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Sample records for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

  1. Altered glutamine metabolism in platinum resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Chantelle D.; Savadelis, Alyssa; Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Avril, Stefanie; DiFeo, Analisa; Avril, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by an increase in cellular energy metabolism, which is predominantly satisfied by glucose and glutamine. Targeting metabolic pathways is an attractive approach to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness and to potentially overcome drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines the metabolism of both, glucose and glutamine was initially up-regulated in response to platinum treatment. In contrast, platinum-resistant cells revealed a significant dependency on the presence of glutamine, with an upregulated expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and glutaminase. This resulted in a higher oxygen consumption rate compared to platinum-sensitive cell lines reflecting the increased dependency of glutamine utilization through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The important role of glutamine metabolism was confirmed by stable overexpression of glutaminase, which conferred platinum resistance. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of glutaminase in platinum resistant cells resulted in re-sensitization to platinum treatment. Importantly, combining the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES with platinum synergistically inhibited platinum sensitive and resistant ovarian cancers in vitro. Apoptotic induction was significantly increased using platinum together with BPTES compared to either treatment alone. Our findings suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism together with platinum based chemotherapy offers a potential treatment strategy particularly in drug resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27191653

  2. Altered glutamine metabolism in platinum resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Chantelle D; Savadelis, Alyssa; Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Avril, Stefanie; DiFeo, Analisa; Avril, Norbert

    2016-07-05

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by an increase in cellular energy metabolism, which is predominantly satisfied by glucose and glutamine. Targeting metabolic pathways is an attractive approach to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness and to potentially overcome drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines the metabolism of both, glucose and glutamine was initially up-regulated in response to platinum treatment. In contrast, platinum-resistant cells revealed a significant dependency on the presence of glutamine, with an upregulated expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and glutaminase. This resulted in a higher oxygen consumption rate compared to platinum-sensitive cell lines reflecting the increased dependency of glutamine utilization through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The important role of glutamine metabolism was confirmed by stable overexpression of glutaminase, which conferred platinum resistance. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of glutaminase in platinum resistant cells resulted in re-sensitization to platinum treatment. Importantly, combining the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES with platinum synergistically inhibited platinum sensitive and resistant ovarian cancers in vitro. Apoptotic induction was significantly increased using platinum together with BPTES compared to either treatment alone. Our findings suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism together with platinum based chemotherapy offers a potential treatment strategy particularly in drug resistant ovarian cancer.

  3. Exosomes as mediators of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Jennifer; Atay, Safinur; Banskota, Samagya; Artale, Brittany; Schmitt, Sarah; Godwin, Andrew K

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes have been implicated in the cell-cell transfer of oncogenic proteins and genetic material. We speculated this may be one mechanism by which an intrinsically platinum-resistant population of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells imparts its influence on surrounding tumor cells. To explore this possibility we utilized a platinum-sensitive cell line, A2780 and exosomes derived from its resistant subclones, and an unselected, platinum-resistant EOC line, OVCAR10. A2780 cells demonstrate a ~2-fold increase in viability upon treatment with carboplatin when pre-exposed to exosomes from platinum-resistant cells as compared to controls. This coincided with increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). DNA sequencing of EOC cell lines revealed previously unreported somatic mutations in the Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (SMAD4) within platinum-resistant cells. A2780 cells engineered to exogenously express these SMAD4 mutations demonstrate up-regulation of EMT markers following carboplatin treatment, are more resistant to carboplatin, and release exosomes which impart a ~1.7-fold increase in resistance in naive A2780 recipient cells as compared to controls. These studies provide the first evidence that acquired SMAD4 mutations enhance the chemo-resistance profile of EOC and present a novel mechanism in which exchange of tumor-derived exosomes perpetuates an EMT phenotype, leading to the development of subpopulations of platinum-refractory cells. PMID:28060758

  4. Management strategies for recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L

    2011-07-30

    Although ovarian cancer is often a chemosensitive malignancy, patients who are resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy represent a therapeutic challenge. Currently, the only drugs that are US FDA approved to treat this subset of patients are paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and topotecan. The response rates with these agents is in the 10-15% range and overall survival is around 12 months. Other drugs that have shown some activity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer include the taxane analogues, oral etoposide, pemetrexed and bevacizumab. Unfortunately, randomized phase III trials of second-line chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer have not shown an advantage over existing therapy with respect to progression-free survival or overall survival. The only trial that has reported a significant progression-free survival advantage over standard therapy is a randomized phase II trial of PLD with or without EC145, a folate-linked vinca alkaloid. Final survival results of this trial are pending.

  5. Contributions of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor to Acquisition of Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Michaela L.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of platinum resistance following first line platinum/taxane therapy is commonly observed in ovarian cancer patients and prevents clinical effectiveness. There are few options to prevent platinum resistance; however, demethylating agents have been shown to resensitize patients to platinum therapy thereby demonstrating that DNA methylation is a critical contributor to the development of platinum resistance. We previously reported the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a novel regulator of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and DNA methylation. Others have shown that EGFR activation is linked to cisplatin treatment and platinum resistance. We hypothesized that cisplatin induced activation of the EGFR mediates changes in DNA methylation associated with the development of platinum resistance. To investigate this, we evaluated EGFR signaling and DNMT activity after acute cisplatin exposure. We also developed an in vitro model of platinum resistance to examine the effects of EGFR inhibition on acquisition of cisplatin resistance. Acute cisplatin treatment activates the EGFR and downstream signaling pathways, and induces an EGFR mediated increase in DNMT activity. Cisplatin resistant cells also showed increased DNMT activity and global methylation. EGFR inhibition during repeated cisplatin treatments generated cells that were more sensitive to cisplatin and did not develop increases in DNA methylation or DNMT activity compared to controls. These findings suggest that activation of EGFR during platinum treatment contributes to the development of platinum resistance. Furthermore, EGFR inhibition may be an effective strategy at attenuating the development of platinum resistance thereby enhancing the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment in ovarian cancer. PMID:26351843

  6. Costunolide induces apoptosis in platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells by generating reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeong-In; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2011-12-01

    The acquired resistance to platinum-based drugs has become an obstacle in the management of ovarian cancer. We investigated the apoptosis-inducing effect of costunolide, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, in platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells, along with the molecular mechanism of action. Costunolide and cisplatin were examined in platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. MTT assay for cell viability, PI staining for cell cycle profiling, and Annexin V assay for apoptosis analysis. ROS production and protein expression was assessed by H(2)DCFDA staining and Western blotting, respectively. Combination effect was determined using the Combination Index (CI) method. It was found that costunolide is more potent than cisplatin in inhibiting cell growth in three platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (MPSC1(PT), A2780(PT), and SKOV3(PT)). Costunolide induced apoptosis of platinum-resistant cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and suppressed tumor growth in SKOV3(PT)-bearing mouse model. In addition, costunolide triggered the activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Pretreatment with caspase inhibitors neutralized the pro-apoptotic activity of costunolide. We further demonstrated that costunolide induced a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated the costunolide-induced production of ROS, activation of caspases, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and apoptosis in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, costunolide synergized with cisplatin to induce cell death in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that costunolide, alone or in combination with cisplatin, may be of therapeutic potential in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Profile of bevacizumab in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    McClung, E Clair; Wenham, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer have progression of disease within 6 months of completing platinum-based chemotherapy. While several chemotherapeutic options exist for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, the overall response to any of these therapies is ~10%, with a median progression-free survival of 3-4 months and a median overall survival of 9-12 months. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized, monoclonal antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody, has demonstrated antitumor activity in the platinum-resistant setting and was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for combination therapy with weekly paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, or topotecan. This review summarizes key clinical trials investigating bevacizumab for recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and provides an overview of efficacy, safety, and quality of life data relevant in this setting. While bevacizumab is currently the most studied and clinically available antiangiogenic therapy, we summarize recent studies highlighting novel alternatives, including vascular endothelial growth factor-trap, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and angiopoietin inhibitor trebananib, and discuss their application for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  8. Profile of bevacizumab in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McClung, E Clair; Wenham, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer have progression of disease within 6 months of completing platinum-based chemotherapy. While several chemotherapeutic options exist for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, the overall response to any of these therapies is ~10%, with a median progression-free survival of 3–4 months and a median overall survival of 9–12 months. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized, monoclonal antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody, has demonstrated antitumor activity in the platinum-resistant setting and was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for combination therapy with weekly paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, or topotecan. This review summarizes key clinical trials investigating bevacizumab for recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and provides an overview of efficacy, safety, and quality of life data relevant in this setting. While bevacizumab is currently the most studied and clinically available antiangiogenic therapy, we summarize recent studies highlighting novel alternatives, including vascular endothelial growth factor-trap, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and angiopoietin inhibitor trebananib, and discuss their application for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27051317

  9. Mitochondrial comparative proteomics of human ovarian cancer cells and their platinum-resistant sublines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhiqin; Yin, Jie; He, Haojie; Li, Wenrui; Hou, Chunmei; Qian, Xiaohong; Mao, Ning; Pan, Lingya

    2010-11-01

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major obstacle to successful treatment of ovarian cancer. It is evident that mitochondrial defects and the dysfunctions of oxidative phosphorylation and energy production in ovarian cancer cells were directly related to their resistance to platinum drugs. Using 2-D DIGE, we compared mitochondrial proteins from two platinum-sensitive human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and A2780) with that of four platinum-resistant sublines (SKOV3/CDDP, SKOV3/CBP, A2780/CDDP, and A2780/CBP). Among the 236 differentially expressed spots, five mitochondrial proteins (ATP-α, PRDX3, PHB, ETF, and ALDH) that participate in the electron transport respiratory chain were identified through mass spectrometry. All of them are downregulated in one or two of the platinum-resistant cell lines. Three proteins (ATP-α, PRDX3, and PHB) were validated by using western blot and immunohistochemistry. There is a significant decrease of PHB in tumor tissues from ovarian cancer patients who were resistant to platinum-based chemotherapies. This is the first direct mitochondrial proteomic comparison between platinum-sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells. These studies demonstrated that 2-D DIGE-based proteomic analysis could be a powerful tool to investigate limited mitochondrial proteins, and the association of PHB expression with platinum resistance indicates that mitochondria defects may contribute to platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

  10. Targeting c-MYC in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reyes-González, Jeyshka M; Armaiz-Peña, Guillermo N; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Valiyeva, Fatma; Ivan, Cristina; Pradeep, Sunila; Echevarría-Vargas, Ileabett M; Rivera-Reyes, Adrian; Sood, Anil K; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and therapeutic effects of siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. Statistical analysis of patient's data extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal showed that the disease-free (DFS) and the overall (OS) survival were decreased in ovarian cancer patients with high c-MYC mRNA levels. Furthermore, analysis of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines showed that c-MYC protein levels were higher in cisplatin-resistant cells when compared with their cisplatin-sensitive counterparts. In vitro cell viability, growth, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis, as well as in vivo therapeutic effectiveness in murine xenograft models, were also assessed following siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Significant inhibition of cell growth and viability, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis were observed upon siRNA-mediated c-MYC depletion. In addition, single weekly doses of c-MYC-siRNA incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG-2000)-based nanoliposomes resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. These findings identify c-MYC as a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancers expressing high levels of this oncoprotein. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Delivered Cisplatin Restores Efficacy in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Franke, Christina E; Czapar, Anna E; Patel, Ravi B; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2017-09-19

    Platinum resistance in ovarian cancer is the major determinant of disease prognosis. Resistance can first appear at the onset of disease or develop in response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Due to poor response to alternate chemotherapies and lack of targeted therapies, there is an urgent clinical need for a new avenue toward treatment of platinum-resistant (PR) ovarian cancer. Nanoscale delivery systems hold potential to overcome resistance mechanisms. In this work, we present tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a nanocarrier for cisplatin for treatment of PR ovarian cancer cells. The TMV-cisplatin conjugate (TMV-cisPt) was synthesized using a charge-driven reaction that, like a classic click reaction, is simple and reliable for large-scale production. Up to ∼1900 cisPt were loaded per TMV-cisPt with biphasic release profiles characterized by a fast half-life (t1) of ∼1 h and slow half-life (t2) of ∼12 h independent of pH. Efficient cell uptake of TMV was observed when incubated with ovarian cancer cells, and TMV-cisPt demonstrated superior cytotoxicity and DNA double strand breakage (DSB) in platinum-sensitive (PS) and PR cancer cells when compared to free cisplatin. The cytotoxicity in PR ovarian cancer cells and overall lower effective dosage requirement makes TMV-cisPt a powerful candidate for improved ovarian cancer treatment strategies.

  12. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on platinum resistance in stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanlin; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains controversial whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) induces chemoresistance in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with primary debulking surgery (PDS). The aim of this study was to compare platinum-resistant recurrence following treatment with NACT-IDS or PDS in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent PDS or NACT-IDS for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC or IV EOC between March 1990 and December 2010. Risk factors of platinum resistance, including NACT, postoperative residual tumor size, and various clinicopathological factors, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure overall survival (OS). Of 341 patients, 58 (17.0%) underwent NACT-IDS and 283 (83.0%) were treated with PDS. Twenty-nine (50.0%) patients developed platinum-resistant disease at first relapse after NACT-IDS and 99 (35.0%) patients recurred after PDS (P = 0.033). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, NACT-IDS and postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm were risk factors for platinum-resistant recurrence (adjusted odds ratios 2.950 and 2.915; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.572–5.537 and 1.780–4.771, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm and platinum-resistant disease were significantly correlated with shorter OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.579 and 4.078; 95% CI 1.193–2.089 and 3.074–5.412, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), whereas NACT-IDS did not extend OS. NACT-IDS increases the risk of platinum-resistant recurrence in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. PMID:27603388

  13. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on platinum resistance in stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanlin; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-09-01

    It remains controversial whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) induces chemoresistance in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with primary debulking surgery (PDS). The aim of this study was to compare platinum-resistant recurrence following treatment with NACT-IDS or PDS in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent PDS or NACT-IDS for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC or IV EOC between March 1990 and December 2010. Risk factors of platinum resistance, including NACT, postoperative residual tumor size, and various clinicopathological factors, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure overall survival (OS).Of 341 patients, 58 (17.0%) underwent NACT-IDS and 283 (83.0%) were treated with PDS. Twenty-nine (50.0%) patients developed platinum-resistant disease at first relapse after NACT-IDS and 99 (35.0%) patients recurred after PDS (P = 0.033). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, NACT-IDS and postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm were risk factors for platinum-resistant recurrence (adjusted odds ratios 2.950 and 2.915; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.572-5.537 and 1.780-4.771, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm and platinum-resistant disease were significantly correlated with shorter OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.579 and 4.078; 95% CI 1.193-2.089 and 3.074-5.412, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), whereas NACT-IDS did not extend OS.NACT-IDS increases the risk of platinum-resistant recurrence in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC.

