Science.gov

Sample records for plating thickness standards

  1. Variable thickness double-refracting plate

    DOEpatents

    Hadeishi, Tetsuo

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides an A.C., cyclic, current-controlled, phase retardation plate that uses a magnetic clamp to produce stress birefringence. It was developed for an Isotope-Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometer that uses polarization modulation to effect automatic background correction in atomic absorption trace-element measurements. To this end, the phase retardation plate of the invention is a variable thickness, photoelastic, double-refracting plate that is alternately stressed and released by the magnetic clamp selectively to modulate specific components selected from the group consisting of circularly and plane polarized Zeeman components that are produced in a dc magnetic field so that they correspond respectively to Zeeman reference and transmission-probe absorption components. The polarization modulation changes the phase of these polarized Zeeman components, designated as .sigma. reference and .pi. absorption components, so that every half cycle the components change from a transmission mode to a mode in which the .pi. component is blocked and the .sigma. components are transmitted. Thus, the Zeeman absorption component, which corresponds in amplitude to the amount of the trace element to be measured in a sample, is alternately transmitted and blocked by a linear polarizer, while the circularly polarized reference components are continuously transmitted thereby. The result is a sinusoidally varying output light amplitude whose average corresponds to the amount of the trace element present in the sample.

  2. 49 CFR 179.200-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bursting pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179... strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.200-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate in inches... strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.200-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate......

  3. 49 CFR 179.100-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i., as prescribed in § 179.100-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate in inches after forming. (b) If plates are clad with material having tensile strength... determining thickness. If cladding material does not have tensile strength at least equal to the base...

  4. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  5. Plate Thickness Variation Effects on Crack Growth Rates in 7050-T7451 Alloy Thick Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubbe, Joel J.

    2011-02-01

    A study has been accomplished to characterize the fatigue crack growth rates and mechanisms in thick plate (16.51 cm) commercial grade 7050-T7451 aluminum plate in the L-S orientation. Examination of the effects of potential property gradients in the plate material was accomplished through hardness measurements along the short transverse direction and with compact tension tests. Tests exhibited a distinct trend of reduced center plane hardness in the plates. Compact tension specimens and the compliance method were used to determine crack growth rates for specimens machined from the t/4 and t/2 planar locations and oriented for L-S crack growth. Crack growth rate data (long crack) from the tests highlighted significant growth rate differences between the t/4 and t/2 locations. No significant effect of R-ratio was observed in the 0.05-0.3 range tested. Additionally, crack front splitting was noted in all specimens to differing degrees with data showing significant retardation of growth rate curves for the L-S orientation above 13 MPa √m in the center plane, and 10 MPa √m at quarter plane, where branching and splitting parallel to the load axis are dominant growth mechanisms.

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required bursting pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed... pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in psi as prescribed in AAR Specifications... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thickness of plates. 179.220-6 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 179.300-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psig; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.300-7; t = minimum thickness of plate material in inches after forming. (b) For class DOT-106A tanks, the wall... stress in psig (c) If plates are clad with material having tensile strength at least equal to the...

  8. Design of a Variable Thickness Plate to Focus Bending Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Cabell, Randolph H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a thin plate whose thickness is tailored in order to focus bending waves to a desired location on the plate. Focusing is achieved by smoothly varying the thickness of the plate to create a type of lens, which focuses structural-borne energy. Damping treatment can then be positioned at the focal point to efficiently dissipate energy with a minimum amount of treatment. Numerical simulations of both bounded and unbounded plates show that the design is effective over a broad frequency range, focusing traveling waves to the same region of the plate regardless of frequency. This paper also quantifies the additional energy dissipated by local damping treatment installed on a variable thickness plate relative to a uniform plate.

  9. Overriding plate thickness control on subducting slab curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, A.; Buffett, B. A.; Becker, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    The curvature of subducting lithosphere controls deformation due to bending at the trench, which results in a force that dissipates gravitational potential energy and may affect seismic coupling. We use 2-D, thermo-mechanical subduction models to explore the dependence of the radius of curvature on the thickness of the subducting and overriding plates for models with both viscous and effectively plastic lithospheric rheologies. Such a plastic rheology has been shown to reproduce the bending stresses/moment computed using a kinematic strain rate description and a laboratory derived composite rheology. Laboratory and numerical models show that the bending geometry of subducting slabs with a viscous rheology is strongly dependent on slab thickness; thicker plates have a larger radius of curvature. However, the curvature of subducting plates on Earth, illuminated by the distribution of earthquake hypocenters, shows little to no dependence on the plate thickness or age. Such an observation is instead compatible with plates that have a plastic rheology. Indeed, our numerical models show that the radius of curvature of viscous plates has a stronger dependence on subducting plate thickness than in equivalent plastic models. In viscous plates, the bending moment produces a torque, which balances the torque exerted by buoyancy. However, for the plastic plate case the bending moment saturates at a maximum value and so cannot balance the gravitational torque. The saturation of bending moment means that, (a) the radius of curvature of the bending region is not constrained by this torque balance, and, (b) other forces are required to balance the gravitational torque. We explore the role that the overriding plate could play in controlling the subducting plate curvature in plastic plate models where the bending stresses have saturated. For such plates, we find that increasing the thickness of the overriding plate causes the radius of curvature to increase. The same correlation is

  10. Thick plate flexure. [for lithospheric models of Mars and earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the displacements and stresses due to loading of a floating, uniform, elastic plate of arbitrary thickness by a plane or axisymmetric harmonic load. The solution is exact except for assumptions of small strains and linear boundary conditions, and gravitation within the plate is neglected. For typical earth parameters its predictions are comparable to those of the usual thin plate theory frequently assumed in studies of lithospheric flexure, gravity and regional isostasy. Even for a very thick lithosphere, which may exist in some regions of Mars, the thin plate theory is a better approximation to the thick plate solution than the elastic half-space limit, except for short-wavelength loads.

  11. 49 CFR 179.300-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bursting pressure in psig; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.300-7; t = minimum thickness of plate material in inches after forming. (b) For class DOT-106A tanks... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  12. Modelling ultrasound guided wave propagation for plate thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Rakesh; Dabak, Anand; Murthy, Nitish Krishna

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health monitoring refers to monitoring the health of plate-like walls of large reactors, pipelines and other structures in terms of corrosion detection and thickness estimation. The objective of this work is modeling the ultrasonic guided waves generated in a plate. The piezoelectric is excited by an input pulse to generate ultrasonic guided lamb waves in the plate that are received by another piezoelectric transducer. In contrast with existing methods, we develop a mathematical model of the direct component of the signal (DCS) recorded at the terminals of the piezoelectric transducer. The DCS model uses maximum likelihood technique to estimate the different parameters, namely the time delay of the signal due to the transducer delay and amplitude scaling of all the lamb wave modes due to attenuation, while taking into account the received signal spreading in time due to dispersion. The maximum likelihood estimate minimizes the energy difference between the experimental and the DCS model-generated signal. We demonstrate that the DCS model matches closely with experimentally recorded signals and show it can be used to estimate thickness of the plate. The main idea of the thickness estimation algorithm is to generate a bank of DCS model-generated signals, each corresponding to a different thickness of the plate and then find the closest match among these signals to the received signal, resulting in an estimate of the thickness of the plate. Therefore our approach provides a complementary suite of analytics to the existing thickness monitoring approaches.

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... diameter in inches; E = 0.9 Welded joint efficiency; except E=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum required....200-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate in inches after forming. (b) The wall thickness after forming...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY..., whichever is greater: t = Pd / 2SE Where: t = minimum thickness of plate, after forming, in inches; P... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any...

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY..., whichever is greater: t = Pd / 2SE Where: t = minimum thickness of plate, after forming, in inches; P... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... diameter in inches; E = 0.9 Welded joint efficiency; except E=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum required....200-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate in inches after forming. (b) The wall thickness after forming...

  17. 49 CFR 179.200-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... diameter in inches; E = 0.9 Welded joint efficiency; exceptE=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum required....200-7; t = Minimum thickness of plate in inches after forming. (b) The wall thickness after forming...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY..., whichever is greater: t = Pd / 2SE Where: t = minimum thickness of plate, after forming, in inches; P... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any...

  19. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Zeynab E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu; Ozevin, Didem E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu

    2015-03-31

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  20. An advanced theory of moderately thick plate vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjanović, Ivo; Vladimir, Nikola; Tomić, Marko

    2013-04-01

    In thick plate vibration theory, the governing equations are stated with a system of three partial differential equations of motion with total deflection, which consists of bending deflection and shear contribution, and angles of rotation as fundamental variables. Most of the methods deal with these three equations, some of them with two, and recently a solution based on one equation has been offered. In the present paper, a system of three equations for a moderately thick plate is reduced to a single equation in terms of bending deflection only as a fundamental variable. Shear deflection and angles of rotation depend on bending deflection as a potential function. A simple formula for natural frequencies of a simply supported plate is derived. A characteristic equation is also obtained for a plate with simply supported two opposite edges. Numerical results for a simply supported plate and a plate clamped on the two remaining opposite edges are compared with those known in literature, for different aspect ratios and relative thickness, and very good agreement is achieved.

  1. Propagation of thickness-twist waves in elastic plates with periodically varying thickness and phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Chen, Weiqiu; Yang, Jiashi

    2014-09-01

    We study the propagation of thickness-twist (TT) waves in a crystal plate of AT-cut quartz with periodically varying, piecewise constant thickness. The scalar differential equation by Tiersten and Smythe is employed. The problem is found to be mathematically equivalent to the motion of an electron in a periodic potential field governed by Schrodinger's equation. An analytical solution is obtained. Numerical results show that the eigenvalue (frequency) spectrum of the waves has a band structure with allowed and forbidden bands. Therefore, for TT waves, plates with periodically varying thickness can be considered as phononic crystals. The effects of various parameters on the frequency spectrum are examined. PMID:24924785

  2. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Isotropic Thick Plates Using Mindlin Plate Characteristic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kim, K. C.

    1995-11-01

    An iterative Kantorovich method is presented for the vibration analysis of rectangular isotropic thick plates. Mindlin plate characteristic functions are derived in general forms by the Kantorovich method initially starting with Timoshenko beam functions consistent with the boundary conditions of the plate. Through numerical calculations of a natural pairs and dynamic responses of appropriate models, it has been confirmed that the method presented is superior to the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis or the FEM analysis in accuracy and computational efficiency.

  3. 49 CFR 179.220-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = Inside diameter in inches; E = 0.9 welded joint efficiency; except E=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum... in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M, Table M1; t = Minimum thickness of plate in...

  4. 49 CFR 179.220-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = Inside diameter in inches; E = 0.9 welded joint efficiency; except E=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum... in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M, Table M1; t = Minimum thickness of plate in...

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = Inside diameter in inches; E = 0.9 welded joint efficiency; except E=1.0 for seamless heads; P = Minimum... in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M, Table M1; t = Minimum thickness of plate in...

  6. Growth defects in thick ion-plated coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial ion plating conditions were selected to deposit metallic coatings such as copper, gold, and chromium 2 micrometer thick on metal and glass substrates. The surface finishes of 304 stainless steel, copper, and brass were utilized with mechanically and electrolytically polished surfaces. Nodular growth occurred in these coatings during ion plating as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Surface irregularities such as scratches, steps, ledges, and so forth are responsible for outward growth, the typical cone type, whereas surface contaminants and loosely settled foreign particles are responsible for lateral growth; namely, the extreme localized surface outgrowths. These defect crystallographic features create porosity in the coatings when subjected to stresses and strains.

  7. Transverse vibration of trapezoidal plates of variable thickness - Symmetric trapezoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, K. M.; Lim, M. K.

    1993-07-01

    A set of simple 2D polynomial functions is employed as the admissible displacement function in the Rayleigh-Ritz energy approach for the free transverse vibration analysis of symmetric trapezoidal plates with linearly varying thickness. The admissible function consists the product of a 2D polynomial function and a basic function defined by the product of the equations of the prescribed continuous piecewise boundary shape, each raised to the power of 0, 1 or 2 (corresponding to a free, simply supported, or clamped edge, respectively). The set of functions generated ensures the satisfaction of all the kinematic boundary conditions at the outset. The proposed method is applied to solve several symmetric trapezoidal plates with different combinations of boundary conditions and variable thickness. The results, for some cases, are compared with the available published values from the open literature. These new results may serve as benchmark data for the development of other numerical methods.

  8. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  9. Changes in Flat Plate Wake Characteristics Obtained With Decreasing Plate Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for four different Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and at constant plate length. The value of ?/D varies by a factor of approximately 20 in the computations (? being the boundary layer momentum thickness at the trailing edge). The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in wake characteristics as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing ?/D). Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low ?/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the largest ?/D case (for all practical purposes shedding becomes almost intermittent). Other characteristics that are significantly altered with increasing ?/D are the roll-up of the detached shear layers and the magnitude of fluctuations in shedding period. These effects are explored in depth. The effects of changing ?/D on the distributions of the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics are discussed.

  10. Laser damage measurement of thick silica plates using a new laser injection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penninckx, D.; Diaz, R.; Bonville, O.; Courchinoux, R.; Lamaignère, L.; Luce, J.

    2016-07-01

    Some silica plates of high power nanosecond lasers may be a few centimeter thick for instance because they should sustain vacuum. Measuring laser-induced damage thresholds at the output surface of these thick silica plates is a complex task because non-linear laser propagation effects may occur inside the plate which prevents knowing accurately the fluence at the output. Two non-linear effects have to be considered: stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Kerr effect. SBS is mainly driven by the spectral power density of the pulses: if the spectral power density is below a threshold, SBS is negligible. Thus, spectral broadening is required. Kerr effect depends on the instantaneous intensity. Hence, a smooth temporal shape without overshoots is required. However, both conditions (wide spectrum and no overshoots) are impossible to fulfill with standard lasers. As a matter of fact, an injected laser has a smooth temporal profile but is spectrally narrow. Without injection, the laser is multimode yielding a wide spectrum but a chaotic temporal profile. We solved the problem by phase-modulating a continuous-wave seeder of our laser (patent pending). The phasemodulation frequency is adjusted to a multiple of the inverse of the round-trip time of the laser cavity. The laser pulses have a wide spectrum to suppress SBS and do not exhibit temporal overshoots to reduce Kerr effects. During the presentation, we will show the features of the laser pulses and laser-induced damage measurements of thick silica plates using this scheme.

  11. Vibration of variable thickness orthotropic plates using eigensensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, O. Jr.; Raouf, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    An approximate closed-form expression is presented which can be used to compute the fundamental frequency of specially orthotropic laminates having a linearly varying thickness. The desired expression is determined by casting the governing differential equation into discrete form using the Ritz method and expanding the discrete equations in a Maclaurin series about the off-diagonal elements of both the stiffness and mass matrices. Fundamental frequencies are computed for a combination of simply-supported and clamped boundary conditions using both beam shape functions and orthogonal polynomials as the admissible basis. Results are compared with those obtained numerically using the Rayleigh-Ritz approach for several laminate tapers {xi} and plate aspect ratios R.

  12. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  13. The Timoshenko-Reissner generalized model of a plate highly nonuniform in thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, N. F.; Tovstik, P. E.; Tovstik, T. P.

    2016-08-01

    A thin plate fabricated of material that is transversally isotropic and nonuniform in thickness is considered. The model of the monolayer transversally homogeneous isotropic plate, which is approximately equivalent to a thickness-nonuniform plate in the deflection and in the lowest frequencies of free vibrations, is constructed. The range of applicability of the model constructed is very wide. The main result of this study is a formula for calculating the transverse-shear rigidity of an equivalent transversally isotropic plate.

  14. Approximate three-dimensional analysis of rectangular thick laminated plates - Bending, vibration and buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Y. K.; Kong, J.

    1993-04-01

    A global-local approach is proposed to analyze thick laminated plates. This approach treats a thick laminated plate as a three-dimensional inhomogeneous anisotropic elastic body. The cross-section of a laminated plate is first discretized into conventional eight-node elements. The interpolation function along the span of the plate is defined by the cubic B3-spline function. The displacement functions can be expressed as the product of the usual isoparametric shape functions and the spline function. A set of global polynomials of an appropriate order is selected to transform the nodal variables of the cross-section to a much smaller set of generalized parameters associated with the polynomials. These parameters can be obtained by means of the standard Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The total number of unknowns involved is drastically reduced with a minor sacrifice of accuracy. The six components of stresses, the fundamental natural frequencies, and the critical buckling loads can be determined with acceptable accuracy. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the global-local procedures.

  15. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tensile strength of the plate material, as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank Cars, appendix M... inches; S = minimum tensile strength of the plate material, as prescribed in AAR Specifications for Tank... = inside knuckle radius, in inches; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material, as prescribed in...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; P = Minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p... in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.200-7; t... pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.200-7;...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bursting pressure in p.s.i.; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i., as prescribed in... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS... material having tensile strength properties at least equal to the base plate, the cladding may...

  18. 49 CFR 179.220-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... heads; P = Minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in... = Minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = Minimum tensile strength of plate material in psi as... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  19. A Mindlin-Reissner variational principle to analyze the behavior of moderately thick plates

    SciTech Connect

    Carnicer, R.S. ); Alliney, S. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present work a method to solve the plate behavior under the assumption of the Mindlin plate theory is analyzed by means of finite element techniques, avoiding the tendency of the thin element to lock when the thickness of the plates becomes very small. A different formulation is developed from the Mindlin-Reissner principle for general boundary conditions. Numerical examples to evaluate the noninfluence of locking on clamped and simple support plates are calculated.

  20. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    SciTech Connect

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  1. 49 CFR 179.300-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; P = minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.300-7;...

  2. 49 CFR 179.300-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; P = minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.300-7;...

  3. 49 CFR 179.300-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... = inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; P = minimum required bursting pressure in psig; S = minimum tensile strength of plate material in p.s.i. as prescribed in § 179.300-7;...

  4. Transverse vibration of a quarter of a circular plate with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Saxena, V.

    1995-05-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz method has been employed to find the first three frequencies of free flexural vibration of a plate in the form of a quadrant of a circle and of thickness varying quadratically with radial distance. The results for constant thickness and linearly varying thickness have been obtained as special cases. The three edges of the plate have been taken as clamped, simply supported or free. This gives rise to 18 different cases. Previous results are available only for a few simple cases of uniform thickness which agree well with our results. Graphs and tables are given to depict the effect of various parameters on the frequencies and mode shapes.

  5. Energy trapping of thickness-shear vibration modes of elastic plates with functionally graded materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-03-01

    Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.

  6. Variation of strain energy release rate with plate thickness. [fracture mode transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Hartranft, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical model of a through-thickness crack in a statically stretched plate is presented in which the crack front stress state is permitted to vary in the direction of the plate thickness. The amplitude or intensity of this stress field can be made nearly constant over a major portion of the interior crack front which is in a state of plane strain. The average amount of work available for extending a small segment of the crack across the thickness is associated with an energy release rate quantity in a manner similar to the two-dimensional Griffith crack model. The theoretically calculated energy release rate is shown to increase with increasing plate thickness, indicating that available work for crack extension is higher in a thicker plate.

  7. Effect of mechanical restraint on weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel thick plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Kawahito, Yousuke; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Katayama, Seiji

    2011-10-01

    As one of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, the weldability of thick F82H plate was experimentally examined using new heat sources in order to minimize the total heat input energy in comparison with TIG welding. A full penetration of 32 mm thick plate could be produced as a combination of a 12 mm deep first layer generated by a 10 kW fiber laser beam and upper layers deposited by a plasma MIG hybrid welding with Ar + 2%O shielding gas. Also, the effect of mechanical restraint on the weldability under EB welding of thick F82H plate was studied by using FEM to select an appropriate specimen size for the basic test. The appropriate and minimum size for the basic test of weldability under EB welding of 90 mm thick plate might be 200 mm in length and 400 mm in width where the welding length should be about 180 mm.

  8. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical

  9. The displacement field in the vibration analysis of laminated thick plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Narita, Yoshihiro

    1995-11-01

    The present paper discusses the assumption of displacement fields used in the vibration analysis of FRP laminated thick plates. For this purpose, the strain and kinetic energies of a FRP cross-ply laminated plate are evaluated analytically based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, and the displacements of the rectangular plate, which are simply-supported at all edges, are expanded into the polynomial forms with respect to thickness coordinate. A frequency equation is formulated by using the energy method minimizing the Lagrange function. In the numerical calculations, natural frequencies are obtained for the plates with various stacking sequence and the thickness ratios, and the validity of the assumption of displacement fields and the range of applicability of the various plate theories (e.g. the Classical Plate Theory (CPT), the First-Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and the Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDT)), which are widely used in the vibration analysis of FRP laminated plates, to the laminated thick plates are discussed by comparing the present results with the CPT and the FSDT solutions.

  10. Estimating the convergence rate for eigenfrequencies of anisotropic plates with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Serguei A.

    Estimates of the differences between rescaled eigenvalues of the spectral problem for a thin anisotropic plate and eigenvalues of its two-dimensional models are obtained with bounds expressed in terms of the plate's thickness and attributes of the limit eigenvalue. To cite this article: S.A. Nazarov, C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 603-607.

  11. Oscillating layer thickness and vortices generated in oscillation of finite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, V. K.; Wong, I. K.

    2016-06-01

    Moving mesh strategy is used in the model of flow induced by oscillating finite plate through software - COMSOL Multiphysics. Flow is assumed to be laminar and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is used for moving mesh in the simulation. Oscillating layer thickness is found which is different from the analytical solution by 2 to 3 times depends on the oscillating frequency. Vortices are also observed near the oscillating finite plate because of the edge effect of the finite plate.

  12. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  13. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the outer jacket shell may not be less than 7/16 inch. The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of the outer jacket heads may not be less than 1/2 inch and they must be made from steel specified in § 179.16(c). The annular space is to be evacuated, and the cylindrical portion of the outer...

  14. 46 CFR 32.59-1 - Minimum section modulus and plating thickness requirements-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1. (c) For all vessels except those limited on their... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Minimum Longitudinal Strength and Plating Thickness...-percent midship length, the average flange and web thicknesses of each longitudinal stiffener must be...

  15. Vibration and damping of laminated, composite-material plates including thickness-shear effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.; Siu, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation of sinusoidally forced vibration of laminated, anisotropic plates including bending-stretching coupling, thickness-shear flexibility, all three types of inertia effects, and material damping is presented. In the analysis the effects of thickness-shear deformation are considered by the use of a shear correction factor K, analogous to that used by Mindlin for homogeneous plates. Two entirely different approaches for calculating the thickness-shear factor for a laminate are presented. Numerical examples indicate that the value of K depends on the layer properties and the stacking sequence of the laminate.

  16. Understanding the antimicrobial activity behind thin- and thick-rolled copper plates.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basit; Ahire, Jayesh J; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of the surfaces of copper plates that were rolled to a thickness of 25 and 100 μm. Differences in topology of 25- and 100-μm-thick copper plates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Antibacterial activity of the copper surfaces was tested against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus sp. BY1, Enterococcus sp. BY2, and Bacillus cereus BY3. Changes in viable cell numbers were determined by plating onto optimal growth media and staining with LIVE/DEAD BacLight™. Changes in metabolic activity were recorded by expression of the luciferase (lux) gene. Cell morphology was studied using SEM. Accumulation and diffusion of copper from cells were recorded using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Lipid and protein oxidation were recorded spectrophotometrically. Surfaces of 25-μm-thick copper plates were rough compared to that of 100-μm-thick copper plates. For most species, a five-log reduction in cell numbers, cell membrane instability, and a decline in metabolic activity were recorded after 15 min of exposure to 25-μm-thick copper plates. Copper accumulated in the cells, and lipids and proteins were oxidized. The rough surface of thinner copper plates (25 μm thick) released more copper and was more antimicrobial compared to thicker (100 μm) copper plates. Cell death was attributed to destabilization of the cell membrane, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation.

  17. Understanding the antimicrobial activity behind thin- and thick-rolled copper plates.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Basit; Ahire, Jayesh J; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of the surfaces of copper plates that were rolled to a thickness of 25 and 100 μm. Differences in topology of 25- and 100-μm-thick copper plates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Antibacterial activity of the copper surfaces was tested against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus sp. BY1, Enterococcus sp. BY2, and Bacillus cereus BY3. Changes in viable cell numbers were determined by plating onto optimal growth media and staining with LIVE/DEAD BacLight™. Changes in metabolic activity were recorded by expression of the luciferase (lux) gene. Cell morphology was studied using SEM. Accumulation and diffusion of copper from cells were recorded using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Lipid and protein oxidation were recorded spectrophotometrically. Surfaces of 25-μm-thick copper plates were rough compared to that of 100-μm-thick copper plates. For most species, a five-log reduction in cell numbers, cell membrane instability, and a decline in metabolic activity were recorded after 15 min of exposure to 25-μm-thick copper plates. Copper accumulated in the cells, and lipids and proteins were oxidized. The rough surface of thinner copper plates (25 μm thick) released more copper and was more antimicrobial compared to thicker (100 μm) copper plates. Cell death was attributed to destabilization of the cell membrane, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. PMID:26860943

  18. Influence of the Poisson Ratio on the Natural Frequencies of Stepped-Thickness Circular Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-JUMAILY, A. M.; JAMEEL, K.

    2000-07-01

    The natural frequencies of simply supported and clamped, stepped-thickness plates are determined using classical plate solutions with exact continuity conditions at the step. The effect of incorporating the Poisson ratio in the continuity conditions on the natural frequencies for nodal diameters, 0, 1 and nodal interior circle numbers 0, 1, 2 is thoroughly investigated. For engineering applications, a design criterion is proposed for simply supported and clamped plates based on an approximate linear model for the natural frequencies. The literature lacks experimental results on this type of plates. Hence, in this paper experimental results are presented for four models with two Poisson's ratios and prove their consistency with the proposed criterion.

  19. Damage assessment and residual compression strength of thick composite plates with through-the-thickness reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1990-01-01

    Damage in composite materials was studied with through-the-thickness reinforcements. As a first step it was necessary to develop new ultrasonic imaging technology to better assess internal damage of the composite. A useful ultrasonic imaging technique was successfully developed to assess the internal damage of composite panels. The ultrasonic technique accurately determines the size of the internal damage. It was found that the ultrasonic imaging technique was better able to assess the damage in a composite panel with through-the-thickness reinforcements than by destructively sectioning the specimen and visual inspection under a microscope. Five composite compression-after-impact panels were tested. The compression-after-impact strength of the panels with the through-the-thickness reinforcements was almost twice that of the comparable panel without through-the-thickness reinforcement.

  20. Damage assessment and residual compression strength of thick composite plates with through-the-thickness reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.; Farley, Gary L.; Maiden, Janice; Coogan, Dreux; Moore, Judith G.

    1991-01-01

    Damage in composite materials was studied with through-the-thickness reinforcements. As a first step it was necessary to develop new ultrasonic imaging technology to better assess internal damage of the composite. A useful ultrasonic imaging technique was successfully developed to assess the internal damage of composite panels. The ultrasonic technique accurately determines the size of the internal damage. It was found that the ultrasonic imaging technique was better able to assess the damage in composite panel with through-the-thickness reinforcements than by destructively sectioning the specimen and visual inspection under a microscope. Five composite compression-after-impact panels were tested. The compression-after-impact strength of the panels with the through-the-thickness reinforcements was almost twice that of the comparable panel without through-the-thickness reinforcement.

  1. Study of hypervelocity projectile impact on thick metal plates

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shawoon K.; Trabia, Mohamed; O’Toole, Brendan; Hixson, Robert S.; Becker, Steven; Pena, Michael T.; Jennings, Richard; Somasoundaram, Deepak; Matthes, Melissa; Daykin, Edward P.; et al

    2016-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts generate extreme pressure and shock waves in impacted targets that undergo severe localized deformation within a few microseconds. These impact experiments pose unique challenges in terms of obtaining accurate measurements. Similarly, simulating these experiments is not straightforward. This paper proposed an approach to experimentally measure the velocity of the back surface of an A36 steel plate impacted by a projectile. All experiments used a combination of a two-stage light-gas gun and the photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) technique. The experimental data were used to benchmark and verify computational studies. Two different finite-element methods were used to simulate the experiments:more » Lagrangian-based smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and Eulerian-based hydrocode. Both codes used the Johnson-Cook material model and the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Experiments and simulations were compared based on the physical damage area and the back surface velocity. Finally, the results of this study showed that the proposed simulation approaches could be used to reduce the need for expensive experiments.« less

  2. Study of hypervelocity projectile impact on thick metal plates

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shawoon K.; Trabia, Mohamed; O’Toole, Brendan; Hixson, Robert S.; Becker, Steven; Pena, Michael T.; Jennings, Richard; Somasoundaram, Deepak; Matthes, Melissa; Daykin, Edward P.; Machorro, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Hypervelocity impacts generate extreme pressure and shock waves in impacted targets that undergo severe localized deformation within a few microseconds. These impact experiments pose unique challenges in terms of obtaining accurate measurements. Similarly, simulating these experiments is not straightforward. This paper proposed an approach to experimentally measure the velocity of the back surface of an A36 steel plate impacted by a projectile. All experiments used a combination of a two-stage light-gas gun and the photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) technique. The experimental data were used to benchmark and verify computational studies. Two different finite-element methods were used to simulate the experiments: Lagrangian-based smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and Eulerian-based hydrocode. Both codes used the Johnson-Cook material model and the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Experiments and simulations were compared based on the physical damage area and the back surface velocity. Finally, the results of this study showed that the proposed simulation approaches could be used to reduce the need for expensive experiments.

  3. Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

  4. A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  5. Detecting the thickness mode frequency in a concrete plate using backward wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, Henrik; Ryden, Nils

    2016-02-01

    Material stiffness and plate thickness are the two key parameters when performing quality assurance/quality control on pavement structures. In order to estimate the plate thickness non-destructively, the Impact Echo (IE) method can be utilized to extract the thickness resonance frequency. An alternative to IE for estimating the thickness resonance frequency of a concrete plate, and to subsequently enable thickness determination, is presented in this paper. The thickness resonance is often revealed as a sharp peak in the frequency spectrum when contact receivers are used in seismic testing. Due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, IE is not ideal when using non-contact microphone receivers. In studying the complex Lamb wave dispersion curves at a frequency infinitesimally higher than the thickness frequency, it is seen that two counter-directed waves occur at the same frequency but with phase velocities in opposite directions. Results show that it is possible to detect the wave traveling with a negative phase velocity using both accelerometers and air-coupled microphones as receivers. This alternative technique can possibly be used in non-contact scanning measurements based on air-coupled microphones. PMID:26936549

  6. Thick plate bending wave transmission using a mobility power flow approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, M. D.; Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The mobility power flow (MPF) approach is used in this paper to describe the flexural behavior of an L-shaped plate structure consisting of thick plates with rotary inertia and shear deformation effects included in the analysis. The introduction of the thick plate effects significantly increases the complexity of the structural mobility functions used in the definitions of the power flow terms; however, because of the substructuring that is used in the MPF approach, the complexity of the problem is significantly reduced as compared to solving for the global structure. Additionally, with the MPF approach the modal behavior is described. The MPF analysis of the L-shaped plate is performed for the case of point force excitation on one plate, with the two plates being identical in both size and thickness. The results of this analysis are compared to results from the finite-element analysis (FEA) and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) and show very good agreement in the low- and high-frequency regimes, respectively.

  7. Crack-growth behavior in thick welded plates of Inconel 718 at room and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results of mechanical-properties and axial-load fatigue and fracture tests performed on thick welded plates of Inconel 718 superalloy are presented. The test objectives were to determine the tensile strength properties and the crack-growth behavior in electron-beam, plasma-arc, and gas tungsten are welds for plates 1.90 cm (0.75 in) thick. Base-metal specimens were also tested to determine the flaw-growth behavior. The tests were performed in room-temperature-air and liquid nitrogen environments. The experimental crack-growth-rate data are correlated with theoretical crack-growth-rate predictions for semielliptical surface flaws.

  8. High-precision thickness setting models for titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Yang, Quan; He, Fei; Sun, Youzhao; Xiao, Huifang

    2015-03-01

    Due to its highly favorable physical and chemical properties, titanium and titanium alloy are widely used in a variety of industries. Because of the low output of a single batch, plate cold rolling without tension is the most common rolling production method for titanium alloy. This method is lack of on-line thickness closed-loop control, with carefully thickness setting models for precision. A set of high-precision thickness setting models are proposed to suit the production method. Because of frequent variations in rolling specification, a model structural for the combination of analytical models and statistical models is adopted to replace the traditional self-learning method. The deformation resistance and friction factor, the primary factors which affect model precision, are considered as the objectives of statistical modeling. Firstly, the coefficient fitting of deformation resistance analytical model based on over-determined equations set is adopted. Additionally, a support vector machine(SVM) is applied to the modeling of the deformation resistance and friction factor. The setting models are applied to a 1450 plate-coiling mill for titanium alloy plate rolling, and then thickness precision is found consistently to be within 3%, exceeding the precision of traditional setting models with a self-learning method based on a large number of stable rolling data. Excellent application performance is obtained. The proposed research provides a set of high-precision thickness setting models which are well adapted to the characteristics of titanium alloy plate cold rolling without tension.

  9. Effect of Cadmium Plating Thickness on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Alcisto, J.; Guerra, J.; Jones, E.; Dominguez, A.; Hahn, M.; Ula, N.; Zeng, L.; Ramsey, B.; Mulazimoglu, H.; Li, Yong-Jun; Miller, M.; Alrashid, J.; Papakyriakou, M.; Kalnaus, S.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen was intentionally introduced into ultra-high strength steel by cadmium plating. The purpose was to examine the effect of cadmium plate thickness and hence hydrogen on the impact energy of the steel. The AISI 4340 steel was austenitized at 1000 °C for 1 h, water quenched, and tempered at temperatures between 257 and 593 °C in order to achieve a range of targeted strength levels. The specimens were cadmium plated with 0.00508 mm (0.2 mils), 0.00762 mm (0.3 mils), and 0.0127 mm (0.5 mils). Results demonstrated that the uncharged specimens exhibited higher impact energy values when compared to the plated specimens at all tempering temperatures. The cadmium-plated specimens had very low Charpy impact values irrespective of their ultimate tensile strength values. The model of hydrogen transport by mobile dislocations to the fracture site appears to provide the most suitable explanation of the results.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Residual Stress in Thick Titanium Alloy Plate Joined with Electron Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Jian Xun

    2010-10-01

    A finite-element (FE) simulation process integrating three dimensional (3D) with two-dimensional (2D) models is introduced to investigate the residual stress of a thick plate with 50-mm thickness welded by an electron beam. A combined heat source is developed by superimposing a conical volume heat source and a uniform surface heat source to simulate the temperature field of the 2D model with a fine mesh, and then the optimal heat source parameters are employed by the elongated heat source for the 3D simulation without trial simulations. The welding residual stress also is investigated with emphasis on the through-thickness stress for the thick plate. Results show that the agreement between simulation and experiment is good with a reasonable degree of accuracy in respect to the residual stress on the top surface and the weld profile. The through-thickness residual stress of the thick plate induced by electron beam welding is distinctly different from that of the arc welding presented in the references.

