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Sample records for platinum 194 target

  1. MiR-194 Deregulation Contributes To Colorectal Carcinogenesis via Targeting AKT2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui-Jun; Ren, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Tian-Tian; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ying-Chao; Yan, Ting-Ting; Zou, Weiping; He, Jie; Zhang, Yaou; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Recent studies have increasingly linked microRNAs to colorectal cancer (CRC). MiR-194 has been reported deregulated in different tumor types, whereas the function of miR-194 in CRC largely remains unexplored. Here we investigated the biological effects, mechanisms and clinical significance of miR-194. Functional assay revealed that overexpression of miR-194 inhibited CRC cell viability and invasion in vitro and suppressed CRC xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, block of miR-194 in APCMin/+ mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, miR-194 reduced the expression of AKT2 both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, the expression of miR-194 gradually decreased from 20 normal colorectal mucosa (N-N) cases through 40 colorectal adenomas (CRA) cases and then to 40 CRC cases, and was negatively correlated with AKT2 and pAKT2 expression. Furthermore, expression of miR-194 in stool samples was gradually decreased from 20 healthy cases, 20 CRA cases, then to 28 CRC cases. Low expression of miR-194 in CRC tissues was associated with large tumor size (P=0.006), lymph node metastasis (P=0.012) and shorter survival (HR =2.349, 95% CI = 1.242 to 4.442; P=0.009). In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-194 acted as a tumor suppressor in the colorectal carcinogenesis via targeting PDK1/AKT2/XIAP pathway, and could be a significant diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CRC. PMID:25285168

  2. MicroRNA-194 regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by targeting Grainyhead-like 2 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; An, Jingang; Hua, Yunhui; Li, Zihai; Yan, Ning; Fan, Weixin; Su, Chuan

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently emerged as important regulators in psoriasis. Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of keratinocytes in skin lesions. miR-194 is a well-known regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of miR-194 in psoriasis pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-194 in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and differentiation. We found that miR-194 was significantly downregulated in psoriasis lesional skin. Overexpression of miR-194 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the differentiation of primary human keratinocytes, whereas miR-194 suppression promoted the proliferation and inhibited their differentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) was a target gene of miR-194, which we further validated with a dual-luciferase reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and Western blot analysis. The effect of miR-194 on cell proliferation and differentiation was significantly reversed by overexpression of GRHL2. Moreover, the expression of miR-194 and GRHL2 was inversely correlated in psoriasis lesional skin. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-194 inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation of keratinocytes through targeting GRHL2. The downregulation of miR-194 expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis and targeting miR-194 may represent a novel and potential therapeutic strategy for psoriasis.

  3. Biotinylated Platinum(II) Ferrocenylterpyridine Complexes for Targeted Photoinduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Shettar, Abhijith; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-06-06

    Biotinylated platinum(II) ferrocenylterpyridine (Fc-tpy) complexes [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (1) and [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (2), where HL(1) and HL(2) are biotin-containing ligands, were prepared, and their targeted photoinduced cytotoxic effect in cancer cells over normal cells was studied. A nonbiotinylated complex, [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (3), was prepared as a control to study the role of the biotin moiety in cellular uptake properties of the complexes. Three platinum(II) phenylterpyridine (Ph-tpy) complexes, viz., [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (4), [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (5), and [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (6), were synthesized and explored to understand the role of a metal-bound Fc-tpy ligand over Ph-tpy as a photoinitiator. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed an intense absorption band near 640 nm, which was absent in their Ph-tpy analogues. The Fc-tpy complexes (1 mM in 0.1 M TBAP) showed an irreversible cyclic voltammetric anodic response of the Fc/Fc(+) couple near 0.25 V. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed photodegradation in red light of 647 nm involving the formation of a ferrocenium ion (Fc(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Photoinduced release of the biotinylated ligands was observed from spectral measurements, and this possibly led to the controlled generation of an active platinum(II) species, which binds to the calf-thymus DNA used for this study. The biotinylated photoactive Fc-tpy complexes showed significant photoinduced cytotoxicity, giving a IC50 value of ∼7 μM in visible light of 400-700 nm with selective uptake in BT474 cancer cells over HBL-100 normal cells. Furthermore, ferrocenyl complexes resulted in light-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis, as indicated by DCFDA, annexin V/FITC staining, and sub-G1 DNA content determined by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis. The phenyl analogues 4 and 5 were photostable, served as DNA intercalators, and demonstrated selective cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, giving IC50 values of ∼4 μM.

  4. Targeting Notch, a key pathway for ovarian cancer stem cells, sensitizes tumors to platinum therapy.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Shannon M; Morgan, Stefanie L; Wyant, Gregory A; Tran, Lieu T; Muto, Katherine W; Chen, Yu Sarah; Chin, Kenneth T; Partridge, Justin C; Poole, Barish B; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Daggett, John; Cullen, Kristen; Kantoff, Emily; Hasselbatt, Kathleen; Berkowitz, Julia; Muto, Michael G; Berkowitz, Ross S; Aster, Jon C; Matulonis, Ursula A; Dinulescu, Daniela M

    2012-10-23

    Chemoresistance to platinum therapy is a major obstacle that needs to be overcome in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. The high rates and patterns of therapeutic failure seen in patients are consistent with a steady accumulation of drug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study demonstrates that the Notch signaling pathway and Notch3 in particular are critical for the regulation of CSCs and tumor resistance to platinum. We show that Notch3 overexpression in tumor cells results in expansion of CSCs and increased platinum chemoresistance. In contrast, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), a Notch pathway inhibitor, depletes CSCs and increases tumor sensitivity to platinum. Similarly, a Notch3 siRNA knockdown increases the response to platinum therapy, further demonstrating that modulation of tumor chemosensitivity by GSI is Notch specific. Most importantly, the cisplatin/GSI combination is the only treatment that effectively eliminates both CSCs and the bulk of tumor cells, indicating that a dual combination targeting both populations is needed for tumor eradication. In addition, we found that the cisplatin/GSI combination therapy has a synergistic cytotoxic effect in Notch-dependent tumor cells by enhancing the DNA-damage response, G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that targeting the Notch pathway could significantly increase tumor sensitivity to platinum therapy. Our study suggests important clinical applications for targeting Notch as part of novel treatment strategies upon diagnosis of ovarian cancer and at recurrence. Both platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive relapses may benefit from such an approach as clinical data suggest that all relapses after platinum therapy are increasingly platinum resistant.

  5. 2-Deoxyglucose conjugated platinum (II) complexes for targeted therapy: design, synthesis, and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Mi, Qian; Ma, Yuru; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Liu, Pengxing; Mi, Yi; Fu, Xuegang; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-11-01

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit an elevated rate of glycolysis over normal cells. To target the Warburg effect, we designed a new series of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) conjugated platinum (II) complexes for glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated anticancer drug delivery. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a comparative molecular docking analysis utilizing the latest GLUT1 protein crystal structure. The key binding site for 2-DG as GLUT1's substrate was identified with molecular dynamics simulation, and the docking study demonstrated that the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes can be recognized by the same binding site as potential GLUT1 substrate. The conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity study with seven human cancer cell lines. The results of this study revealed that 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes are GLUT1 transportable substrates and exhibit improved cytotoxicities in cancer cell lines that over express GLUT1 when compared to the clinical drug, Oxaliplatin. The correlation between GLUT1 expression and antitumor effects are also confirmed. The study provides fundamental information supporting the potential of the 2-DG conjugated platinum (II) complexes as lead compounds for further pharmaceutical R&D.

  6. Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System.

    PubMed

    Wiedemeyer, W Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A; Karlan, Beth Y

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR.

  7. Development of EGFR Targeted Nanoemulsion for Imaging and Novel Platinum Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Cacaccio, Joseph; Rawal, Yashesh H.; Davis, Barbara J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Coleman, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for malignant epithelial ovarian cancers, but generalized toxicity and platinum resistance limits its use. Theranostic nanoemulsion with a novel platinum prodrug, myrisplatin, and the pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide, were designed to overcome these limitations. Methods The nanoemulsions, including ones with an EGFR binding peptide and gadolinium, were made using generally regarded as safe grade excipients and a high shear microfluidization process. Efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3, A2780 and A2780CP. Results The nanoemulsion with particle size <150 nm were stable in plasma and parenteral fluids for 24 h. Ovarian cancer cells in vitro efficiently took up the non-targeted and EGFR-targeted nanoemulsions; improved cytotoxicity was observed for the these nanoemulsions with the latter showing a 50-fold drop in the IC50 in SKOV3 cells as compared to cisplatin alone. The addition of gadolinium did not affect cell viability in vitro, but showed relaxation times comparable to Magnevist®. Conclusion The myrisplatin/C6-ceramide nanoemulsion synergistically enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. An EGFR binding peptide addition further increased in vitro cytotoxicity in EGFR positive cancer cells. The diagnostic version showed MR imaging similar to the clinically relevant Magnevist® and may be suitable as a theranostic for ovarian cancer. PMID:24643932

  8. Personalized medicine for targeted and platinum-based chemotherapy of lung and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, George D; Pan, Chong-xian; Henderson, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    The personalized medicine revolution is occurring for cancer chemotherapy. Biomarkers are increasingly capable of distinguishing genotypic or phenotypic traits of individual tumors, and are being linked to the selection of treatment protocols. This review covers the molecular basis for biomarkers of response to targeted and cytotoxic lung and bladder cancer treatment with an emphasis on platinum-based chemotherapy. Platinum derivatives are a class of drugs commonly employed against solid tumors that kill cells by covalent attachment to DNA. Platinum–DNA adduct levels in patient tissues have been correlated to response and survival. The sensitivity and precision of adduct detection has increased to the point of enabling subtherapeutic dosing for diagnostics applications, termed diagnostic microdosing, prior to the initiation of full-dose therapy. The clinical status of this unique phenotypic marker for lung and bladder cancer applications is detailed along with discussion of future applications. PMID:23394702

  9. Cell membrane penetration and mitochondrial targeting by platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano, Adriano A.; Herrmann, Rudolf; Strobel, Claudia; Rennhak, Markus; Engelke, Hanna; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid; Wixforth, Achim; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and focus on their fast uptake and association with mitochondria, the cell's powerhouse. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we clearly show that 46 nm platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles can rapidly penetrate cell membranes and reach the cytosol. Moreover, if suitably targeted, these particles are able to selectively attach to mitochondria. These results are complemented by cytotoxicity assays, thus providing insights into the biological effects of these particles on cells. Interestingly, no permanent membrane disruption or any other significant adverse effects on cells were observed. The unusual uptake behavior observed for 46 nm nanoparticles was not observed for equivalent but larger 143 nm and 285 nm platinum-decorated particles. Our results demonstrate a remarkable particle size effect in which particles smaller than ~50-100 nm escape the usual endocytic pathway and translocate directly into the cytosol, while particles larger than ~150 nm are internalized by conventional endocytosis. Since the small particles are able to bypass endocytosis they could be explored as drug and gene delivery vehicles. Platinum-decorated nanoparticles are therefore highly interesting in the fields of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine.In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and

  10. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors.

  11. Targeted treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: current and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mantia-Smaldone, Gina M; Edwards, Robert P; Vlad, Anda M

    2010-01-01

    With advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapeutic agents, mortality rates from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have slightly decreased over the last 30 years. However, EOC still ranks as the most deadly gynecologic cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 45%. Prognosis is especially disappointing for women with platinum-resistant disease, where 80% of patients will fail to respond to available therapies. Emerging treatment strategies have sub-sequently focused on targets which are integral to tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we will focus on those innovative agents currently under investigation in clinical trials. PMID:21734812

  12. Pemetrexed With Platinum Combination as a Backbone for Targeted Therapy in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Borghaei, Hossein; Barker, Scott S; Treat, Joseph Anthony; Obasaju, Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Standard platinum-based chemotherapy combinations for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have reached a plateau in terms of the survival benefit they offer for patients. In addition, the emerging clinical trend of tailored treatment based on patient characteristics has led to the development of therapeutic strategies that target specific cancer-related molecular pathways, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), angiogenesis, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors. Current research is focused on combining targeted therapy with platinum-based chemotherapy in an endeavor to achieve an additional benefit in specific patient populations. Currently, pemetrexed is indicated for use in the first-line, maintenance, and second-line settings for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC. The combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin is well tolerated and is the approved standard first-line therapy. Thus, the pemetrexed-platinum backbone provides an attractive option for combination with targeted therapies. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge and future prospects of the use of pemetrexed-platinum as a backbone for combination with targeted therapies for NSCLC.

  13. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  14. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Setzler, Brian P; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-06

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW(-1) in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  15. Investigating the cellular fate of a DNA-targeted platinum-based anticancer agent by orthogonal double-click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Ding, Song; Liu, Fang; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study a platinum-based anticancer agent in intact NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click) reactions were used to simultaneously determine the cell-cycle-specific localization of the azide-functionalized platinum-acridine agent 1 and monitor its effects on nucleic acid metabolism. Copper-catalyzed postlabeling showed advantages over copper-free click chemistry using a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO)-modified reporter dye, which produced high background levels in microscopic images and failed to efficiently label platinum adducts in chromatin. Compound 1 was successfully labeled with the fluorophore DIBO to yield 1* (characterized by in-line high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry). 1 and 1* show a high degree of colocalization in the confocal images, but the ability of 1* to target the (compacted) chromatin was markedly reduced, most likely owing to the steric bulk introduced by the DIBO tag. Nuclear platinum levels correlated inversely with the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA and cause cell cycle arrest, as confirmed by bivariate flow cytometry analysis. In addition, a decrease in the level of cellular transcription, shrinkage of the nucleolar regions, and redistribution of RNA into the cytosol were observed. Postlabeling in conjunction with colocalization experiments is a useful tool for studying the cell killing mechanism of this type of DNA-targeted agent.

  16. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Complex Targeting Genomic DNA and Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Novakova, Olga; Křikavová, Radka; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-11-23

    We report toxic effects of a photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex conjugated with suberoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid in tumor cells. The conjugate exerts, after photoactivation, two functions: activity as both a platinum(II) anticancer drug and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in cancer cells. This approach relies on the use of a Pt(IV) pro-drug, acting by two independent mechanisms of biological action in a cooperative manner, which can be selectively photoactivated to a cytotoxic species in and around a tumor, thereby increasing selectivity towards cancer cells. These results suggest that this strategy is a valuable route to design new platinum agents with higher efficacy for photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy.

  17. Evaluation of platinum chemotherapy in combination with HER2-targeted α-particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Shih, Joanna H; Wong, Karen J; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    The studies described herein assess the potential of combining platinum-based chemotherapy with high-linear energy transfer (LET) α-particle-targeted radiation therapy using trastuzumab as the delivery vehicle. An initial study explored the combination of cisplatin with (213)Bi-trastuzumab in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model. This initial study determined the administration sequence of cisplatin and (213)Bi-trastuzumab. Cisplatin coinjected with (213)Bi-trastuzumab increased the median survival (MS) to 90 days versus 65 days for (213)Bi-trastuzumab alone. Toxicity was observed with a weight loss of 17.6% in some of the combined treatment groups. Carboplatin proved to be better tolerated. Maximal therapeutic benefit, that is, a 5.1-fold increase in MS, was obtained in the group injected with (213)Bi-trastuzumab, followed by carboplatin 24 hours later. This was further improved by administration of multiple weekly doses of carboplatin. The MS achieved with administration of 3 doses of carboplatin was 180 days versus 60 days with (213)Bi-trastuzumab alone. The combination of carboplatin with (212)Pb radioimmunotherapy was also evaluated. The therapeutic efficacy of (212)Pb-trastuzumab (58-day MS) increased when the mice were pretreated with carboplatin 24 hours prior (157-day MS). These results again demonstrate the necessity of empirically determining the administration sequence when combining therapeutic modalities.

  18. Targeting drug transport mechanisms for improving platinum-based cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Helen HW; Chen, Wen-Chung; Liang, Zhang-Dong; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Long, Yan; Aiba, Isamu; Fu, Siqing; Broaddus, Russell; Liu, Jinsong; Feun, Lynn G; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents remain important chemotherapeutic agents for treating many human malignancies. Elevated expression of the human high-affinity copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), resulting in enhanced Pt drug transport into cells, has been shown to be associated with improved treatment efficacy. Thus, targeting hCtr1 upregulation is an attractive strategy for improving the treatment efficacy of Pt-based cancer chemotherapy. Area covered Regulation of hCtr1 expression by cellular copper homeostasis is discussed. Association of elevated hCtr1 expression with intrinsic sensitivity of ovarian cancer to Pt drugs is presented. Mechanism of copper-lowering agents in enhancing hCtr1-mediated cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, cDDP) transport is reviewed. Applications of copper chelation strategy in overcoming cDDP resistance through enhanced hCtr1 expression are evaluated. Expert opinion While both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms of hCtr1 regulation by cellular copper bioavailability have been proposed, detailed molecular insights into hCtr1 regulation by copper homeostasis remain needed. Recent clinical study using a copper-lowering agent in enhancing hCtr1-mediated drug transport has achieved incremental improvement in overcoming Pt drug resistance. Further improvements in identifying predictive measures in the subpopulation of patients that can benefit from the treatment are needed. PMID:26004625

  19. Investigating the cellular fate of a DNA-targeted platinum-based anticancer agent by orthogonal double-click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xin; Ding, Song; Liu, Fang; Kucera, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study a platinum-based anticancer agent in intact NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (click) reactions were used to simultaneously determine the cell-cycle-specific localization of the azide-functionalized platinum–acridine agent 1 and monitor its effects on nucleic acid metabolism. Copper-catalyzed postlabeling showed advantages over copper-free click chemistry using a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO)-modified reporter dye, which produced high background levels in microscopic images and failed to efficiently label platinum adducts in chromatin. Compound 1 was successfully labeled with the fluorophore DIBO to yield 1* (characterized by in-line high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry). 1 and 1* show a high degree of colocalization in the confocal images, but the ability of 1* to target the (compacted) chromatin was markedly reduced, most likely owing to the steric bulk introduced by the DIBO tag. Nuclear platinum levels correlated inversely with the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA and cause cell cycle arrest, as confirmed by bivariate flow cytometry analysis. In addition, a decrease in the level of cellular transcription, shrinkage of the nucleolar regions, and redistribution of RNA into the cytosol were observed. Postlabeling in conjunction with colocalization experiments is a useful tool for studying the cell killing mechanism of this type of DNA-targeted agent. PMID:24407462

  20. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized viareduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml-1 for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  1. Multi-platinum anti-cancer agents. Substitution-inert compounds for tumor selectivity and new targets.

    PubMed

    Farrell, N P

    2015-12-21

    This tutorial review summarizes chemical, biophysical and cellular biological properties of formally substitution-inert "non-covalent" polynuclear platinum complexes (PPCs). We demonstrate how modulation of the pharmacological factors affecting platinum compound cytotoxicity such as cellular accumulation, reactivity toward extracellular and intracellular sulfur-ligand nucleophiles and consequences of DNA binding is achieved to afford a profile of biological activity distinct from that of covalently-binding agents. The DNA binding of substitution-inert complexes is achieved by molecular recognition through minor groove spanning and backbone tracking of the phosphate clamp. In this situation, the square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(ii) coordination units hydrogen bond to phosphate oxygen OP atoms to form bidentate N-O-N motifs. The modular nature of the polynuclear compounds results in high-affinity binding to DNA and very efficient nuclear condensation. These combined effects distinguish the phosphate clamp as a third mode of ligand-DNA binding, discrete from intercalation and minor-groove binding. The cellular consequences mirror those of the biophysical studies and a significant portion of nuclear DNA is compacted, a unique effect different from mitosis, senescence or apoptosis. Substitution-inert PPCs display cytotoxicity similar to cisplatin in a wide range of cell lines, and sensitivity is indifferent to p53 status. Cellular accumulation is mediated through binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) allowing for possibilities of tumor selectivity as well as disruption of HSPG function, opening new targets for platinum antitumor agents. The combined properties show that covalently-binding chemotypes are not the unique arbiters of cytotoxicity and antitumor activity and meaningful antitumor profiles can be achieved even in the absence of Pt-DNA bond formation. These dual properties make the substitution-inert compounds a unique class of inherently dual

  2. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-05-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  3. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted. PMID:27150583

  4. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  5. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  6. Improving Platinum Efficiency:. Nanoformulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rolando; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Platinum-based drugs continue being the support of therapy for many different kinds of cancer. Cancer patients often present irreversible resistance to platinum after repeated treatment in clinic. Despite of the great efforts, chemoresistance (intrinsic or acquired) already is a major limitation in the management of this disease. In this review, the last current research on cancer characteristic and cancer chemical resistance is summarized, the major and novel strategies to reverse resistance to platinum- based drugs are discussed and this article mainly emphasizes the contribution of nanotechnology and combination therapies to target sites and reduce the cancer chemoresistance.