  14. HDAC4-regulated STAT1 activation mediates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Alfraidi, Albandri; Rama, Nona; Datler, Christoph; Studd, Jamie; Agarwal, Roshan; Guney, Tankut G; Gourley, Charlie; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Mai, Antonello; Brown, Robert; Dina, Roberto; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer frequently acquires resistance to platinum chemotherapy, representing a major challenge for improving patient survival. Recent work suggests resistant clones exist within a larger drug sensitive cell-population prior to chemotherapy, implying that resistance is selected for rather than generated by treatment. We sought to compare clinically-derived, intra-patient paired models of initial platinum response and subsequent resistant relapse to define molecular determinants of evolved resistance. Transcriptional analysis of a matched cell-line series from three patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer before and after development of clinical platinum resistance (PEO1/PEO4/PEO6, PEA1/PEA2, PEO14/PEO23) identified 91 up- and 126 down-regulated genes common to acquired resistance. Significantly enhanced apoptotic response to platinum treatment in resistant cells was observed following knockdown of HDAC4, FOLR2, PIK3R1 or STAT1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, HDAC4 and STAT1 were found to physically interact. Acetyl-STAT1 was detected in platinum sensitive but not HDAC4 over-expressing platinum resistant cells from the same patient. In resistant cells, STAT1 phosphorylation/nuclear translocation was seen following platinum exposure, whereas silencing of HDAC4 increased acetyl-STAT1 levels, prevented platinum induced STAT1 activation and restored cisplatin sensitivity. Conversely, matched sensitive cells were refractory to STAT1 phosphorylation on platinum treatment. Analysis of 16 paired tumor biopsies taken before and after development of clinical platinum resistance showed significantly increased HDAC4 expression in resistant tumors (n=7/16[44%]; p=0.04). Therefore, clinical selection of HDAC4 overexpressing tumor cells upon exposure to chemotherapy promotes STAT1 deacetylation and cancer cell survival. Together, our findings identify HDAC4 as a novel, therapeutically tractable target to counter platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:21571862

  15. "Platinum resistant" ovarian cancer: what is it, who to treat and how to measure benefit?

    PubMed

    Davis, Alison; Tinker, Anna V; Friedlander, Michael

    2014-06-01

    "Platinum resistant" ovarian cancer was historically defined as disease recurrence within 6months of completion of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, although this is now more broadly applied to also include patients progressing within 6months after multiple lines of chemotherapy. However, this definition ignores the heterogeneity and complexity of the spectrum of diseases that comprise "platinum resistant ovarian cancer" (PROC) and is innately flawed as it was initially derived using methods of detection of recurrence that would now be regarded as outdated. The outcome of patients with PROC is generally poor, with low response rates to further chemotherapy and a median survival of less than 12months, but this is unpredictable and can be quite variable from study to study. This review outlines the complexity of PROC, examines how this impacts on the interpretation of the results of clinical trials, and explores how the definition may be improved. We also briefly describe the mechanisms of platinum resistance, the results of clinical trials to date as well as treatment options for patients with PROC and highlight the need for better methods of assessing clinical benefit in this poor prognostic sub group of patients. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overcoming platinum resistance in preclinical models of ovarian cancer using the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Shibata, Etsuko; Park, Jonghoon; Bryant, Jennifer L; Conaway, Mark R; Modesitt, Susan C; Smith, Peter G; Milhollen, Michael A; Berger, Allison J; Dutta, Anindya

    2013-10-01

    The nearly ubiquitous development of chemoresistant disease remains a major obstacle against improving outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer. In this investigation, we evaluated the preclinical activity of MLN4924, an investigational inhibitor of the NEDD8-activating enzyme, in ovarian cancer cells. Efficacy of MLN4924 both alone and in combination with platinum was assessed. Overall, single-agent MLN4924 exhibited moderate activity in ovarian cancer cell lines. However, the combination of MLN4924 with cisplatin or carboplatin produced synergistic effects in SKOV3 and ES2 cells, as well as in primary ovarian cancer cell lines established from high-grade serous, clear cell, and serous borderline ovarian tumors. The efficacy of cisplatin plus MLN4924 was also evident in several in vitro models of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, the combination of cisplatin and MLN4924 was not associated with DNA re-replication, altered platinum-DNA adduct formation, abrogation of FANCD2 monoubiquitination, or CHK1 phosphorylation. An siRNA screen was used to investigate the contribution of each member of the cullin RING ligase (CRL) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, the best-characterized downstream mediators of MLN4924's biologic effects. Cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was augmented by depletion of CUL3, and antagonized by siCUL1 in both ES2 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. This investigation identifies inhibition of neddylation as a novel mechanism for overcoming platinum resistance in vitro, and provides a strong rationale for clinical investigations of platinum and MLN4924 combinations in ovarian cancer.

  17. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  18. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-09-15

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option.

  19. Overcoming Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Lin, Yvonne G.; Roman, Lynda D.; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Ovarian cancer remains a deadly malignancy because most patients develop recurrent disease that is resistant to chemotherapy, including platinum. Because response rates for current treatment regimens are relatively similar and unfortunately low, no standard chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer exists. Areas covered in this review A systematic literature review of clinical studies published between January 2005 and March 2010 was conducted using search engines, PubMed and MEDLINE with the entry keywords, ovarian cancer and platinum resistance. This search revealed 40 clinical trials (1793 patients). What the reader will gain Gemcitabine was the most common drug used in clinical trials reporting higher response rates, ≥+1 SD of overall response rate (5 out of 8). Gemcitabine-based combination therapy showed an average response rate of 27.2% (95%CI 22.4–32.0). Combination of gemcitabine and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) was the most common regimen (n=3) and was associated with possible additive effects in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients: response rate, gemcitabine alone 6.1%, PLD alone 19.8%, and gemcitabine with PLD 28.7% (95%CI 20.4–37.0), respectively. Take home message Analysis of recent clinical trials showed that gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy was associated with the highest anti-tumor effects in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients during the study period. PMID:20815774

  20. Tyrosine-kinases inhibitors in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, C; Palaia, I; De Felice, F; Musella, A; Donfracesco, C; Vertechy, L; Romito, A; Piacenti, I; Musio, D; Muzii, L; Tombolini, V; Benedetti Panici, P

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, ovarian cancer (OC) has been one of the most common gynecological cancer. Despite advances in OC diagnosis and treatment, the risk of recurrence is ever present and approximately 85% of patients will experience relapse. Recurrent OC after first-line therapy is almost always incurable. Multiple novel therapies, including tyrosine-kinases inhibitors (TKI), have shown promising results, but their role needs to be clarified. In this review we describe the rationale and the clinical evidence regarding the use of TKI for the treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant OC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeted treatment of recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: current and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mantia-Smaldone, Gina M; Edwards, Robert P; Vlad, Anda M

    2010-01-01

    With advances in surgical techniques and chemotherapeutic agents, mortality rates from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have slightly decreased over the last 30 years. However, EOC still ranks as the most deadly gynecologic cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 45%. Prognosis is especially disappointing for women with platinum-resistant disease, where 80% of patients will fail to respond to available therapies. Emerging treatment strategies have sub-sequently focused on targets which are integral to tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we will focus on those innovative agents currently under investigation in clinical trials. PMID:21734812

  2. Secretion of annexin A3 from ovarian cancer cells and its association with platinum resistance in ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Yan, Xuedong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yongli; Shan, Ying; Mao, Ning; Yang, Yili; Pan, Lingya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of resistance to platinum-based therapy is critical for improving the treatment of ovarian cancers. We have previously found that increased expression of annexin A3 is a mechanism for platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that annexin A3 can be detected in the culture medium of ovarian cancer cells, particularly these cells that express high levels of annexin A3. Levels of annexin A3 were then determined in sera from ovarian cancer patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with those from normal donors, sera from ovarian cancer patients contain significantly higher levels of annexin A3. Furthermore, serum levels of annexin A3 were significantly higher in platinum-resistant patients than in platinum-sensitive patients. To gain insight into the mechanism of secretion, the ovarian cancer cell lines were examined using both transmission electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. Compared with parent cells, there are significantly more vesicles in the cytoplasm of ovarian cancer cells that express high levels of annexin A3, and at least some vesicles are annexin A3-positive. Moreover, some vesicles appear to be fused with the cell membrane, suggesting that annexin A3 secretion may be associated with exocytosis and the release of exosomes. This is supported by our observation that ovarian cancer cells expressing higher levels of annexin A3 released increased numbers of exosomes. Furthermore, annexin A3 can be detected in exosomes released from cisplatin-resistant cells (SKOV3/Cis) by immunoblotting and immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:21435174

  3. Secondary cytoreductive surgery in patients with isolated platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, M; Pedone Anchora, L; Tortorella, L; Fanfani, F; Gallotta, V; Pacciani, M; Scambia, G; Fagotti, A

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the impact of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) on survival outcome in a retrospective series of isolated platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. We evaluate a consecutive series of 268 ovarian cancer patients with platinum-resistant relapse. Isolated recurrence was defined as the presence of a single nodule, in a single anatomic site, and was observed in 27 cases (10.1%). In all women the presence of isolated relapse was assessed at radiological evaluation, and surgically confirmed in the SCS group. Among the 27 patients with isolated recurrence, 16 (59.3%) received chemotherapy alone, and 11 (40.7%) complete SCS followed by non-platinum based chemotherapy. No significant differences were observed in the distribution of baseline clinico-pathological characteristics, pattern of recurrent disease, duration of PFI, and type of salvage chemotherapy between the two groups. In the SCS group, 6 patients (54.5%) showed isolated peritoneal relapse and 5 women (45.4%) showed isolated lymph nodal recurrence, and were treated with peritonectomy and lymphadenectomy, according with site of relapse. Two post-operative complications (18.2%) occurred: asymptomatic lymphocele and groin wound dehiscence. SCS significantly prolonged median time to first progression (12 months vs 3 months; p-value=0.016), median time to second progression (8 months vs 3 months; p-value=0.037), and post-relapse survival (PRS) (32 months vs 8 months; p-value=0.002). Residual tumor at 1st surgery (X(2)=5.690; p-value=0.017), duration of PFI (X(2)=5.401; p-value=0.020), and complete SCS (X(2)=4.250; p-value=0.039) retains independent prognostic role for PRS in multivariate analysis. SCS prolongs PRS compared to chemotherapy alone in isolated platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary Cytoreduction in Platinum-Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Musella, A; Marchetti, C; Palaia, I; Perniola, G; Giorgini, M; Lecce, F; Vertechy, L; Iadarola, R; De Felice, F; Monti, M; Muzii, L; Angioli, R; Panici, P Benedetti

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the role of secondary cytoreductive surgery in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) patients. We collected data of patients affected by recurrent OC treated between 1995 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were: invasive epithelial OC histologically documented, cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy at first-line treatment with evidence of complete response to treatment, disease-free interval <6 months, and no concomitant neoplasia. Patients considered susceptible of cytoreductive surgery (group A) were compared with a historical series of patients with similar characteristics but not eligible for surgery (group B). Of 122 platinum-resistant patients, 18 met the inclusion criteria for the study and were enrolled. They were compared with a historical series of 18 patients not surgically treated with analogous clinical and pathological features. The most frequent sites of relapse included pelvic and aortic lymph nodes (39 %), peritoneum (33 %), bowel (28 %), and pelvis (22 %). A low rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications was reported. No deaths were recorded. Overall survival was significantly longer in cytoreductive group when compared with the control group (P = 0.035). Median overall survival was 44 months. Estimated 5-year overall survival rates were 57 versus 23.5 % for groups A and B, respectively. Surgery could represent a useful adjunct to chemotherapy in the management of platinum-resistant recurrent OC patients, carefully selected, in highly selected centers. Larger prospective trials are needed to further confirm our experience.

  5. Reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to survival and platinum resistance among ovarian cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, Amy L; Babic, Ana; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard A; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L

    2016-11-22

    Ovarian cancer survival is poor, particularly for platinum-resistant cases. The previous literature on pre-diagnostic reproductive factors and ovarian cancer survival has been mixed. Therefore, we evaluated pre-diagnostic reproductive and hormonal factors with overall survival and, additionally, platinum-chemotherapy resistance. We followed 1649 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases who were enrolled between 1992 and 2008 for overall mortality within the New England Case-Control Study and abstracted chemotherapy data on a subset (n=449). We assessed pre-diagnostic reproductive and hormonal factors during in-person interviews. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox-proportional hazards models. We observed 911 all-cause deaths among 1649 ovarian cancer cases. Self-reported endometriosis and longer duration of hormone therapy use were associated with improved survival (HR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54-0.94 and HR, ⩾5 years vs never: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.90, respectively). Older age at menopause and menarche were associated with worse survival (HR, ⩽50 vs >50 years: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46 and HR, 13 vs <13 years: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.06-1.44, respectively). We observed no association between oral contraceptive use, parity and tubal ligation, and overall survival. No significant associations were observed for any of the reproductive and hormonal factors and platinum resistance. These results suggest that pre-diagnostic exposures such as endometriosis and HT use may influence overall survival among ovarian cancer patients.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of early palliative care intervention in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lowery, William J; Lowery, Ashlei W; Barnett, Jason C; Lopez-Acevedo, Micael; Lee, Paula S; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Havrilesky, Laura

    2013-09-01

    To determine if early palliative care intervention in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer is potentially cost saving or cost-effective. A decision model with a 6 month time horizon evaluated routine care versus routine care plus early referral to a palliative medicine specialist (EPC) for recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Model parameters included rates of inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, chemotherapy administration, and quality of life (QOL). From published ovarian cancer data, we assumed baseline rates over the final 6 months: hospitalization 70%, chemotherapy 60%, and ED visit 30%. Published data from a randomized trial evaluating EPC in metastatic lung cancer were used to model odds ratios (ORs) for potential reductions in hospitalization (OR 0.69), chemotherapy (OR 0.77), and emergency department care (OR 0.74) and improvement in QOL (OR 1.07). The costs of hospitalization, ED visit, chemotherapy, and EPC were based on published data. Ranges were used for sensitivity analysis. Effectiveness was quantified in quality adjusted life years (QALYs); survival was assumed equivalent between strategies. EPC was associated with a cost savings of $1285 per patient over routine care. In sensitivity analysis incorporating QOL, EPC was either dominant or cost-effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$50,000/QALY, unless the cost of outpatient EPC exceeded $2400. Assuming no clinical benefit other than QOL (no change in chemotherapy administration, hospitalizations or ED visits), EPC remained highly cost-effective with ICER $37,440/QALY. Early palliative care intervention has the potential to reduce costs associated with end of life care in patients with ovarian cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Phase Ib-IIa study to reverse platinum resistance by the use of a hypomethylating agent azacitidine in platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Iyer, Revathy; Kavanagh, John J.; Coleman, Robert L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Sood, Anil K.; Wolf, Judith K.; Gershenson, David M.; Markman, Maurie; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Kurzrock, Razelle; Bast, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequential treatment with azacitidine can induce re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes through genomic DNA hypomethylation and reverse carboplatin resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. We initiated a phase Ib-IIa clinical trial of this sequential combination of azacitidine and carboplatin in platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with pathologically confirmed intermediate- or high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer who had disease progression within 6 months (resistant, n = 18) or during a platinum-based therapy (refractory, n = 12) were eligible. All patients had measurable disease. Results Thirty patients received a total of 163 cycles of treatment. This regimen produced 1 CR, 3 PR (ORR: 13.8%), and 10 SD among 29 evaluable patients. For those who achieved clinical benefits, the median duration of the treatment was 7.5 months. The median PFS and OS for all patients were 3.7 months and 14 months, respectively. Patients with platinum resistant disease achieved an ORR of 22%, with a median PFS of 5.6 months and a median OS of 23 months. The predominant toxicities were fatigue and myelosuppression. Correlative studies showed that DR4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes was decreased during treatment in 3 of 4 objective responders (75%), but in only 5 of 13 non-responders (38%). Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first clinical evidence that a hypomethylating agent may partially reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Further clinical evaluation of hypomethylating agents in combination with carboplatin is warranted. PMID:21472713

