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Sample records for platinum 194 target

  1. MicroRNA-194 (miR-194) regulates ROMK channel activity by targeting intersectin 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Zhang, Chengbiao; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the role of miR-194 in mediating the effect of high-K (HK) intake on ROMK channel. Northern blot analysis showed that miR-194 was expressed in kidney and that HK intake increased while low-K intake decreased the expression of miR-194. Real-time PCR analysis further demonstrated that HK intake increased the miR-194 expression in the cortical collecting duct. HK intake decreased the expression of intersectin 1 (ITSN1) which enhanced With-No-Lysine Kinase (WNK)-induced endocytosis of ROMK. Expression of miR-194 mimic decreased luciferase reporter gene activity in HEK293 T cells transfected with ITSN-1-3'UTR containing the complementary seed sequence for miR-194. In contrast, transfection of miR-194 inhibitor increased the luciferase activity. This effect was absent in the cells transfected with mutated 3'UTR of ITSN1 in which the complimentary seed sequence was deleted. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-194 expression increased the protein level of endogenous ITSN1 in HEK293T cells. Expression of miR-194 mimic also decreased the translation of exogenous ITSN1 in the cells transfected with the ITSN1 containing 3'UTR but not with 3'UTR-free ITSN1. Expression of pre-miR-194 increased K currents and ROMK expression in the plasma membrane in ROMK-transfected cells. Coexpression of ITSN1 reversed the stimulatory effect of miR-194 on ROMK channels. This effect was reversed by coexpression of ITSN1. We conclude that miR-194 regulates ROMK channel activity by modulating ITSN1 expression thereby enhancing ITSN1/WNK-dependent endocytosis. It is possible that miR-194 is involved in mediating the effect of a HK intake on ROMK channel activity. PMID:24197061

  2. MicroRNA-194 Regulates Hepatocytic Differentiation of Progenitor Cells by Targeting YAP1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang Hwa; McCarthy, Ryan L.; Zhou, Chong; Uprety, Nadima; Barton, Michelle Craig; Beretta, Laura

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA expression profiling in human liver progenitor cells following hepatocytic differentiation identified miR-122 and miR-194 as the microRNAs most strongly upregulated during hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells. MiR-194 was also highly upregulated following hepatocytic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Overexpression of miR-194 in progenitor cells accelerated their differentiation into hepatocytes, as measured by morphological features such as canaliculi and expression of hepatocytic markers. Overexpression of miR-194 in hESCs induced their spontaneous differentiation, a phenotype accompanied with accelerated loss of the pluripotent factors OCT4 and NANOG and decrease in mesoderm marker HAND1 expression. We then identified YAP1 as a direct target of miR-194. Inhibition of YAP1 strongly induced hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells and YAP1 over expression reversed the miR-194-induced hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells. In conclusion, we identified miR-194 as a potent inducer of hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells and further identified YAP1 as a mediator of miR-194's effects on hepatocytic differentiation and liver progenitor cell fate. PMID:26731713

  3. Platinum(IV)-chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugates for targeting cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nora; Mokhtari, Tara E; Papayannopoulos, Ioannis A; Lippard, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs. Its side effects, however, have motivated researchers to search for equally effective analogs that are better tolerated. Selectively targeting cancer tissue is one promising strategy. For this purpose, a platinum(IV) complex was conjugated to the cancer-targeting peptide chlorotoxin (CTX, TM601) in order to deliver cisplatin selectively to cancer cells. The 1:1 Pt-CTX conjugate was characterized by mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis. Like most platinum(IV) derivatives, the cytotoxicity of the conjugate was lower in cell culture than that of cisplatin, but greater than those of its Pt(IV) precursor and CTX in several cancer cell lines.

  4. MiR-194 Regulates Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Targeting Sox5

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Kang, Yan; Liao, Wei-ming; Yu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, causes pain and disability worldwide. Cartilage regeneration is key to finding a cure for this disease. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are capable of differentiating into cartilage lineages in vitro and they have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-194 levels gradually decreased during the chondrogenic differentiation of human ASCs (hASCs). After predicting the target of miR-194 using Pictar and Targetscan, we hypothesized that Sox5 is potentially the key link between miR-194 and the chondrogenesis of ASCs. Initially, we demonstrated that Sox5 is a target of miR194 according to luciferase assay analysis. We further demonstrated that the differentiation of ASCs can be controlled by miR-194 through gain or loss of function experiments, and we observed that the down-regulation of miR-194 increases its direct target gene, Sox5, and results in enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs, whereas up-regulation decreases Sox5 and inhibits chondrogenesis. We also found that miR-194 correlates with Sox5 in osteoarthritis. These findings, taken together, are the first to illustrate the critical role of miR-194 in hASC chondrogenesis, and may provide novel insight beneficial to cell manipulation methods during cartilage regeneration. PMID:22396742

  5. MicroRNA-194 promotes the growth, migration, and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells by targeting protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tian; Li, Liru; Cheng, Yan; Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Guangmei

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women. Ovarian cancer metastasis is the main reason for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis in various cancers by affecting the expression of their targets. In this study, we explored the role of miR-194 in ovarian cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed that miR-194 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues. Overexpression of miR-194 in ovarian cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; in contrast, inhibition of the expression of miR-194 has the opposite effects. Meanwhile, bioinformatics tools were used to identify protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 (PTPN12) as a potential target of miR-194. The luciferase assay showed that miR-194 directly binds to the 3′-untranslated region of PTPN12. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that PTPN12 expression was negatively associated with miR-194 expression in both ovarian cancer tissues and cells. Thus, we conclude that miR-194 targets PTPN12 and functions as an oncogene in ovarian cancer cells. This novel pathway may provide a new insight to explain ovarian cancer development and metastasis. PMID:27486333

  6. Targeting c-MYC in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reyes-González, Jeyshka M; Armaiz-Peña, Guillermo N; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Valiyeva, Fatma; Ivan, Cristina; Pradeep, Sunila; Echevarría-Vargas, Ileabett M; Rivera-Reyes, Adrian; Sood, Anil K; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and therapeutic effects of siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. Statistical analysis of patient's data extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal showed that the disease-free (DFS) and the overall (OS) survival were decreased in ovarian cancer patients with high c-MYC mRNA levels. Furthermore, analysis of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines showed that c-MYC protein levels were higher in cisplatin-resistant cells when compared with their cisplatin-sensitive counterparts. In vitro cell viability, growth, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis, as well as in vivo therapeutic effectiveness in murine xenograft models, were also assessed following siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Significant inhibition of cell growth and viability, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis were observed upon siRNA-mediated c-MYC depletion. In addition, single weekly doses of c-MYC-siRNA incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG-2000)-based nanoliposomes resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. These findings identify c-MYC as a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancers expressing high levels of this oncoprotein. PMID:26227489

  7. Cell membrane penetration and mitochondrial targeting by platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano, Adriano A.; Herrmann, Rudolf; Strobel, Claudia; Rennhak, Markus; Engelke, Hanna; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid; Wixforth, Achim; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and focus on their fast uptake and association with mitochondria, the cell's powerhouse. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we clearly show that 46 nm platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles can rapidly penetrate cell membranes and reach the cytosol. Moreover, if suitably targeted, these particles are able to selectively attach to mitochondria. These results are complemented by cytotoxicity assays, thus providing insights into the biological effects of these particles on cells. Interestingly, no permanent membrane disruption or any other significant adverse effects on cells were observed. The unusual uptake behavior observed for 46 nm nanoparticles was not observed for equivalent but larger 143 nm and 285 nm platinum-decorated particles. Our results demonstrate a remarkable particle size effect in which particles smaller than ~50-100 nm escape the usual endocytic pathway and translocate directly into the cytosol, while particles larger than ~150 nm are internalized by conventional endocytosis. Since the small particles are able to bypass endocytosis they could be explored as drug and gene delivery vehicles. Platinum-decorated nanoparticles are therefore highly interesting in the fields of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine.In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and

  8. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors.

  9. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors. PMID:25477168

  10. Stereochemical control of nucleosome targeting by platinum-intercalator antitumor agents

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eugene Y.D.; Davey, Gabriela E.; Chin, Chee Fei; Dröge, Peter; Ang, Wee Han; Davey, Curt A.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs act therapeutically by forming DNA adducts, but suffer from severe toxicity and resistance problems, which have not been overcome in spite of decades of research. And yet defined chromatin targets have generally not been considered in the drug development process. Here we designed novel platinum-intercalator species to target a highly deformed DNA site near the nucleosome center. Between two seemingly similar structural isomers, we find a striking difference in DNA site selectivity in vitro, which comes about from stereochemical constraints that limit the reactivity of the trans isomer to special DNA sequence elements while still allowing the cis isomer to efficiently form adducts at internal sites in the nucleosome core. This gives the potential for controlling nucleosome site targeting in vivo, which would engender sensitivity to epigenetic distinctions and in particular cell type/status-dependent differences in nucleosome positioning. Moreover, while both compounds yield very similar DNA-adduct structures and display antitumor cell activity rivalling that of cisplatin, the cis isomer, relative to the trans, has a much more rapid cytotoxic effect and distinct impact on cell function. The novel stereochemical principles for controlling DNA site selectivity we discovered could aid in the design of improved site discriminating agents. PMID:25916851

  11. Pemetrexed With Platinum Combination as a Backbone for Targeted Therapy in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Borghaei, Hossein; Barker, Scott S; Treat, Joseph Anthony; Obasaju, Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Standard platinum-based chemotherapy combinations for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have reached a plateau in terms of the survival benefit they offer for patients. In addition, the emerging clinical trend of tailored treatment based on patient characteristics has led to the development of therapeutic strategies that target specific cancer-related molecular pathways, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), angiogenesis, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors. Current research is focused on combining targeted therapy with platinum-based chemotherapy in an endeavor to achieve an additional benefit in specific patient populations. Currently, pemetrexed is indicated for use in the first-line, maintenance, and second-line settings for the treatment of nonsquamous NSCLC. The combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin is well tolerated and is the approved standard first-line therapy. Thus, the pemetrexed-platinum backbone provides an attractive option for combination with targeted therapies. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge and future prospects of the use of pemetrexed-platinum as a backbone for combination with targeted therapies for NSCLC.

  12. Neuropilin-1-targeted gold nanoparticles enhance therapeutic efficacy of platinum(IV) drug for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Huo, Shuaidong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Juan; Tan, Aaron; Li, Shengliang; Jin, Shubin; Xue, Xiangdong; Zhao, YuanYuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Han, Lu; Liu, Hong; Zhang, XiaoNing; Zhang, Jinchao; Zou, Guozhang; Wang, Tianyou; Tang, Suoqin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-05-27

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin are some of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents but have limited applications due to severe dose-limiting side effects and a tendency for cancer cells to rapidly develop resistance. The therapeutic index can be improved through use of nanocarrier systems to target cancer cells efficiently. We developed a unique strategy to deliver a platinum(IV) drug to prostate cancer cells by constructing glutathione-stabilized (Au@GSH) gold nanoparticles. Glutathione (GSH) has well-known antioxidant properties, which lead to cancer regression. Here, we exploit the advantages of both the antioxidant properties and high surface-area-to-volume ratio of Au@GSH NPs to demonstrate their potential for delivery of a platinum(IV) drug by targeting the neuropilin-1 receptor (Nrp-1). A lethal dose of a platinum(IV) drug functionalized with the Nrp-1-targeting peptide (CRGDK) was delivered specifically to prostate cancer cells in vitro. Targeted peptide ensures specific binding to the Nrp-1 receptor, leading to enhanced cellular uptake level and cell toxicity. The nanocarriers were themselves nontoxic, but exhibited high cytotoxicity and increased efficacy when functionalized with the targeting peptide and drug. The uptake of drug-loaded nanocarriers is dependent on the interaction with Nrp-1 in cell lines expressing high (PC-3) and low (DU-145) levels of Nrp-1, as confirmed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy. The nanocarriers have effective anticancer activity, through upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) protein (p50 and p65) expression and activation of NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. Our preliminary investigations with platinum(IV)-functionalized gold nanoparticles along with a targeting peptide hold significant promise for future cancer treatment.

  13. Neuropilin-1-targeted gold nanoparticles enhance therapeutic efficacy of platinum(IV) drug for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Huo, Shuaidong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Juan; Tan, Aaron; Li, Shengliang; Jin, Shubin; Xue, Xiangdong; Zhao, YuanYuan; Ji, Tianjiao; Han, Lu; Liu, Hong; Zhang, XiaoNing; Zhang, Jinchao; Zou, Guozhang; Wang, Tianyou; Tang, Suoqin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-05-27

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin are some of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents but have limited applications due to severe dose-limiting side effects and a tendency for cancer cells to rapidly develop resistance. The therapeutic index can be improved through use of nanocarrier systems to target cancer cells efficiently. We developed a unique strategy to deliver a platinum(IV) drug to prostate cancer cells by constructing glutathione-stabilized (Au@GSH) gold nanoparticles. Glutathione (GSH) has well-known antioxidant properties, which lead to cancer regression. Here, we exploit the advantages of both the antioxidant properties and high surface-area-to-volume ratio of Au@GSH NPs to demonstrate their potential for delivery of a platinum(IV) drug by targeting the neuropilin-1 receptor (Nrp-1). A lethal dose of a platinum(IV) drug functionalized with the Nrp-1-targeting peptide (CRGDK) was delivered specifically to prostate cancer cells in vitro. Targeted peptide ensures specific binding to the Nrp-1 receptor, leading to enhanced cellular uptake level and cell toxicity. The nanocarriers were themselves nontoxic, but exhibited high cytotoxicity and increased efficacy when functionalized with the targeting peptide and drug. The uptake of drug-loaded nanocarriers is dependent on the interaction with Nrp-1 in cell lines expressing high (PC-3) and low (DU-145) levels of Nrp-1, as confirmed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy. The nanocarriers have effective anticancer activity, through upregulation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) protein (p50 and p65) expression and activation of NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. Our preliminary investigations with platinum(IV)-functionalized gold nanoparticles along with a targeting peptide hold significant promise for future cancer treatment. PMID:24730557

  14. Linker design for the modular assembly of multifunctional and targeted platinum(ii)-containing anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ding, S; Bierbach, U

    2016-08-16

    A versatile and efficient modular synthetic platform was developed for assembling multifunctional conjugates and targeted forms of platinum-(benz)acridines, a class of highly cytotoxic DNA-targeted hybrid agents. The synthetic strategy involved amide coupling between succinyl ester-modified platinum compounds (P1, P2) and a set of 11 biologically relevant primary and secondary amines (N1-N11). To demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of the approach, a structurally and functionally diverse range of amines was introduced. These include biologically active molecules, such as rucaparib (a PARP inhibitor), E/Z-endoxifen (an estrogen receptor antagonist), and a quinazoline-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Micro-scale reactions in Eppendorf tubes or on 96-well plates were used to screen for optimal coupling conditions in DMF solution with carbodiimide-, uronium-, and phosphonium-based compounds, as well as other common coupling reagents. Reactions with the phosphonium-based coupling reagent PyBOP produced the highest yields and gave the cleanest conversions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemistry can also be performed in aqueous media and is amenable to parallel synthesis based on multiple consecutive reactions in DMF in a "one-tube" format. In-line LC-MS was used to assess the stability of the conjugates in physiologically relevant buffers. Hydrolysis of the conjugates occurs at the ester moiety and is facilitated by the aquated metal moiety under low-chloride ion conditions. The rate of ester cleavage greatly depends on the nature of the amine component. Potential applications of the linker technology are discussed. PMID:27251881

  15. Polymeric micelles loaded with platinum anticancer drugs target preangiogenic micrometastatic niches associated with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailiang; Cabral, Horacio; Toh, Kazuko; Mi, Peng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Matsumoto, Yu; Yamada, Naoki; Liu, Xueying; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Miura, Yutaka; Kano, Mitsunobu R; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-09-10

    Nanocarriers have been used for specific delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors based on the enhanced permeability and retention in cancerous tissues. Despite metastasis is the main reason of cancer-related death and a priority for nanocarrier-based therapies, the targeting ability of nanocarriers to the metastatic disease is poorly understood, especially for preangiogenic micrometastases as nanocarriers usually use the malignant neovasculature for enhancing their accumulation. Thus, herein, we studied the ability of micellar nanocarriers incorporating (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for treating liver metastases of bioluminescent murine colon adenocarcinoma C-26, during overt and preangiogenic metastatic stages. After intravenous injection, DACHPt-loaded micelles (DACHPt/m) effectively inhibited the tumor growth in both metastatic tumor models. While the anticancer activity of the micelles against overt metastases was associated with their selective accumulation in cancerous tissues having neovasculature, the ability of DACHPt/m to target preangiogenic metastases was correlated with the inflammatory microenvironment of the niche. This targeting capability of polymeric micelles to preangiogenic metastasis may provide a novel approach for early diagnosis and treatment of metastases. PMID:24956488

  16. Investigating the cellular fate of a DNA-targeted platinum-based anticancer agent by orthogonal double-click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Ding, Song; Liu, Fang; Kucera, Gregory L; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study a platinum-based anticancer agent in intact NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Orthogonal copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click) reactions were used to simultaneously determine the cell-cycle-specific localization of the azide-functionalized platinum-acridine agent 1 and monitor its effects on nucleic acid metabolism. Copper-catalyzed postlabeling showed advantages over copper-free click chemistry using a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO)-modified reporter dye, which produced high background levels in microscopic images and failed to efficiently label platinum adducts in chromatin. Compound 1 was successfully labeled with the fluorophore DIBO to yield 1* (characterized by in-line high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry). 1 and 1* show a high degree of colocalization in the confocal images, but the ability of 1* to target the (compacted) chromatin was markedly reduced, most likely owing to the steric bulk introduced by the DIBO tag. Nuclear platinum levels correlated inversely with the ability of the cells to synthesize DNA and cause cell cycle arrest, as confirmed by bivariate flow cytometry analysis. In addition, a decrease in the level of cellular transcription, shrinkage of the nucleolar regions, and redistribution of RNA into the cytosol were observed. Postlabeling in conjunction with colocalization experiments is a useful tool for studying the cell killing mechanism of this type of DNA-targeted agent.