  7. A dual-targeting, p53-independent, apoptosis-inducing platinum(II) anticancer complex, [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Wilson, Justin J; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic index and cellular mechanism of action of [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl, a monocationic, square-planar platinum(II) complex, are reported. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl was used to treat several cell lines, including wild type and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780CP70) and non-proliferating lung carcinoma cells (A549). [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl selectively kills cancer cells over healthy cells and exhibits no cross-resistance with cisplatin. The mechanism of cell killing was established through detailed cell-based assays. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl exhibits dual-threat capabilities, targeting nuclear DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl induces DNA damage, leading to p53 enrichment, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarisation, and caspase-mediated apoptosis. [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl also accumulates in the mitochondria, resulting in direct mitochondrial damage. Flow cytometric studies demonstrated that [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl has no significant effect on cell cycle progression. Remarkably, p53-status is a not a determinant of [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl activity. In p53-null cells, [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl induces cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancers with p53-null status could therefore be targeted using [Pt(BDI(QQ))]Cl.

  8. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-10-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s-1 mM-1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s-1 mM-1) and 3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T 2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer.

  9. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s−1 mM−1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s−1 mM−1) and ~3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer. PMID:22121333

  10. Methyl 6-Amino-6-deoxy-d-pyranoside-Conjugated Platinum(II) Complexes for Glucose Transporter (GLUT)-Mediated Tumor Targeting: Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, and Cellular Uptake Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Taoli; Gao, Xiangqian; Yang, Liu; Shi, Yunli; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-05-19

    Methyl 6-aminodeoxy-d-pyranoside-derived platinum(II) glycoconjugates were designed and synthesized based on the clinical drug oxaliplatin for glucose transporter (GLUT)-mediated tumor targeting. In addition to a substantial improvement in water solubility, the conjugates exhibited cytotoxicity similar to or higher than that of oxaliplatin in six different human cancer cell lines. GLUT-mediated transport of the complexes was investigated with a cell-based fluorescence competition assay and GLUT-inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity analysis in a GLUT-overexpressing human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell line. The antitumor effect of the aminodeoxypyranoside-conjugated platinum(II) complexes was found to depend significantly on the GLUT inhibitor, and the cellular uptake of the molecules was regulated by GLUT-mediated transport. The results from this study demonstrate the potential advantages of aminodeoxypyranosides as sugar motifs for glycoconjugation for Warburg-effect-targeted drug design. These fundamental results also support the potential of aminodeoxypyranoside-conjugated platinum(II) complexes as lead compounds for further preclinical evaluation.

  11. Chemotherapy of glioblastoma by targeted liposomal platinum compounds with focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Horng, Shih-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Giloblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain neoplasm, and patients have a poor prognosis after radiation and chemotherapy. The chemotherapy protocols still marginally improve the anti-tumor effect of patients with glioblastoma because the therapeutic dosage of many drugs is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The use of liposomal drugs to GBM treatment might benefit from a more crossing of the BBB due to the lipid nature achieving higher doses of drug at the tumor sites. Human GBM-bearing mice were injected intravenously with cisplatin encapsulated in atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1)-conjugated liposomes or unconjugated liposome. Moreover, the administration of AP-1 liposomal cisplatin (lipoplatin) followed by focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced BBB disruption. Tumor progression was monitored by biophotonic imaging. The preliminary data demonstrated that the GBM chemotherapy with AP-1 lipoplatin followed by pulsed FUS showed a modest improvement of tumor growth in the brain compared to the group treated with lipoplatin alone. Further investigations are needed to use this new targeted lipoplatin in treatment of malignancies.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Folate-Targeted Platinum-Loaded Theranostic Nanoemulsions for Therapy and Imaging of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar R; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Nack, Abbegial H; Galati, Corin A; McHugh, Mackenzi; Orosz, Samantha; Keeler, Amanda W; O'Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William C; Davis, Barbara; Coleman, Timothy P

    2016-06-06

    Platinum (Pt) based chemotherapy is widely used to treat many types of cancer. Pt therapy faces challenges such as dose limiting toxicities, cumulative side effects, and multidrug resistance. Nanoemulsions (NEs) have tremendous potential in overcoming these challenges as they can be designed to improve circulation time, limit non-disease tissue uptake, and enhance tumor uptake by surface modification. We designed novel synthesis of three difattyacid platins, dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin, suitable for encapsulation in the oil core of an NE. The dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin were synthesized, characterized, and loaded into the oil core of our NEs, NMI-350, NMI-351, and NMI-352 respectively. Sequestration of the difattyacid platins was accomplished through high energy microfluidization. To target the NE, FA-PEG3400-DSPE was incorporated into the surface during microfluidization. The FA-NEs selectively bind the folate receptor α (FR-α) and utilize receptor mediated endocytosis to deliver Pt past cell surface resistance mechanisms. FR-α is overexpressed in a number of oncological conditions including ovarian cancer. The difattyacid platins, lipidated Gd-DTPA, and lipidated folate were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. NEs were synthesized using high shear microfluidization process and characterized for size, zeta-potential, and loading efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined using KB-WT (Pt-sensitive) and KBCR-1000 (Pt-resistant) cancer cells and measured by MTT assay. Pharmacokinetic profiles were studied in CD-1 mice. NEs loaded with difattyacid platins are highly stable and had size distribution in the range of ∼120 to 150 nm with low PDI. Cytotoxicity data indicates the longer the fatty acid chains, the less potent the NEs. The inclusion of C6-ceramide, an apoptosis enhancer, and surface functionalization with folate molecules significantly increased

  13. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  14. DNA-based aptamer fails as a simultaneous cancer targeting agent and drug delivery vehicle for a phenanthroline-based platinum(II) complex.

    PubMed

    McGinely, Nicola L; Plumb, Jane A; Wheate, Nial J

    2013-11-01

    The sgc8c aptamer is a 41-base DNA oligonucleotide that binds to leukaemia cells with high affinity and specificity. In this work we examined the utility of this aptamer as both a delivery vehicle and an active targeting agent for an inert platinum complex [(1,10-phenathroline)(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)](2+). The aptamer forms a stem-and-loop confirmation as determined by circular dichroism. This conformation is adopted in both water and phosphate buffered saline solutions. The metal complex binds through intercalation into the aptamer's double helical stem with a binding constant of approximately 4.3 × 10(4) M(-1). Binding of the metal complex to the aptamer had a significant effect on the aptamer's global conformation, and increased its melting temperature by 28°C possibly through lengthening and stiffening of the aptamer stem. The effect of the aptamer on the metal complex's cytotoxicity and cellular uptake was determined using in vitro assays with the target leukaemia cell line CCRF-CEM and the off-target ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780cp70. The aptamer has little inherent cytotoxicity and when used to deliver the metal complex results in a significant decrease in the metal complex's cytotoxicity and uptake. The reason(s) for the poor uptake and activity may be due to the change in aptamer conformation which affects its ability to recognise leukaemia cells.

  15. Chemical approach to positional isomers of glucose-platinum conjugates reveals specific cancer targeting through glucose-transporter mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Malay; Awuah, Samuel G.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycoconjugation is a promising strategy for specific targeting of cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of D-glucose substitution position on the biological activity of glucose-platinum conjugates (Glc-Pts). We synthesized and characterized all possible positional isomers (C1α, C1β, C2, C3, C4 and C6) of a Glc-Pt. The synthetic routes presented here could in principle be extended to prepare glucose-conjugates with different active ingredients than platinum. The biological activities of the compounds were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We discovered that variation in position of substitution of D-glucose not only alters the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile but also the GLUT1 specificity of resulting glycoconjugates, where GLUT1 is glucose transporter 1. The C1α- and C2-substituted Glc-Pts (1α and 2) accumulate in cancer cells most efficiently compared to the others, whereas the C3-Glc-Pt (3) is taken up least efficiently. Compounds 1α and 2 are more potent compared to 3 in DU145 cells. The α- and β-anomer of the C1-Glc-Pt also differ significantly in their cellular uptake and activity profiles. No significant differences in uptake of the Glc-Pts were observed in noncancerous RWPE2 cells. The GLUT1 specificity of the Glc-Pts was evaluated by determining the cellular uptake in the absence and presence of the GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B, and by comparing their anticancer activity in DU145 cells and a GLUT1 knockdown cell line. The results reveal that C2-substituted Glc-Pt 2 has the highest GLUT1 specific internalization, which also reflects the best cancer targeting ability. In a syngeneic breast cancer mouse model overexpressing GLUT1, compound 2 showed antitumor efficacy and selective uptake in tumors with no observable toxicity. This study thus reveals the synthesis of all positional isomers of D-glucose substitution for platinum warhead with detailed glycotargeting characterization in cancer. PMID:27570149

  16. Nucleolar Targeting by Platinum: p53-Independent Apoptosis Follows rRNA Inhibition, Cell-Cycle Arrest, and DNA Compaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    TriplatinNC is a highly positively charged, substitution-inert derivative of the phase II clinical anticancer drug, BBR3464. Such substitution-inert complexes form a distinct subset of polynuclear platinum complexes (PPCs) interacting with DNA and other biomolecules through noncovalent interactions. Rapid cellular entry is facilitated via interaction with cell surface glycosoaminoglycans and is a mechanism unique to PPCs. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) showed rapid distribution within cytoplasmic and nucleolar compartments, but not the nucleus. In this article, the downstream effects of nucleolar localization are described. In human colon carcinoma cells, HCT116, the production rate of 47S rRNA precursor transcripts was dramatically reduced as an early event after drug treatment. Transcriptional inhibition of rRNA was followed by a robust G1 arrest, and activation of apoptotic proteins caspase-8, -9, and -3 and PARP-1 in a p53-independent manner. Using cell synchronization and flow cytometry, it was determined that cells treated while in G1 arrest immediately, but cells treated in S or G2 successfully complete mitosis. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the majority of cells finally arrest in G1, but nearly one-third contained highly compacted DNA; a distinct biological feature that cannot be associated with mitosis, senescence, or apoptosis. This unique effect mirrored the efficient condensation of tRNA and DNA in cell-free systems. The combination of DNA compaction and apoptosis by TriplatinNC treatment conferred striking activity in platinum-resistant and/or p53 mutant or null cell lines. Taken together, our results support that the biological activity of TriplatinNC reflects reduced metabolic deactivation (substitution-inert compound not reactive to sulfur nucleophiles), high cellular accumulation, and novel consequences of high-affinity noncovalent DNA binding, producing a new profile and a further shift in the structure

  17. Detailed analysis of targeted gene mutations caused by the Platinum-Fungal TALENs in Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 strain and a ligD disruptant.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Osamu; Arazoe, Takayuki; Toshida, Kenji; Hayashi, Risa; Ohsato, Shuichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuwata, Shigeru; Yamada, Osamu

    2017-03-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which can generate DNA double-strand breaks at specific sites in the desired genome locus, have been used in many organisms as a tool for genome editing. In Aspergilli, including Aspergillus oryzae, however, the use of TALENs has not been validated. In this study, we performed genome editing of A. oryzae wild-type strain via error of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair by transient expression of high-efficiency Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs). Targeted mutations were observed as various mutation patterns. In particular, approximately half of the PtFg TALEN-mediated deletion mutants had deletions larger than 1 kb in the TALEN-targeting region. We also conducted PtFg TALEN-based genome editing in A. oryzae ligD disruptant (ΔligD) lacking the ligD gene involved in the final step of the NHEJ repair and found that mutations were still obtained as well as wild-type. In this case, the ratio of the large deletions reduced compared to PtFg TALEN-based genome editing in the wild-type. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PtFg TALENs are sufficiently functional to cause genome editing via error of NHEJ in A. oryzae. In addition, we reveal that genome editing using TALENs in A. oryzae tends to cause large deletions at the target region, which were partly suppressed by deletion of ligD.

  18. Platinum stable isotopes in ferromanganese crust and nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Loretta; Seward, Terry; Handler, Monica R.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust and nodules are slow-growing chemical sediments that form by direct precipitation from seawater, resulting in a record of changing seawater chemistry. These sediments are the primary sink for platinum in the modern oxic marine environment, hosting well-documented enrichments over other platinum-group elements (PGEs): the Pt anomaly [1]. Platinum is a non-bio-essential, highly siderophile, transition metal with six stable isotopes (190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt) with several oxidation states (Pt0, Pt2+ and Pt4+). Platinum is generally considered to exist in the hydrosphere as Pt2+ although its behaviour in the marine environment is poorly constrained, and Pt4+may also be present. Variations in ocean redox state, together with changes in source fluxes to the oceans, may therefore lead to small variations (< ±1) in the stable isotopic composition of marine platinum, raising the potential of adding platinum to the growing arsenal of paleoceanographic tracers. A method has been developed to measure the platinum isotopic composition using double spike MC-ICPMS analysis [2]and applied to a global suite of modern Fe-Mn crust and nodules. Combining synchrotron XAFS analyses of platinum adsorbed onto Fe-Mn oxide and oxyhydroxide surfaces to determine oxidation state and bonding environment, with platinum stable isotopic measurements allowing us to evaluate both platinum incorporation onto these sediments and the associated degree of platinum isotopic fractionation. Leaching experiments conducted on platinum rich terrestrial materials underwent platinum stable isotopic measurement as an analogue for the Pt isotopic fractionation associated with continental weathering. [1] Hodge, V.F. et al. (1985) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 72, 158-162. [2] Creech, J. et al. (2013) Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28. 853-865.

  19. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... barrier evaluation as required in § 194.44. (b) Peer review processes required in paragraph (a) of...

  20. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  1. A triple-amplification colorimetric assay for antibiotics based on magnetic aptamer-enzyme co-immobilized platinum nanoprobes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yangbao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yan, Zhongdan; Chen, Yinji

    2015-11-21

    Herein, an ultrasensitive and selective colorimetric assay for antibiotics, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as the model analyte, was developed based on magnetic aptamer-HRP-platinum composite probes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling. The composite probes were prepared through immunoreactions between the double stranded DNA antibody (anti-DNA) labeled on core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (AuMNP-anti-DNA) as the capture probe, and the double stranded aptamer (aptamer hybrid with its complementary oligonucleotides) labeled on Pt@HRP nanoparticles as the nanotracer (ds-Apt-HRP-PtNPs). When the CAP samples were incubated with the probes for 30 min at room temperature, they could be captured by the aptamer to form a nanotracer-CAP complex, which was then released into the supernatant after magnetic separation. This is because the anti-DNA on the capture probes cannot recognize the single strand aptamer-CAP complex. The exonuclease I (Exo I) added into the supernatant can further digest the aptamer-CAP from the 3'-end of the aptamer and the CAP in the aptamer-CAP complex can be released again, which can further participate in a new cycling process to react with the probes. Pt and HRP in the nanotracer could both catalyze and dual amplify the absorbance at 650 nm ascribed to the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. Moreover, Exo I can assist the target recycling, which can further amplify the signal. Thus, the triple amplified signal can be quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the CAP detection possessed a linear range of 0.001-10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.0003 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The assay was successfully employed to detect CAP in milk, which is much more facile, time saving, and sensitive than the commercial ELISA kits.

  2. MicroRNA-194 promotes osteoblast differentiation via downregulating STAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; He, Xijing; Wei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2015-05-01

    Osteoblast differentiation is a vital process in maintaining bone homeostasis in which various transcriptional factors, signaling molecules, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. Recently, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) has been found to play an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. Here, we identified that STAT1 expression was regulated by miR-194. Using mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), we found that miR-194 expression was significantly increased following osteoblast differentiation induction. Overexpression of miR-194 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly increased osteoblast differentiation, whereas inhibition of miR-194 significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, a direct interaction between miR-194 and the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of STAT1 was confirmed. Additionally, miR-194 regulated mRNA and protein expression of STAT1 in BMSCs. Further analysis showed that miR-194 overexpression promoted the nuclear translocation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which is critical for osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, inhibition of miR-194 blocked the nuclear translocation of Runx2. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 significantly blocked Runx2 nuclear translocation and osteoblast differentiation mediated by miR-194 overexpression. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-194 regulates osteoblast differentiation through modulating STAT1-mediated Runx2 nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • Overexpression of miR-194 significantly increased osteoblast differentiation. • miR-194 directly targeted the 3′- UTR of STAT1. • miR-194 regulated the expression of STAT1. • Overexpression of miR-194 promoted the nuclear translocation of Runx2.

  3. MicroRNA-194 Promotes Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting SOCS2.

    PubMed

    Das, Rajdeep; Gregory, Philip A; Fernandes, Rayzel C; Denis, Iza; Wang, Qingqing; Townley, Scott L; Zhao, Shuang G; Hanson, Adrienne R; Pickering, Marie A; Armstrong, Heather K; Lokman, Noor A; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Davicioni, Elai; Jenkins, Robert B; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Ross, Ashley E; Den, Robert B; Klein, Eric A; Chi, Kim N; Ramshaw, Hayley S; Williams, Elizabeth D; Zoubeidi, Amina; Goodall, Gregory J; Feng, Felix Y; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Selth, Luke A

    2017-02-15

    Serum levels of miR-194 have been reported to predict prostate cancer recurrence after surgery, but its functional contributions to this disease have not been studied. Herein, it is demonstrated that miR-194 is a driver of prostate cancer metastasis. Prostate tissue levels of miR-194 were associated with disease aggressiveness and poor outcome. Ectopic delivery of miR-194 stimulated migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer cell lines, and stable overexpression of miR-194 enhanced metastasis of intravenous and intraprostatic tumor xenografts. Conversely, inhibition of miR-194 activity suppressed the invasive capacity of prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo Mechanistic investigations identified the ubiquitin ligase suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) as a direct, biologically relevant target of miR-194 in prostate cancer. Low levels of SOCS2 correlated strongly with disease recurrence and metastasis in clinical specimens. SOCS2 downregulation recapitulated miR-194-driven metastatic phenotypes, whereas overexpression of a nontargetable SOCS2 reduced miR-194-stimulated invasion. Targeting of SOCS2 by miR-194 resulted in derepression of the oncogenic kinases FLT3 and JAK2, leading to enhanced ERK and STAT3 signaling. Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK and JAK/STAT pathways reversed miR-194-driven phenotypes. The GATA2 transcription factor was identified as an upstream regulator of miR-194, consistent with a strong concordance between GATA2 and miR-194 levels in clinical specimens. Overall, these results offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms of metastatic progression in prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 77(4); 1021-34. ©2016 AACR.

