofabrication process based on programmable temperature control and parallel chemical supply within microfluidic platform has been developed for the all liquid-phase synthesis of heterogeneous nanomaterial arrays. The synthesized materials and locations can be controlled by local heating with integrated microheaters and guided liquid chemical flow within microfluidic platform. As proofs-of-concept, we have demonstrated the synthesis of two types of nanomaterial arrays: (i) parallel array of TiO2 nanotubes, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires, and (ii) parallel array of ZnO nanowire/CuO nanospike hybrid nanostructures, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires. The laminar flow with negligible ionic diffusion between different precursor solutions as well as localized heating was verified by numerical calculation and experimental result of nanomaterial array synthesis. The devices made of heterogeneous nanomaterial array were utilized as a multiplexed sensor for toxic gases such as NO2 and CO. This method would be very useful for the facile fabrication of functional nanodevices based on highly integrated arrays of heterogeneous nanomaterials.

  13. Fabrication of heterogeneous nanomaterial array by programmable heating and chemical supply within microfluidic platform towards multiplexed gas sensing application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Daejong; Kang, Kyungnam; Kim, Donghwan; Li, Zhiyong; Park, Inkyu

    2015-01-01

    A facile top-down/bottom-up hybrid nanofabrication process based on programmable temperature control and parallel chemical supply within microfluidic platform has been developed for the all liquid-phase synthesis of heterogeneous nanomaterial arrays. The synthesized materials and locations can be controlled by local heating with integrated microheaters and guided liquid chemical flow within microfluidic platform. As proofs-of-concept, we have demonstrated the synthesis of two types of nanomaterial arrays: (i) parallel array of TiO2 nanotubes, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires, and (ii) parallel array of ZnO nanowire/CuO nanospike hybrid nanostructures, CuO nanospikes and ZnO nanowires. The laminar flow with negligible ionic diffusion between different precursor solutions as well as localized heating was verified by numerical calculation and experimental result of nanomaterial array synthesis. The devices made of heterogeneous nanomaterial array were utilized as a multiplexed sensor for toxic gases such as NO2 and CO. This method would be very useful for the facile fabrication of functional nanodevices based on highly integrated arrays of heterogeneous nanomaterials. PMID:25634814

  14. Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals.

  15. Localized surface plasmon resonance in two-dimensional silver nanodot array fabricated using nanoporous alumina mask for chemical sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mi; Ji, Myung-Gi; Kim, Tae-Ryong; Shim, Cheol-Hwee; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha; Choi, Young-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) metal nanodot arrays (NDAs) have been attracting significant attention for use in biological and chemical sensing applications. The unique optical properties of the metal NDAs originate from their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Nanofabrication methods that use nanoporous alumina masks (NAMs) have been widely used to produce metal NDAs. We report a fabrication technique for a 2-D Ag NDA and its utilization as a platform for LSPR-based sensing applications. A well-ordered Ag NDA of ˜70-nm diameter, arranged in a periodic pattern of 105 nm, was fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using an NAM as an evaporation mask. The LSPR of the Ag NDA on the ITO glass was investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The LSPR wavelength shifts caused by the variations in the quantity of methylene blue adsorbed on the Ag NDA were examined. The results of this study suggest that the Ag NDA prepared using NAM can be used as a chemical sensor platform.

  16. Multi-Platform Metabolomic Analyses of Rat Urine Following Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), represent an emerging class of persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Global occurrence of these fluorochemicals, coupled with probable human exposure, has prompted inv...

  17. Multi-Platform Metabolomic Analyses of Rat Urine Following Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), represent an emerging class of persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Global occurrence of these fluorochemicals, coupled with probable human exposure, has prompted inv...

  18. Sonochemistry: what potential for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into platform chemicals?

    PubMed

    Chatel, Gregory; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Jérôme, François

    2014-10-01

    This Review focuses on the use of ultrasound to produce chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the question about the potential of sonochemistry for valorization/conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into added-value chemicals is rather conceptual. Until now, this technology has been mainly used for the production of low-value chemicals such as biodiesel or as simple method for pretreatment or extraction. According to preliminary studies reported in literature, access to added-value chemicals can be easily and sometimes solely obtained by the use of ultrasound. The design of sonochemical parameters offers many opportunities to develop new eco-friendly and efficient processes. The goal of this Review is to understand why the use of ultrasound is focused rather on pretreatment or extraction of lignocellulosic biomass rather than on the production of chemicals and to understand, through the reported examples, which directions need to be followed to favor strategies based on ultrasound-assisted production of chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. We believe that ultrasound-assisted processes represent an innovative approach and will create a growing interest in academia but also in the industry in the near future. Based on the examples reported in the literature, we critically discuss how sonochemistry could offer new strategies and give rise to new results in lignocellulosic biomass valorization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Identification of the Chemical Bonding Prompting Adhesion of a-C:H Thin Films on Ferrous Alloy Intermediated by a SiCx:H Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Cemin, F; Bim, L T; Leidens, L M; Morales, M; Baumvol, I J R; Alvarez, F; Figueroa, C A

    2015-07-29

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) and several related materials (DLCs) may have ultralow friction coefficients that can be used for saving-energy applications. However, poor chemical bonding of a-C/DLC films on metallic alloys is expected, due to the stability of carbon-carbon bonds. Silicon-based intermediate layers are employed to enhance the adherence of a-C:H films on ferrous alloys, although the role of such buffer layers is not yet fully understood in chemical terms. The chemical bonding of a-C:H thin films on ferrous alloy intermediated by a nanometric SiCx:H buffer layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chemical profile was inspected by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), and the chemical structure was evaluated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The nature of adhesion is discussed by analyzing the chemical bonding at the interfaces of the a-C:H/SiCx:H/ferrous alloy sandwich structure. The adhesion phenomenon is ascribed to specifically chemical bonding character at the buffer layer. Whereas carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are formed at the outermost interface, the innermost interface is constituted mainly by silicon-iron (Si-Fe) bonds. The oxygen presence degrades the adhesion up to totally delaminate the a-C:H thin films. The SiCx:H deposition temperature determines the type of chemical bonding and the amount of oxygen contained in the buffer layer.

  20. Reactions of Criegee Intermediates with Non-Water Greenhouse Gases: Implications for Metal Free Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S

    2017-09-07

    High-level theoretical calculations suggest that a Criegee intermediate preferably interacts with carbon dioxide compared to two other greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and methane. The results also suggest that the interaction between Criegee intermediates and carbon dioxide involves a cycloaddition reaction, which results in the formation of a cyclic carbonate-type adduct with a barrier of 6.0-14.0 kcal/mol. These results are in contrast to a previous assumption that the reaction occurs barrierlessly. The subsequent decomposition of the cyclic adduct into formic acid and carbon dioxide follows both concerted and stepwise mechanisms. The latter mechanism has been overlooked previously. Under formic acid catalysis, the concerted decomposition of the cyclic carbonate may be favored under tropospheric conditions. Considering that there is a strong nexus between carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and global warming, the high reactivity of Criegee intermediates could be utilized for designing efficient carbon capture technologies.

  1. Recent advancements in chemical luminescence-based lab-on-chip and microfluidic platforms for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Mirasoli, Mara; Guardigli, Massimo; Michelini, Elisa; Roda, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturization of analytical procedures through microchips, lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis systems is one of the most recent trends in chemical and biological analysis. These systems are designed to perform all the steps in an analytical procedure, with the advantages of low sample and reagent consumption, fast analysis, reduced costs, possibility of extra-laboratory application. A range of detection technologies have been employed in miniaturized analytical systems, but most applications relied on fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Chemical luminescence (which includes chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence) represents an alternative detection principle that offered comparable (or better) analytical performance and easier implementation in miniaturized analytical devices. Nevertheless, chemical luminescence-based ones represents only a small fraction of the microfluidic devices reported in the literature, and until now no review has been focused on these devices. Here we review the most relevant applications (since 2009) of miniaturized analytical devices based on chemical luminescence detection. After a brief overview of the main chemical luminescence systems and of the recent technological advancements regarding their implementation in miniaturized analytical devices, analytical applications are reviewed according to the nature of the device (microfluidic chips, microchip electrophoresis, lateral flow- and paper-based devices) and the type of application (micro-flow injection assays, enzyme assays, immunoassays, gene probe hybridization assays, cell assays, whole-cell biosensors). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilizing platforms for the observation of chemical transformations to surface-bound noble metal nanoparticles in environmentally relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Richard David

    Nanoparticles are increasingly incorporated into consumer products because of their unique, size-dependent properties. Although these properties are commercially appealing, data are lacking regarding the fate and reactivity of nanoparticles once incorporated into materials. This information gap prevents accurate assessment of hazards that these materials potentially present to consumers and the environment. To address this concern, new research is needed to investigate the reactivity and transformations of nanoparticles. This dissertation describes the use of an electron transparent characterization platform to observe nanoparticle transformations. Nanoparticles were tethered to the surface of an analysis platform, exposed to a variety of conditions, and evaluated for reactivity and response. The characterization of silver nanoparticles revealed the generation of new daughter nanoparticles on surfaces in ambient humid conditions. Our observations showed that the transport of material is highly dependent on relative humidity and that pH equilibria drives the deposition of new particles and degradation. We discovered, by applying these findings to macro-silver objects, that bulk silver generates new nanoparticles on surfaces. This illuminated the possibility of other, yet undiscovered, naturally occurring nanoparticles. In the second model system, 1.5 nm gold nanoparticles were tethered by a robust metal oxide bond from the terminal group of the stabilizing ligand. This strategy facilitated precise control over thiol ligand removal using a dilute ozone oxidation. Tracking particle oxidation over time allowed us to gain unprecedented control over core exposure, size maintenance, and surface tethering. This platform was also utilized as a proof-of-concept for direct observation of transformations in complex media. Ligand and core transformations were monitored in a variety of biologically relevant conditions using tethered nanoparticles. Morphological and chemical

  3. One-Pot Conversion of Carbohydrates into Pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes as Sustainable Platform Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Kwon, Sunjeong; Chung, Wook-Jin; Koo, Sangho

    2015-08-07

    A practical conversion method of carbohydrates into N-substituted 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes (pyrralines) was developed by the reaction with primary amines and oxalic acid in DMSO at 90 °C. Further cyclization of the highly functionalized pyrralines afforded the pyrrole-fused poly-heterocyclic compounds as potential intermediates for drugs, food flavors, and functional materials. The mild Maillard variant of carbohydrates and amino esters in heated DMSO with oxalic acid expeditiously produced the pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde skeleton, which can be concisely transformed into the pyrrole alkaloid natural products, 2-benzyl- and 2-methylpyrrolo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones 8 and 9, lobechine 10, and (-)-hanishin 11 in 23-32% overall yields from each carbohydrate.

  4. Chemical Fabrication and Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene Nanosheets Using a Lithium Battery Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Aaron J.; Huang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has opened up new opportunities for scientific and technological innovations because of its astonishing electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. For instance, graphene-based nanocomposites have found extensive applications in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) as scientists and engineers seek to achieve superior electrochemical…

  5. Chemical Fabrication and Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene Nanosheets Using a Lithium Battery Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Aaron J.; Huang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has opened up new opportunities for scientific and technological innovations because of its astonishing electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. For instance, graphene-based nanocomposites have found extensive applications in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) as scientists and engineers seek to achieve superior electrochemical…

  6. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (> 80 g L**-1) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (> 200 g L**-...

  7. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease.

    PubMed

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibanez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-05-01

    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution's commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator's research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia.

  8. Chemical & RNAi screening at MSKCC: a collaborative platform to discover & repurpose drugs to fight disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Bhavneet; Antczak, Christophe; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Mahida, Jeni P.; Liu-Sullivan, Nancy; Ibáñez, Glorymar; Raja, Balajee Somalinga; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) has implemented the creation of a full service state-of-the-art High-throughput Screening Core Facility (HTSCF) equipped with modern robotics and custom-built screening data management resources to rapidly store and query chemical and RNAi screening data outputs. The mission of the facility is to provide oncology clinicians and researchers alike with access to cost-effective HTS solutions for both chemical and RNAi screening, with an ultimate goal of novel target identification and drug discovery. HTSCF was established in 2003 to support the institution’s commitment to growth in molecular pharmacology and in the realm of therapeutic agents to fight chronic diseases such as cancer. This endeavor required broad range of expertise in technology development to establish robust and innovative assays, large collections of diverse chemical and RNAi duplexes to probe specific cellular events, sophisticated compound and data handling capabilities, and a profound knowledge in assay development, hit validation, and characterization. Our goal has been to strive for constant innovation, and we strongly believe in shifting the paradigm from traditional drug discovery towards translational research now, making allowance for unmet clinical needs in patients. Our efforts towards repurposing FDA-approved drugs fructified when digoxin, identified through primary HTS, was administered in the clinic for treatment of stage Vb retinoblastoma. In summary, the overall aim of our facility is to identify novel chemical probes, to study cellular processes relevant to investigator’s research interest in chemical biology and functional genomics, and to be instrumental in accelerating the process of drug discovery in academia. PMID:24661215

  9. Quantum-chemical ab initio investigation of the two-step charge transfer process of hydrogen reaction: approach of reaction pathways via hydrogen intermediate on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, An. M.; Lorenz, W.

    1994-08-01

    Local reaction events in the course of the electrochemical two-step hydrogen evolution reaction have been investigated by means of quantum-chemical all-electron ab initio calculations on interfacial supermolecular cluster models including a hydrated hydrogen intermediate on Cu(100). Expanding on preceding study to larger hydration clusters, an approach to relevant reaction path characteristics has been pursued for two processes: (i) the transfer of hydrated hydronium ion into a chemisorbed hydrogen intermediate: (ii) the reaction of hydronium ion with the intermediate to molecular hydrogen. Computations were carried out on RHF level, using contracted (12,8,4)/[8,6,2,] and/or 6-31G * or G ** pol-O bases for the metal and adsorbate part, respectively. Destruction of the hydronium configuration in process (i) has been confirmed. Electronic partial charge transfer dut to chemical bond conversions in both steps (i) and (ii) has been displayed along relevant cuts of adiabatic potential surfaces, proving significantly different amounts of charge transfer in both steps, λ 1 > 1, λ 2≡(2-λ 1) < 1. In advance of consideration of macroscopic double layer effects, first insight has been gained into coupled nuclear motions and into the origin of reaction barriers

  10. Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Assessment of Food Quality: How the Electrochemical Platform Should Be Tailored to the Application.

    PubMed

    Chng, Chu'Er; Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin; Bonanni, Alessandra

    2017-02-03

    Graphene platforms have been drawing considerable attention in electrochemistry for the detection of various electroactive probes. Depending on the chemical composition and properties of the probe, graphene materials with diverse structural features may be required to achieve an optimal electrochemical performance. This work comprises a comparative study on three chemically modified graphenes, obtained from the same starting material and with different oxygen functionalities and structural defects (graphene oxide (GO), chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO), and thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO)) towards the electrochemical detection of quinine, an important flavoring agent present in tonic-based beverages. In general, the reduced graphenes, namely CRGO and TRGO, showed enhanced performance in terms of calibration sensitivity and selectivity, due to the improved heterogeneous electron-transfer rates on their surfaces. In particular, CRGO provided the best overall electrochemical performance, which can be attributed to its higher density of structural defects and reduced amount of oxygen functionalities. For this reason, CRGO was employed for the electrochemical detection of quinine in commercial tonic drink samples, showing high sensitivity and selectivity, and therefore representing a valid low-cost alternative to more complicated and time consuming traditional analytical methods.

  11. Combined rational design and a high throughput screening platform for identifying chemical inhibitors of a Ras-activating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Evelyn, Chris R; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-05-15

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions.

  12. Combined Rational Design and a High Throughput Screening Platform for Identifying Chemical Inhibitors of a Ras-activating Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L.; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions. PMID:25825487

  13. Mapping Proteome-Wide Interactions of Reactive Chemicals Using Chemoproteomic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Counihan, Jessica L.; Ford, Breanna; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of pharmaceuticals, endogenous metabolites, and environmental chemicals act through covalent mechanisms with protein targets. Yet, their specific interactions with the proteome still remain poorly defined for most of these reactive chemicals. Deciphering direct protein targets of reactive small-molecules is critical in understanding their biological action, off-target effects, potential toxicological liabilities, and development of safer and more selective agents. Chemoproteomic technologies have arisen as a powerful strategy that enable the assessment of proteome-wide interactions of these irreversible agents directly in complex biological systems. We review here several chemoproteomic strategies that have facilitated our understanding of specific protein interactions of irreversibly-acting pharmaceuticals, endogenous metabolites, and environmental electrophiles to reveal novel pharmacological, biological, and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:26647369

  14. Chemically robust platform for optical solid-state conducting polymer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, A. L.; Bearinger, J. P.; Carter, S. A.

    2006-10-01

    Conjugated polymers are unique materials for use in the development of chemical and biological sensors because of their widely tunable optical and electrical properties that allow them dual functionality as both the sensing element and the signal transducer. Furthermore, as optical photoluminescence based sensors, electroactive polymers are found to exhibit high sensitivity due to the ability of the analyte of interest to quench the photoluminescence of the entire polymer chain. In order to produce a more chemically robust thin film for use as a "solid-state" optical sensor, we succeeded in grafting various poly (3-alkyl-thiophene)s to optically transparent substrates such as glass, quartz, and ITO coated glass. This was accomplished by first grafting a thiophene monomer to the surface then chemically growing the films via oxidative polymerization. XPS studies indicated that each chemical step was accurately understood. The polythiophene growth, unaltered by sonication and tape peeling tests, was uniform across the substrate and could be directed by selective silanization of the substrate. Film thicknesses range from 20 to 200 nm and exhibit varying degrees of surface roughness, depending on the polymerization process. The reaction times and solvents were varied in order to optimize the desired film properties. The absorption and photoluminescence properties of the thin films compared well with literature on spun-cast polythiophene films, as did the electrical conductivities of the doped and undoped material. The photoluminescence intensities of the films are found to be unaffected by paraquat in water but are sensitive to trace amounts of ferric chloride in acetonitrile with measurable Stern Volmer constants.

  15. Coupled determination of gravimetric and elastic effects on two resonant chemical sensors: love wave and microcantilever platforms.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Ludivine; Zimmermann, Céline; Dufour, Isabelle; Déjous, Corinne; Rebière, Dominique; Pistré, Jacques

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to couple theoretical and experimental results from microcantilevers and Love-wave acoustic devices in order to identify and separate mass loading effects from elastic effects. This is important in the perspective of sensing applications. For that, a thin-film polymer is deposited on both resonant platforms. It is demonstrated that microcantilevers are essentially mass sensitive. They allow one to determine the polymer layer thickness, which is validated by optical profilometry measurements. Then, taking into account this thickness, theoretical modeling and experimental measurements with Love-wave devices permit one to estimate an equivalent elastic shear modulus of the thin-film polymer at high frequency. Results are interesting if one is to fully understand and optimize (bio)chemical sensor responses.

  16. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  17. Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jeffrey; Wang, Qinhong; Wang, Yechun; Tang, Yinjie J

    2017-09-07

    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions. Third, engineered enzymes may lack channeling capabilities for cascade-like transport of metabolites to overcome diffusion barriers or to avoid intermediate toxicity in the cytoplasmic environment. Fourth, moving engineered hosts from laboratory to industry is unreliable because genetic mutations and non-genetic cell-to-cell variations impair the large-scale fermentation outcomes. Therefore, synthetic biology strains often have unsatisfactory industrial performance (titer/yield/productivity). To overcome these problems, many different species are being explored for their metabolic strengths that can be leveraged to synthesize specific compounds. Here, we provide examples of non-conventional and genetically amenable species for industrial manufacturing, including the following: Corynebacterium glutamicum for its TCA cycle-derived biosynthesis, Yarrowia lipolytica for its biosynthesis of fatty acids and carotenoids, cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production from its sugar phosphate pathways, and Rhodococcus for its ability to biotransform recalcitrant feedstock. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies (e.g., genome-to-phenome mapping, single cell methods, and knowledge engineering) that may facilitate the development of novel cell factories.

  18. Monitoring physical and chemical parameters of Delaware Bay waters with an ERTS-1 data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Wethe, C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of the analysis of data collected during the summer of 1974 demonstrate that the ERTS Data Collection Platform (DCP) is quite responsive to changing water parameters and that this information can be successfully transmitted under all weather conditions. The monitoring of on-site probe outputs reveals a rapid response to changing water temperature, salinity, and turbidity conditions on incoming tides as the tidal salt wedge passes the probe location. The changes in water properties were corroborated by simultaneously sampling the water for subsequent laboratory analysis. Fluctuations observed in the values of salinity, conductivity, temperature and water depth over short time intervals were extremely small. Due to the nature of the probe, 10% to 20% fluctuations were observed in the turbidity values. The use of the average of the values observed during an overpass provided acceptable results. Good quality data was obtained from the satellite on each overpass regardless of weather conditions. Continued use of the DCP will help provide an indication of the accuracy of the probes and transmission system during long term use.

  19. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation.

  20. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    PubMed

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (<1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm.

  1. Lignocellulose-based analytical devices: bamboo as an analytical platform for chemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Chen-Meng; York, Roger L.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of lignocellulose-based analytical devices (LADs) for rapid bioanalysis in low-resource settings. LADs are constructed using either a single lignocellulose or a hybrid design consisting of multiple types of lignocellulose. LADs are simple, low-cost, easy to use, provide rapid response, and do not require external instrumentation during operation. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of LADs for food and water safety (i.e., nitrite assay in hot-pot soup, bacterial detection in water, and resazurin assay in milk) and urinalysis (i.e., nitrite, urobilinogen, and pH assays in human urine). Notably, we created a unique approach using simple chemicals to achieve sensitivity similar to that of commercially available immunochromatographic strips that is low-cost, and provides on-site, rapid detection, for instance, of Eschericia coli (E. coli) in water. PMID:26686576

  2. Engineering catalyst microenvironments for metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of biologically derived platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Thomas J; Johnson, Robert L; Cardenas, Javier; Okerlund, Adam; Da Silva, Nancy A; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Dumesic, James A

    2014-11-17

    It is shown that microenvironments formed around catalytically active sites mitigate catalyst deactivation by biogenic impurities that are present during the production of biorenewable chemicals from biologically derived species. Palladium and ruthenium catalysts are inhibited by the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids; however, these supported metal catalysts are stabilized by overcoating with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which creates a microenvironment unfavorable for biogenic impurities. Moreover, deactivation of Pd catalysts by carbon deposition from the decomposition of highly reactive species is suppressed by the formation of bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles. Thus, a PVA-overcoated PdAu catalyst was an order of magnitude more stable than a simple Pd catalyst in the hydrogenation of triacetic acid lactone, which is the first step in the production of biobased sorbic acid. A PVA-overcoated Ru catalyst showed a similar improvement in stability during lactic acid hydrogenation to propylene glycol in the presence of methionine.