  17. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Complex Targeting Genomic DNA and Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Novakova, Olga; Křikavová, Radka; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-11-23

    We report toxic effects of a photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex conjugated with suberoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid in tumor cells. The conjugate exerts, after photoactivation, two functions: activity as both a platinum(II) anticancer drug and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in cancer cells. This approach relies on the use of a Pt(IV) pro-drug, acting by two independent mechanisms of biological action in a cooperative manner, which can be selectively photoactivated to a cytotoxic species in and around a tumor, thereby increasing selectivity towards cancer cells. These results suggest that this strategy is a valuable route to design new platinum agents with higher efficacy for photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy.

  18. Evaluation of Platinum Chemotherapy in Combination with HER2-Targeted α-Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Shih, Joanna H.; Wong, Karen J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The studies described herein assess the potential of combining platinum-based chemotherapy with high-linear energy transfer (LET) α-particle-targeted radiation therapy using trastuzumab as the delivery vehicle. An initial study explored the combination of cisplatin with 213Bi-trastuzumab in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model. This initial study determined the administration sequence of cisplatin and 213Bi-trastuzumab. Cisplatin coinjected with 213Bi-trastuzumab increased the median survival (MS) to 90 days versus 65 days for 213Bi-trastuzumab alone. Toxicity was observed with a weight loss of 17.6% in some of the combined treatment groups. Carboplatin proved to be better tolerated. Maximal therapeutic benefit, that is, a 5.1-fold increase in MS, was obtained in the group injected with 213Bi-trastuzumab, followed by carboplatin 24 hours later. This was further improved by administration of multiple weekly doses of carboplatin. The MS achieved with administration of 3 doses of carboplatin was 180 days versus 60 days with 213Bi-trastuzumab alone. The combination of carboplatin with 212Pb radioimmunotherapy was also evaluated. The therapeutic efficacy of 212Pb-trastuzumab (58-day MS) increased when the mice were pretreated with carboplatin 24 hours prior (157-day MS). These results again demonstrate the necessity of empirically determining the administration sequence when combining therapeutic modalities. PMID:23758610

  19. Targeting drug transport mechanisms for improving platinum-based cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Helen HW; Chen, Wen-Chung; Liang, Zhang-Dong; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Long, Yan; Aiba, Isamu; Fu, Siqing; Broaddus, Russell; Liu, Jinsong; Feun, Lynn G; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents remain important chemotherapeutic agents for treating many human malignancies. Elevated expression of the human high-affinity copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), resulting in enhanced Pt drug transport into cells, has been shown to be associated with improved treatment efficacy. Thus, targeting hCtr1 upregulation is an attractive strategy for improving the treatment efficacy of Pt-based cancer chemotherapy. Area covered Regulation of hCtr1 expression by cellular copper homeostasis is discussed. Association of elevated hCtr1 expression with intrinsic sensitivity of ovarian cancer to Pt drugs is presented. Mechanism of copper-lowering agents in enhancing hCtr1-mediated cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, cDDP) transport is reviewed. Applications of copper chelation strategy in overcoming cDDP resistance through enhanced hCtr1 expression are evaluated. Expert opinion While both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms of hCtr1 regulation by cellular copper bioavailability have been proposed, detailed molecular insights into hCtr1 regulation by copper homeostasis remain needed. Recent clinical study using a copper-lowering agent in enhancing hCtr1-mediated drug transport has achieved incremental improvement in overcoming Pt drug resistance. Further improvements in identifying predictive measures in the subpopulation of patients that can benefit from the treatment are needed. PMID:26004625

  20. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized viareduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml-1 for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  1. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized via reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml(-1) for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  2. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Complex Targeting Genomic DNA and Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Novakova, Olga; Křikavová, Radka; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-11-23

    We report toxic effects of a photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex conjugated with suberoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid in tumor cells. The conjugate exerts, after photoactivation, two functions: activity as both a platinum(II) anticancer drug and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in cancer cells. This approach relies on the use of a Pt(IV) pro-drug, acting by two independent mechanisms of biological action in a cooperative manner, which can be selectively photoactivated to a cytotoxic species in and around a tumor, thereby increasing selectivity towards cancer cells. These results suggest that this strategy is a valuable route to design new platinum agents with higher efficacy for photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:26458068

  3. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-05-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  4. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S M; Au-Yeung, Steve C F; To, Kenneth K W

    2016-05-06

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  5. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted. PMID:27150583

  6. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  7. Highly efficient colorimetric detection of target cancer cells utilizing superior catalytic activity of graphene oxide-magnetic-platinum nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon Il; Kim, Min Su; Woo, Min-Ah; Ye, Youngjin; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have most widely been applied in immunoassays for several decades. However, several unavoidable limitations (e.g., instability caused by structural unfolding) of natural enzymes have hindered their widespread applications. Here, we describe a new nanohybrid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), simultaneously immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically active Pt NPs and MNPs on GO whose frameworks possess high substrate affinity, the nanohybrid is able to achieve up to a 30-fold higher maximal reaction velocity (Vmax) compared to that of free GO for the colorimetric reaction of the peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and enable rapid detection of target cancer cells. Specifically, using this new assay system, clinically important breast cancer cells are detected in a 5 min time period at room temperature with high specificity and sensitivity. The remarkably high capability to catalyze oxidation reactions could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based immunoassay systems as part of new, rapid, robust and convenient assay systems which can be widely utilized for the identification of important target molecules.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have most widely been applied in immunoassays for several decades. However, several unavoidable limitations (e.g., instability caused by structural unfolding) of natural enzymes have hindered their widespread applications. Here, we describe a new nanohybrid consisting of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), simultaneously immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically active Pt NPs and MNPs on GO whose frameworks possess high substrate affinity, the nanohybrid is able to achieve up to a 30-fold higher maximal reaction velocity (Vmax

  8. Highly efficient colorimetric detection of target cancer cells utilizing superior catalytic activity of graphene oxide-magnetic-platinum nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Il; Kim, Min Su; Woo, Min-Ah; Ye, Youngjin; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have most widely been applied in immunoassays for several decades. However, several unavoidable limitations (e.g., instability caused by structural unfolding) of natural enzymes have hindered their widespread applications. Here, we describe a new nanohybrid consisting of Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), simultaneously immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). By synergistically integrating highly catalytically active Pt NPs and MNPs on GO whose frameworks possess high substrate affinity, the nanohybrid is able to achieve up to a 30-fold higher maximal reaction velocity (V(max)) compared to that of free GO for the colorimetric reaction of the peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and enable rapid detection of target cancer cells. Specifically, using this new assay system, clinically important breast cancer cells are detected in a 5 min time period at room temperature with high specificity and sensitivity. The remarkably high capability to catalyze oxidation reactions could allow the nanohybrid to replace conventional peroxidase-based immunoassay systems as part of new, rapid, robust and convenient assay systems which can be widely utilized for the identification of important target molecules.

  9. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s−1 mM−1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s−1 mM−1) and ~3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer. PMID:22121333

  10. BODIPY-Appended 2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole Platinum(II) Catecholates for Mitochondria-Targeted Photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Gautam, Srishti; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-09-01

    Platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L)(cat)] (1 and 2), in which H2 cat is catechol and L represents two 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole ligands with 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) pendants, were synthesized to achieve mitochondria-targeted photocytotoxicity. The complexes showed strong absorptions in the range λ=510-540 nm. Complex 1 exhibited intense emission at λ=525 nm in 1 % DMSO/water solution (fluorescence quantum yield of 0.06). Nanosecond transient absorption spectral features indicated an enhanced population of the triplet excited state in di-iodinated complex 2. The generation of singlet oxygen by complex 2 upon exposure to visible light, as evidenced from experiments with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, is suitable for photodynamic therapy because of the remarkable photosensitizing ability. The complexes resulted in excellent photocytotoxicity in HaCaT cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 ≈3 μm, λ=400-700 nm, light dose=10 J cm(-2) ), but they remained non-toxic in the dark (IC50 >100 μm). Confocal microscopy images of 1 and Pt estimation from isolated mitochondria showed colocalization of the complexes in the mitochondria. Complex 2 displayed generation of reactive oxygen species induced by visible light, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. PMID:27465792

  11. Laser ablation of a platinum target in water. I. Ablation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, William T.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2006-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three papers aimed at better understanding the processes that lead to nanomaterial formation during laser ablation of solid targets in liquids. Here we study the variation of the target surface morphology versus laser fluence and wavelength in order to suggest an ablation mechanism. A key finding is that an explosive ablation mechanism is prominent for a wide range of laser fluences for all wavelengths tested. Interestingly, however, ultraviolet (355 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) wavelengths show characteristically different explosive behaviors. In the infrared case, numerous large craters with diameters around 20 {mu}m form at localized points within the laser irradiated area. In contrast, ultraviolet ablation results in a striking transition to nanoscale surface roughness across the entire irradiated area. This texture is attributed to spinodal decomposition at the molten target surface. We propose that the wavelength and fluence dependence of the ablation craters can be explained by the amount of energy absorbed in the target. The consequences of the ablation mechanism for nanomaterial synthesis are discussed.

  12. Platinum hypersensitivity and desensitization.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Okada, Rika; Ando, Kazumichi

    2015-09-01

    Platinum agents are drugs used for various types of cancer. With increased frequency of administration of platinum agents, hypersensitivity reactions appear more frequently, occurring in over 25% of cases from the seventh cycle or second line onward. It then becomes difficult to conduct treatment using these agents. Various approaches have been investigated to address hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents. Desensitization, which gradually increases the concentration of the anticancer drug considered to be the antigen until the target dosage, has been reported as being particularly effective, with a success rate of 80-100%. The aims of this paper are to present the current findings regarding hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents and to discuss attempts of using desensitization against hypersensitivity reactions worldwide.

  13. Vitamin B₁₂ as a carrier for targeted platinum delivery: in vitro cytotoxicity and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez, Pilar; König, Christiane; Ferrari, Stefano; Alberto, Roger

    2011-01-01

    It is attractive to use vitamin B₁₂ as a carrier for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents such as platinum complexes owing to the high demand for vitamin B₁₂ by fast proliferating cells. The basic {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates are recognized by intracellular enzymes and converted to coenzyme B₁₂ in an enzymatic adenosylation assay. The reductive adenosylation of {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates leads to the release of the Pt(II) complexes; thus, {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates can be considered as prodrugs. It is important not only to elucidate the activity of the cisplatin-B₁₂ conjugates, but also to understand the mode of action on a molecular level. Chemical reduction of {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates with cobaltocene yielded cob(II)alamin and induced release of the corresponding Pt(II) species. Kurnakov tests and coordination of 2'-deoxyguanosine or GMP to the released Pt(II) complexes allowed isolation and characterization of Pt(II) complexes as released during enzymatic adenosylation. The biological activity of these Pt(II) complexes was evaluated. Since the cleaved Pt(II) complexes show cytotoxicity, the {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates can be used for specific targeting of cancer cells and therapeutic drug delivery. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies indicated lower activity (IC(50) between 8 and 88 μM) than found for pure cisplatin. Since active transport and receptor-mediated uptake limits the intracellular {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} concentration, comparison with pure cisplatin is of limited use. We could show that the Pt(II) complexes cleaved from B₁₂ exerted a cytotoxicity comparable to that of cisplatin itself. Cytotoxicity studies in vitamin B₁₂ free media showed a dependence on the addition of transcobalamin II for B₁₂-Pt(II) conjugates. PMID:20803225

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Folate-Targeted Platinum-Loaded Theranostic Nanoemulsions for Therapy and Imaging of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar R; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Nack, Abbegial H; Galati, Corin A; McHugh, Mackenzi; Orosz, Samantha; Keeler, Amanda W; O'Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William C; Davis, Barbara; Coleman, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) based chemotherapy is widely used to treat many types of cancer. Pt therapy faces challenges such as dose limiting toxicities, cumulative side effects, and multidrug resistance. Nanoemulsions (NEs) have tremendous potential in overcoming these challenges as they can be designed to improve circulation time, limit non-disease tissue uptake, and enhance tumor uptake by surface modification. We designed novel synthesis of three difattyacid platins, dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin, suitable for encapsulation in the oil core of an NE. The dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin were synthesized, characterized, and loaded into the oil core of our NEs, NMI-350, NMI-351, and NMI-352 respectively. Sequestration of the difattyacid platins was accomplished through high energy microfluidization. To target the NE, FA-PEG3400-DSPE was incorporated into the surface during microfluidization. The FA-NEs selectively bind the folate receptor α (FR-α) and utilize receptor mediated endocytosis to deliver Pt past cell surface resistance mechanisms. FR-α is overexpressed in a number of oncological conditions including ovarian cancer. The difattyacid platins, lipidated Gd-DTPA, and lipidated folate were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. NEs were synthesized using high shear microfluidization process and characterized for size, zeta-potential, and loading efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined using KB-WT (Pt-sensitive) and KBCR-1000 (Pt-resistant) cancer cells and measured by MTT assay. Pharmacokinetic profiles were studied in CD-1 mice. NEs loaded with difattyacid platins are highly stable and had size distribution in the range of ∼120 to 150 nm with low PDI. Cytotoxicity data indicates the longer the fatty acid chains, the less potent the NEs. The inclusion of C6-ceramide, an apoptosis enhancer, and surface functionalization with folate molecules significantly increased

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Folate-Targeted Platinum-Loaded Theranostic Nanoemulsions for Therapy and Imaging of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar R; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Nack, Abbegial H; Galati, Corin A; McHugh, Mackenzi; Orosz, Samantha; Keeler, Amanda W; O'Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William C; Davis, Barbara; Coleman, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) based chemotherapy is widely used to treat many types of cancer. Pt therapy faces challenges such as dose limiting toxicities, cumulative side effects, and multidrug resistance. Nanoemulsions (NEs) have tremendous potential in overcoming these challenges as they can be designed to improve circulation time, limit non-disease tissue uptake, and enhance tumor uptake by surface modification. We designed novel synthesis of three difattyacid platins, dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin, suitable for encapsulation in the oil core of an NE. The dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin were synthesized, characterized, and loaded into the oil core of our NEs, NMI-350, NMI-351, and NMI-352 respectively. Sequestration of the difattyacid platins was accomplished through high energy microfluidization. To target the NE, FA-PEG3400-DSPE was incorporated into the surface during microfluidization. The FA-NEs selectively bind the folate receptor α (FR-α) and utilize receptor mediated endocytosis to deliver Pt past cell surface resistance mechanisms. FR-α is overexpressed in a number of oncological conditions including ovarian cancer. The difattyacid platins, lipidated Gd-DTPA, and lipidated folate were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. NEs were synthesized using high shear microfluidization process and characterized for size, zeta-potential, and loading efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined using KB-WT (Pt-sensitive) and KBCR-1000 (Pt-resistant) cancer cells and measured by MTT assay. Pharmacokinetic profiles were studied in CD-1 mice. NEs loaded with difattyacid platins are highly stable and had size distribution in the range of ∼120 to 150 nm with low PDI. Cytotoxicity data indicates the longer the fatty acid chains, the less potent the NEs. The inclusion of C6-ceramide, an apoptosis enhancer, and surface functionalization with folate molecules significantly increased

  16. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  17. Chemical approach to positional isomers of glucose-platinum conjugates reveals specific cancer targeting through glucose-transporter mediated uptake in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Malay; Awuah, Samuel G.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycoconjugation is a promising strategy for specific targeting of cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of D-glucose substitution position on the biological activity of glucose-platinum conjugates (Glc-Pts). We synthesized and characterized all possible positional isomers (C1α, C1β, C2, C3, C4 and C6) of a Glc-Pt. The synthetic routes presented here could in principle be extended to prepare glucose-conjugates with different active ingredients than platinum. The biological activities of the compounds were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We discovered that variation in position of substitution of D-glucose not only alters the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity profile but also the GLUT1 specificity of resulting glycoconjugates, where GLUT1 is glucose transporter 1. The C1α- and C2-substituted Glc-Pts (1α and 2) accumulate in cancer cells most efficiently compared to the others, whereas the C3-Glc-Pt (3) is taken up least efficiently. Compounds 1α and 2 are more potent compared to 3 in DU145 cells. The α- and β-anomer of the C1-Glc-Pt also differ significantly in their cellular uptake and activity profiles. No significant differences in uptake of the Glc-Pts were observed in noncancerous RWPE2 cells. The GLUT1 specificity of the Glc-Pts was evaluated by determining the cellular uptake in the absence and presence of the GLUT1 inhibitor cytochalasin B, and by comparing their anticancer activity in DU145 cells and a GLUT1 knockdown cell line. The results reveal that C2-substituted Glc-Pt 2 has the highest GLUT1 specific internalization, which also reflects the best cancer targeting ability. In a syngeneic breast cancer mouse model overexpressing GLUT1, compound 2 showed antitumor efficacy and selective uptake in tumors with no observable toxicity. This study thus reveals the synthesis of all positional isomers of D-glucose substitution for platinum warhead with detailed glycotargeting characterization in cancer. PMID:27570149