  4. Altered glutamine metabolism in platinum resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Chantelle D.; Savadelis, Alyssa; Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Avril, Stefanie; DiFeo, Analisa; Avril, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by an increase in cellular energy metabolism, which is predominantly satisfied by glucose and glutamine. Targeting metabolic pathways is an attractive approach to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness and to potentially overcome drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines the metabolism of both, glucose and glutamine was initially up-regulated in response to platinum treatment. In contrast, platinum-resistant cells revealed a significant dependency on the presence of glutamine, with an upregulated expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and glutaminase. This resulted in a higher oxygen consumption rate compared to platinum-sensitive cell lines reflecting the increased dependency of glutamine utilization through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The important role of glutamine metabolism was confirmed by stable overexpression of glutaminase, which conferred platinum resistance. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of glutaminase in platinum resistant cells resulted in re-sensitization to platinum treatment. Importantly, combining the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES with platinum synergistically inhibited platinum sensitive and resistant ovarian cancers in vitro. Apoptotic induction was significantly increased using platinum together with BPTES compared to either treatment alone. Our findings suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism together with platinum based chemotherapy offers a potential treatment strategy particularly in drug resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27191653

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored...

  6. Galactose conjugated platinum(II) complex targeting the Warburg effect for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Li, Hong; Liu, Ran; Gao, Xiangqian; Zhang, Menghua; Liu, Pengxing; Fu, Zheng; Yang, Jinna; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-03

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated in vivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated in vivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50 mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3 mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29 cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29 cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay.

  7. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  8. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  9. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  10. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  11. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  12. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  13. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  14. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the Department shall adhere to a quality assurance program that implements the requirements of ASME...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores mentioned in § 194.05-3 may be stored in small working quantities in the laboratory provided their containers are labeled in accordance with § 194.05-5(a). (b) Chemical stores...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores mentioned in § 194.05-3 may be stored in small working quantities in the laboratory provided their containers are labeled in accordance with § 194.05-5(a). (b) Chemical stores...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores mentioned in § 194.05-3 may be stored in small working quantities in the laboratory provided their containers are labeled in accordance with § 194.05-5(a). (b) Chemical stores...

  18. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  19. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  20. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  1. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.10-25 Section 194.10-25 Shipping...

  2. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Federal/State Monitoring § 460.194 Corrective action. (a) A PACE organization must take action to...

  3. 50 CFR 19.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 19.4 Section 19.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING... (CONTINUED) AIRBORNE HUNTING Introduction § 19.4 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained in part...

  4. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Response Plans § 194.117 Training. (a) Each operator shall conduct training to ensure that: (1)...

  5. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Response Plans § 194.117 Training. (a) Each operator shall conduct training to ensure that: (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  9. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  10. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  11. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  12. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  13. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  14. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  15. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117 Transportation... Response Plans § 194.117 Training. (a) Each operator shall conduct training to ensure that: (1) All... of equipment, fire suits, and breathing apparatus. (b) Each operator shall maintain a training...

  16. miR-194 functions as a novel modulator of cellular senescence in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Zhang, Bing; Zhu, Yanmei; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Wenping; Huang, Haiyong; Zheng, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNA-194 (miR-194), a typical p53 responsive miRNA, serves as a tumor suppressor similar as p53, and has been demonstrated to play an anti-proliferation role in various human cancers. In spite of the pivotal role of p53 during aging process, the knowledge of miR-194's contribution to cellular senescence is limited. We herein sought to explore the role of miR-194 in the replicative senescence and stress-induced senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Our results unraveled that, compared to young cells, miR-194 is highly expressed in senescent cells, and extra expression of miR-194 significantly triggers the replicative senescence of MEFs and H2 O2 -induced senescence of NIH/3T3 cells, while inhibition of miR-194 exhibited the opposite effect. We further unveiled that DNMT3A was a direct and authentic target of miR-194, which has been reported to be closely associated with cellular senescence. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-194 may significantly promote the development of cellular senescence in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which potentially occurs through inhibiting the DNMT3A expression.

  17. Studies of {sup 194,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    The energy systematics of low-lying polonium states show sudden changes near N = 114. The observed drops in the low-lying levels of {sup 196,198}Po relative to the heavier isotopes indicate significant changes in the underlying structure of these nuclei. It is thought that this change is due to the onset of vibrational collectivity brought about by the quadrupole interaction between neutron and proton-pairs. In order to extend the Po systematics even further, we measured, for the first time, states in {sup 194,195,197}Po using the {sup 28}Si + {sup 170}Yb reaction at a beam energy of 142 MeV. The beam was supplied by ATLAS, and the data were taken with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors placed at the target position of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Preliminary level schemes were constructed for {sup 194,195,197}Po based on {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-FMA coincidences. The results for {sup 194}Po show that the 2{sup +} - 0{sup +} transition energy decreased in energy by 140 keV relative to {sup 196}Po suggesting that this nucleus moved beyond the vibrational limit to more collective motion. An extrapolation of the systematics predicts that the 2{sup +} energy could drop another 140 keV between {sup 194}Po and {sup 192}Po which would indicate the onset of rotational motion. Currently, we have an approved experiment to investigate the decay of yrast isomers in {sup 194}Po which will allow us to (1) confirm our earlier level scheme of {sup 194}Po, and (2) assess the experimental conditions needed for a future study of {sup 192}Po.

  18. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 194

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 194 (Re,Os,Ir,Pt,Au,Hg,Tl,Pb,Bi, Po,At) with Z = 75 to 85 and N = 119 to 109 have been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies and J{pi} of levels in these nuclei. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 194}Re and {sup 194}At. Many superdeformed structures are known in A = 194: three SD bands in {sup 194}Hg, two of which are connected to the normal-deformed structures; six SD bands in {sup 194}Tl; and three SD bands in {sup 194}Pb, one of which is connected to the normal-deformed structure. In addition four magnetic-rotational (MR) dipole bands are known in {sup 194}Pb together with many other dipole bands which are probable multi-quasiparticle structures. This evaluation supersedes previous full evaluations of A = 194 published by 1996Br26, 1989Si01, 1977Ha46 and 1972Au11.

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194... scientific party embarked may supervise the safety and operation of the chemical laboratory. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194... scientific party embarked may supervise the safety and operation of the chemical laboratory. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA... compatible with NUREG-1297, “Peer Review for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories,” published February...

  2. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA... compatible with NUREG-1297, “Peer Review for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories,” published February...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.20-5 Section 194.20-5 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The... based upon the volume of the compartment. (1) Power ventilation units shall have nonsparking...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.20-5 Section 194.20-5 Shipping COAST... Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The... based upon the volume of the compartment. (1) Power ventilation units shall have nonsparking...

  5. 40 CFR 194.44 - Engineered barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engineered barriers. 194.44 Section 194.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... accessible environment. (b) In selecting any engineered barrier(s) for the disposal system, the...

  6. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs... be used in quantities no greater than necessary to adjust the pH, and in compliance with §...

  7. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs... be used in quantities no greater than necessary to adjust the pH, and in compliance with §...

  8. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs... be used in quantities no greater than necessary to adjust the pH, and in compliance with §...

  9. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs... be used in quantities no greater than necessary to adjust the pH, and in compliance with §...

  10. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraphs (b) (1) and (2) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs... be used in quantities no greater than necessary to adjust the pH, and in compliance with §...

  11. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  12. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air cannot... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST....15-5 Ventilation. (a) Operations, reactions or experiments which produce toxic, noxious or...

  14. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Ventilation of air conditioning systems serving the chemical laboratory shall be designed so that air cannot... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST....15-5 Ventilation. (a) Operations, reactions or experiments which produce toxic, noxious or...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST....15-19 Electrical. (a) All electrical equipment located within 18 inches of the deck of the chemical laboratory shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Subchapter J (Electrical...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST....15-19 Electrical. (a) All electrical equipment located within 18 inches of the deck of the chemical laboratory shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Subchapter J (Electrical...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST....15-19 Electrical. (a) All electrical equipment located within 18 inches of the deck of the chemical laboratory shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Subchapter J (Electrical...

  18. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE...

  19. 40 CFR 194.7 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 194.7 Section 194.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE...

  20. 40 CFR 194.67 - Dockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dockets. 194.67 Section 194.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE...

  1. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  2. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND....15-3 Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master, the senior member of...

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  9. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  10. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  11. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  13. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring. 194.42 Section 194.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA... other effects of human intrusion in the vicinity of the disposal system; (5) Brine quantity,...

  14. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions. The Administrator may, by rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553, substitute for any of the provisions of...

  15. Platinum-containing compound platinum pyrithione is stronger and safer than cisplatin in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; He, Zhimin; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-01-01

    DNA is the well-known molecular target of current platinum-based anticancer drugs; consequently, their clinical use is severely restricted by their systemic toxicities and drug resistance originating from non-selective DNA damage. Various strategies have been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy but the inherent problem remains unsolved. Here we report that platinum pyrithione (PtPT), a chemically well-characterized synthetic complex of platinum, inhibits proteasome function and thereby exhibits greater and more selective cytotoxicity to multiple cancer cells than cisplatin, without showing discernible DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, unlike the classical proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/Velcade which inhibits the proteasome via blocking the peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, PtPT primarily deactivates 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases USP14 and UCHL5. Furthermore, PtPT can selectively induce cytotoxicity and proteasome inhibition in cancer cells from leukemia patients but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans. In nude mice, PtPT also remarkably inhibited tumor xenograft growth, without showing the adverse effects that were induced by cisplatin. Hence, we have discovered a new platinum-based anti-tumor agent PtPT which targets 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases rather than DNA in the cell and thereby exerts safer and more potent anti-tumor effects, identifying a highly translatable new platinum-based anti-cancer strategy. PMID:27381943

  16. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  17. 40 CFR 194.24 - Waste characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Requirements § 194.24 Waste characterization. (a) Any compliance application shall describe the... system. To the extent practicable, any compliance application shall also describe the chemical... other information and methods. (b) The Department shall submit in the compliance...

  18. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation....

  19. Drug Delivery Systems for Platinum Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Vien T.; Scarano, Wei; Stenzel, Martina H.

    2013-09-01

    Since the discovery of cisplatin, drugs based on platinum, have made a significant impact on the treatment of various cancers. The administration of platinum drugs is however accompanied by significant side effects. This chapter discusses the types of drug delivery systems that have been developed in order to enable the targeted delivery while maintaining controlled temporal supply of the drug. The sizes of carriers range from nanometer to micrometer sized particles. The most common types of drug carriers are micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers, but also a few microspheres have been developed. Most striking aspect of the delivery of platinum drugs is the possibility of physical encapsulation but also the binding of the drug to the polymer carrier coordinate covalent bond. Since platinum drugs have typically two permanent and two leaving ligands, the polymer can be part of either ligand. As the leaving ligand, the platinum drug is released often as cisplatin. If the polymer provides the functionality for the permanent ligand, a new macromolecular drug has been formed. In addition to the attachment of pt(II) drugs, recent offorts are devoted to the conjugation via the Pt((IV) prodrug.

  20. Functionalization of Platinum Complexes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xiaohui; Guo, Zijian

    2015-09-15

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs are the mainstay of chemotherapy regimens in clinic. Nevertheless, the efficacy of platinum drugs is badly affected by serious systemic toxicities and drug resistance, and the pharmacokinetics of most platinum drugs is largely unknown. In recent years, a keen interest in functionalizing platinum complexes with bioactive molecules, targeting groups, photosensitizers, fluorophores, or nanomaterials has been sparked among chemical and biomedical researchers. The motivation for functionalization comes from some of the following demands: to improve the tumor selectivity or minimize the systemic toxicity of the drugs, to enhance the cellular accumulation of the drugs, to overcome the tumor resistance to the drugs, to visualize the drug molecules in vitro or in vivo, to achieve a synergistic anticancer effect between different therapeutic modalities, or to add extra functionality to the drugs. In this Account, we present different strategies being used for functionalizing platinum complexes, including conjugation with bisphosphonates, peptides, receptor-specific ligands, polymers, nanoparticles, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, metal chelators, or photosensitizers. Among them, bisphosphonates, peptides, and receptor-specific ligands are used for actively targeted drug delivery, polymers and nanoparticles are for passively targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents are for theranostic purposes, metal chelators are for the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and photosensitizers are for photodynamic therapy of cancers. The rationales behind these designs are explained and justified at the molecular or cellular level, associating with the requirements for diagnosis, therapy, and visualization of biological processes. To illustrate the wide range of opportunities and challenges that are emerging in this realm, representative examples of targeted drug delivery systems, anticancer conjugates

  1. Methylation of platinum by methylcobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Incubation of micromolar levels of potassium hexachloroplatinate (K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/) and methylcobalamin (MeB-12) results in the complete conversion of MeB-12 to aquocobalamin (aquoB-12). Demethylation is optimal at approximately pH 2.0 and is accelerated by the addition of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 4/). The reaction is stoichiometric between MeB-12 and the K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ added (1:1). Isosbestic points at 492, 367, and 335 nm during the course of the reaction indicate that MeB-12 is demethylated to aquoB-12 with no accumulation of corrinoid intermediates. Higher alkylcobalamins and methylcobinamide react at much slower rates compared with MeB-12. Incubation of 40..mu..M K/sub 2/ PtCl/sub 6/ with either 40..mu..M (Me-/sup 14/C)MeB-12 or (Me-/sup 3/H)MeB-12 followed by lyophilization converts 70% of the label to a stable form that is associated with platinum upon subsequent paper chromatography and electrophoresis. There is no preferential loss of /sup 3/H relative to /sup 14/C in the reaction product. Difference spectra indicated that the platinum reaction product had an absorption maximum at 260 nm. When 50 ..mu..moles each of (Me-/sup 14/C)MeB-12 and K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ were reacted and subjected to Sephadex G-15 chromatography, the /sup 14/C label eluted with 260 nm of absorbing material. Further chromatography on Sephadex G-15 and CM-cellulose yielded a labeled ultraviolet-absorbing product with a /sup 14/C/Pt ratio of 1.2. The overall recovery was 36 to 42% on the basis of the /sup 14/C. The /sup 14/C-Pt product has absorption maximums at 260 nm and 208 nm, with a minimum at 240 nm (A/sub 240/ nm/A/sub 260/ nm = 0.5). Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of an H-C-Pt covalent bonding pattern (J for /sup 1/H, /sup 195/Pt = 78.2 Hz; tau for /sup 194/Pt-Me + /sup 196/Pt-Me = 6.956).

  2. Toxicity of platinum compounds.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jörg Thomas; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of platinum-based combination chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, the outcome of the treatment of many solid tumours has changed. The leading platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy are cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. They share some structural similarities; however, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic use, pharmacokinetics and adverse effects profiles [1-4]. Compared to cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumour, head and neck cancer and bladder and oesophageal carcinoma, whereas both drugs seem to have comparable efficacy in advanced non-small cell and small cell lung cancer as well as ovarian cancer [5-7]. Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid [8,9]. Other platinum compounds such as oral JM216, ZD0473, BBR3464 and SPI-77, which is a pegylated liposomal formulation of cisplatin, are still under investigation [10-13], whereas nedaplatin has been approved in Japan for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and other solid tumours. This review focuses on cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

  3. {alpha} decay of {sup 194}At

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Streicher, B.; Saro, S.; Venhart, M.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Sulignano, B.; Bianco, L.; Page, R. D.; Sapple, P.; Thomson, J.; Franchoo, S.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.

    2009-06-15

    Detailed {alpha}-decay studies of the neutron-deficient isotope {sup 194}At have been performed in the complete fusion reaction {sup 56}Fe+{sup 141}Pr{yields}{sup 194}At+3n at the velocity filter SHIP. Two {alpha}-decaying isomeric states with half-lives of T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m1})=310(8) ms and T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m2})=253(10) ms were identified in this nucleus. Their complex decays to the states in the daughter nucleus {sup 190}Bi are discussed in the article. We propose that similar to the case of the neighboring {sup 191,192,193,195}At isotopes, the oblate-deformed configurations based on the proton 1/2{sup +}[440] and/or 7/2{sup -}[514] Nilsson orbitals become important in {sup 194}At. A new isomeric state with the half-life of 175(8) ns was observed in {sup 190}Bi.

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  7. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  9. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1 General. (a) Chemical and scientific laboratories shall be considered service areas, and as such shall be..., such as desks, file and storage cabinets, waste paper baskets, work benches, chair frames, etc....

  10. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 194.42 Monitoring. (a) The Department shall conduct an analysis of the effects of disposal system parameters on the containment of waste in the disposal system and shall include the results of such analysis in any compliance application. The results of the analysis shall be used in developing plans for...

  11. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 194.42 Monitoring. (a) The Department shall conduct an analysis of the effects of disposal system parameters on the containment of waste in the disposal system and shall include the results of such analysis in any compliance application. The results of the analysis shall be used in developing plans for...

  12. 46 CFR 194.05-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-1 General. (a) The master shall be held responsible for and shall require the proper handling, stowage, and marking of all chemical stores and reagents. (b) Chemical stores shall be stowed in a chemical storeroom in approved drums, barrels, or...

  13. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to the construction of integral magazines, magazine vans, and magazine chests... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176...

  14. 46 CFR 194.01-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF..., with the exception of subpart 194.90, shall apply to all vessels other than non-self-propelled vessels of less than 300 gross tons contracted for on or after March 1, 1968. (b) Non-self-propelled...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  18. 46 CFR 194.05-7 - Explosives-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives-Detail requirements. 194.05-7 Section 194.05... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-7 Explosives—Detail requirements. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, Division 1.1 and...

  19. 46 CFR 194.05-7 - Explosives-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives-Detail requirements. 194.05-7 Section 194.05... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-7 Explosives—Detail requirements. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, Division 1.1 and...

  20. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-3 Chemical stores. (a) Chemical stores are those chemicals which possess one or more of the following properties and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  1. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  2. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-3 Chemical stores. (a) Chemical stores are those chemicals which possess one or more of the following properties...

  3. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-3 Chemical stores. (a) Chemical stores are those chemicals which possess one or more of the following properties...

  4. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-3 Chemical stores. (a) Chemical stores are those chemicals which possess one or more of the following properties...

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-3 Chemical stores. (a) Chemical stores are those chemicals which possess one or more of the following properties...

  6. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Assurance Requirements § 194.46 Removal of waste. Any compliance application shall include...

  7. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194.46... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40... § 194.46 Removal of waste. Any compliance application shall include documentation which...

  8. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Assurance Requirements § 194.46 Removal of waste. Any compliance application shall include...

  9. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... effective doses received from all pathways pursuant to § 194.51 and § 194.52; (2) Estimated radionuclide concentrations in USDWs pursuant to § 194.53; and (3) Estimated dose equivalent received from USDWs pursuant to... shall be large enough such that the maximum estimates of doses and concentrations generated exceed...

  10. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... effective doses received from all pathways pursuant to § 194.51 and § 194.52; (2) Estimated radionuclide concentrations in USDWs pursuant to § 194.53; and (3) Estimated dose equivalent received from USDWs pursuant to... shall be large enough such that the maximum estimates of doses and concentrations generated exceed...

  11. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... effective doses received from all pathways pursuant to § 194.51 and § 194.52; (2) Estimated radionuclide concentrations in USDWs pursuant to § 194.53; and (3) Estimated dose equivalent received from USDWs pursuant to... shall be large enough such that the maximum estimates of doses and concentrations generated exceed...

  12. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... effective doses received from all pathways pursuant to § 194.51 and § 194.52; (2) Estimated radionuclide concentrations in USDWs pursuant to § 194.53; and (3) Estimated dose equivalent received from USDWs pursuant to... shall be large enough such that the maximum estimates of doses and concentrations generated exceed...

  13. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effective doses received from all pathways pursuant to § 194.51 and § 194.52; (2) Estimated radionuclide concentrations in USDWs pursuant to § 194.53; and (3) Estimated dose equivalent received from USDWs pursuant to... shall be large enough such that the maximum estimates of doses and concentrations generated exceed...

  14. 46 CFR 194.01-1 - General; preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General; preemptive effect. 194.01-1 Section 194.01-1...; preemptive effect. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of subpart 194.90, shall apply to all... effect over State or local regulations in the same field....