  11. On the relations between cratonic lithosphere thickness, plate motions, and basal drag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of seismic, thermal, and petrological evidence on the structure of Precambrian lithosphere suggests that its local maximum thickness is highly variable (140-350 km), with a bimodal distribution for Archean cratons (200-220 km and 300-350 km). We discuss the origin of such large differences in lithospheric thickness, and propose that the lithospheric base can have large depth variations over short distances. The topography of Bryce Canyon (western USA) is proposed as an inverted analog of the base of the lithosphere. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of Archean cratons are strongly correlated: larger cratons have thicker lithosphere. Analysis of the bimodal distribution of lithospheric thickness in Archean cratons shows that the "critical" surface area for cratons to have thick (>300 km) keels is >6-8 ?? 106 km2 . Extrapolation of the linear trend between Archean lithospheric thickness and cratonic area to zero area yields a thickness of 180 km. This implies that the reworking of Archean crust should be accompanied by thinning and reworking of the entire lithospheric column to a thickness of 180 km in accord with thickness estimates for Proterozoic lithosphere. Likewise, extrapolation of the same trend to the size equal to the total area of all Archean cratons implies that the lithospheric thickness of a hypothesized early Archean supercontinent could have been 350-450 km decreasing to 280-400 km for Gondwanaland. We evaluate the basal drag model as a possible mechanism that may thin the cratonic lithosphere. Inverse correlations are found between lithospheric thickness and (a) fractional subduction length and (b) the effective ridge length. In agreement with theoretical predictions, lithospheric thickness of Archean keels is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the craton length (along the direction of plate motion) to the plate velocity. Large cratons with thick keels and low plate velocities are less eroded by basal drag than small

  12. Orbiter Cold Plate Intergranular Corrosion: Development of NDE Standards and Assessment of NDE Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Winfree, William P.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    During pre-servicing of a space shuttle (orbiter vehicle, OV-102), helium leak detection of an avionics cold plate identified a leak located in the face sheet oriented towards the support shelf. Subsequent destructive examination of the leaking cold plate revealed that intergranular corrosion had penetrated the 0.017-inch thick aluminum (AA6061) face sheet. The intergranular attack (IGA) was likely caused by an aggressive crevice environment created by condensation of water vapor between the cold plate and support shelf. Face sheet susceptibility to IGA is a result of the brazing process used in the fabrication of the cold plates. Cold plate components were brazed at 1000 F followed by a slow cooling process to avoid distortion of the bonded cold plate. The slow cool process caused excessive grain boundary precipitation resulting in a material that is susceptible to IGA. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) Develop first-of-a-kind nondestructive evaluation (NDE) standards that contain IGA identical to that found in the orbiter cold plates; and (2) Assess advanced NDE techniques for corrosion detection and recommend methods for cold plate examination. This report documents the results of work performed at Langley Research Center to fulfill these objectives.

  13. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    PubMed

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode.

  14. Analytical 3-D p-element for quadrilateral plates—Part 1: Thick isotropic plate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Leung, A. Y. T.; Li, Q. S.; Lu, J. W. Z.; Zhang, X. C.

    2007-06-01

    An analytical three-dimensional (3-D) p-version element for the vibration analysis of arbitrary quadrilateral thick plates is presented. With the additional hierarchical shape functions and analytically integrated element matrices, the computed accuracy is considerably improved. The computed natural frequencies of cantilever and simply supported square plates show that the convergence rate of the present element is very fast with respect to the number of hierarchical terms and it can predict very accurate modes. The element is applicable to the free vibration analysis of quadrilateral, polygonal plates as well as 3-D space structures. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is applied for the identification of damping ratios. Based on the Rayleigh damping model, the damped vibration response is obtained. A simple experiment is performed to verify the predicted vibration responses. The results show that the proposed element is also efficient for the vibration response analysis of plates.

  15. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-15

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  16. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  17. Natural frequencies of thick, symmetrically-laminated, skew, trapezoidal plates with various boundary supports

    SciTech Connect

    Kapania, R.K.; Lovejoy, A.E.

    1994-12-31

    Increasing use of composite materials in structures requires an accurate method of predicting response. Transverse shear effects can play an important role in laminated structures, even those that are considered thin, and as a result, should not be neglected. The free vibration response of generally laminated, thick, skewed, trapezoidal plates is investigated due of the lack of information in this area. In the method developed, Chebychev polynomials are used as displacement functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method. To account for various edge supports, free, simply supported, and clamped, appropriate linear and rotational springs are introduced to satisfy the essential boundary conditions. First-order shear theory is used to account for transverse shear effects, and rotary inertia is also included in the model. Convergence of the solution resulting from changes in spring values and number of terms in the series is investigated. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, results for thin isotropic and laminated plates are compared to past results for various planforms and boundary conditions. Next, thick isotropic plate results are compared to available published results. Thick laminated plate results for various planforms and boundary conditions are then presented. Variations in natural frequencies due to geometric parameter changes, such as taper ratio and sweep angle, are also studied.

  18. Vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate with linearly thickness variations in both directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Khanna, A.

    2007-04-01

    The analysis presented here is to study the effect of linear thickness variations in both directions on vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate having clamped boundary conditions on all the four edges. Using the separation of variables method, the governing differential equation has been solved for vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate. An approximate but quite convenient frequency equation is derived by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique with a two-term deflection function. Logarithmic decrement, time period and deflection at different points for the first two modes of vibration are calculated for various values of taper constants and aspect ratio.

  19. The Plate Paradigm; the Standard Model Reductio ~ ad ~Absurdum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    ).The upper mantle has variable chemistry, melting point, potential temperature and is perisolidus everywhere ( not just under hotspots). The upper mantle is not dry, refractory, isothermal, uniform, or well-stirred . The ends of volcanic chains are not `fixed' . One even reverses the motivating question, why are there not volcanoes everywhere (instead of why are there volcanoes some places)? Non-fixity, aberrant ages and directions, absence of uplift and thermal rejuvenation, low heat flow, `normal' magma temperatures, distributed volcanism, and seamount chemistry are not `anomalies' as they are in hotspot theory. The associations of LIPs with suture belts and cratons are no longer coincidences. Predictions: Midplate volcanism implies extensional stress, not necessarily high heat flow, uplift or thermally thinned plate. It need not be age-progressive, parallel or in chains. Basalts are variable in chemistry (central limit theorem) and involve the same recycled components . Recycled oceanic crust and gabbro cumulates are variably distributed in the shallow mantle . The scale of chemical heterogeneity corresponds to the scale of recycled components (crust, sediments, lithosphere) and arc segments. Volcanic chains are stress gages, not motion detectors. If the shallow mantle is perisolidus (near the melting point) then even the deepest slowest ridges will be magmatic; melting will occur under thick plates (not likely in thermal theories). Ponding and underplating should be common. In contrast to thermal theories, volcanism can initiate and terminate abruptly. The technique of testing a hypothesis by assuming the opposite, is {reductio~ ad ~absurdum}. A simpler more powerful theory emerges when we drop the adjectives and reverse the assumptions.

  20. Development of the nitride film thickness standard (NFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga Pal, Prabha

    1998-07-01

    The semiconductor industry has been demanding film thickness reference material for films other than thermally grown silicon dioxide for sometime. To meet this challenge, Nitride Film Thickness Standard (NFTS) has been developed in four nominal thickness values, 20.0 nm, 90.0 nm, 120.0 nm and 200.0 nm. These are silicon nitride (Si3N4) films on silicon crystal substrate. Work is underway to develop a 9.0 nm standard. Thin nitride films are particularly needed for calibration of the thickness of nitride layers in capacitors and isolation masks for LOCOS (local oxidation of silicon). The reference material is certified for derived film thickness. The study consists of measurements made on four different sets of wafers that included patterned and unpatterned wafers. The measurements made on these wafer sets were used for answering issues related to film stability and cleaning. The stability study includes the search for a cleaning process that will restore a prior surface condition. On two sets of wafers two different types of cleaning procedures were used. Results indicate that a sulfuric acidmegasonic clean will etch the nitride film while an isopropyl alcohol clean followed by a deionized water rinse can be used over and over again. The third set of wafers was never cleaned and measurements were made on these over a period of two years. The last set of wafers is patterned. These are cleaned prior to measurement. Results show that LPCVD silicon nitride films are stable and can be used with confidence over a long period of time for calibrating optical metrology instruments.

  1. Laser-multi-pass-narrow-gap-welding of Hot Crack Sensitive Thick Aluminum Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, D.; Schedewy, R.; Brenner, B.; Standfuß, J.

    Although the current process limitations for laser beam welding of thick aluminum plates (>10 mm) have been overcome by high brilliant multi-kilowatt laser, there are still difficulties resulting from the material physical properties, e.g. the high heat conductivity, the large heat capacity and the high thermal expansion coefficient of aluminum. Especially for very deep weld seams, insufficient dilution of filler wire material in the root of the weld seam and the danger of hot cracks increases. With a new welding technology, the Laser-Multi-Pass-Narrow-Gap-Welding, a innovative approach has been developed to weld thick aluminum plates with highest beam quality lasers and remarkably reduced laser power.

  2. An equilibrium method for prediction of transverse shear stresses in a thick laminated plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhuri, R. Z.

    1986-01-01

    First two equations of equilibrium are utilized to compute the transverse shear stress variation through thickness of a thick laminated plate after in-plane stresses have been computed using an assumed quadratic displacement triangular element based on transverse inextensibility and layerwise constant shear angle theory (LCST). Centroid of the triangle is the point of exceptional accuracy for transverse shear stresses. Numerical results indicate close agreement with elasticity theory. An interesting comparison between the present theory and that based on assumed stress hybrid finite element approach suggests that the latter does not satisfy the condition of free normal traction at the edge. Comparison with numerical results obtained by using constant shear angle theory suggests that LCST is close to the elasticity solution while the CST is closer to classical (CLT) solution. It is also demonstrated that the reduced integration gives faster convergence when the present theory is applied to a thin plate.

  3. Modeling Crustal Thickness Variations Beneath the East Pacific Rise: Mantle Diapirs or Plate Kinematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S. A.; Toomey, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Geophysical studies along the East Pacific Rise between the Siqueiros and Clipperton fracture zones reveal along- and cross-axis variations in crustal thickness whose origins are poorly understood. By one view, variations in crustal thickness are the result of three-dimensional upwelling of the mantle associated with a melt-rich diapir centered at 9° 50'N. Alternatively, it has been proposed that the migration of the 9° 03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) alters the thickness of crust by increasing the amount of time that a crustal unit resides near the spreading axis. In this case, crustal thickness variations arise from plate kinematics, and not from three-dimensional variations in mantle upwelling. We report on a modeling study designed to explore how the evolution of OSCs may alter the thickness of newly-formed crust. OSC propagation is modeled using the kinematic algorithm developed by Wilson [1990], modified to track parcels of crust through time. Given an OSC's kinematic history and two-dimensional descriptions of the melt flux out of the mantle (i.e. invariant along the rise), we predict relative variations in crustal thickness. Our modeling assumes that underplating increases the thickness of the crust and/or Moho transition zone as long as a crustal unit resides over the source of mantle-derived melt. Results suggest two general kinematic mechanisms whereby variations in crustal thickness can occur: those due to an offset between the mantle-level magmatic system and the spreading axis, and those due to any relative reduction in the velocity of a crustal unit as it moves off axis. Offset-induced crustal thickness variations are manifest as long-wavelength ( ˜50 km), low-amplitude cross-axis asymmetries. Local slowing of crustal units as they move off axis -- in direct association with the OSC and its overlap basins -- results in relatively short-wavelength ( ˜10 km), high-amplitude variations in crustal thickness. Using a kinematic history

  4. Effect of Initial Stress on a Fiber-Reinforced Anisotropic Thermoelastic Thick Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ibrahim A.; Abd-alla, Abo-el-nour N.

    2011-05-01

    The two-dimensional problem of generalized thermoelasticity for a fiber-reinforced anisotropic thick plate under initial stress is studied in the context of the Lord and Shulman theory. The upper surface of the plate is thermally insulated with prescribed surface loading while the lower surface of the plate rests on a rigid foundation and temperature. The problem is solved numerically using a finite element method. Numerical results for the temperature distribution, and the displacement and stress components are given and illustrated graphically. It is found from the graphs that the initial stress significantly influences the variations of field quantities. The results obtained in this paper may offer a theoretical basis and meaningful suggestions for the design of various fiber-reinforced anisotropic thermoelastic elements under loading to meet special engineering requirements.

  5. Bending and Forced Vibration Response of a Clamped Orthotropic Thick Plate and Sandwich Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LOK, T. S.; CHENG, Q. H.

    2001-08-01

    A closed-form solution for the forced response of an orthotropic thick plate and sandwich panel has been developed and is presented in this paper. The paper outlines the methodology and develops the formulation to enable the solution to be derived. A novel truss-core sandwich panel is introduced and a method is outlined in which the panel is represented as an equivalent homogeneous orthotropic thick plate continuum. The 3-D dynamic finite element method is one of the most versatile developments of the 20th century. However, the software is not as accessible or as user-friendly for engineers who are not trained in such analytical tools. Therefore, alternative methods of analysis must be found, especially in the dynamic assessment of thin-walled truss-core sandwich panels. One way is to transform the sandwich structure into an equivalent homogeneous orthotropic thick plate continuum and to conduct the analysis on the equivalent model. The authors have derived the necessary elastic constants to hasten this transformation. In this paper, the derived elastic constants are used with closed-form solution to determine the bending and forced vibration response of a clamped truss-core sandwich panel, represented as a homogeneous orthotropic thick plate continuum. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is employed for the closed-form solution and the forced response is determined using Duhamel's integral. Admissible functions are taken as a series of products of beam mode-shape functions in the two orthogonal directions. The beam function in either direction is derived from the corresponding beam eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples, which include the influence of transverse shear on the response, show that the closed-form solution agrees with analytical and numerical data available in the literature and also with 3-D finite element results.

  6. Single Transducer Ultrasonic Imaging Method that Eliminates the Effect of Plate Thickness Variation in the Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a single transducer ultrasonic imaging method that eliminates the effect of plate thickness variation in the image. The method thus isolates ultrasonic variations due to material microstructure. The use of this method can result in significant cost savings because the ultrasonic image can be interpreted correctly without the need for machining to achieve precise thickness uniformity during nondestructive evaluations of material development. The method is based on measurement of ultrasonic velocity. Images obtained using the thickness-independent methodology are compared with conventional velocity and c-scan echo peak amplitude images for monolithic ceramic (silicon nitride), metal matrix composite and polymer matrix composite materials. It was found that the thickness-independent ultrasonic images reveal and quantify correctly areas of global microstructural (pore and fiber volume fraction) variation due to the elimination of thickness effects. The thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method described in this article is currently being commercialized under a cooperative agreement between NASA Lewis Research Center and Sonix, Inc.

  7. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  8. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Kamas, Tuncay E-mail: victorg@sc.edu Giurgiutiu, Victor E-mail: victorg@sc.edu Lin, Bin E-mail: victorg@sc.edu

    2015-03-31

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  9. Buckling analysis of moderately thick rectangular plates using coupled displacement field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meera Saheb, K.; Aruna, K.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient coupled displacement field method is developed to study the buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates. This method has been successfully applied to study the same for the Timoshenko beams. A single term trigonometric admissible displacement field is assumed for one of the variables, say, the total rotations (in both X, Y directions). Making use of the coupling equations, the spatial variation for the remaining lateral displacement field is derived in terms of the total rotations. The coupled displacement field method makes the energy formulation to contains half the number of unknown independent coefficients, in the case of a rectangular plate, contrary to the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method. The expressions for the non-dimensional buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates with all the edges simply supported are derived. The numerical values of these parameters obtained using the coupled displacement field method match very well with open literature demonstrating the effectiveness of the coupled displacement field method.

  10. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  11. Measurement of relevant elastic and damping material properties in sandwich thick plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rébillat, Marc; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-12-01

    An easy-to-implement method to measure relevant elastic and damping properties of the constituents of a sandwich structure, possibly with a heterogeneous core, is proposed. The method makes use of a one-point dynamical measurement on a thick-plate. The hysteretic model for each (possibly orthotropic) constituent is written generically as " E(1+jη)" for all mechanical parameters. The estimation method of the parameters relies on a mixed experimental/numerical procedure. The frequencies and dampings of the natural modes of the plate are obtained from experimental impulse responses by means of a high-resolution modal analysis technique. This allows for considerably more experimental data to be used. Numerical modes (frequencies, dampings, and modal shapes) are computed by means of an extended Rayleigh-Ritz procedure under the "light damping" hypothesis, for given values of the mechanical parameters. Minimising the differences between the modal characteristics yields an estimation of the values of the mechanical parameters describing the hysteretic behaviour. A sensitivity analysis assesses the reliability of the method for each parameter. Validations of the method are proposed by (a) applying it to virtual plates on which a finite-element model replaces the experimental modal analysis, (b) some comparisons with results obtained by static mechanical measurements, and (c) by comparing the results on different plates made of the same sandwich material.

  12. A large-deformation thin plate theory with application to one-atom-thick layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfani, M. R.; Shodja, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, two-dimensional materials due to their vast engineering and biomedical applications have been the focus of many researches. The present paper proposes a large-deformation theory for thin plates with application to one-atom-thick layers (OATLs). The deformation is formulated exactly in the mathematical framework of Lagrangian description. In particular, an exact finite strain analysis is given - in addition to the usual strain tensor associated to the middle surface, the second and third fundamental forms of the middle surface of the deformed thin plate are also maintained in the analysis. Exact closed-form solutions for a uniaxially curved thin plate due to pure bending in one case and due to a combination of vertical and horizontal loading in another are obtained. As a special case of the latter problem, the exact solution for the plane-strain bulge test of thin plates is derived. Subsequently, the approximation of Vlassak and Nix [Vlassak, J.J., Nix, W.D., 1992. J. Mater. Res., 7(12), 3242-3249] for the load-deflection equation is recovered. The given numerical results are devoted to graphene as the most well-known OATL.

  13. 78 FR 59065 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of the Interview...

  14. Feasibility study on welding and cutting methods for thick plate in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Osaki, T.; Nakayama, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    1995-12-31

    Application of tungsten-arc inert-gas (TIG) welding with narrow gap has been considered as a hopeful joint method to suppress post welding deformation for thick plates. The authors studied some parameters to predict the post-welding deformation for the narrow gap shape of TIG welding. As for cutting methods, the water jet method was applied for weld joints in this study. Reweld tests by using the TIG welding method were successfully performed under the condition of cutting surface as it was. Results of tensile tests for reweld joints showed no reduction in strength. This reveals a good prospect of providing reweld groove surface without any machining on site.

  15. An improved plate theory of order (1,2) for thick composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.

    1992-01-01

    A new (1,2)-order theory is proposed for the linear elasto-static analysis of laminated composite plates. The basic assumptions are those concerning the distribution through the laminate thickness of the displacements, transverse shear strains and the transverse normal stress, with these quantities regarded as some weighted averages of their exact elasticity theory representations. The displacement expansions are linear for the inplane components and quadratic for the transverse component, whereas the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are respectively quadratic and cubic through the thickness. The main distinguishing feature of the theory is that all strain and stress components are expressed in terms of the assumed displacements prior to the application of a variational principle. This is accomplished by an a priori least-square compatibility requirement for the transverse strains and by requiring exact stress boundary conditions at the top and bottom plate surfaces. Equations of equilibrium and associated Poisson boundary conditions are derived from the virtual work principle. It is shown that the theory is particularly suited for finite element discretization as it requires simple C(sup 0)- and C(sup -1)-continuous displacement interpolation fields. Analytic solutions for the problem of cylindrical bending are derived and compared with the exact elasticity solutions and those of our earlier (1,2)-order theory based on the assumed displacements and transverse strains.

  16. Arctic Crustal Thickness and Oceanic Lithosphere Distribution from Gravity Inversion: Constraining Plate Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, N. J.; Alvey, A.; Roberts, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping crustal thickness, continental lithosphere thinning and oceanic lithosphere distribution represents a substantial challenge for the Polar Regions. Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for the Arctic. The Arctic region formed as a series of small distinct ocean basins leading to a complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust, possible micro-continents and rifted continental margins. Mapping of continental lithosphere thinning factor and crustal thickness from gravity inversion provide predictions of ocean-continent transition structure and magmatic type and continent ocean boundary location independent of magnetic isochrons. Restoration of crustal thickness and continent-ocean boundary location from gravity inversion may be used to test plate tectonic reconstructions. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and sea-floor spreading trajectory within the Arctic basins. By restoring crustal thickness & continental lithosphere thinning maps of the Eurasia Basin & NE Atlantic to their initial post-breakup configuration we show the geometry and segmentation of the rifted continental margins at their time of breakup, together with the location of highly-stretched failed breakup basins and rifted micro-continents. Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Makarov, Podvodnikov, Nautilus and Canada Basins consistent with these basins being underlain by oceanic or highly thinned continental crust. Larger crustal thicknesses, in the range 20 - 30 km, are predicted for the Lomonosov, Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges. Moho depths predicted compare well with seismic estimates. Predicted very thin continental or oceanic crust under the North Chuchki

  17. Effect of stiffness and thickness ratio of host plate and piezoelectric patches on reduction of the stress concentration factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesharaki, Javad Jafari; Madani, Seyed Ghasem; Golabi, Sa'id

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of stiffness ratio and thickness ratio on reducing stress concentration factor using piezoelectric patches in a rectangular plate with a hole, as a classical shape. Various locations of actuators and induction of positive/negative strains into the host plate are investigated and the best location of patches is presented. The study investigated the ratio effects and piezoelectric patches bounded on a rectangular host plate having various thicknesses and materials. Results show that the best position of actuators varies based on values of thickness and stiffness ratios of the host plate and piezoelectric patches. Also, the location of maximum stress concentration is transmitted from top and bottom of the hole to another point around the edge by changing the location of the piezoelectric actuators. To verify the results, some experimental tests are applied. The results show good agreement between the finite element analysis and experimental tests.

  18. Influence of stack plate thickness and voltage input on the performance of loudspeaker-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Agustina, Dinni

    2013-04-01

    A loudspeaker-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator has been built and tested to gain understanding of its thermal performance and the cooling rate. The influence of plate thickness made of acrylic sheet was experimentally investigated by varying plate thickness of the stack, 0.15 mm, 0.5 mm and 1 mm, respectively. The experiments were conducted with various voltage input to the driver starting from setting 4 to 9 voltage peak-to-peak. The temperatures at both ends of the stack were acquired. For all variations, thermoacoustic cooling effect occurred in seconds and escalated rapidly in two minutes and became stable in ten-minute time. The experimental results showed that higher voltage input yielded higher thermal performance and faster cooling rate. For each set of experiment, the operating frequency and other parameters of the stack were kept unchanged. The experimental results show that the thermal performance and cooling rate increase with the decrease of plate thickness. The largest temperature difference, 14.8°C, was achieved with 0.1 mm plate thickness at voltage setting 9. However, the thermal performance gained for 0.5 mm plate thickness voltage setting of 9, was arguably the optimum thickness in terms of advantages in the ease of fabricating the stack and more consistent cooling.

  19. Crustal Thickness Variations Along the Southeastern Caribbean Plate Boundary From Teleseismic and Active Source Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Baldwin, T. K.; Pavlis, G.; Vernon, F.; Rendón, H.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2006-12-01

    coastal mountains, suggesting a significant portion of the high topography of the costal mountain ranges has a dynamic origin. Crustal thickness changes of more than 10km are observed crossing the coast in the plate boundary zone, but are not always directly associated with the surface expression of the strike-slip fault system.

  20. Thickness resonances dispersion characteristics of a lossy piezoceramic plate with electrodes of arbitrary conductivity.

    PubMed

    Mezheritsky, Alex A; Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical description of the dissipative phenomena in the wave dispersion related to the "energytrap" effect in a thickness-vibrating, infinite thicknesspolarized piezoceramic plate with resistive electrodes is presented. The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity were used to obtain symmetric and antisymmetric solutions of plane harmonic waves and investigate the eigen-modes of thickness longitudinal (TL) up to third harmonic and shear (TSh) up to ninth harmonic vibrations of odd- and even-orders. The effects of internal and electrode energy dissipation parameters on the wave propagation under regimes ranging from a short-circuit (sc) condition through RC-type relaxation dispersion to an opencircuit (oc) condition are examined in detail for PZT piezoceramics with three characteristic T -mode energy-trap figure-of-merit c-(D)(33)/c-(E)(44) values - less, near equal and higher 4 - when the second harmonic spurious TSh resonance lies below, inside, and above the fundamental TL resonanceantiresonance frequency interval. Calculated complex lateral wave number dispersion dependences on frequency and electrode resistance are found to follow the universal scaling formula similar to those for dielectrics characterization. Formally represented as a Cole-Cole diagram, the dispersion branches basically exhibit Debye-like and modified Davidson Cole dependences. Varying the dissipation parameters of internal loss and electrode conductivity, the interaction of different branches was demonstrated by analytical and numerical analysis. For the purposes of dispersion characterization of at least any thickness resonance, the following theorem was stated: the ratio of two characteristic determinants, specifically constructed from the oc and sc boundary conditions, in the limit of zero lateral wave number, is equal to the basic elementary-mode normalized admittance. As was found based on the theorem, the dispersion near the basic and nonbasic TL and TSh

  1. Flaw growth behavior in thick welded plates of 2219-T87 aluminum at room and cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.; Glorioso, S. V.; Medlock, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Axial load fatigue and fracture tests were conducted on thick welded plates of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy to determine the tensile strength properties and the flaw growth behavior in electron beam, gas metal arc, and pulse current gas tungsten arc welds for plates 6.35 centimeters (2.5 in.) thick. The tests were conducted in room temperature air and in liquid nitrogen environments. Specimens were tested in both the as-welded and the aged after welding conditions. The experimental crack growth rate were correlated with theoretical crack growth rate predictions for semielliptical surface flaws.

  2. A {1,2}-Order Plate Theory Accounting for Three-Dimensional Thermoelastic Deformations in Thick Composite and Sandwich Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.; Annett, M. S.; Gendron, G.

    2001-01-01

    A {1,2}-order theory for laminated composite and sandwich plates is extended to include thermoelastic effects. The theory incorporates all three-dimensional strains and stresses. Mixed-field assumptions are introduced which include linear in-plane displacements, parabolic transverse displacement and shear strains, and a cubic distribution of the transverse normal stress. Least squares strain compatibility conditions and exact traction boundary conditions are enforced to yield higher polynomial degree distributions for the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress through the plate thickness. The principle of virtual work is used to derive a 10th-order system of equilibrium equations and associated Poisson boundary conditions. The predictive capability of the theory is demonstrated using a closed-form analytic solution for a simply-supported rectangular plate subjected to a linearly varying temperature field across the thickness. Several thin and moderately thick laminated composite and sandwich plates are analyzed. Numerical comparisons are made with corresponding solutions of the first-order shear deformation theory and three-dimensional elasticity theory. These results, which closely approximate the three-dimensional elasticity solutions, demonstrate that through - the - thickness deformations even in relatively thin and, especially in thick. composite and sandwich laminates can be significant under severe thermal gradients. The {1,2}-order kinematic assumptions insure an overall accurate theory that is in general superior and, in some cases, equivalent to the first-order theory.

  3. Thick shell tectonics on one-plate planets - Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Saunders, R. S.; Phillips, R. J.; Sleep, N. H.

    1982-01-01

    Using the zero frequency equations of a self-gravitating elastic spherical shell overlying a strengthless fluid, a theory for stress distribution in thick lithospheric shells on one-plate planets is developed. For both the compensated and flexural modes, stress distributions in lithospheres are reviewed. For compensated modes, surface stresses depend only on surface topography, whereas for flexural modes it is shown that, for long wavelengths, stress trajectories are mainly dependent on the lithospheric lateral density distribution and not on elastic properties. Computational analyses are performed for Mars, and it is found that isostatically compensated models correctly predict the graben structure in the immediate Tharsis region and a flexural loading model is satisfactory in explaining the graben in the regions surrounding Tharsis. A three-stage model for the evolution of Tharsis is hypothesized: isostasy with north-south graben formation on Tharsis, followed by flexural loading and radial graben formation on the perimeter of Tharsis, followed by a last stage of loading with little or no regional deformation.

  4. Use of characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two dimensions for transverse vibration of elliptic and circular plates with variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Chakraverty, S.

    1994-06-01

    Free flexural vibrations of elliptic and circular plates with variable thickness have been studied by using characteristic orthogonal polynomials satisfying the essential boundary conditions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Two types of variable thickness have been considered: in the first case it varies linearly or quadratically parallel to the major axis; in the second case it is taken to be the same along concentric ellipses but varies linearly or quadratically as we move from one ellipse to another. The results for a circular plate with variable thickness follow as a special case. Computations have been carried out for clamped, simply supported, and free boundary. Comparison has been made with known results in special cases.

  5. Investigating Transition Zone Thickness Variation under the Arabian Plate: Evidence Lacking for Deep Mantle Upwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliá, J.; Tang, Z.; Mai, P. M.; Zahran, H.

    2014-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic outcrops in Arabia - locally known as harrats - span more than 2000 km along the western half of the Arabian plate, from eastern Yemen to southern Syria. The magmatism is bimodal in character, with older volcanics (30 to 20 My) being tholeiitic-to-transitional and paralleling the Red Sea margin, and younger volcanics (12 Ma to Recent) being transitional-to-strongly-alkalic and aligning in a more north-south direction. The bimodal character has been attributed to a two-stage rifting process along the Red Sea, where the old volcanics would have produced from shallow sources related to an initial passive rifting stage, and young volcanics would have originated from one or more deep-seated mantle plumes driving present active rifting. Early models suggested the harrats would have resulted from either lateral flow from the Afar plume in Ethiopia, or more locally from a separate mantle plume directly located under the shield. Most recently, tomographic images of the Arabian mantle have suggested the northern harrats could be resulting from flow originating at a deep plume under Jordan. In this work, we investigate the location of deep mantle plumes under the Arabian plate by mapping transition zone thickness with teleseismic receiver functions. The transition zone is bounded by seismic discontinuities, nominally at 410 and 660 km depth, originating from phase transitions in the olivine-normative component of the mantle. The precise depth of the discontinuities is strongly dependent on temperature and, due to the opposing signs of the corresponding Clapeyron slopes, positive temperature anomalies are expected to result in thinning of the transition zone. Our dataset consists of ~5000 low-frequency (fc < 0.25 Hz) receiver function waveforms obtained at ~110 broadband stations belonging to a number of permanent and temporary seismic networks in the region. The receiver functions were migrated to depth and stacked along a ~2000 km long record section

  6. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ74 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category...

  7. Effect of Backing Plate Thermal Property on Friction Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick AA6061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    By using backing plates made out of materials with widely varying thermal diffusivity this work seeks to elucidate the effects of the root side thermal boundary condition on weld process variables and resulting joint properties. Welds were made in 25.4-mm-thick AA6061 using ceramic, titanium, steel, and aluminum as backing plate (BP) material. Welds were also made using a "composite backing plate" consisting of longitudinal narrow strip of low diffusivity material at the center and two side plates of high diffusivity aluminum. Stir zone temperature during the welding was measured using two thermocouples spot welded at the core of the probe: one at the midplane height and another near the tip of the probe corresponding to the root of the weld. Steady state midplane probe temperatures for all the BPs used were found to be very similar. Near root peak temperature, however, varied significantly among weld made with different BPs all other things being equal. Whereas the near root and midplane temperature were the same in the case of ceramic backing plate, the root peak temperature was 318 K (45 °C) less than the midplane temperature in the case of aluminum BP. The trends of nugget hardness and grain size in through thickness direction were in agreement with the measured probe temperatures. Hardness and tensile test results show that the use of composite BP results in stronger joint compared to monolithic steel BP.

  8. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  9. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  10. Numerical study on the freely falling plate: Effects of density ratio and thickness-to-length ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shu, C.; Teo, C. J.; Yang, L. M.

    2016-10-01

    A numerical study on two-dimensional (2D) rectangular plates falling freely in water is carried out in the range of 1.2 ≤ ρs/f ≤ 5.0 and 1/20 ≤ β ≤ 1/4, where ρs/f is the solid-to-water density ratio and β is the plate thickness-to-length ratio. To study this problem, the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann flux solver in a moving frame is applied and validated. For the numerical result, a phase diagram is constructed for fluttering, tumbling, and apparent chaotic motions of the plate parameterized using ρs/f and β. The evolution of vortical structures in both modes is decomposed into three typical stages of initial transient, deep gliding, and pitching-up. Various mean and instantaneous fluid properties are illustrated and analyzed. It is found that fluttering frequencies have a linear relationship with the Froude number for all cases considered. Lift forces on fluttering plates are linearly dependent on the angle of attack α at the cusp-like turning point when |" separators=" α | ≥ π / 5 . Hysteresis of the lift force on fluttering plates is observed and explained whilst the drag forces are the same when |" separators=" α | has the same value. Meanwhile, the drag force in the tumbling motion may have a positive propulsive effect when the plate begins a tumbling rotation from α = π/2.

  11. Application of the HHT Method to the Non-contact Thickness Measurement of an Axially Moving Thin Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yangfang; Lu, Qianqian; Xia, Chunlin; Ding, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Non-contact thickness measuring systems can be found in a wide spectrum of technologies. In this paper, Hilbert-Huang transform method is used to analyze the real time signals of a measuring system which includes two round conveyor strings carrying a thin plate, a solar wafer as a sample under test. The vibrations of moving strings and the plate, which are sensitive to moving speed and initial tension in the string, are introduced briefly; the relevant analyses should be helpful for the system design. Using EMD-based time-domain filtering and complementary method, thickness variations and error bands are estimated for different cases. The results show that HHT method as an adaptive time-frequency method, should be potential in measurement engineering applications.

  12. Out-of-Plane Bending of Beam-Wall Joints Based on Elastic Medium Thick Plate Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhifei, Shi; Shuling, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The out-of-plane response of beam-wall joints is studied in the present paper. The governing equations of shear walls obtained by using the orthotropic elastic medium thick plate theory are solved. Additionally, different reinforcing ratios for shear walls in different directions are considered. It is also found that reinforced shear walls can be simplified as isotropic walls no matter whether the reinforcing ratio in both directions is the same or not for most engineering structures. In view of this, the out-of-plane response of beam-wall joints is investigated based on the isotropic medium thick plate theory and the effects of geometrical parameters of the joints on the responses of the shear walls are discussed in detail. For further simplification, the equivalent frame model is introduced and a very simple formula to determine the equivalent width is suggested for practical applications.

  13. Differential Quadrature and RAYLEIGH RITZ Methods to Determine the Fundamental Frequencies of Simply Supported Rectangular Plates with Linearly Varying Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreti, A. R.; Farsa, J.; Bert, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, differential quadrature and Rayleigh-Ritz methods are presented for computation of the fundamental frequency of simply supported, homogeneous, isotropic, thin rectangular plates with the thickness tapering linearly in one direction. The complete analytical formulation and solution procedure is presented for both methods. Results obtained by these two methods are compared with available results in the literature and by the finite element method. Effects of the level of discretization, aspect and taper ratios are also presented.

  14. Scattering of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave by a part-thickness crack in an isotropic plate.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, P; Lowe, M J S

    2008-11-01

    The interaction of the fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided mode with part-thickness cracks in an isotropic plate is studied as an extension within the context and general framework of previous work ["Short range scattering of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave mode normally incident at a through thickness crack in an isotropic plate," J. Acoust Soc. Am. 122, 1527-1538 (2007); "Angular influence on scattering when the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave mode is incident at a through-thickness crack in an isotropic plate," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 2021-2030 (2008)] by the authors with through-cracks. The symmetric incidence case where the principal direction of the incident beam bisects the crack face at 90 degrees is studied using finite element simulations validated by experiments and analysis, and conclusions are inferred for general incidence angles using insights obtained with the through-thickness studies. The influence of the crack length and the monitoring distance on the specular reflection is first examined, followed by a study of the angular profile of the reflected field. With each crack length considered, the crack depth and operating frequencies are varied. For all crack depths studied, the trend of the results is identical to that for the corresponding through-thickness case and the values differ only by a frequency dependent scale factor. Theoretical analysis is used to understand the physical basis for such behavior and estimates are suggested for the scale factor--exact for the high-frequency scattering regime and empirical for the medium- and low-frequency regimes.