  8. Inhibition of the Nuclear Export Receptor XPO1 as a Therapeutic Target for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Silvers, Thomas R; Razak, Albiruni R A; Gabrail, Nashat Y; Gerecitano, John F; Kalir, Eva; Pereira, Elena; Evans, Brad R; Ramus, Susan J; Huang, Fei; Priedigkeit, Nolan; Rodriguez, Estefania; Donovan, Michael; Khan, Faisal; Kalir, Tamara; Sebra, Robert; Uzilov, Andrew; Chen, Rong; Sinha, Rileen; Halpert, Richard; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Shacham, Sharon; McCauley, Dilara; Landesman, Yosef; Rashal, Tami; Kauffman, Michael; Mirza, Mansoor R; Mau-Sørensen, Morten; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The high fatality-to-case ratio of ovarian cancer is directly related to platinum resistance. Exportin-1 (XPO1) is a nuclear exporter that mediates nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressors. We investigated possible clinicopathologic correlations of XPO1 expression levels and evaluated the efficacy of XPO1 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in platinum-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer.Experimental Design: XPO1 expression levels were analyzed to define clinicopathologic correlates using both TCGA/GEO datasets and tissue microarrays (TMA). The effect of XPO1 inhibition, using the small-molecule inhibitors KPT-185 and KPT-330 (selinexor) alone or in combination with a platinum agent on cell viability, apoptosis, and the transcriptome was tested in immortalized and patient-derived ovarian cancer cell lines (PDCL) and platinum-resistant mice (PDX). Seven patients with late-stage, recurrent, and heavily pretreated ovarian cancer were treated with an oral XPO1 inhibitor.Results: XPO1 RNA overexpression and protein nuclear localization were correlated with decreased survival and platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Targeted XPO1 inhibition decreased cell viability and synergistically restored platinum sensitivity in both immortalized ovarian cancer cells and PDCL. The XPO1 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis occurred through both p53-dependent and p53-independent signaling pathways. Selinexor treatment, alone and in combination with platinum, markedly decreased tumor growth and prolonged survival in platinum-resistant PDX and mice. In selinexor-treated patients, tumor growth was halted in 3 of 5 patients, including one with a partial response, and was safely tolerated by all.Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence that XPO1 inhibition represents a new therapeutic strategy for overcoming platinum resistance in women with ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(6); 1552-63. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Capecitabine for Primary Platinum-Resistant or Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Basu, Bristi; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penny; Hosking, Karen; Iddawela, Mahesh; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Abraham, Jean; Brenton, James; Hatcher, Helen; Earl, Helena; Parkinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an area of unmet medical need. There is limited evidence from small studies that platinum-based combinations can overcome “resistance” in a proportion of patients. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in the platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory setting. Methods Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) combination chemotherapy was used at our institution for the treatment of relapsed EOC. From the institutional database, we identified all patients with primary platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant relapse treated with ECX as second-line therapy between 2001 and 2012. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used logistic and Cox regression models to identify predictors of response and survival respectively. Results Thirty-four 34 patients (8 refractory, 26 resistant) were treated with ECX. Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) response rate was 45%, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 months, and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months. Platinum-resistant patients had better outcomes than did platinum-refractory patients (response rate, 54% vs 0%, P = 0.047; PFS 7.2 vs 1.8 months, P < 0.0001; OS 14.4 vs 3 months, P < 0.001). In regression models, time to progression after first-line treatment and platinum-refractory status were the strongest predictors of response and PFS or OS, respectively. Patients with time to progression after first-line treatment longer than 3 months showed PFS and OS of 7.9 and 14.7 months, respectively. Toxicity was manageable, with only 13% of cycles administered at reduced doses. Conclusions Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine seems to be active in platinum-resistant relapsed EOC with manageable toxicity. Further prospective investigation of platinum-anthracycline combinations is warranted in patients who relapse 3 to 6 months after

  10. Ribonucleotide reductase inhibition restores platinum-sensitivity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Kunos, Charles; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Fanning, James; Abulafia, Ovadia; Bonebrake, Albert J; Usha, Lydia

    2012-04-27

    The potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxyaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) was tested as a chemosensitizer for restored cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Preclinical in vitro platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell survival, RNR activity, and DNA damage assays were done after cisplatin or cisplatin plus 3-AP treatments. Six women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer underwent four-day 3-AP (96 mg/m(2), day one to four) and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2), day two and three) infusions every 21 days until disease progression or adverse effects prohibited further therapy. Pre-therapy ovarian cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for RNR subunit expression as an indicator of cisplatin plus 3-AP treatment response. 3-AP preceding cisplatin exposure in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells was not as effective as sequencing cisplatin plus 3-AP together in cell survival assays. Platinum-mediated DNA damage (i.e., γH2AX foci) resolved quickly after cisplatin-alone or 3-AP preceding cisplatin exposure, but persisted after a cisplatin plus 3-AP sequence. On trial, 25 four-day overlapping 3-AP and cisplatin cycles were administered to six women (median 4.2 cycles per patient). 3-AP-related methemoglobinemia (range seven to 10%) occurred in two (33%) of six women, halting trial accrual. When sequenced cisplatin plus 3-AP, RNR inhibition restored platinum-sensitivity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancers. 3-AP (96 mg/m(2)) infusions produced modest methemoglobinemia, the expected consequence of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors disrupting collateral proteins containing iron. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00081276.

  11. Ribonucleotide reductase inhibition restores platinum-sensitivity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxyaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) was tested as a chemosensitizer for restored cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Methods Preclinical in vitro platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell survival, RNR activity, and DNA damage assays were done after cisplatin or cisplatin plus 3-AP treatments. Six women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer underwent four-day 3-AP (96 mg/m2, day one to four) and cisplatin (25 mg/m2, day two and three) infusions every 21 days until disease progression or adverse effects prohibited further therapy. Pre-therapy ovarian cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for RNR subunit expression as an indicator of cisplatin plus 3-AP treatment response. Results 3-AP preceding cisplatin exposure in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells was not as effective as sequencing cisplatin plus 3-AP together in cell survival assays. Platinum-mediated DNA damage (i.e., γH2AX foci) resolved quickly after cisplatin-alone or 3-AP preceding cisplatin exposure, but persisted after a cisplatin plus 3-AP sequence. On trial, 25 four-day overlapping 3-AP and cisplatin cycles were administered to six women (median 4.2 cycles per patient). 3-AP-related methemoglobinemia (range seven to 10%) occurred in two (33%) of six women, halting trial accrual. Conclusions When sequenced cisplatin plus 3-AP, RNR inhibition restored platinum-sensitivity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancers. 3-AP (96 mg/m2) infusions produced modest methemoglobinemia, the expected consequence of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors disrupting collateral proteins containing iron. Trial registry ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00081276 PMID:22541066

  12. Salvage chemotherapy using gemcitabine for taxane/platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Hiramatsu, Kosuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Fujita, Masami; Ueda, Yutaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kiyohara, Yumiko; Tsutsui, Tateki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine used as salvage chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. From January 2002 to October 2011, 27 patients were treated with gemcitabine for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2)) was given on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28 days. The patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. All 27 patients had previously received paclitaxel/carboplatin doublet and their disease had become platinum-resistant. The median number of previous chemotherapy regimens was 2 (range 1-7). A total of 114 cycles of single-agent gemcitabine were administered, with a median of 3 (range 1-10). No complete responses were observed. Partial response (PR) was observed in five patients (18.5%). Eight patients demonstrated stable disease (SD). The median duration of response for 5 responders was 4 months (range 2-6 months). The median survival time was 15 months. Patients with PR or SD (n=13) had significantly better survival compared with the group with progressive disease (n=14) (p=0.03, by univariate analysis). In addition, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that responses to gemcitabine were a significant factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.08, 95% confidence interval=0.0138 to 0.5614, p=0.01). Cases with hematological toxicity included 10 patients (37.0%) with grade 3/4 neutropenia, 3 patients (11.1%) with grade 3 thrombocytopenia, and 3 patients (11.1%) with grade 3 anemia. Non-hematological toxicity was well-tolerated. Gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2)) used for recurrent ovarian cancer possesses a modest activity and a well-tolerated toxicity.

  13. Patient selection and targeted treatment in the management of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Christopher P; Lovejoy, Chandra D; Nguyen, Binh

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of any gynecologic cancer, and patients generally have a poor prognosis due to high chemotherapy resistance and late stage disease diagnosis. Platinum-resistant OC can be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy such as paclitaxel, topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, and gemcitabine, but many patients eventually relapse upon treatment. Fortunately, there are currently a number of targeted therapies in development for these patients who have shown promising results in recent clinical trials. These treatments often target the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway (eg, bevacizumab and aflibercept), DNA repair mechanisms (eg, iniparib and olaparib), or they are directed against folate related pathways (eg, pemetrexed, farletuzumab, and vintafolide). As many targeted therapies are only effective in a subset of patients, there is an increasing need for the identification of response predictive biomarkers. Selecting the right patients through biomarker screening will help tailor therapy to patients and decrease superfluous treatment to those who are biomarker negative; this approach should lead to improved clinical results and decreased toxicities. In this review the current targeted therapies used for treating platinum-resistant OC are discussed. Furthermore, use of prognostic and response predictive biomarkers to define OC patient populations that may benefit from specific targeted therapies is also highlighted. PMID:24109193

  14. Patient selection and targeted treatment in the management of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Leamon, Christopher P; Lovejoy, Chandra D; Nguyen, Binh

    2013-09-25

    Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of any gynecologic cancer, and patients generally have a poor prognosis due to high chemotherapy resistance and late stage disease diagnosis. Platinum-resistant OC can be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy such as paclitaxel, topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, and gemcitabine, but many patients eventually relapse upon treatment. Fortunately, there are currently a number of targeted therapies in development for these patients who have shown promising results in recent clinical trials. These treatments often target the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway (eg, bevacizumab and aflibercept), DNA repair mechanisms (eg, iniparib and olaparib), or they are directed against folate related pathways (eg, pemetrexed, farletuzumab, and vintafolide). As many targeted therapies are only effective in a subset of patients, there is an increasing need for the identification of response predictive biomarkers. Selecting the right patients through biomarker screening will help tailor therapy to patients and decrease superfluous treatment to those who are biomarker negative; this approach should lead to improved clinical results and decreased toxicities. In this review the current targeted therapies used for treating platinum-resistant OC are discussed. Furthermore, use of prognostic and response predictive biomarkers to define OC patient populations that may benefit from specific targeted therapies is also highlighted.

  15. Evolving concepts in the management of drug resistant ovarian cancer: dose dense chemotherapy and the reversal of clinical platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Pinato, David J; Graham, Janet; Gabra, Hani; Sharma, Rohini

    2013-04-01

    Despite the initially high response rate to standard front-line debulking surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, the relapse rate in ovarian cancer is high and many patients will recur within 6 months of completing platinum based treatment. These patients may still require further chemotherapy despite being considered "platinum resistant". In this setting, response rates to conventionally scheduled second line platinum and non-platinum agents is low, ranging between 5% and 15%. There is an emerging body of evidence that in this scenario, chemotherapeutic activity can be enhanced using unconventionally scheduled "dose-dense" platinum and non-platinum based regimens with improved response rates of up to 65%. Randomised studies to evaluate the impact of this approach on survival in recurrent, platinum resistant disease are urgently required to confirm the promising phase II findings if there is to be a change in the standard of care of patients with platinum resistant disease. In this review we discuss the evolving strategies to overcome resistance in patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer with a particular focus on alterations in dose schedule as a means of reversing platinum resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Profile of vintafolide (EC145) and its use in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luyckx, Mathieu; Votino, Raffaella; Squifflet, Jean-Luc; Baurain, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to review the profile of vintafolide (EC145) and its rationale for use in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. First we investigated the folate receptors (FRs), folate’s pathway into cells, and its expression in normal and cancerous cells, before detailing the mechanism of action of vintafolide, its clinical applications, and the results of different study phases. Materials and methods A literature search was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Google, ClinicalTrials.gov and websites of pharmaceutical companies. Only articles in English were selected. All articles investigating folate receptor expression in ovarian cancer were selected first, than articles reviewing platinum resistance. Papers about vintafolide were collected, while those talking about synthesis and biochemistry concerns were excluded. The different Phase I and II studies were read, and an update on the website of pharmaceuticals companies were added. Results FR is a bundle-membrane receptor that is expressed normally in some normal tissues on the apical surface of cells, but highly expressed in ovarian cancer cells (>80%). It collects folate through endocytosis. Chemotherapy does not modify its expression in ovarian cancer cells, and its expression appears to be mostly associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance. Vintafolide is a folate-desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate, allowing a liberation of the drug into the cytoplasm of cancerous cells via the FR-α (FRα) and endocytosis, with high specificity. Phase I studies showed a 2.5 mg bolus dose to be nontoxic, with moderately adverse events. Phase II clinical trials for the first time demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in disease-free survival in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and in those with a very poor prognosis who had already received three to four lines of systemic chemotherapy. The greater benefits were observed in patients with highly expressed FRα. Conclusion