  3. Porous Ionic Polymers as a Robust and Efficient Platform for Capture and Chemical Fixation of Atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Jin, Yingyin; Aguila, Briana; Meng, Xiangju; Ma, Shengqian; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2017-03-22

    Direct use of atmospheric CO2 as a C1 source to synthesize high-value chemicals through environmentally benign processes is of great interest, yet challenging. Porous heterogeneous catalysts that are capable of simultaneously capturing and converting CO2 are promising candidates for such applications. Herein, a family of organic ionic polymers with nanoporous structure, large surface area, strong affinity for CO2 , and very high density of catalytic active sites (halide ions) was synthesized through the free-radical polymerization of vinylfunctionalized quaternary phosphonium salts. The resultant porous ionic polymers (PIPs) exhibit excellent activities in the cycloaddition of epoxides with atmospheric CO2 , outperforming the corresponding soluble phosphonium salt analogues and ranking among the highest of known metal-free catalytic systems. The high CO2 uptake capacity of the PIPs facilitates the enrichment of CO2 molecules around the catalytic centers, thereby benefiting its conversion. We have demonstrated for the first time that atmospheric CO2 can be directly converted to cyclic carbonates at room temperature using a heterogeneous catalytic system under metal-solvent free conditions. Moreover, the catalysts proved to be robust and fully recyclable, demonstrating promising potential for practical utilization for the chemical fixation of CO2 . Our work thereby paves a way to the advance of PIPs as a new type of platform for capture and conversion of CO2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid as C3 platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) as a platform chemical has recently been gaining much attention owing to its versatility in applications for the synthesis of other specialty chemicals. Several proposed biological synthesis routes and strategies for producing 3HP from glucose and glycerol are reviewed presently. Ten proposed routes for 3HP production from glucose are described and one of which was recently constructed successfully in Escherichia coli with malonyl-Coenzyme A as a precursor. This resulted in a yield still far from the required level for industrial application. On the other hand, strategies employing engineered E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of producing 3HP from glycerol are also evaluated. The titers produced by these recombinant strains reached around 3 %. At its current state, it is evident that a bulk of engineering works is yet to be done to acquire a biosynthesis route for 3HP that is acceptable for industrial-scale production.

  5. A microfluidic platform with pH imaging for chemical and hydrodynamic stimulation of intact oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gashti, M Parvinzadeh; Asselin, J; Barbeau, J; Boudreau, D; Greener, J

    2016-04-21

    A microfluidic platform with a fluorescent nanoparticle-based sensor is demonstrated for real-time, ratiometric pH imaging of biofilms. Sensing is accomplished by a thin patterned layer of covalently bonded Ag@SiO2+FiTC nanoparticles on an embedded planar glass substrate. The system is designed to be sensitive, responsive and give sufficient spatial resolution to enable new micro-scale studies of the dynamic response of oral biofilms to well-controlled chemical and hydrodynamic stimulation. Performance under challenging operational conditions is demonstrated, which include long-duration exposure to sheer stresses, photoexcitation and pH sensor biofouling. After comprehensive validation, the device was used to monitor pH changes at the attachment surface of a biofilm of the oral bacteria, Streptococcus salivarius. By controlling flow and chemical concentration conditions in the microchannel, biochemical and mass transport contributions to the Stephan curve could be probed individually. This opens the way for the analysis of separate contributions to dental caries due to localized acidification directly at the biofilm tooth interface.

  6. Biosynthesis of platform chemical 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) directly from CO2 in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunpeng; Sun, Tao; Gao, Xingyan; Shi, Mengliang; Wu, Lina; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-03-01

    3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. So far large-scale production of 3-HP has been mainly through petroleum-based chemical processes, whose sustainability and environmental issues have attracted widespread attention. With the ability to fix CO2 directly, cyanobacteria have been engineered as an autotrophic microbial cell factory to produce fuels and chemicals. In this study, we constructed the biosynthetic pathway of 3-HP in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and then optimized the system through the following approaches: i) increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR) gene using different promoters and cultivation conditions; ii) enhancing supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase and biotinilase; iii) improving NADPH supply by overexpressing the NAD(P) transhydrogenase gene; iv) directing more carbon flux into 3-HP by inactivating the competing pathways of PHA and acetate biosynthesis. Together, the efforts led to a production of 837.18 mg L(-1) (348.8 mg/g dry cell weight) 3-HP directly from CO2 in Synechocystis after 6 days cultivation, demonstrating the feasibility photosynthetic production of 3-HP directly from sunlight and CO2 in cyanobacteria. In addition, the results showed that overexpression of the ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 led to no increase of 3-HP production, suggesting CO2 fixation may not be a rate-limiting step for 3-HP biosynthesis in Synechocystis.

  7. Intermediate treatments

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  8. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    DOE PAGES

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; ...

    2016-02-18

    This article describes how the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  9. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-02-18

    This article describes how the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  10. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the development of Position-Adaptive Sensors [1] for purposes for detecting embedded chemical substances in challenging environments. This concept is a generalization of patented Position-Adaptive Radar Concepts developed at AFRL for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For purposes of investigating the detection of chemical substances using multiple MAV (Micro-UAV) platforms, we have designed and implemented an experimental testbed with sample structures such as wooden carts that contain controlled leakage points. Under this general concept, some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chemical or biological (chem/bio) sensors that function as "electronic noses". The objective can be defined as improving the particle count of chem/bio concentrations that impinge on a MAV-based position-adaptive sensor that surrounds a chemical repository, such as a cart, via the development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms. The overall effect is to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics of the overall system. Within the major sections of this paper, we discuss a number of different aspects of developing our initial MAV-Based Sensor Testbed. This testbed includes blowers to simulate position-adaptive excitations and a MAV from Draganfly Innovations Inc. with stable design modifications to accommodate our chem/bio sensor boom design. We include details with respect to several critical phases of the development effort including development of the wireless sensor network and experimental apparatus, development of the stable sensor boom for the MAV, integration of chem/bio sensors and sensor node onto the MAV and boom, development of position-adaptive control algorithms and initial tests at IDCAST (Institute for the Development and

  11. Lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with DNA-encoded chemical libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzner, S.; Reddavide, F. V.; Steinfelder, C.; Cui, M.; Busek, M.; Klotzbach, U.; Zhang, Y.; Sonntag, F.

    2017-02-01

    The fast development of DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECL) in the past 10 years has received great attention from pharmaceutical industries. It applies the selection approach for small molecular drug discovery. Because of the limited choices of DNA-compatible chemical reactions, most DNA-encoded chemical libraries have a narrow structural diversity and low synthetic yield. There is also a poor correlation between the ranking of compounds resulted from analyzing the sequencing data and the affinity measured through biochemical assays. By combining DECL with dynamical chemical library, the resulting DNA-encoded dynamic library (EDCCL) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions as well as the advantages of DNA encoded compounds for manipulation/detection, thus leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of the selection process and higher library quality. However, the library dynamics are caused by the weak interactions between the DNA strands, which also result in relatively low affinity of the bidentate interaction, as compared to a stable DNA duplex. To take advantage of both stably assembled dual-pharmacophore libraries and EDCCLs, we extended the concept of EDCCLs to heat-induced EDCCLs (hi-EDCCLs), in which the heat-induced recombination process of stable DNA duplexes and affinity capture are carried out separately. To replace the extremely laborious and repetitive manual process, a fully automated device will facilitate the use of DECL in drug discovery. Herein we describe a novel lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with hi-EDCCL. A microfluidic system with integrated actuation was designed which is able to provide a continuous sample circulation by reducing the volume to a minimum. It consists of a cooled and a heated chamber for constant circulation. The system is capable to generate stable temperatures above 75 °C in the heated chamber to melt the double strands of the DNA and less than 15 °C in the cooled chamber

  12. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    SciTech Connect

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Smieško, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  13. Anionic Extraction for Efficient Recovery of Biobased 2,3-Butanediol-A Platform for Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Drabo, Peter; Tiso, Till; Heyman, Benedikt; Sarikaya, Eda; Gaspar, Paula; Förster, Jochen; Büchs, Jochen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-08-24

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) presents a promising platform molecule for the synthesis of basic and fine chemicals. Biotechnological production of BDO from renewable resources with living microbes enables high concentrations in the fermentation broth. The recovery of high-boiling BDO from an aqueous fermentation broth presents a subsequent challenge. A method is proposed for BDO isolation based on reversible complexation with phenylboronate in an anionic complex. BDO can be recovered by back-extraction into an acidic solution. The composition of the extracted species was determined by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and GC-MS methods. The conditions of extraction and back-extraction were optimized by using commercial BDO and finally applied to different fermentation broths. Up to 72-93 % BDO can be extracted and up to 80-90 % can be back-extracted under the optimized conditions. Purified bio-BDO was used in the presence of sulfuric acid for the synthesis of methyl ethyl ketone, an established organic solvent and discussed tailor-made biofuel. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of 5-aminovalerate and glutarate as C5 platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Kim, Eun Young; Noh, Won; Park, Hye Min; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Song, Bong Keun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-03-01

    5-Aminovalerate (5AVA) is the precursor of valerolactam, a potential building block for producing nylon 5, and is a C5 platform chemical for synthesizing 5-hydroxyvalerate, glutarate, and 1,5-pentanediol. Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered for the production of 5-aminovalerate (5AVA) and glutarate. When the recombinant E. coli WL3110 strain expressing the Pseudomonas putidadavAB genes encoding delta-aminovaleramidase and lysine 2-monooxygenase, respectively, were cultured in a medium containing 20g/L of glucose and 10g/L of L-lysine, 3.6g/L of 5AVA was produced by converting 7g/L of L-lysine. When the davAB genes were introduced into recombinant E. coli strainXQ56allowing enhanced L-lysine synthesis, 0.27 and 0.5g/L of 5AVA were produced directly from glucose by batch and fed-batch cultures, respectively. Further conversion of 5AVA into glutarate could be demonstrated by expression of the P. putida gabTD genes encoding 5AVA aminotransferase and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant E. coli WL3110 strain expressing the davAB and gabTD genes was cultured in a medium containing 20g/L glucose, 10g/L L-lysine and 10g/L α-ketoglutarate, 1.7g/L of glutarate was produced.

  15. An analytical platform for mass spectrometry-based identification and chemical analysis of RNA in ribonucleoprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Nobe, Yuko; Masaki, Shunpei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical platform of RNA, which combines direct nano-flow reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) on a spray tip column and a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Operating RPLC under a very low flow rate with volatile solvents and MS in the negative mode, we could estimate highly accurate mass values sufficient to predict the nucleotide composition of a ∼21-nucleotide small interfering RNA, detect post-transcriptional modifications in yeast tRNA, and perform collision-induced dissociation/tandem MS-based structural analysis of nucleolytic fragments of RNA at a sub-femtomole level. Importantly, the method allowed the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, such as the pre-spliceosomal RNP complex, which was pulled down from cultured cells with a tagged protein cofactor as bait. We have recently developed a unique genome-oriented database search engine, Ariadne, which allows tandem MS-based identification of RNAs in biological samples. Thus, the method presented here has broad potential for automated analysis of RNA; it complements conventional molecular biology-based techniques and is particularly suited for simultaneous analysis of the composition, structure, interaction, and dynamics of RNA and protein components in various cellular RNP complexes. PMID:19740761

  16. Advantages of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) complexes having slow to intermediate water exchange properties as responsive MRI agents.

    PubMed

    Soesbe, Todd C; Wu, Yunkou; Dean Sherry, A

    2013-07-01

    Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) complexes are exogenous contrast agents that have great potential to further extend the functional and molecular imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance. As a result of the presence of a central paramagnetic lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) ≠ La(3+) , Gd(3+) , Lu(3+) ) within the chelate, the resonance frequencies of exchangeable protons bound to the PARACEST agent are shifted far away from the bulk water frequency. This large chemical shift, combined with an extreme sensitivity to the chemical exchange rate, make PARACEST agents ideally suited for the reporting of significant biological metrics, such as temperature, pH and the presence of metabolites. In addition, the ability to turn PARACEST agents 'off' and 'on' using a frequency-selective saturation pulse gives them a distinct advantage over Gd(3+) -based contrast agents. A current challenge for PARACEST research is the translation of the promising in vitro results into in vivo systems. This short review article first describes the basic theory behind PARACEST contrast agents, their benefits over other contrast agents and their applications to MRI. It then describes some of the recent PARACEST research results: specifically, pH measurements using water molecule exchange rate modulation, T2 exchange contrast caused by water molecule exchange, the use of ultrashort TEs (TE < 10 µs) to overcome T2 exchange line broadening and the potential application of T2 exchange as a new contrast mechanism for MRI.

  17. Chemical compatibility and properties of suspension plasma-sprayed SrTiO3-based anodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2014-10-01

    La-doped strontium titanate (LST) is a promising, redox-stable perovskite material for direct hydrocarbon oxidation anodes in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In this study, nano-sized LST and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) powders are produced by the sol-gel and glycine-nitrate processes, respectively. The chemical compatibility between LST and electrolyte materials is studied. A LST-SDC composite anode is prepared by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The effects of annealing conditions on the phase structure, microstructure, and chemical stability of the LST-SDC composite anode are investigated. The results indicate that the suspension plasma-sprayed LST-SDC anode has the same phase structure as the original powders. LST exhibits a good chemical compatibility with SDC and Mg/Sr-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM). The anode has a porosity of ∼40% with a finely porous structure that provides high gas permeability and a long three-phase boundary for the anode reaction. Single cells assembled with the LST-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte, and La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-SDC cathode show a good performance at 650-800 °C. The annealing reduces the impedances due to the enhancement in the bonding between the particles in the anode and interface of anode and LSGM electrolyte, thus improving the output performance of the cell.

  18. The Multistep, Eight-Electron Oxidation Catalyzed by the Cofactorless Oxidase, PqqC: Identification of Chemical Intermediates and their Dependence on Molecular Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Florence; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2013-01-01

    The final step of the biosynthesis of the prokaryotic cofactor, PQQ, is catalyzed by PqqC, a cofactorless oxidase that brings about a ring closure and overall eight-electron oxidation of its substrate. Time-dependent acid quenching and subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analyses of reaction mixtures were performed in order to correlate the structures of intermediates with previously observed UV/Vis signatures. The reaction is composed of four stepwise oxidations: three steps use O2 as the two-electron acceptor and the fourth uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The chemical nature of the intermediates, the stoichiometry of the reaction and their dependence on the oxygen concentration indicate that the third oxidation uses the product H2O2 from the preceding step to produce water. The last oxidation step can also be studied separately and is a reaction between O2 and PQQH2 trapped in the active site. This oxidation is approximately 10 times slower than the reoxidation of PQQH2 in solution. From the order of the four oxidation steps and their sensitivity to O2 concentration, we propose a progressive closure of the active site as the enzyme proceeds through its catalytic cycle. PMID:23718207

  19. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects. PMID:28386512

  20. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  1. Chemical potential and symmetry energy for intermediate-mass fragment production in heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lin, W.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Wang, J.; Bonasera, A.; Zheng, H.; Chen, Z.; Kowalski, S.; Keutgen, T.; Hagel, K.; Qin, L.; Natowitz, J. B.; Materna, T.; Sahu, P. K.; Barbui, M.; Bottosso, C.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Ratios of differential chemical potential values relative to the temperature, (μn-μp)/T , extracted from isotope yields of 13 reaction systems at 40 MeV/nucleon are compared to those of a quantum statistical model to determine the temperature and symmetry energy values of the fragmenting system. The experimental (μn-μp)/T values are extracted based on the modified Fisher model. Using the density value of ρ /ρ0=0.56 from the previous analysis, the temperature and symmetry energy values of T =4.6 ±0.4 MeV and asym=23.6 ±2.1 MeV are extracted in a framework of a quantum statistical model. These values agree well with those of the previous work, in which a self-consistent method was utilized with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics simulations. The extracted temperature and symmetry energies are discussed together with other experimental values published in literature.

  2. Regional evaluation of the hydrogeologic framework, hydraulic properties, and chemical characteristics of the intermediate aquifer system underlying southern west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major aquifer systems-the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and the Floridan aquifer system-are recognized in the approximately 5,100-square-mile southern west-central Florida study area. The principal source of freshwater for all uses is ground water supplied from the three aquifer systems. Ground water from the intermediate aquifer system is considered only moderately abundant compared to the Upper Floridan aquifer, but it is an important source of water where the Upper Floridan aquifer contains water too mineralized for most uses. In the study area, the potential ground-water resources of the intermediate aquifer system were evaluated by regionally assessing the vertical and lateral distribution of hydrogeologic, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics. Although the intermediate aquifer system is considered a single entity, it is composed of multiple water-bearing zones separated by confining units. Deposition of a complex assemblage of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments during the late Oligocene to early Pliocene time resulted in discontinuities that are reflected in transitional and abrupt contacts between facies. Discontinuous facies produce water-bearing zones that may be locally well-connected or culminate abruptly. Changes in the depositional environment created the multilayered intermediate aquifer system that contains as many as three zones of enhanced water-bearing capacity. The water-bearing zones consist of indurated limestone and dolostone and in some places unindurated sand, gravel, and shell beds, and these zones are designated, in descending order, as Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3. Zone 1 is thinnest (<80 feet thick) and is limited to <20 percent (southern part) of the study area. Zone 2, the only regionally extensive zone, is characterized by moderately low permeability. Zone 3 is found in about 50 percent of the study area, has the highest transmissivities, and generally is in good hydraulic connection with the

  3. Insights into the photo-induced formation of reactive intermediates from effluent organic matter: The role of chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaxi; Lian, Lushi; Yan, Shuwen; Song, Weihua

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the formation of triplet states of organic matters ((3)OM(∗)) from effluent organic matter (EfOM) under simulated solar irradiation was investigated. EfOM was separated into hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI), and hydrophilic (HPI) components. The quantum yield coefficients (ƒTMP) of (3)OM(∗) were measured for each component and compared to those of reference natural organic matter (NOM). NaBH4 reduction was performed on the EfOM, and the effect of aromatic ketones moieties on triplet formation was also determined. Furthermore, the apparent quantum yield of (1)O2 (Φ1O2) and O2(•-) (ΦO2•-) was measured. Our results suggested that the HPI fraction acted as a sink for (3)OM(∗). A linear correlation was observed between ƒTMP and Φ1O2 for NOM/EfOM, except for NaBH4-reduced effluent and HPI components. Both ƒTMP and Φ1O2 were positively correlated with the contribution rates of NaBH4-reducible moieties (aromatic ketones) toward (3)OM(∗). Aromatic ketones were primarily responsible for the production of (3)OM(∗) from EfOM, whereas quinone moieties played a key role in the production of (3)OM(∗) in NOM-enriched solutions. Understanding the role of chemical constituents on the photo activity of EfOM/NOM is essential for providing useful insights on their photochemical effects in aquatic systems.

  4. An integrated biorefinery concept for conversion of sugar beet pulp into value-added chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Bawn, Maria; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Bharat, Penumathsa K V; Subrizi, Fabiana; Suhaili, Nurashikin; Ward, David P; Bourdin, Sarah; Dalby, Paul A; Hailes, Helen C; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Leak, David J; Shah, Nilay; Sheppard, Tom D; Ward, John M; Lye, Gary J

    2017-09-21

    Over 8 million tonnes of sugar beet are grown annually in the UK. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the main by-product of sugar beet processing which is currently dried and sold as a low value animal feed. SBP is a rich source of carbohydrates, mainly in the form of cellulose and pectin, including d-glucose (Glu), l-arabinose (Ara) and d-galacturonic acid (GalAc). This work describes the technical feasibility of an integrated biorefinery concept for the fractionation of SBP and conversion of these monosaccharides into value-added products. SBP fractionation is initially carried out by steam explosion under mild conditions to yield soluble pectin and insoluble cellulose fractions. The cellulose is readily hydrolysed by cellulases to release Glu that can then be fermented by a commercial yeast strain to produce bioethanol at a high yield. The pectin fraction can be either fully hydrolysed, using physico-chemical methods, or selectively hydrolysed, using cloned arabinases and galacturonases, to yield Ara-rich and GalAc-rich streams. These monomers can be separated using either Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) or ultrafiltration into streams suitable for subsequent enzymatic upgrading. Building on our previous experience with transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm) enzymes, the conversion of Ara and GalAc into higher value products was explored. In particular the conversion of Ara into l-gluco-heptulose (GluHep), that has potential therapeutic applications in hypoglycaemia and cancer, using a mutant TK is described. Preliminary studies with TAm also suggest GluHep can be selectively aminated to the corresponding chiral aminopolyol. The current work is addressing the upgrading of the remaining SBP monomer, GalAc, and the modelling of the biorefinery concept to enable economic and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA).