  15. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Mandibular Spanning Plate Technique Compared to Standard Plating Techniques to Treat Mandibular Symphyseal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Matthew; Hayes, Jonathan; Jordan, J. Randall; Puckett, Aaron; Fort, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical behavior of the spanning reconstruction plate compared to standard plating techniques for mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five human mandible replicas were used. Five unaltered synthetic mandibles were used as controls. Four experimental groups of different reconstruction techniques with five in each group were tested. Each synthetic mandible was subjected to a splaying force applied to the mandibular angle by a mechanical testing unit until the construct failed. Peak load and stiffness were recorded. The peak load and stiffness were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test at a confidence level of 95% (P < 0.05). Results. The two parallel plates' group showed statistically significant lower values for peak load and stiffness compared to all other groups. No statistically significant difference was found for peak load and stiffness between the control (C) group, lag screw (LS) group, and the spanning plate (SP1) group. Conclusions. The spanning reconstruction plate technique for fixation of mandibular symphyseal fractures showed similar mechanical behavior to the lag screw technique when subjected to splaying forces between the mandibular gonial angles and may be considered as an alternative technique when increased reconstructive strength is needed. PMID:26649332

  16. Azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle and the thickness of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-08-01

    Azimuthal seismic anisotropy, the dependence of seismic wave speeds on propagation azimuth, is largely due to fabrics within the Earth's crust and mantle, produced by deformation. It thus provides constraints on the distribution and evolution of deformation within the upper mantle. Here, we present a new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Two versions of this new model are computed: the rough SL2016svAr and the smooth SL2016svA. Both are constrained by a very large dataset of waveform fits (˜750, 000 vertical component seismogram fits). Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms in broad period ranges (dominantly from 11 to 450 s, with the best global sampling in the 20-350 s range), yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. In our global tomographic inversion, regularization of anisotropy is implemented to more uniformly recover the amplitude and orientation of anisotropy, including near the poles. Our massive waveform dataset, with complementary large global networks and high-density regional array data, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. We show that regional scale variations, related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, can now be resolved by the global models, in particular in densely sampled regions. For oceanic regions, we compare quantitatively the directions of past and present plate motions and the fast-propagation orientations of anisotropy. By doing so, we infer the depth of the boundary between the rigid, high-viscosity lithosphere (preserving ancient, frozen fabric) and the rheologically weak asthenosphere (characterized by fabric developed recently). The average depth of thus inferred rheological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the world's oceans is ˜115 km. The LAB depth displays a clear dependence on the age of the oceanic

  17. Azimuthal seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle and the thickness of tectonic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    Azimuthal seismic anisotropy, the dependence of seismic wave speeds on propagation azimuth, is largely due to fabrics within the Earth's crust and mantle, produced by deformation. It thus provides constraints on the distribution and evolution of deformation within the upper mantle. Here, we present a new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Two versions of this new model are computed: the rough SL2016svAr and the smooth SL2016svA. Both are constrained by a very large data set of waveform fits (˜750 000 vertical component seismogram fits). Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms in broad period ranges (dominantly from 11 to 450 s, with the best global sampling in the 20-350 s range), yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. In our global tomographic inversion, regularization of anisotropy is implemented to more uniformly recover the amplitude and orientation of anisotropy, including near the poles. Our massive waveform data set, with complementary large global networks and high-density regional array data, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. We show that regional scale variations, related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, can now be resolved by the global models, in particular in densely sampled regions. For oceanic regions, we compare quantitatively the directions of past and present plate motions and the fast-propagation orientations of anisotropy. By doing so, we infer the depth of the boundary between the rigid, high-viscosity lithosphere (preserving ancient, frozen fabric) and the rheologically weak asthenosphere (characterized by fabric developed recently). The average depth of thus inferred rheological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the world's oceans is ˜115 km. The LAB depth displays a clear dependence on the age of the oceanic

  18. Propagation of the transverse normal stress in a thick plate due to distributed lateral impulsive loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oline, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of the elastic stresses produced in an infinite plate when struck by a high-speed object is presented. The solution is obtained by means of linear elasticity. Laplace transformation techniques are employed to solve the axisymmetric problem. The plate is loaded normal to its surface with a uniform load over a circular area. The normal stress at the wave front of the unreflected dilatation wave along the axis and its variation with the radius of loading are determined. Various facets of the problem are discussed.

  19. Asymptotic analysis of an arbitrary anisotropic plate of variable thickness (sloping shell)

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, S A

    2000-08-31

    The leading terms of the asymptotics of the solution of the problem of elasticity theory for a thin plane with curved bases are constructed; in addition, the resulting problem (a two-dimensional model) is written out explicitly. Arbitrary anisotropy of elastic properties is allowed; moreover, these properties may depend on the 'rapid' transversal and the 'slow' longitudinal variables. The substantiation of these asymptotics is carried out on the basis of Korn's weighted inequality. The cases of laminated plates, sloping shells, and plates with sharp edges are discussed separately.

  20. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  1. An approximate semi-analytical method for prediction of interlaminar shear stresses in an arbitrarily laminated thick plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhuri, Reaz A.; Seide, Paul

    1987-01-01

    An approximate semianalytical method for determination of interlaminar shear stress distribution through the thickness of an arbitrarily laminated thick plate has been presented. The method is based on the assumptions of transverse inextensibility and layerwise constant shear angle theory (LCST) and utilizes an assumed quadratic displacement potential energy based finite element method (FEM). Centroid of the triangular surface has been proved from a rigorous mathematical point of view (Aubin-Nitsche theory), to be the point of exceptional accuracy for the interlaminar shear stresses. Numerical results indicate close agreement with the available three-dimensional elasticity theory solutions. A comparison between the present theory and that due to an assumed stress hybrid FEM suggest that the (normal) traction-free-edge condition is not satisfied in the latter approach. Furthermore, the present paper is the first to present the results for interlaminar shear stresses in a two-layer thick square plate of balanced unsymmetric angle-ply construction. A comparison with the recently proposed Equilibrium Method (EM) indicates the superiority of the present method, because the latter assures faster convergence as well as simultaneous vanishing of the transverse shear stresses on both of the exposed surfaces of the laminate. Superiority of the present method over the EM, in the case of a symmetric laminate, is limited to faster convergence alone. It has also been demonstrated that the combination of the present method and the reduced (quadratic order) numerical integration scheme yields convergence of the interlaminar shear stresses almost as rapidly as that of the nodal displacements, in the case of a thin plate.

  2. Neutron radiography of thick hydrogenous materials with use of an imaging plate neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Gen'ichi; Karasawa, Yuuko; Niimura, Nobuo; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Tsuruno, Akira

    1996-02-01

    The value of the neutron mass attenuation coefficient of hydrogen being very high, it is extremely difficult to image normal size, living animals with neutron radiography. However, the authors suggest the possibility of applying neutron radiography for biomedical specimens. The organs in the breast, bones and cartilages in the extremities, and the tail of mice and rats were clearly imaged by neutron radiography with Gd foils as neutron converters and X-ray films. However, no contours of the organs in the mouse abdomen were visible with neutron radiography with an exposure time of 200 s. By adding Gd or Li compounds as neutron converters to imaging X-ray plates, imaging plates have been developed for neutron detectors. A trial using these imaging plates for neutron radiography of water-filled containers and the abdomen of mice was completed. The roundness of a 100 ml-beaker was imaged with a neutron exposure of 180 s. Obscure contours of the liver and kidneys of the mouse were imaged with a neutron exposure of 100 s.

  3. On plane stress state and stress free deformation of thick plate with FGM interface under thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szubartowski, Damian; Ganczarski, Artur

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the plane stress state and the stress free thermo-elastic deformation of FGM thick plate under thermal loading. First, the Sneddon-Lockett theorem on the plane stress state in an isotropic infinite thick plate is generalized for a case of FGM problem in which all thermo-mechanical properties are optional functions of depth co-ordinate. The proof is based on application of the Iljushin thermo-elastic potential to displacement type system of equations that reduces it to the plane stress state problem. Then an existence of the purely thermal deformation is proved in two ways: first, it is shown that the unique solution fulfils conditions of simultaneous constant temperature and linear gradation of thermal expansion coefficient, second, proof is based directly on stress type system of equations which straightforwardly reduces to compatibility equations for purely thermal deformation if only stress field is homogeneous in domain and at boundary. Finally, couple examples of application to an engineering problem are presented.

  4. The dynamic mechanical properties study on the sandwich panel of different thickness steel plate-foam aluminum core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhongliang; Zou, Guangping; Zhao, Weiling; Xia, Peixiu

    2009-12-01

    The foam aluminum belongs to multi-cell materials, and it has good mechanical performance, such as large deformation capacity and good energy absorption, and usually used as core material of sandwich panel, now it is widely used in automotive, aviation, aerospace and other fields, particularly suitable for various anti-collision structure and buffer structure. In this article, based on an engineering background, the INSTRON4505 electronic universal testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) were used for testing the static and dynamic mechanical properties of sandwich panel with different thickness steel plate- foam aluminum core, from the results we can see that the steel plate thickness has big influence on the stress-strain curve of the sandwich panel, and also takes the sandwich panel with 1mm steel panel to study the material strain rate dependence which under different high shock wave stress loaded, the results show that the sandwich panel is strain rate dependence material. And also, in order to get good waveforms in the SHPB experiment, the waveform shaped technique is used in the dynamic experiments, and the study of this paper will good to sandwich panel used in the engineering.

  5. An ultrasonic method for determination of elastic moduli, density, attenuation and thickness of a polymer coating on a stiff plate.

    PubMed

    Lavrentyev, A I; Rokhlin, S I

    2001-04-01

    An ultrasonic method proposed by us for determination of the complete set of acoustical and geometrical properties of a thin isotropic layer between semispaces (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102 (1997) 3467) is extended to determination of the properties of a coating on a thin plate. The method allows simultaneous determination of the coating thickness, density, elastic moduli and attenuation (longitudinal and shear) from normal and oblique incidence reflection (transmission) frequency spectra. Reflection (transmission) from the coated plate is represented as a function of six nondimensional parameters of the coating which are determined from two experimentally measured spectra: one at normal and one at oblique incidence. The introduction of the set of nondimensional parameters allows one to transform the reconstruction process from one search in a six-dimensional space to two searches in three-dimensional spaces (one search for normal incidence and one for oblique). Thickness, density, and longitudinal and shear elastic moduli of the coating are calculated from the nondimensional parameters determined. The sensitivity of the method to individual properties and its stability against experimental noise are studied and the inversion algorithm is accordingly optimized. An example of the method and experimental measurement for comparison is given for a polypropylene coating on a steel foil.

  6. Thick Plate Rolling—a Numerical Approach in Comparison with Analytics and Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prommer, Hannes; Bojahr, Manuel; Tschullik, Ralf; Kaeding, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Today, wind turbines are mostly made of glass or carbon fibre. The manufacturing process leads to high precision and quality of the final product. Nevertheless, this fabrication method of rotor blades is very cost intensive and its production technology is not the best in terms of recyclability. In addition to its good recyclability, the handling of steel is well known and its fabrication is inexpensive. Due to these facts an idea of foils to be produced from steel arose. In cooperation with a metal forming company the 3-Dimensional rolling concept came up. Initially, rolling experiments with cold lead plates in a scale of 1:4 are made to simulate the later on used hot steel plates. Such an approach has to be accompanied by fundamental research. This paper sketches the lead rolling experiment and gives an assessment if it is applicable for a hot rolling process with steel. For this purpose, the lead test data are interpreted, the numerical model is explained and results are presented. Furthermore, an analytical flat rolling approach is used to calculate process parameters like stamping force of the upper roll and necessary friction. The applicability and precision of the analytical results are discussed in comparison with the results of the FEM model and the experimental data. Concluding the paper, validity and pitfalls of this concept are outlined and a short outlook for further research is given. The purpose of these considerations is to get closer to process parameters for an experiment in full scale for hot rolling of a rotor blade.

  7. Layered Plating Specimens For Mechanical Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Linda B.; Flowers, Cecil E.

    1991-01-01

    Layered specimens readily made in standard sizes for tensile and other tests of mechanical properties. Standard specimen of metal ordinarily difficult to plate to standard grip thickness or diameter made by augmentation with easier-to-plate material followed by machining to standard size and shape.

  8. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  9. Casimir force between a half-space and a plate of finite thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Johan S.; Brevik, Iver

    2016-05-01

    Zero-frequency Casimir theory is analyzed from different viewpoints, with the aim of obtaining further insight into the delicate Drude-plasma issue that turns up when one considers thermal corrections to the Casimir force. The problem is essentially that the plasma model, physically inferior in comparison to the Drude model since it leaves out dissipation in the material, apparently gives the best results when comparing with recent experiments. Our geometric setup is quite conventional, namely, a dielectric plate separated from a dielectric half-space by a vacuum gap, both media being made of the same material. Our investigation is divided into the following categories: (1) Making use of the statistical-mechanical method developed by J. S. Høye and I. Brevik [Physica A (Amsterdam, Neth.) 259, 165 (1998), 10.1016/S0378-4371(98)00249-0], implying that the quantized electromagnetic field is replaced by interaction between dipole moments oscillating in harmonic potentials, we first verify that the Casimir force is in agreement with the Drude prediction. No use of Fresnel's reflection coefficients is made at this stage. (2) Then turning to the field-theoretic description implying use of the reflection coefficients, we derive results in agreement with the forgoing when first setting the frequency equal to zero, before letting the permittivity become large. With the plasma relation the reflection coefficient for TE zero-frequency modes depends on the component of the wave vector parallel to the surfaces and lies between 0 and 1. This contradicts basic electrostatic theory. (3) Turning to high-permeability magnetic materials, the TE zero-frequency mode describes the static magnetic field in the same way the TM zero-frequency modes describe the static electric fields in electrostatics. With the plasma model magnetic fields, except for a small part, cannot pass through metals; that is, metals effectively become superconductors. However, recent experimental results clearly

  10. An evaluation of the USDA standards for feeder cattle frame size and muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Grona, A D; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Williams, F L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the live weights at which large-, medium-, and small-framed feeder steers and heifers attain a degree of finish associated with a carcass quality grade of low Choice and to examine the relationship of feeder cattle muscle thickness to carcass yield grade traits. Feeder steers (n = 401) and heifers (n = 463) representing three age classes (calf, yearling, long yearling) were selected randomly at a commercial feedlot to exhibit wide ranges in frame size and muscularity. Individual weights were recorded and a panel of five experienced evaluators scored each animal for frame size, muscle thickness, and flesh condition. The cattle were finished on a high-concentrate finishing diet and harvested at an estimated carcass fat thickness of 10 mm. Final weights and USDA carcass grade data were collected for all cattle. Frame size scores effectively predicted finished weight at a marbling end point of Small(00) for both heifers (r2 = 0.89, SE = 16 kg) and steers (r2 = 0.94, SE = 13 kg). For heifers, the Small/Medium and Medium/ Large frame score intersects corresponded to live weights of 460 kg and 520 kg, respectively. For steers, the Small/Medium and Medium/Large frame score lines corresponded to live weights of 504 kg and 577 kg, respectively. These weights were greater than weights specified in the 1979 USDA grade standards. Evaluations of feeder cattle muscling, based on 1979 USDA Standards, were associated (P < 0.05) with differences in longissimus muscle area but were not related (P = 0.08) to differences in numerical carcass yield grades. An alternative muscle thickness classification scheme, involving the use of four thickness classes, was effective for stratifying feeder cattle according to eventual differences (P = 0.004) in carcass yield grade. Our findings suggest that USDA feeder cattle grade standards developed in 1979 are no longer adequate for describing today's population of feeder cattle.

  11. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  12. Mo layer thickness requirement on the ion source back plate for the HNB and DNB ion sources in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2015-04-08

    All the inner surfaces of the ion sources and the upstream surface of the plasma grid of the ITER neutral beam ion sources are proposed to be coated with molybdenum. This is done to avoid sputtering of the base material (Cu or CuCrZr) by the ions in the source plasma (D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +} or H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}). The sputtering of Mo by the ions in the source plasma is low compared to that from Cu, and the threshold energy for sputtering ∼80 eV) is high compared to the energy of the ions in the source. However the D{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and D{sup +}, H{sup +} ions backstreaming from the accelerators will have energies that substantially exceed that threshold and it is important that the Mo layer is not eroded such that the base material is exposed to the source plasma. In the case of the HNB, the backstreaming ion power is calculated to be in the order of ∼1 MW, and the average energy of the backstreaming ions is calculated to be ∼300 keV. The ion sources in the HNB beam lines, 40 A 1 MeV D and 46 A 870 keV H beams, are supposed to operate for a period of 2 x 10{sup 7} s. For the DNB, 60 A 100 keV H beams, the corresponding number is 1.4 × 10{sup 6} s considering a beam duty cycle of 3s ON/20s OFF with 5 Hz modulation. The Mo layer on the ion source back plate should be thick enough to survive this operational time. Thickness estimation has been carried out taking into account the sputtering yields (atoms/ion), the energy spectrum of the backstreaming ions and the estimated profiles on the ion source back plate.

  13. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  14. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.

    PubMed

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J; Evans, T M

    1980-11-01

    Nearly 700 standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. Actinomycetes and Aeromonas species were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in raw water. Identification of bacterial populations before and after contact with chlorine (1 to 2 mg/liter) for 1 h revealed that chlorination selected for gram-positive bacteria. Water that contained high densities of bacteria known to be antagonistic to coliforms had low coliform isolation rates. The membrane filtration technique for enumerating SPC bacteria recovered significantly higher numbers (P < 0.001) than the standard pour plate technique.

  15. A study of narrow gap laser welding for thick plates using the multi-layer and multi-pass method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Tianjiao; Wang, Chunming; Yan, Fei; Shao, Xinyu; Hu, Xiyuan; Li, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    This paper details a new method that combines laser autogenous welding, laser wire filling welding and hybrid laser-GMAW welding to weld 30 mm thick plate using a multi-layer, multi-pass process. A “Y” shaped groove was used to create the joint. Research was also performed to optimize the groove size and the processing parameters. Laser autogenous welding is first used to create the backing weld. The lower, narrowest part of the groove is then welded using laser wire filling welding. Finally, the upper part of the groove is welded using laser-GMAW hybrid welding. Additionally, the wire feeding and droplet transfer behaviors are observed by high speed photography. The two main conclusions from this work are: the wire is often biased towards the side walls, resulting in a lack of fusion at the joint and the creation of other defects for larger groove sizes. Additionally, this results in the droplet transfer behavior becoming unstable, leading to a poor weld appearance for smaller groove sizes.

  16. Thickness of the Descending Philippine Sea Plate Estimated from Tomographic Images beneath the Kumano Basin, along the Nankai Trough, Southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, S.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippine Sea plate subducts northwestward beneath the Japanese islands from the south. The average thickness of the overall Philippine Sea plate has been investigated in the oceanic area using surface wave analyses [e.g. Abe and Kanamori, 1970], suggesting a thin (30-40 km thick) plate. On the other hand, several studies have indicated a thicker Philippine Sea plate based on source mechanisms and seismicity in the eastern rim of the plate [Seno, 1987; Moriyama et al., 1989]. From tomographic images, Kamiya and Kobayashi [2007] pointed out that the subducting Philippine Sea slab has thickness variation with a stepwise offset east of Izu Peninsula. The eastern (the Kanto district) and western (north of Izu Peninsula and the Tokai district) regions have respective thicknesses of 60 and 25 km. In the Kumano basin, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) developed the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunami (DONET) in order to monitor seismic activity [Kaneda et al., 2009; Kawaguchi et al., 2010]. DONET ocean-bottom stations are connected with an optical fiber cable, and data are transferred in real time to our laboratory at JAMSTEC. The present study obtains three-dimensional P-wave and S-wave seismic velocity models beneath the Kumano basin by employing an travel time tomography technique. We pick arrival times of P and S waves from the waveform data recorded by the DONET system during the period from January 2011 to December 2014. In order to improve the resolution in the deeper regions than the seismic area inside of the descending slab, we also pick arrival times from the seismic events occurred outside of this district. We use these picked arrival times adding to the JMA catalogue data in seismic tomography. From the obtained tomographic images, we find high velocity anomalies corresponding to the descending Philippine Sea slab. We also find low velocity anomalies under the high velocity slab clearly. There

  17. A new clinical unit for digital radiography based on a thick amorphous Selenium plate: Physical and psychophysical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Acchiappati, Domenico

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Here, we present a physical and psychophysical characterization of a new clinical unit (named AcSelerate) for digital radiography based on a thick a-Se layer. We also compared images acquired with and without a software filter (named CRF) developed for reducing sharpness and noise of the images and making them similar to images coming from traditional computed radiography systems. Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of physical figures of merit [modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE)], and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). We accomplished measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9. Results: The system shows an excellent MTF (about 50% at the Nyquist frequency). The DQE is about 55% at 0.5 lp/mm and above 20% at the Nyquist frequency and is almost independent from exposure. The contrast-detail curves are comparable to some of the best published data for other systems devoted to imaging in general radiography. The CRF filter influences both the MTF and NPS, but it does lead to very small changes on DQE. Also the visibility of CDRAD details is basically unaltered, when the filter is activated. Conclusions: As normally happens with detector based on direct conversion, the system presents an excellent MTF. The improved efficiency caused by the thick layer allows getting good noise characteristics and DQE results better (about 10% on average) than many of the computed radiography (CR) systems and comparable to those obtained by the best systems for digital radiography available on the market.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy bone fracture plate shows less stress shielding compared to a standard clinical metal plate.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Bougherara, Habiba; Aziz, Mina S R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Femur fracture at the tip of a total hip replacement (THR), commonly known as Vancouver B1 fracture, is mainly treated using rigid metallic bone plates which may result in "stress shielding" leading to bone resorption and implant loosening. To minimize stress shielding, a new carbon fiber (CF)/Flax/Epoxy composite plate has been developed and biomechanically compared to a standard clinical metal plate. For fatigue tests, experiments were done using six artificial femurs cyclically loaded through the femoral head in axial compression for four stages: Stage 1 (intact), stage 2 (after THR insertion), stage 3 (after plate fixation of a simulated Vancouver B1 femoral midshaft fracture gap), and stage 4 (after fracture gap healing). For fracture fixation, one group was fitted with the new CF/Flax/Epoxy plate (n = 3), whereas another group was repaired with a standard clinical metal plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) (n = 3). In addition to axial stiffness measurements, infrared thermography technique was used to capture the femur and plate surface stresses during the testing. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the composite plate's axial stiffness and surface stress field. Experimental results showed that the CF/Flax/Epoxy plated femur had comparable axial stiffness (fractured = 645 ± 67 N/mm; healed = 1731 ± 109 N/mm) to the metal-plated femur (fractured = 658 ± 69 N/mm; healed = 1751 ± 39 N/mm) (p = 1.00). However, the bone beneath the CF/Flax/Epoxy plate was the only area that had a significantly higher average surface stress (fractured = 2.10 ± 0.66 MPa; healed = 1.89 ± 0.39 MPa) compared to bone beneath the metal plate (fractured = 1.18 ± 0.93 MPa; healed = 0.71 ± 0.24 MPa) (p < 0.05). FEA bone surface stresses yielded peak of 13 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 1), 16 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 2), 85 MPa for composite and 129

  19. Biomechanical analysis of a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy bone fracture plate shows less stress shielding compared to a standard clinical metal plate.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Bougherara, Habiba; Aziz, Mina S R; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    Femur fracture at the tip of a total hip replacement (THR), commonly known as Vancouver B1 fracture, is mainly treated using rigid metallic bone plates which may result in "stress shielding" leading to bone resorption and implant loosening. To minimize stress shielding, a new carbon fiber (CF)/Flax/Epoxy composite plate has been developed and biomechanically compared to a standard clinical metal plate. For fatigue tests, experiments were done using six artificial femurs cyclically loaded through the femoral head in axial compression for four stages: Stage 1 (intact), stage 2 (after THR insertion), stage 3 (after plate fixation of a simulated Vancouver B1 femoral midshaft fracture gap), and stage 4 (after fracture gap healing). For fracture fixation, one group was fitted with the new CF/Flax/Epoxy plate (n = 3), whereas another group was repaired with a standard clinical metal plate (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) (n = 3). In addition to axial stiffness measurements, infrared thermography technique was used to capture the femur and plate surface stresses during the testing. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to evaluate the composite plate's axial stiffness and surface stress field. Experimental results showed that the CF/Flax/Epoxy plated femur had comparable axial stiffness (fractured = 645 ± 67 N/mm; healed = 1731 ± 109 N/mm) to the metal-plated femur (fractured = 658 ± 69 N/mm; healed = 1751 ± 39 N/mm) (p = 1.00). However, the bone beneath the CF/Flax/Epoxy plate was the only area that had a significantly higher average surface stress (fractured = 2.10 ± 0.66 MPa; healed = 1.89 ± 0.39 MPa) compared to bone beneath the metal plate (fractured = 1.18 ± 0.93 MPa; healed = 0.71 ± 0.24 MPa) (p < 0.05). FEA bone surface stresses yielded peak of 13 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 1), 16 MPa at distal epiphysis (stage 2), 85 MPa for composite and 129

  20. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer.

  1. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. Objectives: This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. Results: The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. Conclusions: The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change). PMID:26715970

  2. On the thermally-induced residual stresses in thick fiber-thermoplastic matrix (PEEK) cross-ply laminated plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shoufeng; Nairn, John A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical method for calculating thermally-induced residual stresses in laminated plates is applied to cross-ply PEEK laminates. We considered three cooling procedures: slow cooling (uniform temperature distribution); convective and radiative cooling; and rapid cooling by quenching (constant surface temperature). Some of the calculated stresses are of sufficient magnitude to effect failure properties such as matrix microcracking.

  3. On the thermally-induced residual stresses in thick fiber-thermoplastic matrix (PEEK) cross-ply laminated plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.; Nairn, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An analytical method for calculating thermally-induced residual stresses in laminated plates is applied to cross-ply PEEK laminates. The authors considered three cooling procedures: slow cooling (uniform temperature distribution); convective and radiative cooling; and rapid cooling by quenching (constant surface temperature). Some of the calculated stresses are of sufficient magnitude to effect failure properties such as matrix microcracking.

  4. Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J L; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1982-08-01

    Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from a drinking-water treatment facility and from the river supplying the facility. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to six antibiotics to determine if drug-resistant bacteria were selected for as a consequence of water treatment. Among the isolates surviving our test procedures, there was a significant selection (P less than 0.05) of gram-negative SPC organisms resistant to two or more of the test antibiotics. These bacteria were isolated from the flash mix tank, where chlorine, alum, and lime are added to the water. Streptomycin resistance in particular was more frequent in this population as compared with bacteria in the untreated river water (P less than 0.01). SPC bacteria from the clear well, which is a tank holding the finished drinking water at the treatment facility, were also more frequently antibiotic resistant than were the respective river water populations. When 15.8 and 18.2% of the river water bacteria were multiply antibiotic resistant, 57.1 and 43.5%, respectively, of the SPC bacteria in the clear well were multiply antibiotic resistant. Selection for bacteria exhibiting resistance to streptomycin was achieved by chlorinating river water in the laboratory. We concluded that the selective factors operating in the aquatic environment of a water treatment facility can act to increase the proportion of antibiotic-resistant members of the SPC bacterial population in treated drinking water.

  5. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC.

  6. Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width, beta-Value, Corner Magnitude, Coupled Lithosphere Thickness, and Coupling in 7 Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kagan, Y. Y.

    2003-12-01

    A new plate model [Bird, 2003, G3, 10.1029/2001GC000252] is used to analyze the mean seismicities of 7 types of plate boundary (CRB continental rift boundary, CTF continental transform fault, CCB continental convergent boundary, OSR oceanic spreading ridge, OTF oceanic transform fault, OCB oceanic convergent boundary, SUB subduction zone). We compare the plate-like (non-orogen) regions of model PB2002 with the CMT catalog to select apparent boundary half-widths, and then assign 95% of shallow earthquakes to one of these settings. A tapered Gutenberg-Richter model of the frequency/moment relation is fit to the subcatalog for each setting by maximum-likelihood. Best-fitting β values range from 0.53 to 0.92, but all 95%-confidence ranges are consistent with a common value of 0.61-0.66. To better determine some corner magnitudes we expand the subcatalogs by: (1) inclusion of orogens; and (2) inclusion of years 1900-1975 from the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes [1992]. Combining both earthquake statistics and the plate-tectonic constraint on moment rate, corner magnitudes include: CRB 7.64-.26+.76, CTF 8.01-.21+.45, CCB 8.46-.39+.21, OCB 8.04-.22+.52, and SUB 9.58-.46+.48. Coupled lithosphere thicknesses are found to be: CRB 3.0-1.4+7.0 km; CTF 8.6-4.1+11 km; CCB 18-11+? km; OSR 0.13-0.09+.13 km for normal-faulting and 0.40-.21+? km for strike-slip; OTF 12-7.1+?, 1.6-0.5+1.4, and 1.5-0.6+1.2 km at low, medium, and high velocities; OCB 3.8-2.3+13.7 km, and SUB 18.0-10.8+? km. Generally high coupling of subduction and continental plate boundaries suggests that here all seismic gaps are dangerous unless proven to be creeping. Generally low coupling within oceanic lithosphere suggests a different model of isolated seismic asperities surrounded by large seismic gaps which may be permanent.

  7. The repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Immune responses to reparative tissue formed by allogeneic growth plate chondrocyte implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabe, N.; Yoshinao, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Growth plate cartilage cultivated in vitro was attached with a fibrin clot to a full-thickness articular cartilage defect on knee joints in allogeneic New Zealand rabbits. The healing of the defects was assessed by gross examination, light microscopy, and immunologic analysis for 24 weeks. Immunologic assessment of cell-mediated immunity, cytotoxicity of a humoral antibody by a 51 chromium release assay, and immunofluorescence studies were carried out. During the first two weeks following grafting, healing was excellent in 11 of the 17 defects. From three to 24 weeks, 11 of 42 defects examined had good results. Host lymphocytes had accumulated around the allograft at two to 12 weeks. Most of the implanted cartilage grown in vitro died and was replaced by fibrous tissue. The immunologic studies suggested that the implanted cartilage began to degenerate two to three weeks after implantation partially because of a humoral immune response but more importantly because of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  8. Enumeration of waterborne Escherichia coli with petrifilm plates: comparison to standard methods.

    PubMed

    Vail, J H; Morgan, R; Merino, C R; Gonzales, F; Miller, R; Ram, J L

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli is often monitored in environmental waters as an indicator of the possible presence of human pathogens associated with feces. Petrifilm E. coli/coliform count plates (3M, Minneapolis, MN), previously validated for enumerating E. coli in food, were tested for monitoring E. coli in environmental water. Escherichia coli counts in environmental water samples enumerated with Petrifilm were significantly correlated (R > 0.9; slope = 0.9-1.0; p < 0.001) with counts obtained with three commonly used methods, mTEC (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), m-ColiBlue (Hach, Loveland, CO), and Colilert-18/IDEXX Quanti-Tray 2000 (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). Blue colonies on Petrifilm plates were most reliably identified as E. coli when accompanied by gas formation, as determined by characterization of the colonies on MacConkey agar plates (PML Microbiologicals, Mississauga, ON, Canada) and by polymerase chair reaction (PCR) with E. coli-specific primers. The main disadvantage of Petrifilm plates for environmental water testing is the small volume (1 mL per sample) that can be tested; however, the plates appear to be suitable for screening and locating sites that exceed criteria for total body and partial body contact. Simplicity of use and storage, reliability, and relatively low cost make Petrifilm plates suitable for volunteer-based and educational water quality monitoring applications, particularly when used as a preliminary screening method to identify problem sites.

  9. Standardized Scalp Massage Results in Increased Hair Thickness by Inducing Stretching Forces to Dermal Papilla Cells in the Subcutaneous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Hama, Takanori; Murakami, Kasumi; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of scalp massage on hair in Japanese males and the effect of stretching forces on human dermal papilla cells in vitro. Methods: Nine healthy men received 4 minutes of standardized scalp massage per day for 24 weeks using a scalp massage device. Total hair number, hair thickness, and hair growth rate were evaluated. The mechanical effect of scalp massage on subcutaneous tissue was analyzed using a finite element method. To evaluate the effect of mechanical forces, human dermal papilla cells were cultured using a 72-hour stretching cycle. Gene expression change was analyzed using DNA microarray analyses. In addition, expression of hair cycle-related genes including IL6, NOGGIN, BMP4, and SMAD4 were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Standardized scalp massage resulted in increased hair thickness 24 weeks after initiation of massage (0.085 ± 0.003 mm vs 0.092 ± 0.001 mm). Finite element method showed that scalp massage caused z-direction displacement and von Mises stress on subcutaneous tissue. In vitro, DNA microarray showed gene expression change significantly compared with nonstretching human dermal papilla cells. A total of 2655 genes were upregulated and 2823 genes were downregulated. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated increased expression of hair cycle–related genes such as NOGGIN, BMP4, SMAD4, and IL6ST and decrease in hair loss–related genes such as IL6. Conclusions: Stretching forces result in changes in gene expression in human dermal papilla cells. Standardized scalp massage is a way to transmit mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells in subcutaneous tissue. Hair thickness was shown to increase with standardized scalp massage. PMID:26904154

  10. Real time monitoring of electroless nickel plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, Aaron E.; Kline, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the design and manufacturing of the heat and chemical resistant transducer case required for on-line immersion testing, experimental design, data acquisition and signal processing. Results are presented for several depositions with an accuracy of two ten-thousandths of an inch in coating thickness obtained. Monitoring the deposition rate of Electroless Nickel (EN) plating in-situ will provide measurement of the accurate dimensions of the component being plated, in real time. EN is used as for corrosion and wear protection for automotive an - Electroless Nickel (EN) plating is commonly used for corrosion and wear protection for automotive and aerospace components. It plates evenly and symmetrically, theoretically allowing the part to be plated to its final dimension. Currently the standard approach to monitoring the thickness of the deposited nickel is to remove the component from the plating bath and physically measure the part. This can lead to plating problems such as pitting, non-adhesion of the deposit and contamination of the plating solution. The goal of this research effort is to demonstrate that plating thickness can be rapidly and accurately measured using ultrasonic testing. Here a special housing is designed to allow immersion of the ultrasonic transducers directly into the plating bath. An FFT based signal processing algorithm was developed to resolve closely spaced echoes for precise thickness determination. The technique in this research effort was found to be capable of measuring plating thicknesses to within 0.0002 inches. It is expected that this approach will lead to cost savings in many EN plating operations.

  11. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... amending this rule? On July 1, 2008 (73 FR 37741), we issued the NESHAP for Area Sources: Plating and... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under the... Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000). This final rule makes certain technical corrections...

  12. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  13. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous... Air Act (CAA). In today's action, EPA is proposing to amend the national emission standards...

  14. Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements with three new optical devices and a standard ultrasonic pachymeter.

    PubMed Central

    Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Can, İzzet

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare the RTVue spectral optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), Sirius Scheimpflug-Placido topographer, Lenstar optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR) and ultrasound pachymetry (USP) devices in terms of their agreement and repeatability of measuring central corneal thickness (CCT). METHODS In this prospective study, 50 eyes of 50 patients were included. Three repeated measures were obtained using SD-OCT, Scheimpflug-Placido topographer and USP and five measurements were determined with the OLCR. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement among the instruments, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA) for each comparison were calculated. Intra-examiner repeatability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS The mean CCT by SD-OCT, Scheimpflug-Placido topographer, OLCR, and USP were 525.90±34.08 µm, 525.92±34.10 µm, 530.30±35.62 µm, and 543.50±37.11 µm respectively. All 4 modalities of CCT measurements correlated closely with each other, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.977 to 0.995. The mean differences (and upper/lower LoA) for CCT measurements were -0.05±6.77 µm (13.3/-13.3) between SD-OCT and Scheimpflug-Placido topographer, 4.38±3.79 µm (11.8/-3.1) between OLCR and SD-OCT, 4.38±6.03 µm (16.2/-7.5) between OLCR and Scheimpflug-Placido topographer, 13.20±6.46 µm (25.9/0.5) between USP and OLCR, 17.59±6.76 µm (30.8/4.3) between USP and SD-OCT, and 17.58±8.13 µm (33.5/1.6) between USP and Scheimpflug-Placido topographer. Intra-examiner repeatability was excellent for all devices with ICCs>0.98. CONCLUSION For most practical purposes, CCT measurements with the RTVue, Sirius and Lenstar can be used interchangeably. Although highly correlated, CCT measurement differences between USP and these 3 optical instruments can be significant depending on the clinical situation. PMID:24790874

  15. Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of 4-mm-Thick 2219-T87 Plates at Room Temperature and -196 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2014-06-01

    2219-T87 aluminum alloy is widely used for fabricating liquid rocket propellant storage tank, due to its admirable cryogenic property. Welding is the dominant joining method in the manufacturing process of aerospace components. In this study, the tungsten inert gas welding and friction stir welding (FSW) characteristics of 4-mm-thick 2219-T87 alloy plate at room temperature (25 °C) and deep cryogenic temperature (-196 °C) were investigated by property measurements and microscopy methods. The studied 2219 base alloy exhibits a low strength plane anisotropy and excellent room temperature and cryogenic mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength values of TIG and FSW welding joints can reach 265 and 353 MPa at room temperature, and 342 and 438 MPa at -196 °C, respectively. The base metal consists of elongated deformed grains and many nano-scaled θ (Al2Cu) aging precipitates. Fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the TIG joint are characterized by coarsening dendritic grains and equiaxed recrystallized grains, respectively. The FSW-welded joint consists of the weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. In the weld nugget zone, a micro-scaled sub-grain structure is the main microstructure characteristic. The TMAZ and HAZ are both characterized by coarsened aging precipitates and elongated deformed grains. The excellent FSW welding properties are attributed to the preservation of the working structures and homogenous chemical compositions.