  18. Platinum stable isotopes in ferromanganese crust and nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Loretta; Seward, Terry; Handler, Monica R.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust and nodules are slow-growing chemical sediments that form by direct precipitation from seawater, resulting in a record of changing seawater chemistry. These sediments are the primary sink for platinum in the modern oxic marine environment, hosting well-documented enrichments over other platinum-group elements (PGEs): the Pt anomaly [1]. Platinum is a non-bio-essential, highly siderophile, transition metal with six stable isotopes (190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt) with several oxidation states (Pt0, Pt2+ and Pt4+). Platinum is generally considered to exist in the hydrosphere as Pt2+ although its behaviour in the marine environment is poorly constrained, and Pt4+may also be present. Variations in ocean redox state, together with changes in source fluxes to the oceans, may therefore lead to small variations (< ±1) in the stable isotopic composition of marine platinum, raising the potential of adding platinum to the growing arsenal of paleoceanographic tracers. A method has been developed to measure the platinum isotopic composition using double spike MC-ICPMS analysis [2]and applied to a global suite of modern Fe-Mn crust and nodules. Combining synchrotron XAFS analyses of platinum adsorbed onto Fe-Mn oxide and oxyhydroxide surfaces to determine oxidation state and bonding environment, with platinum stable isotopic measurements allowing us to evaluate both platinum incorporation onto these sediments and the associated degree of platinum isotopic fractionation. Leaching experiments conducted on platinum rich terrestrial materials underwent platinum stable isotopic measurement as an analogue for the Pt isotopic fractionation associated with continental weathering. [1] Hodge, V.F. et al. (1985) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 72, 158-162. [2] Creech, J. et al. (2013) Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28. 853-865.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-06-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers. PMID:26351651

  1. A new dinuclear platinum complex with a nitrogen-containing geminal bisphosphonate as potential anticancer compound specifically targeted to bone tissues.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Nicola; Capitelli, Francesco; Ostuni, Rosa; Natile, Giovanni

    2008-12-01

    The paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new platinum dinuclear complex (2) bearing a nitrogen-containing geminal bisphosphonate (NBP, 1), structurally related to the commercial drug risedronate. NBPs themselves have shown in quite a few cases to be endowed with anticancer activity, therefore the new platinum complex has two potential antitumor moieties (the NBP ligand and the platinum residue) and could have high affinity for bone tumors or metastases (due to the presence of NBP). The free bisphosphonate (1) has been crystallized by a sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The platinum complex (2) has been found to have a dinuclear structure with the bisphosphonate bridging two platinum moieties in a W conformation.

  2. 49 CFR 194.113 - Information summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information summary. 194.113 Section 194.113... Response Plans § 194.113 Information summary. (a) The information summary for the core plan, required by... state(s). (b) The information summary for the response zone appendix, required in § 194.107,...

  3. 49 CFR 194.113 - Information summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information summary. 194.113 Section 194.113... Response Plans § 194.113 Information summary. (a) The information summary for the core plan, required by... state(s). (b) The information summary for the response zone appendix, required in § 194.107,...

  4. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  5. Galactose conjugated platinum(II) complex targeting the Warburg effect for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Li, Hong; Liu, Ran; Gao, Xiangqian; Zhang, Menghua; Liu, Pengxing; Fu, Zheng; Yang, Jinna; Zhang-Negrerie, Daisy; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-03-01

    Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated in vivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated in vivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50 mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3 mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29 cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29 cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay. PMID:26807543

  6. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  7. MicroRNA-194 promotes osteoblast differentiation via downregulating STAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; He, Xijing; Wei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2015-05-01

    Osteoblast differentiation is a vital process in maintaining bone homeostasis in which various transcriptional factors, signaling molecules, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. Recently, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) has been found to play an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. Here, we identified that STAT1 expression was regulated by miR-194. Using mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), we found that miR-194 expression was significantly increased following osteoblast differentiation induction. Overexpression of miR-194 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly increased osteoblast differentiation, whereas inhibition of miR-194 significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, a direct interaction between miR-194 and the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of STAT1 was confirmed. Additionally, miR-194 regulated mRNA and protein expression of STAT1 in BMSCs. Further analysis showed that miR-194 overexpression promoted the nuclear translocation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which is critical for osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, inhibition of miR-194 blocked the nuclear translocation of Runx2. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 significantly blocked Runx2 nuclear translocation and osteoblast differentiation mediated by miR-194 overexpression. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-194 regulates osteoblast differentiation through modulating STAT1-mediated Runx2 nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • Overexpression of miR-194 significantly increased osteoblast differentiation. • miR-194 directly targeted the 3′- UTR of STAT1. • miR-194 regulated the expression of STAT1. • Overexpression of miR-194 promoted the nuclear translocation of Runx2.

  8. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  9. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  10. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  11. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores mentioned in § 194.05-3 may be stored in small working quantities in the laboratory provided their containers are labeled in accordance with § 194.05-5(a). (b) Chemical stores...

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores mentioned in § 194.05-3 may be stored in small working quantities in the laboratory provided their containers are labeled in accordance with § 194.05-5(a). (b) Chemical stores...

  13. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  14. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  17. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  18. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  19. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  20. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  1. 42 CFR 413.194 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appeals. 413.194 Section 413.194 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.194 Appeals. (a) Appeals under section 1878 of the Act. (1) A...) Other appeals. (1) A facility that has requested higher payment per treatment in accordance with §...

  2. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Federal/State Monitoring § 460.194 Corrective action. (a) A PACE organization must take action to...

  3. 50 CFR 19.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 19.4 Section 19.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING... (CONTINUED) AIRBORNE HUNTING Introduction § 19.4 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained in part...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  6. Studies of {sup 194,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    The energy systematics of low-lying polonium states show sudden changes near N = 114. The observed drops in the low-lying levels of {sup 196,198}Po relative to the heavier isotopes indicate significant changes in the underlying structure of these nuclei. It is thought that this change is due to the onset of vibrational collectivity brought about by the quadrupole interaction between neutron and proton-pairs. In order to extend the Po systematics even further, we measured, for the first time, states in {sup 194,195,197}Po using the {sup 28}Si + {sup 170}Yb reaction at a beam energy of 142 MeV. The beam was supplied by ATLAS, and the data were taken with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors placed at the target position of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Preliminary level schemes were constructed for {sup 194,195,197}Po based on {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-FMA coincidences. The results for {sup 194}Po show that the 2{sup +} - 0{sup +} transition energy decreased in energy by 140 keV relative to {sup 196}Po suggesting that this nucleus moved beyond the vibrational limit to more collective motion. An extrapolation of the systematics predicts that the 2{sup +} energy could drop another 140 keV between {sup 194}Po and {sup 192}Po which would indicate the onset of rotational motion. Currently, we have an approved experiment to investigate the decay of yrast isomers in {sup 194}Po which will allow us to (1) confirm our earlier level scheme of {sup 194}Po, and (2) assess the experimental conditions needed for a future study of {sup 192}Po.

  7. Internal correction of hafnium oxide spectral interferences and mass bias in the determination of platinum in environmental samples using isotope dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castrillón, José Angel; Moldovan, Mariella; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2009-05-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of platinum by isotope dilution analysis, using enriched (194)Pt, in environmental samples containing comparatively high levels of hafnium without any chemical separation. The method is based on the computation of the contribution of hafnium oxide as an independent factor in the observed isotope pattern of platinum in the spiked sample. Under these conditions, the ratio of molar fractions between natural abundance and isotopically enriched platinum was independent of the amount of hafnium present in the sample. Additionally, mass bias was corrected by an internal procedure in which the regression variance was minimised. This was possible as the mass bias factor for hafnium oxide was very close to that of platinum. The final procedure required the measurement of three platinum isotope ratios (192/194, 195/194 and 196/194) to calculate the concentration of platinum in the sample. The methodology has been validated using the reference material "BCR-723 road dust" and has been applied to different environmental matrices (road dust, air particles, bulk wet deposition and epiphytic lichens) collected in the Aspe Valley (Pyrenees Mountains). A full uncertainty budget, using Kragten's spreadsheet method, showed that the total uncertainty was limited only by the uncertainty in the measured isotope ratios and not by the uncertainties of the isotopic composition of platinum and hafnium.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 194

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 194 (Re,Os,Ir,Pt,Au,Hg,Tl,Pb,Bi, Po,At) with Z = 75 to 85 and N = 119 to 109 have been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies and J{pi} of levels in these nuclei. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 194}Re and {sup 194}At. Many superdeformed structures are known in A = 194: three SD bands in {sup 194}Hg, two of which are connected to the normal-deformed structures; six SD bands in {sup 194}Tl; and three SD bands in {sup 194}Pb, one of which is connected to the normal-deformed structure. In addition four magnetic-rotational (MR) dipole bands are known in {sup 194}Pb together with many other dipole bands which are probable multi-quasiparticle structures. This evaluation supersedes previous full evaluations of A = 194 published by 1996Br26, 1989Si01, 1977Ha46 and 1972Au11.

  9. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194... scientific party embarked may supervise the safety and operation of the chemical laboratory. (b)...

  10. Platinum-containing compound platinum pyrithione is stronger and safer than cisplatin in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; He, Zhimin; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2016-09-15

    DNA is the well-known molecular target of current platinum-based anticancer drugs; consequently, their clinical use is severely restricted by their systemic toxicities and drug resistance originating from non-selective DNA damage. Various strategies have been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy but the inherent problem remains unsolved. Here we report that platinum pyrithione (PtPT), a chemically well-characterized synthetic complex of platinum, inhibits proteasome function and thereby exhibits greater and more selective cytotoxicity to multiple cancer cells than cisplatin, without showing discernible DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, unlike the classical proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/Velcade which inhibits the proteasome via blocking the peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, PtPT primarily deactivates 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases USP14 and UCHL5. Furthermore, PtPT can selectively induce cytotoxicity and proteasome inhibition in cancer cells from leukemia patients but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans. In nude mice, PtPT also remarkably inhibited tumor xenograft growth, without showing the adverse effects that were induced by cisplatin. Hence, we have discovered a new platinum-based anti-tumor agent PtPT which targets 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases rather than DNA in the cell and thereby exerts safer and more potent anti-tumor effects, identifying a highly translatable new platinum-based anti-cancer strategy. PMID:27381943

  11. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  12. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for emergency response operations in 29 CFR 1910.120, including volunteers or casual laborers employed during a response who are subject to those standards pursuant to 40 CFR part 311. ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117...

  13. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND....15-3 Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master, the senior member of...

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  18. 46 CFR 194.90-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 194.90-1 Section 194.90-1 Shipping COAST...-1 Requirements. (a) Vessels contracted for prior to March 1, 1968, shall meet the following requirements: (1) Existing arrangements, materials, and facilities previously approved but not meeting...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  2. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored in the storeroom shall be secured against shifting and with due consideration for chemical...

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored in the storeroom shall be secured against shifting and with due consideration for chemical...

  7. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored in the storeroom shall be secured against shifting and with due consideration for chemical...

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored in the storeroom shall be secured against shifting and with due consideration for chemical...

  9. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food... Laboratory records. (a) Laboratory records shall include complete data derived from all tests necessary to..., including all graphs, charts, and spectra from laboratory instrumentation, properly identified to show...

  10. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... in an approved new drug application and the referenced method is not modified, a statement...

  11. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... in an approved new drug application and the referenced method is not modified, a statement...

  12. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  13. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  14. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  15. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Definition. Catsup, ketchup, or catchup is the food prepared from one or any combination...

  16. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Definition. Catsup, ketchup, or catchup is the food prepared from one or any combination...

  17. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Definition. Catsup, ketchup, or catchup is the food prepared from one or any combination...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  1. 21 CFR 155.194 - Catsup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catsup. 155.194 Section 155.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...) Identity—(1) Definition. Catsup, ketchup, or catchup is the food prepared from one or any combination...

  2. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-9 Storage. (a) Chemical stores shall be stored in the chemical storeroom as prescribed in § 194.05-1(b). (b) All items stored in the storeroom shall be secured against shifting and with due consideration for chemical...

  5. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  6. Functionalization of Platinum Complexes for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xiaohui; Guo, Zijian

    2015-09-15

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs are the mainstay of chemotherapy regimens in clinic. Nevertheless, the efficacy of platinum drugs is badly affected by serious systemic toxicities and drug resistance, and the pharmacokinetics of most platinum drugs is largely unknown. In recent years, a keen interest in functionalizing platinum complexes with bioactive molecules, targeting groups, photosensitizers, fluorophores, or nanomaterials has been sparked among chemical and biomedical researchers. The motivation for functionalization comes from some of the following demands: to improve the tumor selectivity or minimize the systemic toxicity of the drugs, to enhance the cellular accumulation of the drugs, to overcome the tumor resistance to the drugs, to visualize the drug molecules in vitro or in vivo, to achieve a synergistic anticancer effect between different therapeutic modalities, or to add extra functionality to the drugs. In this Account, we present different strategies being used for functionalizing platinum complexes, including conjugation with bisphosphonates, peptides, receptor-specific ligands, polymers, nanoparticles, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, metal chelators, or photosensitizers. Among them, bisphosphonates, peptides, and receptor-specific ligands are used for actively targeted drug delivery, polymers and nanoparticles are for passively targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents are for theranostic purposes, metal chelators are for the treatment or prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and photosensitizers are for photodynamic therapy of cancers. The rationales behind these designs are explained and justified at the molecular or cellular level, associating with the requirements for diagnosis, therapy, and visualization of biological processes. To illustrate the wide range of opportunities and challenges that are emerging in this realm, representative examples of targeted drug delivery systems, anticancer conjugates

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-19 Electrical. (a) All electrical equipment located within 18 inches of the deck of the...

  8. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  9. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  10. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  11. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  12. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  13. 40 CFR 194.44 - Engineered barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the volume of waste); (ix) The effects on mitigating the consequences of human intrusion. (2) If... 194.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  14. 40 CFR 194.44 - Engineered barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the volume of waste); (ix) The effects on mitigating the consequences of human intrusion. (2) If... 194.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  15. [Platinum antitumor complexes].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Andrea; Giuliani, Jacopo; Muggia, Franco

    2015-12-01

    In the last 50 years the oncology has experienced remarkable changes resulting in transforming malignant germ-cell testicular tumors from highly fatal to nearly uniformly cured neoplasms. This clinical landmark was justly attributed to the identification of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg in his experiments dating to 1965. On this 50th anniversary of this discovery, one is reminded of the following key aspects in cancer therapeutics: 1) the life-story of Barnett Rosenberg and his legacy that included organizing nearly quadrennial "platinum" meetings incorporating advances in cancer biology into evolving therapeutic strategies; 2) the search for less toxic analogs of cisplatin leading to the development of carboplatin; 3) clinical research into attenuation of cisplatin toxicities; 4) oxaliplatin and the expansion of the therapeutic spectrum of platinum compounds; and 5) the ongoing multifaceted investigations into the problem of "platinum resistance".

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E.; Singh, B.

    1996-10-01

    Abstract:Experimental data pertaining to all nuclei with mass A = 194 were evaluated. Level schemes from both radioactive decay and reaction studies are presented, along with associated tables of experimental data and adopted properties for levels and γ rays. The literature cutoff date for this revision is September 30, 1996. This revision replaces 89SiO1. Extensive high-spin experiments using large gamma-detector arrays have revealed superdeformed structures in 194Hg (three SD bands: Yrast and pair of excited signature partners), 194Tl (six SD bands: Three pairs of signature partners), and 194Pb (three SD bands: Yrast and pair of excited signature partners). For yrast bands (SD-1) in 194Hg and 194Pb, connecting transitions between the SD band and normal bands have recently (96Kh04, 96Lo12,96Br07) been reported. Several dipole (oblate) bands in 194Pb, some based on high-K (oblate) states have been reported from similar in-beam γ-ray experiments. New γγ coincidence measurements (93Ko59, 94KoZQ) using the 193Ir(n,γ) reaction helped to place several transitions in the level scheme and established the 31.85-ms 194Ir isomer at 147.078 KeV 5. Results from the first study of the 193Ir(d,p) reaction (94Ga30) agree with those from (n,γ). Unpublished (95TeZZ) γγ coincidence results (using HERA, an array of 20 intrinsic germanium detectors) revealed a new level in 194Pt at 1737.4 KeV. It also provided correct placement in the decay scheme for many γ rays from 194Au ɛ decay. Recent measurements (92Hu04) of the α-decay chain 202Fr- 196At- 194Bi confirm the existence of 194Bi isomers, and show population to previously unknown levels at 218 and 396 KeV in 194Bi. Cutoff Date:All data received by September 30, 1996 were evaluated. General Policies and Organization of Material:See the January issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Acknowledgments:Evaluators wish to thank R.R.P. Teixeira (95TeZZ) for making available their unpublished data on 194Au ɛ decay. General Comments

  17. {alpha} decay of {sup 194}At

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Streicher, B.; Saro, S.; Venhart, M.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Sulignano, B.; Bianco, L.; Page, R. D.; Sapple, P.; Thomson, J.; Franchoo, S.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.