  15. 46 CFR 194.01-1 - General; preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General; preemptive effect. 194.01-1 Section 194.01-1...; preemptive effect. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of subpart 194.90, shall apply to all... effect over State or local regulations in the same field....

  16. 12 CFR 194.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description of business. 194.802 Section 194... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 194.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the description-of-business portion of: (1) Registration statements filed on Form 10 (item 1) (17 CFR 249.210),...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.194-4280.199 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 4280.194-4280.199 Section 4280.194-4280.199 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section D. Combined Funding §§ 4280.194-4280.199...

  18. Structure of matrix metalloproteinase-3 with a platinum-based inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Benny Danilo; Caliandro, Rocco; Siliqi, Dritan; Calderone, Vito; Arnesano, Fabio; Natile, Giovanni

    2013-06-18

    An X-ray investigation has been performed with the aim of characterizing the binding sites of a platinum-based inhibitor (K[PtCl3(DMSO)]) of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin-1). The platinum complex targets His224 in the S1' specificity loop, representing the first step in the selective inhibition process (PDB ID code 4JA1).

  19. Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-06-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

  20. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-12-04

    Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users.

  6. Fluorometric imaging methods for palladium and platinum and the use of palladium for imaging biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Matthew P; Pham, Dianne; Koide, Kazunori

    2015-07-21

    Neither palladium nor platinum is an endogenous biological metal. Imaging palladium in biological samples, however, is becoming increasingly important because bioorthogonal organometallic chemistry involves palladium catalysis. In addition to being an imaging target, palladium has been used to fluorometrically image biomolecules. In these cases, palladium species are used as imaging-enabling reagents. This review article discusses these fluorometric methods. Platinum-based drugs are widely used as anticancer drugs, yet their mechanism of action remains largely unknown. We discuss fluorometric methods for imaging or quantifying platinum in cells or biofluids. These methods include the use of chemosensors to directly detect platinum, fluorescently tagging platinum-based drugs, and utilizing post-labeling to elucidate distribution and mode of action.

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING... (Electrical Engineering) of this chapter. The electrical terminals for connections to the ship's...

  8. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... mining the sealed disposal system, given technology levels at the time a compliance application...

  9. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... mining the sealed disposal system, given technology levels at the time a compliance application...

  10. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 194.5 Section 194.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG-1297 “Peer Review for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories... Characterization of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories” (excluding section 2.1 (b) and (c)); IBR approved...

  11. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17 Shipping... Compressed gases. (a) Nonflammable compressed gases (excluding oxygen) may be securely stowed in the... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49...

  12. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17 Shipping... Compressed gases. (a) Nonflammable compressed gases (excluding oxygen) may be securely stowed in the... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17 Shipping... Compressed gases. (a) Nonflammable compressed gases (excluding oxygen) may be securely stowed in the... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49...

  14. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controls and their effectiveness in terms of preventing or reducing radionuclide releases shall be... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Active institutional controls. 194.41... Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall...

  15. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  16. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... obtain stable solutions; (iv) Computer models accurately implement the numerical models; i.e.,...

  17. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  18. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  19. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... obtain stable solutions; (iv) Computer models accurately implement the numerical models; i.e.,...

  20. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... obtain stable solutions; (iv) Computer models accurately implement the numerical models; i.e.,...

  1. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... obtain stable solutions; (iv) Computer models accurately implement the numerical models; i.e.,...

  2. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  3. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide... fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a) of this subchapter....

  7. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic extinguishing... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table...

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  9. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  10. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  11. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  12. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) Standard, NQA-1-1989...) ASME NQA-2a-1990 addenda, part 2.7, to ASME NQA-2-1989 edition “Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications;” IBR approved for § 194.22 and § 194.23. (4) ASME NQA-3-1989...

  13. 40 CFR 194.31 - Application of release limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of release limits. 194.31 Section 194.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT...

  14. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of continued compliance. 194.64 Section 194.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT...

  15. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active institutional controls. 194.41 Section 194.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT...

  16. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final rule for certification. 194.63 Section 194.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT...

  17. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Models and computer codes. 194.23... General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... codes are free of coding errors and produce stable solutions; (v) Conceptual models have undergone...

  18. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  19. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  20. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms §...

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.20-11 Section 194.20-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms §...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms §...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  8. 21 CFR 1.94 - Hearing on refusal of admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing on refusal of admission. 1.94 Section 1.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL... written notice to that effect, stating the reasons therefor. The notice shall specify a place and a...

  9. 21 CFR 1.94 - Hearing on refusal of admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing on refusal of admission. 1.94 Section 1.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL... written notice to that effect, stating the reasons therefor. The notice shall specify a place and a...

  10. 10 CFR 205.194 - Participants; official service list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participants; official service list. 205.194 Section 205.194 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable... directed, his address and the products, dollar amounts, time period, and geographical area specified in...

  11. 10 CFR 205.194 - Participants; official service list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participants; official service list. 205.194 Section 205.194 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable... directed, his address and the products, dollar amounts, time period, and geographical area specified in...

  12. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1....194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general. Section 194 allows a taxpayer to elect to amortize over an 84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined...

  13. 40 CFR 194.15 - certification application(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Applications Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re-certification application(s... Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in § 194.103(c) and is not eligible for an exception under § 194.101(b), can be expected to cause... not operate at a maximum operating pressure established under § 195.406 that corresponds to a...

  15. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in § 194.103(c) and is not eligible for an exception under § 194.101(b), can be expected to cause... not operate at a maximum operating pressure established under § 195.406 that corresponds to a...

  16. Cross-reactivity of Halogenated Platinum Salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated platinum (Pt) salts are well-known respiratory sensitizers associated with the development of asthma. People may be exposed to a variety of platinum compounds in different contexts (e.g. occupationally, automobile exhaust). Published reports suggest that sensitizati...

  17. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Silver-Platinum Nanocomposite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    CHRISTOPHER, BERRY

    2005-03-07

    Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that the metals self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures. Nanoindentation testing has shown that diamondlike carbon-silver films exhibit hardness and Young's modulus values of approximately 37 GPa and 333 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films exhibited antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. Diamondlike carbon-biofunctional metal nanocomposite films have a variety of potential medical and antimicrobial applications.

  18. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass.

  19. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  20. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected...

  1. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected...

  2. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected...

  3. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected...

  4. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected...

  5. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.54 Scope of compliance assessments. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.54 Scope of compliance assessments. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.54 Scope of compliance assessments. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.54 Scope of compliance assessments. (a)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... property (as defined in § 1.194-3(a)). The election is not available to trusts. Only those reforestation... first day of the first month of the last half of the taxable year during which the taxpayer incurs...

  10. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property (as defined in § 1.194-3(a)). The election is not available to trusts. Only those reforestation... first day of the first month of the last half of the taxable year during which the taxpayer incurs...

  11. Combinatorial-Designed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Chitosan Nanoparticles for Encapsulation and Delivery of Lipid-Modified Platinum Derivatives in Wild-Type and Resistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana Vanessa; Singh, Amit; Bousbaa, Hassan; Ferreira, Domingos; Sarmento, Bruno; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-12-07

    Development of efficient and versatile drug delivery platforms to overcome the physical and biological challenges in cancer therapeutics is an area of great interest, and novel materials are actively sought for such applications. Recent strides in polymer science have led to a combinatorial approach for generating a library of materials with different functional identities that can be "mixed and matched" to attain desired characteristics of a delivery vector. We have applied the combinatorial design to chitosan (CS), where the polymer backbone has been modified with polyethylene glycol, epidermal growth factor receptor-binding peptide, and lipid derivatives of varying chain length to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. Cisplatin, cis-([PtCl2(NH3)2]), is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs broadly administered for cancer treatment. Cisplatin is a hydrophilic drug, and in order for it to be encapsulated in the developed nanosystems, it was modified with lipids of varying chain length. The library of four CS derivatives and six platinum derivatives was self-assembled in aqueous medium and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxic effects in platinum-sensitive and -resistant lung cancer cells. The results show that the lipid-modified platinate encapsulation into CS nanoparticles significantly improved cellular cytotoxicity of the drug. In this work, we have also reinforced the idea that CS is a multifaceted system that can be as successful in delivering small molecules as it has been as a nucleic acids carrier.

  12. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  13. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Nukolova, Natalia V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum–polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  14. [Formylation of porphyrin platinum complexes].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, V D; Konovalenko, L I; Nagaeva, E A; Mironov, A F

    2005-01-01

    The formylation reaction of platinum complexes of beta-unsubstituted porphyrins was studied. The interaction of deuteroporphyrin IX derivatives with the Vilsmeyer reagent led to the selective formylation of their macrocycles in the beta position. The resulting formyl derivatives of the porphyrins are of interest for fluorescent immunoassay.

  15. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  16. Binding of bovine T194A PrPC by PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madampage, Claudia A; Määttänen, Pekka; Marciniuk, Kristen; Brownlie, Robert; Andrievskaia, Olga; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil R; Lee, Jeremy S; Napper, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are based on the misfolding of a cellular prion protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological conformation (PrPSc). There is proof-of-principle evidence that a prion vaccine is possible but this is tempered with concerns of the potential dangers associated with induction of immune responses to a widely-expressed self-protein. By targeting epitopes that are specifically exposed upon protein misfolding, our group developed a vaccine that induces PrPSc-specific antibody responses. Here we consider the ability of this polyclonal antibody (SN6b) to bind to a mutant of PrPC associated with spontaneous prion disease. Polyclonal antibodies were selected to mimic the vaccination outcome and also explore all possible protein conformations of the recombinant bovine prion protein with mutation T194A [bPrP(T194A)]. This mutant is a homolog of the human T183A mutation of PrPC that is associated with early onset of familial dementia. With nanopore analysis, under non-denaturing conditions, we observed binding of the SN6b antibody to bPrP(T194A). This interaction was confirmed through ELISAs as well as immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and cellularly expressed forms of bPrP(T194A). This interaction did not promote formation of a protease resistant conformation of PrP in vitro. Collectively, these findings support the disease-specific approach for immunotherapy of prion diseases but also suggest that the concept of conformation-specific immunotherapy may be complicated in individuals who are genetically predisposed to PrPC misfolding. PMID:23787697

  17. Advances in drug delivery system for platinum agents based combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiang; Xiao, Hai-Hua; Song, Hai-Qin; Jing, Xia-Bin; Yan, Le-San; Qi, Ruo-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based anticancer agents are widely used as first-line drugs in cancer chemotherapy for various solid tumors. However, great side effects and occurrence of resistance remain as the major drawbacks for almost all the platinum drugs developed. To conquer these problems, new strategies should be adopted for platinum drug based chemotherapy. Modern nanotechnology has been widely employed in the delivery of various therapeutics and diagnostic. It provides the possibility of targeted delivery of a certain anticancer drug to the tumor site, which could minimize toxicity and optimize the drug efficacy. Here, in this review, we focused on the recent progress in polymer based drug delivery systems for platinum-based combination therapy. PMID:26779373

  18. Surface characterization of platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Solla-Gullón, José; Rodríguez, Paramaconi; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M

    2008-03-14

    The quantitative analysis of the different surface sites on platinum samples is attempted from pure voltammetric data. This analysis requires independent knowledge of the fraction of two-dimensional (111) and (100) domains. Specific site-probe reactions are employed to achieve this goal. Irreversibly-adsorbed bismuth and tellurium have been revealed to be sensitive to the presence of (111) terrace domains of different width whereas almost all sites involved in (100) ordered domains have been characterized through germanium adatoms. The experimental protocol follows that used with well-defined single-crystal electrodes and, therefore, requires careful control of the surface cleanliness. Platinum basal planes and their vicinal stepped surfaces have been employed to obtain calibration plots between the charge density measured under the adatom redox peak, specific for the type of surface site, and the corresponding terrace size. The evaluation of the (100) bidimensional domains can also be achieved using the voltammetric profiles, once the fraction of (111) ordered domains present in the polyoriented platinum has been determined and their featureless contribution has been subtracted from the whole voltammetric response. Using that curve, it is possible to perform a deconvolution of the adsorption states of the polycrystalline sample different from those related to (111) domains. The fraction of (100)-related states in the deconvoluted voltammogram can then be compared to that expected from the independent estimation coming from the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly-adsorbed germanium and thus check the result of the deconvolution. The information about the surface-site distribution can also be applied to analyze the voltammetric profile of nanocrystalline platinum electrodes.

  19. Request for Correction 11001 Toxicological Review of Halogenated Platinum Salts and Platinum Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Request for Correction by the International Platinum Group Metals Association seeking the correction of information disseminated in the draft EPA document Toxicological Review of Halogenated Platinum Salts and Platinum Compounds: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

  20. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  1. Design, Synthesis of Novel Platinum(II) Glycoconjugates, and Evaluation of Their Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianbin; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Yang, Jinna; Zhang, Menghua; Mi, Yi; Shi, Ying; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sugar-conjugated (trans-R, R-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine)-2-halo-malonato-platinum(II) complexes were designed and synthesized to target tumor-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The water solubility of the sugar-conjugated platinum (II) complexes was greatly improved by average of 570-fold, 33-fold, and 94-fold, respectively, compared to cisplatin (1.0 mg/mL), carboplatin (17.1 mg/mL), and the newest generation of clinical drug oxaliplatin (6.0 mg/mL). Despite the high water solubility, the platinum(II) glycoconjugates exhibited a notable increase in cytotoxicity by a margin of 1.5- to 6.0-fold in six different human cancer cell lines with respect to oxaliplatin. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a molecular docking study and was confirmed with GLUT1 inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity dependency evaluation. The results showed that the sugar-conjugated platinum(II) complexes can be recognized by the glucose recognition binding site of GLUT1 and their cell killing effect depends highly on the GLUT1 inhibitor, quercetin. The research presenting a prospective concept for targeted therapy anticancer drug design, and with the analysis of the synthesis, water solubility, antitumor activity, and the transportability of the platinum(II) glycoconjugates, this study provides fundamental data supporting the inherent potential of these designed conjugates as lead compounds for GLUT-mediated tumor targeting.

  2. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  3. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-11 Flushing systems. (a) Working spaces in which chemical stores are used shall be equipped with a fresh water supply shower. (b) There shall be a provision for flushing away chemical spills....

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-11 Flushing systems. (a) Working spaces in which chemical stores are used shall be equipped with a fresh water supply shower. (b) There shall be a provision for flushing away chemical spills....

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-11 Flushing systems. (a) Working spaces in which chemical stores are used shall be equipped with a fresh water supply shower. (b) There shall be a provision for flushing away chemical spills....

  7. 49 CFR 194.107 - General response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... summary as required in § 194.113, (ii) Immediate notification procedures, (iii) Spill detection and... support, (vii) Training procedures, (viii) Equipment testing, (ix) Drill program—an operator will satisfy the requirement for a drill program by following the National Preparedness for Response...

  8. 33 CFR 110.194 - Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.194 Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. (a) The anchorage grounds. The waters within a radius of 750 yards from a point located 1,000 yards true north from Fort... an anchorage. It may be used for a general anchorage when not required for vessels...

  9. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1 Section 194.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... relating to the terms or conditions of certification of the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation...

  10. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or association. Every partnership or association, before commencing business as an importer of tobacco...

  11. 38 CFR 17.194 - Aid for domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aid for domiciliary care... Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.194 Aid for domiciliary care. Aid may be paid to the designated State official for domiciliary care furnished in a recognized State home for...

  12. 46 CFR 194.05-21 - Other regulated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulated materials. (a) Other Regulated Materials (DOT Hazard Class “ORM”) as chemical stores and reagents... Regulated Materials (DOT Hazard Class “ORM”) which are not chemical stores and reagents shall be regulated... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other regulated materials. 194.05-21 Section...

  13. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  14. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  15. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  16. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or... products must furnish with its application for the permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.194 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reduction Plants § 60.194 Monitoring of operations. (a) The owner or operator of any affected facility... feed rates, and cell or potline voltages. (c) Following the initial performance test as required under... bake plant. If the owner or operator show that emissions from the primary control system or the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.194 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Reduction Plants § 60.194 Monitoring of operations. (a) The owner or operator of any affected facility... feed rates, and cell or potline voltages. (c) Following the initial performance test as required under... bake plant. If the owner or operator show that emissions from the primary control system or the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.194 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reduction Plants § 60.194 Monitoring of operations. (a) The owner or operator of any affected facility... feed rates, and cell or potline voltages. (c) Following the initial performance test as required under... bake plant. If the owner or operator show that emissions from the primary control system or the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.194 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Reduction Plants § 60.194 Monitoring of operations. (a) The owner or operator of any affected facility... feed rates, and cell or potline voltages. (c) Following the initial performance test as required under... bake plant. If the owner or operator show that emissions from the primary control system or the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.194 - Monitoring of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Reduction Plants § 60.194 Monitoring of operations. (a) The owner or operator of any affected facility... feed rates, and cell or potline voltages. (c) Following the initial performance test as required under... bake plant. If the owner or operator show that emissions from the primary control system or the...

  2. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In... water from any underground source of drinking water in the accessible environment....

  3. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In... water from any underground source of drinking water in the accessible environment....

  4. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In... water from any underground source of drinking water in the accessible environment....

  5. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In... water from any underground source of drinking water in the accessible environment....

  6. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In... water from any underground source of drinking water in the accessible environment....

  7. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  8. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  9. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  10. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  11. 34 CFR 668.194 - Economically disadvantaged appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Two Year Cohort Default... student is a married independent student), is less than the amount listed in the Department of Health...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.194 Actions prior to grant closing. Applicants expecting funds from other sources for use in completing projects...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.194 Actions prior to grant closing. Applicants expecting funds from other sources for use in completing projects...

  14. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.194 Actions prior to grant closing. Applicants expecting funds from other sources for use in completing projects...

  15. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate a...

  16. Failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Mcfarlen, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes procedures and results of testing performed on a platinum/10-percent rhodium, thin-wall tubular product. The purpose of the testing was to develop exemplar SEM fractographs to be used to characterize failures under various environmental conditions. Conditions evaluated for the platinum alloys included high temperature, hydrogen environment, braze metal contamination, and cyclic loading.

  17. Platinum electrodes for electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Bacteria is detected electro-chemically by measuring evolution of hydrogen in test system with platinum and reference electrode. Using system, electrodes of platinum are used to detect and enumerate varieties of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms compared in different media.

  18. [Platinum compounds: metabolism, toxicity and supportive strategies].

    PubMed

    Lipp, H P; Hartmann, J T

    2005-02-09

    Although the leading platinum compounds, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, share some structural similarities, there are marked differences between them in therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects profiles. Compared with cisplatin, carboplatin has inferior efficacy in germ-cell tumors, head and neck cancers, and bladder and esophageal carcinomas, whereas the two drugs appear to have comparable efficacy in ovarian cancer, extensive small-cell lung cancers (SCLC), and advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Oxaliplatin belongs to the group of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum compounds. It is the first platinum-based drug that has marked efficacy in colorectal cancer when given in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid. Nedaplatin has been registered in Japan, whereas other derivatives, like JM216 (which is the only orally available platinum derivative), ZD0473, BBR3464, and SPI-77 (a liposomal formulation of cisplatin), are still under investigation. The adverse effects of platinum compounds are reviewed together with possible prevention strategies.