  16. Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2012-03-01

    A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

  17. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  18. Comparison of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay and standard plate count methods for assessing microbial contamination of consumers' refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-10-01

    The feasibility of using an ATP bioluminescence assay for assessing microbial contamination of home refrigerators was evaluated and compared with the standard culture methods. Samples of refrigerator surfaces were collected from 123 households by swabbing an area of 100 cm2 on three locations in the refrigerator with premoisturized sterile swabs. Microbial contaminations were determined by aerobic plate count (APC; incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h) and psychrotrophic plate count (PPC; incubated at 7 degrees C for 10 days) on plate count agar. The results were compared to the readings from the microbial ATP (mATP) bioluminescence assay. The correlation coefficient (r) between mATP and PPC (r = 0.851) was slightly higher than that between mATP and APC (r = 0.823). Our results indicated a potential discrepancy in the population of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in the refrigerator samples. Nevertheless, mATP appeared to be a reliable indication of the average of APC and PPC (r = 0.895). The mATP bioluminescence assay would provide a rapid and convenient test for researchers in field studies to assess microbial contamination in refrigerators.

  19. Mode-shape measurement of piezoelectric plate using temporal speckle pattern interferometry and temporal standard deviation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2011-11-01

    This study proposes an image processing method to improve the quality of interference fringes in mode-shape measurement using temporal speckle pattern interferometry. A vibrating piezoelectric plate at resonance was investigated, and the full-field optical information was saved as a sequence of images. According to derived statistical properties, an algorithm was developed to remove noise from both the background and disturbance, resulting in high-resolution images of excellent quality. In addition, the resonant frequency and mode shape obtained using the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent agreement with theoretical results obtained by the finite element method. PMID:22048391

  20. Comparison of 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates to standard plating methodology for use with AOAC antimicrobial efficacy methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04 as an alternative enumeration procedure: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Maria T; LaBudde, Robert A; Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to determine the equivalence of the 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate and standard plating methodology for measuring viable bacteria and spores recovered from hard-surface carriers (stainless steel and porcelain), also known as "control carrier counts," used in AOAC antimicrobial efficacy test methods. Six laboratories participated in the study in which carriers inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated using 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count (AC) plates and standard plating side-by-side. The data were analyzed using a matched-pair t-test to determine the between-method effect with confidence intervals. For all test organisms pooled across all laboratories, the mean difference in log10 concentration between the standard plate count method and 3M Petrifilm AC Plates was -0.012, with a 95% confidence interval of (-0.090, +0.066), which was well within the -0.5, +0.5 interval established as the acceptance criterion. The between-carrier SD averaged 0.139; the between-replicate SD was 0.050. The carrier reproducibility, given that a single replicate per carrier is done, was estimated to be 0.148. Although differences were seen in the final concentrations of the test organisms among laboratories, there were no statistical differences between the enumeration methods. Based on the results from this study, 3M Petrifilm AC Plates are equivalent to standard plating methodology and can be used as an alternative procedure for the enumeration of test organisms used in AOAC Methods 955.14, 955.15, 964.02, and 966.04.

  1. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... turbojet engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012, July 27, 2011)....

  2. Angular shear plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ruda, Mitchell C.; Greynolds, Alan W.; Stuhlinger, Tilman W.

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  3. Practical Bench Comparison of BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Standard Two-Plate Media for Urine Cultures

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Holly A.; Campbell, Mary; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,023 urine samples sent for routine culture were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agars and a BBL CHROMagar Orientation (CO; Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.) plate, and the results were compared. Of these, 250 urine samples (24%) grew >10,000 CFU of one or two putative pathogens/ml and 773 showed no growth (NG), mixed growth of <10,000 CFU/ml, or three or more strains (mixed). The CO and conventional medium results agreed completely for 595 cultures with NG or <10,000 CFU/ml. An additional 178 urine samples yielded clinically insignificant differences. Both medium sets essentially agreed on quantities and identification for 400 single-pathogen cultures and 9 mixed cultures. With the caveat that CO cannot differentiate Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia spp., enteric pathogens were identified only by morphology and color on CO. Direct visual differentiation of group B streptococci from lactobacilli is not possible, but lactobacillus cells always exhibited easily recognizable morphology on Gram stain. Of 108 paired organism susceptibility results encompassing 2,268 drug-pathogen combinations, there were 3% errors and only 1% very major errors. Use of CO allowed a >50% reduction in inoculation time and a >20% reduction in work-up time. For our laboratory, with 50% “no growth” and ca. 25% significant results (50% Escherichia coli), CO allowed time and workup cost savings for a majority of cultures. A cost analysis (time and supplies for our laboratory) showed that if CO is used alone, the break-even level for CO pricing is $1.78; if CO and blood agar are both used, the break-even pricing for CO is $1.53. PMID:14715732

  4. 75 FR 75186 - License Plate Reader Standard Special Technical Committee Request for Proposals for Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... a 12-month time period with the goal of completing development of the standard and certification program requirements. It is anticipated that STC meetings will begin in January 2011. Travel expenses and per diem will be reimbursed for all STC meetings; however, participation time will not be funded....

  5. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  6. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  7. A Chlorhexidine- Agar Plate Culture Medium Protocol to Complement Standard Broth Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, Shady; Chatellier, Sonia; Mirande, Caroline; van Belkum, Alex; Canard, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium and a liquid broth provides the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated a chlorhexidine decontamination-MOD9 solid medium protocol versus the standard NALC-NaOH-Bactec 960 MGIT protocol for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by culture. Three-hundred clinical specimens comprising 193 sputa, 30 bronchial aspirates, 10 broncho-alveolar lavages, 47 stools, and 20 urines were prospectively submitted for the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis. The contamination rates were 5/300 (1.7%) using the MOD9 protocol and 17/300 (5.7%) with the Bactec protocol, respectively (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Of a total of 50 Mycobacterium isolates (48 M. tuberculosis and two Mycobacterium abscessus) were cultured. Out of these 50, 48 (96%) isolates were found using the MOD9 protocol versus 35 (70%) when using the Bactec protocol (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). The time to positivity was 10.1 ± 3.9 days versus 14.7 ± 7.3 days, respectively, (P < 0.05, Student’s t-test). These data confirmed the usefulness of parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium with broth for the recovery of M. tuberculosis in agreement with current recommendations. More specifically, chlorhexidine decontamination and inoculation of the MOD9 solid medium could be proposed to complement the standard Bactec 960 MGIT broth protocol. PMID:26834733

  8. A Chlorhexidine- Agar Plate Culture Medium Protocol to Complement Standard Broth Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Shady; Chatellier, Sonia; Mirande, Caroline; van Belkum, Alex; Canard, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium and a liquid broth provides the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here, we evaluated a chlorhexidine decontamination-MOD9 solid medium protocol versus the standard NALC-NaOH-Bactec 960 MGIT protocol for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by culture. Three-hundred clinical specimens comprising 193 sputa, 30 bronchial aspirates, 10 broncho-alveolar lavages, 47 stools, and 20 urines were prospectively submitted for the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis. The contamination rates were 5/300 (1.7%) using the MOD9 protocol and 17/300 (5.7%) with the Bactec protocol, respectively (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). Of a total of 50 Mycobacterium isolates (48 M. tuberculosis and two Mycobacterium abscessus) were cultured. Out of these 50, 48 (96%) isolates were found using the MOD9 protocol versus 35 (70%) when using the Bactec protocol (P < 0.05, Fisher exact test). The time to positivity was 10.1 ± 3.9 days versus 14.7 ± 7.3 days, respectively, (P < 0.05, Student's t-test). These data confirmed the usefulness of parallel inoculation of a solid culture medium with broth for the recovery of M. tuberculosis in agreement with current recommendations. More specifically, chlorhexidine decontamination and inoculation of the MOD9 solid medium could be proposed to complement the standard Bactec 960 MGIT broth protocol. PMID:26834733

  9. Chromium ion plating studies for enhancement of bearing lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Six 440-C hardened stainless steel roller bearing test rods were ion plated with various chromium films of thicknesses from .2 microns to 7 microns. The thinner (approximately .2 microns) coating sample had 3 times the fatigue life of the unplated (standard) specimens. Contrastingly, the samples having thicker coatings (several microns) had short fatigue lives (about 3% of the unplated standard).

  10. Toward Microbioreactor Arrays: A Slow-Responding Oxygen Sensor for Monitoring of Microbial Cultures in Standard 96-Well Plates.

    PubMed

    Glauche, Florian; John, Gernot T; Arain, Sarina; Knepper, Andreas; Neubauer, Antje; Goelling, Detlef; Lang, Christine; Violet, Norman; King, Rudibert; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a slow-responding chemo-optical sensor for dissolved oxygen (DO) integrated into a 96-well plate was developed. The slow response time ensures that the measured oxygen value does not change much during plate transport to the microplate reader. The sensor therefore permits at-line DO measurement of microbial cultures. Moreover, it eliminates the necessity of individual optical measurement systems for each culture plate, as many plates can be measured successively. Combined with the 96-well format, this increases the experimental throughput enormously. The novel sensor plate (Slow OxoPlate) consists of fluorophores suspended in a polymer matrix that were placed into u-bottom 96-well plates. Response time was measured using sodium sulfite, and a t90 value of 9.7 min was recorded. For application, DO values were then measured in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures grown under fed-batch-like conditions. Depending on the DO sensor's response time, different information on the oxygenation state of the culture plate was obtained: a fast sensor variant detects disturbance through sampling, whereas the slow sensor indicates oxygen limitation during incubation. A combination of the commercially available OxoPlate and the Slow OxoPlate enables operators of screening facilities to validate their cultivation procedures with regard to oxygen availability. PMID:25720599

  11. Toward Microbioreactor Arrays: A Slow-Responding Oxygen Sensor for Monitoring of Microbial Cultures in Standard 96-Well Plates.

    PubMed

    Glauche, Florian; John, Gernot T; Arain, Sarina; Knepper, Andreas; Neubauer, Antje; Goelling, Detlef; Lang, Christine; Violet, Norman; King, Rudibert; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a slow-responding chemo-optical sensor for dissolved oxygen (DO) integrated into a 96-well plate was developed. The slow response time ensures that the measured oxygen value does not change much during plate transport to the microplate reader. The sensor therefore permits at-line DO measurement of microbial cultures. Moreover, it eliminates the necessity of individual optical measurement systems for each culture plate, as many plates can be measured successively. Combined with the 96-well format, this increases the experimental throughput enormously. The novel sensor plate (Slow OxoPlate) consists of fluorophores suspended in a polymer matrix that were placed into u-bottom 96-well plates. Response time was measured using sodium sulfite, and a t90 value of 9.7 min was recorded. For application, DO values were then measured in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures grown under fed-batch-like conditions. Depending on the DO sensor's response time, different information on the oxygenation state of the culture plate was obtained: a fast sensor variant detects disturbance through sampling, whereas the slow sensor indicates oxygen limitation during incubation. A combination of the commercially available OxoPlate and the Slow OxoPlate enables operators of screening facilities to validate their cultivation procedures with regard to oxygen availability.

  12. The effect of current density and thickness of the active mass upon the corrosion rate of the spines of lead-acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatchev, T.; Papazov, G.; Pavlov, D.

    The effect of current density and the thickness of the active mass upon the corrosion of the spines of tubular lead-acid batteries has been determined by measuring the corrosion rate by the weight loss method. The presence of antimony in the alloy decreases the overvoltage of the corrosion reaction. Study of electrodes of different active mass layer thickness shows that with increase in thickness the corrosion rate decreases. If the thickness is above 3 mm, the corrosion rate remains constant, and is affected only by the nature of the alloy. The density of the active mass does not affect the corrosion behaviour of the electrodes. The experimental results confirm the validity of the oxygen corrosion model.

  13. Comparison of bulk-tank standard plate count and somatic cell count for Wisconsin dairy farms in three size categories.

    PubMed

    Ingham, S C; Hu, Y; Ané, C

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible claims by advocates of small-scale dairy farming that milk from smaller Wisconsin farms is of higher quality than milk from larger Wisconsin farms. Reported bulk tank standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) test results for Wisconsin dairy farms were obtained for February to December, 2008. Farms were sorted into 3 size categories using available size-tracking criteria: small (≤118 cows; 12,866 farms), large (119-713 cattle; 1,565 farms), and confined animal feeding operations (≥714 cattle; 160 farms). Group means were calculated (group=farm size category) for the farms' minimum, median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC. Statistical analysis showed that group means for median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC were almost always significantly higher for the small farm category than for the large farm and confined animal feeding operations farm categories. With SPC and SCC as quality criteria and the 3 farm size categories of ≤118, 119 to 713, and ≥714 cattle, the claim of Wisconsin smaller farms producing higher quality milk than Wisconsin larger farms cannot be supported.

  14. Standard plate counts of drinking water: a comparison between incubation temperatures of 20 and 30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Spinedi, C; Gisin, M

    1990-08-01

    Standard plate counts of 5085 drinking water samples gathered in the Region of Basle were carried out over a period of 9 years (1977 to 1985). Two conditions of incubation were evaluated: 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 72 h. In ground water samples (3048 samples) colony forming units (cfu) at 30 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 20 degrees C incubation, 45% of the samples contained greater than or equal to 2 cfu/ml at 30 degrees versus 35% at 20 degrees C. The median was 1 cfu/ml at both temperatures. In spring water samples (2036 samples) bacterial counts at 20 degrees C were found to be higher than counts at 30 degrees C incubation, 61% of the samples contained greater than 10 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C versus 51% at 30 degrees C. The median was 19 cfu/ml at 20 degrees C incubation versus 11 cfu/ml at 30 degrees C. These differences were statistically significant with p less than 0.001 (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). No correlation was found between bacterial counts at 20 degrees C and bacterial counts at 30 degrees C, nor between bacterial counts and original water temperatures. It appears that incubation temperatures of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C favor the growth of different populations of bacteria and temperature is not the only factor. However, from a practical point of view the use of only one incubation temperature seems to be justified for the purpose of judging the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  15. Plating To Reinforce Welded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition used to strengthen welded joints gouged, nicked, or suffered other mechanical damage. Plating cell, typically of acrylic plastic such as poly (Methylmetacrylate), is assembled around part to be plated. Areas not to be plated are masked with plater's tape. Weld area is plated in standard nickel-plating process.

  16. The efficacy of adding a minimum adjusted fat thickness requirement to the USDA beef quality grading standards for select grade beef.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    1994-06-01

    The present analysis was conducted to test the efficacy of adding a minimum 5-mm adjusted s.c. fat thickness requirement to the present USDA beef quality grading standards for the Select grade. Carcass grade data and longissimus thoracis Warner-Bratzler shear force and trained sensory panel ratings were analyzed for calf-fed steers (n = 1,602). The experimental group (nine breeds and three composite populations finished on medium- and high-energy diets) contained a large amount of variation in yield grade, marbling score, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory panel overall tenderness ratings (CV = 30.8, 17.9, 25.0, and 14.0%, respectively). All but one of the carcasses were of A maturity and 37% of the carcasses had < 5 mm adjusted fat thickness. Among carcasses with a "slight" amount of marbling, WBS values were higher (5.58 vs 5.32 kg; P < .01) and overall tenderness (4.82 vs 4.99; P < .01) was lower for carcasses with < 5 mm s.c. fat thickness than for those with > or = 5 mm s.c. fat thickness. However, the magnitude of those differences was so small that the current and proposed Select grades did not differ with respect to shear force (5.45 vs 5.32 kg), overall tenderness (4.90 vs 4.99), juiciness (5.09 vs 5.12), beef flavor intensity (4.86 vs 4.86), or the percentage of samples rated "slightly tender" or higher for overall tenderness (48.7 vs 52.0). Thus, it seems that the addition of a minimum fat thickness requirement to the standards for the Select grade would not improve the tenderness of Select grade longissimus thoracis steaks.

  17. Hypervelocity plate acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.P.; Tan, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Shock tubes have been used to accelerate 1.5-mm-thick stainless steel plates to high velocity while retaining their integrity. The fast shock tubes are 5.1-cm-diameter, 15.2-cm-long cylinders of PBX-9501 explosive containing a 1.1-cm-diameter cylindrical core of low-density polystyrene foam. The plates have been placed directly in contact with one face of the explosive system. Plane-wave detonation was initiated on the opposite face. A Mach disk was formed in the imploding styrofoam core, which provided the impulse required to accelerate the metal plate to high velocity. Parametric studies were made on this system to find the effect of varying plate metal, plate thickness, foam properties, and addition of a barrel. A maximum plate velocity of 9.0 km/s has been observed. 6 refs., 17 figs.

  18. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  19. Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Remain the Gold Standard for the Closure of Large Acute and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Simman, Richard; Phavixay, Laemthong

    2012-01-01

    Healing large chronic and acute wounds is a challenging task for wound care providers. It requires numerous visits and frequent dressing changes and often involves expensive therapeutic modalities. Our primary and ultimate goal is to heal these wounds as quickly as possible. In a prepared wound bed, covered with granulation tissue and free of infection, skin graft is the gold standard procedure to achieve this goal. One should keep in mind that not all patients are good candidates for surgery. PMID:24525612

  20. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  1. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  2. Prescreening bacterial colonies for bioactive molecules with Janus plates, a SBS standard double-faced microbial culturing system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Pascual, Javier; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Kath, Gary S; Sigmund, Janet M; Masurekar, Prakash; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Bills, Gerald F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the availability of many culture-based antibiotic screening methods, the lack of sensitive automated methods to identify functional molecules directly from microbial cells still limits the search for new biologically active compounds. The effectiveness of antibiotic detection is influenced by the solubility of the assayed compounds, indicator strain sensitivity, culture media and assay configuration. We describe a qualitative high throughput screening system for detecting cell-perturbing molecules from bacterial colonies employing two opposed agar layers sequentially formed in prototype Society for Biomolecular Screening (SBS) plates, named Janus plates. Direct assay of microbial colonies against target organisms in opposed agar layers overcomes some of the limitations of agar overlay methods. The system enables the rapid detection of extracellular cell-perturbing molecules, e.g., antibiotics, excreted directly from environmental isolates. The source bacterial colonies remain separate from the target organism. The growth layer is prepared and grown independently, so environmental strains can be grown for longer intervals, at temperatures and in media that favor their growth and metabolite expression, while the assay layer with pathogens, usually requiring nutrient-rich medium and elevated temperatures, are added later. Colonies to be tested can be precisely arrayed on the first agar surface, thus avoiding dispersion and disturbance of potential antibiotic-producing colonies by overlaying agar with the target strain. The rectangular SBS configuration facilitates factorial replication of dense microbial colony arrays for testing with multiple assays and assay conditions employing robotic colony pickers and pin tools. Opposed agar layers only slightly reduced the effectiveness for detecting growth inhibition from pure antibiotics compared to single-layer agar diffusion assays. The Janus plate enabled an automation-assisted workflow where a lone operator can

  3. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    PubMed Central

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K. H.; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A. Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P < 0.01). Discussion: To our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that show the causes of coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study. PMID:23858288

  4. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  5. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  6. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  7. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors. PMID:25618046

  8. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors.

  9. Sub-Plate Overlap Code Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Zarate, N.

    1997-01-01

    An expansion of the plate overlap method of astrometric data reduction to a single plate has been proposed and successfully tested. Each plate is (artificially) divided into sub-plates which can then be overlapped. This reduces the area of a 'plate' over which a plate model needs to accurately represent the relationship between measured coordinates and standard coordinates. Application is made to non-astrographic plates such as Schmidt plates and to wide-field astrographic plates. Indeed, the method is completely general and can be applied to any type of recording media.

  10. Hypervelocity impact on shielded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James P.

    1993-01-01

    A ballistic limit equation for hypervelocity impact on thin plates is derived analytically. This equation applies to cases of impulsive impact on a plate that is protected by a multi-shock shield, and it is valid in the range of velocity above 6 km/s. Experimental tests were conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center on square aluminum plates. Comparing the center deflections of these plates with the theoretical deflections of a rigid-plastic plate subjected to a blast load, one determines the dynamic yield strength of the plate material. The analysis is based on a theory for the expansion of the fragmented projectile and on a simple failure criterion. Curves are presented for the critical projectile radius versus the projectile velocity, and for the critical plate thickness versus the velocity. These curves are in good agreement with curves that have been generated empirically.

  11. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  12. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    PubMed

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  13. Quantum levitation of a thin magnetodielectric plate on a metallic plate using the repulsive Casimir force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Levitation of a thin magnetodielectric plate on a metallic plate by using the repulsive Casimir force is theoretically considered. If the permittivity of the metallic plate near zero frequency is expressed by a plasma model and the static permeability of the magnetodielectric plate is higher than its static permittivity, the Casimir force between the magnetodielectric plate and the metallic plate changes from attractive to repulsive as the separation between them increases. Furthermore, as the thickness of the magnetodielectric plate is decreased, the attractive component of the Casimir force decreases more than the repulsive one. This effect generates a larger repulsive Casimir force as compared with that between the plates having infinite thickness. Combined with the effect of decreasing the weight of the plate, this might enable a thin plate to levitate in vacuum. The height of quantum levitation is evaluated for a combination of yttrium iron garnet and gold.

  14. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  15. Adherent protective coatings plated on magnesium-lithium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Zinc is plated on a magnesium-lithium alloy by using a modification of the standard zinc-plate immersion bath. Further protection is given the alloy by applying a light plating of copper on the zinc plating. Other metals are plated on the copper by using conventional plating baths.

  16. Axisymmetric vibrations of layered tapered plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaneethakrishnan, P. V.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Ravisrinivas, N.

    1992-12-01

    The study of Navaneethakrishnan and Chandrasekaran (1989) on axisymmetric free vibrations of layered annular plates is extended to the vibrations of layered annular plates whose thickness can vary as the radial distance from the arbitrary concentric circle. Numerical results are presented, showing the relationship between the circular frequency of the plate vibration and the ratio between the inner and the outer radii of the plate.

  17. Glued Joint Behavior of Ribs for Wood-Based Composite Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolovs, G.; Rocens, K.; Sliseris, J.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of composite sandwich plywood plates with cell type core and their connections between skin layers of birch plywood and a core of straight and curved plywood honeycomb-type ribs. This shape of core ribs provides several improvements for these plates in the manufacturing process as well as improves the mechanical properties of plywood plates. This specific form of ribs allows simplifying the manufacturing of these plates although it should be detailed and improved. The most typical cases (series of specimens) were compared to the results obtained from FEM (ANSYS) simulations. All thicknesses of elements are chosen according to plywood supplier assortment. Standard birch plywood (Riga Ply) plates were used - three layer plywood was chosen for skin elements (Surfaces) and three or five layer plywood was chosen for edge elements. Different bond pressures were taken to compare their influence on joint strength and stiffness.

  18. Bipolar battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having through-plate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with led spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  19. Consecutive plate acoustic suppressor apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph (Inventor); Parrott, Tony (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for suppressing acoustic noise utilizes consecutive plates, closely spaced to each other so as to exploit dissipation associated with sound propagation in narrow channels to optimize the acoustic resistance at a liner surface. The closely spaced plates can be utilized as high temperature structural materials for jet engines by constructing the plates from composite materials. Geometries of the plates, such as plate depth, shape, thickness, inter-plate spacing, arrangement, etc., can be selected to achieve bulk material-like behavior.

  20. Consecutive Plate Acoustic Suppressor Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method for suppressing acoustic noise utilizes consecutive plates, closely spaced to each other so as to exploit dissipation associated with sound propagation in narrow channels to optimize the acoustic resistance at a liner surface. The closely spaced plates can be utilized as high temperature structural materials for jet engines by constructing the plates from composite materials. Geometries of the plates, such as plate depth, shape, thickness, inter-plate spacing, arrangement, etc., can be selected to achieve bulk material-like behavior.

  1. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  2. Investigation on mechanical properties of contemporary metallic bone plates: towards the development of composite bone plates.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M E; Zainal, N H; Syarif, J

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at investigating the mechanical properties of the contemporary metallic bone plates determining the effect of their length, width and thickness on the properties and compares with the composite bone plates. Three-points bending test was performed over the stainless steel plates of different length, width and thickness. The test results showed that different plates had different mechanical properties. However, the properties are still much higher than that of particular bones intended to be treated. Therefore, the reported findings strongly encourage developing composite bone plates with biocompatible polymers/fibers that would have modulated properties according to the requirements.

  3. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight...

  4. Effective elastic thickness and crustal thickness variations in west central Africa inferred from gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Poudjom Djomani, Y.H.; Nnange, J.M.; Ebinger, C.J.

    1995-11-10

    This report uses coherence function analysis of 32,000 gravity and topography points from Cameroon west Africa to determine the relationship between the plate tectonic and flexural rigidity of the lithosphere in terms of the crusts effective elastic thickness.

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208) by virtue of any provision of Standard No. 208 other than S4.1.2... standard. (2) A manual seat belt assembly subject to the requirements of S5.1 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR... equivalent threaded hole in a hardened steel plate at least 10 mm in thickness. The bolt shall be...

  7. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208) by virtue of any provision of Standard No. 208 other than S4.1.2... standard. (2) A manual seat belt assembly subject to the requirements of S5.1 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR... equivalent threaded hole in a hardened steel plate at least 10 mm in thickness. The bolt shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 571.209 - Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208) by virtue of any provision of Standard No. 208 other than S4.1.2... standard. (2) A manual seat belt assembly subject to the requirements of S5.1 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR... equivalent threaded hole in a hardened steel plate at least 10 mm in thickness. The bolt shall be...

  9. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    PubMed

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.

  10. Bipolar battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having throughplate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with lead spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  11. Preparation of thick molybdenum targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thick natural molybdenum deposits on nickel plated copper substrates were prepared by thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapors on a heated surface in an inert gas atmosphere. The molybdenum metal atoms are firmly bonded to the substrate atoms, thus providing an excellent thermal contact across the junction. Molybdenum targets thus prepared should be useful for internal bombardment in a cyclotron where thermal energy inputs can exceed 10 kW.

  12. Martian plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    1994-03-01

    The northern lowlands of Mars have been produced by plate tectonics. Preexisting old thick highland crust was subducted, while seafloor spreading produced thin lowland crust during late Noachian and Early Hesperian time. In the preferred reconstruction, a breakup margin extended north of Cimmeria Terra between Daedalia Planum and Isidis Planitia where the highland-lowland transition is relatively simple. South dipping subduction occured beneath Arabia Terra and east dipping subduction beneath Tharsis Montes and Tempe Terra. Lineations associated with Gordii Dorsum are attributed to ridge-parallel structures, while Phelegra Montes and Scandia Colles are interpreted as transfer-parallel structures or ridge-fault-fault triple junction tracks. Other than for these few features, there is little topographic roughness in the lowlands. Seafloor spreading, if it occurred, must have been relatively rapid. Quantitative estimates of spreading rate are obtained by considering the physics of seafloor spreading in the lower (approx. 0.4 g) gravity of Mars, the absence of vertical scarps from age differences across fracture zones, and the smooth axial topography. Crustal thickness at a given potential temperature in the mantle source region scales inversely with gravity. Thus, the velocity of the rough-smooth transition for axial topography also scales inversely with gravity. Plate reorganizations where young crust becomes difficult to subduct are another constraint on spreading age. Plate tectonics, if it occurred, dominated the thermal and stress history of the planet. A geochemical implication is that the lower gravity of Mars allows deeper hydrothermal circulation through cracks and hence more hydration of oceanic crust so that more water is easily subducted than on the Earth. Age and structural relationships from photogeology as well as median wavelength gravity anomalies across the now dead breakup and subduction margins are the data most likely to test and modify hypotheses

  13. Plates with Incompatible Prestrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lewicka, Marta; Schäffner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    We study effective elastic behavior of the incompatibly prestrained thin plates, where the prestrain is independent of thickness and uniform through the plate's thickness h. We model such plates as three-dimensional elastic bodies with a prescribed pointwise stress-free state characterized by a Riemannian metric G, and seek the limiting behavior as {h to 0}. We first establish that when the energy per volume scales as the second power of h, the resulting {Γ} -limit is a Kirchhoff-type bending theory. We then show the somewhat surprising result that there exist non-immersible metrics G for whom the infimum energy (per volume) scales smaller than h 2. This implies that the minimizing sequence of deformations carries nontrivial residual three-dimensional energy but it has zero bending energy as seen from the limit Kirchhoff theory perspective. Another implication is that other asymptotic scenarios are valid in appropriate smaller scaling regimes of energy. We characterize the metrics G with the above property, showing that the zero bending energy in the Kirchhoff limit occurs if and only if the Riemann curvatures R 1213, R 1223 and R 1212 of G vanish identically. We illustrate our findings with examples; of particular interest is an example where {G_{2 × 2}}, the two-dimensional restriction of G, is flat but the plate still exhibits the energy scaling of the Föppl-von Kármán type. Finally, we apply these results to a model of nematic glass, including a characterization of the condition when the metric is immersible, for {G = Id3 + γ n ⊗ n} given in terms of the inhomogeneous unit director field distribution { n in R^3}.

  14. Lightweight, Rack-Mountable Composite Cold Plate/Shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn M.; Ruemmele, Warren; Nguyen, Hai D.; Andish, Kambiz; McCalley, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Rack-mountable composite-material structural components that would serve as both shelves and cold plates for removing heat from electronic or other equipment mounted on the shelves have been proposed as lightweight alternatives to all-metal cold plate/shelves now in use. A proposed cold plate/shelf would include a highly thermally conductive face sheet containing oriented graphite fibers bonded to an aluminum honeycomb core, plus an extruded stainless-steel substructure containing optimized flow passages for a cooling fluid, and an inlet and outlet that could be connected to standard manifold sections. To maximize heat-transfer efficiency, the extruded stainless-steel substructure would be connected directly to the face sheet. On the basis of a tentative design, the proposed composite cold plate/shelf would weigh about 38 percent less than does an all-aluminum cold plate in use or planned for use in some spacecraft and possibly aircraft. Although weight is a primary consideration, the tentative design offers the additional benefit of reduction of thickness to half that of the all-aluminum version.

  15. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.5 - Data plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data plate. 3280.5 Section 3280.5... MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.5 Data plate. Each manufactured home shall bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other...

  20. Propagation of structured light beams after multiple reflections in a spiral phase plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumala, Yisa S.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents propagation dynamics of structured light (complex light) containing optical vortices after it has undergone multiple reflections in a spiral phase plate (SPP) device having a nonzero surface reflection. In the calculations, the thick-plate approximation is assumed as it is expected to give a more accurate representation of the standard geometry of an SPP device from a low-surface reflection to a high-surface reflection. Calculations showing the propagation of counter-rotating optical vortices are presented, and the effect of the statistical nature of photons on the observation of the angular intensity modulation of the beam is discussed.

  1. Intermittent Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, P. G.; Behn, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Intermittent Plate Tectonics A basic premise of Earth Science is that plate tectonics has been continuously operating since it began early in Earth's history. Yet, plate-tectonic theory itself, specifically the collisional phase of the Wilson Cycle, constitutes a process that is capable of stopping all plate motion. The plausibility of a plate-tectonic hiatus is most easily illustrated by considering the expected future of the present-day plate-tectonic configuration. Since the opening of the Atlantic at ~200 ma, the area of the Atlantic basin has been growing at the expense of the Pacific. If this trend continues, relative plate motion models predict that in ~350 my, the Pacific Ocean basin will effectively close leading to widespread continent-continent collisions. Since a continent-continent collision represents the termination of subduction locally, the accumulated effect of all collisions is to stop subduction globally. In this scenario, ridges would then stop spreading and young oceanic lithosphere would cool, reaching a steady-state thickness of 100 km in about 80 my, based on the properties of oceanic lithosphere today. This would constitute the stoppage of plate tectonics. The presumption that plate tectonics never stops in the face of continental collisions is equivalent to requiring that subduction flux is approximately constant through time, such that subduction initiation roughly balances subduction termination. Such a balance then raises several questions about the subduction initiation process. When and how does subduction initiate? Is there a detectible relationship between subduction cessation and subduction initiation? We can gain some guidance into these questions by examining the plate motion history over the last 200 my. Subduction initiation has occurred over the last 80 my in three intra- oceanic subduction zones: Aleutians, Marianas-Izu-Bonin and Tonga-Kermadec in the Pacific basin. In these cases, however, subduction initiation would not

  2. Thermal dependence of electrical characteristics of micromachined silica microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert W.

    2004-04-01

    Micromachined silica microchannel plates (MCPs) under development have a number of advantages over standard glass MCPs and open completely new possibilities in detector technologies. In this article we present the results of our studies on the thermal properties of silica microchannel plates (sMCPs). Similar to standard glass microchanel plates the resistance of silica MCPs was measured to change exponentially with temperature with a negative thermal coefficient of -0.036 per °C, somewhat larger than that of standard glass MCPs. The resistance also decreases linearly with the applied voltage, with the voltage coefficient of -3.1×10-4 V-1. With the knowledge of these two coefficients, our thermal model allows the calculation of the maximum voltage, which can be applied to a given MCP without inducing a thermal runaway. A typical 25 mm diam, 240 μm thick sMCP with 6 μm pores has to have the resistance larger than ˜30 MΩ to operate safely at voltages up to 800 V. With this model we can also calculate the time required for a given silica MCP to reach the point of thermal equilibrium after a voltage increase. We hope that the ongoing efforts on a proper modification of the sMCP semiconducting layer will lead to the production of new MCPs with a small negative or even a positive thermal coefficient, reducing the possibility of thermal runaways of low-resistance MCPs required for high count rate applications.

  3. On the scaling of the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique to currents greater than 20 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, R. W.; Knudson, M. D.; Cochrane, K. R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Asay, J. R.

    2014-05-01

    In this article we discuss scaling the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique to currents greater than is available on the Z accelerator. Peak flyer plate speeds in the range 7-46 km/s are achieved in pulsed power driven, hyper-velocity impact experiments on Z for peak currents in the range 8-20 MA. The highest (lowest) speeds are produced using aluminum (aluminum-copper) flyer plates. In either case, the =1 mm thick flyer plate is shocklessly accelerated by magnetic pressure to ballistic speed in =400 ns; it arrives at the target with a fraction of material at standard density. During acceleration a melt front, due to resistive heating, moves from the drive-side toward the target-side of the flyer plate; the speed of the melt front increases with increasing current. Peak flyer speeds on Z scale quadratically (linearly) with current at the low (high) end of the range. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation shows that the change in scaling is due to geometric deformation, and that linear scaling continues as current increases. However, the combined effects of shockless acceleration and resistive heating lead to an upper bound on the magnetic field feasible for pulsed power driven flyer plate experiments, which limits the maximum possible speed of a useful flyer plate to < 100 km/s.

  4. Impact on multilayered composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, B. S.; Moon, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Stress wave propagation in a multilayer composite plate due to impact was examined by means of the anisotropic elasticity theory. The plate was modelled as a number of identical anisotropic layers and the approximate plate theory of Mindlin was then applied to each layer to obtain a set of difference-differential equations of motion. Dispersion relations for harmonic waves and correction factors were found. The governing equations were reduced to difference equations via integral transforms. With given impact boundary conditions these equations were solved for an arbitrary number of layers in the plate and the transient propagation of waves was calculated by means of a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The multilayered plate problem was extended to examine the effect of damping layers present between two elastic layers. A reduction of the interlaminar normal stress was significant when the thickness of damping layer was increased but the effect was mostly due to the softness of the damping layer. Finally, the problem of a composite plate with a crack on the interlaminar boundary was formulated.

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  9. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  10. Overriding Plate Deformation During Subduction Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Garel, F.; Davies, R.; Goes, S. D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction dynamics has been widely studied in free subduction models, which document the important control of the downgoing plate. However, various models have shown how the overriding plate can influence subduction dynamics through its thermal structure, thickness and coupling. Using the code Fluidity we investigate overriding plate deformation in a 2-D thermo-mechanical model of the two-plate subduction system. We use Fluidity's adaptive mesh and free-surface formulation. The model includes a composite temperature- and stress-dependent rheology, and plates are decoupled by a weak layer, which allows for free trench motion. We focus on the evolution of the topography and state of stress in the overriding plate during the different phases of the subduction process: early stages of subduction, free-fall sinking in the upper mantle and interaction of the slab with the high-viscosity lower mantle.