  17. Profile of vintafolide (EC145) and its use in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Mathieu; Votino, Raffaella; Squifflet, Jean-Luc; Baurain, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the profile of vintafolide (EC145) and its rationale for use in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. First we investigated the folate receptors (FRs), folate's pathway into cells, and its expression in normal and cancerous cells, before detailing the mechanism of action of vintafolide, its clinical applications, and the results of different study phases. A literature search was conducted through PubMed/Medline, Google, ClinicalTrials.gov and websites of pharmaceutical companies. Only articles in English were selected. All articles investigating folate receptor expression in ovarian cancer were selected first, than articles reviewing platinum resistance. Papers about vintafolide were collected, while those talking about synthesis and biochemistry concerns were excluded. The different Phase I and II studies were read, and an update on the website of pharmaceuticals companies were added. FR is a bundle-membrane receptor that is expressed normally in some normal tissues on the apical surface of cells, but highly expressed in ovarian cancer cells (>80%). It collects folate through endocytosis. Chemotherapy does not modify its expression in ovarian cancer cells, and its expression appears to be mostly associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance. Vintafolide is a folate-desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate, allowing a liberation of the drug into the cytoplasm of cancerous cells via the FR-α (FRα) and endocytosis, with high specificity. Phase I studies showed a 2.5 mg bolus dose to be nontoxic, with moderately adverse events. Phase II clinical trials for the first time demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in disease-free survival in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and in those with a very poor prognosis who had already received three to four lines of systemic chemotherapy. The greater benefits were observed in patients with highly expressed FRα. Vintafolide is a promising targeted agent for

  18. Clinical activity of gemcitabine plus pertuzumab in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, or primary peritoneal cancer.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Sharmila; Amler, Lukas C; Glenn, Dana; Ueland, Frederick R; Gold, Michael A; Dizon, Don S; Paton, Virginia; Lin, Chin-Yu; Januario, Thomas; Ng, Kimmie; Strauss, Andreas; Kelsey, Stephen; Sliwkowski, Mark X; Matulonis, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Pertuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) heterodimerization and has single-agent activity in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. The primary objective of this phase II study was to characterize the safety and estimate progression-free survival (PFS) of pertuzumab with gemcitabine in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Patients with advanced, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who had received a maximum of one prior treatment for recurrent cancer were randomly assigned to gemcitabine plus either pertuzumab or placebo. Collection of archival tissue was mandatory to permit exploration of biomarkers that would predict benefit from pertuzumab in this setting. One hundred thirty patients (65 per arm) were treated. Baseline characteristics were similar between arms. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.43 to 1.03; P = .07) in favor of gemcitabine + pertuzumab. The objective response rate was 13.8% in patients who received gemcitabine + pertuzumab compared with 4.6% in patients who received gemcitabine + placebo. In patients whose tumors had low HER3 mRNA expression (< median, n = 61), an increased treatment benefit was observed in the gemcitabine + pertuzumab arm compared with the gemcitabine alone arm (PFS HR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.59; P = .0002). Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia, diarrhea, and back pain were increased in patients treated with gemcitabine + pertuzumab. Symptomatic congestive heart failure was reported in one patient in the gemcitabine + pertuzumab arm. Pertuzumab may add activity to gemcitabine for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Low HER3 mRNA expression may predict pertuzumab clinical benefit and be a valuable prognostic marker.

  19. Oral etoposide for platinum-resistant and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: a study by the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Kucukoner, Mehmet; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman; Yaman, Sebnem; Gumusay, Ozge; Unal, Olcun; Ulas, Arife; Elkiran, Emir T; Kaplan, Muhammed A; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Inal, Ali; Urakci, Zuhat; Buyukberber, Suleyman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of long-term, low-dose oral etoposide as an advanced treatment option in patients with platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. For the purposes of this study, 51 patients with histologically-confirmed, recurrent or metastatic platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated at six different centers between January 2006 and January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were treated with oral etoposide (50 mg/day for a cycle of 14 days, repeated every 21 days). Among the 51 platinum-resistant patients, 17.6% demonstrated a partial response and 25.5% a stable response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.1-5.7), while the median overall survival was 16.4 months (11.8-20.9). No significant relationship was observed between the pre-treatment CA 125 levels, post-treatment CA-125 levels and the treatment response rates (p=0.21). Among the 51 patients who were evaluated in terms of toxicity, grade 1 or 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 19 (37.3%); and grade 1-4 gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 15 patients (29.4%). Chronic low-dose oral etoposide treatment is generally effective and well-tolerated in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients.

  20. Outcome of single agent generic gemcitabine in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suprasert, Prapaporn; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong; Manopunya, Manatsawee

    2012-01-01

    Single original gemcitabine is commonly used as salvage treatment in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma (PPA) with a satisfactory outcome. However, efficacy data fro this regimen are limited. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients who received single-agent generic gemcitabine (GEMITA) after development of clinical platinum resistance. The study period was between May 2008 and December 2010. Gemcitabine was administered intravenously in two different schedules: 1,000 mg/m2 on day 1,8, and 15 every 28 days; and on days 1 and 8 every 21 days with the same dosage. Administration was until disease progression was noted. The response rate was evaluated using the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG ) criteria while toxicity was evaluated according to WHO criteria. Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria in the study period. Two-thirds of them received gemcitabine as the second and third line regimen. The overall response rate was 12.1%. The median progression free survival and overall survival was 2 and 10 months, respectively. With the total 550 courses of chemotherapy, the patients developed grades 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity as follows: anemia, 1.5%; leukopenia, 13.7%; neutropenia, 27.3%; and thrombocytopenia, 3.0%. In conclusion, single agent generic gemcitabine revealed a modest efficacy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and PPA without serious toxicity.

  1. A brief review of the management of platinum-resistant-platinum-refractory ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Ray, Carolyn M; Spira, Alexander I; Trepel, Jane B; Carter, Corey A; Cottrill, Hope M

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian cancer, which ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common histologic type, with the 5-year survival for all stages estimated at 45.6%. This rate increases to more than 70% in the minority of patients who are diagnosed at an early stage, but declines to 35% in the vast majority of patients diagnosed at advanced stage. Recurrent EOC is incurable. Platinum sensitivity (or lack thereof) is a major determinant of prognosis. The current standard treatment is primary surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. In recurrent platinum-resistant/platinum-refractory EOC, sequential single-agent salvage chemotherapy is superior to multiagent chemotherapy. Multiagent regimens increase toxicity without clear benefit; however, no preferred sequence of single agents is recommended. The impact of targeted therapies and immunotherapies on progression-free survival and overall survival, which remains dismal, is under active investigation. Currently, clinical trials offer the best hope for the development of a new treatment paradigm in this recalcitrant disease.

  2. Prognostic and predictive effects of primary versus secondary platinum resistance for bevacizumab treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer in the AURELIA trial.

    PubMed

    Trillsch, F; Mahner, S; Hilpert, F; Davies, L; García-Martínez, E; Kristensen, G; Savarese, A; Vuylsteke, P; Los, M; Zagouri, F; Gladieff, L; Sehouli, J; Khoon Lee, C; Gebski, V; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2016-09-01

    Progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were significantly improved by adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) in the phase III AURELIA trial. We explored treatment outcomes according to primary platinum resistance (PPR) versus secondary platinum resistance (SPR). Patients were categorized as PPR (disease progression <6 months after completing first-line platinum therapy) or SPR (progression ≥6 months after first platinum but <6 months after second). The exploratory Cox and logistic regression analyses correlated PFS, ORR, overall survival (OS), and PROs with the time to development of platinum resistance. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients with PPR (n = 262; 73%) and SPR (n = 99; 27%), although ascites were more common in the PPR subgroup. In bevacizumab-treated patients (n = 179), SPR was associated with improved PFS (median 10.2 versus 5.6 months in PPR patients; P < 0.001) and OS (median 22.2 versus 13.7 months, respectively; P < 0.001) but not PROs (22% versus 22% with improved abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms at week 8/9). In multivariate analyses, SPR remained an independent prognostic factor for better PFS [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.67; P < 0.001] and OS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.80; P = 0.005) in bevacizumab-treated patients, but was not statistically significant for either end point in the chemotherapy-alone subgroup. The magnitude of PFS benefit from bevacizumab appeared greater in SPR than PPR patients (HR 0.30 versus 0.55, respectively; interaction P = 0.07) with a similar direction of effect for OS (interaction P = 0.18). In bevacizumab-treated patients, PFS and OS were more favorable in SPR than PPR patients with equally improved PROs. The PFS and OS benefit from combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy was more pronounced in SPR than PPR PROC. PPR versus SPR should be a stratification factor

  3. A chemoresponse assay for prediction of platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Krivak, Thomas C; Lele, Shashikant; Richard, Scott; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Leath, Charles A; Brower, Stacey L; Tian, Chunqiao; Moore, Richard G

    2014-07-01

    Recurrence following primary platinum-based chemotherapy remains a challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. This study examines whether a chemoresponse assay can identify patients who are platinum-resistant prior to treatment. Women (n = 276) with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III-IV ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer were enrolled in an observational study, and the responsiveness of their tumors was evaluated using a chemoresponse assay. All patients were treated with a platinum/taxane regimen following cytoreductive surgery. Assay responses to carboplatin or paclitaxel were classified as sensitive, intermediate sensitive (IS), or resistant. Association of assay response with progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model. Patients whose tumors were resistant to carboplatin were at increased risk of disease progression compared to those with nonresistant (sensitive + IS) tumors (median PFS: 11.8 vs 16.6 months, respectively, P < .001), and the association was confirmed after adjusting for other clinical factors (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.62; P = .013). Association of assay response to paclitaxel with PFS trended in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.95; P = .245). For tumors resistant to carboplatin, 59% were sensitive or IS to at least 1 other commonly used agent, demonstrating the ability of the assay to inform treatment decisions beyond the standard platinum/taxane regimen. Assay resistance to carboplatin is strongly associated with shortened PFS among advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy, supporting use of this assay to identify patients likely to experience early recurrence on standard platinum-based therapy. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gemcitabine as a molecular targeting agent that blocks the Akt cascade in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gemcitabine (2′, 2′ –difluorodeoxycytidine) is one of many nonplatinum drugs that exhibit activity in recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gemcitabine treatment inhibits the proliferation of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells still remain unclear. We investigated whether Gemcitabine increases the efficacy of Cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Methods We used Cisplatin-resistant Caov-3 cells, A2780CP cells and Cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells to examine the sensitivity of the cell viability of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and the sensitivity of the invasive activity of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine using an invasion assay with Matrigel. We examined the Akt kinase activity and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression following Cisplatin and Gemcitabine treatment using a Western blot analysis and the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine on the intra-abdominal dissemination of ovarian cancer in vivo. Results Gemcitabine significantly inhibited Cisplatin-induced Akt activation in the Caov-3 and A2780CP cells, but not in the A2780 cells. In the presence of Gemcitabine, Cisplatin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly enhanced in the Caov-3 and A2780CP cells. Co-treatment with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine almost completely inhibited invasion of both types of cells through the Matrigel; however, neither Cisplatin nor Gemcitabine alone inhibited the invasion of both types of cells. Gemcitabine inhibited not only the Cisplatin-induced activation of Akt, but also the MMP9 and mRNA expression of VEGF. Moreover, treatment with Gemcitabine increased the efficacy of Cisplatin-induced growth inhibition of the intra

  5. Gemcitabine as a molecular targeting agent that blocks the Akt cascade in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Terai, Yoshito; Tanabe, Akiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Takai, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Satoe; Ashihara, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Tsunetoh, Satoshi; Kanemura, Masanori; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-04-09

    Gemcitabine (2', 2' -difluorodeoxycytidine) is one of many nonplatinum drugs that exhibit activity in recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gemcitabine treatment inhibits the proliferation of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells still remain unclear. We investigated whether Gemcitabine increases the efficacy of Cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer models in vitro and in vivo. We used Cisplatin-resistant Caov-3 cells, A2780CP cells and Cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells to examine the sensitivity of the cell viability of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and the sensitivity of the invasive activity of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine using an invasion assay with Matrigel. We examined the Akt kinase activity and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression following Cisplatin and Gemcitabine treatment using a Western blot analysis and the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of Cisplatin and Gemcitabine on the intra-abdominal dissemination of ovarian cancer in vivo. Gemcitabine significantly inhibited Cisplatin-induced Akt activation in the Caov-3 and A2780CP cells, but not in the A2780 cells. In the presence of Gemcitabine, Cisplatin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly enhanced in the Caov-3 and A2780CP cells. Co-treatment with Cisplatin and Gemcitabine almost completely inhibited invasion of both types of cells through the Matrigel; however, neither Cisplatin nor Gemcitabine alone inhibited the invasion of both types of cells. Gemcitabine inhibited not only the Cisplatin-induced activation of Akt, but also the MMP9 and mRNA expression of VEGF. Moreover, treatment with Gemcitabine increased the efficacy of Cisplatin-induced growth inhibition of the intra-abdominal dissemination and production of

  6. Chemotherapy vs tamoxifen in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a phase III, randomised, multicentre trial (Ovaresist).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Kristina; Gibbs, Emma; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; dePont Christensen, Rene; Woie, Kathrine; Kalling, Marten; Auranen, Annika; Grenman, Seija; Hoegberg, Thomas; Rosenberg, Per; Skeie-Jensen, Tone; Hjerpe, Elisabet; Dørum, Anne; Gebski, Val; Kristensen, Gunnar

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) aims for palliation and prolonging of progression-free survival (PFS). This study compares Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and efficacy between single-agent chemotherapy and tamoxifen in PROC. Patients with PROC were randomised (2 : 1) to chemotherapy (weekly paclitaxel 80 mg m(-2) or four weekly pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg m(-2)) or tamoxifen 40 mg daily. The primary end point was HRQoL. Secondary end points were PFS by RECIST and overall survival (OS). Between March 2002 and December 2007, 156 and 82 patients were randomised to chemotherapy and tamoxifen, respectively. In the chemotherapy arm, a significantly larger proportion of patients experienced a worsening in their social functioning. There was no difference in the proportion of patients experiencing improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms. Median PFS on tamoxifen was 8.3 weeks (95% CI, 8.0-10.4) compared with 12.7 weeks (95% CI, 9.0-16.3) on chemotherapy (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16-2.05; log-rank P=0.003). There was no difference in OS between the treatment arms. Patients on chemotherapy had longer PFS but experienced more toxicity and poorer HRQoL compared with tamoxifen. Control over gastrointestinal symptoms was not better on chemotherapy. These data are important for patient counselling and highlight the need to incorporate HRQoL end points in studies of PROC.

  7. Soluble MUC1 and serum MUC1-specific antibodies are potential prognostic biomarkers for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Budiu, Raluca A; Mantia-Smaldone, Gina; Elishaev, Esther; Chu, Tianjiao; Thaller, Julia; McCabe, Kathryn; Lenzner, Diana; Edwards, Robert P; Vlad, Anda M

    2011-07-01

    MUC1 (CA15-3) and MUC16 (CA125) tumor-associated antigens are upregulated in ovarian cancer and can be detected in patients' sera by standardized tests. We postulated that increased MUC1 and MUC16 antigens augment antibody responses in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients and that the frequency and intensity of these responses can be used as immune biomarkers of treatment response and disease outcome. We measured MUC1 and MUC16 tumor expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), assessed serum antigenic levels and quantitated circulating antibodies by ELISA in a cohort of 28 ovarian cancer patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer, and treated with intraperitoneal (IP) interleukin-2 (IL-2). MUC1 and MUC16 were overexpressed in tumor samples and showed differential distribution profiles. Serum MUC1 (CA15-3) measurements were elevated in all patients and significantly correlated with increased risk of death (P = 0.003). MUC1-specific IgM and IgG anitbodies were found in 92 and 50% of cases, respectively. Patients with progressive disease had higher mean anti-MUC1 IgG than responders at both early (P = 0.025) and late (P = 0.022) time points during IP IL-2 treatment. Anti-MUC1 IgM antibodies inversely correlated with overall survival at both early (P = 0.052) and late (P = 0.009) time points. In contrast to MUC1, neither soluble MUC16 nor MUC16-specific antibodies were significantly associated with clinical response or overall survival in this study. Increased serum MUC1 and high anti-MUC1 antibody levels are prognostic for poor clinical response and reduced overall survival in platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer.