    2009-06-15

    Detailed {alpha}-decay studies of the neutron-deficient isotope {sup 194}At have been performed in the complete fusion reaction {sup 56}Fe+{sup 141}Pr{yields}{sup 194}At+3n at the velocity filter SHIP. Two {alpha}-decaying isomeric states with half-lives of T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m1})=310(8) ms and T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m2})=253(10) ms were identified in this nucleus. Their complex decays to the states in the daughter nucleus {sup 190}Bi are discussed in the article. We propose that similar to the case of the neighboring {sup 191,192,193,195}At isotopes, the oblate-deformed configurations based on the proton 1/2{sup +}[440] and/or 7/2{sup -}[514] Nilsson orbitals become important in {sup 194}At. A new isomeric state with the half-life of 175(8) ns was observed in {sup 190}Bi.

  18. Multiple β- decaying states in 194Re: Shape evolution in neutron-rich osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dahan, N.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Walker, P. M.; Alkhomashi, N.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Farrelly, G.; Benlliure, J.; Pietri, S. B.; Casten, R. F.; Stevenson, P. D.; Gelletly, W.; Steer, S. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Casarejos, E.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Grebosz, J.; Górska, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Schaffner, H.; Algora, A.; Benzoni, G.; Blazhev, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruce, A. M.; Cullen, I. J.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Estevez, M. E.; Fujita, Y.; Hoischen, R.; Kumar, R.; Lalkovski, S.; Liu, Z.; Mason, P. J.; Mihai, C.; Molina, F.; Mücher, D.; Rubio, B.; Tamii, A.; Tashenov, S.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Woods, P. J.

    2012-03-01

    β decays from heavy, neutron-rich nuclei with A˜190 have been investigated following their production via the relativistic projectile fragmentation of an E/A=1 GeV 208Pb primary beam on a ˜2.5 g/cm2 9Be target. The reaction products were separated and identified using the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) and stopped in the RISING active stopper. γ decays were observed and correlated with these secondary ions on an event-by-event basis such that γ-ray transitions following from both internal (isomeric) and β decays were recorded. A number of discrete, β-delayed γ-ray transitions associated with β decays from 194Re to excited states in 194Os have been observed, including previously reported decays from the yrast Iπ=(6+) state. Three previously unreported γ-ray transitions with energies 194, 349, and 554 keV are also identified; these transitions are associated with decays from higher spin states in 194Os. The results of these investigations are compared with theoretical predictions from Nilsson multi-quasiparticle (MQP) calculations. Based on lifetime measurements and the observed feeding pattern to states in 194Os, it is concluded that there are three β--decaying states in 194Re.

  19. Growth of platinum nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Movie showing the growth of platinum nanocrystals in a liquid cell observed in situ using the JEOL 3010 TEM at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. This is the first ever-real time movie showing nucleation and growth by monomer attachment or by smaller nanocrystals coalescing to form larger nanocrystals. All the nanocrystals end up being roughly the same shape and size. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/08/04/growth-spurts/

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1 General. (a) Chemical and scientific laboratories shall be considered service areas, and as such shall be... surfaces where chemical stores are used shall be of incombustible material. (2) Combustible materials...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1 General. (a) Chemical and scientific laboratories shall be considered service areas, and as such shall be... surfaces where chemical stores are used shall be of incombustible material. (2) Combustible materials...

  2. 49 CFR 194.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.3 Applicability. This part applies to an operator of an onshore oil pipeline that,...

  3. 49 CFR 194.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.3 Applicability. This part applies to an operator of an onshore oil pipeline that,...

  4. 49 CFR 194.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.3 Applicability. This part applies to an operator of an onshore oil pipeline that,...

  5. 49 CFR 194.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.3 Applicability. This part applies to an operator of an onshore oil pipeline that,...

  6. 49 CFR 194.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.3 Applicability. This part applies to an operator of an onshore oil pipeline that,...

  7. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 213 of the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Department means the United States Department of Energy. Disposal regulations means part 191, subparts B...

  8. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 213 of the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Department means the United States Department of Energy. Disposal regulations means part 191, subparts B...

  9. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 213 of the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Department means the United States Department of Energy. Disposal regulations means part 191, subparts B...

  10. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 213 of the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Department means the United States Department of Energy. Disposal regulations means part 191, subparts B...

  11. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 213 of the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Department means the United States Department of Energy. Disposal regulations means part 191, subparts B...

  12. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The system shall have a capacity sufficient to effect a complete change of air in not more than 4...

  13. 46 CFR 194.01-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF..., with the exception of subpart 194.90, shall apply to all vessels other than non-self-propelled vessels of less than 300 gross tons contracted for on or after March 1, 1968. (b) Non-self-propelled...

  14. 40 CFR 194.24 - Waste characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Solubility; formation of colloidal suspensions containing radionuclides; production of gas from the waste... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waste characterization. 194.24 Section... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT...

  15. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  19. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be made for the containment and removal of chemical spills. (d) Chemical reactions and experiments... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the...

  20. 40 CFR 194.44 - Engineered barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 194.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... impact on worker exposure to radiation both during and after incorporation of engineered barriers;...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-3... embarked may supervise the safety and operation of the chemical storerooms. (b) The chemical...

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type....

  3. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The...

  5. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The...

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The...

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-1 Application. (a) The...

  12. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The... the chemical storeroom will be ventilated before it is entered. An Indicator shall be provided...

  14. 46 CFR 194.05-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Stowage and Marking § 194.05-1 General. (a) The master shall be held responsible for and shall require the proper handling, stowage, and marking of all chemical stores and reagents. (b) Chemical stores shall be stowed in a chemical storeroom in approved drums, barrels, or...

  15. Enhancing Tumor Cell Response to Chemotherapy through the Targeted Delivery of Platinum Drugs Mediated by Highly Stable, Multifunctional Carboxymethylcellulose-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Medříková, Zdenka; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Zajac, Juraj; Vrána, Oldřich; Kasparkova, Jana; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Petr, Martin; Zbořil, Radek; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles using different formulations, and which can be used for the delivery of chemotherapeutics, has recently attracted considerable attention. We describe herein an innovative approach that may ultimately allow for the selective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells by using an external magnet. A conventional antitumor drug, cisplatin, has been incorporated into new carboxymethylcellulose-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles conjugated with the fluorescent marker Alexa Fluor 488 or folic acid as targeting agent. The magnetic nanocarriers possess exceptionally high biocompatibility and colloidal stability. These cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles overcome the resistance mechanisms typical of free cisplatin. Moreover, experiments aimed at the localization of the nanoparticles driven by an external magnet in a medium that mimics physiological conditions confirmed that this localization can inhibit tumor cell growth site-specifically. PMID:27246144

  16. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 194.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 194.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 194.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 194.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 194.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  2. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  3. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  4. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  5. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of new coordination complexes of platinum(II) and rhenium(I) with a ligand targeting the translocator protein (TSPO).

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Nicola; Denora, Nunzio; Piccinonna, Sara; Laquintana, Valentino; Lasorsa, Francesco Massimo; Franco, Massimo; Natile, Giovanni

    2014-11-21

    The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is overexpressed in many types of cancers and is also abundant in activated microglial cells occurring in inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. The TSPO-selective ligand 2-(8-(2-(bis-(pyridin-2-yl-methyl)amino)acetamido)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)-N,N-dipropylacetamide (CB256), which fulfills the requirements of a bifunctional chelate approach, has been used to synthesize coordination complexes containing either Pt (1) or Re (3), or both metal ions (2). The new metal complexes showed a cellular uptake markedly greater than that of the precursor metallic compounds and were also able to induce apoptosis in C6 glioma cells. The good cytotoxicity of the free ligand CB256 towards C6, A2780, and A2780cisR tumor cell lines was attenuated after coordination of the dipicolylamine moiety to Pt while coordination of the imidazopyridine residue to Re reduces the affinity towards TSPO. The results of the present investigation are essential for the design of new imidazopyridine bifunctional chelate ligands targeted to TSPO.

  7. 38 CFR 17.194 - Aid for domiciliary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aid for domiciliary care. 17.194 Section 17.194 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.194 Aid for domiciliary care. Aid may be...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it...

  9. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual.... 194.51 Section 194.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  11. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  12. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  13. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  14. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping... § 194.15-7 Fire protection. (a) If a fixed or semiportable fire-fighting system is installed, it shall meet the applicable requirements in part 193 of this subchapter. Other fire-fighting systems will...

  16. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....194 Section 264.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194 General operating requirements. (a) Hazardous wastes or treatment reagents...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.194-4280.199 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 4280.194-4280.199 Section 4280.194-4280.199 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section D. Combined Funding §§ 4280.194-4280.199...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.194-4280.199 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 4280.194-4280.199 Section 4280.194-4280.199 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section D. Combined Funding §§ 4280.194-4280.199...

  19. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions governing investigations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.4 Conditions governing investigations....

  20. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions governing investigations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.4 Conditions governing investigations....

  1. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions governing investigations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.4 Conditions governing investigations....

  2. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions governing investigations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.4 Conditions governing investigations....

  3. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions governing investigations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC CAP LAMPS § 19.4 Conditions governing investigations....

  4. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 194.5 Section 194.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  5. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  7. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service classes. Sec. 19-4 Section 19-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... Classifications Sec. 19-4 Service classes. The statistical classifications are designed to reflect the...

  8. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General operating requirements. 264.194 Section 264.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194...

  9. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General operating requirements. 264.194 Section 264.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194...

  10. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General operating requirements. 264.194 Section 264.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194...

  11. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General operating requirements. 264.194 Section 264.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194...

  12. [Research progress of the drug delivery system of antitumor platinum drugs with macrocyclic compounds].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan-zhu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji; Fei, Fan; Wang, Tian-shuai; Yang, Bo; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Ying-jie

    2015-06-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs have been becoming one of the most effective drugs for clinical treatment of malignant tumors for its unique mechanism of action and broad range of anticancer spectrum. But, there are still several problems such as side effects, drug resistance/cross resistance and no-specific targeting, becoming obstacles to restrict its expanding of clinical application. In recent years, supramolecular chemistry drug delivery systems have been gradually concerned for their favorable safety and low toxicity. Supramolecular macrocycles-platinum complexes increased the water solubility, stability and safety of traditional platinum drugs, and have become hot focus of developing novel platinum-based anticancer drugs because of its potential targeting of tumor tissues/organs. This article concentrates in the research progress of the new drug delivery system between platinum-based anticancer drugs with three generations of macrocycles: crown ether, cyclodextrin, cucurbituril and calixarene. PMID:26521433

  13. Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-06-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

  14. miR-194 is a negative regulator of GEF-H1 pathway in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingyu; Hui, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Chang, Peng; Tao, Kai

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and associated mortality of melanoma continues to increase worldwide. At present, there is no curative therapy for advanced stage of melanoma. It is necessary to find new indicators of prognosis and therapeutic targets. Increasing evidence shows that miRNA can provide potential candidate biomarkers for melanoma and therapeutic targets. GEF-H1, a regulator of RhoA, as oncogenic driver in melanoma, promotes the growth and invasion of melanoma. miR-194 is a tumor-suppressor gene in multiple tumors, such as bladder and non-small cell lung cancer, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we demonstrated that GEF-H1 serves as target of miR-194. Overexpression of miR-194 downregulates the GEF-H1/RhoA pathway, inhibits melanoma cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Furthermore, miR-194 expression is negatively associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages. Briefly, our findings provided new theoretical basis for melanoma treatment. PMID:27573550

  15. Emerging treatment strategies in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: focus on trabectedin.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Andrés; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Romero, Ignacio; Lopez-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Colombo, Nicoletta

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. In spite of high response rates to the standard front-line treatment for advanced disease with cytoreductive surgical debulking, followed by platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, most patients eventually relapse developing drug-resistant disease. Owing to the molecular heterogeneity, genetic instability and mutagenicity of OC, increases in survival might be achieved by translating recent insights at the morpho-molecular levels to individual therapeutic strategies. Several emerging treatments have been shown to be active in platinum-sensitive (PS) recurrent OC (ROC), but an optimal strategy still has not been established. Based on the recent results, it is likely that the introduction of novel non-platinum based chemotherapies and molecular targeted therapies will have a major impact on the management of ROC. Some current strategies are focused on the extension of platinum-free interval (PFI) in patients with PS, particularly in those with partially PS disease. Apparently, the PFI extension by an effective non-platinum intervention, such as trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), may reduce cumulative platinum-induced toxicities leading to longer survival after the reintroduction of subsequent platinum. The introduction of novel therapies, such as the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, opens a new field of targeted therapies in this indication. In this review, we aim to outline the therapeutic potential of new emerging approaches, particularly the role of non-platinum therapy with trabectedin in combination with PLD in patients with PS ROC.

  16. Possible chiral bands in {sup 194}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Masiteng, P. L.; Ramashidzha, T. M.; Maliage, S. M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Vymers, P. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Bark, R. A.; Mullins, S. M.; Murray, S. H. T.; Kau, J.; Komati, F.; Lindsay, R.; Matamba, I.; Mutshena, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-28

    High spin states in {sup 194}Tl, excited through the {sup 181}Ta({sup 18}O,5n) fusion evaporation reaction, were studied using the AFRODITE array at iThemba LABS. Candidate chiral bands built on the {pi}h{sub 9/2} x {nu}i{sub 13/2}{sup 1} configuration were found. Furthermore these bands were observed through a band crossing caused by the excitation of a {nu}i{sub 13/2} pair. Above the band crossing the excitation energies remain close, suggesting that chirality may persist for the four quasiparticle configuration too.

  17. Fluorometric imaging methods for palladium and platinum and the use of palladium for imaging biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Matthew P; Pham, Dianne; Koide, Kazunori

    2015-07-21

    Neither palladium nor platinum is an endogenous biological metal. Imaging palladium in biological samples, however, is becoming increasingly important because bioorthogonal organometallic chemistry involves palladium catalysis. In addition to being an imaging target, palladium has been used to fluorometrically image biomolecules. In these cases, palladium species are used as imaging-enabling reagents. This review article discusses these fluorometric methods. Platinum-based drugs are widely used as anticancer drugs, yet their mechanism of action remains largely unknown. We discuss fluorometric methods for imaging or quantifying platinum in cells or biofluids. These methods include the use of chemosensors to directly detect platinum, fluorescently tagging platinum-based drugs, and utilizing post-labeling to elucidate distribution and mode of action.

  18. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Hardeep S; Nukolova, Natalia V; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2013-11-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum-polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs.

  19. Platinum and platinum based nanoalloys synthesized by wet chemistry.

    PubMed

    Salzemann, Caroline; Kameche, Farid; Ngo, Anh-Tu; Andreazza, Pascal; Calatayud, Monica; Petit, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Platinum nanocrystals and their derivatives with palladium and cobalt are of fundamental interest due to their wide field of application in chemistry and physics. Their properties are strongly dependent on their shape and composition. However the chemical route is far from allowing control of both shape and composition. In this paper, we show both experimentally and theoretically the important role of the interaction of small adsorbed molecules on the shape but also on the composition. This has been studied by comparing the case of pure palladium and platinum nanocrystals and the case of PtPd and PtCo nanoalloys synthesized by the liquid-liquid phase transfer method.

  20. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  3. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 194.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.101 Operators required to submit plans. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 194.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.101 Operators required to submit plans. (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 194.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.101 Operators required to submit plans. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 194.101 - Operators required to submit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 194.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.101 Operators required to submit plans. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  8. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section 194... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  9. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  10. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  11. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  12. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  13. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  14. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  15. 40 CFR 194.15 - certification application(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1996-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Applications Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re-certification application(s... Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon dioxide... fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193.50-10(a) of this subchapter....

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system using carbon dioxide or a clean agent complying with 46 CFR subpart 95.16, installed in accordance with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7...

  18. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  19. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  20. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  1. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  4. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  5. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  7. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  8. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  9. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  10. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  11. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  12. 49 CFR 194.109 - Submission of state response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 194.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.109 Submission of state response plans. (a) In...

  13. 49 CFR 194.109 - Submission of state response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 194.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.109 Submission of state response plans. (a) In...

  14. 49 CFR 194.109 - Submission of state response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 194.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.109 Submission of state response plans. (a) In...

  15. 49 CFR 194.109 - Submission of state response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 194.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.109 Submission of state response plans. (a) In...

  16. 49 CFR 194.109 - Submission of state response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 194.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.109 Submission of state response plans. (a) In...

  17. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  18. 40 CFR 194.13 - Submission of reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Submission of reference materials. 194.13 Section 194.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART...