  5. All-soft, battery-free, and wireless chemical sensing platform based on liquid metal for liquid- and gas-phase VOC detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Gu; Alrowais, Hommood; Kim, Choongsoon; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Brand, Oliver

    2017-06-27

    Lightweight, flexible, stretchable, and wireless sensing platforms have gained significant attention for personal healthcare and environmental monitoring applications. This paper introduces an all-soft (flexible and stretchable), battery-free, and wireless chemical microsystem using gallium-based liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium alloy, EGaIn) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), fabricated using an advanced liquid metal thin-line patterning technique based on soft lithography. Considering its flexible, stretchable, and lightweight characteristics, the proposed sensing platform is well suited for wearable sensing applications either on the skin or on clothing. Using the microfluidic sensing platform, detection of liquid-phase and gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) is demonstrated using the same design, which gives an opportunity to have the sensor operate under different working conditions and environments. In the case of liquid-phase chemical sensing, the wireless sensing performance and microfluidic capacitance tunability for different dielectric liquids are evaluated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. In the case of gas-phase chemical sensing, PDMS is used both as a substrate and a sensing material. The gas sensing performance is evaluated and compared to a silicon-based, solid-state gas sensor with a PDMS sensing film.

  6. A newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis strain thermophilically produces 2,3-butanediol, a platform and fuel bio-chemical

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical, can be efficiently produced by Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, and Serratia marcescens. However, these strains are opportunistic pathogens and not favorable for industrial application. Although some generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms have been isolated in recent years, there is still a demand for safe 2,3-BD producing strains with high productivity and yield under thermophilic fermentation. Results Bacillus licheniformis strain 10-1-A was newly isolated for 2,3-BD production. The optimum temperature and medium pH were 50°C and pH 7.0 for 2,3-BD production by strain 10-1-A. The medium composition was optimized through Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology techniques. With a two-stage agitation speed control strategy, 115.7 g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from glucose by fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor with a high productivity (2.4 g/L·h) and yield (94% of its theoretical value). The 2,3-BD produced by strain 10-1-A comprises (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD with a ratio of nearly 1:1. The bdh and gdh genes encoding meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) and glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) of strain 10-1-A were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD were transformed from racemic acetoin by meso-BDH and GDH with NADH, respectively. Conclusions Compared with the reported GRAS 2,3-BD producers, B. licheniformis 10-1-A could thermophilically produce 2,3-BD with a high concentration, productivity and yield. Thus, the newly isolated GRAS strain 10-1-A might be a promising strain for industrial production of 2,3-BD. Two key enzymes for meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production were purified and further studied, and this might be helpful to understand the mechanism for 2,3-BD stereoisomers forming in B. licheniformis. PMID:23981315

  7. Exchange-dependent relaxation in the rotating frame for slow and intermediate exchange -- modeling off-resonant spin-lock and chemical exchange saturation transfer.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Moritz; Bachert, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Chemical exchange observed by NMR saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-lock (SL) experiments provide an MRI contrast by indirect detection of exchanging protons. The determination of the relative concentrations and exchange rates is commonly achieved by numerical integration of the Bloch-McConnell equations. We derive an analytical solution of the Bloch-McConnell equations that describes the magnetization of coupled spin populations under radiofrequency irradiation. As CEST and off-resonant SL are equivalent, their steady-state magnetization and dynamics can be predicted by the same single eigenvalue: the longitudinal relaxation rate in the rotating frame R1ρ . For the case of slowly exchanging systems, e.g. amide protons, the saturation of the small proton pool is affected by transverse relaxation (R2b ). It turns out, that R2b is also significant for intermediate exchange, such as amine- or hydroxyl-exchange or paramagnetic CEST agents, if pools are only partially saturated. We propose a solution for R1ρ that includes R2 of the exchanging pool by extending existing approaches, and verify it by numerical simulations. With the appropriate projection factors, we obtain an analytical solution for CEST and SL for nonzero R2 of the exchanging pool, exchange rates in the range 1-10(4) Hz, B1 from 0.1 to 20 μT and arbitrary chemical shift differences between the exchanging pools, whilst considering the dilution by direct water saturation across the entire Z-spectra. This allows the optimization of irradiation parameters and the quantification of pH-dependent exchange rates and metabolite concentrations. In addition, we propose evaluation methods that correct for concomitant direct saturation effects. It is shown that existing theoretical treatments for CEST are special cases of this approach.

  8. Monash Chemical Yields Project (Monχey) - Element production in low- and intermediate-mass stars of metallicities Z = 0 to 0.04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Carolyn Louise; Lattanzio, John; Angelou, George; Wattana Campbell, Simon; Church, Ross; Constantino, Thomas; Cristallo, Sergio; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Stancliffe, Richard James

    2015-08-01

    The Monχey project provides a large and homogeneous set of stellar yields for the low- and intermediate- mass stars and has applications particularly to galactic chemical evolution modelling.We present a detailed grid of stellar evolutionary models and corresponding nucleosynthetic yields for stars of initial mass 0.8 M⊙ up to the limit for core collapse supernova ≈ 10 M⊙. Our study covers a broad range of metallicities, ranging from the first, primordial stars (Z=0) to those of super-solar metallicity (Z=0.04). The models are evolved from the zero-age main-sequence until the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the nucleosynthesis calculations include all elements from H to Bi.A major innovation of our work is the first complete grid of heavy element nucleosynthetic predictions for primordial AGB stars as well as the inclusion of extra-mixing processes (in this case thermohaline) during the red giant branch. We provide a broad overview of our results with implications for galactic chemical evolution as well as highlight interesting results such as heavy element production in dredge-out events of super-AGB stars.We briefly introduce our easy to use web-based database which provides the evolutionary tracks, structural properties, internal/surface nucleosynthetic compositions and stellar yields. Our web interface includes user- driven plotting capabilities with output available in a range of formats. Our nucleosynthetic results are available for further use in post processing calculations for dust production yields.

  9. Picosecond Studies of Chemical Intermediates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    encapsulation significantly modify photoisomerization reaction rates. In the case of t-stilbene complexed to various cyclodextrins we directly observed...43 Figure 7.6 Schematic of equilibrium between tight and loose stilbene/ cyclodextrin complexes...how frictional effects due to the local (or "restricted") environment of the inner cyclodextrin cavity modifed the motion necessary for reaction

  10. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    PubMed

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The infrared chemical imaging component of the system utilized photothermal expansion of the sample at the tip of the atomic force microscopy probe recorded at infrared wave numbers specific to the different surface constituents. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for thermolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup, operation, and image correlation procedures are discussed, and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated poly(2-vinylpyridine)/poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer thin film. The topography and both the infrared and mass spectral chemical images showed that the valley regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and hill or plateau regions were primarily poly(methyl methacrylate). The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.6 μm based on the ability to distinguish surface features in those images that were also observed in the topography and infrared images of the same surface.

  11. Electronic structure and chemical bonding of {alpha}- and {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermediate valence compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, Samir F.; Poettgen, Rainer; Chevalier, Bernard

    2012-02-15

    The dimorphism of the intermediate valence ternary cerium silicide CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} ({alpha}) and CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} ({beta}) modifications is addressed in the framework of the density functional theory. The geometry optimization is in good agreement with the experiment and the subsequent establishment of the energy-volume equation of state (EOS) indicates a stabilization of the {beta}-type relative to the {alpha}-type concomitant with the trend of the cerium valence, changing to tetravalent in {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. This is equally shown from the site projected DOS and from the large increase of the electronic contribution to the specific heat. The chemical bonding indicates the strongest bonding interactions within the Ir-Si substructure in both varieties. Stabilization of {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} with almost tetravalent cerium is in good agreement with Th{sup IV}Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2} which exclusively crystallizes in the CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} type. The EOS behavior of different RIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (R=Th, Ce, La) is comparatively discussed. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of {alpha}- and {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Relevant interatomic distances (A), the three-dimensional [Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] networks and the crystallographically independent iridium and silicon sites are indicated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy stabilization of (HT) {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} versus (LT) {alpha}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} from DFT methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant with the change of Ce valence to tetravalent (HT)-enhanced specific heat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equations of states for La, Ce and Th members with CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} resembling tetravalent-Th. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding shows changes on the {l_brace}Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2}{r_brace} intralayer and Ce{sup IV}-Ir bonds.

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic definition of the peroxide-level intermediate in the multicopper oxidases: Relevance to the catalytic mechanism of dioxygen reduction to water

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, W.; Sundaram, U.M.; Cole, J.L.; Zhang, H.H.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Solomon, E.I.

    1996-04-03

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase which contains four coppers, one type 1, one type 2, and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair, the type 2 and type 3 copper centers together forming a trinuclear copper cluster. The reaction of reduced type 1 mercury derivative of laccase (T1HgLc) with dioxygen produces an oxygen intermediate which has now been studied in detail. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has shown that both oxygen atoms of O{sub 2} are bound in the intermediate. EPR and SQUID magnetic suseptibility studies have shown that the intermediate is diamagnetic. The results combined with X-ray absorption edge data indicate that the intermediate contains a bound peroxide and that the two electrons have derived from the type 3 center which is antiferromagnetically coupled. EXAFS data show that there is no short Cu-oxo bond in the intermediate and that there is a new bridging interaction in the intermediate, with two coppers being separated by 3.4 A, that is not present in the resting enzyme. Circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies in the ligand field region confirm that the two type 3 coppers are oxidized and antiferromagnetically coupled and that the type 2 copper is reduced. In addition, the charge transfer (CT) absorption spectrum of the intermediate supports a {mu}-1, 1 hydroperoxide description based on a comparison to Cu(II)-peroxo model spectra. 67 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A targeted gene expression platform allows for rapid analysis of chemical-induced antioxidant mRNA expression in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Mills, Margaret G; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-01-01

    Chemical-induced oxidative stress and the biochemical pathways that protect against oxidative damage are of particular interest in the field of toxicology. To rapidly identify oxidative stress-responsive gene expression changes in zebrafish, we developed a targeted panel of antioxidant genes using the Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex (QGP) platform. The genes contained in our panel include eight putative Nrf2 (Nfe2l2a)-dependent antioxidant genes (hmox1a, gstp1, gclc, nqo1, prdx1, gpx1a, sod1, sod2), a stress response gene (hsp70), an inducible DNA damage repair gene (gadd45bb), and three reference genes (actb1, gapdh, hprt1). We tested this platform on larval zebrafish exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and cadmium (Cd), two model oxidative stressors with different modes of action, and compared our results with those obtained using the more common quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both methods showed that exposure to tBHP and Cd induced expression of prdx1, gstp1, and hmox1a (2- to 12-fold increase via QGP), indicative of an activated Nrf2 response in larval zebrafish. Both compounds also elicited a general stress response as reflected by elevation of hsp70 and gadd45bb, with Cd being the more potent inducer. Transient changes were observed in sod2 and gpx1a expression, whereas nqo1, an Nrf2-responsive gene in mammalian cells, was minimally affected by either tBHP or Cd chemical exposures. Developmental expression analysis of the target genes by QGP revealed marked upregulation of sod2 between 0-96hpf, and to a lesser extent, of sod1 and gstp1. Once optimized, QGP analysis of these experiments was accomplished more rapidly, using far less tissue, and at lower total costs than qPCR analysis. In summary, the QGP platform as applied to higher-throughput zebrafish studies provides a reasonable cost-effective alternative to qPCR or more comprehensive transcriptomics approaches to rapidly assess the potential for chemicals to elicit oxidative stress as a mechanism of

  14. A targeted gene expression platform allows for rapid analysis of chemical-induced antioxidant mRNA expression in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical-induced oxidative stress and the biochemical pathways that protect against oxidative damage are of particular interest in the field of toxicology. To rapidly identify oxidative stress-responsive gene expression changes in zebrafish, we developed a targeted panel of antioxidant genes using the Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex (QGP) platform. The genes contained in our panel include eight putative Nrf2 (Nfe2l2a)-dependent antioxidant genes (hmox1a, gstp1, gclc, nqo1, prdx1, gpx1a, sod1, sod2), a stress response gene (hsp70), an inducible DNA damage repair gene (gadd45bb), and three reference genes (actb1, gapdh, hprt1). We tested this platform on larval zebrafish exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and cadmium (Cd), two model oxidative stressors with different modes of action, and compared our results with those obtained using the more common quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both methods showed that exposure to tBHP and Cd induced expression of prdx1, gstp1, and hmox1a (2- to 12-fold increase via QGP), indicative of an activated Nrf2 response in larval zebrafish. Both compounds also elicited a general stress response as reflected by elevation of hsp70 and gadd45bb, with Cd being the more potent inducer. Transient changes were observed in sod2 and gpx1a expression, whereas nqo1, an Nrf2-responsive gene in mammalian cells, was minimally affected by either tBHP or Cd chemical exposures. Developmental expression analysis of the target genes by QGP revealed marked upregulation of sod2 between 0-96hpf, and to a lesser extent, of sod1 and gstp1. Once optimized, QGP analysis of these experiments was accomplished more rapidly, using far less tissue, and at lower total costs than qPCR analysis. In summary, the QGP platform as applied to higher-throughput zebrafish studies provides a reasonable cost-effective alternative to qPCR or more comprehensive transcriptomics approaches to rapidly assess the potential for chemicals to elicit oxidative stress as a mechanism of

  15. Chemically induced Parkinson's disease: intermediates in the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, J.N.; Chedekel, M.R.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.

    1987-04-29

    Various unstable intermediate oxidation states have been postulated in the metabolic activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion. We now report the first direct observation of these free radical intermediates by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Studies are described of various reactions of such species, in particular with dopamine whose autoxidation to dopamine quinone is reported to be potentiated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.

  16. Alginate based 3D hydrogels as an in vitro co-culture model platform for the toxicity screening of new chemical entities

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Starly, Binil

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of human response to potential therapeutic drugs is through conventional methods of in vitro cell culture assays and expensive in vivo animal testing. Alternatives to animal testing require sophisticated in vitro model systems that must replicate in vivo like function for reliable testing applications. Advancements in biomaterials have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell encapsulated hydrogels as in vitro drug screening tissue model systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro platform to enable high density 3D culture of liver cells combined with a monolayer growth of target breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in a static environment as a representative example of screening drug compounds for hepatotoxicity and drug efficacy. Alginate hydrogels encapsulated with serial cell densities of HepG2 cells (10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} cells/ml) are supported by a porous poly-carbonate disc platform and co-cultured with MCF-7 cells within standard cell culture plates during a 3 day study period. The clearance rates of drug transformation by HepG2 cells are measured using a coumarin based pro-drug. The platform was used to test for HepG2 cytotoxicity 50% (CT{sub 50}) using commercially available drugs which further correlated well with published in vivo LD{sub 50} values. The developed test platform allowed us to evaluate drug dose concentrations to predict hepatotoxicity and its effect on the target cells. The in vitro 3D co-culture platform provides a scalable and flexible approach to test multiple-cell types in a hybrid setting within standard cell culture plates which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to screen new chemical entity compounds. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > A porous support disc design to support the culture of desired cells in 3D hydrogels. > Demonstrated the co-culture of two cell types within standard cell-culture plates. > A scalable, low cost approach to toxicity screening involving

  17. Development and validation of a general non-digestive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Walden, S; Egan, R

    1997-02-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive, accurate and relatively inexpensive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals (BPC) and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy has been developed and validated. Sample preparation by direct dissolution of sample in 70% nitric acid is simple and effective without adverse effects. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation of the method were determined to be 0.7 ppm and 2 ppm respectively in BPC.

  18. Integrated sensing platform and method for improved quantitative and selective monitoring of chemical analytes in both liquid and gas phase

    DOEpatents

    Blair, Dianna S.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Butler, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    By measuring two or more physical parameters of a thin sensing film which are altered when exposed to chemicals, more effective discrimination between chemicals can be achieved. In using more than one sensor, the sensors are preferably integrated on the same substrate so that they may measure the same thin film. Even more preferably, the sensors are provided orthogonal to one another so that they may measure the same portion of the thin film. These provisions reduce problems in discrimination arising from variations in thin films.

  19. Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, β-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst.

  20. Substrate and product role in the Shvo's catalyzed selective hydrogenation of the platform bio-based chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Thomas; Solinas, Gavino; Zanotti, Valerio; Albonetti, Stefania; Cavani, Fabrizio; Vaccari, Angelo; Mazzanti, Andrea; Ranieri, Silvia; Mazzoni, Rita

    2014-07-14

    The bio-based substrate and target product 2,5-bishydroxymethylfuran (BHMF) demonstrated to influence the reaction kinetics in the homogeneous reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by the Ru-based Shvo's catalyst. A combined experimental and computational study supports an important role of the -CH2OH moiety which may be involved in the catalytic cycle toward the formation of different intermediates from HMF and BHMF. The reaction is selective and leads to quantitative formation of BHMF working under mild conditions. Furthermore, an optimized recycling procedure which avoids the use of water, allows recover and reuse of the catalyst without loss of activity. The mechanistic insights from this work may be extended to provide a general description of the chemistry of the Shvo's catalyst feeding further bio-based molecules.

  1. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs)

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm3, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  2. Method development for the determination of lead in wine using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry comparing platform and filter furnace atomizers and different chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Dessuy, Morgana B; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Souza, Anderson S; Ferreira, Sérgio L C; Welz, Bernhard; Katskov, Dmitri A

    2008-02-15

    A method has been developed for the determination of lead in wine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry without any sample preparation and calibration against aqueous standards, using 7.5 microg Pd as a chemical modifier. The results obtained for seven wines using the proposed method and an acid digestion procedure did not show any significant difference using a Student's t-test. Atomization in a transversally heated filter atomizer (THFA) was compared with atomization in a conventional transversally heated platform furnace. The former provided a 2.6-fold higher sensitivity, improving the characteristic mass from 34 to 12 pg and a 1.6-fold better limit of detection (0.3 microg L(-1) compared to 0.5 microg L(-1)) for aqueous solutions using the same injection volume of 20 microL. However, the average precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation for the determination of lead in wine under routine conditions was improved from 4.6% with platform atomization to 0.6% in the THFA. The lead content found in seven arbitrarily chosen white and red wines, five from Brazil, one from Chile and one from Spain, ranged from 6 to 60 microg L(-1) Pb with an average content of 11.4 microg L(-1) Pb for the wines from South America.

  3. A high-content screening platform with fluorescent chemical probes for the discovery of first-in-class therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ala; Jung, Jinjoo; Kim, Eunha; Park, Seung Bum

    2016-06-14

    Phenotypic screening has emerged as a promising approach to discover novel first-in-class therapeutic agents. Rapid advances in phenotypic screening systems facilitate a high-throughput unbiased evaluation of compound libraries. However, limited sets of phenotypic changes are utilized in high-content screening, which require extensive genetic engineering. Therefore, it is critical to develop new chemical probes that can reflect phenotypic changes in any type of cells, especially primary cells, tissues, and organisms. Herein, we introduce our continuous efforts in the development of fluorescent bioprobes and their application to phenotypic screening. In addition, we emphasize the importance of the phenotype-based approach in conjunction with target identification at an early stage of research to accelerate the discovery of therapeutics with new modes of action.

  4. Spectroscopic study of chemical modifications induced by swift heavy ions on polymers: the contribution of the CIRIL Platform and the CIMAP Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngono-Ravache, Yvette

    2015-07-01

    This paper gathers results obtained on the chemical ageing of polymers, at the CIRIL platform, using Swift heavy ions (SHI) from the GANIL accelerator. Swift heavy ions induce high values of electronic stopping power or LET (Linear Energy Transfer) and deposit their energy in the polymer through electronic processes, in a few nanometer size cylinder centered on the ion path. This results in huge local doses and dose rates. Both defects created in the polymer chain and gas release were quantified using spectroscopic methods (FTIR and Residual gas analysis (RGA)). Defects created in polymers submitted to SHI can be separated in two main series: defects common to all ionizing radiations and defects specific to SHI. A common trend of the evolution of these defects, under inert environment, is the following: 1) for the first group of defects, in most of the polyolefins, there is a limited (if inexistent) effect of LET on the radiation chemical yield of creation at low doses. Among defects of this first series, the behavior of vinyl groups is particular, 2) LET effect on SHI specific defects (triple bonds and cumulenes) is tremendous. Triple bonds (alkynes, alkyl or aryl cyanates) are created after a LET threshold value, depending on the polymer chemical structure. The dose effect on macromolecular defects, under inert environment, is also presented. The study of the LET effect on gas release, in various polyolefines, gives an insight on the mechanism of bond cleavage in presence of high ionization and excitation densities. Finally, few results on radiation-induced oxidation are presented. Compared to low-ionizing radiations, oxidation is reduced and unsaturated bonds are created under SHI.

  5. Metabolic Engineering of a Glycerol-Oxidative Pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for Utilization of Bioethanol Thin Stillage: Potential To Produce Platform Chemicals from Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. PMID:25281374

  6. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    PubMed

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  7. Characterizing the chemical evolution of air masses via multi-platform measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during CalNEX: Composition, OH reactivity, and potential SOA formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D.; Warneke, C.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Holloway, J. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Li, S.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are critical components in the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). During the CalNex 2010 field campaign, an extensive set of VOCs were measured at the Pasadena ground site, and aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and the WHOI Research Vessel Atlantis. The measurements from each platform provide a unique perspective into the emissions, transport, and atmospheric processing of VOCs within the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The observed enhancement ratios of the hydrocarbons measured on all three platforms are in good agreement and are generally well correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the prevalence of on-road VOC emission sources throughout the SoCAB. Offshore measurements aboard the ship and aircraft are used to characterize the air mass composition as a function of the land/sea-breeze effect. VOC ratios and other trace gases are used to identify air masses containing relatively fresh emissions that were often associated with offshore flow and re-circulated continental air associated with onshore flow conditions. With the prevailing southwesterly airflow pattern in the LAB throughout the daytime, the Pasadena ground site effectively functions as a receptor site and is used to characterize primary VOC emissions from downtown Los Angeles and to identify the corresponding secondary oxidation products. The chemical evolution of air masses as a function of the time of day is investigated in order to determine the relative impacts of primary emissions vs. secondary VOC products on OH reactivity and potential SOA formation. The reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) at the Pasadena site was dominated by the light hydrocarbons, isoprene, and oxygenated VOCs including aldehydes (secondary products) and alcohols (primary anthropogenic emissions). Toluene and benzaldehyde, both of which are associated with primary anthropogenic emissions, are the predominant VOC precursors to the

  8. The use of the magnetic field effect for studying a chemiluminescent chemical reaction in aqueous solution. Reaction rate constants and lifetimes of intermediate molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triebel, Michael M.; Totrov, Maxim M.; Zorinyants, George E.; Frankevich, Eugene L.