  8. ENMD-2076, an oral inhibitor of angiogenic and proliferation kinases, has activity in recurrent, platinum resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Lee, Julie; Lasonde, Brian; Tew, William P; Yehwalashet, Afra; Matei, Daniela; Behbakht, Kian; Grothusen, Jill; Fleming, Gini; Lee, Nita K; Arnott, Jamie; Bray, Mark R; Fletcher, Graham; Brokx, Richard D; Castonguay, Vincent; Mackay, Helen; Sidor, Carolyn F; Oza, Amit M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the activity and side effect profile of ENMD-2076, an oral anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative kinase inhibitor, in platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer. Archival tumour tissue was obtained for correlative analyses. This was an open-label single-arm Phase II study of single agent ENMD-2076 taken daily orally (PO). The primary objective was to determine the progression free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months of ENMD-2076 in platinum-resistant cancer based on RECIST v1.1. Secondary objectives included response rate (RR), duration of response, overall survival (OS) and safety. An exploratory analysis of archival tissue for mitotic index and angiogenesis was conducted in an attempt to identify a sensitive or resistant patient phenotype. 64 patients were enrolled, and the PFS rate at 6 months was 22% with a median time to progression of 3.6 months. The median number of prior regimens was 2. The most common adverse events were fatigue, hypertension and diarrhoea with the most common Grade 3/4 events being hypertension and fatigue. None of the markers of mitotic index or angiogenesis evaluated in the archival tissue samples were predictive of greater benefit or resistance to ENMD-2076 treatment. ENMD-2076 has activity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and observed toxicities were similar to other PO kinase inhibitors. Additional studies with ENMD-2076 are warranted, especially in combination with active chemotherapeutic agents in platinum-resistant patients. Further work to determine appropriate biomarkers for ENMD-2076 should be incorporated into new clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and Antitumor Activity of Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Nivolumab, in Patients With Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamanishi, Junzo; Mandai, Masaki; Ikeda, Takafumi; Minami, Manabu; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Murayama, Toshinori; Kanai, Masashi; Mori, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Chikuma, Shunsuke; Matsumura, Noriomi; Abiko, Kaoru; Baba, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Ken; Ueda, Akihiko; Hosoe, Yuko; Morita, Satoshi; Yokode, Masayuki; Shimizu, Akira; Honjo, Tasuku; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1), a coinhibitory immune signal receptor expressed in T cells, binds to PD-1 ligand and regulates antitumor immunity. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 antibody that blocks PD-1 signaling. We assessed the safety and antitumor activity of nivolumab in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Twenty patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were treated with an intravenous infusion of nivolumab every 2 weeks at a dose of 1 or 3 mg/kg (constituting two 10-patient cohorts) from October 21, 2011. This phase II trial defined the primary end point as the best overall response. Patients received up to six cycles (four doses per cycle) of nivolumab treatment or received doses until disease progression occurred. Twenty nivolumab-treated patients were evaluated at the end of the trial on December 7, 2014. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in eight (40%) of 20 patients. Two patients had severe adverse events. In the 20 patients in whom responses could be evaluated, the best overall response was 15%, which included two patients who had a durable complete response (in the 3-mg/kg cohort). The disease control rate in all 20 patients was 45%. The median progression-free survival time was 3.5 months (95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9 months), and the median overall survival time was 20.0 months (95% CI, 7.0 months to not reached) at study termination. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to explore the effects of nivolumab against ovarian cancer. The encouraging safety and clinical efficacy of nivolumab in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer indicate the merit of additional large-scale investigations (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000005714). © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Short-term serum deprivation confers sensitivity to taxanes in platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Isonishi, Seiji; Saito, Motoaki; Saito, Misato; Tanaka, Tadao

    2011-12-01

    Based on the evidences showing that serum deprivation provokes apoptosis in a variety of cells, we have investigated the effect of serum deprivation on drug sensitivity. After human ovarian cancer cells were preincubated in 0.5 % serum containing medium for 12 hours, cellular drug sensitivities were determined by colony-forming assay. Serum deprivation treatment resulted in significant increase in paclitaxel sensitivity by factors of mean ± SD, 148.6 ± 28.1 and 10.1 ± 1.0 (n = 3; P < 0.001) fold in platinum-resistant C13 and CP70 cells, respectively. Similarly, serum deprivation induced significant docetaxel sensitivity in these cell lines. However, no enhancement effect of serum deprivation was observed in platinum-sensitive 2008 and A2780 cells. Serum deprivation did not have any effect on the sensitivities to cisplatin, vincristin, and doxorubicin in all of these cells. More than 7-fold increase of apoptotic cells were observed in C13 or CP70 cells when they were treated by serum deprivation followed by paclitaxel compared with the treatment of either serum deprivation or paclitaxel alone. Confocal laser microscopy using rhodamine 123 and flow cytometric analysis with 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide revealed that serum deprivation decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in C13 or CP70 cells, whereas no change was observed in 2008 and A2780 cells. This indicates that serum deprivation induced depolarization specifically in platinum-resistant cells. Electron microscopy revealed that serum deprivation caused regeneration of mitochondrial matrix structure in C13 or CP70 cells where mitochondria were usually destructed and disappeared. These results indicate that serum deprivation confers taxane hypersensitivity specifically in platinum-resistant cells by recovering their impaired mitochondrial functions. The evidence might be clinically beneficial for the development of new chemotherapeutic technology, particularly for the patients with platinum-resistant

  11. Mechanistic Nanotherapeutic Approach Based on siRNA-Mediated DJ-1 Protein Suppression for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Canan; Chan, Stephanie; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Khal, Shannon; Moskal, Vitaliya; Shah, Vidhi; Alani, Adam W G; Taratula, Olena; Taratula, Oleh

    2016-06-06

    We report an efficient therapeutic modality for platinum resistant ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of a multifunctional DJ-1 protein that is responsible for the proliferation, growth, invasion, oxidative stress, and overall survival of various cancers. The developed therapeutic strategy can work alone or in concert with a low dose of the first line chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, to elicit a maximal therapeutic response. To achieve an efficient DJ-1 knockdown, we constructed the polypropylenimine dendrimer-based nanoplatform targeted to LHRH receptors overexpressed on ovarian cancer cells. The quantitative PCR and Western immunoblotting analysis revealed that the delivered DJ-1 siRNA downregulated the expression of targeted mRNA and corresponding protein by more than 80% in various ovarian cancer cells. It was further demonstrated that siRNA-mediated DJ-1 suppression dramatically impaired proliferation, viability, and migration of the employed ovarian cancer cells. Finally, the combinatorial approach led to the most pronounced therapeutic response in all the studied cell lines, outperforming both siRNA-mediated DJ-1 knockdown and cisplatin treatment alone. It is noteworthy that the platinum-resistant cancer cells (A2780/CDDP) with the highest basal level of DJ-1 protein are most susceptible to the developed therapy and this susceptibility declines with decreasing basal levels of DJ-1. Finally, we interrogate the molecular underpinnings of the DJ-1 knockdown effects in the treatment of the ovarian cancer cells. By using various experimental techniques, it was revealed that DJ-1 depletion (1) decreases the activity of the Akt pathway, thereby reducing cellular proliferation and migration and increasing the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin on ovarian cancer cells; (2) enhances the activity of p53 tumor suppressor protein therefore restoring cell cycle arrest functionality and upregulating the Bax-caspase pathway, triggering cell death; and (3

  12. Phase II randomized study of PM01183 versus topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Poveda, A; Del Campo, J M; Ray-Coquard, I; Alexandre, J; Provansal, M; Guerra Alía, E M; Casado, A; Gonzalez-Martin, A; Fernández, C; Rodriguez, I; Soto, A; Kahatt, C; Fernández Teruel, C; Galmarini, C M; Pérez de la Haza, A; Bohan, P; Berton-Rigaud, D

    2017-06-01

    PM01183 is a new compound that blocks active transcription, produces DNA breaks and apoptosis, and affects the inflammatory microenvironment. PM01183 showed strong antitumor activity in preclinical models of cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were included in a two-stage, controlled, randomized (in a second stage), multicenter, phase II study. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST and/or GCIG criteria. The exploratory first stage (n = 22) confirmed the activity of PM01183 as a single agent at 7.0 mg flat dose every 3 weeks (q3wk). The second stage (n = 59) was randomized and controlled with topotecan on days 1-5 q3wk or weekly (every 4 weeks, q4wk). ORR was 23% (95% CI, 13%-37%) for 52 PM01183-treated patients. Median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI, 2.5-6.9 months), and 23% (95% CI, 0%-51%) of responses lasted 6 months or more. Ten of the 12 confirmed responses were reported for 33 patients with platinum-resistant disease [ORR = 30% (95% CI, 16%-49%)]; for the 29 patients treated with topotecan in the second stage, no responses were found. Median PFS for all PM01183-treated patients was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7-5.6 months), and 5.0 months (95% CI, 2.7-6.9 months) for patients with platinum-resistant disease. Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 85% of patients; febrile neutropenia in 21% and fatigue (grade 3 in 35%) were the principal safety findings for PM01183. PM01183 is an active drug in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and warrants further development. The highest activity was observed in platinum-resistant disease. Its safety profile indicates the dose should be adjusted to body surface area (mg/m2). EudraCT 2011-002172-16.

  13. Phase II randomized study of PM01183 versus topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J. M.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Alexandre, J.; Provansal, M.; Guerra Alía, E. M.; Casado, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, A.; Fernández, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Soto, A.; Kahatt, C.; Fernández Teruel, C.; Galmarini, C. M.; Pérez de la Haza, A.; Bohan, P.; Berton-Rigaud, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background PM01183 is a new compound that blocks active transcription, produces DNA breaks and apoptosis, and affects the inflammatory microenvironment. PM01183 showed strong antitumor activity in preclinical models of cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients and methods Patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were included in a two-stage, controlled, randomized (in a second stage), multicenter, phase II study. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) by RECIST and/or GCIG criteria. The exploratory first stage (n = 22) confirmed the activity of PM01183 as a single agent at 7.0 mg flat dose every 3 weeks (q3wk). The second stage (n = 59) was randomized and controlled with topotecan on days 1–5 q3wk or weekly (every 4 weeks, q4wk). Results ORR was 23% (95% CI, 13%–37%) for 52 PM01183-treated patients. Median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI, 2.5–6.9 months), and 23% (95% CI, 0%–51%) of responses lasted 6 months or more. Ten of the 12 confirmed responses were reported for 33 patients with platinum-resistant disease [ORR = 30% (95% CI, 16%–49%)]; for the 29 patients treated with topotecan in the second stage, no responses were found. Median PFS for all PM01183-treated patients was 4.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–5.6 months), and 5.0 months (95% CI, 2.7–6.9 months) for patients with platinum-resistant disease. Grade 3/4 neutropenia in 85% of patients; febrile neutropenia in 21% and fatigue (grade 3 in 35%) were the principal safety findings for PM01183. Conclusion PM01183 is an active drug in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and warrants further development. The highest activity was observed in platinum-resistant disease. Its safety profile indicates the dose should be adjusted to body surface area (mg/m2). Trial code EudraCT 2011-002172-16. PMID:28368437

  14. Effectiveness of low-dose oral etoposide treatment in patients with recurrent and platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Yakup; Doğan, Mutlu; Umut Erdem, Gökmen; Tulunay, Gökhan; Uncu, Hikmet; Arık, Zafer; Demirci, Umut; Yazıcı, Ozan; Zengin, Nurullah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of oral etoposide (50 mg/day, days 1-14, every 3 weeks) in recurrent platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). 52 recurrent platinum-resistant EOC patients followed up in four centres between April 2000 and December 2013 were analysed retrospectively. There was response in a total of 21 patients [partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD)], 12 of them used etoposide in second and third, and 9 of them used it in fourth- to fifth-lines of treatment. The overall response rate was 19.2% and clinical benefit rate was 40.4% [PR (19.2%), SD (21.2%)]. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.95 months (95%CI, 0.2-19.7 months) and 3.2 months (95%CI 2.6-3.8 months), respectively. Grade III-IV haematologic and non-haematologic adverse events were observed in 7 (13.4%) patients. We consider that oral etoposide (50 mg/day, days 1-14, every 3 weeks) is an effective treatment with a manageable adverse effect profile in recurrent platinum-resistant EOC patients. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Oral etoposide is an effective option for recurrent EOC patients at a dose of 50-100 mg/m(2)/day (1-21 days, every 28 days) regimen. However, it has a high toxicity rate. What the results of this study add: Oral etoposide at a dose of 50 mg/kg (1-14 days, every 21 days) is an effective treatment with a manageable toxicity profile in platinum- resistant ovarian cancer patients when it is used as ≤4th-line palliative setting. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: We need trials evaluating the effect of low-dose oral etoposide combination with bevacizumab or other chemotherapy agents (irinotecan and gemcitabine) in platinum-resistant EOC patients.

  15. Phase 1/2 study of atrasentan combined with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Petronella O; van der Mijn, Koen J C; Los, Maartje; Kronemeijer, Roelien H; Groenewegen, Gerard; Voest, Emile E

    2010-11-01

    Ovarian cancer overexpresses ET-1, and in vitro studies have shown that ET-1 confers resistance to anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Atrasentan has been developed as an oral selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility and toxicity of adding increasing doses of atrasentan (to a maximum of 10 mg/d) and liposomal doxorubicin in patients with progressive ovarian cancer, refractory for platinum and paclitaxel. Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 (and repeated every 4 weeks) in combination with escalating doses of atrasentan once daily. The starting dose was 2.5 mg and escalated in cohorts of three patients from 5 to 10 mg. Twenty-six patients (mean age = 60 years, range = 42-74 years) were treated at the three dose levels. Atrasentan could be safely administered in combination at a dose of 10 mg. All patients were evaluable for toxicity, and 19 patients, included in the phase 2 period, were evaluable for response. Adverse events included nausea, vomiting, mucositis, skin toxicity, and rhinitis. Clinical cardiac toxicity, intensively monitored, was not observed, although two patients had a decrease in cardiac ejection fraction. Three objective responses were observed and another six patients had stable disease with a median time to progression of 14 weeks and an overall survival of 13.1 months. The addition of atrasentan to standard dose PLD in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer is feasible with some suggestion of prolonged survival.