  19. Aurora Kinase A expression predicts platinum-resistance and adverse outcome in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Chiara; Staropoli, Nicoletta; Botta, Cirino; De Marco, Carmela; Rizzuto, Antonia; Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Franco, Renato; Camastra, Caterina; Presta, Ivan; Malara, Natalia; Salvino, Angela; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Barni, Tullio; Donato, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Anna

    2016-05-21

    High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma (HGSOC) is the predominant histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis, frequent TP53 mutation, rapid progression, and high responsiveness to platinum-based-chemotherapy. To date, standard first-line-chemotherapy in advanced EOC includes platinum salts and paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab. The major prognostic factor is the response duration from the end of the platinum-based treatment (platinum-free interval) and about 10-0 % of EOC patients bear a platinum-refractory disease or develop early resistance (platinum-free interval shorter than 6 months). On these bases, a careful selection of patients who could benefit from chemotherapy is recommended to avoid unnecessary side effects and for a better disease outcome. In this retrospective study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) was performed on 41 cases of HGSOC according to platinum-status. Taking into account the number and intensity of AURKA positive cells we built a predictive score able to discriminate with high accuracy platinum-sensitive patients from platinum-resistant patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed that AURKA overexpression correlates to worse overall survival (p = 0.001; HR 0.14). We here suggest AURKA as new effective tool to predict the biological behavior of HGSOC. Particularly, our results indicate that AURKA has a role both as predictor of platinum-resistance and as prognostic factor, that deserves further investigation in prospective clinical trials. Indeed, in the era of personalized medicine, AURKA could assist the clinicians in selecting the best treatment and represent, at the same time, a promising new therapeutic target in EOC treatment.

  20. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  1. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  2. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    PubMed

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  3. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-10-01

    A carbon substrate for use in fabricating phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes was modified by catalytic oxidation to stabilize the platinum catalyst by retarding the sintering of small platinum crystallites. Results of 100-hour operational tests confirmed that the rate of platinum surface area loss observed on catalytically oxidized supports was less than that observed with unmodified supports of the same starting material. Fuel cell electrodes fabricated from Vulcan XC-72R, which was modified by catalytic in a nitric oxide atmosphere, produced low platium sintering rates and high activity for the reduction of oxygen in the phosphoric acid environment.

  4. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  5. 49 CFR 194.7 - Operating restrictions and interim operating authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating restrictions and interim operating authorization. 194.7 Section 194.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.7 Operating restrictions and...

  6. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Corrosive liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  7. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  8. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  9. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Corrosive liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  10. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Corrosive liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  11. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  12. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Corrosive liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  13. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  14. 46 CFR 194.05-13 - Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrosive liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-13 Corrosive liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Corrosive liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  15. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  18. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 194.05-9 - Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable liquid chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-9 Flammable liquid chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable liquids as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other flammable liquids...

  20. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  1. 37 CFR 1.94 - Return of models, exhibits or specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of models, exhibits or specimens. 1.94 Section 1.94 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.94 Return...

  2. 46 CFR 194.05-17 - Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Poisonous articles as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-17 Poisonous articles as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Poisonous articles as chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 194.05-15 - Compressed gases as chemical stores-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases as chemical stores-Detail requirements... and Marking § 194.05-15 Compressed gases as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Compressed gases as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  4. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  5. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  6. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  7. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  8. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  9. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  10. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  11. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  12. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  13. Catalytic reforming with rhenium-platinum catalyst containing more rhenium than platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.P.; Yarrington, R.M.

    1982-10-26

    A new reforming process employs a new rhenium-platinum catalytic composite having a rhenium to platinum weight ratio in the range of not less than 2 to about 5, whereby longer relative cycle length is obtained when reforming a naphtha having less than about 0.5 ppm by weight of sulfur than if the rhenium-platinum ratio is outside of such range.

  14. Short-lived isomers in 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Sulignano, B.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    Isomeric states in 194Po and 192Po were studied at the velocity filter SHIP. The isotopes were produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 141Pr(56Fe, p 2 n )194Po and 144Sm(51V, p 2 n )192Po . Several new γ -ray transitions were attributed to the isomers and γ -γ coincidences for both isomers were studied for the first time. The 459-keV transition earlier, tentatively proposed as de-exciting the isomeric level in 194Po, was replaced by a new 248-keV transition, and the spin of this isomer was reassigned from (11-) to (10-). The de-excitation of the (11-) isomeric level in 192Po by the 154-keV transition was confirmed and a parallel de-excitation by a 733-keV (E 3 ) transition to (8+) level of the ground-state band was suggested. Moreover, side feeding to the (4+) level of the ground-state band was proposed. The paper also discusses strengths of transitions de-exciting 11- isomers in neighboring Po and Pb isotopes.

  15. Teaching the Chemistry of Platinum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert G W

    2015-01-01

    Following colonisation of South America by the Spanish, many new naturally occurring substances were sent to Europe. One of these was the silvery, unreactive metal, platinum, discovered in New Grenada in the mid-eighteenth century. It was often found in granular form, associated with gold, and the challenge to chemists was to refine it, produce it as wire or sheet, and determine its chemical properties. This interested the professor of chemistry at the University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black, who was able to obtain samples from London-based Spanish contacts, particularly Ignacio Luzuriaga. This paper examines how Black transmitted his knowledge of the metal to large numbers of students attending his annual course.

  16. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  17. Evaluation of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation procedure for the characterization of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) for use in the temperature range -120 to 160 C was investigated. This evaluation procedure consisted of calibration, thermal stability and hysteresis testing of four surface measuring PRTs. Five different calibration schemes were investigated for these sensors. The IPTS-68 formulation produced the most accurate result, yielding average sensor systematic error of 0.02 C and random error of 0.1 C. The sensors were checked for thermal stability by successive and thermal cycling between room temperature, 160 C, and boiling point of nitrogen. All the PRTs suffered from instability and hysteresis. The applicability of the self-heating technique as an in situ method for checking the calibration of PRTs located inside wind tunnels was investigated.

  18. Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

    1980-06-27

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example.

  19. Platinum-Resistor Differential Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Platinum resistance elements used in bridge circuit for measuring temperature difference between two flowing liquids. Temperature errors with circuit are less than 0.01 degrees C over range of 100 degrees C.

  20. Fate of platinum metals in the environment.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Justyna; Łodyga-Chruścińska, Elżbieta; Chrustowicz, Jakub

    2014-07-01

    For many years now automotive exhaust catalysts have been used to reduce the significant amounts of harmful chemical substances generated by car engines, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Although they considerably decrease environmental contamination with the above-mentioned compounds, it is known that catalysts contribute to the environmental load of platinum metals (essential components of catalysts), which are released with exhaust fumes. Contamination with platinum metals stems mainly from automotive exhaust converters, but other major sources also exist. Since platinum group elements (PGEs): platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru) and iridium (Ir) seem to spread in the environment and accumulate in living organisms, they may pose a threat to animals and humans. This paper discusses the modes and forms of PGE emission as well as their impact on the environment and living organisms.

  1. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  2. Platinum-ruthenium-palladium fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2006-02-07

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having an atomic ratio of platinum to ruthenium that is between about 0.7 and about 1.2. Alternatively, the catalyst may contain platinum at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 50 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 55 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having a difference between the concentrations of ruthenium and platinum that is no greater than about 20 atomic percent.

  3. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst supported on a carbon substrate. During operation, the small platinum crystallites sinter, causing loss in cell performance. A support was developed that stabilizes platinum in the high surface area condition by retarding or preventing the sintering process. The approach is to form etch pits in the carbon by oxidizing the carbon in the presence of a metal oxide catalyst, remove the metal oxide by an acid wash, and then deposit platinum in these pits. Results confirm the formation of etch pits in each of the three supports chosen for investigation: Vulcan XC-72R, Vulcan XC-72 that was graphized at 2500 C, and Shawinigan Acetylene Black.

  4. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  5. MiRNA-194 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Inflammatory Responses in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huiqun; Liu, Chaoqi; Zou, Xiaohua; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-05-13

    There is strong evidence to suggest that inflammatory responses link obesity and diseases, and the understanding of obesity-induced inflammatory mechanisms is central to the pathogenesis of diseases such asnonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and atherosclerosis that are modified by obesity. Based on this, anti-inflammatory treatments become a potential therapies for obesity-related diseases like NAFLD.A critical role of toll-like receptor (TLR) and its downstream molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6(TRAF6) has been documented in inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. TLR pathway regulation provides a new insight to controlling the inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. Taken together, our study was aimed to understand the mechanism of fatty acid-mediated inflammation and look for an effective target which can prevent the inflammatory response induced by obesity. In this study, we used the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (PA) to activate TLR4 signal pathway in human monocyte cells THP-1 that established an intracellular inflammatory model. Followed with activated TLR4, downstream molecular TRAF6 was upregulated and ultimately induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Based on this model, we also found that PA downregulated miR-194 expression with TLR4 activation. Moreover, our results showed that key signal molecular TRAF6 is a target of miR-194, overexpression of miR-194 directly decreased TRAF6 expression and attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in PA-activated monocyte THP-1. We conclude that miR-194 negatively regulates the TLR4 signal pathway which is activated by PA through directly negative TRAF6 expression.

  6. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Glass Platinum Acetylides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    cholesteric glasses at room temperature, a series of platinum acetylide complexes modified with cholesterol has been synthesized. The materials synthesized...have the formula trans-Pt(PR3)( cholesterol (3 or 4)- ethynyl benzoate)(1-ethynyl-4-X-benzene), where R = Et, Bu or Oct and X = H, F, OCH3 and CN. A...glasses at room temperature, a series of platinum acetylide complexes modified with cholesterol has been synthesized. The materials synthesized

  7. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  8. Platinum-based chemotherapy: gastrointestinal immunomodulation and enteric nervous system toxicity.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Vanesa; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2015-02-15

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment of colorectal cancer is challenged by severe gastrointestinal side effects, which include nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. These symptoms can persist long after the treatment has been ceased. An emerging concept is the ability of platinum-based drugs to stimulate immunity, which is in contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents that are immunosuppressive. Here, we review the immunomodulatory aspects of platinum-based anticancer chemotherapeutics and their impact on gastrointestinal innervation. Given the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal immune system; exploring the consequences of platinum-induced immunogenicity will facilitate better understanding of gut dysfunction caused by chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that the development of future successful chemotherapeutics should rely on targeting the mechanisms underlying long-term gastrointestinal side effects.

  9. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance. PMID:27812537

  10. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Minamishima, Yoji Andrew; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Uhlén, Per; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-11-03

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance.

  11. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments

  12. Mississippi Canyon 194, Gulf of Mexico: Development case history/geophysical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, M. )

    1991-03-01

    A 3-D geophysical survey acquired at Cognac (MC 194 field) nine years after the first production shows the effect of reservoir drainage. A redevelopment program currently in progress targeted wells for oil bypassed due to poor sweep efficiency and/or small faults. Revised structural interpretation based on the 3-D showed several additional opportunities in new fault blocks. Attribute measurements were done at all levels where the pay sand was amplitude supported. These data were then tied in great detail with the geology and the production data available for the different reservoirs. Based on the results of the development wells, a good 3-D seismic survey can help locate fluid contacts, detect small faults ({plus minus}50 ft), and reduce dry hole and marginal well risks with better placement of wells.

  13. Production and decay spectroscopy of 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.

    2015-10-01

    A γ-ray spectroscopy study of the (11-) isomers in 194Po and 192Po was performed at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI (Germany). Nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and investigated in the detection set-up at the focal plane after the separator. Several new γ transitions were attributed to the isomers and detailed analysis of the first γ-γ coincidences for both isomers is being prepared. For the reaction 56Fe + 141Pr → 197At*, excitation functions for astatine and polonium isotopes were measured and compared with HIVAP calculations.

  14. Volumes 193, 194, 195 January–December 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Below is a list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for GENETICS during the preparation of volumes 193, 194, and 195 (2013). The aim of GENETICS is to communicate significant research. To succeed, we must recognize what is significant, making sure the presentation is accurate, unambiguous, and easily readable. For this, we depend heavily upon our reviewers, who perform this indispensable service without reward. The quality of the journal strongly reflects the quality of their efforts. We apologize to any reviewer whose name has been inadvertently omitted, and we are sincerely grateful to all.

  15. Breeding of new rice cultivar 'Tohoku 194' with 'Sasanishiki'-type good eating quality of cooked rice.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kuniaki; Sasaki, Kunihiko; Endo, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Cooked rice of 'Sasanishiki' is soft and not as sticky as those of Japanese leading cultivars 'Koshihikari' and 'Hitomebore'. As a method for efficient selection of a breeding line having a good eating quality like that of 'Sasanishiki', the use of physical properties of cooked rice and cooking quality was examined. There were differences of physical properties of the surface layer, starch-iodine blue value per solid substance weight in cooking water and volume expansion of cooked rice between 'Sasanishiki' and 'Hitomebore', these properties being considered to be usable for the selection of breeding lines. Using these traits as selection targets, one line, named 'Tohoku 194', which has eating quality highly similar to that of 'Sasanishiki' and cold tolerance derived from 'Hitomebore', was selected from progeny of a cross between 'Sasanishiki' and 'Hitomebore'. An application for registration as a new variety has been submitted for 'Tohoku 194' under the Japanese Plant Variety Protection Act, and is expected to become a recommended cultivar in Miyagi Prefecture. 'Tohoku 194' may fulfill various demands of consumers and companies in the food industry.

  16. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  17. Pharmacogenetic predictors of toxicity to platinum based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Alnatsha, Ahmed; Villar, Eduardo; Delgado, Juan Ramón; Faus-Dáder, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    2016-09-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for NSCLC patients with EGFR wild-type, and as alternative to failure to EGFR inhibitors. However, this treatment is aggressive and most patients experience grade 3-4 toxicities. ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XRCC1, MDM2, ABCB1, MTHFR, MTR, SLC19A1, IL6 and IL16 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in toxicity to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. A prospective cohorts study was conducted, including 141 NSCLC patients. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR Real-Time with Taqman(®) probes and sequencing. Patients with ERCC1 C118T-T allele (p=0.00345; RR=26.05; CI95%=4.33, 515.77) and ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.00291; RR=4.06; CI95%=1.66, 10.65) had higher risk of general toxicity for platinum-based chemotherapy. ERCC2 Asp312Asn G-alelle, ABCB1 C1236T-TT and the IL1B rs12621220-CT/TT genotypes conferred a higher risk to present multiple adverse events. The subtype toxicity analysis also revealed that ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.01562; OR=3.23; CI95%=1.29, 8.82) and IL16 rs7170924-T allele (p=0.01007; OR=3.19; CI95%=1.35, 7.97) were associated with grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. We did not found the influence of ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ERCC5 Asp1104His, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, MDM2 rs1690924, ABCB1 C3435T, ABCB1 Ala893Ser/Thr, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, and IL1B rs1143627 on platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity. In conclusion, ERCC1 C118T, ERCC2 rs50872, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ABCB1 C1236T, IL1B rs12621220 and IL16 rs7170924 polymorphisms may substantially act as prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  18. New features of superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    A striking difference between superdeformed (SD) nuclei near A = 190 and those in the other regions is the behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia (lm) with the rotational frequency h{omega}. While the (lm) patterns of the SD bands near A = 130 and A = 150 show pronounced variations, the majority of the SD bands near A = 190 display the same large, smooth increase of (lm) within the frequency range 0.15 < {h_bar}{omega} < 0.40 MeV. Current interpretations of this rise of (lm) within mean field theories invoke the gradual alignment of quasiparticles occupying high-N intruder orbitals in the presence of pair correlations. It is a direct consequence of these interpretations that, after the quasiparticle alignments take place, (lm) will exhibit a downturn with increasing {h_bar}{omega} toward the rigid-body value. Up to now, no downturn in (lm) for the SD bands in the A = 190 mass region was observed, raising some doubt as to our understanding of pair correlations and alignment effects at these large deformations. An experiment was carried out at the 88-Inch Cyclotron facility of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where excited states in {sup 194}Hg were populated with the reaction {sup 150}Nd({sup 48}Ca,4n) {sup 194}Hg at a beam energy of 206 MeV. The gamma rays emitted in the reaction were detected with the Gammasphere detector array (32 detectors for this experiment).

  19. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  20. The efficacy and safety of platinum plus gemcitabine (PG) chemotherapy with or without molecular targeted agent (MTA) in first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaying; He, Jieyu; Yu, Miao; Li, Taishun; Luo, Li; Liu, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trials investigating the efficacy and safety of combining molecular targeted agent (MTA) with platinum–gemcitabine (PG) in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have shown inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis aimed to explore whether the addition of MTAs to PG in NSCLC could provide a survival benefit with a tolerable toxicity. Methods: Web of knowledge, PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies and extract data on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and common grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Subgroup analyses were conducted on the basis of race and the type of MTA. Results: Twelve trials with a total of 6143 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with PG chemotherapy, combination therapy of MTA with PG did not improve OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90–1.01) but improved PFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.89) and ORR (risk ratio [RR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.11–1.60). Subanalysis indicated that there was more incidence of grade 3 or 4 rash (RR = 11.20, 95% CI = 6.07–20.68), anemia (RR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.01–1.46), diarrhea (RR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21–5.65), and anorexia (RR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.12–3.88) in combining epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy group compared to PG group. An increased risk of grade 3 or 4 rash (RR = 5.08, 95% CI = 1.53–16.79), thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.03–2.18), and hypertension (RR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.05–5.32) was observed in sorafenib combination group. Conclusion: The combination of PG plus MTA was superior to PG alone in terms of PFS and ORR but not in OS. The combination chemotherapy also showed a higher frequency of grade 3 or higher toxic effects in patients with advanced NSCLC than PG chemotherapy. PMID:27977596

  1. Platinum(II)-Oligonucleotide Coordination Based Aptasensor for Simple and Selective Detection of Platinum Compounds.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng; Tian, Xueke; Sun, Lianli; Hu, Haihong; Zheng, Shirui; Jiang, Huidi; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2015-10-20

    Wide use of platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment for carcinoma calls for a simple and selective detection of platinum compound in biological samples. On the basis of the platinum(II)-base pair coordination, a novel type of aptameric platform for platinum detection has been introduced. This chemiluminescence (CL) aptasensor consists of a designed streptavidin (SA) aptamer sequence in which several base pairs were replaced by G-G mismatches. Only in the presence of platinum, coordination occurs between the platinum and G-G base pairs as opposed to the hydrogen-bonded G-C base pairs, which leads to SA aptamer sequence activation, resulting in their binding to SA coated magnetic beads. These Pt-DNA coordination events were monitored by a simple and direct luminol-peroxide CL reaction through horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalysis with a strong chemiluminescence emission. The validated ranges of quantification were 0.12-240 μM with a limit of detection of 60 nM and selectivity over other metal ions. This assay was also successfully used in urine sample determination. It will be a promising candidate for the detection of platinum in biomedical and environmental samples.

  2. Sandwich-like Cu(1.94)S-ZnS-Cu(1.94)S nanoheterostructure: structure, formation mechanism and localized surface plasmon resonance behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2012-10-26

    In this communication, a thermolysis route is developed to synthesize novel Cu(1.94)S-ZnS-Cu(1.94)S nanoheterostructures with interesting sandwich-like architectures, taking Cu(1.94)S nanoplates as precursors. Evidently, the trimeric nanostructure is formed by a three-stage process, which includes the Zn-oleate induced assembling of Cu(1.94)S nanoplate couples, the heteronucleation and growth of a ZnS layer between two Cu(1.94)S plates dominated by interfacial diffusion, and the catalyst assisted axial growth of ZnS nanorod following the solution-liquid-solid mechanism. With epitaxial growth of ZnS nanocrystal between two Cu(1.94)S nanoplates, the localized surface plasmon resonance frequency of Cu(1.94)S shifts from 1875 to 1323 nm, indicating that this new material is potentially applicable as a light absorbing agent in laser photothermal therapy. The reported growth mechanism may provide new strategies for designing and fabricating various technologically important polymeric nanoheterostructures.