  19. 22 CFR 194.1 - Authority and scope of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 194.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION INTER-AMERICAN COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE § 194.1 Authority and scope of application. In accordance with the authority in chapter III of the Federal Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 306), the Department...

  20. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actions prior to grant closing. 4280.194 Section 4280.194 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

  1. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... association. 41.194 Section 41.194 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... association. Every partnership or association, before commencing business as an importer of tobacco products... partnership or association, if any, or certificate of partnership or association where required to be filed...

  2. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... association. 41.194 Section 41.194 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... association. Every partnership or association, before commencing business as an importer of tobacco products... partnership or association, if any, or certificate of partnership or association where required to be filed...

  3. 27 CFR 9.194 - San Antonio Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false San Antonio Valley. 9.194... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.194 San Antonio Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “San...

  4. 28 CFR 19.4 - Cost and percentage estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and percentage estimates. 19.4... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.4 Cost and percentage estimates. It is estimated that this program will cost DOJ $78,000 during the initial year. This figure is based on estimates of printing, inserting,...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 40 CFR 265.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General operating requirements. 265.194 Section 265.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  8. 40 CFR 265.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General operating requirements. 265.194 Section 265.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  9. 40 CFR 265.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General operating requirements. 265.194 Section 265.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  10. 40 CFR 265.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General operating requirements. 265.194 Section 265.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  11. 40 CFR 265.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General operating requirements. 265.194 Section 265.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems §...

  12. Antimicrobial properties of diamond-like carbon-silver-platinum nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, R. J.; Abernathy, H.; Riester, L.; Berry, C. J.; Brigmon, R.

    2005-08-01

    Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that these films self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures that possess a high fraction of sp 3-hybridized carbon atoms. Nanoindentation testing of DLC-silver nanocomposite films demonstrates that these films possess hardness and Young’s modulus values of approximately 35 and 350 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  13. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Silver-Platinum Nanocomposite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    CHRISTOPHER, BERRY

    2005-03-07

    Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that the metals self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures. Nanoindentation testing has shown that diamondlike carbon-silver films exhibit hardness and Young's modulus values of approximately 37 GPa and 333 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films exhibited antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. Diamondlike carbon-biofunctional metal nanocomposite films have a variety of potential medical and antimicrobial applications.

  14. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  15. Combinatorial-Designed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Chitosan Nanoparticles for Encapsulation and Delivery of Lipid-Modified Platinum Derivatives in Wild-Type and Resistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana Vanessa; Singh, Amit; Bousbaa, Hassan; Ferreira, Domingos; Sarmento, Bruno; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-12-01

    Development of efficient and versatile drug delivery platforms to overcome the physical and biological challenges in cancer therapeutics is an area of great interest, and novel materials are actively sought for such applications. Recent strides in polymer science have led to a combinatorial approach for generating a library of materials with different functional identities that can be "mixed and matched" to attain desired characteristics of a delivery vector. We have applied the combinatorial design to chitosan (CS), where the polymer backbone has been modified with polyethylene glycol, epidermal growth factor receptor-binding peptide, and lipid derivatives of varying chain length to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. Cisplatin, cis-([PtCl2(NH3)2]), is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs broadly administered for cancer treatment. Cisplatin is a hydrophilic drug, and in order for it to be encapsulated in the developed nanosystems, it was modified with lipids of varying chain length. The library of four CS derivatives and six platinum derivatives was self-assembled in aqueous medium and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxic effects in platinum-sensitive and -resistant lung cancer cells. The results show that the lipid-modified platinate encapsulation into CS nanoparticles significantly improved cellular cytotoxicity of the drug. In this work, we have also reinforced the idea that CS is a multifaceted system that can be as successful in delivering small molecules as it has been as a nucleic acids carrier.

  16. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass. PMID:26453745

  17. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass.

  18. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Nukolova, Natalia V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum–polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  19. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  20. Role of copper transporters in platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Guancial, Elizabeth; Kim, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents are effective in the treatment of many solid malignancies. However, their efficacy is limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Reduced intracellular Pt accumulation has been consistently shown to correlate with resistance in tumors. Proteins involved in copper homeostasis have been identified as Pt transporters. In particular, copper transporter receptor 1 (CTR1), the major copper influx transporter, has been shown to play a significant role in Pt resistance. Clinical studies demonstrated that expression of CTR1 correlated with intratumoral Pt concentration and outcomes following Pt-based therapy. Other CTRs such as CTR2, ATP7A and ATP7B, may also play a role in Pt resistance. Recent clinical studies attempting to modulate CTR1 to overcome Pt resistance may provide novel strategies. This review discusses the role of CTR1 as a potential predictive biomarker of Pt sensitivity and a therapeutic target for overcoming Pt resistance. PMID:26862494

  1. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  2. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  3. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  4. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  5. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  6. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-10 - Integral magazine construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-10 Integral... are permitted. (e) Piping, other than fresh or salt water service and drainage system, shall not...

  8. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  14. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  19. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  20. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  1. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  2. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... of the type and quantity of waste (in activity in curies of each radionuclide) released or...

  3. 46 CFR 194.20-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-11 Flushing systems. (a) Provision shall be made for flushing away chemical spills. (b) If a drainage...

  4. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for I-194 (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope I-194 (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53, mass number A = 194).

  6. Surface characterization of platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Solla-Gullón, José; Rodríguez, Paramaconi; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M

    2008-03-14

    The quantitative analysis of the different surface sites on platinum samples is attempted from pure voltammetric data. This analysis requires independent knowledge of the fraction of two-dimensional (111) and (100) domains. Specific site-probe reactions are employed to achieve this goal. Irreversibly-adsorbed bismuth and tellurium have been revealed to be sensitive to the presence of (111) terrace domains of different width whereas almost all sites involved in (100) ordered domains have been characterized through germanium adatoms. The experimental protocol follows that used with well-defined single-crystal electrodes and, therefore, requires careful control of the surface cleanliness. Platinum basal planes and their vicinal stepped surfaces have been employed to obtain calibration plots between the charge density measured under the adatom redox peak, specific for the type of surface site, and the corresponding terrace size. The evaluation of the (100) bidimensional domains can also be achieved using the voltammetric profiles, once the fraction of (111) ordered domains present in the polyoriented platinum has been determined and their featureless contribution has been subtracted from the whole voltammetric response. Using that curve, it is possible to perform a deconvolution of the adsorption states of the polycrystalline sample different from those related to (111) domains. The fraction of (100)-related states in the deconvoluted voltammogram can then be compared to that expected from the independent estimation coming from the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly-adsorbed germanium and thus check the result of the deconvolution. The information about the surface-site distribution can also be applied to analyze the voltammetric profile of nanocrystalline platinum electrodes. PMID:18309392

  7. Quasicontinuous spectrum of γ rays which feed and depopulate SD in ^194Pb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, D. P.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ding, K.-Y.; Younes, W.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Archer, D. E.; Bauer, R. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Hauschild, K.; Clark, R. M.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Diamond, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Stephens, F. S.; Kelly, W. H.

    1996-10-01

    The mechanism for decay from superdeformed (SD) to ``normal'' (ND) states in ^192Hg results in a large quasicontinuum component which can be fit by a statistical model.(R.G. Henry, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 777 (1994). Recent experiments(M.J. Brinkman, et al., Phys. Rev. C53), R1461 (1996); T.L. Khoo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1583 (1996). have also identified discrete one-step decays from SD to ND states in ^194Pb and ^194Hg which have allowed for the determination of excitation energy and spin of the second wells in these nuclei. We used the ^174Yb(^25Mg,5n) reaction at 130 MeV with a backed target and Gammasphere to study the total spectrum of γ rays in coincidence with the yrast SD band in ^194Pb. The response functions of the detectors were previously determined. The results of the preliminary analysis on the quasicontinuous γ rays which feed and depopulate the yrast SD band will be presented. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  9. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  10. 41 CFR 102-194.35 - Should I create electronic Standard or Optional forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic Standard or Optional forms? 102-194.35 Section 102-194.35 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.35 Should I create electronic Standard or Optional forms? Yes, you should create electronic Standard or Optional forms, especially...

  11. Platinum electrodes for electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Bacteria is detected electro-chemically by measuring evolution of hydrogen in test system with platinum and reference electrode. Using system, electrodes of platinum are used to detect and enumerate varieties of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms compared in different media.

  12. Failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Mcfarlen, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes procedures and results of testing performed on a platinum/10-percent rhodium, thin-wall tubular product. The purpose of the testing was to develop exemplar SEM fractographs to be used to characterize failures under various environmental conditions. Conditions evaluated for the platinum alloys included high temperature, hydrogen environment, braze metal contamination, and cyclic loading.

  13. [Platinum compounds in cancer therapy--past, present, and future].

    PubMed

    Akaza, H; Saijo, N; Aiba, K; Isonishi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawai, K; Konishi, T; Saeki, T; Sone, S; Tsukagoshi, S; Tsuruo, T; Noguchi, S; Miki, T; Mikami, O; Smith, M; Hoctin-Boes, G; Stribling, D

    2001-05-01

    Platinum cytotoxics play an important role globally in the management of solid tumours. Cisplatin sets the standard for efficacy in both regions with careful administration to reduce nephrotoxicity. Carboplatin is associated with neurotoxicity, but has become the leading product in the US due largely to the easier to manage toxicity profile. Both agents have been widely used in both registered and non registered indications and are frequently combined with other cytotoxics. In Japan, cisplatin has been used successfully at low doses in combination with 5-FU based regimens and appears to achieve a synergistic effect, but controlled data are not yet available. More recently oxaliplatin (Europe) and nedaplatin (in Japan) have been introduced, but their clinical roles in therapy have yet to be established. One of the limiting features of the first generation of platinum compounds is that a significant proportion of tumours develop cross resistance to platins due to either changes in uptake or excretion, intracellular detoxification or accelerated DNA repair. The forum discussed the possibility for the development of better new platinum compounds, A new platin agent which had lower toxicity and higher efficacy across a wide range of cancers without the development of resistance would be a significant step forward. If the tolerability profile was suitable, an oral formulation may improve the quality of life for patients but this must not be at the expense of efficacy. Even after the introduction of new target based drugs, platinum cytotoxics are likely to be used to reduce the tumour mass and in some cases can be expected to potentiate the effects of the new agents. In preclinical studies, ZD0473 has been shown to by-pass some major mechanisms of resistance and has the potential to achieve these objectives and is now being evaluated in clinical studies in both Japan and the West. PMID:11383210

  14. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  15. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or... products must furnish with its application for the permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the...

  16. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Section 194.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-4 Service classes. The statistical classifications are designed to reflect the operating... shall be reported, as applicable: U.S. Air Carriers: V—Nonscheduled Services (L+N+P+R)...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-11 Flushing systems. (a) Working spaces in which chemical stores are used shall be equipped with a fresh water supply shower. (b) There shall be a provision for flushing away chemical spills....

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-11 Flushing systems. (a) Working spaces in which chemical stores are used shall be equipped with a fresh water supply shower. (b) There shall be a provision for flushing away chemical spills....

  20. 40 CFR 194.34 - Results of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Containment Requirements § 194.34 Results of performance assessments. (a) The results of performance... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Results of performance...

  1. 40 CFR 194.34 - Results of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Containment Requirements § 194.34 Results of performance assessments. (a) The results of performance... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Results of performance...

  2. 40 CFR 194.34 - Results of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Containment Requirements § 194.34 Results of performance assessments. (a) The results of performance... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Results of performance assessments....

  3. 40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.55 Results of compliance assessments. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Results of compliance assessments....

  4. 40 CFR 194.32 - Scope of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....32 Section 194.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... system during the regulatory time frame. (b) Assessments of mining effects may be limited to changes...

  5. 40 CFR 194.32 - Scope of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....32 Section 194.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... system during the regulatory time frame. (b) Assessments of mining effects may be limited to changes...

  6. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected...

  7. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  8. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  9. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  10. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Models and computer codes....

  11. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  12. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  13. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  14. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  15. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  16. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  17. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with § 191.15 of this chapter, all potential exposure...

  18. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with § 191.15 of this chapter, all potential exposure...

  19. 40 CFR 194.52 - Consideration of exposure pathways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.52 Consideration of exposure pathways. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with § 191.15 of this chapter, all potential exposure...

  20. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  1. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  2. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  3. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Active institutional controls....

  4. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  5. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  6. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers. (a) Sprinkler system required. (1) A manual control, hydraulic control, or automatic sprinkler system... head design so as to permit either manual or automatic operation. (3) Sprinkler systems shall...

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers. (a) Sprinkler system required. (1) A manual control, hydraulic control, or automatic sprinkler system... head design so as to permit either manual or automatic operation. (3) Sprinkler systems shall...

  9. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers. (a) Sprinkler system required. (1) A manual control, hydraulic control, or automatic sprinkler system... head design so as to permit either manual or automatic operation. (3) Sprinkler systems shall...

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers. (a) Sprinkler system required. (1) A manual control, hydraulic control, or automatic sprinkler system... head design so as to permit either manual or automatic operation. (3) Sprinkler systems shall...

  11. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers. (a) Sprinkler system required. (1) A manual control, hydraulic control, or automatic sprinkler system... head design so as to permit either manual or automatic operation. (3) Sprinkler systems shall...

  12. 40 CFR 194.43 - Passive institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 194.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... human intrusion, if the Department demonstrates in the compliance application that such credit...

  13. 40 CFR 194.43 - Passive institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 194.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... human intrusion, if the Department demonstrates in the compliance application that such credit...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-11 Flushing systems. (a) Provision shall be made for flushing away chemical spills. (b) If a drainage...

  15. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  16. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  17. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.194 Actions prior to grant closing. Applicants expecting funds from other sources for use in completing projects being partially financed with Agency funds must have these funds from other such sources prior to grant...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.194 Actions prior to grant closing. Applicants expecting funds from other sources for use in completing projects being partially financed with Agency funds must have these funds from other such sources prior to grant...

  19. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Washington, DC 20555, or contact National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,...

  20. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Washington, DC 20555, or contact National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,...

  1. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Washington, DC 20555, or contact National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,...

  2. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Washington, DC 20555, or contact National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,...

  3. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 194.10-5 - Type and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of 49 CFR part 176. (c) Magazine chests. (1) Magazine chests shall be located on the weather decks... utilized shall not be used for stowage of other hazardous materials covered by 49 CFR parts 171-179. The..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-5 Type and location....

  5. 38 CFR 21.194 - “Employment services” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Chapter 31 Case Status § 21.194 “Employment services” status. (a) Purpose. The status employment services serves to: (1) Identify veterans who are being furnished employment services; and (2) Assure that these veterans receive necessary services in a timely manner. (b) Assignment to employment services status....

  6. 38 CFR 21.194 - “Employment services” status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Chapter 31 Case Status § 21.194 “Employment services” status. (a) Purpose. The status employment services serves to: (1) Identify veterans who are being furnished employment services; and (2) Assure that these veterans receive necessary services in a timely manner. (b) Assignment to employment services status....

  7. 46 CFR 194.05-21 - Other regulated materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulated materials. (a) Other Regulated Materials (DOT Hazard Class “ORM”) as chemical stores and reagents... Regulated Materials (DOT Hazard Class “ORM”) which are not chemical stores and reagents shall be regulated... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other regulated materials. 194.05-21 Section...

  8. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  9. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  10. 40 CFR 19.4 - Penalty adjustment and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.4 Penalty adjustment and table. The adjusted statutory penalty... Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code Citation Environmental statute Statutory penalties, as enacted Penalties... inflation adjustment to the calendar year 1992 penalty amount expressed in section 104B(d)(1)(A), which...

  11. 40 CFR 19.4 - Penalty adjustment and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.4 Penalty adjustment and table. The adjusted statutory penalty... Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation Environmental statute Statutorypenalties, as enacted... amounts set forth in this Table reflect an inflation adjustment to the calendar year 1992 penalty...

  12. 40 CFR 19.4 - Penalty adjustment and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.4 Penalty adjustment and table. The adjusted statutory penalty... Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation Environmental statute Statutorypenalties, as enacted... amounts set forth in this Table reflect an inflation adjustment to the calendar year 1992 penalty...

  13. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  14. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  15. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells. PMID:27193706

  16. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    PubMed

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  17. Teaching the Chemistry of Platinum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert G W

    2015-01-01

    Following colonisation of South America by the Spanish, many new naturally occurring substances were sent to Europe. One of these was the silvery, unreactive metal, platinum, discovered in New Grenada in the mid-eighteenth century. It was often found in granular form, associated with gold, and the challenge to chemists was to refine it, produce it as wire or sheet, and determine its chemical properties. This interested the professor of chemistry at the University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black, who was able to obtain samples from London-based Spanish contacts, particularly Ignacio Luzuriaga. This paper examines how Black transmitted his knowledge of the metal to large numbers of students attending his annual course. PMID:26924332

  18. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  19. Evaluation of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation procedure for the characterization of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) for use in the temperature range -120 to 160 C was investigated. This evaluation procedure consisted of calibration, thermal stability and hysteresis testing of four surface measuring PRTs. Five different calibration schemes were investigated for these sensors. The IPTS-68 formulation produced the most accurate result, yielding average sensor systematic error of 0.02 C and random error of 0.1 C. The sensors were checked for thermal stability by successive and thermal cycling between room temperature, 160 C, and boiling point of nitrogen. All the PRTs suffered from instability and hysteresis. The applicability of the self-heating technique as an in situ method for checking the calibration of PRTs located inside wind tunnels was investigated.