  16. Topotecan in patients with BRCA-associated and sporadic platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David M; Zhou, Qin; Arnold, Angela G; Grisham, Rachel N; Iasonos, Alexia; Kauff, Noah D; Spriggs, David

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan, in patients with recurrent BRCA+ versus BRCA- ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinomas. A single-institution retrospective analysis of platinum-resistant patients characterized for the presence or absence of known deleterious BRCA mutations. Patients received topotecan at a dose and schedule determined by their treating physician (five day or weekly). Response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed. A total of 50 patients (9 BRCA+, 41 BRCA-) were treated with topotecan. Both groups were well balanced in terms of age, stage, grade, and number of prior therapies. All patients had high-grade serous carcinoma. The clinical benefit rate in BRCA+ and BRCA- patients was 0% and 26.8% (6 PRs, 6 SDs), respectively (p=0.18). Median PFS in BRCA+ and BRCA- pts was 1.7 months (95% CI: 1.0-2.8 months) and 2.5 months (95%CI: 1.9-2.8 months), respectively (p=0.057). Median time to best response was 1.9 months, and median response duration 2.6 months. This analysis in a heavily pretreated cohort of patients fails to support the superiority of topotecan in BRCA+ platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers. Further study of this class of agents, specifically in less heavily-pretreated patients, may still be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The combination of gemcitabine and carboplatin shows similar efficacy in the treatment of platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Safra, Tamar; Asna, Noam; Veizman, Anat; Shpigel, Shulem; Matcejevsky, Dianna; Inbar, Moshe; Grisaru, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), and clinical benefit in recurrent ovarian cancer patients treated with gemcitabine and carboplatin and to compare the outcome among platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients. A retrospective study using the medical records of patients diagnosed and treated for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube carcinoma, or primary peritoneal carcinoma with gemcitabine and carboplatin from 2005 through 2012 at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. The treatment regimen was carboplatin (area under the curve=5) administered on day 1 and gemcitabine 850 mg/m administered on days 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle. Seventy patients with a median age of 57 years (range: 38-86) were included in the study. Most patients (94.3%) were initially diagnosed with stage III-IV disease and 44.3% had platinum-sensitive disease. Median progression-free survival in platinum-sensitive patients was 6.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3-8.3] and 6.3 months (95% CI: 4.6-7.9) in platinum-resistant patients. Median overall survival was 15.8 months (95% CI: 13.6-18.1) in the platinum-sensitive patients and 18.4 months (95% CI: 10.0-27.8) in the platinum-resistant patients. Platinum-sensitive patients had a RR of 43.2% and platinum-resistant patients had a RR of 39.1%. The clinical benefit was 70.5% in platinum-sensitive patients and 65.2% in platinum-resistant patients. Overall treatment had a favorable safety profile. Gemcitabine and carboplatin demonstrate moderate toxicity with similar efficacy in both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer, suggesting reversal of platinum resistance by gemcitabine.

  18. Carboplatin with Decitabine Therapy, in Recurrent Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Alters Circulating miRNAs Concentrations: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Benson, Eric A; Skaar, Todd C; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Plasma miRNAs represent potential minimally invasive biomarkers to monitor and predict outcomes from chemotherapy. The primary goal of the current study-consisting of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer-was to identify the changes in circulating miRNA concentrations associated with decitabine followed by carboplatin chemotherapy treatment. A secondary goal was to associate clinical response with changes in circulating miRNA concentration. We measured miRNA concentrations in plasma samples from 14 patients with platinum-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer enrolled in a phase II clinical trial that were treated with a low dose of the hypomethylating agent (HMA) decitabine for 5 days followed by carboplatin on day 8. The primary endpoint was to determine chemotherapy-associated changes in plasma miRNA concentrations. The secondary endpoint was to correlate miRNA changes with clinical response as measured by progression free survival (PFS). Seventy-eight miRNA plasma concentrations were measured at baseline (before treatment) and at the end of the first cycle of treatment (day 29). Of these, 10 miRNAs (miR-193a-5p, miR-375, miR-339-3p, miR-340-5p, miR-532-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-25-3p, miR-10a-5p, miR-616-5p, and miR-148b-5p) displayed fold changes in concentration ranging from -2.9 to 4 (p<0.05), in recurrent platinum resistant ovarian cancer patients, that were associated with response to decitabine followed by carboplatin chemotherapy. Furthermore, lower concentrations of miR-148b-5p after this chemotherapy regimen were associated (P<0.05) with the PFS. This is the first report demonstrating altered circulating miRNA concentrations following a combination platinum plus HMA chemotherapy regiment. In addition, circulating miR-148b-5p concentrations were associated with PFS and may represent a novel biomarker of therapeutic response, with this chemotherapy regimen, in women with recurrent, drug-resistant ovarian cancer.

  19. Quality of life and treatment response among women with platinum-resistant versus platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer treated for progression: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Vanessa L; Green, Adele C; Wyld, David K; O'Rourke, Peter; Wockner, Leesa F; deFazio, Anna; Butow, Phyllis N; Price, Melanie A; Horwood, Keith R; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study-Quality Of Life Study Investigators; Webb, Penelope M

    2014-01-01

    Most women with ovarian cancer relapse and undergo further chemotherapy however evidence regarding the benefits of this for women with platinum-resistant disease is limited. Our objective was to determine whether there was a quality of life improvement or treatment response among women treated for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. We combined data from 2 studies where women treated with chemotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer (n=172) completed a quality of life questionnaire every 3 months. Cancers were classified as platinum-resistant if they progressed within 6 months of completing first-line chemotherapy. Mixed effects models were used to analyze change in quality of life during the first 6 months after second-line chemotherapy. One-quarter of women (n=44) were classified as having platinum-resistant disease. Overall, their quality of life did not significantly increase or decrease, following commencement of second-line chemotherapy (least square mean scores=107, 105, 103 at chemotherapy start, 3 and 6 months later, respectively), although 26% of these women reported a meaningful increase and 31% reported a meaningful decline. One-third of the platinum-resistant group responded (11% complete and 21% partial response) to second-line chemotherapy, and this figure increased to 54% among the subset (36%) re-treated with platinum-based agents with or without other agents. Preliminary analyses suggest that quality of life may be higher at chemotherapy initiation in women whose disease responded (median score 121 vs 110). Overall, quality of life appears to be maintained in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer who receive further chemotherapy and some women respond to re-treatment. © 2013.

  20. Eribulin mesylate (halichondrin B analog E7389) in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: a 2-cohort, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Martee L; Kravetz, Sara; Jia, Xiaoyu; Iasonos, Alexia; Tew, William; Pereira, Lauren; Sabbatini, Paul; Whalen, Christin; Aghajanian, Carol A; Zarwan, Corinne; Berlin, Suzanne

    2012-05-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a tubulin inhibitor with activity superior to paclitaxel in NIH:OVCAR-3 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenograft models. In this study, the authors assessed the efficacy of eribulin in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. Patients with recurrent, measurable epithelial ovarian cancer who had received ≤2 prior cytotoxic regimens and who had adequate organ function were enrolled into 2 separate cohorts: 1) platinum-resistant patients (who had a progression-free interval <6 months after their last platinum-based therapy) and 2) platinum-sensitive patients (who had a progression-free interval ≥6 months after their last platinum-based therapy). Eribulin 1.4 mg/m(2) was administered over 15 minutes intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. Efficacy was determined by objective response on computed tomography studies. In the platinum-resistant cohort, 37 patients enrolled, and 36 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. Two patients achieved a partial response (5.5%), and 16 patients (44%) had stable disease as their best response. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.8 months). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 37 patients enrolled, and all were evaluable for response. Seven patients achieved a partial response (19%). The median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8-5.8 months). The major toxicity was grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (42% of platinum-resistant patients; 54% of platinum-sensitive patients). Eribulin produced an objective response in 5.5% of women with platinum-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer and in 19% of women with platinum-sensitive disease. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months in the platinum-resistant group and 4.1 months in the platinum-sensitive group. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  1. Eribulin mesylate (halichondrin B Analog E7389) in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: a two-cohort, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Martee L.; Kravetz, Sara; Jia, Xiaoyu; Iasonos, Alexia; Tew, William; Pereira, Lauren; Sabbatini, Paul; Whalen, Christin; Aghajanian, Carol A.; Zarwan, Corinne; Berlin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Eribulin mesylate is a tubulin inhibitor with activity superior to paclitaxel in NIH:OVCAR-3 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenograft models. We sought to assess the efficacy of eribulin in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with recurrent measurable epithelial ovarian cancer, ≤2 prior cytotoxic regimens, and adequate organ function were enrolled into two separate cohorts: 1) Platinum resistant (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy <6 months); and 2) Platinum sensitive (progression-free interval from last platinum-based therapy ≥6 months). Treatment: Eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 over 15 minutes by vein on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Efficacy was determined by objective response by computed tomography. Results Platinum-resistant cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled. Thirty-six patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. Two patients achieved partial response (PR, 5.5%). Sixteen (44%) had a best response of stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval, 1.4–2.8 months). Platinum-sensitive cohort: Thirty-seven patients enrolled, and all were evaluable for response. Seven patients achieved partial response (PR, 19%). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8–5.8 months). The major toxicity was grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (42% in platinum-resistant patients; 54% in platinum-sensitive patients). Conclusions Eribulin achieved objective response in 5.5% of women with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer and in 19% of women with platinum-sensitive disease. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months in the platinum-resistant group and 4.1 months in the platinum-sensitive group. PMID:21935916

  2. Is FDA-Approved Bevacizumab Cost-Effective When Included in the Treatment of Platinum-Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer?

    PubMed

    Chappell, Nicole P; Miller, Caela R; Fielden, Aaron D; Barnett, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Although the Food and Drug Administration has approved incorporation of bevacizumab (BEV) into the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), cost-value measures are an essential consideration, as evidenced by the recent ASCO Value Framework initiative. We assessed the cost-effectiveness and reviewed the net health benefit (NHB) of this expensive treatment. A cost-effectiveness decision model was constructed using results from a phase III trial comparing BEV plus cytotoxic chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in patients with PROC. The Avastin Use in Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (AURELIA) trial demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival and quality of life in patients receiving BEV. Costs, paracentesis rates, and adverse events were incorporated, including subgroup analysis of different partner chemotherapy agents. Inclusion of BEV in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer meets the common willingness-to-pay incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) threshold of $100,000 per progression-free life-year saved (LYS) for 15-mg/kg dosing and approaches this threshold for 10-mg/kg dosing, with an ICER of $160,000. In sensitivity analysis, reducing the cost of BEV by 13% (from $9,338 to $8,100 per cycle) allows 10-mg/kg dosing to reach a $100,000 ICER. Exploratory analysis of different BEV chemotherapy partners showed an ICER of $76,000 per progression-free LYS (6.5-month progression-free survival improvement) and $54,000 per LYS (9.1-month overall survival improvement) for the addition of BEV to paclitaxel once per week. Using the ASCO framework for value assessment, the NHB score for BEV plus paclitaxel once per week is 48. Using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 ICER, the addition of BEV to chemotherapy either demonstrates or approaches cost-effectiveness and NHB when added to the treatment of patients with PROC. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Combination of irinotecan and platinum for platinum-resistant or refractory recurrent ovarian cancers: A preliminary case series.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Takashi; Takano, Masashi; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Yoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Aoyama, Tadashi; Soyama, Hiroaki; Hirata, Junko; Suzuki, Ayako; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Non-platinum single agents are usually used for patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancers (ROC). However, the efficacy of these drugs is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events (AE) of combination therapy with irinotecan and platinum (CPT-Pt) for ROC. A total of 28 platinum-resistant or refractory patients with ROC treated with CPT-Pt at the National Defense Medical College Hospital institution between 2002 and 2012 were identified. All patients received taxane and carboplatin (TC) as a first-line treatment and relapsed within 6 months after completion of TC, or progressed during TC therapy. The median age was 59 years (range, 16-78), and median number of CPT-Pt therapy cycles was 5.5 (range, 2-16). The overall response rate was 14%, with a complete response (CR) in 2 patients and partial response (PR) in 2 patients. Stable disease (SD) for >3 months was observed in 15 patients (54%), resulting in a clinical benefit rate (CBR = CR + PR + SD) of 68%. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 8 and 15 months, respectively. Fifteen cases (68%) developed grade 3/4 hematological AE and 3 cases (11%) developed non-hematological grade 3/4 AE, which were resolved by conservative management or dose reduction. Platinum re-treatment with irinotecan for platinum refractory or resistant ROC may be a candidate in such clinical settings.

  4. [Identification and prognostic value of differentially expressed proteins of patients with platinum resistance epithelial ovarian cancer in serum].

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Wang, Q; Zhang, W; Li, L

    2016-07-25

    To identified differentially expressed proteins associated with platinum resistance in platinum resistance epithelial oarian cancer(EOC)patients in serum and investigate their clinical value. A total of 106 patients withoverian tumor in affiliated tumor hospital of Guangxi Medical University from August 1998 to September 2013 were enrolled in this study, which include 52 cases od platinum-sensitive(PTS), 44 cases of platinum-resistant(PTR)and 10 cases of benign ovarian cyst(BOC). Thirty-three cases of normal women proceeded physical examination in our hospital in 2008 were chosen as control group(NC). Four groups of patients serum samples of 4 groups were collected and preserved.(1)Differentially express level of serum proteins of 10 cases of every group(PTS & PTR vs NC, PTS & PTR vs BOC, PTS vs PTR)were identified with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative(iTRAQ)based quantitative proteomic approach and then was subjected to bioinformatics analysis.(2)Proteins that played a important role in multidrug resistance were validated by western blot(WB)and ELISA in 44 PTR patients, 52 PRS patients and 33 NC women.(3)Pearson correlation analysis was used to explain the relationship between proteins and clinical pathological parameters of PTR individuals. Kaplan-Meier method was supposed to explore serum biomarkers associated with clinical prognosis data. Receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curves were used to determine the diagnostic value of the markers. (1)Based on the result of bioinformatics analysis, 56 proteins, 39 proteins and 62 proteins were identified respectively among PTS & PTR vs NC, PTS & PTR vs BOC, PTS vs PTR. It showed that C6 and CNTN1 have a positive seletion effect among Asians and BCHE among Europeans through searching Haplotter database. CRP, FN1, S100A9, TF, ALB, VWF, APOC2, APOE, CD44, F2, GPX3 and ACTB proein were further verified related with platinum resistance by taking intersection analysis in the COREMINE database and TCGA.(2

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MVP gene with platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YA-NAN; HE, DONG-NING; WANG, YA-DI; LI, JUN-JIE; HA, MIN-WEN

    2016-01-01

    The human major vault protein (MVP) has been linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells, and overexpression of MVP has been observed in ovarian cancer tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MVP gene and the tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy and survival of patients affected by epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), in addition to confirm whether tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an accurate genotyping method. For this purpose, two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, namely reference SNP (rs)1057451 and rs4788186, were selected from the data obtained by the International haplotype map (HapMap) Project regarding Chinese Han population, and were evaluated by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Upon validation by DNA sequencing, the association of these polymorphisms with platinum resistance, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with EOC was assessed. The results of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR were in agreement with those derived from DNA sequencing. No significant differences were observed between platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cohorts in terms of allele and genotype distribution of these two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, which were not associated with PFS or OS. However, a trend toward prolonged PFS was observed in patients carrying the heterozygous AG allele at the rs4788186 locus. These results suggest that rs1057451 and rs4788186 variants in the MVP gene are not associated with favorable therapeutic response to platinum or longer survival in Chinese Han patients affected by EOC. In addition, the data of the present study confirm that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a trustworthy and economical genotyping method. PMID:27073578

  6. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MVP gene with platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-Nan; He, Dong-Ning; Wang, Ya-DI; Li, Jun-Jie; Ha, Min-Wen

    2016-04-01

    The human major vault protein (MVP) has been linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells, and overexpression of MVP has been observed in ovarian cancer tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MVP gene and the tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy and survival of patients affected by epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), in addition to confirm whether tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an accurate genotyping method. For this purpose, two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, namely reference SNP (rs)1057451 and rs4788186, were selected from the data obtained by the International haplotype map (HapMap) Project regarding Chinese Han population, and were evaluated by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Upon validation by DNA sequencing, the association of these polymorphisms with platinum resistance, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with EOC was assessed. The results of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR were in agreement with those derived from DNA sequencing. No significant differences were observed between platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cohorts in terms of allele and genotype distribution of these two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, which were not associated with PFS or OS. However, a trend toward prolonged PFS was observed in patients carrying the heterozygous AG allele at the rs4788186 locus. These results suggest that rs1057451 and rs4788186 variants in the MVP gene are not associated with favorable therapeutic response to platinum or longer survival in Chinese Han patients affected by EOC. In addition, the data of the present study confirm that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a trustworthy and economical genotyping method.