    1993-11-01

    The phase shift magnetic field effect technique is applied for investigation of the chemiluminescent (ChL) reaction of luminol oxidation by potassium ferricyanide in aqueous alkali solution. The external modulated magnetic field changed the rate constant of recombination of luminol radicals. Rate constants of intermediate stages of the reaction are obtained: 10 8 M -1 s -1 for diazaquinone reaction with hydrogen peroxide, 2 X 10 6 M -1 s -1 for diazaquinone hydrolysis and 2 X 10 5 s -1 for the decomposition of hydroperoxide, which is a precursor of the light emitter.

  9. Physico-chemical conditions of crystallization of the Guli ulrabasic massif (North Part of the Siberian Platform): evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yuri; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Conditions of formation of the Guli ultrabasic massif (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform) attract attention of numerous researchers. For the solution of genetic problems of various rocks from this ultramafic complex the data on melt inclusions in minerals has been earlier used (Sokolov et al., 1999; Rass, Plechov, 2000; Sokolov, 2003; Panina, 2006). At the same time, formation of dunites, occupying the main volume of the Guli massif, remain almost not considered by means of thermobarogeochemical methods and the role of magmatic processes in this case is not ascertained. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization in the Guli ulrabasic massif was obtained. On the ratio (Na2O + K2O) - SiO2 the majority of analyses of glasses and calculated compositions of inclusions settle down in the field of subalkaline series. On the diagram MgO - SiO2 bulk chemical compositions of inclusions (with the magnesium content of 19-28 wt. %) correspond to picrites and picrite-basalts. They are in close association with the data on inclusions in the Cr-spinel from dunites of Konder (Siberian Platform) and Nizhnii Tagil (Ural Mountains) platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs and also are situated near to the field of inclusions in the olivine phenocrysts from meimechites (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform). Similarity of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinel from the dunite of the Guli massif and in the olivine from meimechites is established on the variety of petrochemical components - Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O. The calculated compositions of inclusions from dunites coincide mostly with the data on inclusions from meimechites, while glasses of inclusions from Cr-spinel contain less titan and magnesium. As a whole for the melts of the Maimecha Kotui Province (that form both dunites of the Guli massif and meimechites) much higher contents of TiO2 (from

  10. A High Speed Detection Platform Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering for Monitoring Antibiotic-Induced Chemical Changes in Bacteria Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Lin, You-Hsuan; Hung, Chia-Sui; Liu, Tian-Jiun; Chen, Yu; Huang, Yung-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Wang, Da-Wei; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hung

    2009-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis for pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility is critical for controlling bacterial infections. Conventional methods for determining bacterium's sensitivity to antibiotic depend mostly on measuring the change of microbial proliferation in response to the drug. Such “biological assay” inevitably takes time, ranging from days for fast-growing bacteria to weeks for slow-growers. Here, a novel tool has been developed to detect the “chemical features” of bacterial cell wall that enables rapid identification of drug resistant bacteria within hours. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique based on our newly developed SERS-active substrate was applied to assess the fine structures of the bacterial cell wall. The SERS profiles recorded by such a platform are sensitive and stable, that could readily reflect different bacterial cell walls found in Gram-positive, Gram-negative, or mycobacteria groups. Moreover, characteristic changes in SERS profile were noticed in the drug-sensitive bacteria at the early period (i.e., ∼1 hr) of antibiotic exposure, which could be used to differentiate them from the drug-resistant ones. The SERS-based diagnosis could be applied to a single bacterium. The high-speed SERS detection represents a novel approach for microbial diagnostics. The single-bacterium detection capability of SERS makes possible analyses directly on clinical specimen instead of pure cultured bacteria. PMID:19421405

  11. Chemical vs Electrochemical Formation of Li2CO3 as a Discharge Product in Li-O2/CO2 Batteries by Controlling the Superoxide Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Grimaud, Alexis; Lepoivre, Florent; Yang, Chunzhen; Tarascon, Jean Marie

    2017-01-05

    The Li-O2/CO2 battery with high capacity has recently been proposed as a new protocol to convert CO2. However, the fundamental mechanism for the reaction still remains hazy. Here, we investigated the discharge processes of Li-O2/CO2 (70%/30%) batteries in two solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). During discharge, both solvents initially show the reduction of oxygen. However, afterward, the solvent affects the reaction pathways of superoxide species by solvating Li(+) with different strength, depending on the so-called donor number. More precisely, the initial formation of CO4(•-) is favored in DMSO at the expense of lithium superoxide formation that we observed in DME. Despite the different intermediate processes, X-ray diffraction showed that Li2CO3 was the final discharge product in both solvents. Moreover, we observed that CO2 cannot be reduced within the electrochemical stability window of DMSO and DME.

  12. Growth and synthesis of rubratoxin by Penicillium rubrum in a chemically defined medium fortified with organic acids and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Emeh, C O; Marth, E H

    1976-10-22

    A sterile glucose-mineral salts broth was fortified with equimolar concentrations (10--3 M) of various organic acids and intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Appropriate media were neutralized with 2 N NaOH, inoculated with spore suspensions or mycelial pellets of Penicillium rubrum and incubated quiescently for 14 days or with shaking for 5 days. Rubratoxins were recovered from culture filtrates by ether extraction and resolved by thin-layer chromatography. Toxin formation in quiescent cultures was enhanced by malonate but was not markedly affected by ethyl malonate, shikimate, and acetate or by isocitrate or oxaloacetate added in the presence of malonate. Citrate, cis-aconitate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malonate when present in the medium alone or in conjunction with malonate caused a 15 to 50% reduction in rubratoxin formation. Acetyl-CoA (10--5 M/flask) caused an 80% increase in toxin yield. Rubratoxin formation in shake cultures was not affected by succinate and malonate. All other combinations of intermediates and malonate caused a 10 to 50% reduction in toxin formation. At 10--3 M, citrate enhanced rubratoxin B formation and stimulated rubratoxin A production by as much as 100%. Above 10--3 M, citrate inhibited toxin production. Incorporation of [2-14C]acetate into rubratoxin was enhanced by malonate, fumarate, and malonate. A combination of pyruvate and malonate produced a 40% increase in [2-14C]acetate incorporation into rubratoxin. The highest reduction of labeled acetate incorporation (36%) was caused by succinate or alpha-ketoglutarate combined with malonate.

  13. ECUT: Energy Conversion and utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Generation of chemical intermediates by catalytic oxidative decarboxylation of dilute organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A rhodium-based catalyst was prepared and preliminary experiments were completed where the catalyst appeared to decarboxylate dilute acids at concentrations of 1 to 10 vol%. Electron spin resonance spectroscoy was used to characterize the catalyst as a first step leading toward modeling and optimization of rhodium catalysts. Also, a hybrid chemical/biological process for the production of hydrocarbons has been assessed. These types of catalysts could greatly increase energy efficiency of this process.

  14. A procedure for the assessment of the toxicity of intermediates and products formed during the accidental thermal decomposition of a chemical species.

    PubMed

    Di Somma, Ilaria; Pollio, Antonino; Pinto, Gabriele; De Falco, Maria; Pizzo, Elio; Andreozzi, Roberto

    2010-04-15

    The knowledge of the substances which form when a molecule undergoes chemical reactions under unusual conditions is required by European legislation to evaluate the risks associated with an industrial chemical process. A thermal decomposition is often the result of a loss of control of the process which leads to the formation of many substances in some cases not easily predictable. The evaluation of the change of an overall toxicity passing from the parent compound to the mixture of its thermal decomposition products has been already proposed as a practical approach to this problem when preliminary indications about the temperature range in which the molecule decomposes are available. A new procedure is proposed in this work for the obtainment of the mixtures of thermal decomposition products also when there is no previous information about the thermal behaviour of investigated molecules. A scanning calorimetric run that is aimed to identify the onset temperature of the decomposition process is coupled to an isoperibolic one in order to obtain and collect the products. An algal strain is adopted for toxicological assessments of chemical compounds and mixtures. An extension of toxicological investigations to human cells is also attempted. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a chemical modification on the hydrated adenosine intermediate produced by adenosine deaminase and a model reaction for a potential mechanism of action of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Groziak, M P; Huan, Z W; Ding, H; Meng, Z; Stevens, W C; Robinson, P D

    1997-10-10

    Using the hydrated adenosine intermediate (6R)-6-amino-1, 6-dihydro-6-hydroxy-9-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)purine (2) produced by adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4) as a starting point, the active site probe and inhibitor platform 5-(formylamino)imidazole riboside (FAIRs, 4) was designed by removal of the-C6(OH)(NH2)-molecular fragment of 2 generated by the early events of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. FAIRs was synthesized directly from the sodium salt of 5-amino-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (CAIR) along a reaction sequence involving a tandem N-formylation/decarboxylation that may have a mechanistic connection to the Escherichia coli purE-catalyzed constitutional isomerization of N5-CAIR to CAIR. The physical and spectral properties of FAIRs were elucidated, its X-ray crystal and NMR solution structures were determined, and its interaction with ADA was investigated. Crystalline FAIRs exists solely as the Z-formamide rotamer and exhibits many of the same intramolecular hydrogen bonding events known to contribute to the association of Ado to ADA. In water and various organic solvents, however, FAIRs exists as NMR-distinct, slowly interconverting Z and E rotamers. This truncated enzymatic tetrahedral intermediate analog was determined to be a competitive inhibitor of ADA with an apparent Ki binding constant of 40 microM, a value quite close to that (33 microM) of the natural substrate's K(m). The actual species selected for binding by ADA, though, is likely the minor hydroxyimino prototropic form of Z-FAIRs possessing a far lower true Ki value. As the structural features of FAIRs appear well-suited to support its use as a template for constructing active site probes of both ADA and AIR carboxylases, a variety of carbohydrate-protected versions of FAIRs suitable for facile aglycon elaborations were synthesized. The N3-alkylation, N3-borane complexation, and C4-iodination of some of these were investigated in order to assess physicochemical

  16. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Diesel Vehicles: Chemical Composition, Emission Factors, and Estimated Secondary Organic Aerosol Production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-10-06

    Emissions of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from five on-road diesel vehicles and one off-road diesel engine were characterized during dynamometer testing. The testing evaluated the effects of driving cycles, fuel composition and exhaust aftertreatment devices. On average, more than 90% of the IVOC emissions were not identified on a molecular basis, instead appearing as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) during gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis. Fuel-based emissions factors (EFs) of total IVOCs (speciated + unspeciated) depend strongly on aftertreatment technology and driving cycle. Total-IVOC emissions from vehicles equipped with catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF) are substantially lower (factor of 7 to 28, depending on driving cycle) than from vehicles without any exhaust aftertreatment. Total-IVOC emissions from creep and idle operations are substantially higher than emissions from high-speed operations. Although the magnitude of the total-IVOC emissions can vary widely, there is little variation in the IVOC composition across the set of tests. The new emissions data are combined with published yield data to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA production from unspeciated IVOCs is estimated using surrogate compounds, which are assigned based on gas-chromatograph retention time and mass spectral signature of the IVOC UCM. IVOCs contribute the vast majority of the SOA formed from exhaust from on-road diesel vehicles. The estimated SOA production is greater than predictions by previous studies and substantially higher than primary organic aerosol. Catalyzed DPFs substantially reduce SOA formation potential of diesel exhaust, except at low speed operations.

  17. Lysimeter Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Plieschnegger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The existing European Lysimeter Platform (www.lysimeter.at/HP_EuLP) provides an overview of lysimeter types used in Europe and show details on equipment, research results and future perspectives of lysimeter facilities. However, this platform is not user-editable and has not been updated since 2008. Thus, the Lysimeter Research Group (www.lysimeter.at) intends to serve a new database based website called Lysimeter Platform, where existing information of the former European Lysimeter Platform will be transferred to the new Lysimeter Platform and, furthermore, registered users are able to create and edit sites where lysimeters, soil water samplers and soil hydrologic measuring profiles are operated. The Lysimeter Research Group is a scientific association and, therefore, the membership is free of charge. The new Lysimeter Platform contains general information of lysimeter sites worldwide (e.g., what is measured at which site) in a standardized form to get a quick but informative overview of the sites and can be linked to more detailed, already existing information provided by the site operators. Due to the standardized information in the database the Lysimeter Platform serves also as search-engine for soil water measurements and helps to find sites of interest and corresponding contact information worldwide. The Session "Estimation of soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes by use of precision lysimeter measurements" at the EGU General Assembly 2014 would be an excellent chance to present the idea and the concept of this new Lysimeter Platform to international site operators and scientists.

  18. Stabilization of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate from the Reaction between Ozone and Ethylene: A High-Level Quantum Chemical and Kinetic Analysis of Ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Lee, Hyunwoo; Matthews, Devin A; McCarthy, Michael C; Stanton, John F

    2015-06-04

    The fraction of the collisionally stabilized Criegee species CH2OO produced from the ozonolysis of ethylene is calculated using a two-dimensional (E, J)-grained master equation technique and semiclassical transition-state theory based on the potential energy surface obtained from high-accuracy quantum chemical calculations. Our calculated yield of 42 ± 6% for the stabilized CH2OO agrees well, within experimental error, with available (indirect) experimental results. Inclusion of angular momentum in the master equation is found to play an essential role in bringing the theoretical results into agreement with the experiment. Additionally, yields of HO and HO2 radical products are predicted to be 13 ± 6% and 17 ± 6%, respectively. In the kinetic simulation, the HO radical product is produced mostly from the stepwise decomposition mechanism of primary ozonide rather than from dissociation of hot CH2OO.

  19. Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2006-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

  20. Green chemical approach towards the synthesis of CeO2 doped with seashell and its bacterial applications intermediated with fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadas Valan; Thirumamagal, R; Srinivasan, M P; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ayeshamariam, A; Saravana Kumar, D; Punithavelan, N; Jayachandran, M

    2017-08-01

    Nanomaterials of CeO2 with A. vera were synthesized by using simple chemical method. Grapes drops are used as an oxidizing agent. Structural and morphological studies of nanomaterials of cerium oxide (CeO2), were studied for combustion method of preparation. The precursor solution was initialized by a hydrothermal reaction. Cerium hydroxyl carbonate precursors which involves cerium (III) nitrate Ce(NO3)3. 6 H2O with (1.0M) of seashell powder, 3% A. vera, extracts, grapes and pomegranate drops and this complex solution was used to produce the CeO2 powder particles. We have prepared another sample with 5% of Aloe vera extract and found that 3% Aloe vera extract has lesser grain size and enhanced band gap values, so the article explained the sample analysis of combination with 3% extract of Aloe vera. The product has the rod pattern which was the unusual features appear to originate from the unique crystal chemistry aspects. From the optical absorption spectrum, it has been shown that the CeO2 rods have 3.847eV of direct band gap energy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the synthesized compounds exhibited activity towards various microbial pathogens such as B. subtilis (15μg/mL), S. aureus (50μg/mL), S. epidermidis (20μg/mL), E. faecalis (25μg/mL) and towards E. coli (100μg/mL), K. pneumoniae (50μg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (75μg/mL) respectively. The tests on bacterial activities confirmed that the CeO2 rods are suitable hand for the biological applications. The seashell structure and the phytochemical contents of A. vera might enhance its bacterial activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Lens platform].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  2. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  3. The "Vsoil Platform" : a tool to integrate the various physical, chemical and biological processes contributing to the soil functioning at the local scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafolie, François; Cousin, Isabelle; Mollier, Alain; Pot, Valérie; Moitrier, Nicolas; Balesdent, Jérome; bruckler, Laurent; Moitrier, Nathalie; Nouguier, Cédric; Richard, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Models describing the soil functioning are valuable tools for addressing challenging issues related to agricultural production, soil protection or biogeochemical cycles. Coupling models that address different scientific fields is actually required in order to develop numerical tools able to simulate the complex interactions and feed-backs occurring within a soil profile in interaction with climate and human activities. We present here a component-based modelling platform named "VSoil", that aims at designing, developing, implementing and coupling numerical representation of biogeochemical and physical processes in soil, from the aggregate to the profile scales. The platform consists of four softwares, i) Vsoil_Processes dedicated to the conceptual description of processes and of their inputs and outputs, ii) Vsoil_Modules devoted to the development of numerical representation of elementary processes as modules, iii) Vsoil_Models which permits the coupling of modules to create models, iv) Vsoil_Player for the run of the model and the primary analysis of results. The platform is designed to be a collaborative tool, helping scientists to share not only their models, but also the scientific knowledge on which the models are built. The platform is based on the idea that processes of any kind can be described and characterized by their inputs (state variables required) and their outputs. The links between the processes are automatically detected by the platform softwares. For any process, several numerical representations (modules) can be developed and made available to platform users. When developing modules, the platform takes care of many aspects of the development task so that the user can focus on numerical calculations. Fortran2008 and C++ are the supported languages and existing codes can be easily incorporated into platform modules. Building a model from available modules simply requires selecting the processes being accounted for and for each process a module

  4. Second-generation probes for biosynthetic intermediate capture: towards a comprehensive profiling of polyketide assembly† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: General methods for the synthesis of chemical probes and LC-HRMS analysis of the biosynthetic intermediates isolated from S. lasaliensis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc04681a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkening, Ina; Gazzola, Silvia; Riva, Elena; Parascandolo, James S.; Song, Lijiang

    2016-01-01

    Malonyl carba(dethia) N-decanoyl cysteamine methyl esters and novel acetoxymethyl esters were utilised as second-generation probes for polyketide intermediate capture. The use of these tools in vivo led to the characterisation of an almost complete set of biosynthetic intermediates from a modular assembly line, providing a first kinetic overview of intermediate processing leading to complex natural product formation. PMID:27481638

  5. Colloidal Nanoparticles for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia; Zimanyi, Gergely T.

    2015-07-28

    The Intermediate Band (IB) solar cell concept is a promising idea to transcend the Shockley–Queisser limit. Using the results of first-principles calculations, we propose that colloidal nanoparticles (CNPs) are a viable and efficient platform for the implementation of the IB solar cell concept. We focused on CdSe CNPs and we showed that intragap states present in the isolated CNPs with reconstructed surfaces combine to form an IB in arrays of CNPs, which is well separated from the valence and conduction band edges. We demonstrated that optical transitions to and from the IB are active. We also showed that the IB can be electron doped in a solution, e.g., by decamethylcobaltocene, thus activating an IB-induced absorption process. Our results, together with the recent report of a nearly 10% efficient CNP solar cell, indicate that colloidal nanoparticle intermediate band solar cells are a promising platform to overcome the Shockley–Queisser limit.

  6. Managing the computational chemistry big data problem: the ioChem-BD platform.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Moreno, M; de Graaf, C; López, N; Maseras, F; Poblet, J M; Bo, C

    2015-01-26

    We present the ioChem-BD platform ( www.iochem-bd.org ) as a multiheaded tool aimed to manage large volumes of quantum chemistry results from a diverse group of already common simulation packages. The platform has an extensible structure. The key modules managing the main tasks are to (i) upload of output files from common computational chemistry packages, (ii) extract meaningful data from the results, and (iii) generate output summaries in user-friendly formats. A heavy use of the Chemical Mark-up Language (CML) is made in the intermediate files used by ioChem-BD. From them and using XSL techniques, we manipulate and transform such chemical data sets to fulfill researchers' needs in the form of HTML5 reports, supporting information, and other research media.

  7. Microfluidic platform for reproducible self-assembly of chemically communicating droplet networks with predesigned number and type of the communicating compartments.

    PubMed

    Guzowski, Jan; Gizynski, Konrad; Gorecki, Jerzy; Garstecki, Piotr

    2016-02-21

    We report a microfluidic system for individually tailored generation and incubation of core-shell liquid structures with multiple cores that chemically communicate with each other via lipid membranes. We encapsulate an oscillating reaction-diffusion Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium inside the aqueous droplets and study the propagation of chemical wave-fronts through the membranes. We further encapsulate the sets of interconnected BZ-droplets inside oil-lipid shells in order to i) chemically isolate the structures and ii) confine them via tunable capillary forces which leads to self-assembly of predesigned topologies. We observe that doublets (pairs) of droplets encapsulated in the shell exhibit oscillation patterns that evolve in time. We collect statistical data from tens of doublets all created under precisely controlled, almost identical conditions from which we conclude that the different types of transitions between the patterns depend on the relative volumes of the droplets within a chemically coupled pair. With this we show that the volume of the compartment is an important control parameter in designing chemical networks, a feature previously appreciated only by theory. Our system not only allows for new insights into the dynamics of geometrically complex and interacting chemical systems but is also suitable for generating autonomous chemically interconnected microstructures with possible future use, e.g., as smart biosensors or drug-release capsules.

  8. Teaching about "Intermediate Forms."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, Evan B.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the common assumption about the lack of intermediate forms in evolutionary history is inaccurate and misleading. Points out that there are many transitional forms, although special creationists refuse to recognize them as such. (DDR)

  9. Variability of aerosols and chemical composition of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on a platform of the Prague underground metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Talbot, N.; Ondráček, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Martins, V.; Klouda, K.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 and particle number concentration and size distribution were measured for 24 h on a platform of the Prague underground metro in October 2013. The three PM fractions were analysed for major and minor elements, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and total carbon (TC). Measurements were performed both when the metro was inoperative and closed to the public (referred to as background), and when the metro was in operation and open to passengers. PM concentrations were elevated during both periods, but were substantially increased in the coarse fraction during hours when the metro was in operation. Average PM concentrations were 214.8, 93.9 and 44.8 μg m-3 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively (determined gravimetrically). Average particle number concentrations were 8.5 × 103 cm-3 for background hours and 11.5 × 103 cm-3 during operational hours. Particle number concentrations were found to not vary as significantly as PM concentrations throughout the day. Variations in PM were strongly governed by passing trains, with highest concentrations recorded during rush hour. When trains were less frequent, PM concentrations were shown to fluctuate in unison with the entrance and exit of trains (as shown by wind velocity measured on the platform). PM was found to be highly enriched with iron, especially in the coarse fraction, comprising 46% of PM10 (98.9 μg m-3). This reduces to 6.7 μg m-3 during background hours, proving that the trains themselves were the main source of iron, most probably from wheel-rail mechanical abrasion. Other enriched elements relative to background hours included Ba, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni and Co, among others. Many of these elements exhibited a similar size distribution, further indicating their sources were common and were attributed to train operations.