  11. How to optimize the drop plate method for enumerating bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herigstad, B; Hamilton, M; Heersink, J

    2001-03-01

    The drop plate (DP) method can be used to determine the number of viable suspended bacteria in a known beaker volume. The drop plate method has some advantages over the spread plate (SP) method. Less time and effort are required to dispense the drops onto an agar plate than to spread an equivalent total sample volume into the agar. By distributing the sample in drops, colony counting can be done faster and perhaps more accurately. Even though it has been present in the laboratory for many years, the drop plate method has not been standardized. Some technicians use 10-fold dilutions, others use twofold. Some technicians plate a total volume of 0.1 ml, others plate 0.2 ml. The optimal combination of such factors would be useful to know when performing the drop plate method. This investigation was conducted to determine (i) the standard deviation of the bacterial density estimate, (ii) the cost of performing the drop plate procedure, (iii) the optimal drop plate design, and (iv) the advantages of the drop plate method in comparison to the standard spread plate method. The optimal design is the combination of factor settings that achieves the smallest standard deviation for a fixed cost. Computer simulation techniques and regression analysis were used to express the standard deviation as a function of the beaker volume, dilution factor, and volume plated. The standard deviation expression is also applicable to the spread plate method.

  12. Custom Multiwell Plate Design for Rapid Assembly of Photopatterned Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naveed; Schober, Joseph; Hill, Lindsay; Zustiak, Silviya P

    2016-06-01

    The extracellular matrix provides both mechanical support and biochemical cues that influence cellular behavior. Matrix stiffness, in particular, has been found to regulate cellular morphology, motility, proliferation, differentiation, and drug responses among other behaviors. Thus, biomaterial platforms that exhibit wide range of stiffness and are available in a semi high-throughput format such as a multiwell plate would be useful for elucidating cell-substrate relationships. Polyacrylamide (PA) gels have been widely used as cell platforms since they span a range of stiffness between 0.3 and 300 kPa in Young's modulus, which encompasses all soft tissues. However, PA gels are time consuming and labor intensive to prepare, and are not amenable to a multiwell plate format. In this study, we present a novel custom multiwell plate design that allows for a one-step stiffness assay assembly that reduces preparation time and labor intensity by several fold. Gel stiffness is controlled by ultraviolet light intensity and exposure time to achieve a wide stiffness range from a single gel precursor solution. The geometry of the gels is defined by a custom photomask and gel thickness is controlled by spacers. A multiwell plate upper structure is designed similar to a regular multiwell plate such that a gel fits in each well and cells and media are added on top. The upper structure design allows for adequate gas exchange and minimum evaporation. Comparison between cell behaviors seeded in the custom and a standard multiwell plate demonstrated the suitability of the design as a cell culture platform. In summary, we describe and validate a novel custom design for an easy and rapid assembly of photopolymerizable PA-based stiffness assay. PMID:27059131

  13. Studies on the ecology of aquatic bacteria of the lower Niger Delta: multiple antibiotic resistance among the standard plate count organisms.

    PubMed

    Ogan, M T; Nwiika, D E

    1993-05-01

    The ecology of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria in the fresh-waters of the lower Niger Delta was studied in the Port Harcourt area, Rivers State. On the basis of decreasing pollution levels three zones, A, B, C, were recognized. Cell recovery by two viable count media, casein-peptone-starch (CPS) and plate count (PC) agar containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin or ampicillin were compared in an initial study. Higher numbers of antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria were recovered on CPS containing tetracycline, penicillin, streptomycin and ampicillin from the faecally-polluted New Calabar River (zone A) than on SPC agar containing similar antibiotics but the reverse was observed for forest stream (zone B) samples. Differences between the two media were also observed at individual sample sites. The proportions of strains of AR bacteria resistant to their primary isolation antibiotic varied from 55% (zone B) to 72% in the least polluted Isiokpo and Elele-Alimini streams (zone C), for ampicillin, and mostly < 50% for the other drugs in each zone. Thirty bacterial strains purified from the prevent colonial types on the count media without antibiotics included mainly species of Bacillus (12) and enterobacteria (18). Between five and 10 strains were resistant to > or = three antibiotics; seven were resistant to all five. The antibiograms of most strains were variable and depended on the method of drug application (discs or incorporation into agar), media and temperature of incubation (25 degrees, 37 degrees or 44.5 degrees C). Twenty-one strains were consistently resistant to ampicillin by the two methods; 10 to 19 were consistent for chloramphenicol, tetracycline and penicillin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  15. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  16. Quaternions as astrometric plate constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferys, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A new method for solving problems in relative astrometry is proposed. In it, the relationship between the measured quantities and the components of the position vector of a star is modeled using quaternions, in effect replacing the plate constants of a standard four-plate-constant solution with the four components of a quaternion. The method allows a direct solution for the position vectors of the stars, and hence for the equatorial coordinates. Distortions, magnitude, and color effects are readily incorporated into the formalism, and the method is directly applicable to overlapping-plate problems. The advantages of the method include the simplicity of the resulting equations, their freedom from singularities, and the fact that trigonometric functions and tangential point transformations are not needed to model the plate material. A global solution over the entire sky is possible.

  17. Stop motion microphotography of laser driven plates

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    Laser driven plates have been used for several years for high velocity shock wave and impact studies. Recent questions about the integrity and ablation rates of these plates coupled with an improved capability for microscopic stop motion photography led to this study. For these experiments, the plates were aluminum, coated on the ends of optical fibers. A high power laser pulse in the fiber ionizes the aluminum at the fiber/coating interface. The plasma thus created accelerates the remaining aluminum to high velocities, several kilometers per second. We defined {open_quotes}thick{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}thin{close_quotes} coatings as those where a flying plate (flyer) was launched vs. the material being completely ionized. Here we were specifically interested in the thick/thin boundary to develop data for the numerical models attempting to predict flyer behavior.

  18. Heat Treatment of Friction-Stir-Welded 7050 Aluminum Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petter, George E.; Figert, John D.; Rybicki, Daniel J.; Burns, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A method of heat treatment has been developed to reverse some of the deleterious effects of friction stir welding of plates of aluminum alloy 7050. This alloy is considered unweldable by arc and high-energy-density beam fusion welding processes. The alloy can be friction stir welded, but as-welded workpieces exhibit low ductility, low tensile and yield strengths, and low resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Heat treatment according to the present method increases tensile and yield strengths, and minimizes or eliminates stress corrosion cracking. It also increases ductility. This method of heat treatment is a superior alternative to a specification-required heat treatment that caused the formation of large columnar grains, which are undesired. Workpieces subjected to the prior heat treatment exhibited elongations <2 percent, and standard three-point bend specimens shattered. The development of the present heat treatment method was guided partly by the principles that (1) by minimizing grain sizes and relieving deformation stresses, one can minimize or eliminate stress corrosion cracking and (2) the key to maximizing strength and eliminating residual stresses is to perform post-weld solution heating for as long a time as possible while incurring little or no development of large columnar grains in friction stir weld nuggets. It is necessary to perform some of the solution heat treatment (to soften the alloy and improve machine welding parameters) before welding. The following is an example of thickness- dependent pre- and post-weld heat treatments according to the present method: For plates 0.270 in. (approx.6.86 mm) thick milled from plates 4.5 in. (114.3 mm) thick, perform pre-weld solution heating at 890 F (477 C) for 1 hour, then cool in air. After friction stir welding, perform solution heating for 10 minutes, quench, hold at room temperature for 96 hours, then age at 250 F (121 C) for 5 hours followed by 325 F (163 C) for 27 hours.

  19. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  20. Bending and buckling behavior analysis of foamed metal circular plate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian Ling; Ma, Lian Sheng; Zhang, Lu; De Su, Hou

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a density gradient model along the thickness direction of a circular plate made of foamed material. Based on the first shear deformation plate theory, the result is deduced that the foamed metal circular plate with graded density along thickness direction yields axisymmetric bending problem under the action of uniformly distributed load, and the analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equation directly. The analyses on two constraint conditions of edge radial clamping and simply supported show that the density gradient index and external load may affect the axisymmetric bending behavior of the plate. Then, based on the classical plate theory, the paper analyzes the behavior of axisymmetric buckling under radial pressure applied on the circular plate. Shooting method is used to obtain the critical load, and the effects of gradient nature of material properties and boundary conditions on the critical load of the plate are analyzed. PMID:27339281

  1. Thermo-mechanical buckling analysis of FGM plate using generalized plate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kanishk; Kumar, Dinesh; Gite, Anil

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the thermo-mechanical buckling behavior of simply-supported FGM plate under the framework of generalized plate theory (GPT), which includes classical plate theory (CPT), first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) as special cases. The governing equations for FGM plate under thermal and mechanical loading conditions are derived from the principle of virtual displacements and Navier-type solution is assumed for simply supported boundary condition. The efficiency and applicability of presented methodology is illustrated by considering various examples of thermal and mechanical buckling of FGM plates. The closed form solutions in the form of critical thermal and mechanical buckling loads, predicted by CPT, FSDT and HSDT are compared for different side-to-thickness of FGM plate. Subsequently, the effect of material gradation profile on critical buckling parameters is examined by evaluating the buckling response for a range of power law indexes. The effect of geometrical parameters on mechanical buckling of FGM plate under uni-axial and bi-axial loading conditions are also illustrated by calculating the critical load for various values of slenderness ratios. Furthermore a comparative analysis of critical thermal buckling loads of FGM plate for different temperature profiles is also presented. It is identified that all plate theories predicted approximately same critical buckling loads and critical buckling temperatures for thin FGM plate, however for thick FGM plates, CPT overestimates the critical buckling parameters. Moreover the critical buckling loads and critical buckling temperatures of FGM plate are found to be significantly lower than the corresponding homogenous isotropic ceramic plate (n=0).

  2. Mechanical properties of Indonesian-made narrow dynamic compression plate.

    PubMed

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Sharma, P K; Magetsari, R; Bor, T C; Vargas-Llona, L D; van Horn, J R; Busscher, H J; Verkerke, G J

    2012-09-01

    Osteosynthesis plates are clinically used to fixate and position a fractured bone. They should have the ability to withstand cyclic loads produced by muscle contractions and total body weight. The very high demand for osteosynthesis plates in developing countries in general and in Indonesia in particular necessitates the utilisation of local products. In this paper, we investigated the mechanical properties, i.e. proportional limit and fatigue strength of Indonesian-made Narrow Dynamic Compression Plates (Narrow DCP) as one of the most frequently used osteosynthesis plates, in comparison to the European AO standard plate, and its relationship to geometry, micro structural features and surface defects of the plates. All Indonesian-made plates appeared to be weaker than the standard Narrow DCP because they consistently failed at lower stresses. Surface defects did not play a major role in this, although the polishing of the Indonesian Narrow DCP was found to be poor. The standard plate showed indications of cold deformation from the production process in contrast to the Indonesian plates, which might be the first reason for the differences in strength. This is confirmed by hardness measurements. A second reason could be the use of an inferior version of stainless steel. The Indonesian plates showed lower mechanical behaviour compared to the AO-plates. These findings could initiate the development of improved Indonesian manufactured DCP-plates with properties comparable to commonly used plates, such as the standard European AO-plates.

  3. 40 CFR 426.40 - Applicability; description of the plate glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plate glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.40 Section 426.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.40 Applicability; description of the plate...

  4. 40 CFR 426.40 - Applicability; description of the plate glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plate glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.40 Section 426.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.40 Applicability; description of the plate...

  5. Elastic buckling of tapered circular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. M.; Hong, G. M.; Tan, T. J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the elastic buckling of tapered circular plates. The study is prompted by the fact that results hitherto available are restricted to a narrow range of taper parameters and are somewhat different from each other. For the buckling analysis, a simple and yet accurate numerical method is presented. It is based on the shooting method and the Rayleigh-Ritz approach. Comprehensive generic buckling results of circular plates with linearly and parabolically varying thicknesses are generated. Comparison studies of the buckling results showed that some of the existing results were erroneous. Optimal values of taper parameters for such tapered plates are also given.

  6. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  7. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  8. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  9. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  10. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  11. Computing relative plate velocities: a primer

    SciTech Connect

    Bevis, M.

    1987-08-01

    Standard models of present-day plate motions are framed in terms of rates and poles of rotation, in accordance with the well-known theorem due to Euler. This article shows how computation of relative plate velocities from such models can be viewed as a simple problem in spherical trigonometry. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided to perform the necessary computations.

  12. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  13. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  14. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  15. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  16. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... that calculated by the following formula: t = Pd / 2SE Where: d = Inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; except for heads with seams=0.9; P = Minimum required bursting pressure in...

  18. 49 CFR 179.100-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... that calculated by the following formula: t = Pd / 2SE Where: d = Inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; except for heads with seams=0.9; P = Minimum required bursting pressure in...

  19. 49 CFR 179.100-6 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... that calculated by the following formula: t = Pd / 2SE Where: d = Inside diameter in inches; E = 1.0 welded joint efficiency; except for heads with seams=0.9; P = Minimum required bursting pressure in...

  20. Variations in lithospheric thickness on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. L.; Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent analyses of Magellan data have indicated many regions exhibiting topograhic flexure. On Venus, flexure is associated predominantly with coronae and the chasmata with Aphrodite Terra. Modeling of these flexural signatures allows the elastic and mechanical thickness of the lithosphere to be estimated. In areas where the lithosphere is flexed beyond its elastic limit the saturation moment provides information on the strength of the lithosphere. Modeling of 12 flexural features on Venus has indicated lithospheric thicknesses comparable with terrestrial values. This has important implications for the venusian heat budget. Flexure of a thin elastic plate due simultaneously to a line load on a continuous plate and a bending moment applied to the end of a broken plate is considered. The mean radius and regional topographic gradient are also included in the model. Features with a large radius of curvature were selected so that a two-dimensional approximation could be used. Comparisons with an axisymmetric model were made for some features to check the validity of the two-dimensional assumption. The best-fit elastic thickness was found for each profile crossing a given flexural feature. In addition, the surface stress and bending moment at the first zero crossing of each profile were also calculated. Flexural amplitudes and elastic thicknesses obtained for 12 features vary significantly. Three examples of the model fitting procedures are discussed.

  1. An evaluation of displacement-based finite element models used for free vibration analysis of homogeneous and composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlayenko, V. N.; Altenbach, H.; Sadowski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The finite element vibration analysis of plates has become one of the classical problems over the past several decades. Different finite element plate models based on classical, standard and improved shear deformable plate theories, three-dimensional elasticity equations or their combinations have been developed. The ability and accuracy of each such model can be established by validating it against analytical models, if it is possible, or other numerical models. In this paper, a comparative study of different plate finite element models used for the free vibration analysis of homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic, composite laminated and sandwich thin and thick plates with different boundary conditions is presented. The aim of the study is to find out the weaknesses and strengths of each model used and to pick out their interchangeability for the finite element calculations. For comparisons, the plate models based on classical and first-order shear deformation theories within the framework of both single-layer and layer-wise concept and three-dimensional theory of elasticity are used. The models are created using the finite element package ABAQUSTM. Natural frequencies obtained by the authors are compared with results known in the literature from different analytical or approximate solutions and, then, the correlation between them is discussed in detail. At the end, conclusions are drawn concerning the utility of each model considered for vibration predictions of plates.

  2. A study of microclad thickness variation (1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the thickness variation of microclad material used in fabricating 1E38 bridges. For the role sampled (nine reels), standard deviations within reels ranged from 6.11 to 12.07 {mu}in. Thickness variations within reels ranged from 16.2 to 40.9 {mu}in., with the average thickness between 142.90 and 161.28 {mu}in.

  3. Novel 3D ultrasound image-based biomarkers based on a feature selection from a 2D standardized vessel wall thickness map: a tool for sensitive assessment of therapies for carotid atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Li, Bing; Chow, Tommy W. S.

    2013-09-01

    With the advent of new therapies and management strategies for carotid atherosclerosis, there is a parallel need for measurement tools or biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of these new strategies. 3D ultrasound has been shown to provide reproducible measurements of plaque area/volume and vessel wall volume. However, since carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease that predominantly occurs at bifurcations, biomarkers based on local plaque change may be more sensitive than global volumetric measurements in demonstrating efficacy of new therapies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to develop a biomarker that is based on the local distribution of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness change (VWT-Change) that has occurred during the course of a clinical study. To allow comparison between different treatment groups, the VWT-Change distribution of each subject must first be mapped to a standardized domain. In this study, we developed a technique to map the 3D VWT-Change distribution to a 2D standardized template. We then applied a feature selection technique to identify regions on the 2D standardized map on which subjects in different treatment groups exhibit greater difference in VWT-Change. The proposed algorithm was applied to analyse the VWT-Change of 20 subjects in a placebo-controlled study of the effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor). The average VWT-Change for each subject was computed (i) over all points in the 2D map and (ii) over feature points only. For the average computed over all points, 97 subjects per group would be required to detect an effect size of 25% that of atorvastatin in a six-month study. The sample size is reduced to 25 subjects if the average were computed over feature points only. The introduction of this sensitive quantification technique for carotid atherosclerosis progression/regression would allow many proof-of-principle studies to be performed before a more costly and longer study involving a larger population is held to confirm the treatment

  4. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  5. MTR plates modeling with MAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Ripert, M.; Noirot, J.

    2008-07-15

    MAIA is a thermo-mechanical code dedicated to the modeling of MTR fuel plates. The main physical phenomena modeled in the code are the cladding oxidation, the interaction between fuel and Al-matrix, the swelling due to fission products and the Al/fuel particles interaction. The creeping of the plate can be modeled in the mechanical calculation. MAIA has been validated on U-Mo dispersion fuel experiments such as IRIS 1 and 2 and FUTURE. The results are in rather good agreement with post-irradiation examinations. MAIA can also be used to calculate in-pile behavior of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates as in the SHARE experiment irradiated in the SCK/Mol BR2 reactor. The main outputs given by MAIA throughout the irradiation are temperatures, cladding oxidation thickness, interaction thickness, volume fraction of meat constituents, swelling, displacements, strains and stresses. MAIA is originally a two-dimensional code but a three-dimensional version is currently under development. (author)

  6. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  7. Accuracy of the TRIA3 thick shell element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, William R.; Concha, Marco; Mcginnis, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of the new TRIA3 thick shell element is assessed via comparison with a theoretical solution for thick homogeneous and honeycomb flat simply supported plates under the action of a uniform pressure load. The theoretical thick plate solution is based on the theory developed by Reissner and includes the effects of transverse shear flexibility which are not included in the thin plate solutions based on Kirchoff plate theory. In addition, the TRIA3 is assessed using a set of finite element test problems developed by the MacNeal-Schwendler Corp. (MSC). Comparison of the COSMIC TRIA3 element as well as those from MSC and Universal Analytics Inc. (UAI) for these problems is presented. The current COSMIC TRIA3 element is shown to have excellent comparison with both the theoretical solutions and also those from the two commercial versions of NASTRAN with which it is compared.

  8. Accuracy of the QUAD4 thick shell element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, William R.; Bowles, Tiffany D.; Croft, Alicia K.; Mcginnis, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of the relatively new QUAD4 thick shell element is assessed via comparison with a theoretical solution for thick homogeneous and honeycomb flat simply supported plates under the action of a uniform pressure load. The theoretical thick plate solution is based on the theory developed by Reissner and includes the effects of transverse shear flexibility which are not included in the thin plate solutions based on Kirchoff plate theory. In addition, the QUAD4 is assessed using a set of finite element test problems developed by the MacNeal-Schwendler Corp. (MSC). Comparison of the COSMIC QUAD4 element as well as those from MSC and Universal Analytics, Inc. (UAI) for these test problems is presented. The current COSMIC QUAD4 element is shown to have excellent comparison with both the theoretical solutions and also those from the two commercial versions of NASTRAN that it was compared to.

  9. Steady-state heat conduction in multilayered composite plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Burton, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    A study is made of a predictor-corrector procedure for the accurate determination of the temperature and heat flux distributions in thick multilayered composite plates and shells. A linear through-the-thickness temperature distribution is used in the predictor phase. The functional dependence of temperature on the thickness coordinate is then calculated a posteriori and used in the corrector phase. Extensive numerical results are presented for linear steady-state heat conduction problems, showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters on the accuracy of the thermal response predictions of the predictor-corrector approach. Both antisymmetrically laminated anisotropic plates and multilayered orthotropic cylinders are considered. The solutions are assumed to be periodic in the surface coordinates. For each problem the standard of comparison is taken to be the analytic three-dimensional solution based on treating each layer as a homogeneous anisotropic medium. The potential of the predictor-corrector approach for predicting the thermal response of multilayered plates and shells with complicated geometry is discussed.

  10. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  11. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  12. The primary resonance of laminated piezoelectric rectangular plates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuai; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun

    2009-11-01

    Based on Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, a model of a nonlinear dynamic laminated piezoelectric rectangular plate was established, and the governing equations were derived and solved for both the thin-plate and thick-plate models. In the present investigation, the nonlinear constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials were considered and the effects of the nonlinearity on the response of the plate were discovered. The primary resonance of rectangular plate is investigated with the use of the method of multiple scales. The results obtained in the present paper agree very well with the experiment results.

  13. Free Vibration of a Rectangular Plate-Beam Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, M.; Yoshida, I.

    1996-07-01

    A free vibration analysis by the Rayleigh-Ritz method is presented for a rectangular plate-beam coupled system. The system consists of a cantilever rectangular plate and either a pair of beams or a single beam connected to the free end side furthest away from the support. Natural frequencies and vibration modes are provided for various system configurations: i.e., the length ratio between the plate and the beam, the aspect ratio of the plate, and the distance between beams. To confirm the validity of the analysis, an experiment was also conducted, with polystyrene test plates of 0·5 mm thickness. The respective results are in good agreement.

  14. Plate Tectonics, Geographical Information System, paleogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-05-24

    The PaleoX.framwork is a dynamically linked/loaded framework for Cocoa applications. The primary goal of this library is to standardize several elements used for working with paleogeographic data. This includes objects designed to organize information for tectonic plates, including maps, rotation objects, plate names, and designations. In addition, PaleoX provides object-oriented solutions for handling standard paleogeographic file formats from the PALEOMAP Project.

  15. The thickness of glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vokey, Marshall W.

    2015-09-01

    Basic formulae and results of glacier physics appearing in glaciology textbooks can be derived from first principles introduced in algebra-based first year physics courses. We discuss the maximum thickness of alpine glaciers and ice sheets and the relation between maximum thickness and length of an ice sheet. Knowledge of ordinary differential equations allows one to derive also the local ice thickness.

  16. Electromagnetic semitransparent δ-function plate: Casimir interaction energy between parallel infinitesimally thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Prachi; Milton, Kimball A.; Shajesh, K. V.; Schaden, M.

    2012-10-01

    We derive boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields on a δ-function plate. The optical properties of such a plate are shown to necessarily be anisotropic in that they only depend on the transverse properties of the plate. We unambiguously obtain the boundary conditions for a perfectly conducting δ-function plate in the limit of infinite dielectric response. We show that a material does not “optically vanish” in the thin-plate limit. The thin-plate limit of a plasma slab of thickness d with plasma frequency ωp2=ζp/d reduces to a δ-function plate for frequencies (ω=iζ) satisfying ζd≪ζpd≪1. We show that the Casimir interaction energy between two parallel perfectly conducting δ-function plates is the same as that for parallel perfectly conducting slabs. Similarly, we show that the interaction energy between an atom and a perfect electrically conducting δ-function plate is the usual Casimir-Polder energy, which is verified by considering the thin-plate limit of dielectric slabs. The “thick” and “thin” boundary conditions considered by Bordag are found to be identical in the sense that they lead to the same electromagnetic fields.

  17. Dirt reference standard for surface cleanliness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzi, D. J. O.; Bilmes, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    Thin films based on polymer poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PIBMA), doped with carbon black particles deposited on steel plate substrates are proposed as dirt reference standards for cleanliness accreditation methods, particularly for instruments based on laser ablation. The films were made with the spin-coating method, obtaining layers with thickness between 4 and 17 μm. Carbon black particles with sizes smaller than 100 nm and concentrations between 1 and 27.6 mgr/cm3 were used. Characterization of the films was made by using absorbance measurements and laser ablation-induced photoacoustic.

  18. A sensitive and simple plaque formation method for the Stx2 phage of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which does not form plaques in the standard plating procedure.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rakibul; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Asadulghani, Md; Ooka, Tadasuke; Murase, Kazunori; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    Bacteriophages are fascinating genetic elements that play key roles in the evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. Shiga toxin (Stx)-transducing phages are important genetic elements that disseminate the stx genes among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). They are generally regarded as lambda-like phages, but their biological and genetic properties have not been fully elucidated. This is partly due to a serious obstacle in obtaining visible plaques. Here, we describe a modified double agar overlay method that allows us to easily detect and accurately enumerate plaques of Sp5, the Stx2 phage of the EHEC O157 Sakai strain, which otherwise does not produce plaques in the standard plating procedure. In the modified method, the top agar was supplemented with mitomycin C (MMC) and Ca(2+) (or Mg(2+)). MMC appears to prevent the lysogenization of Sp5 and/or compel Sp5 to follow the lytic cycle by inducing the SOS response in the host cells. The divalent cations significantly improve phage adsorption to the host cells and thus yield a synergistic effect in combination with MMC. We further applied this method to a receptor analysis of Sp5 and obtained findings that suggest that the YaeT (BamA) protein serves as the receptor of Sp5. This method would be a very useful tool in studies of Stx2 phages and studies of other phages from various bacteria, in which researchers often encounter problems with plaque formation.

  19. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  20. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  1. Measurement of the absolute penetration depth and surface resistance of superconductors and normal metals with the variable spacing parallel plate resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanov, Vladimir V.; Mercaldo, Lucia V.; Anlage, Steven M.; Claassen, John H.

    2000-05-01

    The variable spacing parallel plate resonator (VSPPR) is a microwave transmission line resonator with a continuously variable thickness of the dielectric spacer between the superconducting or metallic plates, filled by cryogenic liquid or vacuum. We measure the dielectric spacer thickness dependencies of the resonator frequency and quality factor, and fit them to theoretical forms, in order to extract the absolute values of penetration depth, λ, and surface resistance, Rs. A cryogenic micropositioning setup is developed to vary the spacer thickness from 0 to 100 μm with a resolution of 8.5 nm, and to maintain parallelism of the resonator plates. Measurement of ac capacitance between the plates is utilized to directly determine the separation between the resonator plates and to reduce the effect of their tilt and nonflatness on the accuracy of the measured Rs and λ. Because the operating temperature is fixed (77 K), the result for a superconductor is independent of an a priori model for the penetration depth versus temperature. This technique can also be employed as a surface impedance standard for characterization of high temperature superconducting films for microwave applications.

  2. Collaborative study comparing the spiral plate and aerobic plate count methods.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, J E; Donnelly, C B; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1977-07-01

    The spiral plate count method is a semiautomated plating technique that greatly reduces manpower and material costs normally associated with the pour plating technique. In this collaborative study, 8 laboratories compared the spiral and pour plating techniques, using 4 samples each of 3 products: frozen pumpkin pie, frozen chicken pot pie, and shampoo. The results show that 10 of the 12 comparisons of means of the pour and spiral methods were not significantly different; 2 values were significant at alpha = 0.01. Overall, the components of variance were less than that of the current milk standard, and the replicate per cent coefficient of variation was satisfactory. This study indicates that the spiral plate method is an acceptable alternative to the pour plate method; the spiral plate method has been adopted as official first action.

  3. Stamping and wrinkling of elastic plates.

    PubMed

    Hure, Jérémy; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José

    2012-08-01

    We study the peculiar wrinkling pattern of an elastic plate stamped into a spherical mold. We show that the wavelength of the wrinkles decreases with their amplitude, but reaches a minimum when the amplitude is of the order of the thickness of the plate. The force required for compressing the wrinkled plate presents a maximum independent of the thickness. A model is derived and verified experimentally for a simple one-dimensional case. This model is extended to the initial situation through an effective Young modulus representing the mechanical behavior of the wrinkled state. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. This approach provides a complement to the "tension field theory" developed for wrinkles with unconstrained amplitude.

  4. Thermal distortion tests of aluminum and stainless steel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Bielick, E.; Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    1993-06-25

    An important upgrade to the STAR detector at the Brookhaven National Laboratory RHIC accelerator will be an electromagnetic calorimeter. One design being considered for this calorimeter involves cast lead modules covering {Delta}{phi} = 6{degree} and 0 {le} {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {le} 1. These modules would consist of alternating layers of lead and sheets of plastic scintillator. The gaps for scintillator between the layers of lead would be created by parallel aluminum plates of thickness {approx_equal}6.6 mm = 0.260in. in the mold for the modules. These plates would need to be machined or ground to be reasonably flat, perhaps to {plus_minus}0.003in., and of uniform thickness from plate to plate. These requirements are imposed by the need to remove the plates from the casting after cooling, and to have good uniformity of the lead layer thickness, which gives good performance for the modules as a calorimeter. Aluminum was chosen for the plates because of its high coefficient of thermal expansion. An important cost in this calorimeter design is associated with the machining or grinding of the plates to proper thickness and flatness. In most cost estimates, it has been assumed that the mold parts could be used many times. This note describes a simple test which was conducted to investigate possible distortions in the plates after repeated heating to temperatures at which the lead would be poured into the mold and cooling.

  5. Isopachic contouring of opaque plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Asundi, A.; Czarnek, R.

    1984-01-01

    Contour maps of change of thickness of opaque plates subjected to external loads are obtained using holographic interferometry in conjunction with the moire effect. A simple holographic-interferometry arrangement is used first to obtain contour maps of the out-of-plane displacements of the two sides of the object. Carrier patterns of equal magnitude but opposite signs are added to these contours. Superposition of the reconstructed holograms of the two sides produces a pattern of additive-moire fringes, which are contours of change of thickness. Effects of midplane warpage of the loaded specimen are cancelled. Sensitivity is lambda/2 per fringe order, contrast of the isopachic-fringe pattern is excellent, and the process is compatible with a mechanical-testing-machine environment.

  6. Electrically-induced stresses and deflection in multiple plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Tichler, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    Thermohydraulic tests are being planned at the High Flux Beam Reactor of Brookhaven National Laboratory, in which direct electrical heating of metal plates will simulate decay heating in parallel plate-type fuel elements. The required currents are high if plates are made of metal with a low electrical resistance, such as aluminum. These high currents will induce either attractive or repulsive forces between adjacent current-carrying plates. Such forces, if strong enough, will cause the plates to deflect and so change the geometry of the coolant channel between the plates. Since this is undesirable, an analysis has been made to evaluate the magnitude of the deflection and related stresses. In contrast to earlier publications in which either a concentrated or a uniform load was assumed, in this paper an exact force distribution on the plate is analytically solved and then used for stress and deflection calculations, assuming each plate to be a simply supported beam. Results indicate that due to superposition of the induced forces between plates in a multiple-and-parallel plate array, the maximum deflection and bending stress occur at the midpoint of the outermost plate. The maximum shear stress, which is inversely proportional to plate thickness, occurs at both ends of the outermost plate.

  7. Electrically-induced stresses and deflection in multiple plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Tichler, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermohydraulic tests are being planned at the High Flux Beam Reactor of Brookhaven National Laboratory, in which direct electrical heating of metal plates will simulate decay heating in parallel plate-type fuel elements. The required currents are high if plates are made of metal with a low electrical resistance, such as aluminum. These high currents will induce either attractive or repulsive forces between adjacent current-carrying plates. Such forces, if strong enough, will cause the plates to deflect and so change the geometry of the coolant channel between the plates. Since this is undesirable, an analysis has been made to evaluate the magnitude of the deflection and related stresses. In contrast to earlier publications in which either a concentrated or a uniform load was assumed, in this paper an exact force distribution on the plate is analytically solved and then used for stress and deflection calculations, assuming each plate to be a simply supported beam. Results indicate that due to superposition of the induced forces between plates in a multiple-and-parallel plate array, the maximum deflection and bending stress occur at the midpoint of the outermost plate. The maximum shear stress, which is inversely proportional to plate thickness, occurs at both ends of the outermost plate.

  8. Characterization of an ultra-thick positive photoresist for electroplating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2003-06-01

    The performance requirements for ultra-thick photoresists have increased rapidly with the dramatic growth in new lithographic applications that require electroplating processes. Two of the main applications for ultra-thick photoresists are nanotechnology (MEMS) and advanced packaging. Flipchip packaging has become widely adopted to address electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. The growth in the nanotechnology market is driven by a wide range of products, which include accelerometers, ink jet print heads, biomedical sensors and optical switches. Electroplating levels for these applications require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and plating with conventional semiconductor equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. A single coat step to achieve the final photoresist thickness is critical to minimize the number of process steps and cycle time. The sidewall profile, aspect ratio, electroplating durability and subsequent stripability are all important. This study characterized a novel positive photosensitive chemically amplified photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR) for the use in a 65μm thick electroplating level on copper. The lithographic performance of the ultra-thick positive photoresist was optimized using a broad band, low numerical aperture, 1x stepper to control critical dimensions (CD), sidewall angles and aspect ratios. Cross sectional SEM analysis, contrast curves, process linearity, and process latitude plots were used to establish the lithographic capabilities. High aspect ratio structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability. A recommended process flow is described for this photoresist and stepper.

  9. Corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J

    1976-02-01

    The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273

  10. Nonlocal third-order shear deformation plate theory with application to bending and vibration of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Reddy, J. N.

    2009-09-01

    The third-order shear deformation plate theory of Reddy [A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates, J. Appl. Mech. 51 (1984) 745-752] is reformulated using the nonlocal linear elasticity theory of Eringen. This theory has ability to capture the both small scale effects and quadratic variation of shear strain and consequently shear stress through the plate thickness. Analytical solutions of bending and free vibration of a simply supported rectangular plate are presented using this theory to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on deflection and natural frequency of the plates. Finally, the relations between nonlocal third-order, first-order and classical theories are discussed by numerical results.

  11. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  12. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  13. Local plate/rod descriptors of 3D trabecular bone micro-CT images from medial axis topologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peyrin, Francoise; Attali, Dominique; Chappard, Christine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Trabecular bone microarchitecture is made of a complex network of plate and rod structures evolving with age and disease. The purpose of this article is to propose a new 3D local analysis method for the quantitative assessment of parameters related to the geometry of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Methods: The method is based on the topologic classification of the medial axis of the 3D image into branches, rods, and plates. Thanks to the reversibility of the medial axis, the classification is next extended to the whole 3D image. Finally, the percentages of rods and plates as well as their mean thicknesses are calculated. The method was applied both to simulated test images and 3D micro-CT images of human trabecular bone. Results: The classification of simulated phantoms made of plates and rods shows that the maximum error in the quantitative percentages of plate and rods is less than 6% and smaller than with the structure model index (SMI). Micro-CT images of human femoral bone taken in osteoporosis and early or advanced osteoarthritis were analyzed. Despite the large physiological variability, the present method avoids the underestimation of rods observed with other local methods. The relative percentages of rods and plates were not significantly different between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic groups, whereas their absolute percentages were in relation to an increase of rod and plate thicknesses in advanced osteoarthritis with also higher relative and absolute number of nodes. Conclusions: The proposed method is model-independent, robust to surface irregularities, and enables geometrical characterization of not only skeletal structures but entire 3D images. Its application provided more accurate results than the standard SMI on simple simulated phantoms, but the discrepancy observed on the advanced osteoarthritis group raises questions that will require further investigations. The systematic use of such a local method in the characterization of

  14. ASSEMBLY OF PARALLEL PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.

    1963-04-23

    This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)

  15. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  16. On the scaling of the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique to currents greater than 20 MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, R.; Knudson, M.; Cochrane, K.; Desjarlais, M.; Asay, J.

    2013-06-01

    In this talk we discuss scaling the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique to currents greater than are available on the Z accelerator. Peak flyer plate speeds in the range 7-46 km/s are achieved in pulsed power driven, hypervelocity impact experiments on Z for peak currents in the range 8-19 MA. The highest (lowest) speeds are produced using aluminum (aluminum-copper) flyer plates. In either case, the ~1 mm thick flyer plate is shocklessly accelerated by magnetic pressure to ballistic speed in ~400 ns; it arrives at the target with a fraction of material at standard density. During acceleration a melt front, due to resistive heating, moves from the drive-side toward the target-side of the flyer plate. The speed of the melt front increases with increasing current. Peak flyer speeds on Z scale quadratically (linearly) with current at the low (high) end of the range. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation shows that the change in scaling is due to geometric deformation, and that linear scaling continues as current increases. However, the combined effects of shockless acceleration and resistive heating lead to an upper bound on the magnetic field feasible for pulsed power driven flyer plate experiments, which limits the maximum possible speed of a useful flyer plate to <100 km/s. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Global Plate Driving Forces at 50Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, N. P.; Quevedo, L. E.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    We apply a novel workflow utilising the BEM-Earth geodynamic software to analyse the global coupled plate-mantle dynamics at 50 Ma. A subduction history model based on kinematic data going as far back as 80 Ma was developed using the GPlates software. Advection of the plates into the mantle takes into account the absolute plate motions and lithospheric thickness derived from its age to produce an estimated density heterogeneity initial model condition in the upper mantle. The resulting global model consists of regions of a mantle viscosity and density structure that is post-processed to ensure smooth non-overlapping 3D surfaces. BEM-Earth is then free to evolve the model toward the 50 Ma solution. The evolution of the model is driven by self-consistent buoyancy driven mantle dynamics. We use the model velocity output to quantify changes in forces driving the plates before and after 50 Ma. We analyse the rapid change in plate motion of India, Africa and plates in the Pacific Ocean basin by considering slab-pull, ridge-push and mantle drag/suction forces that naturally result from such top-down driven mantle flow. We compare the results with plate kinematic reconstructions and other geological observations.