  7. [Effects of Zengmian Yiliu Recipe combined cisplatin on the tumor inhibition rate in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong; Zhang, Qin-Hua; Li, Jiu-Xian

    2012-06-01

    To observe the effects of Zengmian Yiliu Recipe (ZYR) combined cisplatin on the growth of subcutaneous tumor in nude mice with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and to explore its possible mechanisms. The model of ovarian cancer subcutaneous tumor was established in nude mice using platinum-resistant ovarian cancer line COC1/DDP. The mice were randomly divided into six groups, i. e., the high Chinese materia medica (CMM) group, the medium CMM group, the low CMM group, the cisplatin group (DDP), the combined treatment group (with DDP combined CMM), and the control group (with normal saline). The medication lasted for 3 successive weeks. The tumor weight and the tumor inhibition rate were calculated. The expressions of Bcl-associated x protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) were detected using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical assay. The ultra-structure of tumor cells was observed by electron microscopy. The tumor inhibition rate was the highest in the combined treatment group, being (59. 26 +/- 6.86) %, showing statistical difference when compared with the rest groups (P < 0.01). Results of RT-PCR showed the Bax mRNA expression was the highest in the combined treatment group and the lowest in the control group (P < 0.01). Anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 mRNA expression was the highest in the control group and the lowest in the high CMM group (P < 0.01). The Bcl-2 mRNA expression was lower in the combined treatment group than in the cisplatin group (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical results showed the Bax protein expression was the highest and the expression of Bcl-2 was the lowest in the combined treatment group, showing statistical difference when compared with the rest groups (P < 0.01). The middle- and late-stage manifestations of apoptosis could be seen in each CMM group and the combined treatment group under electron microscope. ZYR combined with chemotherapy could reverse the cisplatin-resistance of resistant ovarian cancer nude mice, and

  8. Targeted treatment of folate receptor-positive platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and companion diagnostics, with specific focus on vintafolide and etarfolatide

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Loredana; Gallicchio, Margherita; Canaparo, Roberto; Dosio, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. Treatment of ovarian cancer is based on surgery integrated with chemotherapy. Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin and carboplatin) comprise the core of first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer can be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics such as paclitaxel, topotecan, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin, or gemcitabine, but many patients eventually relapse on treatment. Targeted therapies based on agents specifically directed to overexpressed receptors, or to selected molecular targets, may be the future of clinical treatment. In this regard, overexpression of folate receptor-α on the surface of almost all epithelial ovarian cancers makes this receptor an excellent “tumor-associated antigen”. With appropriate use of spacers/linkers, folate-targeted drugs can be distributed within the body, where they preferentially bind to ovarian cancer cells and are released inside their target cells. Here they can exert their desired cytotoxic function. Based on this strategy, 12 years after it was first described, a folate-targeted vinblastine derivative has now reached Phase III clinical trials in ovarian cancer. This review examines the importance of folate targeting, the state of the art of a vinblastine folate-targeted agent (vintafolide) for treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and its diagnostic companion (etarfolatide) as a prognostic agent. Etarfolatide is a valuable noninvasive diagnostic imaging agent with which to select ovarian cancer patient populations that may benefit from this specific targeted therapy. PMID:24516337

  9. Targeted treatment of folate receptor-positive platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and companion diagnostics, with specific focus on vintafolide and etarfolatide.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Gallicchio, Margherita; Canaparo, Roberto; Dosio, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. Treatment of ovarian cancer is based on surgery integrated with chemotherapy. Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin and carboplatin) comprise the core of first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer can be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics such as paclitaxel, topotecan, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin, or gemcitabine, but many patients eventually relapse on treatment. Targeted therapies based on agents specifically directed to overexpressed receptors, or to selected molecular targets, may be the future of clinical treatment. In this regard, overexpression of folate receptor-α on the surface of almost all epithelial ovarian cancers makes this receptor an excellent "tumor-associated antigen". With appropriate use of spacers/linkers, folate-targeted drugs can be distributed within the body, where they preferentially bind to ovarian cancer cells and are released inside their target cells. Here they can exert their desired cytotoxic function. Based on this strategy, 12 years after it was first described, a folate-targeted vinblastine derivative has now reached Phase III clinical trials in ovarian cancer. This review examines the importance of folate targeting, the state of the art of a vinblastine folate-targeted agent (vintafolide) for treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, and its diagnostic companion (etarfolatide) as a prognostic agent. Etarfolatide is a valuable noninvasive diagnostic imaging agent with which to select ovarian cancer patient populations that may benefit from this specific targeted therapy.

  10. Targeting Foxm1 Improves Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel and Cisplatinum in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Gina L; Chen, Yi; Teng, Nelson N H

    2017-06-01

    Aberrantly activated FOXM1 (forkhead box protein M1) leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and dysregulation of FOXM1 transcription network occurs in 84% of ovarian cancer cases. It was demonstrated that thiostrepton, a thiazole antibiotic, decreases FOXM1 expression. We aimed to determine if targeting the FOXM1 pathway with thiostrepton could improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and cisplatin in human ovarian cancer ascites cells ex vivo. Human ovarian cancer cell lines and patients' ascites cells were treated with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and thiostrepton or a combination for 48 hours, and cytotoxicity was assessed. Drug combination effects were determined by calculating the combination index values using the Chou and Talalay method. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine changes in FOXM1 expression and its downstream targets. Ovarian cancer cell lines and the patients' ascites cancer cells had an overexpression of FOXM1 expression levels. Targeting FOXM1 with thiostrepton decreased FOXM1 mRNA expression and its downstream targets such as CCNB1, CDC25B, leading to cell death in both cell lines and patients' ascites cancer cells. Furthermore, addition of thiostrepton to paclitaxel and cisplatin showed synergistic effects in chemoresistant ovarian cancer patients' ascites cells ex vivo. Targeting FOXM1 may lead to novel therapeutics for chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Targeting FOXM1 Improves Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel and Cisplatinum in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, Gina L; Chen, Yi; Teng, Nelson N H

    2017-07-07

    Aberrantly activated FOXM1 (forkhead box protein M1) leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and dysregulation of FOXM1 transcription network occurs in 84% of ovarian cancer cases. It was demonstrated that thiostrepton, a thiazole antibiotic, decreases FOXM1 expression. We aimed to determine if targeting the FOXM1 pathway with thiostrepton could improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and cisplatin in human ovarian cancer ascites cells ex vivo. Human ovarian cancer cell lines and patients' ascites cells were treated with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and thiostrepton or a combination for 48 hours, and cytotoxicity was assessed. Drug combination effects were determined by calculating the combination index values using the Chou and Talalay method. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine changes in FOXM1 expression and its downstream targets. Ovarian cancer cell lines and the patients' ascites cancer cells had an overexpression of FOXM1 expression levels. Targeting FOXM1 with thiostrepton decreased FOXM1 mRNA expression and its downstream targets such as CCNB1 and CDC25B, leading to cell death in both cell lines and patients' ascites cancer cells. Furthermore, addition of thiostrepton to paclitaxel and cisplatin showed synergistic effects in chemoresistant ovarian cancer patients' ascites cells ex vivo. Targeting FOXM1 may lead to novel therapeutics for chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

  12. Phase 1b-2a study to reverse platinum resistance through use of a hypomethylating agent, azacitidine, in patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Iyer, Revathy; Kavanagh, John J; Coleman, Robert L; Levenback, Charles F; Sood, Anil K; Wolf, Judith K; Gershenson, David M; Markman, Maurie; Hennessy, Bryan T; Kurzrock, Razelle; Bast, Robert C

    2011-04-15

    Sequential treatment with azacitidine can induce re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes through genomic DNA hypomethylation and reverse carboplatin resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. A phase 1b-2a clinical trial of this sequential combination of azacitidine and carboplatin was initiated in patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients with pathologically confirmed intermediate-grade or high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer who developed disease progression within 6 months (resistant disease, n = 18 patients) or during a platinum-based therapy (refractory disease, n = 12 patients) were eligible. All patients had measurable disease. Thirty patients received a total of 163 cycles of treatment. This regimen produced 1 complete response, 3 partial responses (overall response rate [ORR], 13.8%), and 10 cases of stable disease among 29 evaluable patients. For those patients who achieved clinical benefits, the median duration of the treatment was 7.5 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 3.7 months and 14 months, respectively. Patients with platinum-resistant disease achieved an ORR of 22%, with a median PFS of 5.6 months and a median OS of 23 months. The predominant toxicities were fatigue and myelosuppression. Correlative studies indicated that DR4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes was decreased during treatment in 3 of 4 objective responders (75%), but in only 5 of 13 nonresponders (38%). To the authors' knowledge, the results of the current study provide the first clinical evidence that a hypomethylating agent may partially reverse platinum resistance in patients with ovarian cancer. Further clinical evaluation of hypomethylating agents in combination with carboplatin is warranted. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  13. Pertuzumab Plus Chemotherapy for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer: Safety Run-in Results of the PENELOPE Trial.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Antonio; Pautier, Patricia; Mahner, Sven; Rau, Joern; Colombo, Nicoletta; Ottevanger, Petronella; Del Campo, Josep M; Selle, Frédéric; du Bois, Andreas; Gadducci, Angiolo; García, Yolanda; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Marmé, Frederik; Ortega, Eugenia; Martin, Nicolas; Bastiere-Truchot, Lydie; Kiermaier, Astrid; Kurzeder, Christian

    2016-06-01

    In platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, adding pertuzumab to gemcitabine improved progression-free survival in the subgroup with low tumor HER3 messenger RNA expression. The 2-part PENELOPE trial (NCT01684878) is prospectively investigating pertuzumab plus chemotherapy in this population. Part 1 evaluated pertuzumab plus either topotecan or paclitaxel. Patients with platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer and low HER3 messenger RNA expression (concentration ratio ≤2.81 by central quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing on Cobas z480) received intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose then 420 mg every 3 weeks) with the investigator's choice of topotecan (1.25 mg/m days 1-5 every 3 weeks) or weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Fifty patients were treated in part 1 (22 topotecan; 28 paclitaxel). In both cohorts, disease progression was the most common primary reason for discontinuing pertuzumab, and the most common all-grade adverse events (AEs) were fatigue/asthenia, anemia, and diarrhea. The most common grade ≥3 AEs were anemia (36%), neutropenia (27%), and fatigue/asthenia (18%) for topotecan, and peripheral sensory neuropathy (14%) and anemia (11%) for paclitaxel. Two patients receiving paclitaxel-pertuzumab died from AEs (abdominal infection; unexplained death). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months (95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.1) with topotecan-pertuzumab and 4.2 months (95% confidence interval, 3.5-6.0) with paclitaxel-pertuzumab. Based on part 1 tolerability, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee had no objection to PENELOPE proceeding to part 2, a double-blind randomized comparison of chemotherapy (topotecan, paclitaxel, or gemcitabine) plus pertuzumab or placebo.