  10. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    PubMed

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references).

  11. Identification of chemical ingredients of peanut stems and leaves extracts using UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with novel informatics UNIFI platform.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Shi, Ai-Min; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Meruva, Naren; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Huang, Chun; Li, Peng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Peanut stems and leaves have been used traditionally as both herbal medicines and special food in Asia. In this study, the main functional compounds of peanut stems and leaves extracts were identified using UPLC separation coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS), and a traditional medicine library. Three different extraction solvents (ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and n-butanol) were evaluated to prepare the extracts of peanut stems and leaves. A total of 283 chemical compounds were identified in peanut stems and leaves extracts, of which 207 compounds are tentatively new identifications in Genus Arachis. The integration of data acquisition and processing with the traditional medicine library provides a simple, efficient process to effectively facilitate the identification of chemical ingredients in complex natural product extracts. The integrated workflow for separation, detection and identification of functional compounds in natural products using UPLC/QTOF-MS greatly improves productivity for development of traditional herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. VQS (vapor-quasiliquid-solid, vapor-quasisolid-solid) mechanism lays down general platform for the syntheses of graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor Mohammad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Graphene is a relatively new material. The current state-of-the-art of the graphene synthesis has been reviewed. Existing mechanism for the graphene synthesis has been examined. The flaws of this mechanism have been described. Attempts have been made to present a new mechanism called the vapor-quasiliquid (quasisolid)-solid mechanism. For this, various physicochemical processes contributing to graphene synthesis have been considered. These processes include the substrate surface morphology, substrate surface energy, carbon solubility in the substrate surface, temperature, and pressure. Surface disturbance and surface amorphicity of the substrate, together with Knudsen diffusion of the carbon species through this surface, are the key elements of the proposed mechanism. This mechanism appears to have a common platform and a number of ground rules. It describes, for the first time, essentially all possible graphene syntheses, including the synthesis of single-layer, bilayer, few-layer, and multilayer graphene films on all possible substrates, such as metal foils, evaporated metal films, semiconductors, ceramics, and dielectrics. It addresses important features of graphene synthesis as well, namely, the role of permeability, substrate surface orientation, edge effects, etc. The results based on the proposed mechanism are in good agreements with the available experiments.

  13. Gas Fermentation—A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    PubMed Central

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E.; Tappel, Ryan C.; Heijstra, Björn D.; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  14. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  15. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  16. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  17. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  18. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  19. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  20. Sara Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, James E.; Maraby, Julien

    This volume consists of an intermediate course in Sara, a language of the Chad Republic of Africa. It is designed for native speakers of English and includes forty reading selections in Sara and an English translation of each selection. The readings are followed by a corresponding set of dialogues in Sara, accompanied by an English translation.…

  1. Intermediate Pashto. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    The textbook for intermediate level Pashto instruction consists of 14 units (15-28) on a variety of cultural topics and linguistic structures. Cultural topics include engagement and marriage, children's education, agriculture and related subjects, the family, Pashtun history, genealogies of major Pashtun tribes, the Pashtun code of behavior,…

  2. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  3. Xlink-Identifier: An Automated Data Analysis Platform for Confident Identifications of Chemically Cross-linked Peptides using Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Xiuxia; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Manes, Nathan P.; Wu, Si; Mayer, M. Uljana; Adkins, Joshua N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-03-04

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry provides a powerful method for identifying protein-protein interactions and probing the structure of protein complexes. Cross-linking is the process of covalently joining two proteins using cross-linking reagents. After proteolytic cleavage, the cross-linked peptides can be identified using tandem mass spectrometry. A number of strategies have been reported that take advantage of the high sensitivity and high resolution of modern mass spectrometers. Approaches typically include synthesis of novel cross-linking compounds and/or isotopic labelling of the cross-linkering reagent and/or protein to aid both identification and quantitation. However, these approaches have various limitations. These limitations can be overcome with a label-free approach and application of associated data analysis algorithms described in this work.

  4. On the role of the cis Hoogsteen:sugar-edge family of base pairs in platforms and triplets-quantum chemical insights into RNA structural biology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Purshotam; Sponer, Judit E; Sponer, Jirí; Sharma, Sitansh; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Mitra, Abhijit

    2010-03-11

    Base pairs belonging to the cis Hoogsteen:sugar-edge (H:S) family play important structural roles in folded RNA molecules. Several of these are present in internal loops, where they are involved in interactions leading to planar dinucleotide platforms which stabilize higher order structures such as base triplets and quartets. We report results of analysis of 30 representative examples spanning 16 possible base pair combinations, with several of them showing multimodality of base pairing geometry. The geometries of 23 of these base pairs were modeled directly from coordinates extracted from RNA crystal structures. The other seven were predicted structures which were modeled on the basis of observed isosteric analogues. After appropriate satisfaction of residual valencies, these structures were relaxed using the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method and interaction energies were derived at the RIMP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The geometries for each of the studied base pairs have been characterized in terms of the number and nature of H-bonds, rmsd values observed on optimization, base pair geometrical parameters, and sugar pucker analysis. In addition to its evaluation, the nature of intermolecular interaction in these complexes was also analyzed using Morokuma decomposition. The gas phase interaction energies range between -5.2 and -20.6 kcal/mol and, in contrast to the H:S trans base pairs, show enhanced relative importance of the electron correlation component, indicative of the greater role of dispersion energy in stabilization of these base pairs. The rich variety of hydrogen bonding pattern, involving the flexible sugar edge, appears to hold the key to several features of structural motifs, such as planarity and propensity to participate in triplets, observed in this family of base pairs. This work explores these aspects by integrating database analysis, and detailed base pairing geometry analysis at the atomistic level, with ab initio computation of interaction energies

  5. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  6. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  7. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  8. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  9. Microbial/enzymatic synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2003-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the efficacy of many drugs; thus, the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity. In this article, biocatalytic processes for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates are described.

  10. An integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible fuels by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and downstream upgrading of the acid hydrolysis residues with thermal and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Girisuta, Buana; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos G; Dussan, Karla; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B; Stefanidis, Stylianos D; Michailof, Chrysa M; Lappas, Angelos A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates an integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible biofuels. An energy crop (Miscanthus) was treated hydrothermally to produce levulinic acid (LA). Temperatures ranging between 150 and 200 °C, sulfuric acid concentrations 1-5 wt.% and treatment times 1-12 h were applied to give different combined severity factors. Temperatures of 175 and 200 °C and acid concentration of 5 wt.% were found to be necessary to achieve good yield (17 wt.%) and selectivities of LA while treatment time did not have an effect. The acid hydrolysis residues were characterized for their elemental, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents, and then tested in a small-scale pyrolyzer using silica sand and a commercial ZSM-5 catalyst. Milder pretreatment yielded more oil (43 wt.%) and oil O(2) (37%) while harsher pretreatment and catalysis led to more coke production (up to 58 wt.%), less oil (12 wt.%) and less oil O(2) (18 wt.%).

  11. Chromospheric Activity at Intermediate Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampapa, Mark; Stauffer, John; Deliyannis, Constantine; Sherry, William

    2005-08-01

    The calibration of the empirical relation between Ca II chromospheric strength and stellar age between 0.6 Gyr (Hyades) and 4.0 - 5 Gyr (M67 and the Sun) relies on the uncertain determination of ages for individual field stars in the solar neighborhood. We therefore propose to obtain WIYN/Hydra spectra of ~ 100 solar-type dwarf stars in the 1.8 Gyr old open cluster, NGC 752. This cluster contains a sample of solar-type dwarfs that is homogeneous in age and chemical composition. Furthermore, NGC 752 is the nearest-and hence brightest- cluster at an age ~ 2 Gyr. The results will yield an improved calibration of the age-activity relation at intermediate ages. In addition, we will determine if the chromospheric Ca II strengths for the solar-type stars in NGC 752 lie in the so-called "Vaughan-Preston Gap''- an apparent discontinuity in the Ca II H& K strength-(B-V) diagram found for field stars in the solar neighborhood. Our data will yield insight on the two proposed origins for the gap, namely, that it is a result of two different modes of dynamo action or that it is actually an artifact of a discontinuity in the local star formation rate. This is a resubmission of a previously approved proposal that was allocated two nights in 2004 November. The time was lost to instrument problems (Hydra gripper malfunctions) and weather. No usable data were obtained.

  12. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  13. Linking chemical electron-proton transfer to proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase: broken-symmetry DFT exploration of intermediates along the catalytic reaction pathway of the iron-copper dinuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Noodleman, Louis; Han Du, Wen-Ge; Fee, James A; Götz, Andreas W; Walker, Ross C

    2014-07-07

    After a summary of the problem of coupling electron and proton transfer to proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase, we present the results of our earlier and recent density functional theory calculations for the dinuclear Fe-a3-CuB reaction center in this enzyme. A specific catalytic reaction wheel diagram is constructed from the calculations, based on the structures and relative energies of the intermediate states of the reaction cycle. A larger family of tautomers/protonation states is generated compared to our earlier work, and a new lowest-energy pathway is proposed. The entire reaction cycle is calculated for the new smaller model (about 185-190 atoms), and two selected arcs of the wheel are chosen for calculations using a larger model (about 205 atoms). We compare the structural and redox energetics and protonation calculations with available experimental data. The reaction cycle map that we have built is positioned for further improvement and testing against experiment.

  14. Potentially mutagenic impurities: analysis of structural classes and carcinogenic potencies of chemical intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses supports alternative methods to the default TTC for calculating safe levels of impurities.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Sheila M; Vijayaraj Reddy, M; McGettigan, Katherine; Gealy, Robert; Bercu, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Potentially mutagenic impurities in new pharmaceuticals are controlled to levels with negligible risk, the TTC (threshold of toxicological concern, 1.5 μg/day for a lifetime). The TTC was based on the more potent rodent carcinogens, excluding the highly potent "cohort of concern" (COC; for mutagenic carcinogens these are N-nitroso, Aflatoxin-like, and azoxy structures). We compared molecules with DEREK "structural alerts" for mutagenicity used in drug syntheses with the mutagenic carcinogens in the Gold Carcinogenicity Potency Database. Data from 108 diverse synthetic routes from 13 companies confirm that many "alerting" or mutagenic chemicals are in structural classes with lower carcinogenic potency than those used to derive the TTC. Acceptable daily intakes can be established that are higher than the default TTC for many structural classes (e.g., mono-functional alkyl halides and certain aromatic amines). Examples of ADIs for lifetime and shorter-term exposure are given for chemicals of various potencies. The percentage of chemicals with DEREK alerts that proved mutagenic in the Ames test ranged from 36% to 83%, depending on structural class, demonstrating that such SAR analysis to "flag" potential mutagens is conservative. We also note that aromatic azoxy compounds need not be classed as COC, which was based on alkyl azoxy chemicals.

  15. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  16. [Intermediate endpoints in clinical research].

    PubMed

    Peters, Sanne A E; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    An intermediate variable such as blood pressure is part of the causal pathway of mechanisms to a clinical outcome, e.g. myocardial infarction. An intervention affects a clinical outcome through its effect on that intermediate variable. In studies designed to assess the effects of interventions an intermediate variable may be used as surrogate for clinical outcomes. Such an endpoint is also known as an intermediate endpoint. Intervention studies with intermediate endpoints are commonly performed in medical research to evaluate the effects of an intervention on clinical outcomes. Intervention studies with an intermediate endpoint are conducted in a smaller study population and with a shorter duration of follow-up than studies using clinical outcomes. An intermediate variable is not eligible as an intermediate endpoint when the intervention also affects other biological mechanisms that subsequently affect the clinical endpoint. Due to a smaller sample size and shorter study duration, side effects of intervention are more difficult to evaluate in studies with an intermediate endpoint than in studies with clinical endpoints.

  17. Current technologies, economics, and perspectives for 2,5-dimethylfuran production from biomass-derived intermediates.

    PubMed

    Saha, Basudeb; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-04-13

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a perspective article that described the potential of the top ten biomass-derived platform chemicals as petroleum replacements for high-value commodity and specialty chemicals, researchers around the world have been motivated to develop technologies for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived intermediates into chemicals and fuels. Among several biorefinery processes, the conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received significant attention because of its low oxygen content, high energy content, and high octane value. DMF can further serve as a petroleum-replacement, biorenewable feedstock for the production of p-xylene (pX). In this review, we aim specifically to present a concise and up-to-date analysis of DMF production technologies with a critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics, which includes sensitivity analysis, so that more effective catalysts can be designed. Special emphasis has been given to bifunctional catalysts that improve DMF yields and selectivity and the synergistic effect of the bifunctional sites. Process economics for the current processes and the scope for further improvement are discussed. It is anticipated that the chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes to enable the economic production of bio-based DMF. Processes for the upgrade of DMF to pX are also described.

  18. Detection of novel enzyme intermediates in PEP-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen S

    2005-01-01

    This review will focus on established and newly emerging strategies for identifying and characterizing enzyme intermediates using a rapid transient kinetic approach. The merits of this methodology as well as the basics of experimental design are described. Several illustrative examples of PEP-utilizing enzymes have been chosen as they all perform unique, novel chemistries involving enzyme intermediates and have proven to be exciting pharmaceutical targets for antibiotics and herbicides. A novel application of this approach using time-resolved electrospray mass spectrometry to detect chemically labile enzyme intermediates is also discussed.

  19. The Hibernia platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, G.C.; Johnson, R.C.; Luther, D.C.; Woodhead, H.R.; Abel, W.

    1994-12-31

    The Hibernia offshore oil platform is the first major platform for the development of hydrocarbon reserves on the Grand Banks off the East Coast of Canada. The platform, a concrete gravity base structure supporting 60,000 tons of topsides, will be in 80 m of water and is designed to resist iceberg collisions. The paper describes the platform, environment and iceberg loads, geotechnical considerations and the structural analysis being performed. The platform is current under construction (Winter 1993) and will be completed in 1996.

  20. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  1. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck has arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy,

  2. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road toward the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  3. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  4. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    With its image reflected in the water, a heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy,

  5. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. In view are five levels of platforms previously installed. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  6. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck passes through the north entrance gate at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  7. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Workers prepare to unload the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, from a heavy load transport truck near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The platform will be offloaded in a staging area near the VAB. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the VAB. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  8. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  9. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck arrives at the north entrance gate at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  10. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  11. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Blue sky and fluffy clouds serve as the backdrop for the arrival of the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Workers prepare to offload the platform from a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, to a staging area near the VAB. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  12. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Workers fold an American flag that was on the back of a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida. The truck arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  13. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives in a staging area near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  14. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be moved into High Bay 3 for installation on the north side of High Bay 3. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. In view below Platform C are several of the previously installed platforms. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  15. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    The American flag is in view on the back of a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, as it arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The truck is carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  16. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  17. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  19. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  20. Dee-Mack Intermediate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Frank Reliford, the Principal at Dee-Mack Intermediate since 2005, is familiar to almost every child in the community. 260 Students attend Reliford's school, and their status is a point of pride: Dee-Mack Intermediate is consistently one of the highest performing schools in the state. The change in student performance correlates to the…

  1. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  2. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  3. Linking Chemical Electron–Proton Transfer to Proton Pumping in Cytochrome c Oxidase: Broken-Symmetry DFT Exploration of Intermediates along the Catalytic Reaction Pathway of the Iron–Copper Dinuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    After a summary of the problem of coupling electron and proton transfer to proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase, we present the results of our earlier and recent density functional theory calculations for the dinuclear Fe-a3–CuB reaction center in this enzyme. A specific catalytic reaction wheel diagram is constructed from the calculations, based on the structures and relative energies of the intermediate states of the reaction cycle. A larger family of tautomers/protonation states is generated compared to our earlier work, and a new lowest-energy pathway is proposed. The entire reaction cycle is calculated for the new smaller model (about 185–190 atoms), and two selected arcs of the wheel are chosen for calculations using a larger model (about 205 atoms). We compare the structural and redox energetics and protonation calculations with available experimental data. The reaction cycle map that we have built is positioned for further improvement and testing against experiment. PMID:24960612

  4. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  5. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  6. Platform switching and bone platform switching.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Francesco; Brunelli, Giorgio; Danza, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Bone platform switching involves an inward bone ring in the coronal part of the implant that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest. Bone platform switching is obtained by using a dental fixture with a reverse conical neck. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional vs reverse conical neck implants. In the period between May 2004 and November 2007, 86 patients (55 females and 31 males; median age, 53 years) were operated and 234 implants were inserted: 40 and 194 were conventional vs reverse conical neck implants, respectively. Kaplan-Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used to detect those variables associated with the clinical outcome. No differences in survival and success rates were detected between conventional vs reverse conical neck implants alone or in combination with any of the studied variables. Although bone platform switching leads to several advantages, no statistical difference in alveolar crest resorption is detected in comparison with reverse conical neck implants. We suppose that the proximity of the implant abutment junction to the alveolar crestal bone gives no protection against the microflora contained in the micrograph. Additional studies on larger series and a combination of platform switching and bone platform switching could lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  7. Microfluidic platform for optimization of crystallization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuheng; Gerard, Charline J. J.; Ikni, Aziza; Ferry, Gilles; Vuillard, Laurent M.; Boutin, Jean A.; Ferte, Nathalie; Grossier, Romain; Candoni, Nadine; Veesler, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    We describe a universal, high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic platform for crystallization. It is suitable for a multitude of applications, due to its flexibility, ease of use, compatibility with all solvents and low cost. The platform offers four modular functions: droplet formation, on-line characterization, incubation and observation. We use it to generate droplet arrays with a concentration gradient in continuous long tubing, without using surfactant. We control droplet properties (size, frequency and spacing) in long tubing by using hydrodynamic empirical relations. We measure droplet chemical composition using both an off-line and a real-time on-line method. Applying this platform to a complicated chemical environment, membrane proteins, we successfully handle crystallization, suggesting that the platform is likely to perform well in other circumstances. We validate the platform for fine-gradient screening and optimization of crystallization conditions. Additional on-line detection methods may well be integrated into this platform in the future, for instance, an on-line diffraction technique. We believe this method could find applications in fields such as fluid interaction engineering, live cell study and enzyme kinetics.

  8. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, W Brian; Jones, J Andrew; Bennett, R Kyle; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Palmer, Michael A; Schmidt, Samuel; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Koffas, Mattheos A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using (13)C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. By incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli.

  9. National Bioenergy Center--Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fall 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: rapid analysis models for compositional analysis of intermediate process streams; engineered arabinose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain.

  10. Platform B South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-02

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the B-level work platforms, B south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. The B platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  11. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  12. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view are five levels of platforms previously installed. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  13. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    The second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lowered by crane for installation on the north side of High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting, lowering and installation. In view below are several levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  14. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    The second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lifted up by crane in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be lowered into High Bay 3 and installed on the north side of the high bay. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the north wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  15. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Workers prepare to unload the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, from a heavy load transport truck in a staging area near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the VAB. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  16. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a crane lowers the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, for installation in High Bay 3. The B platform will be installed on the north side of high bay. In view below are eight levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  17. Platform A South Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-28

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the first half of the A-level work platforms, A south, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  18. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view below are the six levels of previously installed platforms. The D platform will be installed on the south side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  19. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high above the floor of the transfer aisle. The platform will be moved into High Bay 3 for installation on the south side of the high bay. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  20. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. In view below are several of the previously installed levels of platforms. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  1. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a crane lowers the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, for installation in High Bay 3. The B platform will be installed on the north side of high bay. In view below are several levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  2. Intermediate-statistics spin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we show that spin waves, the elementary excitation of the Heisenberg magnetic system, obey a kind of intermediate statistics with a finite maximum occupation number n. We construct an operator realization for the intermediate statistics obeyed by magnons, the quantized spin waves, and then construct a corresponding intermediate-statistics realization for the angular momentum algebra in terms of the creation and annihilation operators of the magnons. In other words, instead of the Holstein-Primakoff representation, a bosonic representation subject to a constraint on the occupation number, we present an intermediate-statistics representation with no constraints. In this realization, the maximum occupation number is naturally embodied in the commutation relation of creation and annihilation operators, while the Holstein-Primakoff representation is a bosonic operator relation with an additional putting-in-by-hand restriction on the occupation number. We deduce the intermediate-statistics distribution function for magnons from the intermediate-statistics commutation relation of the creation and annihilation operators directly, which is a modified Bose-Einstein distribution. On the basis of these results, we calculate the dispersion relations for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin waves. The relations between the intermediate statistics that magnons obey and the other two important kinds of intermediate statistics, Haldane-Wu statistics and the fractional statistics of anyons, are discussed. We also compare the spectrum of the intermediate-statistics spin wave with the exact solution of the one-dimensional s = 1/2 Heisenberg model, which is obtained by the Bethe ansatz method. For ferromagnets, we take the contributions from the interaction between magnons (the quartic contribution), the next-to-nearest-neighbor interaction, and the dipolar interaction into account for comparison with the experiment.

  3. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. The authors first present the orthogonal-wheels concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. They then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed.

  4. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. We first present the {open_quotes}orthogonal-wheels{close_quotes} concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. We then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed.

  5. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-08

    The first half of the F-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket has arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. The first three sets of platforms, H, J and K, were delivered to the center last year.