  20. Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

    1980-06-27

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example.

  1. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required in 40 CFR 270.11(d). ... follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... must support and protect ancillary equipment against physical damage and excessive stress due...

  2. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  3. Platinum-aluminide coating enhances durability

    SciTech Connect

    Punola, D.; Sikkenga, D.; Sutton, M.

    1995-12-01

    Severe demands on coatings for gas turbine engines that must operate at significantly higher temperatures than previously required have led to the development of an advanced two-step platinum-modified-aluminide diffusion coating. The conventional system consists of platinum electroplating followed by a traditional pack cementation aluminizing process. This coating greatly extends the durability of hot-section components in environments characterized by high-temperature oxidation and corrosion. Conventionally deposited platinum aluminides, such as Howmet`s LDC2E, demonstrated that a change in material could deliver higher levels of durability. However, the next challenge was to develop a more controllable, faster, cleaner process with improved yield and quality levels. The challenge was met by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This method is now used to apply aluminum to the part after platinum electroplating. It replaces the traditional pack cementation or above-the-pack techniques, and bypasses all the shortcomings associated with those processes.

  4. Platinum-Resistor Differential Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Platinum resistance elements used in bridge circuit for measuring temperature difference between two flowing liquids. Temperature errors with circuit are less than 0.01 degrees C over range of 100 degrees C.

  5. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst supported on a carbon substrate. During operation, the small platinum crystallites sinter, causing loss in cell performance. A support was developed that stabilizes platinum in the high surface area condition by retarding or preventing the sintering process. The approach is to form etch pits in the carbon by oxidizing the carbon in the presence of a metal oxide catalyst, remove the metal oxide by an acid wash, and then deposit platinum in these pits. Results confirm the formation of etch pits in each of the three supports chosen for investigation: Vulcan XC-72R, Vulcan XC-72 that was graphized at 2500 C, and Shawinigan Acetylene Black.

  6. Fate of platinum metals in the environment.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Justyna; Łodyga-Chruścińska, Elżbieta; Chrustowicz, Jakub

    2014-07-01

    For many years now automotive exhaust catalysts have been used to reduce the significant amounts of harmful chemical substances generated by car engines, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Although they considerably decrease environmental contamination with the above-mentioned compounds, it is known that catalysts contribute to the environmental load of platinum metals (essential components of catalysts), which are released with exhaust fumes. Contamination with platinum metals stems mainly from automotive exhaust converters, but other major sources also exist. Since platinum group elements (PGEs): platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru) and iridium (Ir) seem to spread in the environment and accumulate in living organisms, they may pose a threat to animals and humans. This paper discusses the modes and forms of PGE emission as well as their impact on the environment and living organisms.

  7. Platinum-ruthenium-palladium fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2006-02-07

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having an atomic ratio of platinum to ruthenium that is between about 0.7 and about 1.2. Alternatively, the catalyst may contain platinum at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 50 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 55 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having a difference between the concentrations of ruthenium and platinum that is no greater than about 20 atomic percent.

  8. Platinum analogues in preclinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T C; O'Dwyer, P J; Ozols, R F

    1993-11-01

    The impact of cisplatin on chemotherapy for solid tumors has led to the synthesis of many molecules with platinum as their central building block. These so-called platinum analogues have been developed with the obvious goals of improving the antitumor activity of cisplatin and hopefully, at the same time, altering the dose-limiting side effects of the prototype drug. At least 10 such molecules are in clinical development, whereas several others are at various stages of preclinical testing. PMID:8305533

  9. Intracellular glutathione and cytotoxicity of platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Pendyala, L; Creaven, P J; Perez, R; Zdanowicz, J R; Raghavan, D

    1995-01-01

    Although there have been a number of reports correlating cellular GSH levels with cytotoxicity of platinum agents, none has examined the relationship between GSH concentrations and cytotoxicity. In this study, using a highly specific HPLC method for measuring GSH and expressing GSH as concentration and also per cell number, we evaluated the correlation between GSH levels and the cytotoxicity to five agents in ten human tumor cell lines. The five platinum agents included the platinum(II) complexes cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin and platinum(IV) complexes iproplatin and tetraplatin. The correlation between intracellular GSH concentration and cytotoxicity was highly significant only for iproplatin (P = 0.002) followed by tetraplatin, which demonstrated a trend toward statistical significance (P = 0.06). Cytotoxicity of the other platinum complexes showed no relation to GSH concentration, cisplatin itself showing a P-value of 0.09. In contrast, the GSH levels normalized to cell number showed a statistically significant correlation with the cytotoxicity of four of the five platinum agents, the exception being carboplatin; the strongest correlation observed was that for iproplatin and tetraplatin. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in these cell lines showed no correlation with cytotoxicity of any of the platinum complexes. Our results, from the analyses of both GSH concentration as well as GSH per cell number, suggest a significantly higher interaction between GSH and iproplatin compared with the other platinum agents. Moreover, our data suggest that relationships between cytotoxicity and GSH levels on a per-cell basis may not persist when differences in cell volume are taken into account.

  10. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  11. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance. PMID:27812537

  12. 26 CFR 1.194-4 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.194-4 Section 1.194-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... (continued) § 1.194-4 Time and manner of making election. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph...

  13. 26 CFR 1.194-4 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.194-4 Section 1.194-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... (continued) § 1.194-4 Time and manner of making election. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph...

  14. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  15. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  16. 37 CFR 1.94 - Return of models, exhibits or specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of models, exhibits or specimens. 1.94 Section 1.94 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.94 Return...

  17. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  18. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  19. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  20. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  1. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  2. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  3. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... SHELF General Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.194 How must I protect...

  4. Short-lived isomers in 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Sulignano, B.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    Isomeric states in 194Po and 192Po were studied at the velocity filter SHIP. The isotopes were produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 141Pr(56Fe, p 2 n )194Po and 144Sm(51V, p 2 n )192Po . Several new γ -ray transitions were attributed to the isomers and γ -γ coincidences for both isomers were studied for the first time. The 459-keV transition earlier, tentatively proposed as de-exciting the isomeric level in 194Po, was replaced by a new 248-keV transition, and the spin of this isomer was reassigned from (11-) to (10-). The de-excitation of the (11-) isomeric level in 192Po by the 154-keV transition was confirmed and a parallel de-excitation by a 733-keV (E 3 ) transition to (8+) level of the ground-state band was suggested. Moreover, side feeding to the (4+) level of the ground-state band was proposed. The paper also discusses strengths of transitions de-exciting 11- isomers in neighboring Po and Pb isotopes.

  5. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments

  6. Studies of n-butane conversion over silica-supported platinum, platinum-silver and platinum-copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Junhua.

    1992-06-09

    The present work was undertaken to elucidate effect of adding silver and copper to silica-supported platinum catalyst on the activity and selectivity in the n-butane reactions. At the conditions of this study n-butane underwent both hydrogenolysis and structural isomerization. The catalytic activity and selectivities between hydrogenolysis and isomerization and within hydrogenolysis were measured at temperature varying from 330 C to 370 C. For platinum-silver catalysts, at lower temperatures studied the catalytic activity per surface platinum atom (turnover frequency) remained constant at lower silver content (between 0 at. % and 30 at. %) and decreased with further increased silver loading, suggesting that low- index planes could be dominant in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane. Moreover, increasing silver content resulted in an enhancement of the selectivity of isomerization products relative to hydrogenolysis products. At the higher temperature studied, no suppression in catalytic activity was observed. It is postulated that surface structure could change due to the mobility of surface silver atoms, leading to surface silver atoms forming islands or going to the bulk, and leaving large portions of basal planes exposed with active platinum atoms. It is also suggested that the presence of inert silver atoms results in weakening of the H-surface bond. This results in increased mobility of hydrogen atoms on the surface and hence, higher reactivity with other adsorbed species. For platinum copper catalysts, the mixed ensembles could play an active role in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane.

  7. Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

    1980-06-27

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. PMID:17796685

  8. Electronic transitions of platinum monofluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. F.; Southam, A. M.; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2016-10-01

    Electronic transition spectrum of platinum monofluoride (PtF) between 431 and 560 nm has been investigated using the technique of laser vaporization/reaction with free jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Eight vibrational bands had been observed but only six of them were analyzed, they were grouped into four electronic transitions: the [18.9]2Π3/2 - X2Π3/2, the [18.9]2Π3/2 - [0.04]2Δ5/2, the [19.9]2Δ5/2 - X2Π3/2 and the [23.2]2Δ5/2 - X2Π3/2 transitions. Accurate molecular constants have been determined for the [23.2]2Δ5/2, [19.9]2Δ5/2, [18.9]2Π3/2 and [0.04]2Δ5/2 electronic states. The agreement between experimental determined molecular constants and those from ab initio calculations incorporating the spin-orbit coupling is generally good.

  9. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. Novel platinum black electroplating technique improving mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Raeyoung; Nam, Yoonkey

    2013-01-01

    Platinum black microelectrodes are widely used as an effective neural signal recording sensor. The simple fabrication process, high quality signal recording and proper biocompatibility are the main advantages of platinum black microelectrodes. When microelectrodes are exposed to actual biological system, various physical stimuli are applied. However, the porous structure of platinum black is vulnerable to external stimuli and destroyed easily. The impedance level of the microelectrode increases when the microelectrodes are damaged resulting in decreased recording performance. In this study, we developed mechanically stable platinum black microelectrodes by adding polydopamine. The polydopamine layer was added between the platinum black structures by electrodeposition method. The initial impedance level of platinum black only microelectrodes and polydopamine added microelectrodes were similar but after applying ultrasonication the impedance value dramatically increased for platinum black only microelectrodes, whereas polydopamine added microelectrodes showed little increase which were nearly retained initial values. Polydopamine added platinum black microelectrodes are expected to extend the availability as neural sensors.

  11. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  12. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  13. Platinum(II)-Oligonucleotide Coordination Based Aptasensor for Simple and Selective Detection of Platinum Compounds.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sheng; Tian, Xueke; Sun, Lianli; Hu, Haihong; Zheng, Shirui; Jiang, Huidi; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2015-10-20

    Wide use of platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment for carcinoma calls for a simple and selective detection of platinum compound in biological samples. On the basis of the platinum(II)-base pair coordination, a novel type of aptameric platform for platinum detection has been introduced. This chemiluminescence (CL) aptasensor consists of a designed streptavidin (SA) aptamer sequence in which several base pairs were replaced by G-G mismatches. Only in the presence of platinum, coordination occurs between the platinum and G-G base pairs as opposed to the hydrogen-bonded G-C base pairs, which leads to SA aptamer sequence activation, resulting in their binding to SA coated magnetic beads. These Pt-DNA coordination events were monitored by a simple and direct luminol-peroxide CL reaction through horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalysis with a strong chemiluminescence emission. The validated ranges of quantification were 0.12-240 μM with a limit of detection of 60 nM and selectivity over other metal ions. This assay was also successfully used in urine sample determination. It will be a promising candidate for the detection of platinum in biomedical and environmental samples.

  14. Surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatti, Iacopo; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano; Zarra, Salvatore

    2012-06-01

    Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters.Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters. CCDC 867747 and 867748. For crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30400g

  15. Mississippi Canyon 194, Gulf of Mexico: Development case history/geophysical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, M. )

    1991-03-01

    A 3-D geophysical survey acquired at Cognac (MC 194 field) nine years after the first production shows the effect of reservoir drainage. A redevelopment program currently in progress targeted wells for oil bypassed due to poor sweep efficiency and/or small faults. Revised structural interpretation based on the 3-D showed several additional opportunities in new fault blocks. Attribute measurements were done at all levels where the pay sand was amplitude supported. These data were then tied in great detail with the geology and the production data available for the different reservoirs. Based on the results of the development wells, a good 3-D seismic survey can help locate fluid contacts, detect small faults ({plus minus}50 ft), and reduce dry hole and marginal well risks with better placement of wells.

  16. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  17. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-09-15

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  18. Autonomous movement of platinum-loaded stomatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Daniela A.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity).

  19. Inhibition of transcription by platinum antitumor compounds

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ryan C.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are three FDA-approved members of the platinum anticancer drug family. These compounds induce apoptosis in tumor cells by binding to nuclear DNA, forming a variety of structural adducts and triggering cellular responses, one of which is the inhibition of transcription. In this report we present (i) a detailed review of the structural investigations of various Pt-DNA adducts and the effects of these lesions on global DNA geometry; (ii) research detailing inhibition of cellular transcription by Pt-DNA adducts; and (iii) a mechanistic analysis of how DNA structural distortions induced by platinum damage may inhibit RNA synthesis in vivo. A thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of platinum antitumor agents will aid in the development of new compounds in the family. PMID:20046924

  20. Platinum Publications, July 31–September 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  1. Platinum Publications, November 27, 2014 – February 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  2. Platinum Publications as of September 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  3. Platinum Publications, October 30–December 31, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  4. Platinum Publications, October 1–29, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  5. Platinum Publications as of April 30, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  6. Platinum Publications, May 1 – June 25, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  7. Platinum Publications as of June 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  8. Platinum Publications, January 1–March 31, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  9. Platinum Publications, June 26–July 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  10. Platinum Publications, September 26 – October 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  11. Platinum Publications as of December 3, 2013 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  12. Platinum Publications, July 29–September 29, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  13. Platinum Publications, March 27 – April 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: platinum-group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The precious metals commonly referred to as platinum-group metals (PGM) include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium and ruthenium. PGM are among the rarest of elements, and their market values — particularly for palladium, platinum and rhodium — are the highest of all precious metals.

  15. Platinum Publications as of May 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  16. Platinum Publications, July 1–July 28, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  17. Platinum Publications as of March 6, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  18. Platinum Publications, June 1–June 30, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  19. Platinum Publications, February 27 – March 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  20. Platinum Publications, October 30 – November 26, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  1. Production and decay spectroscopy of 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.

    2015-10-01

    A γ-ray spectroscopy study of the (11-) isomers in 194Po and 192Po was performed at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI (Germany). Nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and investigated in the detection set-up at the focal plane after the separator. Several new γ transitions were attributed to the isomers and detailed analysis of the first γ-γ coincidences for both isomers is being prepared. For the reaction 56Fe + 141Pr → 197At*, excitation functions for astatine and polonium isotopes were measured and compared with HIVAP calculations.

  2. Volumes 193, 194, 195 January–December 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Below is a list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for GENETICS during the preparation of volumes 193, 194, and 195 (2013). The aim of GENETICS is to communicate significant research. To succeed, we must recognize what is significant, making sure the presentation is accurate, unambiguous, and easily readable. For this, we depend heavily upon our reviewers, who perform this indispensable service without reward. The quality of the journal strongly reflects the quality of their efforts. We apologize to any reviewer whose name has been inadvertently omitted, and we are sincerely grateful to all.

  3. New features of superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    A striking difference between superdeformed (SD) nuclei near A = 190 and those in the other regions is the behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia (lm) with the rotational frequency h{omega}. While the (lm) patterns of the SD bands near A = 130 and A = 150 show pronounced variations, the majority of the SD bands near A = 190 display the same large, smooth increase of (lm) within the frequency range 0.15 < {h_bar}{omega} < 0.40 MeV. Current interpretations of this rise of (lm) within mean field theories invoke the gradual alignment of quasiparticles occupying high-N intruder orbitals in the presence of pair correlations. It is a direct consequence of these interpretations that, after the quasiparticle alignments take place, (lm) will exhibit a downturn with increasing {h_bar}{omega} toward the rigid-body value. Up to now, no downturn in (lm) for the SD bands in the A = 190 mass region was observed, raising some doubt as to our understanding of pair correlations and alignment effects at these large deformations. An experiment was carried out at the 88-Inch Cyclotron facility of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where excited states in {sup 194}Hg were populated with the reaction {sup 150}Nd({sup 48}Ca,4n) {sup 194}Hg at a beam energy of 206 MeV. The gamma rays emitted in the reaction were detected with the Gammasphere detector array (32 detectors for this experiment).

  4. Research Update: Platinum-elastomer mesocomposite as neural electrode coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Wenger, Nikolaus; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum is electrochemically stable and biocompatible, and remains the preferred material for the fabrication of implantable neural electrodes. In a foil or film format, platinum is mechanically stiff compared to interfaced biological tissue. We report a soft, highly stable platinum-elastomer composite that offers both mechanical compliance and the electrochemical properties of platinum. We demonstrate the high-performance of the novel mesocomposite printed on stretchable microelectrodes both in vitro and in vivo. The platinum-elastomer composite is a new promising coating for chronic neural interfaces.

  5. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  6. Use of platinum electrodes for the electrochemical detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, J R

    1978-11-01

    Platinum electrodes with surface area ratios of four to one were used to detect and enumerate a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Linear relationships were established between inoculum size and detection time. End points for platinum electrodes were similar to those obtained with a platinum-reference electrode combination. Shape of the overall response curves and length of detection times for gram-positive organisms were markedly different than those for the majority of gram-negative species. Platinum electrodes are better than the platinum-reference electrode combination because of cost, ease of handling, and clearer definition of the end point.