  18. Scaling of energy absorbing composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen; Morton, John; Traffanstedt, Catherine; Boitnott, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The energy absorption response and crushing characteristics of geometrically scaled graphite-Kevlar epoxy composite plates were investigated. Three different trigger mechanisms including chamfer, notch, and steeple geometries were incorporated into the plate specimens to initiate crushing. Sustained crushing was achieved with a simple test fixture which provided lateral support to prevent global buckling. Values of specific sustained crushing stress (SSCS) were obtained which were comparable to values reported for tube specimens from previously published data. Two sizes of hybrid plates were fabricated; a baseline or model plate, and a full-scale plate with in-plane dimensions scaled by a factor of two. The thickness dimension of the full-scale plates was increased using two different techniques; the ply-level method in which each ply orientation in the baseline laminate stacking sequence is doubled, and the sublaminate technique in which the baseline laminate stacking sequence is repeated as a group. Results indicated that the SSCS is independent of trigger mechanism geometry. However, a reduction in the SSCS of 10-25 percent was observed for the full-scale plates as compared with the baseline specimens, indicating a scaling effect in the crushing response.

  19. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  20. Plating Tank Control Software

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  1. Design parameters of stainless steel plates for maximizing high frequency ultrasound wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Mark; Leong, Thomas; Swiergon, Piotr; Juliano, Pablo; Knoerzer, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This work validated, in a higher frequency range, the theoretical predictions made by Boyle around 1930, which state that the optimal transmission of sound pressure through a metal plate occurs when the plate thickness equals a multiple of half the wavelength of the sound wave. Several reactor design parameters influencing the transmission of high frequency ultrasonic waves through a stainless steel plate were examined. The transmission properties of steel plates of various thicknesses (1-7 mm) were studied for frequencies ranging from 400 kHz to 2 MHz and at different distances between plates and transducers. It was shown that transmission of sound pressure through a steel plate showed high dependence of the thickness of the plate to the frequency of the sound wave (thickness ratio). Maximum sound pressure transmission of ∼ 60% of the incident pressure was observed when the ratio of the plate thickness to the applied frequency was a multiple of a half wavelength (2 MHz, 6mm stainless steel plate). In contrast, minimal sound pressure transmission (∼ 10-20%) was measured for thickness ratios that were not a multiple of a half wavelength. Furthermore, the attenuation of the sound pressure in the transmission region was also investigated. As expected, it was confirmed that higher frequencies have more pronounced sound pressure attenuation than lower frequencies. The spatial distribution of the sound pressure transmitted through the plate characterized by sonochemiluminescence measurements using luminol emission, supports the validity of the pressure measurements in this study.

  2. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  3. Automatic cortical thickness analysis on rodent brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Niethammer, Marc; Budin, Francois; Paniagua, Beatriz; Sulik, Kathy; Johns, Josephine; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Localized difference in the cortex is one of the most useful morphometric traits in human and animal brain studies. There are many tools and methods already developed to automatically measure and analyze cortical thickness for the human brain. However, these tools cannot be directly applied to rodent brains due to the different scales; even adult rodent brains are 50 to 100 times smaller than humans. This paper describes an algorithm for automatically measuring the cortical thickness of mouse and rat brains. The algorithm consists of three steps: segmentation, thickness measurement, and statistical analysis among experimental groups. The segmentation step provides the neocortex separation from other brain structures and thus is a preprocessing step for the thickness measurement. In the thickness measurement step, the thickness is computed by solving a Laplacian PDE and a transport equation. The Laplacian PDE first creates streamlines as an analogy of cortical columns; the transport equation computes the length of the streamlines. The result is stored as a thickness map over the neocortex surface. For the statistical analysis, it is important to sample thickness at corresponding points. This is achieved by the particle correspondence algorithm which minimizes entropy between dynamically moving sample points called particles. Since the computational cost of the correspondence algorithm may limit the number of corresponding points, we use thin-plate spline based interpolation to increase the number of corresponding sample points. As a driving application, we measured the thickness difference to assess the effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure that persist into adulthood and performed t-test between the control and exposed rat groups. We found significantly differing regions in both hemispheres.

  4. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  5. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  6. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  7. Finite stretching of a circular plate of neo-Hookean material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.

    1971-01-01

    The analytical solution presented is based on the assumption that the deformed thickness of the plate is approximately constant. The nonlinear equations governing finite axisymmetric deformations of a circular plate made of neo-Hookean material are used in the analysis. The variation of circumferential extension ratio and the variation of deformed thickness are shown in graphs.

  8. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  9. Optical and thermal performance of a remote phosphor plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xi; Narendran, Nadarajah; Zhu, Yiting; Perera, Indika U.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how optical and thermal performances are impacted in a remote phosphor LED (light-emitting diode) system when the phosphor plate thickness and phosphor concentration change with a fixed amount of a commonly used YAG:Ce phosphor. In the first part of this two-part study, an optical raytracing analysis was carried out to quantify the optical power and the color properties as a function of remote phosphor plate thickness, and a laboratory experiment was conducted to verify the results obtained from the raytracing analysis and also to examine the phosphor temperature variation due to thickness change.

  10. Far infrared transmission of a thick TGS single crystal at 7K, and beers' law validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbaux, X.; Marin Cudraz, H.

    1990-01-01

    Far IR transmission of a thick Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystal t=8 mm thick is compared with calculations using the absorption index measured with a very thin t=13 μm thick plate. Big discrepancies suggest the occurence of surface layers.

  11. On the strain energy of laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1991-01-01

    The present effort to obtain the asymptotically correct form of the strain energy in inhomogeneous laminated composite plates proceeds from the geometrically nonlinear elastic theory-based three-dimensional strain energy by decomposing the nonlinear three-dimensional problem into a linear, through-the-thickness analysis and a nonlinear, two-dimensional analysis analyzing plate formation. Attention is given to the case in which each lamina exhibits material symmetry about its middle surface, deriving closed-form analytical expressions for the plate elastic constants and the displacement and strain distributions through the plate's thickness. Despite the simplicity of the plate strain energy's form, there are no restrictions on the magnitudes of displacement and rotation measures.

  12. Multicolor printing plate joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An upper plate having ink flow channels and a lower plate having a multicolored pattern are joined. The joining is accomplished without clogging any ink flow paths. A pattern having different colored parts and apertures is formed in a lower plate. Ink flow channels each having respective ink input ports are formed in an upper plate. The ink flow channels are coated with solder mask and the bottom of the upper plate is then coated with solder. The upper and lower plates are pressed together at from 2 to 5 psi and heated to a temperature of from 295 F to 750 F or enough to melt the solder. After the plates have cooled and the pressure is released, the solder mask is removed from the interior passageways by means of a liquid solvent.

  13. Geologically current plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  14. Linear versus nonlinear theories for laminated composite plates and shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    Linear and nonlinear shear-deformation theories for laminated composite plates and shells are discussed in this paper. The emphasis here is on the range of validity for each class of theories. The finite element method is used to determine the maximum stresses for a wide range of statically loaded plate and shell panels with various thickness ratios. This paper concludes that for the vast majority of composite materials and for moderately thick plates and shells, stresses normally reach the maximum allowable stress before nonlinear terms can become important. This has been demonstrated by showing that for the limiting case of shear deformation theories (in which the minimum span length (or radius) to thickness ratio is 20), the material usually fails before the maximum deflection reaches the magnitude of the thickness (where nonlinear terms start to become significant).

  15. Finite stretching of an annular plate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.

  16. Simulating radiographic inspections with imaging plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Min; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Petersol-Parmentier, Angéla; Schumm, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) based on photostimulable imaging plates (IP) is a potential replacement technique for traditional silver film radiography. For the inspections of components with high wall thicknesses requiring higher energy sources, however, imaging plate performance suffers from a spectral response which is low for the higher energies and high in the energy range where scattered radiation is typically observed. For these applications, care must be taken to apply appropriate filtering. Simulation tools are expected to be helpful in determining optimal operating conditions. We present a computer model which combines deterministic and Monte Carlo methods to simulate the imaging chain, focusing in particular on the scanner model.

  17. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  18. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  19. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  20. Fuel Cell Thermal Management Through Conductive Cooling Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the concept of utilizing conductive cooling plates to remove heat from a fuel cell stack, as opposed to a conventional internal cooling loop. The potential advantages of this type of cooling system are reduced stack complexity and weight and increased reliability through the reduction of the number of internal fluid seals. The conductive cooling plates would extract heat from the stack transferring it to an external coolant loop. The analysis was performed to determine the required thickness of these plates. The analysis was based on an energy balance between the thermal energy produced within the stack and the heat removal from the cooling plates. To accomplish the energy balance, the heat flow into and along the plates to the cooling fluid was modeled. Results were generated for various numbers of cells being cooled by a single cooling plate. The results provided cooling plate thickness, mass, and operating temperature of the plates. It was determined that utilizing high-conductivity pyrolitic graphite cooling plates can provide a specific cooling capacity (W/kg) equivalent to or potentially greater than a conventional internal cooling loop system.

  1. Thickness-shear and thickness-twist modes in an AT-cut quartz acoustic wave filter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin; Yang, Jiashi

    2015-04-01

    We studied thickness-shear and thickness-twist vibrations of a monolithic, two-pole crystal filter made from a plate of AT-cut quartz. The scalar differential equations derived by Tiersten and Smythe for electroded and unelectroded quartz plates were employed which are valid for both the fundamental and the overtone modes. Exact solutions for the free vibration resonant frequencies and modes were obtained from the equations. For a structurally symmetric filter, the modes can be separated into symmetric and antisymmetric ones. Trapped modes with vibrations mainly under the electrodes were found. The effect of the distance between the two pairs of electrodes was examined.

  2. Self-Sustained Oscillations in Flows around Long Blunt Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourigan, K.; Thompson, M. C.; Tan, B. T.

    2001-04-01

    The presence of flow separation from both leading and trailing edges of elongated bluff bodies leads to vortex interactions and resonances not observed in shorter bodies such as circular and square cylinders. Stepwise behaviour in the Strouhal number with increasing plate chord-to-thickness ratio has been observed for long bodies in a number of different situations: natural shedding, under transverse forcing, and with excited duct modes. In the present study, an investigation is made of the predicted unforced laminar flow around long plates (up to chord, c, to thickness, t, ratio c/t=16). The two main types of plate geometry considered are rectangular plates and plates with an aerodynamic leading edge. The rectangular plate represents a geometrical extension of the normal flat and square plates. The aerodynamic leading-edge plate is a natural precursor to the rectangular plate because the vortex shedding is only from the trailing edge. The natural flow around rectangular plates is of greater complexity due to the interaction between the leading- and trailing-edge shedding. The previously neglected influence of the trailing-edge vortex shedding is found to play an important role in the stepwise progression of the Strouhal number with chord-to-thickness ratio. In addition, the formation of three-dimensional patterns in the boundary layer along the plate and in the trailing-edge wake is predicted. The predicted boundary layer hairpin vortices are compared with previous observations and the predicted streamwise modes in the wake are compared with those found in the case of circular cylinders.

  3. A comparison of mantle convection models featuring plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C.; Lowman, J. P.; Hansen, U.

    2014-06-01

    plates are an integral part of the Earth's mantle and thus play an important role in its dynamics and evolution. To allow plate behavior to arise naturally in numerical mantle convection models, self-consistent plate generation methods apply a fully rheological approach (featuring a temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent viscosity). However, due to the extreme local viscosity changes that the self-generation of model plates entails, their computational requirements are demanding. Alternative plate modeling methods specify the existence of plates explicitly but can also obtain dynamically determined velocities (e.g., by employing a force-balance method). Here we present modifications to a force-balance model by utilizing a rheology-dependent viscosity profile. Accordingly, plate viscosity and plate thickness are no longer prescribed by the modeler but now follow as a dynamic consequence of the temperature and stress dependence of the viscosity and the model's evolution. We describe the new method and present benchmark results for a rheologically self-consistent mantle convection model and the modified force-balance plate model. Our results show that both plate modeling methods lead to the same system behavior for a wide range of system parameters making the new method a powerful tool to also achieve plate-like surface motion naturally.

  4. A comparison of mantle convection models featuring plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C.; Lowman, J. P.; Hansen, U.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic plates are an integral part of the Earth's mantle and thus play an important role in its dynamics and evolution. To allow plate behaviour to arise naturally in numerical mantle convection models, self-consistent plate generation methods apply a fully rheological approach (featuring a temperature-, pressure- and stress-dependent viscosity) to achieve plate-like surface motion. However, due to the extreme local viscosity changes that the self-generation of model plates entails, their computational requirements are demanding. Alternative plate modeling methods specify the existence of plates explicitly but can also obtain dynamically determined velocities (e.g., by employing a force-balance method). Here, we present modifications to a force-balance model by utilizing a geotherm- and pressure-dependent viscosity. Accordingly, plate viscosity and plate thickness are no longer prescribed by the modeler but now follow as a dynamic consequence of the temperature dependence of the viscosity and the model's evolution. We describe the new method and present benchmark results for a rheologically self-consistent mantle convection model capable of yielding plate-like surface velocities, and the modified force-balance plate model.

  5. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    SciTech Connect

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  6. Measuring Thicknesses Of Vacuum-Deposited Organic Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Carey E.

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring thickness of thin organic liquid film deposited in vacuum involves use of quartz-crystal monitor (QCM) calibrated by use of witness plate that has, in turn, calibrated by measurement of absorption of infrared light in deposited material. Present procedure somewhat tedious, but once calibration accomplished, thicknesses of organic liquid deposits monitored in real time and in situ by use of QCM.

  7. Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

    1994-01-01

    A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

  8. A double layer plaque assay using spread plate technique for enumeration of bacteriophage MS2.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage MS2 is used widely as a model organism to estimate pathogenic virus survival in various environments, and is usually quantified by plaque assay. Although current plaque assays work well in enumeration of MS2 in environmental samples, quantification of MS2 calls for better visibility and higher consistency. In an attempt to improve the visibility and consistency of the current plaque assay, spread plate technique was introduced, instead of the pour plate technique used commonly in existing methods. Other parameters that influence the outcome of the plaque assay were also compared. Using spread plate technique resulted in an increase of plaque size by approximately 50% and contributed to a better visibility. Addition of supplements (glucose, CaCl2 and thiamine); reduction of agar thickness and hardness, also contributed to enhanced plaque visibility and increased plaque count. Among all the conditions tested, a supplemented thin bottom agar (10ml 1% agar) and a supplemented thin top agar (10ml 0.45% agar) with spread plate technique gave the maximum countable plaques with a minimum standard deviation. When compared to other methods, it produced significantly higher plaque count and lower variation. The optimized plaque assay significantly improved visibility and consistency of the existing plaque assay methods and could be used in quantification of MS2.

  9. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  10. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  11. Dimensional Changes in Alveolar Ridge Following Extraction of Teeth in the Maxillary Premolar Area in Subjects with Thick and Thin Gingival Biotypes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafez, Reem S; Alhabashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef; Hijazi, Mohammed; Jarah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated changes in residual ridge dimensions after tooth extraction among thin and thick gingival biotypes. Fifteen patients who required extraction of maxillary premolars were classified according to gingival biotypes (10 teeth in 9 participants were included in the thick group, and 6 teeth in 6 participants were included in the thin group). Minimally traumatic extractions were carried out using periotomes and rotational movement of teeth. At the time of extraction an osteometer was used to measure the thickness of the labial plate and the bony alveolar ridge at the extraction site by penetrating the tissues until bone was reached 5 mm, 7 mm, and 10 mm below the midpoint of the crest of the facial and palatal gingival margins. Standardized radiographs were taken immediately and after 3 months. The results of this study show minimal differences in dimensional changes following extraction of premolar teeth in thick and thin gingival biotypes. Significantly greater bone loss was detected in both gingival biotypes when the labial plate thickness was less than 1.5 mm, especially in alveolar ridge height.

  12. Thermal diffusivity of nonflat plates using the flash method

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Agustin; Fuente, Raquel; Apinaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza

    2011-01-15

    The flash method is the standard technique to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid samples. It consists of heating the front surface of an opaque sample by a brief light pulse and detecting the temperature evolution at its rear surface. The thermal diffusivity is obtained by measuring the time corresponding to the half maximum of the temperature rise, which only depends on the sample thickness and thermal diffusivity through a simple formula. Up to now, the flash method has been restricted to flat samples. In this work, we extend the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of nonflat samples. In particular, we focus on plates with cylindrical and spherical shapes. The theoretical model indicates that the same expression for flat samples can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical plates, except for extremely curved samples. Accordingly, a curvature limit for the application of the expression for flat samples is established. Flash measurements on lead foils of cylindrical shape confirm the validity of the model.

  13. A higher order plate theory for dynamic stability analysis of delaminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Radu, A. G.; Dragomir-Daescu, D.

    A higher order shear deformation theory is used to investigate the instability associated with delaminated composite plates subject to dynamic loads. Both transverse shear and rotary inertia effects are taken into account. The procedure is implemented using the finite element method. Delamination is modeled using the penalty parameter approach. The natural frequencies are computed and compared with NASTRAN 3D results and available experimental data. The effect of delamination on the critical buckling load and the first two instability regions is investigated for various loading conditions, plate thickness and boundary conditions. As expected the natural frequencies and the critical buckling load of the delaminated plate are lower than those of the nondelaminated plate. They decrease with increase in delamination length. Increase in delamination length causes instability regions to be shifted to lower parametric resonance frequencies and the normalized width of the instability regions to increase.

  14. PLATES WITH OXIDE INSERTS

    DOEpatents

    West, J.M.; Schumar, J.F.

    1958-06-10

    Planar-type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors are described, particularly those comprising fuel in the oxide form such as thoria and urania. The fuel assembly consists of a plurality of parallel spaced fuel plate mennbers having their longitudinal side edges attached to two parallel supporting side plates, thereby providing coolant flow channels between the opposite faces of adjacent fuel plates. The fuel plates are comprised of a plurality of longitudinally extending tubular sections connected by web portions, the tubular sections being filled with a plurality of pellets of the fuel material and the pellets being thermally bonded to the inside of the tubular section by lead.

  15. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  16. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  17. Characterization of 100 micron thick positive photoresist on 300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott; Abreau, Kelly

    2005-05-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a thirty percent compound annual rate and it is expected that in the near future over sixty percent of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic equipment and materials that are optimized for these applications. Due to the constantly shrinking bump pitch, it is critical to show excellent CD uniformity across the entire 300 mm wafer surface for feature sizes as small as 70 microns. Flip chip packaging as well as Nanotechnology (MEMS) applications frequently use one or more very thick photoresist layers for electroplating applications. The plating levels require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and electroplating with conventional equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. Additionally the process times for coating, baking, exposure and development must be considered since these impacts the overall cost of ownership of the lithography cell. For thick photoresist layers the sidewall profile, plating resistance and postplating stripability are important characteristics. This study will characterize a novel single coat, positive tone photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR 7120-20) used in electroplating levels up to 100 μm thick on 300 mm wafers exposed with the Ultratech Spectrum 300e2 stepper and coated and developed with a Steag Hamatech Modutrack system. Process capability is determined by analyzing photoresist film thickness uniformity and critical dimension (CD) control across the wafer. Basic photoresist characterization techniques such as cross sectional SEM analysis are used to establish lithographic capabilities. This study shows excellent adhesion to copper with no surface treatment and no photoresist popping during exposure or post exposure bake (PEB). High aspect ratio, lead

  18. Drag Measurements of Porous Plate Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of direct drag measurements on a variety of porous plate acoustic liners. The existing literature describes numerous studies of drag on porous walls with injection or suction, but relatively few of drag on porous plates with neither injection nor suction. Furthermore, the porosity of the porous plate in existing studies is much lower than typically used in acoustic liners. In the present work, the acoustic liners consisted of a perforated face sheet covering a bulk acoustic absorber material. Factors that were varied in the experiment were hole diameter, hole pattern, face sheet thickness, bulk material type, and size of the gap (if any) between the face sheet and the absorber material.

  19. Composite plates impact damage - An atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; Springer, George S.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on impact damage in composite plates presents an extensive compendium of visual and graphic data regarding a variety of material and impactor parameters. The photographs are taken with X-ray and C-scan imaging in conjunction with a dye penetrant to show matrix cracks and delaminations. Impact and static-loading tests are performed on plates of graphite-epoxy, graphite-toughened epoxy, and graphite-PEEK materials. The images are presented to yield specific visual data regarding such parameters as impactor velocity, thickness of the back ply group, impactor nose radius, and the effects of multiple delaminations. The images are grouped in eight subsets that correspond to parameters including plate length, material, and the difference in fiber orientation between adjacent ply groups. This substantial volume represents a systematic effort to study the effects of several material parameters on impact damage.

  20. Near-absolute Hugoniot measurements in aluminum to 500 GPa using a magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, M. D.; Lemke, R. W.; Hayes, D. B.; Hall, C. A.; Deeney, C.; Asay, J. R.

    2003-10-01

    Hugoniot measurements were performed on aluminum (6061-T6) in the stress range of 100-500 GPa (1-5 Mbar) using a magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique. This method of flyer plate launch utilizes the high currents, and resulting magnetic fields produced at the Sandia Z Accelerator to accelerate macroscopic aluminum flyer plates (approximately 12×25 mm in lateral dimension and ˜300 μm in thickness) to velocities in excess of 20 km/s. This technique was used to perform plate-impact shock-wave experiments on aluminum to determine the high-stress equation of state (EOS). Using a near-symmetric impact method, Hugoniot measurements were obtained in the stress range of 100-500 GPa. The results of these experiments are in excellent agreement with previously reported Hugoniot measurements of aluminum in this stress range. The agreement at lower stress, where highly accurate gas gun data exist, establishes the magnetically accelerated flyer plate technique as a suitable method for generating EOS data. Furthermore, the present results exhibit increased accuracy over the previous techniques used to obtain data in the higher-stress range. This improved accuracy enhances our understanding of the response of aluminum to 500 GPa, and lends increased confidence to the use of aluminum as a standard material in future impedance matching experiments.

  1. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  2. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  3. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  4. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  5. Industrialization of the ion plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    A new process referred to as ion plating by induction heating (IPIH) is described, which combines the advantages of both ion plating and induction heating. The IPIH apparatus consists of the specimen (cathode) to be coated and the evaporation heating source, which is a ceramic crucible containing the metal to be heated. The specimen is an internal part of the high-voltage ceramic-metal vacuum feedthrough and is connected to the negative terminal of the high-voltage power supply, the positive terminal of the power supply being grounded. The plating conditions are the same as those most commonly used in industrial ion plating. A number of metals - such as nickel, iron, platinum - which were practically impossible to deposit by resistance heating evaporation can now be effectively evaporated and deposited to any desired thickness. Excellent adherence is observed for many metals deposited on various metal surfaces in thicknesses from 0.15 to 50 microns, regardless of the materials selected for coating and substrate.

  6. Inverse problem of pulsed eddy current field of ferromagnetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing-Le; Lei, Yin-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    To determine the wall thickness, conductivity and permeability of a ferromagnetic plate, an inverse problem is established with measured values and calculated values of time-domain induced voltage in pulsed eddy current testing on the plate. From time-domain analytical expressions of the partial derivatives of induced voltage with respect to parameters, it is deduced that the partial derivatives are approximately linearly dependent. Then the constraints of these parameters are obtained by solving a partial linear differential equation. It is indicated that only the product of conductivity and wall thickness, and the product of relative permeability and wall thickness can be determined accurately through the inverse problem with time-domain induced voltage. In the practical testing, supposing the conductivity of the ferromagnetic plate under test is a fixed value, and then the relative variation of wall thickness between two testing points can be calculated via the ratio of the corresponding inversion results of the product of conductivity and wall thickness. Finally, this method for wall thickness measurement is verified by the experiment results of a carbon steel plate. Project supported by the National Defense Basic Technology Research Program of China (Grant No. Z132013T001).

  7. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth sciences in the last 10 years. The theory of plate tectonics combines many of the ideas about continental drift (originally proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener in Germany) and sea-floor spreading (suggested originally by Harry Hess of Princeton University). 

  8. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  9. Turbine vane plate assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  10. Wave propagation of functionally graded material plates in thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Luo, Song-Nan

    2011-12-01

    The wave propagation of an infinite functionally graded plate in thermal environments is studied using the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. The thermal effects and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Considering the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by using the Hamilton's principle. The analytic dispersion relation of the functionally graded plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples show that the characteristics of wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are relates to the volume fraction index and thermal environment of the functionally graded plate. The influences of the volume fraction distributions and temperature on wave propagation of functionally graded plate are discussed in detail. The results carried out can be used in the ultrasonic inspection techniques and structural health monitoring.

  11. Directivity pattern of the sound radiated from axisymmetric stepped plates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiping; Yan, Xiuli; Li, Na

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of optimal design and efficient utilization of the kind of stepped plate radiator in air, in this contribution, an approach for calculation of the directivity pattern of the sound radiated from a stepped plate in flexural vibration with a free edge is developed based on Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis and Rayleigh integral principle. Experimental tests of directivity pattern for a fabricated flat plate and two fabricated plates with one and two step radiators were carried out. It shows that the configuration of the measured directivity patterns by the proposed analytic approach is similar to those of the calculated approach. Comparison of the agreement between the calculated directivity pattern of a stepped plate and its corresponding theoretical piston show that the former radiator is equivalent to the latter, and the diffraction field generated by the unbaffled upper surface may be small. It also shows that the directivity pattern of a stepped radiator is independent of the metallic material but dependent on the thickness of base plate and resonant frequency. The thicker the thickness of base plate, the more directive the radiation is. The proposed analytic approach in this work may be adopted for any other plates with multi-steps.

  12. Directivity pattern of the sound radiated from axisymmetric stepped plates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiping; Yan, Xiuli; Li, Na

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of optimal design and efficient utilization of the kind of stepped plate radiator in air, in this contribution, an approach for calculation of the directivity pattern of the sound radiated from a stepped plate in flexural vibration with a free edge is developed based on Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis and Rayleigh integral principle. Experimental tests of directivity pattern for a fabricated flat plate and two fabricated plates with one and two step radiators were carried out. It shows that the configuration of the measured directivity patterns by the proposed analytic approach is similar to those of the calculated approach. Comparison of the agreement between the calculated directivity pattern of a stepped plate and its corresponding theoretical piston show that the former radiator is equivalent to the latter, and the diffraction field generated by the unbaffled upper surface may be small. It also shows that the directivity pattern of a stepped radiator is independent of the metallic material but dependent on the thickness of base plate and resonant frequency. The thicker the thickness of base plate, the more directive the radiation is. The proposed analytic approach in this work may be adopted for any other plates with multi-steps. PMID:27586764

  13. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  14. Measurement of sediment and crustal thickness corrected RDA for 2D profiles at rifted continental margins: Applications to the Iberian, Gulf of Aden and S Angolan margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins and rifted continental margins requires a correction for the anomalous uplift or subsidence arising from mantle dynamic topography. Whilst different global model predictions of mantle dynamic topography may give a broadly similar pattern at long wavelengths, they differ substantially in the predicted amplitude and at shorter wavelengths. As a consequence the accuracy of predicted mantle dynamic topography is not sufficiently good to provide corrections for subsidence analysis. Measurements of present day anomalous subsidence, which we attribute to mantle dynamic topography, have been made for three rifted continental margins; offshore Iberia, the Gulf of Aden and southern Angola. We determine residual depth anomaly (RDA), corrected for sediment loading and crustal thickness variation for 2D profiles running from unequivocal oceanic crust across the continental ocean boundary onto thinned continental crust. Residual depth anomalies (RDA), corrected for sediment loading using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average or from anomalous uplift or subsidence. Gravity anomaly inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic reflection data has been used to determine Moho depth, calibrated using seismic refraction, and oceanic crustal basement thickness. Crustal basement thicknesses derived from gravity inversion together with Airy isostasy have been used to correct for variations of crustal thickness from a standard oceanic thickness of 7km. The 2D profiles of RDA corrected for both sediment loading and non-standard crustal

  15. Analysis on formulas of concrete plate under contact explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Liang, Longhe; Lou, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Based on many test data of concrete plates of several thicknesses, this paper presents some new simple engineering formulas for computing critical thickness of scabbing and perforation, the front explosion diameter and the rear scabbing diameter of reinforced concrete plates under contact explosion. For the damage problem of a 20 cm thick concrete target under contact explosion of 1.25 kg TNT charge, the paper gives the numerical simulation results of LS-DYNA software for comparison. The damage zone of concrete plate in numerical simulation is determined by analysis of tension pressure resulted from shock wave reflection on the free boundary. And the numerical simulation results are in basic agreement on the results of these engineering formulas.

  16. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Hoehlich, D.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Hollaender, U.; Maier, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W2N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing.

  17. Earthquakes and plate tectonics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

  18. Lohse's historic plate archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M.; Tsvetkova, K.; Richter, G.; Scholz, G.; Böhm, P.

    The description and the analysis of Oswald Lohse's astrophotographic plates, collected at the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam in the period 1879 - 1889, are presented. 67 plates of the archive, taken with the greatest instrument of the observatory at that time - the refractor (D = 0.30 m, F = 5.40 m, scale = 38''/mm) and with the second heliographic objective (D = 0.13 m, F = 1.36 m, scale = 152''/mm) - - survived two world wars in relative good condition. The plate emulsions are from different manufacturers in the beginning of astrophotography (Gädicke, Schleussner, Beernaert, etc.). The sizes of the plates are usually 9x12 cm2, which corresponds to fields of 1.2deg and 5deg respectively for each instrument mentioned above. The average limiting magnitude is 13.0(pg). Besides of the plates received for technical experiments (work on photographic processes, testing of new instruments and methods of observations), the scientific observations follow programs for studies of planet surfaces, bright stars, some double stars, stellar clusters and nebulous objects. Lohse's archive is included into the Wide Field Plate Database (http://www.skyarchive.org) as the oldest systematic one, covering the fields of Orion (M42/43), Pleiades, h & chi Persei, M37, M3, M11, M13, M92, M31, etc. With the PDS 2020 GM+ microdensitometer of Münster University 10 archive plates were digitized.

  19. Computational valve plate design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbfleisch, Paul

    Axial piston machines are widely used in many industries for their designs compactness, flexibility in power transfer, variable flow rate, and high efficiencies as compared to their manufacturing costs. One important component of all axial piston machines that is a very influential on the performance of the unit is the valve plate. The aim of this research is to develop a design methodology that is general enough to design all types of valve plates and the simple enough not to require advanced technical knowledge from the user. A new style of valve plate designs has been developed that comprehensively considers all previous design techniques and does not require significant changes to the manufacturing processes of valve plates. The design methodology utilizes a previously developed accurate computer model of the physical phenomenon. This allows the precise optimization of the valve plate design through the use of simulations rather than expensive trial and error processes. The design of the valve plate is clarified into the form of an optimization problem. This formulation into an optimization problem has motivated the selection of an optimization algorithm that satisfies the requirements of the design. The proposed design methodology was successfully tested in a case study in the shown to be very successful in improving required performance of the valve plate design.

  20. Frictional and morphological characteristics of ion plated soft, metallic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Buzek, B.

    1981-01-01

    Ion plated metallic films in contrast to films applied by other deposition techniques offer a lower friction coefficient, longer endurance lives and exhibit a gradual increase in friction coefficient after the film has been worn off. The friction coefficients of metallic films are affected by the degree of adherence, thickness and nucleation and growth characteristics during ion plating lead to a fine, continuous crystalline structure, which contributes to a lower friction coefficient.

  1. Vibration of skewed cantilever plates and helicoidal shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beres, D. P.; Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical vibration frequencies and mode shapes are obtained for skewed plates and helicoidal shells with a cantilever boundary. Using Hamilton's law of varying action, a power series solution is developed to obtain converged numerical results for the five lowest frequencies. Effects of geometrical variables such as aspect ratio, sweep angle and shell radius to thickness ratio are investigated. Accuracy of the solution method is substantiated by comparison with existing skewed plate spherical cap, and conical shell results.

  2. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running

  3. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running

  4. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  5. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  7. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  8. Longitudinal wave motion in width-constrained auxetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the longitudinal wave velocity in auxetic plates in comparison to conventional ones, in which the plate is constrained from motion in the width direction. By taking into account the thickness change of the plate and its corresponding change in density, the developed wave velocity is casted not only as a function of Young’s modulus and density, but also in terms of Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal strain. Results show that density and thickness variations compensate for one another when the Poisson’s ratio is positive, but add up when the Poisson’s ratio is negative. Results also reveal that the classical model of longitudinal wave velocity for the plate is accurate when the Poisson’s ratio is about 1/3; at this Poisson’s ratio the influence from density and thickness variations cancel each other. Comparison between the current corrected model and the density-corrected Rayleigh-Lamb model reveals a number of consistent trends, while the discrepancies are elucidated. If the plate material possesses a negative Poisson’s ratio, the deviation of the actual wave velocity from the classical model becomes significant; auxeticity suppresses and enhances the wave velocity in compressive and tensile impacts, respectively. Hence the use of the corrected model is proposed when predicting longitudinal waves in width-constrained auxetic plates, and auxetic materials can be harnessed for effectively controlling wave velocities in thin-walled structures.

  9. Rolling contact fatigue life of chromium ion plated 440C bearing steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.; Davis, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) test specimens of heat treated 440C bearing steel were chromium ion plated in thicknesses from 0.1 to 8.0 micron and tested in RCF tester using 700 ksi maximum Hertzian stress. Heavy coatings, greater than about 5 micron in thickness, peeled off or spalled readily, whereas thin coatings, less than 3 micron thick, were tenacious and did not come off. Furthermore, significant improvement in RCF life was obtained with thin chromium ion plated test specimens. The average increase in B10 life was 75% compared with unplated 440C. These preliminary results indicate that ion plating is a promising way to improve bearing life.

  10. Finite Element and Plate Theory Modeling of Acoustic Emission Waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Hamstad, M. A.; Gary, J.; OGallagher, A.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison was made between two approaches to predict acoustic emission waveforms in thin plates. A normal mode solution method for Mindlin plate theory was used to predict the response of the flexural plate mode to a point source, step-function load, applied on the plate surface. The second approach used a dynamic finite element method to model the problem using equations of motion based on exact linear elasticity. Calculations were made using properties for both isotropic (aluminum) and anisotropic (unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite) materials. For simulations of anisotropic plates, propagation along multiple directions was evaluated. In general, agreement between the two theoretical approaches was good. Discrepancies in the waveforms at longer times were caused by differences in reflections from the lateral plate boundaries. These differences resulted from the fact that the two methods used different boundary conditions. At shorter times in the signals, before reflections, the slight discrepancies in the waveforms were attributed to limitations of Mindlin plate theory, which is an approximate plate theory. The advantages of the finite element method are that it used the exact linear elasticity solutions, and that it can be used to model real source conditions and complicated, finite specimen geometries as well as thick plates. These advantages come at a cost of increased computational difficulty, requiring lengthy calculations on workstations or supercomputers. The Mindlin plate theory solutions, meanwhile, can be quickly generated on personal computers. Specimens with finite geometry can also be modeled. However, only limited simple geometries such as circular or rectangular plates can easily be accommodated with the normal mode solution technique. Likewise, very limited source configurations can be modeled and plate theory is applicable only to thin plates.