  6. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    In High Bay 3 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, construction workers assist during installation of the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  7. A Mechanochemical Switch to Control Radical Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    B12-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB12-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is “off”, the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch “on,” the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions. PMID:24846280

  8. A mechanochemical switch to control radical intermediates.

    PubMed

    Brunk, Elizabeth; Kellett, Whitney F; Richards, Nigel G J; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2014-06-17

    B₁₂-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB₁₂-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch. When the switch is "off", the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical moiety is stabilized by releasing the internal strain of an enzyme-imposed conformation. Turning the switch "on," the enzyme environment becomes the driving force to impose a distinct conformation of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical to avoid deleterious radical transfer. This mechanochemical switch illustrates the elaborate way in which enzymes attain selectivity of extremely chemically challenging reactions.

  9. A novel rotating experimental platform in a superconducting magnet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Cao, Hui-Ling; Ye, Ya-Jing; Dong, Chen; Liu, Yong-Ming; Shang, Peng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel platform designed to be used in a strong static magnetic field (in a superconducting magnet). The platform is a sample holder that rotates in the strong magnetic field. Any samples placed in the platform will rotate due to the rotation of the sample holder. With this platform, a number of experiments such as material processing, culture of biological systems, chemical reactions, or other processes can be carried out. In this report, we present some preliminary experiments (protein crystallization, cell culture, and seed germination) conducted using this platform. The experimental results showed that the platform can affect the processes, indicating that it provides a novel environment that has not been investigated before and that the effects of such an environment on many different physical, chemical, or biological processes can be potentially useful for applications in many fields.

  10. A novel rotating experimental platform in a superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Cao, Hui-Ling; Ye, Ya-Jing; Dong, Chen; Liu, Yong-Ming; Shang, Peng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel platform designed to be used in a strong static magnetic field (in a superconducting magnet). The platform is a sample holder that rotates in the strong magnetic field. Any samples placed in the platform will rotate due to the rotation of the sample holder. With this platform, a number of experiments such as material processing, culture of biological systems, chemical reactions, or other processes can be carried out. In this report, we present some preliminary experiments (protein crystallization, cell culture, and seed germination) conducted using this platform. The experimental results showed that the platform can affect the processes, indicating that it provides a novel environment that has not been investigated before and that the effects of such an environment on many different physical, chemical, or biological processes can be potentially useful for applications in many fields.

  11. The upper Cenomanian-lower Turonian of the Preafrican Trough (Morocco): Platform configuration and palaeoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedel, V.; Lézin, C.; Andreu, B.; Ettachfini, El M.; Grosheny, D.

    2015-06-01

    the platform, linked to the end of the major Cenomanian transgression and the presence of eutrophic conditions which disrupted carbonate-producing organisms. This high palaeoproductivity, due to considerable nutrient input, led to the establishment of highly dysoxic conditions in the bottom and intermediate waters, causing the disappearance of the majority of the Cenomanian palaeontological groups, except for the opportunist benthic and planktonic foraminifera which proliferated. Part of the nutrient input could be due to the presence of a hot and wet climate that may have led a slight increase in the degree of chemical weathering of the continent. Nevertheless, many lines of evidence, such as the decrease of the detrital influx during the early Turonian and the reduction of the weatherable continental areas after the Cenomanian transgression, suggest the existence of another source of nutrient inputs. Combined with the presence of dysoxic/anoxic conditions during the lower Turonian in several regions of the tropical Central Atlantic, the occurrence of these nutrient inputs may be linked to the volcanism/hydrothermalism of the Caribbean LIP and the mid-ocean ridges.

  12. Progress in standoff surface contaminant detector platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Giblin, Jay; Dixon, John; Hensley, Joel; Mansur, David; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Progress towards the development of a longwave infrared quantum cascade laser (QLC) based standoff surface contaminant detection platform is presented. The detection platform utilizes reflectance spectroscopy with application to optically thick and thin materials including solid and liquid phase chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and explosives. The platform employs an ensemble of broadband QCLs with a spectrally selective detector to interrogate target surfaces at 10s of m standoff. A version of the Adaptive Cosine Estimator (ACE) featuring class based screening is used for detection and discrimination in high clutter environments. Detection limits approaching 0.1 μg/cm2 are projected through speckle reduction methods enabling detector noise limited performance. The design, build, and validation of a breadboard version of the QCL-based surface contaminant detector are discussed. Functional test results specific to the QCL illuminator are presented with specific emphasis on speckle reduction.

  13. Tachyon field in intermediate inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Toloza, Adolfo

    2009-04-15

    The tachyonic inflationary universe model in the context of intermediate inflation is studied. General conditions for this model to be realizable are discussed. In the slow-roll approximation, we describe in great detail the characteristics of this model.

  14. Intermediate care for older people.

    PubMed

    Logan, Pip; Stoner-Hobbs, Val; McCloughry, Helen; Foster, Carol; Fitzsimmons, Dwane; Williams, Jo; Spencer, Pamela; Robertson, Kate; Gladman, John

    2007-06-01

    Up to 40 per cent of older people do not go to hospital after calling an emergency ambulance and until recently were not referred on to any other community services. This article describes how a multidisciplinary working group developed and evaluated a protocol to enable older people to be referred to intermediate care services after calling an emergency ambulance. A total of 54 patients were monitored after referral to intermediate care to assess adherence to the protocol and outcomes.

  15. Intermediate Filaments at the Junction of Mechanotransduction, Migration, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi-Shah, Rucha; Weber, Gregory F.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction. In this review, with a particular focus on keratins and vimentin, the relationship between the physical state of intermediate filaments and their role in mechanotransduction signaling is illustrated through a survey of current literature. Association with adhesion receptors such as cadherins and integrins provides a critical interface through which intermediate filaments are exposed to forces from a cell's environment. As a consequence, these cytoskeletal networks are posttranslationally modified, remodeled and reorganized with direct impacts on local signal transduction events and cell migratory behaviors important to development. We propose that intermediate filaments provide an opportune platform for cells to both cope with mechanical forces and modulate signal transduction. PMID:28959689

  16. Intermediate Filaments at the Junction of Mechanotransduction, Migration, and Development.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi-Shah, Rucha; Weber, Gregory F

    2017-01-01

    Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction. In this review, with a particular focus on keratins and vimentin, the relationship between the physical state of intermediate filaments and their role in mechanotransduction signaling is illustrated through a survey of current literature. Association with adhesion receptors such as cadherins and integrins provides a critical interface through which intermediate filaments are exposed to forces from a cell's environment. As a consequence, these cytoskeletal networks are posttranslationally modified, remodeled and reorganized with direct impacts on local signal transduction events and cell migratory behaviors important to development. We propose that intermediate filaments provide an opportune platform for cells to both cope with mechanical forces and modulate signal transduction.

  17. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-08

    At right, the first half of the F-level work platforms for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket has arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At left, several other work platforms are being readied for future installation in VAB High Bay 3. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. The first three sets of platforms, H, J and K, were delivered to the center last year.

  18. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  19. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, up from the floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  20. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high above the floor of the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  1. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    Construction workers wearing safety harnesses and tethered lines assist with the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. They are securing the large bolts that hold the platform securely in place on the north side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  2. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, has been lowered into place for installation on the north wall of High Bay 3. In view below are several levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  3. Platform B South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-02

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the B-level work platforms, B south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  4. Platform B South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-02

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a construction worker watches as the first half of the B-level work platforms, B south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket is lowered into place in High Bay 3. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the south wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  5. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker wearing a safety harness and tethered lines prepares to assist with the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  6. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker wearing a safety harness and tethered lines monitors the progress during the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  7. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high above the floor of the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform will be lowered into High Bay 3 for installation on the south side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  8. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A crane lifts the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B north platform will lowered into High Bay 3 for installation on the north side of the high bay. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  9. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker wearing a safety harness and tethered lines turns a bolt to help secure the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, during installation in High Bay 3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B platform is being installed on the north side of the high bay. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  10. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed on the north side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  11. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be moved into High Bay 3 for installation on the north wall. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  12. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker wearing a safety harness and tethered lines assists with the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The B platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  13. Platform B South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-02

    High up in High Bay 3 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the first half of the B-level work platforms, B south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, has been lowered into place. In view below are several levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  14. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a crane lowers the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, for installation in High Bay 3. The B platform will be installed on the north side of high bay. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  15. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker makes adjustments to a section of steel during the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the north wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  16. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    Construction workers use specialized tools to help secure the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform is being installed on the north side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  17. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  18. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    Construction workers help to secure the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform is being installed on the north side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  19. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    A construction worker monitors the progress, as a heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, up from the transfer aisle floor in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  20. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed on the north side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  1. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be moved into High Bay 3 for installation on the north side of High Bay 3. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  2. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    In this view from above, a heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform will be installed on the south side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  3. Platform D Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-09

    In this view looking up in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a heavy-lift crane lowers the second half of the D-level work platforms, D north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3. The platform will be installed on the north side of the high bay. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  4. Platform D South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the D-level work platforms, D south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The D platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3. The D platforms are the seventh of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  5. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lowered into position for installation on the north side of High Bay 3. In view below are the seven levels of previously installed platforms. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  6. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    The second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lowered by crane for installation on the north side of High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the north wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  7. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    A construction worker solders a section of steel during the installation of the second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the north wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  8. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be installed on the north side of High Bay 3. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  9. Platform C Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-19

    Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, construction workers assist with the installation of the first half of the C-level work platforms, C south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The large bolts that hold the platform in place on the south wall are being secured. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  10. Floor Plans Rolling Platform, Tech Systems Platform, and Load ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Rolling Platform, Tech Systems Platform, and Load Platform Plans - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. Note the Shuttle assembly outlined by the platform edges. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    A close-up view of an American flag and a small tree on the final work platform, A north, as the platform is lifted up by crane from the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of High Bay 3. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  13. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    The American flag and a small tree are in view on the final work platform, A north, as the platform is lifted up by crane from the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of High Bay 3. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  14. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, construction workers assist with the installation of the final work platform, A north, in High Bay 3, as a crane lowers the platform into place. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of the high bay. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  15. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    High up in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a crane lowers the final work platform, A north, for installation in High Bay 3. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of the high bay. In view on the platform are the American flag and a small tree. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  16. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    The American flag can be seen hanging from the final work platform, A north, as the platform is lifted up by crane from the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of High Bay 3. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  17. Platform A North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    In a view from below, the American flag is in view hanging from the final work platform, A north, as the platform is lifted up by crane from the transfer aisle in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of High Bay 3. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The A-level platforms will provide access to the Orion spacecraft's Launch Abort System for Orion lifting sling removal and installation of the closeout panels. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  18. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  20. Ladder attachment platform

    DOEpatents

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  1. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  2. Platform C South Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    The second section of the first half of the C-level work platforms, C South, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket was offloaded from a heavy transport truck in a staging area on the west side of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  3. Nanopaper as an Optical Sensing Platform.

    PubMed

    Morales-Narváez, Eden; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein; Kostiv, Uliana; Horák, Daniel; Pourreza, Nahid; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-07-28

    Bacterial cellulose nanopaper (BC) is a multifunctional material known for numerous desirable properties: sustainability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, optical transparency, thermal properties, flexibility, high mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, high porosity, broad chemical-modification capabilities and high surface area. Herein, we report various nanopaper-based optical sensing platforms and describe how they can be tuned, using nanomaterials, to exhibit plasmonic or photoluminescent properties that can be exploited for sensing applications. We also describe several nanopaper configurations, including cuvettes, plates and spots that we printed or punched on BC. The platforms include a colorimetric-based sensor based on nanopaper containing embedded silver and gold nanoparticles; a photoluminescent-based sensor, comprising CdSe@ZnS quantum dots conjugated to nanopaper; and a potential up-conversion sensing platform constructed from nanopaper functionalized with NaYF4:Yb(3+)@Er(3+)&SiO2 nanoparticles. We have explored modulation of the plasmonic or photoluminescent properties of these platforms using various model biologically relevant analytes. Moreover, we prove that BC is and advantageous preconcentration platform that facilitates the analysis of small volumes of optically active materials (∼4 μL). We are confident that these platforms will pave the way to optical (bio)sensors or theranostic devices that are simple, transparent, flexible, disposable, lightweight, miniaturized and perhaps wearable.

  4. Intermediate tax sanctions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peregrine, M W

    1997-07-01

    New federal tax law applies intermediate tax sanctions when tax-exempt organizations enter into so-called excess benefit transactions with corporate insiders. The sanctions take the form of a two-tiered penalty excise tax, which is assessed not on the tax-exempt organization itself but on the insider who receives the excess benefit and the organizational managers and board members who knowingly participate in an improper transaction. The intermediate tax sanctions, therefore, present tax-planning challenges for tax-exempt hospitals and integrated delivery systems as well as for 501(c)(4) HMOs. Forthcoming treasury regulations are expected to add clarity to the new law.

  5. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.A.

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  6. Intermediate and Definitive Cleft Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gary, Celeste; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    Intermediate and definitive cleft rhinoplasties are a challenging part of definitive cleft care. The anatomy of the cleft nose is severely affected by the structural deficits associated with congenital orofacial clefting. A comprehensive understanding of the related anatomy is crucial for understanding how to improve the appearance and function in patients with secondary cleft nasal deformities. Timing of intermediate and definitive rhinoplasty should be carefully considered. A thorough understanding of advanced rhinoplasty techniques is an important part of providing adequate care for patients with these deformities.

  7. Assessing the Party Platforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    From the perspective of a Catholic educator, the author examines the education planks of the 1980 Democratic and Republican Party platforms, particularly those planks relating to private education and tuition tax credits. (SJL)

  8. Assessing the Party Platforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    From the perspective of a Catholic educator, the author examines the education planks of the 1980 Democratic and Republican Party platforms, particularly those planks relating to private education and tuition tax credits. (SJL)

  9. Platform C South Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-05

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second section of the first half of the C-level work platforms, C South, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be offloaded in the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  10. Platform C South Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-04

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying a section of the first half of the C-level work platforms, C South, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform is being lifted and transferred onto support stands in the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  11. Platform C North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-30

    A section of the second half of the C-level platforms, C North, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, arrives at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform was offloaded from a heavy lift transport truck and secured in a staging area in the west parking lot of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  12. Platform C South Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-04

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying a section of the first half of the C-level work platforms, C south, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  13. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  14. Building Community Web Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmukai, Ikki; Matsuo, Yutaka; Matsumura, Naohiro; Takeda, Hideaki

    In this paper we propose Web-based communication environment called ``Community Web Platform''. Our platform provides an easy way to exchange personal knowledge among people with lightweight metadata such like RSS and FOAF. We investigate the nature of ``personal trustness'' on the environment since it is one and only measure for evaluating subjective information and knowledge. We also discuss how to develop and maintain Community Web applications from our exrerience.

  15. National Community Solar Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, Bart

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  16. Synthetic mononuclear nonheme iron-oxygen intermediates.

    PubMed

    Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-08-18

    , an X-ray crystal structure of an iron(III)-peroxo complex binding the peroxo ligand in a side-on (η(2)) fashion, [(TMC)Fe(III)(O2)](+), is described. In addition, iron(III)-peroxo complexes binding redox-inactive metal ions are described and discussed in light of the role of redox-inactive metal ions in O-O bond activation in cytochrome c oxidase and O2-evolution in photosystem II. In the case of iron-hydroperoxo intermediates, mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes can be generated upon protonation of iron(III)-peroxo complexes or by hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) of hydrocarbon C-H bonds by iron(III)-superoxo complexes. Reactivities of the iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes in both electrophilic and nucleophilic oxidative reactions are described along with a discussion of O-O bond cleavage mechanisms. In the last section of this Account, a brief summary is presented of developments in mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes since the first structurally characterized iron(IV)-oxo complex, [(TMC)Fe(IV)(O)](2+), was reported. Although the field of nonheme iron-oxygen intermediates (e.g., Fe-O2, Fe-O2H, and Fe-O) has been developed greatly through intense synthetic, structural, spectroscopic, reactivity, and theoretical studies in the communities of bioinorganic and biomimetic chemistry over the past 10 years, there is still much to be explored in trapping, characterizing, and understanding the chemical properties of the key iron-oxygen intermediates involved in dioxygen activation and oxidation reactions by nonheme iron enzymes and their biomimetic compounds.

  17. Conversation at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of free conversation, especially with regard to vocabulary. Recommends group discussion in the FL, using, at the intermediate level, limited, familiar vocabulary. At a higher level, words from a special technical vocabulary may be introduced, aurally and visually. A teaching example ("Traffic") is given with thorough…

  18. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  19. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  20. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  1. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  2. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  3. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  4. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  5. CONSIDERATION OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS: A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of Reaction Intermediates in Structure- Activity Relationships: A Key to Understanding and Prediction

    A structure-activity relationship (SAR) represents an empirical means for generalizing chemical information relative to biological activity, and is frequent...

  6. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  7. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  8. Integrated microfluidic platforms for investigating neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Joon

    This dissertation describes the development and application of integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms to study neuronal activities in the nervous system in-vitro. The assay platforms were fabricated using soft lithography and micro/nano fabrication including microfluidics, surface patterning, and nanomaterial synthesis. The use of integrated microfluidics-based assay platform allows culturing and manipulating many types of neuronal tissues in precisely controlled microenvironment. Furthermore, they provide organized multi-cellular in-vitro model, long-term monitoring with live cell imaging, and compatibility with molecular biology techniques and electrophysiology experiment. In this dissertation, the integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms are developed for investigation of neuronal activities such as local protein synthesis, impairment of axonal transport by chemical/physical variants, growth cone path finding under chemical/physical cues, and synaptic transmission in neuronal circuit. Chapter 1 describes the motivation, objectives, and scope for developing in-vitro platform to study various neuronal activities. Chapter 2 introduces microfluidic culture platform for biochemical assay with large-scale neuronal tissues that are utilized as model system in neuroscience research. Chapter 3 focuses on the investigation of impaired axonal transport by beta-Amyloid and oxidative stress. The platform allows to control neuronal processes and to quantify mitochondrial movement in various regions of axons away from applied drugs. Chapter 4 demonstrates the development of microfluidics-based growth cone turning assay to elucidate the mechanism underlying axon guidance under soluble factors and shear flow. Using this platform, the behaviors of growth cone of mammalian neurons are verified under the gradient of inhibitory molecules and also shear flow in well-controlled manner. In Chapter 5, I combine in-vitro multicellular model with microfabricated MEA

  9. Autonomous mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakashan, A.; Samuel, S. D.; Shankar, J.; Vishal, Moondhra; Shivaswaroopa, S.; Vijayasimha, K.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a partially intelligent mobile platform. The mobile robot derives its intelligence from sensors such as ultrasonic range finders, a mouse and a set of microswitches. Motion is assumed to bee on a plane two dimensional surface. The platform consists of two front wheels and two rear wheels. While the front wheels are undriven, the rear wheels are individually driven by two motors to realize both forward movement as well as steering. Ultrasonic range finders have been employed to plan an obstacle free path. A mouse like arrangement is fitted in the platform's underside, with the mouse ball in contact with the surface of travel, to help the host to keep track of the platform's current position. A single chip microcontroller based card has been designed for communication between the platform and the host IBM PC. This is part of the work carried out at the department of Electronics, S.J. College of Engineering, Mysore, India.

  10. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  11. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  12. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-05-18

    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  13. Platforms for antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kim

    2013-05-01

    The spread of resistant bacteria, leading to untreatable infections, is a major public health threat but the pace of antibiotic discovery to combat these pathogens has slowed down. Most antibiotics were originally isolated by screening soil-derived actinomycetes during the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 1940s to 1960s. However, diminishing returns from this discovery platform led to its collapse, and efforts to create a new platform based on target-focused screening of large libraries of synthetic compounds failed, in part owing to the lack of penetration of such compounds through the bacterial envelope. This article considers strategies to re-establish viable platforms for antibiotic discovery. These include investigating untapped natural product sources such as uncultured bacteria, establishing rules of compound penetration to enable the development of synthetic antibiotics, developing species-specific antibiotics and identifying prodrugs that have the potential to eradicate dormant persisters, which are often responsible for hard-to-treat infections.

  14. Universal visualization platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  15. Mechanics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Stamenovic, Dimitrijie

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the cytoskeleton of living cells plays important roles in mechanical and biological functions of the cells. Here we focus on the contribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) to the mechanical behaviors of living cells. Vimentin, a major structural component of IFs in many cell types, is shown to play an important role in vital mechanical and biological functions such as cell contractility, migration, stiffness, stiffening, and proliferation.

  16. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-01-11

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  17. Mechanics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Stamenovic, Dimitrijie

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the cytoskeleton of living cells plays important roles in mechanical and biological functions of the cells. Here we focus on the contribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) to the mechanical behaviors of living cells. Vimentin, a major structural component of IFs in many cell types, is shown to play an important role in vital mechanical and biological functions such as cell contractility, migration, stiffness, stiffening, and proliferation.

  18. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  20. The Personal Motion Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian Vandellyn

    1993-01-01

    The Neutral Body Posture experienced in microgravity creates a biomechanical equilibrium by enabling the internal forces within the body to find their own balance. A patented reclining chair based on this posture provides a minimal stress environment for interfacing with computer systems for extended periods. When the chair is mounted on a 3 or 6 axis motion platform, a generic motion simulator for simulated digital environments is created. The Personal Motion Platform provides motional feedback to the occupant in synchronization with their movements inside the digital world which enhances the simulation experience. Existing HMD based simulation systems can be integrated to the turnkey system. Future developments are discussed.