  3. Surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatti, Iacopo; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano; Zarra, Salvatore

    2012-06-01

    Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters.Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters. CCDC 867747 and 867748. For crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30400g

  4. Platinum Publications, December 1–December 29, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  5. Platinum Publications as of December 3, 2013 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  6. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY: Federal... Platinum, AK, to accommodate the addition of a Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP), at the Platinum Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  7. Platinum Publications, October 28–November 30, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  8. Platinum Publications, May 1 – June 25, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  9. Platinum Publications, July 31–September 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  10. Platinum Publications as of June 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  11. Platinum Publications as of September 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  12. Platinum Publications as of May 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  13. Platinum Publications as of April 30, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  14. Platinum Publications, June 26–July 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  15. Platinum Publications, September 30–October 27, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  16. Platinum Publications, March 1–March 30, 2017 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  17. Platinum Publications, January 26–February 28, 2017 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  18. Platinum Publications, March 27 – April 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: platinum-group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The precious metals commonly referred to as platinum-group metals (PGM) include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium and ruthenium. PGM are among the rarest of elements, and their market values — particularly for palladium, platinum and rhodium — are the highest of all precious metals.

  20. Platinum Publications, February 27 – March 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  1. Platinum Publications, July 1–July 28, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  2. Platinum Publications, October 1–29, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  3. Platinum Publications, September 26 – October 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  4. Platinum Publications, July 29–September 29, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  5. Platinum Publications, June 1–June 30, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  6. Platinum Publications, October 30 – November 26, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  7. Platinum Publications as of March 6, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  8. Platinum Publications, November 27, 2014 – February 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  9. Platinum Publications, January 1–March 31, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  10. Platinum Publications, October 30–December 31, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  11. Chiral discrimination in platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Michele; Malina, Jaroslav; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Natile, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    In this article we review the biological activity of analogs of the antitumor drug cisplatin that contain chiral amine ligands. Interaction with DNA and formation of cross-links with adjacent purine bases are considered to be the crucial steps in the antitumor activity of this class of complexes. Because double-helical DNA has a chiral structure, interaction with enantiomeric complexes of platinum should lead to diastereomeric adducts. It has been demonstrated that DNA cross-links of platinum complexes with enantiomeric amine ligands not only can exhibit different conformational features but also can be processed differently by the cellular machinery as a consequence of these conformational differences. These results expand the general knowledge of how the stereochemistry of the platinum-DNA adduct can influence the cell response and contribute to understanding the processes that are crucial for antitumor activity. The steric requirements of the chiral ligands, in terms of configuration and flexibility, are also elucidated. PMID:12426131

  12. Autonomous movement of platinum-loaded stomatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Daniela A.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity).

  13. Autonomous movement of platinum-loaded stomatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniela A; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M

    2012-02-26

    Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity).

  14. Coadsorbed H and CO interaction on platinum.

    PubMed

    Roman, Tanglaw; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2008-10-21

    The behavior of hydrogen near a platinum-surface-adsorbed carbon monoxide molecule is described using a potential energy term constructed from density functional theory. A clear nonattractive interaction of hydrogen with CO is confirmed, most notably with oxygen, which retains its strong H-repulsive traits in the Pt-bound CO case. Inhibiting effects of CO greater than what is expected from simple adsorption site exclusion are discussed with regard to adsorption/desorption and mobility on platinum, as well as possibilities of COH and HCO formation.

  15. High-spin level scheme of {sup 194}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsarova, T.; Stefanova, E. A.; Minkova, A.; Lalkovski, S.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Hannachi, F.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Jansen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Khoo, T. L.; Herskind, B.; Bergstroem, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Podolyak, Z.

    2009-01-15

    High-spin states in {sup 194}Pb have been populated in the {sup 168}Er({sup 30}Si,4n) reaction at 142 MeV. The emitted {gamma} rays were detected by the EUROBALL III multidetector array. The level scheme was considerably extended and many previously observed {gamma}-ray transitions were reordered. Four new magnetic rotational bands were observed. The energies and spins of the bandheads of all previously observed magnetic rotational bands were corrected based on the observation of new transitions. From nine observed bands, only one could not be connected to the lower lying states. Based on comparison systematics with neighboring Pb isotopes and tilted-axis cranking model calculations previously reported, configuration assignments to the observed bands have been made.

  16. Use of platinum electrodes for the electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Platinum electrodes with surface area ratios of four to one were used to detect and enumerate a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Linear relationships were established between inoculum size and detection time. End points for platinum electrodes were similar to those obtained with a platinum-reference electrode combination. Shape of the overall response curves and length of detection times for gram-positive organisms were markedly different than those for the majority of gram-negative species. Platinum electrodes are better than the platinum-reference electrode combination because of cost, ease of handling, and clearer definition of the end point.

  17. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  18. Fraction of platinum surface covered with carbonaceous species following hydrogenolysis of hexane on platinum alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera Latas, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic naphtha reforming plays a major role in satisfying the demand for unleaded, high octane gasoline. Hydrogen containing carbonaceous deposits (coke) accumulation on the surface of the catalysts during reforming operation. This study investigated the following question: what is the fraction of the platinum surface covered with the deposits following a typical reforming reaction. These observations prompted us to prepare a platinum-alumina catalyst with a high metal content (5%) to enhance the sensitivity of experiments designed to examine the platinum surface following hexane hydrogenolysis. The reaction was selected because it is a good model reaction for catalytic reforming and it was also studied by the Somorjai group in the higher temperature range of their work. Hydrogenolysis of hexane was carried out in a flow system for 3 h at 713 K, at atmospheric pressure, and around 0.1 total conversion. The catalyst was cooled down to room temperature in the reactant mixture, and the fraction of surface platinum atoms exposed was measured in situ by four independent methods: titration of adsorbed oxygen by dihydrogen, chemisorption of carbon monoxide, infra-red spectroscopy of carbon monoxide bonded to platinum, and rate of ethylene hydrogenation. Independent gravimetric studies showed that coke deposits of around 1% by weight were formed on the same catalyst during hydrogenolysis of hexane under similar conditions. Each of the four methods indicate that approximately 50% of the platinum surface remains exposed under the conditions.

  19. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  20. Evaluation of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillontownes, Lawrence A.; Alderfer, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration and stability of four surface temperature measuring industrial platinum resistance thermometers for use in the temperature range -120 C to 160 C was investigated. It was found that the calibration formulation of the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 provided the most accurate calibration. It was also found that all the resistance thermometers suffered from varying degrees of instability and hysteresis.

  1. Preparation of platinum modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles with the use of laser ablation in water.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Sawczak, M; Klein, M; Nowaczyk, G; Jurga, S; Cenian, A

    2014-08-07

    We report on the preparation method of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide modified with platinum by using nanosecond laser ablation in liquid (LAL). Titania in the form of anatase crystals has been prepared in a two-stage process. Initially, irradiation by laser beam of a titanium metal plate fixed in a glass container filled with deionized water was conducted. After that, the ablation process was continued, with the use of a platinum target placed in a freshly obtained titania colloid. In this work, characterization of the obtained nanoparticles, based on spectroscopic techniques--Raman, X-ray photoelectron and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy--is given. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to describe particle morphology. On the basis of photocatalytic studies we observed the rate of degradation process of methylene blue (MB) (a model organic pollution) in the presence of Pt modified titania in comparison to pure TiO2--as a reference case. Physical and chemical mechanisms of the formation of platinum modified titania are also discussed here. Stable colloidal suspensions containing Pt modified titanium dioxide crystalline anatase particles show an almost perfect spherical shape with diameters ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with platinum exhibit much higher (up to 30%) photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of MB under UV illumination than pure titania.

  2. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be...

  5. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  6. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are expected to...

  7. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  8. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  9. 19 CFR 191.194 - Action on application to participate in compliance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... program. 191.194 Section 191.194 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... applicant of its certification as a participant in the drawback compliance program. A Customs broker... through fraud or mistake of fact; (ii) The program participant is no longer in compliance with the...

  10. 27 CFR 46.194 - Persons not liable for floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... floor stocks tax. 46.194 Section 46.194 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette... stocks tax. A person who does not meet the definition of a dealer is not liable for the floor stocks...

  11. 40 CFR 194.65 - Notice of proposed rulemaking for modification or revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of proposed rulemaking for modification or revocation. 194.65 Section 194.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE...

  12. 40 CFR 194.66 - Final rule for modification or revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final rule for modification or revocation. 194.66 Section 194.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE...

  13. 40 CFR 194.62 - Notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of proposed rulemaking for certification. 194.62 Section 194.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE...

  14. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification. 194.61 Section 194.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE...

  15. 46 CFR 194.05-11 - Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable solids and oxidizing materials-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-11 Flammable solids and oxidizing materials—Detail requirements. (a) Flammable solids and oxidizing materials used as chemical stores and reagents are governed by subparts 194.15...

  16. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  17. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Response plan review and update procedures. 194... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update procedures. (a) Each operator shall update its response plan to address new or different operating...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory....

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory....

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory....

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-15 - Chemical stores other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores other than compressed gases. 194.20-15... VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-15 Chemical stores other than compressed gases. (a) Flammable liquids are excluded...

  2. 19 CFR 19.4 - CBP and proprietor responsibility and supervision over warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... over warehouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF... warehouses. (a) Customs supervision. The character and extent of Customs supervision to be exercised...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Guidelines for the Preparation of Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Guidelines for the Preparation of...) Guidelines” (PREP), which can be found using the search function on the USCG's PREP Web page, http://www.uscg... the search function at the National Response Center's Web site, http://www.nrt.org and; (3) 33...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Guidelines for the Preparation of Response Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Guidelines for the Preparation of...) Guidelines” (PREP), which can be found using the search function on the USCG's PREP Web page, http://www.uscg... the search function at the National Response Center's Web site, http://www.nrt.org and; (3) 33...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17 Section 194.15-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section 194.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15 Section 194.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17 Section 194.15-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory...

  9. [Characteristics and identification of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K].

    PubMed

    Ustiugova, E A; Timofeeva, A V; Stoianova, L G; Netrusov, A I; Katrukha, G S

    2012-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 194-K strain has been established to be able to produce two bacteriocins, one of which was identified as the known lantibiotic nisin A, and the other 194-D bacteriocin represents a polypeptide with a 2589-Da molecular mass and comprises 20 amino acid residues. Both bacteriocins were produced in varying proportions in all of the studied nutrient media, which support the growth of the producer. Depending on the cultivation medium, the nisin A content was 380- to 1123-fold lower in the 194-K stain culture fluid than that of the 194-D peptide. In comparision to to nisin A Bacteriocin 194-D possessed a wide range of antibacterial activity and suppressed the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An optimal medium for 194-D bacteriocin synthesis was shown to be a fermentation medium which contained yeast extract, casein hydrolysate, and potassium phosphate. The biosynthesis ofbacteriocin 194-D by the 194-K strain in these media occurred parallel to producer growth, and its maximal accumulation in the culture fluid was observed at 14-20 h of the strain's growth.

  10. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  11. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  12. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  13. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  14. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  15. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  16. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  17. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  18. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... §§ 194.107 and 194.113, identifying which line sections in a response zone can be expected to cause... cause significant and substantial harm, then the entire response zone must, for the purpose of response plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial...

  19. Platinum oxidation responsible for degradation of platinum-cobalt alloy cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Nakamori, Yoji; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2012-10-01

    Platinum oxidation of Pt-Co alloy catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was investigated for a series of Pt-Co alloy catalysts with different specification. The chemical state of platinum evaluated by soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was compared with the electrochemical properties to elucidate the origin of catalyst degradation. Increase in the particle size of Pt-Co alloy catalysts caused the decrease in the concentration of platinum hydroxide and improved the catalyst durability. Applying potential cycling below 1.0 V, only platinum hydroxide was observed, while platinum oxides, PtO and PtO2, appeared after potential cycling up to 1.2 V. The peak shift of Pt 4f spectra after the potential cycling implies that these platinum hydroxide and oxide are dissolved and deposited on another platinum catalyst in a reduced metallic state, which causes the catalyst degradation.

  20. Contribution of genetic factors to platinum-based chemotherapy sensitivity and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Molina, Miguel Ángel; Robles, Ana I; Faus-Dáder, María José; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel

    Although platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment for advanced NSCLC patients, clinical outcomes are poor and most patients develop high-grade toxicities. Genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in platinum pharmacodynamics, metabolism and mechanism of action, may account for inter-individual differences shown in effectiveness and toxicity. Polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and others such as PI3K/PTEN/AKT and TGF-β pathways have been demonstrated to be associated with response, survival and toxicity in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Other cellular processes, like DNA methylation and proliferation have been connected with clinical outcome for platinum-based chemotherapy regimens through folate metabolism and cytokine signaling. The influence of gene polymorphisms in the NER pathway on clinical outcome has been extensively investigated in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy but contradictory results have been reported. The most recent and thorough meta-analyses have failed to show an association between ERCC1 C118T/C8092A and ERCC5 rs1047768 polymorphisms and response to platinum based chemotherapy. However, other polymorphisms in ERCC2 (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) and ERCC5 (rs2094258 and rs2296147) and have been related with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. The Arg194Trp and Gln399Arg polymorphisms in XRCC1, have also been extensively investigated. Their effects seem to be dependent on ethnicity, and recent meta-analyses have confirmed an association with response in Asian but not in Caucasian patients. The influence on overall response rate (ORR) of the rs861539 polymorphism in XRCC3, part of (DSB) repair pathway, has also been confirmed in a meta-analysis. Finally, SNPs in genes coding proteins of the p53, PI3K, TGF-β, membrane transporters, gluthatione metabolism enzymes and cytokine pathways have

  1. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  2. Catalytic Activity of Platinum Monolayer on Iridium and Rhenium Alloy Nanoparticles for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, Hiroko I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kuttiyiel, Kurian; Farberow, Carrie A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2012-05-04

    A new type of electrocatalyst with a core–shell structure that consists of a platinum monolayer shell placed on an iridium–rhenium nanoparticle core or platinum and palladium bilayer shell deposited on that core has been prepared and tested for electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon-supported iridium–rhenium alloy nanoparticles with several different molar ratios of Ir to Re were prepared by reducing metal chlorides dispersed on Vulcan carbon with hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 h. These catalysts showed specific electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction comparable to that of platinum. The activities of PtML/PdML/Ir2Re1, PtML/Pd2layers/Ir2Re1, and PtML/Pd2layers/Ir7Re3 catalysts were, in fact, better than that of conventional platinum electrocatalysts, and their mass activities exceeded the 2015 DOE target. Our density functional theory calculations revealed that the molar ratio of Ir to Re affects the binding strength of adsorbed OH and, thereby, the O2 reduction activity of the catalysts. The maximum specific activity was found for an intermediate OH binding energy with the corresponding catalyst on the top of the volcano plot. The monolayer concept facilitates the use of much less platinum than in other approaches. Finally, the results with the PtML/PdML/Ir2Re electrocatalyst indicate that it is a promising alternative to conventional Pt electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells.

  3. Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) anticancer complexes featuring a dichloroacetate moiety in the leaving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiping; Su, Jia; Jiang, Jing; Li, Xingyao; Ye, Qingsong; Zhou, Hongyu; Chen, Jialin; Li, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) complexes of 3-dichoroacetoxylcyclobutane-1, 1-dicarboxylate have been prepared in the present study and characterized by elemental analysis and IR, HPLC-MS and 1H, 13C-NMR. The complexes exist in equilibrium between two position isomeric forms and undergo hydrolysis reaction in aqueous solution, releasing the platinum pharmacophores and dichloroacetate which is a small-molecular cell apoptosis inducer. Both complexes were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic profile in A549, SGC-7901 and SK-OV-3 caner cells as well as in BEAS-2B normal cells. They exhibit markedly cytoxicity toward cancer cells by selectively inducing the apoptosis of cancer cells, whereas leaving normal cells less affected. They have also the ability to overcome the resistance of SK-OV-3 cancer cells to cisplatin. Our findings offer an alternative novel way to develop platinum drugs which can both overcome the drug resistance and selectively target tumor cells.

  4. MicroRNA-194 modulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hong-Ke; Chen, Xi; Tang, Yun-Hao; Deng, Yong-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as key regulators of gene expression, are closely related to tumor occurrence and progression. MiR-194 has been proved as a tumor regulatory factor in various cancers; however, the biological function and mechanism of action in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well explored. In the present study, we found that miR-194 expression is upregulated in CRC clinical specimens, while overexpression of miR-194 promotes cell migration and invasion in CRC cell lines. Besides, miR-194 significantly influenced the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers by downregulating E-cadherin expression (P<0.01) and upregulating vimentin and MMP-2 expression (P<0.001, P<0.05). Cell migration is the cell movement related to actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we found miR-194 increased cell polarization in SW480 cells. Moreover, zymography assay showed that miR-194 significantly upregulated the gelatin-degrading activity of MMP-2 (P<0.01). Collectively, our findings suggest that miR-194 functions as a tumor promoter in CRC, which may provide new insights for the study of CRC development and metastasis. PMID:28280361

  5. Luminol chemiluminescence catalysed by colloidal platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng-Liang; Cui, Hua

    2007-01-01

    Platinum colloids prepared by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid with citrate in the presence of different stabilizers were found to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H(2)O(2) system, and the most intensive CL signals were obtained with citrate-protected Pt colloids synthesized with citrate as both a reductant and a stabilizer. Light emission was intense and reproducible. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were conducted before and after the CL reaction to investigate the possible CL enhancement mechanism. It is suggested that this CL enhancement is attributed to the catalysis of platinum nanoparticles, which could accelerate the electron-transfer process and facilitate the CL radical generation in aqueous solution. The effects of Pt colloids prepared by the hydroborate reduction were also investigated. The application of the luminol-H(2)O(2)-Pt colloids system was exploited for the determination of compounds such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, phenols and amino acids.

  6. Synthesis and properties of platinum hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Thomas; Degtyareva, Olga; Marqués, Miriam; Guillaume, Christophe L.; Proctor, John E.; Evans, Shaun; Gregoryanz, Eugene

    2011-06-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on compressed platinum-hydrogen mixtures reveal the formation of platinum hydride at a pressure of 27(1) GPa at room temperature. This compound exhibits two phases, PtH-I and PtH-II, coexisting up to the pressure of 42 GPa, above which the single phase of PtH-II is observed. Pt atoms in the PtH-II phase are shown to form a hexagonal closed-packed structure. This phase exhibits a high bulk modulus of 310 (10) GPa and is stable up to at least 53 GPa. Ab initio calculations show that PtH-II is superconducting with Tc = 12 K at 90 GPa, the highest temperature of superconducting transition among any known metal hydride.

  7. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms.

    PubMed

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Allard, Lawrence F; Stocks, G M; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  8. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  9. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms. PMID:25429995

  10. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; ...

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms aremore » as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.« less

  11. Platinum anticancer drugs. From serendipity to rational design.

    PubMed

    Monneret, C

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of cis-platin was serendipitous. In 1965, Rosenberg was looking into the effects of an electric field on the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. He noticed that bacteria ceased to divide when placed in an electric field but what Rosenberg also observed was a 300-fold increase in the size of the bacteria. He attributed this to the fact that somehow the platinum-conducting plates were inducing cell growth but inhibiting cell division. It was later deduced that the platinum species responsible for this was cis-platin. Rosenberg hypothesized that if cis-platin could inhibit bacterial cell division it could also stop tumor cell growth. This conjecture has proven correct and has led to the introduction of cis-platin in cancer therapy. Indeed, in 1978, six years after clinical trials conducted by the NCI and Bristol-Myers-Squibb, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cis-platin under the name of Platinol(®) for treating patients with metastatic testicular or ovarian cancer in combination with other drugs but also for treating bladder cancer. Bristol-Myers Squibb also licensed carboplatin, a second-generation platinum drug with fewer side effects, in 1979. Carboplatin entered the U.S. market as Paraplatin(®) in 1989 for initial treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous platin derivatives have been further developed with more or less success and the third derivative to be approved in 1994 was oxaliplatin under the name of Eloxatin(®). It was the first platin-based drug to be active against metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid. The two others platin-based drugs to be approved were nedaplatin (Aqupla(®)) in Japan and lobaplatin in China, respectively. More recently, a strategy to overcome resistance due to interaction with thiol-containing molecules led to the synthesis of picoplatin in which one of the amines linked to Pt

  12. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  13. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  14. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  15. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  16. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment... General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. (a) Quality Assurance Programs at Waste Generator Sites. The Agency will...