  11. Delaminations in composite plates under transverse impact loads - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; He, Ye-Fei; Springer, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were performed measuring the locations and geometries of delaminations in Fiberite T300/976 graphite/epoxy, Fiberite IM7/977-2 graphite-toughened epoxy, and ICI APC-2 graphite/PEEK plates subjected to transverse impact loads. The data provide specific information on the effects of impactor velocity, impactor mass, material, thickness of back ply group, difference in fiber orientation between adjacent ply groups, plate thickness, and impactor nose radius. The data were compared to the results of the Finn-Springer model. The model was found to describe the data with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Delaminations in composite plates under transverse impact loads - Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Scott R.; He, Ye-Fei; Springer, George S.

    Tests were performed measuring the locations and geometries of delaminations in Fiberite T300/976 graphite/epoxy, Fiberite IM7/977-2 graphite-toughened epoxy, and ICI APC-2 graphite/PEEK plates subjected to transverse impact loads. The data provide specific information on the effects of impactor velocity, impactor mass, material, thickness of back ply group, difference in fiber orientation between adjacent ply groups, plate thickness, and impactor nose radius. The data were compared to the results of the Finn-Springer model. The model was found to describe the data with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  14. Reduction of astrometric plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for the reduction of comet or asteroid plates is described. Projection equations, scale length correction, rotation of coordinates, linearization, the search for additional reference stars, and the final solution are examined.

  15. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  16. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  17. Plate tectonics: Metamorphic myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clear evidence for subduction-induced metamorphism, and thus the operation of plate tectonics on the ancient Earth has been lacking. Theoretical calculations indicate that we may have been looking for something that cannot exist.

  18. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  19. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

    1992-01-01

    The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

  20. New hybrid quadrilateral finite element for Mindlin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Yi; Zhang, Jingyu

    1994-02-01

    A new quadrilateral plate element concerning the effect of transverse shear strain was presented. It was derived from the hybrid finite element model based on the principles of virtual work. The outstanding advantage of this element was to use more rational trial functions of the displacements. For this reason, every variety of plate deformation can be simulated really while the least degrees of freedom was employed. A wide range of numerical tests was conducted and the results illustrate that this element has a very wide application scope to the thickness of plates and satisfactory accuracy can be obtained by coarse mesh for all kinds of examples.

  1. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  2. Supercontinuum generation in a multi-plate medium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chen; Lu, Chih-Hsuan; Lin, Yuan-Yao; Kung, A H

    2016-04-01

    We analyze femtosecond supercontinuum generation in a distribution of thin solid plates to show that the distributed scheme inhibits processes leading to pulse breakup while allowing spectral expansion to proceed as desired. We introduce basic criteria for setting the plate thickness or initial laser intensity and the location of each plate in the laser beam path and confirm that under these conditions a fully-coherent and intense supercontinuum can be generated for input peak power of as much as two thousand times the critical power for self-focusing of the solid medium. PMID:27137014

  3. Normal-Pressure Tests of Circular Plates with Clamped Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter; Levy, Samuel

    1942-01-01

    A fixture is described for making normal-pressure tests of flat plates 5 inches in diameter in which particular care was taken to obtain rigid clamping at the edges. Results are given for 19 plates, ranging in thickness form 0.015 to 0.072 inch. The center deflections and the extreme-fiber stresses at low pressures were found to agree with theoretical values; the center deflections at high pressures were 4 to 12 percent greater than the theoretical values. Empirical curves are derived of the pressure for the beginning of the permanent set as a function of the dimensions of the plate and the tensile properties of the material.

  4. A refined nonlinear theory of plates with transverse shear deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    A higher-order shear deformation theory of plates accounting for the von Karman strains is presented. The theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in the Hencky-Mindlin type first-order shear deformation theory and accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. Exact solutions of simply supported plates are obtained using the linear theory and the results are compared with the exact solutions of three-dimensional elasticity theory, the first order shear deformation theory, and the classical plate theory. The present theory predicts the deflections, stresses, and frequencies more accurately when compared to the first-order theory and the classical plate theory.

  5. Status of high-density fuel plates fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1989-09-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with fuel zone loadings approaching 9gU/cm{sup 3}. Using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping) successful diffusion bonds have been made with 110 Al and 6061 Al alloys. These bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly-loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. First, a fuel plate in which 0.030 in. (0.76 mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding and second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIPping process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  6. The Potsdam Plate Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, P.; Steinmetz, M.; Tsvetkov, M.; Tsvetkova, K.

    2006-08-01

    The Virtual Observatory (VO) project will provide a global network platform to support modern astronomical research with fast and easy access to distributed archives via a unified interface and data model. Our aim is to include the historical photographic plates of the Potsdam observatory into this database in the framework of GAVO, the German contribution to VO. This work is part of the DFG project 436 BUL. The Postdam collection of wide-field plates consists of 11 archives, obtained from 1879 to 1970 (see Catalogue of Wide-Field Plate Archives, version 5.0, March 2005, http://www.skyarchive.org/catalogue.html), with a total amount of about 10000 plates and films stored not only in Potsdam but also in Leiden and Sonneberg. Apart from the long timeline provided for the observed objects, the archives reflect the history and development of the Potsdam observatory and of astronomical photography as well. The first astronomical photographs represent a scientific treasure. They offer the possibility to follow the photometric behavior of astronomical objects for about 120 years. This information is unique, because no more reproducible. Our aim is to digitize the old plates as long as their physical status does still allow it, and continue their systematic incorporation into the already existing Wide-Field Plate Database. These data can be used to search for any kind of long-term brightness variations like new flare stars or rapidly varying stars (Froehlich et al., 2002, A&A 391).

  7. Power flow analysis of two coupled plates with arbitrary characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The limitation of keeping two plates identical is removed and the vibrational power input and output are evaluated for different area ratios, plate thickness ratios, and for different values of the structural damping loss factor for the source plate (plate with excitation) and the receiver plate. In performing this parametric analysis, the source plate characteristics are kept constant. The purpose of this parametric analysis is to be able to determine the most critical parameters that influence the flow of vibrational power from the source plate to the receiver plate. In the case of the structural damping parametric analysis, the influence of changes in the source plate damping is also investigated. As was done previously, results obtained from the mobility power flow approach will be compared to results obtained using a statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach. The significance of the power flow results are discussed together with a discussion and a comparison between SEA results and the mobility power flow results. Furthermore, the benefits that can be derived from using the mobility power flow approach, are also examined.

  8. Optimizing material properties of composite plates for sound transmission problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Ting; Pawar, S. J.; Huang, Jin H.

    2015-01-01

    To calculate the specific transmission loss (TL) of a composite plate, the conjugate gradient optimization method is utilized to estimate and optimize material properties of the composite plate in this study. For an n-layer composite plate, a nonlinear dynamic stiffness matrix based on the thick plate theory is formulated. To avoid huge computational efforts due to the combination of different composite material plates, a transfer matrix approach is proposed to restrict the dynamic stiffness matrix of the composite plate to a 4×4 matrix. Moreover, the transfer matrix approach has also been used to simplify the complexity of the objective function gradient for the optimization method. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the present algorithm by comparing the TL of the optimal composite plate with that of the original plate. Small number of iterations required during convergence tests illustrates the efficiency of the optimization method. The results indicate that an excellent estimation for the composite plate can be obtained for the desired sound transmission.

  9. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  10. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  11. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  12. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  13. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  14. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  15. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  16. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or quality of...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  17. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or quality of...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass...

  18. 40 CFR 426.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate...

  19. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  20. Forced vibrations of SC-cut quartz crystal rectangular plates with partial electrodes by the Lee plate equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongxing; Wang, Wenjun; Chen, Guijia; Du, Jianke; Ma, Tingfeng; Wang, Ji

    2016-02-01

    Lee plate equations for high frequency vibrations of piezoelectric plates have been established and perfected over decades with the sole objective of obtaining accurate predictions of frequency and mode shapes to aid the analysis and design of quartz crystal resonators. The latest improvement includes extra terms related to derivatives of the flexural displacement to provide much accurate solutions for vibrations of the thickness-shear mode, which is the functioning mode of resonators and has much higher frequency than the flexural mode. The improved Lee plate equations have been used in the analysis of high frequency vibrations of quartz crystal plates as an essential step for analysis of AT- and SC-cut quartz crystal resonators after validations with fully electrode quartz crystal piezoelectric plates. In this study, closed-form solutions of free and forced vibrations of SC-cut quartz plates with partial electrodes are obtained. A procedure has been established for the calculation of dispersion relations, frequency spectra, selected vibration modes, and capacitance ratios of forced vibrations. The vibration solutions obtained with the first-order Lee plate equations are proven to be close to solutions from the Mindlin plate equations. It is now clear that both the Mindlin and Lee plate equations can be used in the analysis and design of quartz crystal resonators.

  1. Surface dose measurements with commonly used detectors: a consistent thickness correction method.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tatsiana A; Higgins, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review application of a consistent correction method for the solid state detectors, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (chips (cTLD) and powder (pTLD)), optically stimulated detectors (both closed (OSL) and open (eOSL)), and radiochromic (EBT2) and radiographic (EDR2) films. In addition, to compare measured surface dose using an extrapolation ionization chamber (PTW 30-360) with other parallel plate chambers RMI-449 (Attix), Capintec PS-033, PTW 30-329 (Markus) and Memorial. Measurements of surface dose for 6MV photons with parallel plate chambers were used to establish a baseline. cTLD, OSLs, EDR2, and EBT2 measurements were corrected using a method which involved irradiation of three dosimeter stacks, followed by linear extrapolation of individual dosimeter measurements to zero thickness. We determined the magnitude of correction for each detector and compared our results against an alternative correction method based on effective thickness. All uncorrected surface dose measurements exhibited overresponse, compared with the extrapolation chamber data, except for the Attix chamber. The closest match was obtained with the Attix chamber (-0.1%), followed by pTLD (0.5%), Capintec (4.5%), Memorial (7.3%), Markus (10%), cTLD (11.8%), eOSL (12.8%), EBT2 (14%), EDR2 (14.8%), and OSL (26%). Application of published ionization chamber corrections brought all the parallel plate results to within 1% of the extrapolation chamber. The extrapolation method corrected all solid-state detector results to within 2% of baseline, except the OSLs. Extrapolation of dose using a simple three-detector stack has been demonstrated to provide thickness corrections for cTLD, eOSLs, EBT2, and EDR2 which can then be used for surface dose measurements. Standard OSLs are not recommended for surface dose measurement. The effective thickness method suffers from the subjectivity inherent in the inclusion of measured percentage depth-dose curves and is not

  2. Thick Photoresist Original Master:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hirotaka; Sugihara, Okihiro; Kaino, Toshikuni; Ohe, Yuka; Okamoto, Naomichi; Hoshino, Masahito

    A simple and low-cost fabrication method of polymeric optical waveguides with large core sizes for plastic optical fibers is presented. The waveguides are fabricated by hot embossing with a rectangular ridge ultraviolet (UV)-cured epoxy resin stamper. The stamper is fabricated by replication of a rectangular groove mold that is made from silicone rubber replicated from a rectangular ridge original master made from thick photoresist (SU-8). A rectangular ridge shape of the original photoresist master of 1 mm size was realized by using a flattening process, which involves hot embossing before the exposure process and using a UV-cut filter during the exposure process.

  3. Caribbean plate interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Vector analysis of plate motions, derived from studies of Atlantic magnetic lineations and fracture zone trends, indicates the following relative movements between the Caribbean, North American, and South American Plates. (1) During Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the North American Plate moved 1900 km westward and 900 km northward relative to the South American Plate. A broad zone including the Caribbean region, i.e., the zone between the North and South America Plates, was a site of left-lateral shear and north-south extension. (2) During Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, the North American Mate moved an additional 1200 km westward relative to South America across this zone. (3) During Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, the North American Plate moved 200 km westward and 400 km northward relative to the South American Plate. (4) From the end of the Eocene to near the end of the Miocene, North America converged on South America some 200 km and moved 100 km eastward relative to it. Through the Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary history of the Caribbean, the region was a shear zone within which left-lateral displacement exceeded 3000 km and north-south extension exceeded 1300 km. In regard to time, 80% of the history of the Caribbean region is one of north-south extension and left-lateral shear. In terms of space, 97% of the shear is left-lateral and the ratio of divergence versus convergence is 7 to 1. Thus, characterizing the Caribbean region, and the Atlantic to its east, as a zone of north-south extension and left-lateral shear, is a fair generalization.

  4. Flat-plate boiloff calorimeters for testing of thermal insulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Kelly, A. O.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Swanger, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Cryostats have been developed and standardized for laboratory testing of thermal insulation systems in a flat-plate configuration. Boiloff calorimetry is the measurement principle for determining the effective thermal conductivity (ke) and heat flux (q) of test specimens under a wide range of actual conditions. Cryostat-500 is thermally guarded to measure absolute thermal performance when calibrated with a known reference via an adjustable-edge guard ring. With liquid nitrogen as the energy meter, the cold boundary temperature can be adjusted to any temperature between 77 K and approximately 300 K by the interposition of a thermal resistance layer between the cold mass and the specimen. A low thermal conductivity suspension system has compliance rods that adjust for specimen thickness and compression force. Material type, thickness, density, flatness, compliance, outgassing, and temperature sensor placement are important test considerations, and edge effects and calibration techniques for the apparatus are crucial. Over the full vacuum pressure range, the thermal performance capability is nearly four orders of magnitude. The horizontal configuration provides key advantages over the vertical cylindrical cryostats for testing at ambient pressure conditions. Cryostat-500’s design and test methods, other flat-plate boiloff calorimeters, and results for select thermal insulation materials (composites, foams, aerogels) are discussed.

  5. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, F.; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article deals with solutions of transient vibration of a rectangular viscoelastic orthotropic thin 2D plate for particular deformation models according to Flügge and Timoshenko-Mindlin. The linear model, a general standard viscoelastic body, of the rheologic properties of a viscoelastic material was applied. The time and coordinate curves of the basic quantities displacement, rotation, velocity, stress and deformation are compared. The results obtained by an approximate analytic method are compared with numerical results for 3D plate generated by FEM application and with experimental investigation.

  6. A MEMS square Chladni plate resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Sedat; Azgın, Kıvanç

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and tests of a micro-fabricated MEMS ‘Chladni’ plate resonator. The proposed MEMS resonator has a square plate geometry having a side length of 1400 µm and a height of 35 µm. Its geometry and electrode layout are designed to analyze and test as many modes as possible. The MEMS plate is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator process with a 35 µm thick < \\text{1} \\text{1} \\text{1}> silicon layer on a glass substrate. Transverse vibration of the plate is investigated to obtain closed form natural frequencies and mode shapes, which are derived using the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method, with an electrostatic softening effect included. Closed form equations for the calculation of effective stiffness’, masses and natural frequencies of the two modes (mode (1,1) and mode (2,0)-(0,2)) are presented, with and without electrostatic softening. The analytical model is verified for those modes by finite-element simulations, frequency response tests in vacuum and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) experiments. The derived model deviates from the finite-element analysis by 3.35% for mode (1,1) and 6.15% for mode (2,0)-(0,2). For verification, the frequency responses of the plates are measured with both electrostatic excitation-detection at around 20 mTorr vacuum ambient and LDV at around 0.364 mTorr vacuum ambient. The resonance frequency and Q-factor of mode (1,1) are measured to be 104.2 kHz and 14 300, respectively. For mode (2,0)-(0,2), the measured resonance frequency and Q-factor are 156.68 kHz and 10 700, respectively. The presented LDV results also support both natural frequencies of interest and corresponding mode shapes of the plate structure.

  7. Start-up vortex flow past an accelerated flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Nitsche, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Viscous flow past a finite flat plate accelerating in the direction normal to itself is studied numerically. The plate moves with nondimensional speed tp, where p = 0, 1/2, 1, 2. The work focuses on resolving the flow at early to moderately large times and determining the dependence on the acceleration parameter p. Three stages in the vortex evolution are identified and quantified. The first stage, referred to as the Rayleigh stage [Luchini and Tognaccini, "The start-up vortex issuing from a semi-infinite flat plate," J. Fluid Mech. 455, 175-193 (2002)], consists of a vortical boundary layer of roughly uniform thickness surrounding the plate and its tip, without any separating streamlines. This stage is present only for p > 0, for a time-interval that scales like p3, as p → 0. The second stage is one of self-similar growth. The vortex trajectory and circulation satisfy inviscid scaling laws, the boundary layer thickness satisfies viscous laws. The self-similar trajectory starts immediately after the Rayleigh stage ends and lasts until the plate has moved a distance d = 0.5 to 1 times its length. Finally, in the third stage, the image vorticity due to the finite plate length becomes relevant and the flow departs from self-similar growth. The onset of an instability in the outer spiral vortex turns is also observed, however, at least for the zero-thickness plate considered here, it is shown to be easily triggered numerically by underresolution. The present numerical results are compared with experimental results of Pullin and Perry ["Some flow visualization experiments on the starting vortex," J. Fluid Mech. 97, 239-255 (1980)], and numerical results of Koumoutsakos and Shiels ["Simulations of the viscous flow normal to an impulsively started and uniformly accelerated flat plate," J. Fluid Mech. 328, 177-227 (1996)].

  8. Experimental investigation on the dynamic response of clamped corrugated sandwich plates subjected to underwater impulsive loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dacheng; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team

    2015-06-01

    Corrugated sandwich plates are widely used in marine industry because such plates have high strength-to-weight ratios and blast resistance. The laboratory-scaled fluid-structure interaction experiments are performed to demonstrate the shock resistance of solid monolithic plates and corrugated sandwich plates by quantifying the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the plates as a function of impulsive loadings per areal mass. Sandwich structures with 6mm-thick and 10mm-thick 3003 aluminum corrugated core and 5A06 face sheets are compared with the 5A06 solid monolithic plates in this paper. The dynamic deformation of plates are captured with the the 3D digital speckle correlation method (DIC). The results affirm that sandwich structures show a 30% reduction in the maximum plate deflection compare with a monolithic plate of identical mass per unit area, and the peak value of deflection effectively reduced by increasing the thickness core. The failure modes of sandwich plates consists of core crushing, imprinting, stretch tearing of face sheets, bending and permanent deformation of entire structure with the increasing impulsive loads, and the failure mechanisms are analyzed with the postmortem panels and dynamic deflection history captured by cameras. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088).

  9. Free vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.; Greetham, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of the vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates in the prebuckled region is presented. The investigation covers the broad class of trapezoidal plates with two opposite sides parallel. Each edge of the plate may be subjected to different uniform boundary conditions. variable thickness and arbitrary temperature distributions (analytical or experimental) for any desired combination of boundary conditions may be prescribed. Results obtained using this analysis are compared to experimental results obtained for isotropic plates with thermal stress, and to results contained in the literature for orthotropic plates without thermal stress. Good agreement exists for both sets of comparisons.

  10. Experimental Structural Dynamic Response of Plate Specimens Due to Sonic Loads in a Progressive Wave Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Juan F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the repeatability of experiments at NASA Langley's Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) facility and to use these experiments to validate numerical models. Experiments show that power spectral density (PSD) curves were repeatable except at the resonant frequencies, which tended to vary between 5 Hz to 15 Hz. Results show that the thinner specimen had more variability in the resonant frequency location than the thicker sample, especially for modes higher than the first mode in the frequency range. Root Mean Square (RMS) tended to be more repeatable. The RMS behaved linearly through the SPL range of 135 to 153 dB. Standard Deviations (STDs) of the results tended to be relatively low constant up to about 147 dB. The RMS results were more repeatable than the PDS results. The STD results were less than 10% of the RMS results for both the 0.125 in (0.318 cm) and 0.062 in (0.1588 cm) thick plate. The STD of the PSD results were around 20% to 100% of the mean PSD results for non-resonant and resonant frequencies, respectively, for the 0.125 in (0.318 cm) thicker plate and between 25% to 125% of the mean PSD results, for nonresonant and resonant frequencies, respectively, for the thinner plate.

  11. Flexural Vibration Of Skew Mindlin Plates With Oblique Internal Line Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Y.; Kitipornchai, S.; Liew, K. M.; Wang, C. M.

    1994-12-01

    A free vibration analysis of moderately thick skew plates with oblique internal line supports is presented. Mindlin's plate theory is employed and the pb -2 Rayleigh-Ritz method is applied to obtain the governing eigenvalue equation for internally supported skew plates. A set of natural frequencies for skew Mindlin plates with oblique internal line supports having different combinations of boundary conditions has been determined for various aspect ratios a/b, relative thickness ratios t/b and skew angles α. The validity of the approach is illustrated by comparing the results with other established values. From literature searches, it appears that no work has previously been done on the free vibration of moderately thick skew plates with oblique internal line supports. Thus this paper may provide some important information to designers and engineers for use in practical applications.

  12. The stepped hybrid plate for carpal panarthrodesis - Part I: relationship between plate and bone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Bertrana, C; Darnaculleta, F; Durall, I; Franch, J; Puchol, J L

    2009-01-01

    In the 1990s, the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) Hand Study Group developed several anatomically bent plates (standard and short) for wrist panarthrodesis in humans. However, only straight plates have been used for carpal panarthrodesis (CP) in animals to date. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if precontoured plates are more anatomical for CP in dogs. Measurement of several of the bones that are implicated in CP, as well as the relationship between their surfaces and the surface of a straight plate, were performed in a radiographic and computed tomographic cadaveric study. Axial and transverse measurements taken at different levels of the metacarpal bones 2, 3 and 4 were also included. The second objective of this study was to develop a more anatomical CP plate according to the results obtained. The measurements and images obtained in this study show that, as in human orthopaedics, bent or stepped plates are more anatomically correct than straight plates for CP in dogs.

  13. Response of piezoelectric laminated micro plates under the excitation of an ultrasonic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xin; Dong, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the electromechanical response of a piezoelectric laminated micro plate under the excitation of an ultrasonic wave. The laminated plate consists of a piezoelectric layer (AlN), an elastic layer (SiO2) and two electrode layers (Au and Pt). Since the whole thickness of the plate is in micro scale, the size dependence of the dynamic behavior of the laminated plate is evaluated using the couple stress theory. The results show that the bending rigidity of the micro plate increases when the size effect is considered and the amplitudes of output of electric charge and voltage are reduced accordingly when the plate is excited by ultrasonic wave. Also the resonant frequency of the laminated plate increase because of the enhancement of the bending rigidity of the plate. The analysis results can provide a reference for the design of micromachined piezoelectric sensors.

  14. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E. ); Gray, L.J. ); Bullock, J.S. IV )

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  15. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  16. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  17. Plate-mantle coupling from post-Pangea plate kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Convection in the Earth's mantle that involves plates at the surfaces gives rise to plate velocities that vary through time and depend on the balance of plate boundary forces, with the present-day providing a snapshot of this ongoing process. However, present-day plate velocities do not capture plate behaviour over geologically representative timeframes and thus cannot be used to evaluate factors limiting plate velocities. Previous studies investigated the effects of continental keels on plate speeds by either using the present-day snapshot or a limited number of reconstructed plate configurations, often leading to conflicting results. For example, an early assumption was that continental keels (especially cratons) were unlikely to impede fast plate motions because India's velocity approached ~20 cm/yr in the Eocene prior to the collision with Eurasia. We employ a modern plate reconstruction approach with evolving global topological plate boundaries for the post-Pangea timeframe (since 200 Ma) to evaluate factors controlling plate velocities. Plate boundary configurations and plate velocities are extracted from the open-source and cross-platform plate reconstruction package GPlates (www.gplates.org) at 1 Myr intervals. For each plate, at each timestep, the area of continental and cratonic lithosphere is calculated to evaluate the effect on plate velocities. Our results support that oceanic plates tend to be 2-3 times faster than plates with large portion of continental plate area, consistent with predictions of numerical models of mantle convection. The fastest plates (~8.5 cm/yr RMS) are dominated by oceanic plate area and high subducting portion of plate perimeter, while the slowest plates (~2.6-2.8 cm/yr RMS) are dominated by continental plate area and bounded by transforms and mid-oceanic ridge segments. Importantly, increasing cratonic fractions (both Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere) significantly impede plate velocities, suggesting that deep continental

  18. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  19. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  20. Reduced Plating Ignitron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A (Inventor); Pearson, J Boise (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An ignitron apparatus has an airtight tubular housing having a first sealed end and a second sealed end. An anode is connected at the first sealed end, projecting into the housing, and a recess at the second sealed and forms a well which contains a quantity of liquid gallium or gallium alloy making up the cathode. An ignitor projects through the liquid metal and into the housing. The inner surface of the housing includes at least one plating-reduction structure to prevent electrical shorting of the apparatus caused by plating of the liquid metal.

  1. Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji

    1995-11-01

    An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.

  2. Natural Frequencies of Rectangular Plate With- and Without-Rotary Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Kanak; Haldar, Salil

    2016-07-01

    A nine-node isoparametric plate element, in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory, was used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates. Both thick and thin plate problems were solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this work, the primary focus is on the effect of rotary inertia on the natural frequencies of rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia significantly affects thick plates, while it can be ignored for thin plates. The numerical convergence is very rapid and based on a comparison with data from the literature; it is proposed that the present formulation can yield highly accurate results. Finally, some numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmarks for future research on similar problems.

  3. Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates with Elliptical or Circular Cutout Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, A.; Vijayakumar, R.; Krishnamohana Rao, G.

    2016-09-01

    The progressive failure analysis of symmetrically laminated composite plate [0°/+45°/-45°/90°]2s with circular or elliptical cutout under uniform uniaxial compression loading is carried out using finite element method. Hashin's failure criterion is used to predict the lamina failure. A parametric study has been carried out to study the effect of elliptical / circular cutout orientation, cutout size and plate thickness on the ultimate failure load of laminated composite plate under uni-axial compression loading. It is noticed that elliptical cutout orientation has influence on the strength of the notched composite plates. It is observed that the laminate size of the elliptical/circular cutout and plate thickness has substantial influence on the ultimate failure load of notched composite plates.

  4. Modeling of composite beams and plates for static and dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.

    1992-01-01

    A rigorous theory and the corresponding computational algorithms were developed for through-the-thickness analysis of composite plates. This type of analysis is needed in order to find the elastic stiffness constants of a plate. Additionally, the analysis is used to post-process the resulting plate solution in order to find approximate three-dimensional displacement, strain, and stress distributions throughout the plate. It was decided that the variational-asymptotical method (VAM) would serve as a suitable framework in which to solve these types of problems. Work during this reporting period has progressed along two lines: (1) further evaluation of neo-classical plate theory (NCPT) as applied to shear-coupled laminates; and (2) continued modeling of plates with nonuniform thickness.

  5. Effect of Thermal Gradient on Vibration of Non-uniform Visco-elastic Rectangular Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Anupam; Kaur, Narinder

    2016-04-01

    Here, a theoretical model is presented to analyze the effect of bilinear temperature variations on vibration of non-homogeneous visco-elastic rectangular plate with non-uniform thickness. Non-uniformity in thickness of the plate is assumed linear in one direction. Since plate's material is considered as non-homogeneous, authors characterized non-homogeneity in poisson ratio and density of the plate's material exponentially in x-direction. Plate is supposed to be clamped at the ends. Deflection for first two modes of vibration is calculated by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique and tabulated for various values of plate's parameters i.e. taper constant, aspect ratio, non-homogeneity constants and thermal gradient. Comparison of present findings with existing literature is also provided in tabular and graphical manner.

  6. Dual passband dichroic plate for X-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    A need arose in the Deep Space Network for a dichroic plate that would simultaneously pass two desired frequency bands in the X-band region. In addition, the plate must be totally reflective for S-band frequencies. A dielectrically loaded dichroic plate is described that was developed to meet this need. The unique microwave properties that the new dichroic plate had to possess were: (1) insertion losses of less than 0.04 dB for X-band uplink frequencies centered at 7167 MHz and for X-band downlink frequencies centered at about 8425 MHz; (2) insertion losses that met the low loss requirements at 30 deg incidence angle simultaneously for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations; (3) total reflectivity at S-band frequencies; and (4) ability to maintain these electrical characteristics while passing 100 kW of CW power at X-band or while reflecting 100 kW of CW power at S-band. The dual passband dichroic plate is a thick metallic plate having an array of periodic round holes filled with Teflon plugs. Test results on an experimental prototype plate indicate that it is technically possible to design a dielectrically filled dichroic plate that meets all of the technical requirements.

  7. Flexural wave cloaking via embedded cylinders with systematically varying thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungjin; Yang, Wonseok; Lee, Sinyeob; Park, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    Simulations of flexural wave cloaking from multiple scattering events that are achieved by embedded cylinders in a thin plate are performed. Minimization of refraction is performed using small surrounding cylinders with varying thickness in radial and angular directions, respectively. The thickness variations render the effective wave speed lower in the radial direction and higher in the angular direction compared to the speed in the surrounding media, which results in the cloaking effect. In order to verify the feasibility of this approach, 15 layers of cylinders are placed around the blocked area. The multiple-scattering method is used to predict wave propagations and to take the interactions between cylinders into account. The effects of the thickness variation on the cloaking performance are analyzed. The results demonstrate that minimal scattering is achieved when the area of interest is surrounded by the thickness-varying cylinders. PMID:27369157

  8. Characterization of a texture gradient in tantalum plate

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.I.; Gray, G.T. III

    1994-11-01

    Clark et al. have shown that significant texture gradients can be produced in rolled tantalum plate and that the strength of the gradient is dependent on the processing path. Texture gradients are often ignored because they are time consuming to characterize and add significant complexity to materials modeling. The variation in texture through the thickness of rolled materials is most commonly measured by sectioning samples to different depths through the thickness of the plate and then measuring the texture from these section planes by X-ray diffraction. A new technique based on automatic indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns in the scanning electron microscope enables spatially specific orientations to be measured in a practical manner. This technique allows spatial variations in texture to be measured directly enabling gradients in texture to be investigated in more detail than previously possible. This data can be used directly in coupled finite-element/polycrystal-plasticity models to simulate the effects of variations in texture on the plastic behavior of polycrystals. This work examines the variation in texture through the thickness of a tantalum plate and its resultant effect on the compressive deformation of samples prepared from the plate. The characterization of the texture gradient using the automatic point-by-point measurement technique mentioned above is described in detail. The effect of the gradient on the plastic response of through-thickness compression tests is also discussed.

  9. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    dynamic process changing with time. By combining 1D thermal time evolution models and 2D/3D steady state models we are able to conclude that planetary mass does influence the propensity of plate tectonics on planets. The pressure dependence changes the scaling laws for parameterized models and influences the scaling of stresses associated with breaking of plates and thus the initiation of plate tectonics. The results indicate that for planets with masses larger than Earth lithospheric plates are either becoming thicker or remain similar in thickness and yield stresses to break the plates increase - making it harder to assume that plate tectonics is more likely on Super-Earths. Moreover, convective stresses decrease more than yield stresses do for planets smaller than Earth, leading to the fact that planets with masses close to one Earth mass seem to have better chances to exhibit plate tectonics than larger or smaller planets with similar composition and structure. References [1] Noack, L. Stamenkovic, V., and Breuer, D. (2009) ESLAB 09, P1.04. [2] Valencia, D., O’Connell, R.J., and Sasselov, D.D. (2007) Astroph. J., 670, 45-48. [3] O’Neill, C. and Lenardic, A. (2007) GRL, 34, L19204

  10. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  11. Interference enhancement in spectral domain interferometric measurements on transparent plate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Tao, Li; Cheng, Wenkai; Liu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-09-10

    In spectral domain interferometry, the interference signal generated by directly reflected waves from the two surfaces of a sample plate under test is greatly enhanced by the blockage of those light waves reflected by the two arm mirrors in the Michelson interferometer. This sample surface-reflected interference signal, being the optical path length of the plate, is therefore identifiable directly from the Fourier-transformed interference spectrum. Consequently, the group refractive index and physical thickness of the plate can be obtained simultaneously without any prior information of them. Moreover, subsequent in situ angular scanning on the interference spectra helps to retrieve the wavelength-dependent phase refractive index and first-order dispersion. The order of magnitude of the relative error for the group refractive index is 10(-4), while that for the phase refractive index and the physical thickness is 10(-3).

  12. On the analysis of a plate with a local shape perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, A. G.

    2012-07-01

    The asymptotic behavior of the solution of the bending problem of plates with local shape perturbations (connections, ribs, holes comparable in size with the plate thickness) is studied in a three-dimensional formulation using the local perturbation method. The problem is completely decomposed into a two-dimensional problem of plate theory and local problems describing the threedimensional stress-strain state in the perturbation region. The local problems are solved using numerical methods.

  13. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  14. Unitary plate electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor); Clough, Thomas J. (Inventor); Josefowicz, Jack Y. (Inventor); Sibert, John W. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The unitary electrode (10) comprises a porous sheet (12) of fiberglass the strands (14) of which contain a coating (16) of conductive tin oxide. The lower portion of the sheet contains a layer (18) of resin and the upper layer (20) contains lead dioxide forming a positive active electrode on an electrolyte-impervious layer. The strands (14) form a continuous conduction path through both layers (16, 18). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating the surface of the plate facing the negative electrode with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (130) of lead or graphite filled resin adhered to the plate with a layer (31) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten resin from kettle (60) onto a sheet of glass wool (56) overlying a sheet of lead foil and then applying positive active paste from hopper (64) into the upper layer (68). The plate can also be formed by passing an assembly of a sheet ( 80) of resin, a sheet (86) of sintered glass and a sheet (90) of lead between the nip (92) of heated rollers (93, 95) and then filling lead oxide into the pores (116) of the upper layer (118).

  15. The Plate Tectonics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  16. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  17. Growth Plate Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... or crushed, the growth plate may close prematurely, forming a bony bridge or “bar.” The risk of ... this publication: James S. Panagis, M.D., M.P.H., NIAMS/NIH; R. Tracy Ballock, M.D., Case ...

  18. Redesign of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates to enhance their mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Dewo, P; van der Houwen, E B; Suyitno; Marius, R; Magetsari, R; Verkerke, G J

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical properties determined by fatigue strength, ductility, and toughness are important measures for osteosynthesis plates in order to tolerate some load-bearing situations caused by muscle contractions and weight-bearing effects. Previous study indicated that Indonesian-made plates showed lower mechanical strength compared to the European AO standard plate. High stress under load-bearing situations often starts from surface of the plate; we therefore refined the grain size of the surface by using shot peening and surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Single cycle bending tests showed that shot-peened and SMAT-treated plates had significantly higher load limit and bending stress compared to the original plates (p<0.05). Weibull analysis confirmed the improvement of proportional load limit of SMAT-treated plates. Fatigue limit also increased upon shot-peening and SMAT treatment (improvement ratio 18% and 27%, respectively). Significant improvement ratio of fatigue tests can be observed in SMAT-treated plates compared to the untreated and shot-peened plates. Fatigue performance demonstrated equivalent results between SMAT-treated and standard plate. These designated that mechanical properties of Indonesian-made plates can be improved upon SMAT treatment leading to significant enhancement of mechanical strength thus is comparable to the standard plate. Our findings highlight the benefits of SMAT treatment to improve mechanical strength of Indonesian-made osteosynthesis plates.

  19. 40 CFR 426.40 - Applicability; description of the plate glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... plate glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.40 Section 426.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.40 Applicability; description of the plate...

  20. 40 CFR 426.40 - Applicability; description of the plate glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plate glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.40 Section 426.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.40 Applicability; description of the plate...

  1. 40 CFR 426.40 - Applicability; description of the plate glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plate glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.40 Section 426.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.40 Applicability; description of the plate...

  2. Nonlinear vibration of thick stiff fabric with small flexural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.-P.; Wang, S.-Z.; Wu, W.-Y.; Gu, H.-B.

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic behaviour of fabric is very complex during weaving, dyeing and finishing processes. Thick stiff fabric vibration has great influence not only on the fabric itself but also on the performance of machine. The theoretic analysis for the nonlinear free vibration of thick stiff fabric with small flexural stiffness is put forward in the paper. The nonlinear partial differential equation is derived by applying the flexible thin plate theory, and then transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin method. The approximate analytical solution is obtained by the homotopy perturbation method.

  3. Liquid film thickness measurement by two-line TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huinan; Chen, Jun; Cai, Xiaoshu; Greszik, Daniel; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2014-04-01

    A fiber-based two-line tunable diode-laser absorption sensor with two near-infrared (NIR) distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers at ˜1.4 μm was used for non-intrusive time-resolved liquid water film thickness measurement. When probing the liquid film at two different wavelengths with significantly different absorption cross-sections, the additional signal losses due to surface fowling, reflection and beam steering can be eliminated. In this work, the evaporation process of a liquid film on transparent quartz plate was tracked and large fluctuations of film thickness were found at the end of the evaporation.