  1. Wireless sensor platform

    DOEpatents

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  2. Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G; Lee, Crystal J J; McCallum, Gordon P; Perstin, Julia; Harper, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely alter the development of the fetus at critical periods during pregnancy, resulting in death, or in structural and functional birth defects in the surviving offspring. This process of teratogenesis may not be evident until a decade or more after birth. Postnatal functional abnormalities include deficits in brain function, a variety of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Due to the high degree of fetal cellular division and differentiation, and to differences from the adult in many biochemical pathways, the fetus is highly susceptible to teratogens, typically at low exposure levels that do not harm the mother. Insights into the mechanisms of teratogenesis come primarily from animal models and in vitro systems, and involve either receptor-mediated or reactive intermediate-mediated processes. Receptor-mediated mechanisms involving the reversible binding of xenobiotic substrates to a specific receptor are exemplified herein by the interaction of the environmental chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or "dioxin") with the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which translocates to the nucleus and, in association with other proteins, binds to AH-responsive elements (AHREs) in numerous genes, initiating changes in gene transcription that can perturb development. Alternatively, many xenobiotics are bioactivated by fetal enzymes like the cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) to highly unstable electrophilic or free radical reactive intermediates. Electrophilic reactive intermediates can covalently (irreversibly) bind to and alter the function of essential cellular macromolecules (proteins, DNA), causing developmental anomalies. Free radical reactive intermediates can enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules and/or altered signal transduction. The teratogenicity of reactive intermediates is determined to a large extent

  3. Neuroimaging data sharing on the neuroinformatics database platform.

    PubMed

    Book, Gregory A; Stevens, Michael C; Assaf, Michal; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Neuroinformatics Database (NiDB), an open-source database platform for archiving, analysis, and sharing of neuroimaging data. Data from the multi-site projects Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes parts one and two (B-SNIP1, B-SNIP2), and Monetary Incentive Delay task (MID) are available for download from the public instance of NiDB, with more projects sharing data as it becomes available. As demonstrated by making several large datasets available, NiDB is an extensible platform appropriately suited to archive and distribute shared neuroimaging data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging Data Sharing on the Neuroinformatics Database Platform

    PubMed Central

    Book, Gregory A; Stevens, Michael; Assaf, Michal; Glahn, David; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Neuroinformatics Database (NiDB), an open-source database platform for archiving, analysis, and sharing of neuroimaging data. Data from the multi-site projects Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes parts one and two (B-SNIP1, B-SNIP2), and Monetary Incentive Delay task (MID) are available for download from the public instance of NiDB, with more projects sharing data as it becomes available. As demonstrated by making several large datasets available, NiDB is an extensible platform appropriately suited to archive and distribute shared neuroimaging data. PMID:25888923

  5. Transportation and platforms perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology; space research and technology (R&T); space R&T mission statement; Space R&T program development; R&T strategy; Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) technology needs; transportation technology; and space platforms technology.

  6. Japan's builders study platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1984-07-05

    This paper discusses the developing role of Japan as a major supplier of offshore drilling and production equipment. Different firms are discussed along with their capacity. The marketing areas, work experience, and plans for designs are also included. There is special attention payed on the potential for developing Arctic platforms.

  7. Flash Platform Examination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    MiniBuilder ................................................................................................. 111 4.5 Alchemy ...is an online open source IDE for ActionScript created using ActionScript. 112 DRDC Atlantic TM 2008-291 4.5 Alchemy A final...noteworthy item in considering tooling for the flash platform is Alchemy ; a set of developer tools for creating Flash applications from C and C++ source code

  8. Education Platforms for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is at stake for K12 education in next month's presidential election? Both President Barack Obama (Democratic Party) and Gov. Mitt Romney (Republican Party) say improving education will be a top priority in their administrations, but their policies and initiatives would likely be quite different. While political platforms rarely offer detailed…

  9. Education Platforms for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is at stake for K12 education in next month's presidential election? Both President Barack Obama (Democratic Party) and Gov. Mitt Romney (Republican Party) say improving education will be a top priority in their administrations, but their policies and initiatives would likely be quite different. While political platforms rarely offer detailed…

  10. Integrated Proteomic Approaches for Understanding Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    To apply quantitative proteomic analysis to the evaluation of toxicity of environmental chemicals, we have developed an integrated proteomic technology platform. This platform has been applied to the analysis of the toxic effects and pathways of many important environmental chemi...

  11. Integrated Proteomic Approaches for Understanding Toxicity of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    To apply quantitative proteomic analysis to the evaluation of toxicity of environmental chemicals, we have developed an integrated proteomic technology platform. This platform has been applied to the analysis of the toxic effects and pathways of many important environmental chemi...

  12. Structural Insights into Intermediate Steps in the Sir2 Deacetylation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hawse, William F.; Hoff, Kevin G.; Fatkins, David G.; Daines, Alison; Zubkova, Olga V.; Schramm, Vern L.; Zheng, Weiping; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2010-07-22

    Sirtuin enzymes comprise a unique class of NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylases. Although structures of many sirtuin complexes have been determined, structural resolution of intermediate chemical steps are needed to understand the deacetylation mechanism. We report crystal structures of the bacterial sirtuin, Sir2Tm, in complex with an S-alkylamidate intermediate, analogous to the naturally occurring O-alkylamidate intermediate, and a Sir2Tm ternary complex containing a dissociated NAD{sup +} analog and acetylated peptide. The structures and biochemical studies reveal critical roles for the invariant active site histidine in positioning the reaction intermediate, and for a conserved phenylalanine residue in shielding reaction intermediates from base exchange with nicotinamide. The new structural and biochemical studies provide key mechanistic insight into intermediate steps of the Sir2 deacetylation reaction.

  13. Mobile Platform for Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Schneider, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed platform moves forward and in reverse, turns left and right, and changes planes. Mobile-platform concept proposed to move remote manipulators, workers, or other loads over truss panels on large structures. Platform moves at constant speed so does not cause swinging motion in hanging loads and overstress remote-manipulator arms. Transferred around corners to adjacent panels. Platform rides on sprocketed guide pins extending from structure at truss joints. Set of orthogonal tracks under platform slides on pins, which have enlarged heads to interlock with tracks. At least three tracks engage at least three pins at any position on panel so platform adequately and stably supported.

  14. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  15. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  16. Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

  17. Role of physical anthropology in intermediate and secondary education.

    PubMed

    Ashmore, Pamela C

    2005-01-01

    The role of physical anthropology in precollegiate education has been limited, but has the potential to play a vital and integral role in promoting students' understanding of themselves and others. This study describes the development, implementation, and results of a program constructed on an inquiry-based learning model that introduces middle and high school students to the content of physical anthropology. Demonstrated student learning indicates that intermediate and secondary students are capable of acquiring and applying complex content about human evolution and diversity. Program findings indicate that students frequently had previous knowledge about the hominid fossil record but little information about the significance of human biological diversity. Teaching intermediate and high school students about our common evolutionary heritage and the fact that humans exhibit clinal variation were found to be both powerful and effective content material. The fact that program participants lacked previous knowledge about the relationship between human biological diversity (illustrated in this program by light and dark skin color) and the erroneous sociocultural construction of this diversity confirmed the suspicion that this content is not being addressed in precollegiate education. Traditionally, intermediate and secondary students are taught about human variation within the context of social studies, reading, communication, and fine-arts classes. This program identifies a new paradigm for teaching about human variation. Providing students with scientific knowledge about human origins and diversity provides a constructive starting point, creating a common platform and knowledge base on which to then frame discussions about cultural variation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  19. OGC Collaborative Platform undercover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, G.; Arctur, D. K.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. OGC has a dedicated staff supported by a Collaborative Web Platform to enable sophisticated and successful coordination among its members. Since its origins in the early 1990s, the OGC Collaborative Web Platform has evolved organically to be the collaboration hub for standards development in the exchange of geospatial and related types of information, among a global network of thousands of technical, scientific and management professionals spanning numerous disparate application domains. This presentation describes the structure of this collaboration hub, the relationships enabled (both among and beyond OGC members), and how this network fits in a broader ecosystem of technology development and information standards organizations.

  20. UAS Cross Platform JTA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton UAS CROSS PLATFORM JTA FINAL REPORT MANGOS , VINCENZI, SHRADER, WILLIAMS, ARNOLD NAMRU-D REPORT NUMBER... Mangos , Vincenzi, Shrader, Williams, Arnold 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton 2624 Q Street, Bldg...units for over-the-hill, real-time direct situational awareness for combat support and target information. The “B” variant began production in 2006

  1. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  2. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  3. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  4. "Platform switching": serendipity.

    PubMed

    Kalavathy, N; Sridevi, J; Gehlot, Roshni; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  5. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  6. North Sea platforms revamped

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, J.

    1999-12-01

    Many of the early North Sea platforms are reaching their end-of-field life. Most are still equipped with their original drilling package. In a few cases the package has either been removed or decommissioned. The early installations were designed for much simpler and less demanding wells than the horizontal, extended-reach or designer wells common today. Extended-reach wells now can be drilled realistically from ageing platforms, without incurring massive capital expenditure. This can be achieved using the existing drilling package to the limit of its capabilities and supplementing where necessary with relatively minor upgrades or the use of temporary equipment. Drilling even a few more wells from existing platforms not only prolongs field life, it enables any surplus processing capacity to be made available to develop near-field potential with extended-reach drilling (ERD) or by tying back subsea satellite wells, or for processing third-party fluids. The paper describes well design, surface equipment, mud pumps, shakers and solids control equipment, drill cuttings disposal systems, derrick and hoisting system, top drive and drillstring, downhole equipment, well planning, casing wear, logistics, rig preparations, and ERD vs. subsea tie-backs.

  7. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  8. Kinetic Intermediates in RNA Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinkar, Patrick P.; Williamson, James R.

    1994-08-01

    The folding pathways of large, highly structured RNA molecules are largely unexplored. Insight into both the kinetics of folding and the presence of intermediates was provided in a study of the Mg2+-induced folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotide probes. This RNA folds via a complex mechanism involving both Mg2+-dependent and Mg2+-independent steps. A hierarchical model for the folding pathway is proposed in which formation of one helical domain (P4-P6) precedes that of a second helical domain (P3-P7). The overall rate-limiting step is formation of P3-P7, and takes place with an observed rate constant of 0.72 ± 0.14 minute-1. The folding mechanism of large RNAs appears similar to that of many multidomain proteins in that formation of independently stable substructures precedes their association into the final conformation.

  9. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN SMOOTH MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dale D.

    2008-01-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) network is one of the three cytoskeletal systems in smooth muscle. The type III IF proteins vimentin and desmin are major constituents of the network in smooth muscle cells and tissues. Lack of vimentin or desmin impairs contractile ability of various smooth muscle preparations, implying their important role for smooth muscle force development. The IF framework has long been viewed as a fixed cytostructure that solely provides mechanical integrity for the cell. However, recent studies suggest that the IF cytoskeleton is dynamic in mammalian cells in response to various external stimulation. In this review, the structure and biological properties of IF proteins in smooth muscle are summarized. The role of IF proteins in the modulation of smooth muscle force development and redistribution/translocation of signaling partners (such as p130 Crk-associated substrate, CAS) is depicted. This review also summarizes our latest understanding on how the IF network may be regulated in smooth muscle. PMID:18256275

  11. Intermediate superconductive magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, M.; Fujino, H.; Iwamoto, M.; Murakomi, M.; Shintomi, T.; Veda, K.

    1983-05-01

    In the past decade, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for application to peak shaving in utility has been investigated in a manner to construct the huge superconducting coil in bed rock. To confine the strong electromagnetic forces accompanied with the high magnetic field, megaton structures, no matter how they will be constructed in a liquid helium temperature, are needed. To meet such a requirement, the revolutionary idea was proposed that the superconducting coil would be constructed on the underground bed rock. Here presented is a 10 MWh unit as an intermediate SMES that is a milestone along the distant way of RandD of SMES against 1,000 - 10,000 MWh unit which advocate the replacement of the hydro-pumped station. Therefore, even if the 10 MWh unit would not function as a storage in the utility network, its design should also consider the same situation.

  12. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  13. Microleakage of intermediate restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C

    1990-03-01

    This study compares the microleakage of a glass ionomer cement, Ketac Fil, used without cavity conditioning, with the established intermediate restorative materials, Cavit-W, and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement, Kalzinol. Microleakage was assessed using an electrochemical technique. At the end of 30 days, the materials tested, listed in decreasing order of microleakage, were Cavit-W, Ketac Fil inserted without cavity conditioning, Kalzinol, and the control group of Ketac Fil inserted into conditioned cavities. There was no significant difference in the microleakage observed in Ketac Fil restorations inserted without cavity conditioning and Kalzinol (p = 0.450), while the differences between the other groups were highly significant (p less than 0.001).

  14. Criegee Intermediates React with Levoglucosan on Water.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, A J

    2017-08-17

    Levoglucosan (Levo), a C6-anhydrosaccharide produced in the combustion of cellulosic materials, is the major component of aerosols produced from biomass burning over vast regions worldwide. Levo has long been considered chemically inert and thus has been used as a tracer of biomass burning sources. However, we now show that sugars including Levo, glucose, arabitol, and mannitol react rapidly with Criegee intermediates (CIs) generated during the ozonolysis of sesquiterpenes on the surface of water:acetonitrile microjets. Hydrophilic Levo reacts faster with CIs than with water or surface-active 1-octanol at air-aqueous interfaces. This unexpected phenomenon is likely associated with the relatively low water density at air-aqueous interfaces coupled with a higher gas-phase acidity of the saccharide hydroxyl groups (i.e., -OH) versus n-alkanols. Results presented herein show that aerosol saccharides are in fact reactive toward CIs. Given the abundance of saccharides in the atmosphere, they may be important contributors to the growth and mass loading of secondary organic aerosols.

  15. Platform A North Beam Signing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-10

    NASA Kennedy Space Center's Engineering Directorate coordinated a platform beam signing event to celebrate the culmination of the NASA and contractor team's last several years of study, design, construction and installation of 20 new work platforms in High Bay 3 of the Vehicle Assembly (VAB). Workers signed the final platform, A North, in the transfer aisle of the VAB. The platform will be lifted, installed and secured on its rail beam high up on the north wall of High Bay 3. The installation of the final topmost level completes the 10 levels of work platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, that will surround NASA's Space Launch System rocket and the Orion spacecraft and allow access during processing for missions, including the first uncrewed flight test of Orion atop the SLS rocket in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program, with support from the center's Engineering Directorate, is overseeing upgrades and modifications to the VAB, including installation of the new work platforms.

  16. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  17. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  18. The EOS polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald; Hobish, Mitchell K.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is presented. The EOS will be part of the Mission to Planet Earth that will include a series of flight and scientific experiments. The initial polar-orbiting platform, EOS-A, will carry a suite of instruments designed to examine earth system processes at and near the planet's surface, and the interactions between various subsystems. Some of the instruments that will provide specialized data for geologists, meteorologists, biochemists, biologists, and physicists are described. Thus, EOS will provide an opportunity for technologists and scientists to examine the earth to a level of detail not previously attainable.

  19. Voltammetry on microfluidic chip platforms

    PubMed

    Wang; Polsky; Tian; Chatrathi

    2000-11-01

    Microfluidic chip devices are shown to be attractive platforms for performing microscale voltammetric analysis and for integrating voltammetric procedures with on-chip chemical reactions and fluid manipulations. Linear-sweep, square-wave, and adsorptive-stripping voltammograms are recorded while electrokinetically "pumping" the sample through the microchannels. The adaptation of voltammetric techniques to microfluidic chip operation requires an assessment of the effect of relevant experimental variables, particularly the high voltage used for driving the electroosmotic flow, upon the background current, potential window, and size or potential of the voltammetric signal. The exact potential window of the chip detector is dependent upon the driving voltage. Manipulation of the electroosmotic flow opens the door to hydrodynamic modulation (stopped-flow) and reversed-flow operations. The modulated analyte velocity permits compensation of the microchip voltammetric background. Reversal of the driving voltage polarity offers extended residence times in the detector compartment. Rapid square-wave voltammetry/flow injection operation allows a detection limit of 2 x 10(-12) mol (i.e., 2 pmol) of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in connection with 47 nL of injected sample. The ability of integrating chemical reactions with voltammetric detection is demonstrated for adsorptive stripping measurements of trace nickel using the nickel-dimethylglyoxime model system. The voltammetric response is characterized using catechol, hydrazine, TNT, and nickel as test species. The ability to perform on-chip voltammertic protocols in advantageous over nanovial voltammetric operations that lack a liquid-handling capability. Coupling the versatility of microfluidic chips with the rich information content of voltammetry thus opens an array of future opportunities.

  20. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, C.; Tamain, B.

    The intermediate energy heavy ion induced reactions are extensively studied for several years. In this paper, we try to summarize the present knowledge. The peripheral reactions appear to be intermediate between the fragmentation and the deep inelastic regimes. Many questions remain open concerning the energy relaxation mechanisms and an eventual participant zone creation. In the case of central collisions, it has been shown that very hot nuclei can be built. The fusion limits are discussed and the very hot nuclei properties are considered. In some cases, hot spot formation or compression effects could play a role. Multifragmentation is discussed as a possible decay channel. In all these aspects, a difficult question concerns the validity of the temperature concept and more generally of collective thermodynamical variables. Such collective effects have been investigated in pion production experiments. Les réactions induites par ions lourds d'énergie intermédiaire sont très étudiées depuis quelques années. Dans cet article, nous essayons de résumer l'état actuel des connaissances. Les mécanismes mis en jeu dans les collisions périphériques sont intermédiaires entre les collisions très inélastiques et la fragmentation. La cible joue clairement un rôle déterminant et des effets importants de champ moyen demeurent. De nombreuses questions restent sans réponse comme par exemple les mécanismes de relaxation d'énergie ou l'existence d'une éventuelle zone participante. Dans le cas des collisions centrales, il a pu être montré que des noyaux très chauds sont fabriqués. Les limites au processus de fusion et les propriétés des noyaux très chauds sont discutées. Dans certains cas, des effets de compression ou de points chauds peuvent être envisagés. La multifragmentation est une voie de désexcitation possible. Une importante question concerne la validité du concept de température et plus généralement la notion de variable collective

  1. Protein vivisection reveals elusive intermediates in folding

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2010-01-01

    Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu→Glu−) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We apply this strategy to Ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the β5 strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high energy states. PMID:20144618

  2. Cots Correlator Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Kjeld; Overeem, Ruud

    2004-06-01

    Moore’s law is best exploited by using consumer market hardware. In particular, the gaming industry pushes the limit of processor performance thus reducing the cost per raw flop even faster than Moore’s law predicts. Next to the cost benefits of Common-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) processing resources, there is a rapidly growing experience pool in cluster based processing. The typical Beowulf cluster of PC’s supercomputers are well known. Multiple examples exists of specialised cluster computers based on more advanced server nodes or even gaming stations. All these cluster machines build upon the same knowledge about cluster software management, scheduling, middleware libraries and mathematical libraries. In this study, we have integrated COTS processing resources and cluster nodes into a very high performance processing platform suitable for streaming data applications, in particular to implement a correlator. The required processing power for the correlator in modern radio telescopes is in the range of the larger supercomputers, which motivates the usage of supercomputer technology. Raw processing power is provided by graphical processors and is combined with an Infiniband host bus adapter with integrated data stream handling logic. With this processing platform a scalable correlator can be built with continuously growing processing power at consumer market prices.

  3. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  4. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  5. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  6. Intermediate Filaments: Structure and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the intermediate filament (IF) supergene family are ubiquitous structural components that comprise, in a cell type-specific manner, the cytoskeleton proper in animal tissues. All IF proteins show a distinctly organized, extended α-helical conformation prone to form two-stranded coiled coils, which are the basic building blocks of these highly flexible, stress-resistant cytoskeletal filaments. IF proteins are highly charged, thus representing versatile polyampholytes with multiple functions. Taking vimentin, keratins, and the nuclear lamins as our prime examples, we present an overview of their molecular and structural parameters. These, in turn, document the ability of IF proteins to form distinct, highly diverse supramolecular assemblies and biomaterials found, for example, at the inner nuclear membrane, throughout the cytoplasm, and in highly complex extracellular appendages, such as hair and nails, of vertebrate organisms. Ultimately, our aim is to set the stage for a more rational understanding of the immediate effects that missense mutations in IF genes have on cellular functions and for their far-reaching impact on the development of the numerous IF diseases caused by them.

  7. Geosynchronous platform definition study. Volume 5: Geosynchronous platform synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development is described of the platform configurations, support subsystems, mission equipment, and servicing concepts. A common support module is developed; subsystem concepts are traded off; data relay, TDRS, earth observational, astro-physics, and advanced navigation and traffic control mission equipment concepts are postulated; and ancillary equipment required for delivery and on-orbit servicing interfaces with geosynchronous platforms is grossly defined. The general approach was to develop a platform concept capable of evolving through three on-orbit servicing modes: remote, EVA, and shirtsleeve. The definition of the equipment is to the assembly level. Weight, power, and volumetric data are compiled for all the platforms.

  8. Enhancement of entropic transport by intermediates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debasish

    2011-07-01

    Brownian particles confined in a two-dimensional enclosure that give rise to a bistable entropic potential are considered. With the introduction of an intermediate lobe, the mean first passage time from one lobe to another through the intermediate shows a turnover behavior with the variation of the stability of the entropic intermediate. The mean escape time shows a minimum for an optimal value of the barrier height of the intermediate state. A three-state model is proposed to explain the nonmonotonic behavior of the entropic transport.

  9. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Karen M.; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Janmey, Paul A.; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A.; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail. PMID:26795478

  10. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  11. Intermediate-Band Photometric Luminosity Descrimination for M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, T. H.; Furiak, N. M.

    1995-12-01

    Synthetic photometry has been used to design an intermediate-band filter to be used with CCD cameras to facilitate the luminosity classification of M stars. Spectrophotometric data published by Gunn & Stryker (1983) were used to test various bandwidths and centers. Based on these calculations an intermediate-band filter has been purchased. This filter is being used in conjunction with standard BVRI filters to test its effectiveness in luminosity classification of M stars having a wide range of temperatures and different chemical compositions. The results of the theoretical calculations, filter design specifications and preliminary results of the testing program are presented. This research is supported in part by funds provided by Ball State University, The Fund for Astrophysical Research and the Indiana Academy of Science.