  7. Use of platinum electrodes for the electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Platinum electrodes with surface area ratios of four to one were used to detect and enumerate a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Linear relationships were established between inoculum size and detection time. End points for platinum electrodes were similar to those obtained with a platinum-reference electrode combination. Shape of the overall response curves and length of detection times for gram-positive organisms were markedly different than those for the majority of gram-negative species. Platinum electrodes are better than the platinum-reference electrode combination because of cost, ease of handling, and clearer definition of the end point.

  8. Sandwich-like Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructure: structure, formation mechanism and localized surface plasmon resonance behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2012-10-01

    In this communication, a thermolysis route is developed to synthesize novel Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructures with interesting sandwich-like architectures, taking Cu1.94S nanoplates as precursors. Evidently, the trimeric nanostructure is formed by a three-stage process, which includes the Zn-oleate induced assembling of Cu1.94S nanoplate couples, the heteronucleation and growth of a ZnS layer between two Cu1.94S plates dominated by interfacial diffusion, and the catalyst assisted axial growth of ZnS nanorod following the solution-liquid-solid mechanism. With epitaxial growth of ZnS nanocrystal between two Cu1.94S nanoplates, the localized surface plasmon resonance frequency of Cu1.94S shifts from 1875 to 1323 nm, indicating that this new material is potentially applicable as a light absorbing agent in laser photothermal therapy. The reported growth mechanism may provide new strategies for designing and fabricating various technologically important polymeric nanoheterostructures.

  9. Nanoscale platinum printing on insulating substrates.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, C D; Higgins, M J; Sullivan, R P; Jamali, S S; Moulton, S E; Wallace, G G

    2013-12-20

    The deposition of noble metals on soft and/or flexible substrates is vital for several emerging applications including flexible electronics and the fabrication of soft bionic implants. In this paper, we describe a new strategy for the deposition of platinum electrodes on a range of materials, including insulators and flexible polymers. The strategy is enabled by two principle advances: (1) the introduction of a novel, low temperature strategy for reducing chloroplatinic acid to platinum using nitrogen plasma; (2) the development of a chloroplatinic acid based liquid ink formulation, utilizing ethylene glycol as both ink carrier and reducing agent, for versatile printing at nanoscale resolution using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The ink formulation has been printed and reduced upon Si, glass, ITO, Ge, PDMS, and Parylene C. The plasma treatment effects reduction of the precursor patterns in situ without subjecting the substrate to destructively high temperatures. Feature size is controlled via dwell time and degree of ink loading, and platinum features with 60 nm dimensions could be routinely achieved on Si. Reduction of the ink to platinum was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Feature morphology was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM. The high electrochemical activity of individually printed Pt features was characterized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

  10. Spectrometric determination of platinum with methoxypromazine maleate

    SciTech Connect

    Thimmegowda, A.; Sankegowda, H.; Gowda, N.M.M.

    1984-03-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of platinum in solution. The chromogenic reagent, methoxypromazine maleate, reacts with platinum(IV) almost instantaneously in phosphoric acid medium containing copper(II) catalyst to form a bluish pink 1:1 complex with an absorption maximum at 562 nm. The complexation is complete within 1 min. A 30-fold molar excess of the reagent over metal ion is necessary for completion of the reaction. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.4-9.8 ppm of platinum(IV) with an optimal range of 1.5-8.6 ppm. The molar absorptivity is 1.71 x 10/sub 4/ L mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ and the Sandell sensitivity is 11.4 ng cm/sup -2/. The apparent stability constant of the complex is log K = 5.58 +/- 0.1 at 27/sup 0/C. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature, concentration of the reagent and copper, order of addition of reagents, and the interferences from various ions are investigated. The method has been used for the determination of platinum in synthetic solutions that approximate the composition of some alloys and minerals. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  12. Nanoscale platinum printing on insulating substrates.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, C D; Higgins, M J; Sullivan, R P; Jamali, S S; Moulton, S E; Wallace, G G

    2013-12-20

    The deposition of noble metals on soft and/or flexible substrates is vital for several emerging applications including flexible electronics and the fabrication of soft bionic implants. In this paper, we describe a new strategy for the deposition of platinum electrodes on a range of materials, including insulators and flexible polymers. The strategy is enabled by two principle advances: (1) the introduction of a novel, low temperature strategy for reducing chloroplatinic acid to platinum using nitrogen plasma; (2) the development of a chloroplatinic acid based liquid ink formulation, utilizing ethylene glycol as both ink carrier and reducing agent, for versatile printing at nanoscale resolution using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The ink formulation has been printed and reduced upon Si, glass, ITO, Ge, PDMS, and Parylene C. The plasma treatment effects reduction of the precursor patterns in situ without subjecting the substrate to destructively high temperatures. Feature size is controlled via dwell time and degree of ink loading, and platinum features with 60 nm dimensions could be routinely achieved on Si. Reduction of the ink to platinum was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Feature morphology was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM. The high electrochemical activity of individually printed Pt features was characterized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). PMID:24270681

  13. Nanoscale platinum printing on insulating substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, C. D.; Higgins, M. J.; Sullivan, R. P.; Jamali, S. S.; Moulton, S. E.; Wallace, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    The deposition of noble metals on soft and/or flexible substrates is vital for several emerging applications including flexible electronics and the fabrication of soft bionic implants. In this paper, we describe a new strategy for the deposition of platinum electrodes on a range of materials, including insulators and flexible polymers. The strategy is enabled by two principle advances: (1) the introduction of a novel, low temperature strategy for reducing chloroplatinic acid to platinum using nitrogen plasma; (2) the development of a chloroplatinic acid based liquid ink formulation, utilizing ethylene glycol as both ink carrier and reducing agent, for versatile printing at nanoscale resolution using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The ink formulation has been printed and reduced upon Si, glass, ITO, Ge, PDMS, and Parylene C. The plasma treatment effects reduction of the precursor patterns in situ without subjecting the substrate to destructively high temperatures. Feature size is controlled via dwell time and degree of ink loading, and platinum features with 60 nm dimensions could be routinely achieved on Si. Reduction of the ink to platinum was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Feature morphology was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM. The high electrochemical activity of individually printed Pt features was characterized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

  14. Evaluation of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillontownes, Lawrence A.; Alderfer, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration and stability of four surface temperature measuring industrial platinum resistance thermometers for use in the temperature range -120 C to 160 C was investigated. It was found that the calibration formulation of the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 provided the most accurate calibration. It was also found that all the resistance thermometers suffered from varying degrees of instability and hysteresis.

  15. Preparation of platinum modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles with the use of laser ablation in water.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Sawczak, M; Klein, M; Nowaczyk, G; Jurga, S; Cenian, A

    2014-08-01

    We report on the preparation method of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide modified with platinum by using nanosecond laser ablation in liquid (LAL). Titania in the form of anatase crystals has been prepared in a two-stage process. Initially, irradiation by laser beam of a titanium metal plate fixed in a glass container filled with deionized water was conducted. After that, the ablation process was continued, with the use of a platinum target placed in a freshly obtained titania colloid. In this work, characterization of the obtained nanoparticles, based on spectroscopic techniques--Raman, X-ray photoelectron and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy--is given. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to describe particle morphology. On the basis of photocatalytic studies we observed the rate of degradation process of methylene blue (MB) (a model organic pollution) in the presence of Pt modified titania in comparison to pure TiO2--as a reference case. Physical and chemical mechanisms of the formation of platinum modified titania are also discussed here. Stable colloidal suspensions containing Pt modified titanium dioxide crystalline anatase particles show an almost perfect spherical shape with diameters ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with platinum exhibit much higher (up to 30%) photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of MB under UV illumination than pure titania.

  16. Preclinical toxicology and tissue platinum distribution of novel oral antitumour platinum complexes: ammine/amine platinum(IV) dicarboxylates.

    PubMed

    McKeage, M J; Morgan, S E; Boxall, F E; Murrer, B A; Hard, G C; Harrap, K R

    1994-01-01

    The preclinical toxicology and tissue platinum distribution of a series of six orally given antitumour platinum complexes [ammine/amine platinum(IV) dicarboxylates] with structural variations of their alicyclic amine (c-C5, c-C6 or c-C7), axial dicarboxylate (CH3, C3H7 or NHC2H5) or leaving substituents (Cl2 or OCOOCO) was studied in the mouse. Platinum tissue levels measured at 48 h after a single oral dose at 0.5 of the MTD were highest in the liver (6.0-19 micrograms/g) and second highest in the kidney (2.8-12 micrograms/g), and these levels were up to 5 times higher than those reported with equi-toxic doses of i.v. cisplatin and i.v. carboplatin. Platinum levels in the lung, heart, spleen, skin, skeletal muscle and brain were all < or = 3.1 micrograms/g at this dose level. Liver platinum levels measured at 2 h, 2 days, 6 days and 10 days after a single oral dose at the MTD ranged widely (from 15 to 109 micrograms platinum/g), were related to the number of carbon atoms in the axial dicarboxylate and alicyclic amine groups (r = 0.9389) and showed a diversity of time-course profiles. Elevations of plasma ALT activity were recorded with single oral doses of JM225 and JM256 at the MTD. Accumulation of platinum in the liver with repeated oral dosing weekly for 4 consecutive weeks at 0.5 of the MTD occurred with JM269 (3.3-fold increase, P < 0.05) and JM225 (2.4-fold increase, P < 0.05), and elevated plasma ALT activity (44 +/- 33 IU/l) was recorded with repeated oral doses of JM269. JM216 was selected from this series of analogues for further study on the basis of the elevated plasma ALT activity (JM225, JM256 and JM269), liver platinum accumulation (JM269 and JM225), poor activity against human ovarian carcinoma xenografts (JM291) or severe emetogenesis (JM221) of other examples. Following a single oral dose of JM216 at the MTD, transient reductions in the WBC (nadir, 1.6 x 10(9)/l, 2 days, 74% reduction), platelet count (nadir, 613 x 10(9)/l, 10 days, 33% reduction

  17. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  18. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  19. RF magnetron sputtering of thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.; Hsieh, E.J.; Burt, R.J.

    1980-05-28

    Thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres are needed for proposed Laser Fusion targets. The spherical nature of these substrates coupled with the small dimensions (approx. 100 ..mu..m OD) make it difficult to achieve a smooth and uniform coating. Coating problems encountered include a rough surface and porous microstructure from the oblique incidence and lack of temperature and bias control, clumping of the microspheres causing non-uniformities, and particle accumulation causing cone defects. Sputtering parameters significantly affecting the coatings include total pressure, DC substrate bias, and the addition of doping gases. Using an ultrasonic vibrating screened cage and RF magnetron Sputtergun, we have successfully batch coated microspheres with up to 6 ..mu..m of Pt, with a surface roughness of 200 nm, thickness non-concentricity of 300 nm, and density greater than 98% of bulk Pt.

  20. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  1. Towards the analysis of platinum group elements at low levels in insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krestow, J. S. A.; Kieser, W. E.; Litherland, A. E.; Rucklidge, J. C.; Wilson, G. C.; Zhao, X.-L.

    2007-06-01

    The operating parameters for a high current caesium sputter source have been modified so that stable beams of anions can be obtained from natural non-conducting samples. This technique has been applied to the analysis of gold and platinum group elements in silicate matrices, particularly olivines. The handling of interferences resulting from the large number of molecular ions produced in such a target, and the effect of differences in the matrices of reference materials are discussed.

  2. Cataloging antineoplastic agents according to their effectiveness against platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Lin, Z. Ping; Penketh, Philip G.; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P.; Sartorelli, Alan C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Ratner, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Although epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, EOCs vary in platinum responsiveness. Cataloging antineoplastic agents according to their effectiveness against platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive EOC cell lines is valuable for development of therapeutic strategies to avoid platinum inefficacy and to exploit platinum sensitivity. TOV-21G devoid of FANCF expression, OV-90 and SKOV-3 were employed as examples of platinum-sensitive, platinum-intermediate and platinum-resistant cell lines, respectively. Antineoplastic agents examined included mitomycin C, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, chlorambucil, paclitaxel, triapine and X-rays. Their effectiveness against cell lines was analyzed by clonogenic assays. Cytotoxic profiles of mitomycin C and carboplatin were similar, with mitomycin C exhibiting greater potency and selectivity against TOV-21G than carboplatin. Cytotoxic profiles of doxorubicin, etoposide and X-rays overlapped with that of carboplatin, while OV-90 overexpressing Rad51 was more resistant to chlorambucil than SKOV-3. The efficacy of paclitaxel and triapine was independent of platinum sensitivity or resistance. Consistent with these cytotoxic profiles, cisplatin/mitomycin C, triapine, and paclitaxel differed in the capacity to induce phosphorylation of H2AX, and produced unique inhibitory patterns of DNA/RNA syntheses in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Paclitaxel and triapine in combination produced additive antitumor effects in M109 murine lung carcinoma. In conclusion, mitomycin C is potentially more effective against Fanconi anemia pathway-deficient EOCs than carboplatin. Doxorubicin and etoposide, because of their overlapping cytotoxic properties with carboplatin, are unlikely to be efficacious against platinum-refractory EOCs. Paclitaxel and triapine are effective regardless of platinum sensitivity status, and promising in combination for both platinum-sensitive and platinum-refractory EOCs

  3. Catalytic Activity of Platinum Monolayer on Iridium and Rhenium Alloy Nanoparticles for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, Hiroko I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kuttiyiel, Kurian; Farberow, Carrie A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2012-05-04

    A new type of electrocatalyst with a core–shell structure that consists of a platinum monolayer shell placed on an iridium–rhenium nanoparticle core or platinum and palladium bilayer shell deposited on that core has been prepared and tested for electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon-supported iridium–rhenium alloy nanoparticles with several different molar ratios of Ir to Re were prepared by reducing metal chlorides dispersed on Vulcan carbon with hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 h. These catalysts showed specific electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction comparable to that of platinum. The activities of PtML/PdML/Ir2Re1, PtML/Pd2layers/Ir2Re1, and PtML/Pd2layers/Ir7Re3 catalysts were, in fact, better than that of conventional platinum electrocatalysts, and their mass activities exceeded the 2015 DOE target. Our density functional theory calculations revealed that the molar ratio of Ir to Re affects the binding strength of adsorbed OH and, thereby, the O2 reduction activity of the catalysts. The maximum specific activity was found for an intermediate OH binding energy with the corresponding catalyst on the top of the volcano plot. The monolayer concept facilitates the use of much less platinum than in other approaches. Finally, the results with the PtML/PdML/Ir2Re electrocatalyst indicate that it is a promising alternative to conventional Pt electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells.

  4. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements B Appendix B to Part 403 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  5. 46 CFR 194.05-5 - Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory. 194.05-5 Section 194.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH....05-5 Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory. (a) Small working quantities of chemical stores in...

  6. 26 CFR 1.194-4 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.194-4 Section 1.194-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME...-4 Time and manner of making election. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  7. 40 CFR 194.15 - Content of compliance re-certification application(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of compliance re-certification application(s). 194.15 Section 194.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  8. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  9. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  10. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be capped or otherwise protected in accordance with 49 CFR 173.301(g). (b) Cylinders temporarily... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for...

  11. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update... as a change from crude oil to gasoline; (4) The name of the oil spill removal organization; (5....121 Section 194.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  12. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update... as a change from crude oil to gasoline; (4) The name of the oil spill removal organization; (5....121 Section 194.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  13. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update... as a change from crude oil to gasoline; (4) The name of the oil spill removal organization; (5....121 Section 194.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  14. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update... as a change from crude oil to gasoline; (4) The name of the oil spill removal organization; (5....121 Section 194.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  15. 49 CFR 194.121 - Response plan review and update procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.121 Response plan review and update... as a change from crude oil to gasoline; (4) The name of the oil spill removal organization; (5....121 Section 194.121 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued)...

  16. 41 CFR 102-194.20 - What is an electronic Standard or Optional form?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an electronic... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.20 What is an electronic Standard or Optional form? An electronic Standard or Optional form is an officially prescribed set of data residing...

  17. 24 CFR 200.194 - Placement of nonprofit organization on Nonprofit Organization Roster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Placement of nonprofit organization on Nonprofit Organization Roster. 200.194 Section 200.194 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Placement and Removal Procedures for Participation in FHA Programs Nonprofit Organization §...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  1. 40 CFR 98.194 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.194 Section 98.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... measured monthly with the same plant instruments used for accounting purposes, including but not limited...

  2. 40 CFR 98.194 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. 98.194 Section 98.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... directly measured monthly with the same plant instruments used for accounting purposes, including but...

  3. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER... unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic processing requirement. Each person who...

  4. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The... the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic...

  5. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  6. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  7. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  8. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  9. 41 CFR 102-194.5 - What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.5 Section 102-194.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  10. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  11. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  12. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are expected to...