  17. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to...

  18. The platinum group metals in Younger Dryas Horizons are terrestrial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wikes, E.; Kennett, J.; West, A.; Sharma, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) event, which began 12,900 years ago, was a period of abrupt and rapid cooling in the Northern Hemisphere whose primary cause remains unclear. The prevalent postulated mechanism is a temporary shutdown of the thermohaline circulation following the breakup of an ice dam in North America. Firestone et al. (2007) proposed that the cooling was triggered by multiple cometary airbursts and/or impacts that engendered enormous environmental changes and disrupted the thermohaline circulation. The evidence in support for this hypothesis is a black layer in North America and in Europe marking the YD boundary containing charcoal, soot, carbon spherules and glass-like carbon suggesting extensive and intense forest fires. This layer is also enriched in magnetic grains high in iridium, magnetic microspherules, fullerenes containing extraterrestrial He-3, and nanodiamonds. Whereas the nanodiamonds could be produced in an impact or arrive with the impactor, the cometary burst/impact hypothesis remains highly controversial as the YD horizon lacks important impact markers such as craters, breccias, tektites and shocked minerals. Firestone et al. (2007) contend that bulk of Ir found at the YD boundary is associated with magnetic grains. The key issue is whether this Ir is meteorite derived. We used Ir and Os concentrations and Os isotopes to investigate the provenance of the platinum group metals in the YD horizon. The bulk sediment samples from a number of North American YD sites (Blackwater Draw, Murray Springs, Gainey, Sheriden Cave, and Myrtle Beach) and a site in Europe (Lommel) do not show any traces of meteorite derived Os and Ir. The [Os] = 2 to 45 pg/g in these sediments and the 187Os/188Os ratios are similar to the upper continental crustal values (~1.3), much higher than those in meteorites (0.13). Higher [Os] is observed in Blackwater Draw (= 194 pg/g). However, the Os/Ir ratio in Blackwater Draw is 5 (not 1 as expected for a meteorite) and 187Os/188

  19. Differential lifetime measurements and identical superdeformed bands in {sup 192,194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.F.; Amro, H.; Lauritsen, T.; Janssens, R.V.; Khoo, T.L.; Ackermann, D.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Nisius, D.; Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Korichi, A.; Asztalos, S.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stephens, F.S.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Farris, L.P.; Henry, E.A.

    1997-05-01

    High-precision lifetime measurements have been performed in superdeformed (SD) bands of {sup 192,194}Hg with the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Intrinsic quadrupole moments Q{sub 0} were extracted for three SD bands in {sup 194}Hg and for the yrast SD band in {sup 192}Hg. Within experimental uncertainties, all four SD bands have equal Q{sub 0} values. These results provide constraints on differences in Q{sub 0} values between the {open_quotes}identical{close_quotes} SD bands {sup 194}Hg(3) and {sup 192}Hg(1). {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Strategies for the fabrication of porous platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kloke, Arne; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2011-11-16

    Porous platinum is of high technological importance due to its various applications in fuel cells, sensors, stimulation electrodes, mechanical actuators and catalysis in general. Based on a discussion of the general principles behind the reduction of platinum salts and corresponding deposition processes this article discusses techniques available for platinum electrode fabrication. The numerous, different strategies available to fabricate platinum electrodes are reviewed and discussed in the context of their tuning parameters, strengths and weaknesses. These strategies comprise bottom-up approaches as well as top-down approaches. In bottom-up approaches nanoparticles are synthesized in a fi rst step by chemical, photochemical or sonochemical means followed by an electrode formation step by e.g. thin fi lm technology or network formation to create a contiguous and conducting solid electrode structure. In top-down approaches fabrication starts with an already conductive electrode substrate. Corresponding strategies enable the fabrication of substrate-based electrodes by e.g. electrodeposition or the fabrication of self-supporting electrodes by dealloying. As a further top-down strategy, this review describes methods to decorate porous metals other than platinum with a surface layer of platinum. This way, fabrication methods not performable with platinum can be applied to the fabrication of platinum electrodes with the special benefit of low platinum consumption.

  1. Controlled synthesis of porous platinum nanostructures for catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanqin; Zhang, Junwei; Yang, Yong; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet; Nogami, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Porous platinum, that has outstanding catalytic and electrical properties and superior resistant characteristics to corrosion, has been widely applied in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, and automotive industries. As the catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the size, shape and structure of nanomaterials, the strategies for controlling these factors of platinum nanomaterials to get excellent catalytic properties are discussed. Here, recent advances in the design and preparation of various porous platinum nanostructures are reviewed, including wet-chemical synthesis, electro-deposition, galvanic replacement reaction and de-alloying technology. The applications of various platinum nanostructures are also discussed, especially in fuel cells.

  2. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-03-22

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  3. E platinum, a newly synthesized platinum compound, induces apoptosis through ROS-triggered ER stress in gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Guo, Qinglong; Tao, Lei; Zhao, Li; Chen, Yan; An, Teng; Chen, Zhen; Fu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is still one of the leading causes of death in cancer-related diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of E Platinum, a newly platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent bearing the basic structure of Oxaliplatin, in a variety of gastric carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that E Platinum significantly induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as a result of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that E Platinum enhanced Ca(2+) flux out from the endoplasmic reticulum by increasing the protein expression of IP3R type 1 (IP3R1) and decreasing the expression of ERp44. Dysfunction of Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to accumulation of unfolded proteins and ER stress. Mechanically, E Platinum increased ER stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP. However, knocking down CHOP reversed E Platinum-induced apoptosis by blocking mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, 10 mg/kg of E Platinum significantly suppressed BGC-823 tumor growth in vivo without toxicity, which correlated with induction of apoptosis and expression of ER stress related proteins in tumor tissues. Taken together, E Platinum inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis by ROS-mediated ER stress activation both in vitro and in vivo. Our study indicated that E Platinum may be a potential and effective treatment for gastric cancer in clinical. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 40 CFR 194.11 - Completeness and accuracy of compliance applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE... and Re-certification Applications § 194.11 Completeness and accuracy of compliance...

  5. 27 CFR 46.194 - Persons not liable for floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.194 Persons not liable for...

  6. 27 CFR 46.194 - Persons not liable for floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.194 Persons not liable for...

  7. 37 CFR 2.194 - Identification of trademark application or registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Correspondence in Trademark Cases § 2.194 Identification of trademark application or registration. (a) No correspondence relating to a trademark application should be filed prior to receipt of the application...

  8. 27 CFR 46.194 - Persons not liable for floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.194 Persons not liable for...

  9. 27 CFR 46.194 - Persons not liable for floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.194 Persons not liable for...

  10. Observation of the single step links of the yrast superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Schueck, C.

    1996-12-01

    The EUROGAM array has been used to investigate the decay out of the yrast superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 194}Pb. Eigth single step decays from the lowest observed SD states to low-lying states at normal deformation (ND) have been identified. From this observation, the excitation energy (4877 {plus_minus} 1.5 keV) and the spin (6+) of the lowest observed SD state in {sup 194}Pb are established.

  11. Vapor-deposited platinum as a fuel-cell catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Electrodes are prepared by vacuum deposition of platinum on nickel substrate with conventional vapor-deposition apparatus. Amount of platinum loaded on substrate can be veried by changing exposure time during deposition. These electrodes are significantly more effective than conventional oxygen electrodes.

  12. Platinum(II)-Acyclovir Complexes: Synthesis, Antiviral and Antitumour Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coluccia, M.; Boccarelli, A.; Cermelli, C.; Portolani, M.; Natile, G.

    1995-01-01

    A platinum(II) complex with the antiviral drug acyclovir was synthesized and its antiviral and anticancer properties were investigated in comparison to those of acyclovir and cisplatin. The platinum-acyclovir complex maintained the antiviral activity of the parent drug acyclovir, though showing a minor efficacy on a molar basis (ID50  =   7.85 and 1.02 μΜ for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). As anticancer agent, the platinum-acyclovir complex was markedly less potent than cisplatin on a mole-equivalent basis, but it was as effective as cisplatin when equitoxic dosages were administered in vivo to P388 leukaemia-bearing mice (%T/C = 209 and 211 for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). The platinum-acyclovir complex was also active against a cisplatin-resistant subline of the P388 leukaemia (%T/C = 140), thus suggesting a different mechanism of action. The DNA interaction properties (sequence specificity and interstrand cross-linking ability) of platinum-acyclovir were also investigated in comparison to those of cisplatin and [Pt(dien)Cl]+, an antitumour-inactive platinum-triamine compound. The results of this study point to a potential new drug endowed, at the same time, with antiviral and anticancer activity and characterized by DNA interaction properties different from those of cisplatin. PMID:18472776

  13. A DFT study of oxygen dissociation on platinum based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul C; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Neyman, Konstantin M; Johnston, Roy L

    2014-01-21

    Density functional theory calculations are performed on 38 and 79 metal atom truncated octahedron clusters to study oxygen dissociation as a model for the initial stage of the oxygen reduction reaction. Pure platinum and alloyed platinum-titanium core-shell systems are investigated. It is found that barrierless oxygen dissociation occurs on the (111) facet of the pure platinum clusters. A barrier of ~0.3 eV is observed on the (100) facet. For the alloyed cluster, dissociation barriers are found on both facets, typically ~0.6 eV. The differences between the two systems are attributed to the ability of oxygen to distort the (111) surface of the pure platinum clusters. We show that flexibility of the platinum shell is crucial in promotion of fast oxygen dissociation. However, the titanium core stabilises the platinum shell upon alloying, resulting in a less easily distortable surface. Therefore, whilst an alloyed platinum-titanium electrocatalyst has certain advantages over the pure platinum electrocatalyst, we suggest alloying with a more weakly interacting metal will be beneficial for facilitating oxygen dissociation.

  14. Bimetallic alloy electrocatalysts with multilayered platinum-skin surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Wang, Chao; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2016-01-26

    Compositions and methods of preparing a bimetallic alloy having enhanced electrocatalytic properties are provided. The composition comprises a PtNi substrate having a surface layer, a near-surface layer, and an inner layer, where the surface layer comprises a nickel-depleted composition, such that the surface layer comprises a platinum skin having at least one atomic layer of platinum.

  15. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan [Havana, IL; Silver, Ronald G [Peoria, IL; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna [Edelstein, IL; Eckstein, Colleen J [Metamora, IL

    2011-12-06

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  16. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2012-08-07

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  17. Osimertinib or Platinum-Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-Positive Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tony S; Wu, Yi-Long; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Garassino, Marina C; Kim, Hye R; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Shepherd, Frances A; He, Yong; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Theelen, Willemijn S M E; Lee, Chee K; Sebastian, Martin; Templeton, Alison; Mann, Helen; Marotti, Marcelo; Ghiorghiu, Serban; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A

    2017-02-16

    Background Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that is selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The efficacy of osimertinib as compared with platinum-based therapy plus pemetrexed in such patients is unknown. Methods In this randomized, international, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned 419 patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, who had disease progression after first-line EGFR-TKI therapy, in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) plus either carboplatin (target area under the curve, 5 [AUC5]) or cisplatin (75 mg per square meter) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles; maintenance pemetrexed was allowed. In all the patients, disease had progressed during receipt of first-line EGFR-TKI therapy. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Results The median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer with osimertinib than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (10.1 months vs. 4.4 months; hazard ratio; 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.41; P<0.001). The objective response rate was significantly better with osimertinib (71%; 95% CI, 65 to 76) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (31%; 95% CI, 24 to 40) (odds ratio for objective response, 5.39; 95% CI, 3.47 to 8.48; P<0.001). Among 144 patients with metastases to the central nervous system (CNS), the median duration of progression-free survival was longer among patients receiving osimertinib than among those receiving platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (8.5 months vs. 4.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.49). The proportion of patients with adverse events of grade 3 or higher was lower with osimertinib (23%) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (47%). Conclusions

  18. Effect of thioethers on DNA platination by trans-platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chan; Huang, Rongrong; Ding, Yi; Sletten, Einar; Arnesano, Fabio; Losacco, Maurizio; Natile, Giovanni; Liu, Yangzhong

    2011-09-05

    Increasing evidence indicates that sulfur-containing molecules can play important roles in the activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Although nuclear DNA is retained to be the ultimate target, these platinum compounds can readily react with a variety of other substrates containing a soft donor atom, such as proteins, peptides, and low molecular weight biomolecules, before reaching DNA. In a recent study it was demonstrated that the DNA platination rate of a trans-geometry antitumor drug was dramatically enhanced by methionine binding, thus suggesting that the thioether could serve as a catalyst for DNA platination. In this work we performed detailed studies on the reactions of a widely investigated and very promising trans-platinum complex having two iminoethers and two chlorido ligands, trans-EE, with methionine (Met) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The results show that in the reaction of trans-EE with methionine the bisadduct is the dominant species in the early stage of the reaction. The reaction is also influenced by chloride concentration: at low NaCl the bis-methionine adduct is formed in preference, whereas the monoadduct is favored at high NaCl concentration. Not only the monomethionine complex, trans-PtCl(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet), but also the bis-methionine adduct, trans-Pt(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet)(2), which has already lost both leaving chlorides, can react with GMP to form the ternary platinum complex trans-Pt(E-iminoether)(2)(AcMet)(GMP). The latter reaction discloses the possibility of direct coordination to DNA of a platinum-protein adduct, in which the two carrier ligands remain intact; this is not the case of cis-oriented platinum complexes, like cisplatin, for which formation of a ternary complex is usually accompanied by loss of at least one carrier ligand. Interestingly, isomerization from S to N coordination of one methionine takes place in the bis-methionine complex at neutral pH, while the monoadduct appears to be stable. The shift from

  19. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 'plunge method' recommended by ASTM has been used to determine the time constant of 100-ohm platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) considered for use in the National Transonic Facility. It is shown that the response time of ventilated PRT can be correlated with the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient in a given field. Universal correlations are established for the 100- and 1000-ohm PRT with uncertainties of 20 and 30 percent, respectively. The correlations are found to be consistent with the uncertainty involved in heat transfer correlations available in the literature and are recommended for use in flowing liquids and gases.

  20. Platinum Acetylide Two-Photon Chromophores (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    L.; Pierce, B. M. Science 1994, 265, 632. (14) Prasad, P. N.; Reinhardt, B. A. Chem. Mater. 1990, 2, 660. (15) Larson, E . J.; Friesen , L. A.; Johnson...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4348 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 6. AUTHOR(S) Joy E . Rogers (UES) Jonathan E . Slagle (AT&T Government...afford T1. Platinum Acetylide Two-Photon Chromophores Joy E . Rogers,†,‡ Jonathan E . Slagle,†,§ Douglas M. Krein,†,| Aaron R. Burke,†,| Benjamin C. Hall

  1. Platinum adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles, method for preparing, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tong, YuYe; Du, Bingchen

    2015-08-11

    A superior, industrially scalable one-pot ethylene glycol-based wet chemistry method to prepare platinum-adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles has been developed that offers an exquisite control of the platinum packing density of the adlayers and effectively prevents sintering of the nanoparticles during the deposition process. The wet chemistry based method for the controlled deposition of submonolayer platinum is advantageous in terms of processing and maximizing the use of platinum and can, in principle, be scaled up straightforwardly to an industrial level. The reactivity of the Pt(31)-Ru sample was about 150% higher than that of the industrial benchmark PtRu (1:1) alloy sample but with 3.5 times less platinum loading. Using the Pt(31)-Ru nanoparticles would lower the electrode material cost compared to using the industrial benchmark alloy nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  2. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate airway responses to Pt, we developed a mouse model of Pt hypersensitivity. Previously, we confirmed the dermal sensitizing potency of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) using an ex vivo [3H]methyl thymidine labeling version of the local lymph node assay in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the ability of AHCP to induce airway responses in mice sensitized by the dermal route. Mice were sensitized through application of 100 µL 1% AHCP in DMSO to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and 25 µl to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. Unsensitized mice received vehicle. On day 24, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) with 0 or 100 µg AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, airway responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). On day 26, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 7.5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in control mice (p < 0.05). This model will be useful for assessing both relative sensitizing potency and cross-reacti

  3. Therapeutic gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Miko; Foote, Matthew; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    There are an abundance of nanoparticle technologies being developed for use as part of therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on a narrow class of metal nanoparticles that have therapeutic potential that is a consequence of elemental composition and size. The most widely known of these are gold nanoshells that have been developed over the last two decades for photothermal ablation in superficial cancers. The therapeutic effect is the outcome of the thickness and diameter of the gold shell that enables fine tuning of the plasmon resonance. When these metal nanoparticles are exposed to the relevant wavelength of light, their temperature rapidly increases. This in turn induces a localized photothermal ablation that kills the surrounding tumor tissue. Similarly, gold nanoparticles have been developed to enhance radiotherapy. The high-Z nature of gold dramatically increases the photoelectric cross-section. Thus, the photoelectric effects are significantly increased. The outcome of these interactions is enhanced tumor killing with lower doses of radiation, all while sparing tissue without gold nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have been used for their wound healing properties in addition to enhancing the tumor-killing effects of anticancer drugs. Finally, platinum nanoparticles are thought to serve as a reservoir for platinum ions that can induce DNA damage in cancer cells. The future is bright with the path to clinical trials is largely cleared for some of the less complex therapeutic metal nanoparticle systems.

  4. ERCC1 Expression in Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed

    EL Baiomy, Mohamed Ali; El Kashef, Wagdi F

    2017-02-01

    Background: Possible targeted therapies for metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) include cytotoxic chemotherapy that causes interstrand breaks (platinum-based drugs). The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays an essential role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, removing platinum-induced DNA adducts and contributing to cisplatin resistance. Detecting ERCC1 overexpression is important in considering treatment options for metastatic TNBC, including individualized approaches to therapy, and may facilitate improved responses or reduction of unnecessary toxicity. We hypothesized that assigning cisplatin based on pretreatment ERCC1 expression would improve response and survival. This study was conducted to assess the impact of ERCC1 expression on PFS, OS and response rates in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: From June 2012 to November 2013, 52 metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients were enrolled. ERCC1 protein expression was detected from pretreatment biopsies by Immunohistochemistry. All patients received cisplatin plus paclitaxel. The primary end point was the impact of ERCC1 expression on PFS and OS. Results: 34 patients (65.4%) showed positive ERCC1 expression while 18 (34.6%) proved negative. Positive ERCC1 expression was associated with short PFS (median, 5 months vs. 7 months; P = 0.043), short OS (median, 9 months vs. 11 months; P = 0.033) and poor response to cisplatin based chemotherapy (P = 0.046). Conclusions: This prospective study further validated ERCC1 as a reliable biomarker for customized chemotherapy in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients. High expression of ERCC1 was thereby fond to be significantly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy.

  5. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart K are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce platinum ore and...

  6. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart K are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce platinum ore and...

  7. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart K are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce platinum ore and...

  8. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    K Sasaki; H Naohara; Y Cai; Y Choi; P Liu; M Vukmirovic; J Wang; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200,000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  9. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, R.R.; Sasaki, K.; Naohara, H.; Cai, Y.; Choi, Y.M.; Liu, P.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Wang, J.X.