  12. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy: exploring reactive intermediates.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sangram Keshari; Umapathy, Siva; Parker, Anthony W

    2011-10-01

    The study of reaction mechanisms involves systematic investigations of the correlation between structure, reactivity, and time. The challenge is to be able to observe the chemical changes undergone by reactants as they change into products via one or several intermediates such as electronic excited states (singlet and triplet), radicals, radical ions, carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, nitrinium ions, etc. The vast array of intermediates and timescales means there is no single "do-it-all" technique. The simultaneous advances in contemporary time-resolved Raman spectroscopic techniques and computational methods have done much towards visualizing molecular fingerprint snapshots of the reactive intermediates in the microsecond to femtosecond time domain. Raman spectroscopy and its sensitive counterpart resonance Raman spectroscopy have been well proven as means for determining molecular structure, chemical bonding, reactivity, and dynamics of short-lived intermediates in solution phase and are advantageous in comparison to commonly used time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy. Today time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is a mature technique; its development owes much to the advent of pulsed tunable lasers, highly efficient spectrometers, and high speed, highly sensitive multichannel detectors able to collect a complete spectrum. This review article will provide a brief chronological development of the experimental setup and demonstrate how experimentalists have conquered numerous challenges to obtain background-free (removing fluorescence), intense, and highly spectrally resolved Raman spectra in the nanosecond to microsecond (ns-μs) and picosecond (ps) time domains and, perhaps surprisingly, laid the foundations for new techniques such as spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  13. Finding intermediates in the O2 activation pathways of non-heme iron oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, E G; Neibergall, M B; Chakrabarty, S; Lipscomb, J D

    2007-07-01

    Intermediates in the reaction cycle of an oxygenase are usually very informative with respect to the chemical mechanism of O 2 activation and insertion. However, detection of these intermediates is often complicated by their short lifetime and the regulatory mechanism of the enzyme designed to ensure specificity. Here, the methods used to detect the intermediates in an extradiol dioxygenase, a Rieske cis-dihydrodiol dioxygenase, and soluble methane monooxygenase are discussed. The methods include the use of alternative, chromophoric substrates, mutagenesis of active site catalytic residues, forced changes in substrate binding order, control of reaction rates using regulatory proteins, and initialization of catalysis in crystallo.

  14. Europa Science Platforms and Kinetic Energy Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, C. C.; Klein, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will outline a proposed mission for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The mission outlined will concentrate on an examination of Europa. Some of the primary science goals for the JIMO mission are: 1) to answer broad science questions, 2) improved knowledge of Jovian system; specifically, lunar geological and geophysical properties, 3) chemical composition of Jovian lunar surfaces and subterranean matter, and 4) the search for life. In order to address these issues, the experiment proposed here will deploy orbiting, surface, and subterranean science platforms.

  15. Europa Science Platforms and Kinetic Energy Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, C. C.; Klein, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will outline a proposed mission for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The mission outlined will concentrate on an examination of Europa. Some of the primary science goals for the JIMO mission are: 1) to answer broad science questions, 2) improved knowledge of Jovian system; specifically, lunar geological and geophysical properties, 3) chemical composition of Jovian lunar surfaces and subterranean matter, and 4) the search for life. In order to address these issues, the experiment proposed here will deploy orbiting, surface, and subterranean science platforms.

  16. Antarctic intermediate water circulation in the South Atlantic over the past 25,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Oppo, Delia W.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Blusztajn, Jurek

    2016-10-01

    Antarctic Intermediate Water is an essential limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation that redistributes heat and nutrients within the Atlantic Ocean. Existing reconstructions have yielded conflicting results on the history of Antarctic Intermediate Water penetration into the Atlantic across the most recent glacial termination. In this study we present leachate, foraminiferal, and detrital neodymium isotope data from three intermediate-depth cores collected from the southern Brazil margin in the South Atlantic covering the past 25 kyr. These results reveal that strong chemical leaching following decarbonation does not extract past seawater neodymium composition in this location. The new foraminiferal records reveal no changes in seawater Nd isotopes during abrupt Northern Hemisphere cold events at these sites. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence for greater incursion of Antarctic Intermediate Water into the South Atlantic during either the Younger Dryas or Heinrich Stadial 1. We do, however, observe more radiogenic Nd isotope values in the intermediate-depth South Atlantic during the mid-Holocene. This radiogenic excursion coincides with evidence for a southward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies that may have resulted in a greater entrainment of radiogenic Pacific-sourced water during intermediate water production in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Our intermediate-depth records show similar values to a deglacial foraminiferal Nd isotope record from the deep South Atlantic during the Younger Dryas but are clearly distinct during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadial 1, demonstrating that the South Atlantic remained chemically stratified during Heinrich Stadial 1.

  17. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  18. An Autonomous Platform Simulator (APS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    communications between vehicle sim- ulators, sufficient data is needed to display the platform on a remote simulator as well as model its movement. Information ...window manager interface, FOGM modeling , and the overall program structure. 2. The Firing Platform Simulator The Firing Platform Simulator was a class...brakes, and steering. 3. Vehicle Motion Modeling Realistically simulating the response of vehicles to controls, such as throttle and steering, and to

  19. Web Platform Application

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsworth, Ashley; Kurtz, Jim; Brun de Pontet, Stephanie

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  20. VERCE Seismologie Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, Horst; moguilny, genevieve; gemuend, andre

    2014-05-01

    The VERCE Seismology platform is a Science Gateway and infrastructure solution that supports seismology users to access private as well as compute and data resources of European e-infrastructures. We will present an overview of how this infrastructure is structured on top of the existing e-infrastructures and what the challenges and obstacles consist of. In addition to providing consistently well-behaving applications on different hardware and software environments, the project, for example, has to deal with different authentication and authorization methods, policies (security etc.), data transfers between administrative domains with different policies (e.g. from data centres to compute centres) and missing out-of-the-box support for complex workflows from the e-infrastructure providers. We will show which problems can already be solved today and which requirements for providers and code developers exist.

  1. Turbine blade platform seal

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Thomas W.; Schiavo, Anthony L.

    2001-01-01

    A rotating blade group 90 for a turbo-machine having an improved device for sealing the gap 110 between the edges 112,114 of adjacent blade platforms 96,104. The gap 110 between adjacent blades 92,100 is sealed by a seal pin 20 its central portion 110 and by a seal plate 58,60 at each of the front 54 and rear 56 portions. The seal plates 58,60 are inserted into corresponding grooves 62,64 formed in the adjacent edges 112,114 of adjoining blades 92,100 and held in place by end plates 40,42. The end of the seal plates 58,60 may be chamfered 78,80 to improve the seal against the end plate 40,42. The seal pin 20 provides the required damping between the blades 92,100 and the seal plates 58,60 provide improved sealing effectiveness.

  2. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  3. Intermediate filaments in nervous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Liem, RKH; Yen, S; Salomon, GD; Shelanski, ML

    1978-01-01

    Intermediate filaments have been isolated from rabbit intradural spinal nerve roots by the axonal flotation method. This method was modified to avoid exposure of axons to low ionic strength medium. The purified filaments are morphologically 75-80 percent pure. The gel electrophoretogram shows four major bands migrating at 200,000, 145,000, 68,000, and 60,000 daltons, respectively. A similar preparation from rabbit brain shows four major polypeptides with mol wt of 200,000 145,000, 68,000, and 51,000 daltons. These results indicate that the neurofilament is composed of a triplet of polypepetides with mol wt of 200,000, 145,000, and 68,000 daltons. The 51,000-dalton band that appears in brain filament preparations as the major polypeptide seems to be of glial origin. The significance of the 60,000- dalton band in the nerve root filament preparation is unclear at this time. Antibodies raised against two of the triplet proteins isolated from calf brain localize by immunofluorescence to neurons in central and peripheral nerve. On the other hand, an antibody to the 51,000-dalton polypeptide gives only glial staining in the brain, and very weak peripheral nerve staining. Prolonged exposure of axons to low ionic strength medium solubilizes almost all of the triplet polypeptides, leaving behind only the 51,000- dalton component. This would indicate that the neurofilament is soluble at low ionic strength, whereas the glial filament is not. These results indicate that neurofilaments and glial filaments are composed of different polypeptides and have different solubility characteristics. PMID:83322

  4. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources into Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-12-01

    Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be prepared in good yield from fructose. Two hydrogenation steps convert HMF into 1,6-hexanediol. Oppenauer oxidation converts this product into caprolactone, which in the past, has been converted into caprolactam in a large-scale industrial process by reaction with ammonia. An even more interesting platform chemical is levulinic acid (LA), which can be obtained directly from lignocellulose in good yield by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 200°C. Hydrogenation converts LA into gamma-valerolactone, which is ring-opened and esterified in a gas-phase process to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates in excellent selectivity. In a remarkable selective palladium-catalysed isomerising methoxycarbonylation, this mixture is converted in to dimethyl adipate, which is finally hydrolysed to adipic acid. Overall selectivities of both processes are extremely high. The conversion of lignin into chemicals is a much more complicated task in view of the complex nature of lignin. It was discovered that breakage of the most prevalent β-O-4 bond in lignin occurs not only via the well-documented C3 pathway, but also via a C2 pathway, leading to the formation of highly reactive phenylacetaldehydes. These compounds went largely unnoticed as they immediately recondense on lignin. We have now found that it is possible to prevent this by converting these aldehydes in a tandem reaction, as they are formed. For this purpose, we have used

  6. A spectroscopic sensing platform for MARCKS protein monolayers.

    PubMed

    Klug, Joaquín; Torresan, María Fernanda; Lurgo, Florencia; Borioli, Graciela; Lacconi, Gabriela I

    2017-12-15

    We developed a highly sensitive silicon platform, suitable to assess the molecular organization of protein samples. Prototype platforms were obtained using different electrochemical protocols for the electrodeposition of Ag-nanoparticles onto the hydrogenated silicon surface. A platform with high Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering efficiency was selected based on the surface coverage and the number density of particles size distribution. The performance of the platform was determined by studying the interaction of Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) protein with the substrate according to its molecular organization. The chemical and structural characteristics of MARCKS molecules were examined under two configurations: i) a disordered distribution given by a MARCKS solution drop deposited onto the platform and, ii) a compact monolayer transferred to the platform by the Langmuir-Blodgett method. Raman spectra show vibrational bands of Phenylalanine and Lysine residues specific for the protein effector domain, and evidence the presence of alpha helix structure in both configurations. Moreover, we distinguished the supramolecular order between the compact monolayer and random molecular distribution. The platforms containing Ag-nanoparticles are suitable for studies of protein structure and interactions, advancing a methodological strategy for our long term goal, which is to explore the interaction of proteins with model membranes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are presented for each of ten terminal objectives for a two-semester course (3 hours daily). This 540-hour intermediate course includes advanced troubleshooting techniques on outboard marine engines, inboard-outboard marine engines, inboard marine engines, boat…

  8. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  9. Radio and Television Servicing. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Guy; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 32 terminal objectives for an intermediate (second year) radio/TV servicing course. This 1-year course (3 hours daily) was designed to provide the student with the basic skills and knowledges necessary for entry level employment in the Radio/TV…

  10. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research.

  11. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  12. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  13. Liver resection for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng-Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Ji-Tong; Xu, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is regarded as the gold standard staging system for HCC, classifying HCC as early, intermediate, or advanced. For intermediate HCC, trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as the optimal strategy by the BCLC guideline. This review investigates whether liver resection is better than TACE for intermediate HCC. Based on published studies, we compare the survival benefits and complications of liver resection and TACE for intermediate HCC. We also compare the survival benefits of liver resection in early and intermediate HCC. We find that liver resection can achieve better or at least comparable survival outcomes compared with TACE for intermediate HCC; however, we do not observe a significant difference between liver resection and TACE in terms of safety and morbidity. We conclude that liver resection may improve the short- and long-term survival of carefully selected intermediate HCC patients, and the procedure may be safely performed in the management of intermediate HCC. PMID:27190577

  14. Business Machine Maintenance. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Robert

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 28 terminal objectives presented in this guide for an intermediate business machine maintenance course at the secondary level. (For the basic course guide see CE 010 949.) Titles of the 28 terminal objective sections are Career Opportunities,…

  15. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  16. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  17. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  18. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  19. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  20. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for an intermediate diesel mechanics course (two semesters, 3 hours daily) designed for high school students who upon completion would be ready for an on-the-job training experience in diesel service and repair. Through…

  1. Teaching Pronunciation in the Standard Intermediate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.

    Rationales and approaches for teaching pronunciation in the intermediate foreign language classroom are discussed. Pronunciation should be taught regularly and overtly because perfecting pronunciation is an essential part of learning to communicate, and because intermediate students have enough vocabulary to generalize pronunciation rules to new…

  2. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  3. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  4. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  6. Appliance Services. Intermediate Course. Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 16 terminal objectives for an intermediate appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (3 hours daily) covering the areas of refrigeration, maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting of refrigerators and air…

  7. Micro-chemical synthesis of molecular probes on an electronic microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Keng, Pei Yuin; Chen, Supin; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Shah, Gaurav J.; Dooraghi, Alex; Phelps, Michael E.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; van Dam, R. Michael

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an all-electronic digital microfluidic device for microscale chemical synthesis in organic solvents, operated by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). As an example of the principles, we demonstrate the multistep synthesis of [18F]FDG, the most common radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET), with high and reliable radio-fluorination efficiency of [18F]FTAG (88 ± 7%, n = 11) and quantitative hydrolysis to [18F]FDG (> 95%, n = 11). We furthermore show that batches of purified [18F]FDG can successfully be used for PET imaging in mice and that they pass typical quality control requirements for human use (including radiochemical purity, residual solvents, Kryptofix, chemical purity, and pH). We report statistical repeatability of the radiosynthesis rather than best-case results, demonstrating the robustness of the EWOD microfluidic platform. Exhibiting high compatibility with organic solvents and the ability to carry out sophisticated actuation and sensing of reaction droplets, EWOD is a unique platform for performing diverse microscale chemical syntheses in small volumes, including multistep processes with intermediate solvent-exchange steps. PMID:22210110

  8. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Florian; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection. PMID:27355965

  9. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  10. 4,6-Dinitrobenzofuroxan, an Important Explosive Intermediate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    KHCO 3/1420 .. N 0-’ IN+ c 02N N 0- 0- DNBF KDNBF DNBF is an explosive (5,6] but the main interest in this compound has been as an intermediate to the...the explosives literature as KDNBF **, We have chosen here to retain the name commonly used in the explosives literature. Chemical Abstracts lists DNBF...explosive materials, we have been studying the preparation of structural analogues of KDNBF . In these studies we have examined changes in the metal ion (from

  11. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  12. Microbial metabolomics in open microscale platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barkal, Layla J.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Guo, Chun-Jun; Spraker, Joe; Rappert, Lucas; Berthier, Jean; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Beebe, David J.; Keller, Nancy P.; Berthier, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    The microbial secondary metabolome encompasses great synthetic diversity, empowering microbes to tune their chemical responses to changing microenvironments. Traditional metabolomics methods are ill-equipped to probe a wide variety of environments or environmental dynamics. Here we introduce a class of microscale culture platforms to analyse chemical diversity of fungal and bacterial secondary metabolomes. By leveraging stable biphasic interfaces to integrate microculture with small molecule isolation via liquid–liquid extraction, we enable metabolomics-scale analysis using mass spectrometry. This platform facilitates exploration of culture microenvironments (including rare media typically inaccessible using established methods), unusual organic solvents for metabolite isolation and microbial mutants. Utilizing Aspergillus, a fungal genus known for its rich secondary metabolism, we characterize the effects of culture geometry and growth matrix on secondary metabolism, highlighting the potential use of microscale systems to unlock unknown or cryptic secondary metabolites for natural products discovery. Finally, we demonstrate the potential for this class of microfluidic systems to study interkingdom communication between fungi and bacteria. PMID:26842393

  13. Sensing platforms for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shijie; Naik, Gautam; Chen, Zhongbi; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2013-04-01

    The emerging concept of structural health management relies on extensive onboard diagnostic sensors that can provide near real-time information about the state of a structure so that informed prognostic assessment can be made of the continuing reliability of the structure. In this paper, we will discuss two types of sensing platforms that can provide valuable information about the state of a structure: 1D fiber-optic sensors and 2D thin-film sensors. Both fiber-optic and thin film sensors are easily integrated with structures, and can offer local and/or distributed sensing capabilities. Parameters that can be sensed include: static and dynamic strain, acoustic emission, vibration, corrosion products, moisture ingression etc. We will first describe some recent developments in dynamic strain sensing using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Applications to detection of acoustic emission and impact will be described. In the area of chemical sensing, we will describe a nanofilm-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) long-period grating (LPG) sensing platform. PCF-LPG sensors can be designed to provide greater interaction between the analyte of interest and the light propagating in the fiber, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. Applications to humidity sensing will be described. Finally, 2D thin-film sensors on polymer substrates will be discussed. One type of sensor we have been fabricating is based on reduced graphene oxide for large-area chemical sensing applications. It is expected that these 1D and 2D sensing platforms will form part of a suite of sensors that can provide diagnostic structural health information.

  14. Variability in eastern equatorial Pacific intermediate water circulation during the last glacial termination: the impact of high latitude climate on equatorial stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bova, S. C.; Herbert, T.; Mojarro, A.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) is linked directly to the Southern High latitudes through an oceanic tunneling system that transports Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) directly into the equatorial and Peru Margin upwelling systems (Toggweiler et al. 1991). These intermediate water masses form within the subantarctic zone and flow north, propagating signals of high latitude climate to the low latitude ocean (Kessler 2006). Their heat and salinity content are transported conservatively along their flow path and the high nutrient content of these waters support up to three-fourths of all biological production north of 30°S (Fiedler and Talley 2006, Sarmiento et al. 2004). Thus, variations in the physio-chemical properties and/or transport of these water masses into the low latitude thermocline have vast implications for oceanic heat transport, primary production, and global nutrient cycles (e.g CO2 and N). Here we assess the physio-chemical response of these Southern Ocean intermediate waters to high latitude forcing during the last glacial termination and the impact of these changes on EEP subsurface structure. Alkenone sea surface temperature reconstructions and benthic foraminiferal stable isotopic records from four rapidly accumulating sediment cores from the EEP cold tongue document variation in temperature and salinity gradients at three intermediate water depths (370, 600, and 1000 m). Our records provide evidence for substantial change in water column structure during the last glacial termination. Regional stratification decreased significantly during the deglacial (11-18 ka) relative to the last glacial period and the Holocene due to asynchronous warming of the EEP water column. Deglacial warming began first at 1000 m depth at ~18.2 ka, in phase with southern hemisphere temperatures, while surface warming experienced a 1-2 kyr delay. Additionally, we observe a convergence of oxygen and carbon isotopes across

  15. Reduction of matrix interferences in furnace atomic absorption with the L'vov Platform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaiser, M.L.; Koirtyohann, S.R.; Hinderberger, E.J.; Taylor, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    Use of a modified L'vov Platform and ammonium phosphate as a matrix modifier greatly reduced matrix interferences in a commercial Massmann-type atomic absorption furnace. Platforms were readily fabricated from furnace tubes and, once positioned in the furnace, caused no inconvenience in operation. Two volatile elements (Pb, Cd), two of intermediate volatility (Co, Cr) and two which form stable oxides (Al, Sn) were tested in natural water and selected synthetic matrices. In every case for which there was a significant matrix effect during atomization from the tube wall, the platform and platform plus modifier gave improved performance. With lead, for example, an average ratio of 0.48 ?? 0.11 was found when the slope of the standard additions plot for six different natural water samples was compared to the slope of the standard working curve in dilute acid. The average slope ratio between the natural water matrices and the dilute acid matrix was 0.94 ?? 0.03 with the L'vov Platform and 0.96 ?? 0.03 with the platform and matrix modifier. In none of the cases studied did the use of the platform or platform plus modifier cause an interference problem where none existed while atomizing from the tube wall. An additional benefit of the platform was a factor of about two improvement in peak height precision. ?? 1981.

  16. The BIRD payload platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Ingo; Briess, Klaus; Baerwald, Wolfgang; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Schrandt, Fredrich

    2003-04-01

    For hot spot events as forest fires, volcanic activity or burning oil spills and coal seams a dedicate dspace instrumentation does not exist. With its successful launch end of October 2001 with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle the German Aerospace Center starts closing this gap with the micro-satellite mission BIRD. As space segment serves a three-axis stabilized satellite of 92 kg including a contingent of over 30% for the scientific instruments. The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed Hot Spot Recognition System. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal IR imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturization by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. A complement for the hot spot detection is the wide-angle stereo-scanner WAOSS-B. It is a hardware re-use dedicated to vegetation and cloud assessment in the visible spectral range. Besides the main objective of hot spot detection the mission has to answer several technological questions of the operation of cooled detectors in space, special aspects of their adaptation to the satellite platform as well as their calibration.

  17. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Using aptamers evolved from cell-SELEX to engineer a molecular delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Mallikaratchy, Prabodhika; Liu, Haipeng; Huang, Yu Fen; Wang, Hui; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Tan, Weihong

    2009-06-07

    We report a chemically modified construct of the Sgc8 aptamer, selected against CEM cells, conjugated to an activator platform for stimulated release of molecules at the tumor surface using DNA template assisted functional group transfer reactions (DTGTR).

  19. Structural evidence for an enolate intermediate in GFP fluorophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barondeau, David P; Tainer, John A; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2006-03-15

    The Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) creates a fluorophore from its component amino acids Ser65, Tyr66, and Gly67 through a remarkable post-translational modification, involving spontaneous peptide backbone cyclization, dehydration, and oxidation reactions. Here we test and extend the understanding of fluorophore biosynthesis by coupling chemical reduction and anaerobic methodologies with kinetic analyses and protein structure determination. Two high-resolution structures of dithionite-treated GFP variants reveal a previously uncharacterized enolate intermediate form of the chromophore that is viable in generating a fluorophore (t1/2 = 39 min-1) upon exposure to air. Isolation of this enolate intermediate will now allow specific probing of the rate-limiting oxidation step for fluorophore biosynthesis in GFP and its red fluorescent protein homologues. Such targeted characterizations may lead to the design of faster maturing proteins with enhanced applications in biotechnology and cell biology. Moreover, our results reveal how the GFP protein environment mimics enzyme systems, by stabilizing an otherwise high energy enolate intermediate to achieve its post-translational modification.

  20. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    PubMed Central

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443