  13. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  14. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  15. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements B Appendix B to Part 403 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  16. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  17. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  18. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  19. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  20. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  1. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Polyethylenimine Platinum Complexes with Potent in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chekkat, Neila; Dahm, Georges; Chardon, Edith; Wantz, May; Sitz, Justine; Decossas, Marion; Lambert, Olivier; Frisch, Benoit; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gasser, Gilles; Guichard, Gilles; Fournel, Sylvie; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane

    2016-08-17

    The current interest for platinum N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in cancer research stems from their impressive toxicity reported against a range of different human cancer cells. To date, the demonstration of their in vivo efficacy relative to that of established platinum-based drugs has not been specifically addressed. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to increase the NHC-Pt complex potency whereby multiple NHC-Pt(II) complexes are coordinated along a polyethylenimine polymer (PEI) chain. We show that such NHC-Pt(II)-PEI conjugates induce human cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model with no observable side effects in contrast to oxaliplatin. Additional studies indicate nucleus and mitochondria targeting and suggest various mechanisms of action compared to classical platinum-based anticancer drugs. PMID:27459208

  2. Carbon monoxide adsorption on platinum-osmium and platinum-ruthenium-osmium mixed nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Navarro, Nestor E; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2013-05-01

    Density functional calculations (DFT) on carbon monoxide (CO) adsorbed on platinum, platinum-osmium, and platinum-ruthenium-osmium nanoclusters are used to elucidate changes on the adsorbate internal bond and the carbon-metal bond, as platinum is alloyed with osmium and ruthenium atoms. The relative strengths of the adsorbate internal bond and the carbon-metal bond upon alloying, which are related to the DFT calculated C-O and C-Pt stretching frequencies, respectively, cannot be explained by the traditional 5σ-donation/2π*-back-donation theoretical model. Using a modified π-attraction σ-repulsion mechanism, we ascribe the strength of the CO adsorbate internal bond to changes in the polarization of the adsorbate-substrate hybrid orbitals towards carbon. The strength of the carbon-metal bond is quantitatively related to the CO contribution to the adsorbate-substrate hybrid orbitals and the sp and d populations of adsorbing platinum atom. This work complements prior work on corresponding slabs using periodic DFT. Similarities and differences between cluster and periodic DFT calculations are discussed. PMID:23656149

  3. Molecular correlates of platinum response in human high-grade serous ovarian cancer patient-derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Topp, M; Hartley, L; Cook, M; Heong, V; Boehm, E; McShane, L; Pyman, J; McNally, O; Ananda, S; Harrell, M; Etemadmoghadam, D; Galletta, L; Alsop, K; Mitchell, G; Fox, SB; Kerr, JB; Hutt, KJ; Kaufmann, SH; Swisher, EM; Bowtell, DD; Wakefield, M; Scott, CL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Improvement in the ability to target underlying drivers and vulnerabilities of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) requires the development of molecularly annotated pre-clinical models reflective of clinical responses. Methods We generated patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from consecutive, chemotherapy-naïve, human HG-SOC by transplanting fresh human HG-SOC fragments into subcutaneous and intra-ovarian bursal sites of NOD/SCID IL2Rγnull recipient mice, completed molecular annotation and assessed platinum sensitivity. Results The success rate of xenografting was 83%. Of ten HG-SOC PDXs, all contained mutations in TP53, two were mutated for BRCA1, three for BRCA2, and in two, BRCA1 was methylated. In vivo cisplatin response, determined as platinum sensitive (progression-free interval ≥100 d, n=4), resistant (progression-free interval <100 d, n=3) or refractory (n=3), was largely consistent with patient outcome. Three of four platinum sensitive HG-SOC PDXs contained DNA repair gene mutations, and the fourth was methylated for BRCA1. In contrast, all three platinum refractory PDXs overexpressed dominant oncogenes (CCNE1, LIN28B and/or BCL2). Conclusions Because PDX platinum response reflected clinical outcome, these annotated PDXs will provide a unique model system for preclinical testing of novel therapies for HG-SOC. PMID:24560445

  4. Synthesis of Bimetallic Platinum Nanoparticles for Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Leteba, Gerard M.; Lang, Candace I.

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnetic nanomaterials in biosensing applications is growing as a consequence of their remarkable properties; but controlling the composition and shape of metallic nanoalloys is problematic when more than one precursor is required for wet chemistry synthesis. We have developed a successful simultaneous reduction method for preparation of near-spherical platinum-based nanoalloys containing magnetic solutes. We avoided particular difficulties in preparing platinum nanoalloys containing Ni, Co and Fe by the identification of appropriate synthesis temperatures and chemistry. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to show that our particles have a narrow size distribution, uniform size and morphology, and good crystallinity in the as-synthesized condition. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the coexistence of Pt with the magnetic solute in a face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution. PMID:23941910

  5. Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Motta, Carlo; Zheng, Jian-Yao; Berner, Nina C.; Kotakoski, Jani; Elibol, Kenan; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Meyer, Jannik C.; Yim, Chanyoung; Abid, Mohamed; Hallam, Toby; Donegan, John F.; Sanvito, Stefano; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-06-01

    Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered 2D material which is of great interest for applications in electronics and catalysis. PtSe2 films were synthesized by thermally assisted selenization of predeposited platinum films and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the crystal structure of these films to be 1T. Raman scattering of these films was studied as a function of film thickness, laser wavelength and laser polarization. E g and A 1g Raman active modes were identified using polarization measurements in the Raman setup. These modes were found to display a clear position and intensity dependence with film thickness, for multiple excitation wavelengths, and their peak positions agree with simulated phonon dispersion curves for PtSe2. These results highlight the practicality of using Raman spectroscopy as a prime characterization technique for newly synthesized 2D materials.

  6. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  7. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms aremore » as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.« less

  8. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms.

    PubMed

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Allard, Lawrence F; Stocks, G M; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  9. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms. PMID:25429995

  10. Thermophysical Properties of Platinum-Copper Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Klotz, Ulrich E.; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2012-12-01

    Platinum and copper along with their alloys have been used in a broad range of applications including jewelry, coinage, electrical and electronic devices, and many others. Their thermophysical properties play an important role in casting processes and are required as input data for casting simulation. The focus of this work was to investigate these properties by different methods. Platinum, copper, and four platinum-copper alloys, namely, Pt96Cu04, Pt68Cu32, Pt50Cu50, and Pt25Cu75, were investigated within this work. The melting range and thermal expansion were measured at fem by differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry, respectively. At TU Graz, wire-shaped samples were investigated by an ohmic pulse heating technique. This technique delivers thermophysical properties of electrically conducting materials far into the liquid phase. These measurements allow the calculation of specific heat capacity and the temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity, enthalpy, and density of these alloys in the solid and liquid phases. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature are estimated from resistivity data using the Wiedemann-Franz law at the end of the solid phase and at the beginning of the liquid phase. The results are compared with the available literature values.

  11. A gold/platinum thermocouple reference table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, M.; Hill, K. D.; Murdock, E. G.

    1991-11-01

    The thermoelectric voltage of the gold/platinum thermocouple has been measured over the range 0-962 °C by comparison with calibrated platinum resistance thermometers. From 0 to 500 °C, the measurements were carried out in stirred liquid baths; from 660 to 964 °C, they were carried out in a pressure-controlled sodium-filled heat pipe furnace that provided an isothermal intercomparison environment. Measurements were also made in the metal freezing points of indium, tin, zinc, antimony, and silver, at the melting point of gallium, and at the liquidus point of the silver-copper eutectic. By fitting the measured thermoelectric voltages to a single eighth-degree polynomial in temperature by the method of least squares, a reference function is obtained for the Au/Pt thermocouple that provides emf as a function of temperature (ITS-90) to within ±10 mK from 0 to 962 °C. The Au/Pt thermocouple merits serious consideration for precise temperature measurements as its stability approaches that of the high-temperature platinum resistance thermometer.

  12. The platinum group metals in Younger Dryas Horizons are terrestrial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wikes, E.; Kennett, J.; West, A.; Sharma, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) event, which began 12,900 years ago, was a period of abrupt and rapid cooling in the Northern Hemisphere whose primary cause remains unclear. The prevalent postulated mechanism is a temporary shutdown of the thermohaline circulation following the breakup of an ice dam in North America. Firestone et al. (2007) proposed that the cooling was triggered by multiple cometary airbursts and/or impacts that engendered enormous environmental changes and disrupted the thermohaline circulation. The evidence in support for this hypothesis is a black layer in North America and in Europe marking the YD boundary containing charcoal, soot, carbon spherules and glass-like carbon suggesting extensive and intense forest fires. This layer is also enriched in magnetic grains high in iridium, magnetic microspherules, fullerenes containing extraterrestrial He-3, and nanodiamonds. Whereas the nanodiamonds could be produced in an impact or arrive with the impactor, the cometary burst/impact hypothesis remains highly controversial as the YD horizon lacks important impact markers such as craters, breccias, tektites and shocked minerals. Firestone et al. (2007) contend that bulk of Ir found at the YD boundary is associated with magnetic grains. The key issue is whether this Ir is meteorite derived. We used Ir and Os concentrations and Os isotopes to investigate the provenance of the platinum group metals in the YD horizon. The bulk sediment samples from a number of North American YD sites (Blackwater Draw, Murray Springs, Gainey, Sheriden Cave, and Myrtle Beach) and a site in Europe (Lommel) do not show any traces of meteorite derived Os and Ir. The [Os] = 2 to 45 pg/g in these sediments and the 187Os/188Os ratios are similar to the upper continental crustal values (~1.3), much higher than those in meteorites (0.13). Higher [Os] is observed in Blackwater Draw (= 194 pg/g). However, the Os/Ir ratio in Blackwater Draw is 5 (not 1 as expected for a meteorite) and 187Os/188

  13. Platinum anticancer drugs. From serendipity to rational design.

    PubMed

    Monneret, C

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of cis-platin was serendipitous. In 1965, Rosenberg was looking into the effects of an electric field on the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. He noticed that bacteria ceased to divide when placed in an electric field but what Rosenberg also observed was a 300-fold increase in the size of the bacteria. He attributed this to the fact that somehow the platinum-conducting plates were inducing cell growth but inhibiting cell division. It was later deduced that the platinum species responsible for this was cis-platin. Rosenberg hypothesized that if cis-platin could inhibit bacterial cell division it could also stop tumor cell growth. This conjecture has proven correct and has led to the introduction of cis-platin in cancer therapy. Indeed, in 1978, six years after clinical trials conducted by the NCI and Bristol-Myers-Squibb, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cis-platin under the name of Platinol(®) for treating patients with metastatic testicular or ovarian cancer in combination with other drugs but also for treating bladder cancer. Bristol-Myers Squibb also licensed carboplatin, a second-generation platinum drug with fewer side effects, in 1979. Carboplatin entered the U.S. market as Paraplatin(®) in 1989 for initial treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous platin derivatives have been further developed with more or less success and the third derivative to be approved in 1994 was oxaliplatin under the name of Eloxatin(®). It was the first platin-based drug to be active against metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid. The two others platin-based drugs to be approved were nedaplatin (Aqupla(®)) in Japan and lobaplatin in China, respectively. More recently, a strategy to overcome resistance due to interaction with thiol-containing molecules led to the synthesis of picoplatin in which one of the amines linked to Pt

  14. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-03-22

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  15. Strategies for the fabrication of porous platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kloke, Arne; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2011-11-16

    Porous platinum is of high technological importance due to its various applications in fuel cells, sensors, stimulation electrodes, mechanical actuators and catalysis in general. Based on a discussion of the general principles behind the reduction of platinum salts and corresponding deposition processes this article discusses techniques available for platinum electrode fabrication. The numerous, different strategies available to fabricate platinum electrodes are reviewed and discussed in the context of their tuning parameters, strengths and weaknesses. These strategies comprise bottom-up approaches as well as top-down approaches. In bottom-up approaches nanoparticles are synthesized in a fi rst step by chemical, photochemical or sonochemical means followed by an electrode formation step by e.g. thin fi lm technology or network formation to create a contiguous and conducting solid electrode structure. In top-down approaches fabrication starts with an already conductive electrode substrate. Corresponding strategies enable the fabrication of substrate-based electrodes by e.g. electrodeposition or the fabrication of self-supporting electrodes by dealloying. As a further top-down strategy, this review describes methods to decorate porous metals other than platinum with a surface layer of platinum. This way, fabrication methods not performable with platinum can be applied to the fabrication of platinum electrodes with the special benefit of low platinum consumption. PMID:22180890

  16. Controlled synthesis of porous platinum nanostructures for catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanqin; Zhang, Junwei; Yang, Yong; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet; Nogami, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Porous platinum, that has outstanding catalytic and electrical properties and superior resistant characteristics to corrosion, has been widely applied in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, and automotive industries. As the catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the size, shape and structure of nanomaterials, the strategies for controlling these factors of platinum nanomaterials to get excellent catalytic properties are discussed. Here, recent advances in the design and preparation of various porous platinum nanostructures are reviewed, including wet-chemical synthesis, electro-deposition, galvanic replacement reaction and de-alloying technology. The applications of various platinum nanostructures are also discussed, especially in fuel cells. PMID:24749422

  17. Role of transporters in the distribution of platinum-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Harrach, Saliha; Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Platinum derivatives used as chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin and oxaliplatin have a potent antitumor activity. However, severe side effects such as nephro-, oto-, and neurotoxicity are associated with their use. Effects and side effects of platinum-based drugs are in part caused by their transporter-mediated uptake in target and non target cells. In this mini review, the transport systems involved in cellular handling of platinum derivatives are illustrated, focusing on transporters for cisplatin. The copper transporter 1 seems to be of particular importance for cisplatin uptake in tumor cells, while the organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, due to its specific organ distribution, may play a major role in the development of undesired cisplatin side effects. In polarized cells, e.g., in renal proximal tubule cells, apically expressed transporters, such as multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, mediate secretion of cisplatin and in this way contribute to the control of its toxic effects. Specific inhibition of cisplatin uptake transporters such as the OCTs may be an attractive therapeutic option to reduce its toxicity, without impairing its antitumor efficacy. PMID:25964760

  18. Dose enhancement close to platinum implants for the 4, 6, and 10 MV stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Joel Y.C.; Ng, Ben K.P.; Yu, K.N.

    2004-10-01

    Three photon interaction processes, namely, the photoelectric effect, Compton effect, and pair production, can occur when materials with high atomic numbers are irradiated by the high- and low-energy bremsstrahlung photons from a linear accelerator. A dose enhancement, due to the photoelectric effect and pair production, near targets with platinum implants (with a high atomic number) in radiosurgery cannot be predicted by the XKnife{sup reg} radiosurgery treatment planning system. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations using PRESTA EGS4 were employed to investigate the resulting dose enhancements from 4, 6, and 10 MV energies commonly used in the stereotactic radiosurgery system. Dose enhancements from 32% to 68% were observed close to the platinum implant for the above energies when using a 12.5 mm collimator. Comparatively higher dose enhancements were observed when using smaller collimators. It was found that this dose enhancement increased with beam energy but decreased as beam size increased.

  19. Simultaneous Profiling of 194 Distinct Receptor Transcripts in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byong H.; Jensen, Karin J.; Hatch, Jaime A.; Janes, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Many signal transduction cascades are initiated by transmembrane receptors with the presence or absence and abundance of receptors dictating cellular responsiveness. Here, we provide a validated array of quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) reagents for high-throughput profiling of the presence and relative abundance of transcripts for 194 transmembrane receptors in the human genome. We found that the qRT-PCR array had greater sensitivity and specificity for the detected receptor transcript profiles compared to conventional oligonucleotide microarrays or exon microarrays. The qRT-PCR array also distinguished functional receptor presence versus absence more accurately than deep sequencing of adenylated RNA species, RNA-seq. By applying qRT-PCR-based receptor transcript profiling to 40 human cell lines representing four main tissues (pancreas, skin, breast, and colon), we identified clusters of cell lines with enhanced signaling capabilities and revealed a role for receptor silencing in defining tissue lineage. Ectopic expression of the interleukin 10 (IL-10) receptor encoding gene IL10RA in melanoma cells engaged an IL-10 autocrine loop not otherwise present in this cell type, which altered signaling, gene expression, and cellular responses to proinflammatory stimuli. Our array provides a rapid, inexpensive, and convenient means for assigning a receptor signature to any human cell or tissue type. PMID:23921087

  20. Properties of superdeformed bands in the A = 194 region

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, E.A. Becker, J.A.; Kuhnert, A.; Yates, S.W. ); Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A. ); Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Beausang, C.W.; Kelly, W.H.; Korten, W.; Azaiez, F. ); Draper, J.E.; Rubel, E. ); Akovali, Y.A. (Oak Ridge Nati

    1990-04-01

    At least eighteen superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in mercury, thallium, and lead nuclei since the report of a SD band in {sup 191}Hg. Systematic information is beginning to emerge on the properties of the SD bands in this mass region, and comparisons with SD bands in the A = 150 region are now possible. Recently, data were obtained with the HERA spectrometer at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88'' Cyclotron on SD bands in {sup 194}Pb and {sup 196}Pb. In these experiments, we bombarded {sup 176}Yb with {sup 24}Mg and {sup 26}Mg. The cross bombardment was necessary to make the assignment of the band to {sup 196}Pb certain. These bands are typical of other SD bands in the region in many ways. The gamma rays have energies that range from about 200 to 800 keV. The gamma-ray spacing decreases from about 40 to 30 keV as the transition energy increases. Their intensities gradually increase as the gamma-ray energies decrease over the upper half of of the sequence, and then sustain a constant value until the one or two lowest energy transitions. 18 refs., 4 figs.