  4. Liquid film thickness measurement by two-line TDLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huinan; Chen, Jun; Cai, Xiaoshu; Greszik, Daniel; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2014-04-11

    A fiber-based two-line tunable diode-laser absorption sensor with two near-infrared (NIR) distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers at ∼1.4 μm was used for non-intrusive time-resolved liquid water film thickness measurement. When probing the liquid film at two different wavelengths with significantly different absorption cross-sections, the additional signal losses due to surface fowling, reflection and beam steering can be eliminated. In this work, the evaporation process of a liquid film on transparent quartz plate was tracked and large fluctuations of film thickness were found at the end of the evaporation.

  5. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  6. Free and Forced Vibration of REISSNER-MINDLIN Plates with Free Edges Resting on Elastic Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHEN, H.-S.; YANG, J.; ZHANG, L.

    2001-07-01

    Free and forced vibration analysis is presented for Reissner-Mindlin plates with four free edges resting on a Pasternak-type elastic foundation. The formulations are based on the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, considering the first order shear deformation effect and including the plate-foundation interaction and thermal effects. A new set of admissible functions, which satisfy both geometrical and natural boundary conditions, are developed for the free vibration analysis of moderately thick plates with four free edges. The Rayleigh-Ritz Method is employed in conjunction with this set of admissible functions to determine the vibration behaviors. Then on this basis, the modal superposition approach is used in conjunction with Mindlin-Goodman procedure to determine the dynamic response of free edge Reissner-Mindlin plates exposed to thermomechanical loading. The mechanical loads consist of transverse partially distributed impulsive loads and in-plane edge loads while the temperature field is assumed to exhibit a linear variation through the thickness of the plate. The numerical illustrations concern moderately thick plates with four free edges resting on Pasternak-type elastic foundations with the Winkler elastic foundations being a limiting case. Effects of foundation stiffness, transverse shear deformation, plate aspect ratio, shape and duration of impulsive load, loaded area, and initial membrane stress as well as thermal bending stress on the dynamic response of Reissner-Mindlin plates are studied.

  7. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  8. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    1993-03-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  9. Three-dimensional vibrations of cantilevered right triangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, O. G.; Giaimo, G. T.

    1992-12-01

    The first known three-dimensional continuum vibration solutions for cantilevered right triangular plates with variable thickness are obtained using the Ritz method. Assumed displacement functions are in the form of algebraic polynomials, which satisfy the fixed face conditions exactly, and which are mathematically complete. Reasonably accurate natural frequencies are calculated for low aspect ratio, right triangular thin plates having arbitrary values of thickness taper ratios in the spanwise direction. Detailed numerical studies show that a three-dimensional analysis is essential to monitoring coupled-mode sensitivities in the variation of non-dimensional natural frequencies with increasing thickness taper ratio. Upper bound results, obtained using the present method, are compared with those obtained by other investigators using ordinary beam theories, two-dimensional finite element and finite difference procedures, and experimental methods. This unified comparison of upper and lower bound solutions is presented here with the aim of 'bracketing' the exact analytical solution of the subject problem.

  10. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    wavelength 132 km which is approximately equivalent to the reported safe degree and order 250 of GOCO02S at 34º N) combined airborne free-air anomalies. The rms difference between the two data sets was 12.4 mGal. The observed admittance in the western Afghanistan mountains appears to be best fit to a theoretical elastic plate compensation model (with an effective elastic thickness of 5 km and crustal thickness of 22 km) where the ratio between surface load and subsurface load is equal.

  11. Drug permeation through the three layers of the human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Miyamoto, M; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1999-03-01

    The in-vitro permeation characteristics of a water soluble model drug, 5-fluorouracil, and a poorly water soluble model drug, flurbiprofen, were investigated through three layers of the human nail plate (namely, the dorsal, intermediate and ventral nail plates), using a modified side-by-side diffusion cell. The dorsal-filed nail plate, the ventral-filed nail plate and the dorsal-and-ventral-filed nail plate were prepared to known thicknesses and then used with the full-thickness nail plate to investigate the permeation characteristics of each single layer. Most of the lipids in the human nail plate were found in the dorsal and ventral layers. The rank orders of the permeation fluxes for 5-fluorouracil and flurbiprofen were both: dorsal-and-ventral-filed nail plate > dorsal-filed nail plate > ventral-filed nail plate > full-thickness nail plate. With respect to 5-fluorouracil permeation through each single layer, the permeability coefficient of the intermediate layer was higher than those of other single layers. However in the case of flurbiprofen, the permeability coefficient of the ventral layer was higher than other single layers. The diffusion coefficients of 5-fluorouracil and flurbiprofen in the dorsal layer were the lowest of any single layer. The drug concentration in each layer was estimated using each respective permeation parameter. The drug concentration in the nail plate was observed to be dependent on the solubility and the flux of the drug. From these findings, we suggest that the human nail plate behaves like a hydrophilic gel membrane rather than a lipophilic partition membrane and that the upper layer functions as the main nail barrier to drug permeation through its low diffusivity against the drugs.

  12. Fabrication of large thick panels of transparent spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Mark; Gilde, Gary A.; Roy, Donald W.

    2001-11-01

    The use of magnesium aluminate spinel for optical windows, domes and armor has previously been investigated for a wide range of specific applications. The material properties rival that of ALON and sapphire, although there exists the potential for the fabrication of larger parts at significantly lower costs. The ability to fabricate transparent spinel by hot-pressing into large plates has gained interest for the fabrication of low-cost transparent armor for a range of applications. The present paper describes development efforts that are underway to fabricate spinel panels up to 22 inches in diameter and 0.5 inches thick. A 600 ton press is being installed at a facility in Millersville, MD that will be able to fabricate 22 inch diameter parts by late 2002. In the future, this press will potentially be able to fabricate 40 inch diameter plates with minimal changes. There is additional interest in these plates for large IR windows.

  13. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  14. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  15. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  16. Stress analysis of multilayered plates around circular holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1984-01-01

    The elasticity problem for a thick plate consisting of two bonded dissimilar homogeneous layers is considered. It is assumed that the plate is infinite, contains a circular hole, and is subjected to axisymmetric external loads. A technique suitable to the formulation of three-dimensional boundary value problems is introduced and applied to the three-dimensional elasticity solution of an infinite plate with a hole. The effect of Poisson's ratio is studied in some detail, and the axisymmetric problem of a laminated plate is solved. The stresses at the interface are calculated and are observed to become unbounded at the hole boundary. An approximate treatment of the singularity is presented and the stress intensity factors are computed. Some of the results are compared with those found from the finite element method. The agreement between the two sets with regard to trend and magnitude is found to be very satisfactory.

  17. Chemical and structural analyses of titanium plates retrieved from patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C M S A; Asprino, L; de Moraes, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microscopic structure and chemical composition of titanium bone plates and screws retrieved from patients with a clinical indication and to relate the results to the clinical conditions associated with the removal of these devices. Osteosynthesis plates and screws retrieved from 30 patients between January 2010 and September 2013 were studied by metallographic, gas, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses and the medical records of these patients were reviewed. Forty-eight plates and 238 screws were retrieved. The time elapsed between plate and screw insertion and removal ranged between 11 days and 10 years. Metallographic analysis revealed that all the plates were manufactured from commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). The screw samples analyzed consisted of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, except four samples, which consisted of CP-Ti. Titanium plates studied by EDX analysis presented greater than 99.7% titanium by mass. On gas analysis of Ti-6Al-4V screws, three samples were outside the standard values. One CP-Ti screw sample and one plate sample also presented an oxygen analysis value above the standard. The results indicated that the physical properties and chemical compositions of the plates and screws did not correspond with the need to remove these devices or the time of retention.

  18. Effect of the absorption coefficient of aluminium plates on their thermoelastic bending in photoacoustic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Galović, S.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.

    2015-06-01

    The open-cell photoacoustic signal measured in the transmission configuration for aluminum thin plates with thicknesses of 280 μm, 197 μm, and 112 μm is experimentally and theoretically analyzed, in the 20 Hz-7 kHz modulation frequency range. It is shown that the observed differences between the predictions of the standard thermoelastic model and the experiment data of both the amplitude and phase of the photoacoustic signal can be overcome by considering the aluminum samples coated with a thin layer of black paint as volume-absorber materials. This new approach provides a quite good agreement with the obtained experimental data, in the whole frequency range, and yields an effective absorption coefficient of (16 ± 2) mm-1, for a 280 μm-thick sample. The introduction of the finite absorption coefficient led to the correct ratio between the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic components of the photoacoustic signal. Furthermore, it is found that the "volume-absorber" approach accurately describes the behavior of the amplitude, but not that of the phase recorded for a 112 μm-thick sample, due to its relatively strong thermoelastic bending, which is not considered by this theory. Within the approximation of the small bending, the proposed "volume-absorber" model provides a reliable description of the photoacoustic signal for Al samples thicker than 112 μm, and extends the applicability of the classical "opaque" approach.

  19. MyPlate Food Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow throughout your life. 2. Fruits Like veggies, fruits contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The red section of MyPlate is slightly smaller than the green, but together fruits and veggies should fill half your plate. Whole ...

  20. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite)  Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  1. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  2. Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of internally cracked rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an analytical model for nonlinear vibrations in a cracked rectangular isotropic plate containing a single and two perpendicular internal cracks located at the center of the plate. The two cracks are in the form of continuous line with each parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion for isotropic cracked plate, based on classical plate theory is modified to accommodate the effect of internal cracks using the Line Spring Model. Berger's formulation for in-plane forces makes the model nonlinear. Galerkin's method used with three different boundary conditions transforms the equation into time dependent modal functions. The natural frequencies of the cracked plate are calculated for various crack lengths in case of a single crack and for various crack length ratio for the two cracks. The effect of the location of the part through crack(s) along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is studied considering appropriate crack compliance coefficients. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are maximally affected when the crack(s) are internal crack(s) symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate and are minimally affected when the crack(s) are surface crack(s), for all the three boundary conditions considered. It is also shown that crack parallel to the longer side of the plate affect the vibration characteristics more as compared to crack parallel to the shorter side. Further the application of method of multiple scales gives the nonlinear amplitudes for different aspect ratios of the cracked plate. The analytical results obtained for surface crack(s) are also assessed with FEM results. The FEM formulation is carried out in ANSYS.

  3. Aflatoxin plate kit. Performance Tested Method 081003.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Arthur; Fan, Titan; LaBudde, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The level of total aflatoxin contamination was analyzed in naturally contaminated and spiked samples of corn and peanut using the Aflatoxin Plate Kit. This kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for rapid testing of grains and peanuts. The assay was evaluated for ruggedness and linearity of the standard curve. The test kit results were then statistically evaluated for accuracy, precision, and correlation to a validated HPLC method (AOAC 994.08). The results were verified by an independent laboratory.

  4. North American plate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Randall M.; Reding, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Deformation within the North American plate in response to various tectonic processes is modeled using an elastic finite element analysis. The tectonic processes considered in the modeling include ridge forces associated with the normal thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere, shear and normal stresses transmitted across transforms, normal stresses transmitted across convergent boundaries, stresses due to horizontal density contrasts within the continent, and shear tractions applied along the base of the plate. Model stresses are calculated with respect to a lithostatic reference stress state. Shear stresses transmitted across transform boundaries along the San Andreas and Caribbean are small, of the order of 5-10 MPa. Also, compressive stresses of the order of 5-10 MPa transmitted across the major transforms improve the fit to the data. Compressive stresses across convergent margins along the Aleutians and the Middle America trench are important.

  5. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  6. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1984-09-28

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

  7. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, C.L.

    1989-03-21

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras is disclosed. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1,000 KeV x-rays. 3 figs.

  8. Processing and characterization of thick laminated composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sabo, J.; Strait, L.H.; Strauch, E.C.; Koudela, K.L.; Giannetti, W.B.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, significant interest has arisen in the use of laminated composites in marine structures. Such structures are often considerably thicker than their aerospace counterparts in which composites have traditionally been utilized. Thick composite structures require minor modifications to the standard fabrication techniques and cure cycles developed for thin sections. Thick composite materials utilized in marine applications must be capable of delivering acceptable properties and must retain those properties following exposure to the marine environment for service lives up to 30 years. The present paper describes the processing and characterization of a thick, hybrid panel measuring 76.20 x 66.04 x 7.62 cm The 7.62 cm thickness consisted of 2.54 cm of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic toughened epoxy (Fiberite IM7/977-2) tape with a quasi-isotropic lay up and 5.08 cm of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy (Fiberite T300/934) fabric with a quasi-isotropic lay up. Four sub laminates were selected at various locations through the thickness of the laminates. The sub laminates consisted of 16 (tape) or 8 (fabric) plies which were separated from the adjacent plies by sheets of porous teflon. The porous teflon sheets allowed resin flow to occur during processing of the laminate and provided a simple means of separating the sub laminates following cure. After separation, all laminate sections were inspected using ultrasonic techniques. Fiber volume fraction, void content, and the full range of mechanical properties were determined for each sub laminate. These results were compared with 16 (tape) and 8 (fabric) ply quasi-isotropic panels processed separately under ideal conditions. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to produce high-quality, thick laminates for use in marine structures.

  9. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  10. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Expectation maximization classification and Laplacian based thickness measurement for cerebral cortex thickness estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Mark; Moreno-Vallecillo, Rafael; Harris, Anthony; Gomes, Lavier J.; Diep, Than-Mei; Bourgeat, Pierrick T.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new framework for measuring cortical thickness from MR human brain images. This involves the integration of a method of tissue classification with one to estimate thickness in 3D. We have determined an additional boundary detection step to facilitate this. The classification stage utlizes the Expectation Maximisation (EM) algorithm to classify voxels associated with the tissue types that interface with cortical grey matter (GM, WM and CSF). This uses a Gaussian mixture and the EM algorithm to estimate the position and and width of the Gaussians that model the intensity distributions of the GM, WM and CSF tissue classes. The boundary detection stage uses the GM, WM and CSF classifications and finds connected components, fills holes and then applies a geodesic distance transform to determine the GM/WM interface. Finally the thickness of the cortical grey matter is estimated by solving Laplace's equation and determining the streamlines that connect the inner and outer boundaries. The contribution of this work is the adaptation of the classification and thickness measurement steps, neither requiring manual initialisation, and also the validation strategy. The resultant algorithm is fully automatic and avoids the computational expense associated with preserving the cortical surface topology. We have devised a validation strategy that indicates the cortical segmentation of a gold standard brain atlas has a similarity index of 0.91, thickness estimation has subvoxel accuracy evaluated using a synthetic image and precision of the combined segmentation and thickness measurement of 1.54mm using three clinical images.

  12. Benchmarks of simple, generic, shaped plates for validation of low-frequency electromagnetic computational codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1993-01-01

    The validation of low-frequency measurements and electromagnetic (EM) scattering computations for several simple, generic shapes, such as an equilateral-triangular plate, an equilateral-triangular plate with a concentric equilateral-triangular hole, and diamond- and hexagonal-shaped plates, is discussed. The plates were constructed from a thin aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.08 cm. EM scattering by the planar plates was measured in the experimental test range (ETR) facility of NASA Langley Research Center. The dimensions of the plates were selected such that, over the frequency range of interest, the dimensions were in the range of lambda0 to 3(lambda0). In addition, the triangular plate with a triangular hole was selected to study internal-hole resonances.

  13. Benchmarks of simple, generic, shaped plates for validation of low-frequency electromagnetic computational codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.; Nguyen, T. X.

    1993-08-01

    The validation of low-frequency measurements and electromagnetic (EM) scattering computations for several simple, generic shapes, such as an equilateral-triangular plate, an equilateral-triangular plate with a concentric equilateral-triangular hole, and diamond- and hexagonal-shaped plates, is discussed. The plates were constructed from a thin aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.08 cm. EM scattering by the planar plates was measured in the experimental test range (ETR) facility of NASA Langley Research Center. The dimensions of the plates were selected such that, over the frequency range of interest, the dimensions were in the range of lambda0 to 3(lambda0). In addition, the triangular plate with a triangular hole was selected to study internal-hole resonances.

  14. Optical measurements of flyer plate acceleration by emulsion explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Ogata, Yuji; Seto, Masahiro; Masui, Akira; Wada, Yuji; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the study on the application of explosive welding technique to the field of the urgent repair of the gas and water pipe networks. The essential parameters related to the explosive welding are scrutinized from the point of view of the minimizing the damage to the steel pipe after welded explosively with a flyer plate. The emulsion explosive is contained in a rectangular hard-paper box whose bottom is the flyer plate with 100 mm length, 25 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness. The flyer motions of the flyer plates accelerated by emulsion explosive are observed by high-speed photography from the side and front view of the flyer plate. The damage to the pipe by the flyer plate is discussed with the results of the observation of flyer motion and explosive welding test under various experimental conditions. Moreover, one way to control the motion of the flyer plate is proposed. We put a PMMA buffer block into the explosive. The flying process of flyer plate is calculated by the finite different scheme based on the ALE method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the experimental and numerical studies.

  15. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  16. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates (10) having very small holes (14) with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a "wire drawing" process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er.sub.3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans (20) containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array (53) with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er.sub.3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations (38, 42), one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed.

  17. New electroplated aluminum bipolar plate for PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Enin, Sanaa A. Abo; Abdel-Salam, Omar E.; El-Abd, Hammam; Amin, Ashraf M.

    Further improvement in the performance of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells as a power source for automotive applications may be achieved by the use of a new material in the manufacture of the bipolar plate. Several nickel alloys were applied on the aluminum substrate, the use of aluminum as a bipolar plate instead of graphite is to reduce the bipolar plate cost and weight and the ease of machining. The electroplated nickel alloys on aluminum substrate produced a new metallic bipolar plate for PEM fuel cell with a higher efficiency and longer lifetime than the graphite bipolar plate due to its higher electrical conductivity and its lower corrosion rate. Different pretreatment methods were tested; the optimum method for pretreatment consists of dipping the specimen in a 12.5% NaOH for 3 min followed by electroless zinc plating for 2 min, then the specimen is dipped quickly in the electroplating bath after rinsing with distilled water. The produced electroplate was tested with different measurement techniques, chosen based on the requirement for a PEM fuel cell bipolar plate, including X-ray diffraction, EDAX, SEM, corrosion resistance, thickness measurement, microhardness, and electrical conductivity.

  18. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures < 175 K above the present day value a subduction style appears which is close to present day subduction but with more frequent slab break-off. At upper-mantle temperatures 175 - 250 K above present day values steep subduction continues but the plates are weakened enough to allow buckling and also lithospheric delamination and drip-offs. For upper-mantle temperatures > 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental

  19. Effects of adhesive, host plate, transducer and excitation parameters on time reversibility of ultrasonic Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, J K; Kapuria, S

    2016-08-01

    To develop an effective baseline-free damage detection strategy using the time-reversal process (TRP) of Lamb waves in thin walled structures, it is essential to develop a good understanding of the parameters that affect the amplitude dispersion and consequently the time reversibility of the Lamb wave signal. In this paper, the effects of adhesive layer between the transducers and the host plate, the tone burst count of the excitation signal, the plate thickness, and the piezoelectric transducer thickness on the time reversibility of Lamb waves in metallic plates are studied using experiments and finite element simulations. The effect of adhesive layer on the forward propagation response and frequency tuning has been also studied. The results show that contrary to the general expectation, the quality of the reconstruction of the input signal after the TRP may increase with the increase in the adhesive layer thickness at certain frequency ranges. Similarly, an increase in the tone burst count resulting in a narrowband signal does not necessarily enhance the time reversibility at all frequencies, contrary to what has been reported earlier. For a given plate thickness, a thinner transducer yields a better reconstruction, but for a given transducer thickness, the similarity of the reconstructed signal may not be always higher for a thicker plate. It is important to study these effects to achieve the best quality of reconstruction in undamaged plates, for effective damage detection. PMID:27176646

  20. The Influence of Pre-existing Deformation on GMA Welding Distortion in Thin Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. M.; Ahn, J.; Tsunori, M.; Dye, D.; Nikbin, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Weld distortion is particularly problematic for large thin structures that are used in the assembly of ships. The drive toward lighter ships and thinner plate is restricted by the significant increase in distortion as the plate thickness decreases. The influence of pre-existing deformation in the plates to be joined on the resultant distortion in gas metal arc welded structure has been studied. DH-36 steel plate surface profiles were measured before and after the butt welding of two plates 1000 × 500 × 4 mm in size. Three dimensional finite element models that incorporate the initial plate profile have been created to simulate the welding process and to examine the relationship between the final welded plate profiles and the initial deformation present in the plates. Both symmetric and asymmetric models were considered. A significant variation in the unwelded base plates' initial distortion was observed. Generally, it has been found that if an out-of-plane deformation exists in a plate prior to welding, the level of distortion further increases in the same direction following welding. The final distortions are strongly related to the initial plate profiles. The residual stress distributions in the plates are also to some extent affected by the level of distortion initially present.

  1. Thermoelastic bending analysis of laminated composite plates according to various shear deformation theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyad, Atteshamuddin Shamshuddin; Shinde, Bharati Machhindra; Ghugal, Yuwaraj Marotrao

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the thermoelastic analysis of laminated composite plates subjected to sinusoidal thermal load linearly varying across the thickness. Analytical solutions for thermal displacements and stresses are investigated by using a unified plate theory which includes different functions in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the effect of shear deformation. The theory presented is variationally consistent, does not require shear correction factor, and gives rise to transverse shear stress variation such that the transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness satisfying shear stress free surface conditions. Governing equations of equilibrium and associated boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The Navier solution for simply supported laminated composite plates has been developed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the thermal response of the laminated composite plates.

  2. Symmetries in laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.

  3. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  4. Topographic bone thickness maps for Bonebridge implantations.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Wilhelm; Gerber, Nicolas; Guignard, Jérémie; Dubach, Patrick; Kompis, Martin; Weber, Stefan; Caversaccio, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Bonebridge™ (BB) implantation relies on optimal anchoring of the bone-conduction implant in the temporal bone. Preoperative position planning has to account for the available bone thickness minimizing unwanted interference with underlying anatomical structures. This study describes the first clinical experience with a planning method based on topographic bone thickness maps (TBTM) for presigmoid BB implantations. The temporal bone was segmented enabling three-dimensional surface generation. Distances between the external and internal surface were color encoded and mapped to a TBTM. Suitable implant positions were planned with reference to the TBTM. Surgery was performed according to the standard procedure (n = 7). Computation of the TBTM and consecutive implant position planning took 70 min on average for a trained technician. Surgical time for implantations under passive TBTM image guidance was 60 min, on average. The sigmoid sinus (n = 5) and dura mater (n = 1) were exposed, as predicted with the TBTM. Feasibility of the TBTM method was shown for standard presigmoid BB implantations. The projection of three-dimensional bone thickness information into a single topographic map provides the surgeon with an intuitive display of the anatomical situation prior to implantation. Nevertheless, TBTM generation time has to be significantly reduced to simplify integration in clinical routine.

  5. Subduction of thick crust: the Alaska example (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Christensen, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a paradigm of plate tectonics that oceanic lithosphere subducts readily, while lithosphere transporting much thicker continental crust does not. Analyses of plate buoyancy have included a variety of effects, such as eclogitization, crustal compositional stratification, and plate strength, but all lead to the conclusion that crust needs to be thinner than about 15-25 km in order to subduct. A test of this conclusion is underway in southern Alaska, where the Yakutat terrane is being driven by the Pacific plate into the Alaskan margin. Its crust is 15-30 km thick, varying along strike, with a seismic velocity structure resembling an oceanic plateau; thus it spans the predicted limit in thickness of subductable crust. In the eastern thicker part, the terrane appears to be colliding and driving orogenesis in the St. Elias-Chugach ranges, although voluminous volcanism of the Wrangell Volcanic Field may be a consequence of some crust subducting. Farther west, the Yakutat terrane is 15-20 km thick and clearly subducting beneath the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula. It forms the slab subducting beneath the central Alaska Range 400 km inland. The thick crust has been imaged at all depths less than 130 km, through receiver functions, travel-time tomography, and offshore by active-source imaging, with similar structure in most images. Greater than 130 km depth the imaged crust vanishes in seismic images, consistent with predicted depths of eclogitization of weakly hydrated metagabbroic crust, and the lack of a velocity contrast between eclogite and peridotite. Lithosphere including the thick Yakutat crust gives a net buoyancy close to neutral, so its subduction will depend on other factors. The high buoyancy may be responsible for the remarkably shallow dip of the plate at depths less than 50 km, producing one of the widest seismogenic thrust zones on the planet, allowing it to host the great (Mw 9.3) 1964 Gulf of Alaska earthquake. The shallow dip may also aid

  6. GA-based PID control of the plate width in hot-plate mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byungman; Lee, Dae Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    1999-11-01

    In hot plate mills the slabs from incoming reheat furnace are reduced to the desired width and thickness, being rolled out with considerable accuracy. The process of changing the plate width is controlled by a pair of edge rolls, which is called edger. The objectives of this edging process are to meet tight width tolerances of plates and to reduce the yield loss caused by trimming when irregular width is formed at the plate edge. There are several factors that result in complexity and uncertainty in width control. These include inaccurate edger set-up model, degradation of various mill equipment, variation of operation conditions, environments and variation of the dimension of incoming cast slabs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based PID control is proposed to ensure the control of the desired width at the exit of the mill. The approach adopted here is essentially optimization of the PID controller gains in order to minimize the error between the desired and actual slab width. Since the design parameters associated with genetic algorithm affect convergence performance, the effects of these parameters are investigated in detail. In addition, the control performance is also evaluated for various process parameters such as initial width of the incoming slab and temperature of the slab. Based on the result obtained from a series of simulations, the proposed control method is found to yield satisfactory performance for various process conditions.

  7. What was Earth's tectonic style before Plate Tectonics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the Archean, deep mantle upwelling resulted in the formation of thick, buoyant, hot and therefore weak continental plates, as well as thicker oceanic crusts and plateaux that may have impeded and perhaps prevented modern style subduction. Continents were easy to deform and too weak to support high mountain belts and orogenic plateaux which characterize modern collisional orogens. Overall, it would be very surprising if Archean tectonics processes were similar than those observable today. Over the past decade, numerical experiments have shown that the style of subduction depends on i/ the degree of coupling between the upper and lower plate which controls whether subduction zones are double sided or single sided; ii/ the buoyancy of the subducting plate which controls whether subduction is spontaneous or requires a push and whether slabs retreat or not; iii/ the yield stress of the subducting plate which controls whether recurrent slab breakoff occurs or not. Studies focused on the behaviour of continental plates show that only minor thickening (tectonic or volcanic via the emplacement of continental flood basalts) is required for the crust to reach its solidus, which would have promoted the foundering of greenstone covers into the crust (sagduction). In a convergence setting, weak continents would have deformed easily and convergence mainly accommodated by lateral expulsion and lateral flow under a regional transcurrent tectonic regime. Numerical experiments suggest that thick and buoyant continents would have imparted significant horizontal stresses on adjacent oceanic plates, the slow spreading of thick and buoyant continents leading to the initiation of subduction. Provided that continental lithospheric mantle could spontaneously subduct, numerical experiments suggest that in a convergent setting accretionary orogeny rather than continental collision was a dominant tectonic style with implications for crustal growth and differentiation.

  8. Hydroelastic vibration of two annular plates coupled with a bounded compressible fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon

    2006-11-01

    A theoretical study on a linear hydroelastic vibration of two annular plates coupled with a bounded fluid is presented. The proposed method, based on the Rayleigh Ritz method and the finite Hankel transform, is verified through a finite element analysis by using a commercial computer code, with an excellent accuracy. It is assumed that plates with an unequal thickness and with an unequal inner radius are clamped along their edges and an inviscid compressible fluid fills the space between the annular plates and the outer rigid vessel. When the two annular plates are identical, distinct in-phase and out-of-phase modes are observed. By increasing the difference in the plate thickness, the symmetric in-phase and out-of-phase modes with respect to the middle plane of the system are gradually shifted to pseudo in-phase and out-of-phase modes, and eventually they are changed to mixed modes. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with an increase of the fluid compressibility, and additional modes due to a fluid concentration are observed when the plates are coupled with a compressible fluid. The fluid compressibility effect on the natural frequency is dominant in the out-of-phase modes and the higher modes. Also, the effects of the fluid thickness or the distance between the plates and the inner radius of the plates on the natural frequencies of the wet modes are investigated.

  9. Frequency response of laminated composite plates and shells with matrix cracks type of damage mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Aly A.

    The present study has been designed to tackle a new set of problems for structural composites, as these materials are finding new applications in civil engineering field. An attempt has been made to study the frequency response of laminated polymer composite plates and shallow shells containing matrix cracks type of damage with arbitrary support conditions and free vibratory motions. The shell governing equations are derived using a simplified shallow shell theory based on a first order shear deformation field. The continuum damage mechanics approach has been used to model the matrix cracks in a damaged region within the plates and shallow shells. In such approach, the damage is accounted for in the laminate constitutive equations by using a set of second order tensor internal state variables which are strain-like quantities. The simplified damage model was then used to study the changes in frequency response of laminated composite plates and shallow cylindrical shells. The Ritz method and a finite element method have been proposed and developed as approximate solution procedures to quantify the change in the free vibration frequencies due to matrix cracks type of damage under both material as well as geometrical variables such as size, shape and extent of damage, degree of curvature, ratio of orthotropy, thickness ratio as well as support conditions. The analysis of various plates and shells with a centrally located damaged-zone depicts a typical trend of reduction in the vibration frequencies. This reduction is more pronounced for higher frequency modes and it shows greater sensitivity toward the size of the damaged region and density of cracks. The results also show that the changes in the frequency, especially for the fundamental mode, appear to be less sensitive to the shell boundary conditions as well as small values of curvature. The investigation of various undamaged plates and shallow shells demonstrates the importance of a first-order shear deformation

  10. A metal sheet stiffened by a partially debonded composite quarter-plate. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, K.

    1976-01-01

    An isotropic sheet stiffened by means of an orthotropic quarter-plate is considered. The quarter-plate is assumed to be perfectly bonded to the metal sheet everywhere except an area of debonding which may develop due to high stress concentrations. The adhesive which has a small constant thickness is treated as a shear spring. The loads are applied at infinity and supposed to be transmitted through the metal plate. Shear stress distribution between the two plates was obtained from the continuity of displacements along an area where they were bonded to each other.

  11. New Eddy Current Probe for Thickness Gauging of Conductive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min

    1993-01-01

    The accurate measure of material thickness is important for many non-destructive evaluation applications. Factors such as corrosion damage can jeopardize structural integrity through material thinning and process control considerations often mandate strict limits on material dimensions. Access to the material under test can be limited to a single side and large areas may need to be examined in a small time period. In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of material thickness measurements a flux focusing eddy current probe has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The probe provides an accurate measure of the thickness of conducting materials from a single sided measurement. It is straight forward to use and can be easily automated for production line testing. The probe also requires only minimal instrumentation and power so that extremely portable units can be manufactured at a low cost. This new eddy current probe has been used to accurately measure the thickness of aluminum alloy plates with a resolution of greater than 0.001 in. (25 microns). Simulated corrosion damage has also been detected on both single layer and multi-layer samples. The present work will explain the output voltage dependence of the device as a function of material thickness and present experimental results for thickness gauging and corrosion detection.

  12. Higher order finite element analysis of thick composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, J.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    A higher order, sub-parametric, laminated, 3D solid finite element was used for the analysis of very thick laminated composite plates. The geometry of this element is defined by four nodes in the X-Y plane which define a prism of material through the thickness of the laminate. There are twenty-four degrees of freedom at each node; translations at the upper and lower surfaces of the laminate in each of the three coordinate directions, and the derivatives of these translations with respect to each coordinate. This choice of degrees of freedom leads to displacement and strain compatibility at the corners. Stacking sequence effects are accounted for by explicitly integrating the strain energy density through the thickness of the element. The laminated solid element was combined with a gap-contact element to analyze thick laminated composite lugs loaded through flexible pins. The resulting model accounts for pin bending effects that produce non-uniform bearing stresses through the thickness of the lug. A thick composite lug experimental test program was performed, and provided data that was used to validate the analytical model. Two lug geometries and three stacking sequences were tested.

  13. Asymptotic modelling of a thermopiezoelastic anisotropic smart plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yufei

    Motivated by the requirement of modelling for space flexible reflectors as well as other applications of plate structures in engineering, a general anisotropic laminated thin plate model and a monoclinic Reissner-Mindlin plate model with thermal deformation, two-way coupled piezoelectric effect and pyroelectric effect is constructed using the variational asymptotic method, without any ad hoc assumptions. Total potential energy contains strain energy, electric potential energy and energy caused by temperature change. Three-dimensional strain field is built based on the concept of warping function and decomposition of the rotation tensor. The feature of small thickness and large in-plane dimension of plate structure helped to asymptotically simplify the three-dimensional analysis to a two-dimensional analysis on the reference surface and a one-dimensional analysis through the thickness. For the zeroth-order approximation, the asymptotically correct expression of energy is derived into the form of energetic equation in classical laminated plate theory, which will be enough to predict the behavior of plate structures as thin as a space flexible reflector. A through-the-thickness strain field can be expressed in terms of material constants and two-dimensional membrane and bending strains, while the transverse normal and shear stresses are not predictable yet. In the first-order approximation, the warping functions are further disturbed into a high order and an asymptotically correct energy expression with derivatives of the two-dimensional strains is acquired. For the convenience of practical use, the expression is transformed into a Reissner-Mindlin form with optimization implemented to minimize the error. Transverse stresses and strains are recovered using the in-plane strain variables. Several numerical examples of different laminations and shapes are studied with the help of analytical solutions or shell elements in finite element codes. The constitutive relation is

  14. On the breakup of tectonic plates by polar wandering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The equations for the stresses in a homogeneous shell of uniform thickness caused by a shift of the axis of rotation are derived. The magnitude of these stresses reaches a maximum value of the order of 10 to the 9th power dyn/sq cm, which is sufficient for explaining a tectonic breakup. In order to deduce the fracture pattern according to which the breakup of tectonic plates can be expected the theory of plastic deformation of shells is applied. The analysis of this pattern gives an explanation of the existing boundary systems of the major tectonic plates as described by Morgan (1968), LePichon (1968) and Isacks et al. (1968).

  15. Hierarchic plate and shell models based on p-extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Barna A.; Sahrmann, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    Formulations of finite element models for beams, arches, plates and shells based on the principle of virtual work was studied. The focus is on computer implementation of hierarchic sequences of finite element models suitable for numerical solution of a large variety of practical problems which may concurrently contain thin and thick plates and shells, stiffeners, and regions where three dimensional representation is required. The approximate solutions corresponding to the hierarchic sequence of models converge to the exact solution of the fully three dimensional model. The stopping criterion is based on: (1) estimation of the relative error in energy norm; (2) equilibrium tests, and (3) observation of the convergence of quantities of interest.

  16. Advances in sputtered and ion plated solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1985-01-01

    The glow discharge or ion assisted vacuum deposition techniques, primarily sputtering and ion plating, have rapidly emerged and offer great potential to deposit solid lubricants. The increased energizing of these deposition processes lead to improved adherence and coherence, favorable morphological growth, higher density, and reduced residual stresses in the film. These techniques are of invaluable importance where high precision machines tribo-components require very thin, uniform lubricating films (0.2 m), which do not interface with component tolerances. The performance of sputtered MoS2 films and ion plated Au and Pb films are described in terms of film thickness, coefficient of friction, and wear lives.

  17. Sudden stretching of a four layered composite plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate theory of laminated plates is developed by assuming that the extensioral and thickness mode of vibration are coupled. The mixed boundary value crack problem of a four layered composite plate is solved. Dynamic stress intensity factors for a crack subjected to suddenly applied stress are found to vary as a function of time and depend on the material properties of the laminate. Stress intensification in the region near the crack front can be reduced by having the shear modulus of the inner layers to be larger than that of the outer layers.

  18. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  19. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  20. Reduced hydrogen cadmium plating

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeller, T.; Ross, L. ); Varma, R. ); Agarwala, V.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of using a periodic reverse pulse plating method, incorporating a fast cathodic pulse which is separated from the subsequent anodic/cathodic pulses by a long rest period in producing silvery cadmium coatings on steel from aqueous fluoroborate electrolyte. Also, the deposition obtained by combination of pulse currents and turbulent electrolyte flow system (forced convection of electrolyte, Re {approximately} 20-25,000) result in a near hydrogen-free electrodeposition of fine- grained cadmium. This is confirmed by the determination of diffusible hydrogen by the electrochemical (Barnach Electrode) method.