    2010-11-08

    More than skin deep: Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200?000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  10. New perspective on maintenance therapies for platinum- sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer in women with germline and somatic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    PubMed Central

    Vergote, I; Bours, V; Blaumeiser, B; Baurain, J-F

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most common cancer in women. Although women diagnosed with OC are usually treated frontline with platinum-based chemotherapy, most of them relapse once treatment is halted. Therefore, maintenance therapies have been developed to secure the response and delay further chemotherapy. There are two established maintenance therapies for women affected by platinum-sensitive recurrent OC: bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, and olaparib, an inhibitor of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARPi). Loss-of-function mutations in genes in the homologous recombination pathway, especially BRCA1 and BRCA2, predict higher rates of platinum sensitivity, better overall survival (OS), and better response to PARPi in women with OC. Among patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent OC, a BRCA mutation is the first genetically defined predictive marker for targeted therapy, since these patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with a PARPi, such as olaparib. In patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent OC without a BRCA mutation, bevacizumab currently seems to be the best maintenance option. Women with OC are progressively more routinely screened for germline BRCA mutations, and the implication of somatic BRCA mutations is increasingly being recognized in OC. Therefore, the recommendations should be updated to reflect the importance of both types of mutations. Together, these data highlight the fact that treatment of recurrent OC can be optimized using genomic contributions to individualize therapy and to improve treatment response. PMID:28003870

  11. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure.

  12. Surface Analysis of 4-Aminothiophenol Adsorption at Polycrystalline Platinum Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Fachini, Estevao R.; Contes, Enid J.; Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) on polycrystalline platinum electrodes has been studied by surface analysis and electrochemistry techniques. The 4-ATP monolayer was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Raman spectroscopy, reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments give an idea about the packing quality of the monolayer. RAIR and Raman spectra for 4-ATP modified platinum electrodes showed the characteristic adsorption bands for neat 4-ATP indicating the adsorption of 4-ATP molecules on platinum surface. The adsorption on platinum was also evidenced by the presence of sulfur and nitrogen peaks by XPS survey spectra of the modified platinum electrodes. High resolution XPS studies and RAIR spectrum for platinum electrodes modified with 4-ATP indicate that molecules are sulfur-bonded to the platinum surface. The formation of S-Pt bond suggests that ATP adsorption gives up an amino terminated SAM. Thickness of the monolayer was evaluated via angle-resolved XPS (AR-XPS) analyses. Derivatization of 4-ATP SAM was performed using 16-Br hexadecanoic acid.

  13. Electron Beam Welder Used to Braze Sapphire to Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Vannuyen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A new use for electron beam brazing was recently developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Manufacturing Engineering Division. This work was done to fabricate a fiberoptic probe (developed by Sentec Corporation) that could measure high temperatures less than 600 deg C of vibrating machinery, such as in jet engine combustion research. Under normal circumstances, a sapphire fiber would be attached to platinum by a ceramic epoxy. However, no epoxies can adhere ceramic fibers to platinum under such high temperatures and vibration. Also, since sapphire and platinum have different thermal properties, the epoxy bond is subjected to creep over time. Therefore, a new method had to be developed that would permanently and reliably attach a sapphire fiber to platinum. Brazing a sapphire fiber to a platinum shell. The fiber-optic probe assembly consists of a 0.015-in.-diameter sapphire fiber attached to a 0.25-in.-long, 0.059-in.-diameter platinum shell. Because of the small size of this assembly, electron beam brazing was chosen instead of conventional vacuum brazing. The advantage of the electron beam is that it can generate a localized heat source in a vacuum. Gold reactive braze was used to join the sapphire fiber and the platinum. Consequently, the sapphire fiber was not affected by the total heat needed to braze the components together.

  14. Monofunctional and Higher-Valent Platinum Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum compounds represent one of the great success stories of metals in medicine. Following the serendipitous discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin by Rosenberg, a large number of cisplatin variants have been prepared and tested for their ability to kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. These efforts continue today with increased realization that new strategies are needed to overcome issues of toxicity and resistance inherent to treatment by the approved platinum anticancer agents. One approach has been the use of so-called “non-traditional” platinum(II) and platinum(IV) compounds that violate the structure-activity relationships that governed platinum drug-development research for many years. Another is the use of specialized drug delivery strategies. Here we describe recent developments from our laboratory involving monofunctional platinum(II) complexes together with an historical account of the manner by which we came to investigate these compounds and their relationship to previously studied molecules. We also discuss work carried out using platinum(IV) prodrugs and the development of nanoconstructs designed to deliver them in vivo. PMID:23738524

  15. Co-delivery of platinum drug and siNotch1 with micelleplex for enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Song; Sun, Chun-Yang; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Li, Hong-Jun; Liu, Yang; Xia, Jin-Xing; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    As part of HCC tumor cellularity, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered a major obstacle to eradicate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the accumulation of chemotherapeutic drug-resistant CSCs invariably accounts for poor prognosis and HCC relapse. In the present study, we explored the efficacy of co-delivery of platinum drug and siRNA targeting Notch1 to treat CSCs-harboring HCC. To overcome the challenging obstacles of platinum drug and siRNA in the systemic administration, we developed a micellar nanoparticle (MNP) to deliver platinum(IV) prodrug and siNotch1, hereafter referred to as (Pt(IV))MNP/siNotch1. We demonstrated that (Pt(IV))MNP/siNotch1 was able to efficiently deliver two drugs into both non-CSCs and CSCs of SMMC7721, a HCC cell line. We further found that siRNA-mediated inhibition of Notch1 suppression can increase the sensitivity of HCC cells to platinum drugs and decrease the percentage of HCC CSCs, and consequently resulting in enhanced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in HCC cells in vitro. Moreover, our results indicated that the combined drug delivery system can remarkably augment drug enrichment in tumor tissues, substantially suppressing the tumor growth while avoiding the accumulation of CSCs in a synergistic manner in the SMMC7721 xenograft model.

  16. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks: conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of drug carriers.

  17. Cisplatin and platinum drugs at the molecular level. (Review).

    PubMed

    Boulikas, Teni; Vougiouka, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Over twenty years of intensive work toward improvement of cisplatin, and with hundreds of platinum drugs tested, has resulted in the introduction of the widely used carboplatin and of oxaliplatin used only for a very narrow spectrum of cancers. A number of interesting platinum compounds including the orally administered platinum drug JM216, nedaplatin, the sterically hindered platinum(II) complex ZD0473, the trinuclear platinum complex BBR3464, and the liposomal forms Lipoplatin and SPI-77 are under clinical evaluation. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of platinum compounds for DNA damage, DNA repair and induction of apoptosis via activation or modulation of signaling pathways and explores the basis of platinum resistance. Cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin and most other platinum compounds induce damage to tumors via induction of apoptosis; this is mediated by activation of signal transduction leading to the death receptor mechanisms as well as mitochondrial pathways. Apoptosis is responsible for the characteristic nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and most other toxicities of the drugs. The major limitation in the clinical applications of cisplatin has been the development of cisplatin resistance by tumors. Mechanisms explaining cisplatin resistance include the reduction in cisplatin accumulation inside cancer cells because of barriers across the cell membrane, the faster repair of cisplatin adducts, the modulation of apoptotic pathways in various cells, the upregulation in transcription factors, the loss of p53 and other protein functions and a higher concentration of glutathione and metallothioneins in some type of tumors. A number of experimental strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance are at the preclinical or clinical level such as introduction of the bax gene, inhibition of the JNK pathway, introduction of a functional p53 gene, treatment of tumors with aldose reductase inhibitors and others. Particularly important are combinations of platinum

  18. Preparation of low-sulfur platinum and platinum aluminide layers in thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Walston, William S. (Inventor); Schaeffer, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for preparing a coated nickel-base superalloy article reduces the sulfur content of the surface region of the metallic coating layers to low levels, thereby improving the adhesion of the coating layers to the article. The method includes depositing a first layer of platinum overlying the surface of a substrate, depositing a second layer of aluminum over the platinum, and final desulfurizing the article by heating the article to elevated temperature, preferably in hydrogen, and removing a small amount of material from the surface that was exposed during the step of heating. A ceramic layer may be deposited over the desulfurized article. The article may also be similarly desulfurized at other points in the fabrication procedure.

  19. Oxidation performance of platinum-clad Mo-47Re alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald K.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1994-01-01

    The alloy Mo-47Re has favorable mechanical properties at temperatures above 1400 C, but it undergoes severe oxidation when used in air with no protective coating. To shield the alloy from oxidation, platinum cladding has been evaluated. The unprotected alloy undergoes catastrophic oxidation under static and dynamic oxidation conditions. The platinum cladding provides good protection from static and dynamic oxidation for moderate times at 1260 C. Samples tested for longer times under static oxidation conditions experienced severe oxidation. The data suggest that oxidation results from the transport of oxygen through the grain boundaries and through the pinhole defects of the platinum cladding.

  20. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype.

  1. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jennifer N.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  2. γ -ray spectroscopy of low-lying excited states and shape competition in 194Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, T.; Kisyov, S.; Regan, P. H.; Marginean, N.; Podolyák, Zs.; Marginean, R.; Nomura, K.; Rudigier, M.; Mihai, R.; Werner, V.; Carroll, R. J.; Gurgi, L. A.; Oprea, A.; Berry, T.; Serban, A.; Nita, C. R.; Sotty, C.; Suvaila, R.; Turturica, A.; Costache, C.; Stan, L.; Olacel, A.; Boromiza, M.; Toma, S.

    2017-02-01

    The properties of excited states in the neutron-rich nucleus 194Os have been investigated using the 192Os(18O,16O )194Os reaction with an 80 MeV beam provided by the IFIN-HH Laboratory, Bucharest. Discrete γ -ray decays from excited states have been measured using the hybrid HPGe-LaBr3(Ce ) array RoSPHERE. The current work identifies a number of previously unreported low-lying nonyrast states in 194Os as well as the first measurement of the half-life of the yrast 2+ state of 302(50) ps. This is equivalent to a B (E 2 :2+→0+) =45 (16 ) W.u. and intrinsic quadrupole deformation of βeff=0.14 (1 ) . The experimental results are compared with Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov-interacting-boson-model calculations and are consistent with a reduction in a quadrupole collectivity in Os isotopes with increasing neutron number.

  3. RDDS lifetime measurements of low-lying superdeformed states in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, R.; Dewald, A.; Kruecken, R.

    1996-12-31

    The lifetimes of three low-lying states in the superdeformed (SD) yrast band of {sup 194}Hg were measured by the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method. The deduced transition quadrupole moments, Q{sub t}, equal those extracted from a DSAM measurement for the high-lying states of the band corroborate the assumption that the decay out of SD bands does not strongly affect the structure of the corresponding states. By a simple mixing-model the decay can be described assuming a very small admixture of normal-deformed (ND) states to the decaying SD states. The deduced ND mixing amplitudes for the yrast SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg and {sup 194}Pb are presented along with average transition quadrupole moments for the lower parts of the excited SD bands.

  4. Platinum group nuggets in deep sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Bates, B. A.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of iron meteor oblation spheres in deep sea sediments was known for over a century. These spheres generally were believed to be composed of either pure magnetite and wustite or an oxide shell surrounding a NiFe metal core. A large number of 300 micron to 600 micron spheres found were pure oxide spheres, usually containing a solitary 10 micron platinum group nugget (pgn) composed almost entirely of group VIII metals. Twelve PGN's were analyzed and most had chondritic abundances with some depletions that correlate with element volatility. PGN formation by oxidation of a molten metal sphere entering the atmosphere cannot occur if the oxygen abundance in the atmosphere is less than half of its present value. The first appearance of PGN's in the geological record should mark when, in the Earth's history, oxygen rose to this level.

  5. Electrooxidation of saccharides at platinum electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ji-Hyung; Chung, Taek Dong

    2012-10-01

    Saccharides have been emerging as promising fuels for future energy industry because they possess high energy density and tremendous amount of them can be obtained from abundant biomass. Direct electrochemical oxidation of saccharides to generate electricity is a potentially competitive approach in terms of the demand for small, handy, and cost-effective electric power sources. To develop efficient sugar fuel cell, it is necessary to understand mechanism of electrooxidation of saccharide at electrode surface. Although glucose oxidation at platinum surface has been well known, fundamental mechanism study on electrooxidation of other sugars is still in its infancy. Based on research of glucose oxidation, we will predict the electrooxidation of other saccharides such as fructose.

  6. Thermodynamic ground states of platinum metal nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Aberg, D; Sadigh, B; Crowhurst, J; Goncharov, A

    2007-10-09

    We have systematically studied the thermodynamic stabilities of various phases of the nitrides of the platinum metal elements using density functional theory. We show that for the nitrides of Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt two new crystal structures, in which the metal ions occupy simple tetragonal lattice sites, have lower formation enthalpies at ambient conditions than any previously proposed structures. The region of stability can extend up to 17 GPa for PtN{sub 2}. Furthermore, we show that according to calculations using the local density approximation, these new compounds are also thermodynamically stable at ambient pressure and thus may be the ground state phases for these materials. We further discuss the fact that the local density and generalized gradient approximations predict different values of the absolute formation enthalpies as well different relative stabilities between simple tetragonal and the pyrite or marcasite structures.

  7. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; ...

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activitymore » 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.« less

  8. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activity 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.

  9. Superconductivity observed in platinum-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Pai-Chia; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Ku-Pin; Shiue, Jessie

    2014-05-26

    We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ∼0.6 K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ∼2.5 eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a ∼ 7 nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.

  10. New supersymmetric quartet of nuclei: {sup 192,193}Os-{sup 193,194}Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Frank, A.; Barea, J.; Graw, G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Jolie, J.

    2009-01-28

    We present evidence for the existence of a new supersymmetric quartet of nuclei in the A{approx}190 mass region. The analysis is based on new experimental information on the odd-odd nucleus {sup 194}Ir from transfer and neutron capture reactions. The new data allow the identification of a new supersymmetric quartet, consisting of the {sup 192,193}Os and {sup 193,194}Ir nuclei. We make explicit predictions for {sup 193}Os, and suggest that its spectroscopic properties be measured in dedicated experiments. Finally, we study correlations between different transfer reactions.

  11. Determination of effective resonance energy for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction by the cadmium ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yücel, Haluk

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the effective resonance energy, Ebarr -value for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction was measured using cadmium ratio method. A dual monitor (197Au-98Mo), which has convenient resonance properties, was employed for characterization of the irradiation sites. Then analytical grade iridium oxide samples diluted with CaCO3 to lower neutron self-shielding effect stacked in small cylindrical Teflon boxes were irradiated once with a 1 mm thick Cd cylindrical box placed in a thermalized neutron field of an 241Am-Be neutron source then without it. The activities produced in samples during 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction were measured using a p-type HPGe detector γ-ray spectrometer with a 44.8% relative efficiency. The correction factors for thermal, epithermal neutron self-shielding (Gth, Gepi), true coincidence summing (Fcoi) and gamma-ray self-absorption (Fs) effects were determined with appropriate approaches and programs. Thus, the experimental Ebarr -value was determined to be 2.65 ± 0.61 eV for 193Ir target nuclide. The recent data for Q0 and FCd values for Ebarr determination were based on k0-NAA online database. The present experimental Ebarr value was calculated and compared with more recent values for Q0 and FCd for 193Ir. Additionally, the Ebarr -values was theoretically calculated from the up-to-date resonance data obtained from ENDF/B VII library using two different approaches. Since there is no experimentally determined Ebarr -value for the 193Ir isotope, the results are compared with the calculated ones given in the literature.

  12. Internalization of Ineffective Platinum Complex in Nanocapsules Renders It Cytotoxic.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Oldrich; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Medrikova, Zdenka; Burdikova, Jana; Stuchlikova, Olga; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-02-18

    Anticancer therapy by platinum complexes, based on nanocarrier-based delivery, may offer a new approach to improve the efficacy and tolerability of the platinum family of anticancer drugs. The original rules for the design of new anticancer platinum drugs were affected by the fact that, although cisplatin (cis-[PtCl2 (NH3)2) was an anticancer drug, its isomer transplatin was not cytotoxic. For the first time, it is demonstrated that simple encapsulation of an inactive platinum compound in phospholipid bilayers transforms it into an efficient cytotoxic agent. Notably, the encapsulation of transplatin makes it possible to overcome the resistance mechanisms operating in cancer cells treated with cisplatin and prevents inactivation of transplatin in the extracellular environment. It is also shown that transplatin delivered to the cells in nanocapsules, in contrast to free (nonencapsulated) complex, forms cytotoxic cross-links on DNA.

  13. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  14. Platinum electrodeposition from a dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, Mathias; Schulze, Claudia; Schneider, Michael; Michaelis, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    In this work a halogen-free electrolyte to deposit platinum nanoparticle is studied. The investigated [Pt(NO2)2SO4]2--complex is suitable for electrochemical deposition on halogen sensitive substrates. The mechanism and kinetic of particle deposition is investigated using a glassy carbon rotating disk electrode. Nano sized platinum particles are deposited by using pulse plating technique. The size of the smallest platinum nanoparticle is 5 nm. The shape of the particle distribution strictly depends on the plating time. The platinum deposition is usually superimposed with hydrogen evolution. A diffusion coefficient of the [Pt(NO2)2SO4]2--complex is determined to 5.4 × 10-6 cm2s-1. The current efficiency depends on the deposition parameters and amounts to 37% under the chosen pulse plating conditions.

  15. Interfacial electronic effects control the reaction selectivity of platinum catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangxu; Xu, Chaofa; Huang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Jinyu; Gu, Lin; Li, Gang; Tang, Zichao; Wu, Binghui; Yang, Huayan; Zhao, Zipeng; Zhou, Zhiyou; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-05-01

    Tuning the electronic structure of heterogeneous metal catalysts has emerged as an effective strategy to optimize their catalytic activities. By preparing ethylenediamine-coated ultrathin platinum nanowires as a model catalyst, here we demonstrate an interfacial electronic effect induced by simple organic modifications to control the selectivity of metal nanocatalysts during catalytic hydrogenation. This we apply to produce thermodynamically unfavourable but industrially important compounds, with ultrathin platinum nanowires exhibiting an unexpectedly high selectivity for the production of N-hydroxylanilines, through the partial hydrogenation of nitroaromatics. Mechanistic studies reveal that the electron donation from ethylenediamine makes the surface of platinum nanowires highly electron rich. During catalysis, such an interfacial electronic effect makes the catalytic surface favour the adsorption of electron-deficient reactants over electron-rich substrates (that is, N-hydroxylanilines), thus preventing full hydrogenation. More importantly, this interfacial electronic effect, achieved through simple organic modifications, may now be used for the optimization of commercial platinum catalysts.

  16. Platinum Publications, April 1–May 27, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed.

  17. Defining Therapy for Recurrent Platinum-sensitive Ovarian Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, women with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer will be randomly assigned to undergo secondary cytoreductive surgery, if they are candidates for such surgery, and

  18. Platinum nanostructures formed by femtosecond laser irradiation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Huo Haibin; Shen Mengyan

    2012-11-15

    Platinum nanostructures with various morphologies, such as spike-like, ripple-like and array-like structures, have been fabricated by 400 nm and 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation in water. Different structures can be formed on the surfaces as a function of the laser wavelength, the fluence and scan methods. The reflectance measurements of these structures show much larger absorption on the irradiated surfaces than untreated platinum surfaces.

  19. Modified anthracites as selective sorbents for platinum metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Goncharik, V.P.; Galushko, O.L.; Fonseca, I.

    2006-05-15

    Methods of preliminary modification were used to obtain activated carbons with low ash content (0.2%), developed pi-conjugated electronic system, large surface area, and wide pore size distribution, from exclusively microporous carbons to those of mesoporous type. The adsorption of compounds of platinum-group metals on activated anthracite from single-component (as regards the platinum metal: Pd, Pt, or Rh) and multicomponent (Pd, Pt) solutions containing compounds of concomitant metals was studied.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: platinum group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on platinum group metals (PGMs) and their properties. According to the author, PGMs, which include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium, are among the rarest mineral commodities in the Earth's crust. PGMs are primarily used as catalytic converters that clean harmful exhaust from vehicle engines. They are also used in the chemical industry as catalysts in the production of nitric acid and in the petroleum refining industry.