  14. Independent radiologic review of AURELIA, a phase 3 trial of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Husain, Amreen; Wang, Yan; Hanker, Lars C; Ojeda, Belén; Anttila, Maarit; Breda, Enrico; Vuylsteke, Peter; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The randomized, open-label, phase 3 Avastin® Use in Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (AURELIA) trial achieved its primary efficacy end point of significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy (CT) compared with CT alone for platinum-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer. Primary analyses were conducted via investigator assessment of PFS; to confirm primary results, an independent review committee (IRC) retrospectively assessed radiographic data. Per an amendment to the original study protocol, the IRC reviewed radiographic data from 298 (82.5%) patients in a blinded manner using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (modified version 1.0). IRC-assessed PFS and concordance between the two assessments were evaluated. IRC assessment demonstrated that PFS was significantly prolonged for patients treated with CT+bevacizumab compared with CT alone (median, 8.1 vs. 3.9months; hazard ratio, 0.484; 95% confidence interval, 0.370-0.632; P<0.0001). Results were similar to the primary PFS analysis from investigator assessment (median, 6.8 vs. 3.4months; hazard ratio, 0.384; 95% confidence interval, 0.300-0.491; P<0.0001). Concordance rates for progressive disease status (CT+bevacizumab, 68.2%; CT, 69.9%) and date (CT+bevacizumab, 67.2%; CT, 69.1%) were similar across treatment arms. Among 161 IRC-evaluable patients declared to have progressive disease by investigator and IRC assessment, 68.3% progressed on the same date as determined by both investigator and IRC. IRC assessment of PFS confirmed the investigator-assessed PFS improvement for patients treated with CT+bevacizumab compared with CT alone in the AURELIA study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual mTORC1/2 inhibition as a novel strategy for the re-sensitization and treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Fernanda; Alard, Amandine; David-West, Gizelka; Curtin, John P.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Schneider, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the clinical development of inhibitors of mTOR complexes mTORC1 and 2. Because mTORC1 and its downstream mRNA translation effectors may protect against genotoxic DNA damage, we investigated the inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC1/2 in the ability to reverse platinum resistance in tissue culture and in animal tumor models of serous ovarian cancer. Cell survival, tumor growth, PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway signaling, DNA damage and repair response (DDR) gene expression and translational control were all investigated. We show that platinum resistant OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells are re-sensitized to low levels of carboplatin in culture by mTOR inhibition, demonstrating reduced survival after treatment with either mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus or mTORC1/2 inhibitor PP242. Platinum resistance is shown to be associated with activating phosphorylation of AKT and CHK1, inactivating phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, the negative regulator of eIF4E, which promotes increased cap-dependent mRNA translation and increased levels of CHK1 and BRCA1 proteins. Animals with platinum resistant OVCAR-3 tumors treated with carboplatin plus mTORC1/2 inhibition had significantly longer median survival and strikingly reduced metastasis compared to animals treated with carboplatin plus everolimus which inhibits only mTORC1. Reduced tumor growth, metastasis and increased survival by mTORC1/2 inhibition with carboplatin treatment was associated with reduced AKT activating phosphorylation and increased 4E-BP1 hypo-phosphorylation (activation). We conclude that mTORC1/2 inhibition is superior to mTORC1 inhibition in reversing platinum resistance in tumors and strongly impairs AKT activation, DNA repair responses and translation, promoting improved survival in the background of platinum resistance. PMID:27196780

  16. Endoglin (CD105) contributes to platinum resistance and is a target for tumor-specific therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ziebarth, Angela J.; Nowsheen, Somaira; Steg, Adam D.; Shah, Monjri M.; Katre, Ashwini A.; Dobbin, Zachary C.; Han, Hee-Dong; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Conner, Michael; Yang, Eddy S.; Landen, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Endoglin (ENG, CD105) is a membranous protein overexpressed in tumor-associated endothelial cells, chemoresistant populations of ovarian cancer cells, and potentially stem cells. Our objective was to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of targeting endoglin in ovarian cancer. Experimental Design Global and membranous endoglin expression was evaluated in multiple ovarian cancer lines. In vitro, the effects of siRNA-mediated endoglin knockdown with and without chemotherapy were evaluated by MTT assay, cell-cycle analysis, alkaline comet assay, γ-H2AX foci formation, and qPCR. In an orthotopic mouse model, endoglin was targeted with chitosan-encapsulated siRNA with and without carboplatin. Results Endoglin expression was surprisingly predominantly cytoplasmic, with a small population of surface-positive cells. Endoglin inhibition decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, induced double-stranded DNA damage, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. Targeting endoglin downregulates expression of numerous DNA repair genes, including BARD1, H2AFX, NBN, NTHL1, and SIRT1. BARD1 was also associated with platinum resistance, and was induced by platinum exposure. In vivo, anti-endoglin treatment decreased tumor weight in both ES2 and HeyA8MDR models when compared to control (35-41% reduction, p<0.05). Endoglin inhibition with carboplatin was associated with even greater inhibitory effect when compared to control (58-62% reduction, p<0.001). Conclusions Endoglin downregulation promotes apoptosis, induces significant DNA damage through modulation of numerous DNA repair genes, and improves platinum sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro. Anti-endoglin therapy would allow dual treatment of both tumor angiogenesis and a subset of aggressive tumor cells expressing endoglin and is being actively pursued as therapy in ovarian cancer. PMID:23147994

  17. Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: The AURELIA open-label randomized phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Hilpert, Felix; Weber, Béatrice; Reuss, Alexander; Poveda, Andres; Kristensen, Gunnar; Sorio, Roberto; Vergote, Ignace; Witteveen, Petronella; Bamias, Aristotelis; Pereira, Deolinda; Wimberger, Pauline; Oaknin, Ana; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Follana, Philippe; Bollag, David; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC), single-agent chemotherapy is standard. Bevacizumab is active alone and in combination. AURELIA is the first randomized phase III trial to our knowledge combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy in platinum-resistant OC. Eligible patients had measurable/assessable OC that had progressed < 6 months after completing platinum-based therapy. Patients with refractory disease, history of bowel obstruction, or > two prior anticancer regimens were ineligible. After investigators selected chemotherapy (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, weekly paclitaxel, or topotecan), patients were randomly assigned to single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Crossover to single-agent bevacizumab was permitted after progression with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), safety, and patient-reported outcomes. The PFS hazard ratio (HR) after PFS events in 301 of 361 patients was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.60; unstratified log-rank P < .001). Median PFS was 3.4 months with chemotherapy alone versus 6.7 months with bevacizumab-containing therapy. RECIST ORR was 11.8% versus 27.3%, respectively (P = .001). The OS HR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.08; P < .174; median OS, 13.3 v 16.6 months, respectively). Grade ≥ 2 hypertension and proteinuria were more common with bevacizumab. GI perforation occurred in 2.2% of bevacizumab-treated patients. Adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy statistically significantly improved PFS and ORR; the OS trend was not significant. No new safety signals were observed.

  18. Bevacizumab with or after chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: exploratory analyses of the AURELIA trial.

    PubMed

    Bamias, A; Gibbs, E; Khoon Lee, C; Davies, L; Dimopoulos, M; Zagouri, F; Veillard, A-S; Kosse, J; Santaballa, A; Mirza, M R; Tabaro, G; Vergote, I; Bloemendal, H; Lykka, M; Floquet, A; Gebski, V; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2017-08-01

    In the open-label randomized phase III AURELIA trial, adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) significantly improved progression-free survival and response rate versus chemotherapy alone, but not overall survival (OS). We explored the effect of bevacizumab use after disease progression (PD) in patients randomized to chemotherapy alone. In AURELIA, 361 women with PROC were randomized to chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab. Patients initially randomized to chemotherapy were offered bevacizumab after PD. Post hoc analyses assessed efficacy and safety in three subgroups: chemotherapy alone, chemotherapy followed by bevacizumab after PD, and chemotherapy plus bevacizumab at randomization. Of the 182 patients randomized to chemotherapy alone, 72 (40%) received bevacizumab after PD and 110 (60%) never received bevacizumab. There were no significant differences in patient and disease characteristics between these subgroups at baseline or the time of PD. Compared with patients never receiving bevacizumab, the risk of death was significantly reduced in patients receiving bevacizumab either upfront with chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.90] or after PD (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.86). The tolerability of bevacizumab was similar with administration upfront or after PD. Post-PD bevacizumab use may have confounded OS results in AURELIA. In these exploratory analyses of non-randomized subgroups, bevacizumab use, either with chemotherapy or after PD on chemotherapy alone, improved OS compared with no bevacizumab. Combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy at first appearance of platinum resistance maximises the likelihood of patients receiving this active treatment for PROC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00976911.

  19. Histone deacetylases as new therapy targets for platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pchejetski, Dmitri; Alfraidi, Albandri; Sacco, Keith; Alshaker, Heba; Muhammad, Aun; Monzon, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    In developed countries, ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women. Due to the non-specific symptomatology associated with the disease many patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed late, which leads to significantly poorer prognosis. Apart from surgery and radiotherapy, a substantial number of ovarian cancer patients will undergo chemotherapy and platinum based agents are the mainstream first-line therapy for this disease. Despite the initial efficacy of these therapies, many women relapse; therefore, strategies for second-line therapies are required. Regulation of DNA transcription is crucial for tumour progression, metastasis and chemoresistance which offers potential for novel drug targets. We have reviewed the existing literature on the role of histone deacetylases, nuclear enzymes regulating gene transcription. Analysis of available data suggests that a signifant proportion of drug resistance stems from abberant gene expression, therefore HDAC inhibitors are amongst the most promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Together with genetic testing, they may have a potential to serve as base for patient-adapted therapies.

  20. Quality of life predicts overall survival in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: an AURELIA substudy.

    PubMed

    Roncolato, F T; Gibbs, E; Lee, C K; Asher, R; Davies, L C; Gebski, V J; Friedlander, M; Hilpert, F; Wenzel, L; Stockler, M R; King, M; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2017-08-01

    Women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer are a heterogeneous group whose median overall survival is 12 months. We hypothesized that their quality of life (QoL) scores would be prognostic. Data from AURELIA (n = 326), a randomized trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab, were used to identify baseline QoL domains [EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) QLQ-C30 and OV28] that were significantly associated with overall survival in multivariable Cox regression analyses. Patients were classified as having good, medium, or poor risk. Cutpoints were validated in an independent dataset, CARTAXHY (n = 136). Multivariable analyses of significant QoL domains on survival were adjusted for clinicopathological prognostic factors. The additional QoL information was assessed using C statistic. In AURELIA, all domains, except cognitive function, predicted overall survival in univariable analyses. Physical function (P < 0.001) and abdominal/gastrointestinal symptom (P < 0.001) scores remained significant in multivariable models. In high (score <67), medium (67-93), and low (>93) risk categories for physical function, median overall survival was 11.0, 14.7, and 19.3 months, respectively (P < 0.001). In CARTAXHY, median overall survival was 7.9, 16.2, and 23.9 months (P < 0.001), respectively. For high- (>44), medium- (13-44), and low- (<13) risk categories for abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms, median overall survival was 11.9, 14.3, and 19.7 months in AURELIA (P < 0.001) and 10.5, 19.6, and 24.1 months in CARTAXHY (P = 0.02). Physical function (P = 0.02) and abdominal/gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.03) remained independent prognostic factors after adjustment for clinicopathological factors. The C statistic of the full model was 0.71. For QoL factors alone, patient factors alone and disease factors alone, the C statistics were 0.61, 0.61, and 0.67 respectively. Physical function and

  1. Individuality in FGF1 expression significantly influences platinum resistance and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G; Ng, M T H; Shepherd, L; Herrington, C S; Gourley, C; Ferguson, M J; Wolf, C R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer is frequently advanced at presentation when treatment is rarely curative. Response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy significantly influences survival, but clinical response is unpredictable and is frequently limited by the development of drug-resistant disease. Methods: We used qRT–PCR analysis to assess intertumour differences in the expression of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and additional candidate genes in human ovarian tumours (n=187), and correlated individuality in gene expression with tumour histology, chemotherapy response and survival. We used MTT assays to assess platinum chemosensitivity in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant ovarian cell lines. Results: Marked intertumour differences in gene expression were observed, with each tumour having a unique gene expression profile. Nine genes, including FGF1 (P=1.7 × 10−5) and FGFR2 (P=0.003), were differentially expressed in serous and nonserous tumours. MDM2 (P=0.032) and ERBB2 (P=0.064) expression was increased in platinum-sensitive patients, and FGF1 (adjusted log-rank test P=0.006), FGFR2 (P=0.04) and PDRFRB expression (P=0.037) significantly inversely influenced progression-free survival. Stable FGF1 gene knockdown in platinum-resistant A2780DPP cells re-sensitised cells to both cisplatin and carboplatin. Conclusion: We show for the first time that FGF1 is differentially expressed in high-grade serous ovarian tumours, and that individuality in FGF1 expression significantly influences progression-free survival and response to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:22990650

  2. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Interval Debulking Surgery and the Risk of Platinum Resistance in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Alexandre A B A; Valadares, Camila V; Baiocchi, Glauco; Mantoan, Henrique; Saito, Augusto; Sanches, Solange; Guimarães, Andréia P; Achatz, Maria Isabel W

    2015-12-01

    Interval debulking surgery (IDS) is an option for treating patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Two randomized trials have shown similar survival rates for primary debulking surgery (PDS) and IDS. One of the concerns with IDS is the potentially higher risk of inducing platinum resistance when treating patients with greater disease volume. A retrospective review of data on 237 patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian carcinoma who were treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2013. We analyzed the association of IDS with time to first platinum resistant relapse (TTPR); platinum-resistant disease at first relapse, defined as a platinum-free interval (PFI) after first-line chemotherapy of <6 months; and overall response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy at first platinum-sensitive relapse. The TTPR was 60 months, and the median TTPR was longer for the PDS (80.8 months) versus IDS group (39.3 months; p = 0.012) and for patients with residual disease (RD) ≤10 mm (80.8 months) compared with those with RD >10 mm (26.1 months; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, IDS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.92; p = 0.009] and RD >10 mm (HR 1.65; p < 0.001) retained an increased risk of developing platinum-resistant disease. IDS was not associated with a greater risk of PFI <6 months at first relapse, and the ORR to platinum-based chemotherapy at first platinum-sensitive relapse was 87.2 % for patients who were treated with PDS compared with 68.0 % for those who underwent IDS (p = 0.051). IDS correlates with a higher risk of the development of platinum resistance.

  3. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Bailey, M. J.; Coley, H.; Kirkby, K. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2010-06-01

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  4. Clinical response to antiestrogen therapy in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients and the role of tumor estrogen receptor expression status.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Marina; Plegue, Melissa; Sciallis, Andrew P; McLean, Karen

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the progression-free interval (PFI) for patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer on antiestrogen therapy (AET), and to correlate PFI with tumor estrogen receptor (ER) expression status. This single-institution retrospective cohort study investigated platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers treated with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor from January 1999 to January 2012. Median PFI was calculated and a 95% confidence interval was constructed by bootstrapping. Relationships of PFI with disease characteristics were examined using 1-way analysis of variance or Pearson correlation. Estrogen receptor status of tumor specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Progression-free interval was compared between ER groups with the Mann-Whitney test. Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to determine overall survival. Ninety-nine patients met inclusion criteria: 77 (78%) received tamoxifen and 22 (22%) an aromatase inhibitor. Patients had a mean of 4 prior chemotherapy regimens (range, 1-14). Median PFI for any AET was 4.0 months (range, 1-49; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-5.0). Progression-free interval was independent of the number of prior treatments and type of AET, but longer with earlier stage at diagnosis. Estrogen receptor status was obtained for 63 patients, 44 were positive and 19 were negative. Progression-free interval was not statistically significant between ER-positive (median, 4.0 months) and ER-negative (median, 2.0 months) tumor status (P = 0.36). This is the largest study to date investigating AET in heavily pretreated, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients. The median PFI of 4.0 months is comparable to standard cytotoxic therapies, and some patients with PFI greater than this median interval had ER-negative tumors. Given the limited adverse effects of AET, as well as low cost including oral administration, this treatment should be considered in all patients with platinum-resistant

  5. Nanoscale Coordination Polymers Codeliver Carboplatin and Gemcitabine for Highly Effective Treatment of Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poon, Christopher; Duan, Xiaopin; Chan, Christina; Han, Wenbo; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-11-07

    Due to the ability of ovarian cancer (OCa) to acquire drug resistance, it has been difficult to develop efficient and safe chemotherapy for OCa. Here, we examined the therapeutic use of a new self-assembled core-shell nanoscale coordination polymer nanoparticle (NCP-Carbo/GMP) that delivers high loadings of carboplatin (28.0 ± 2.6 wt %) and gemcitabine monophosphate (8.6 ± 1.5 wt %). A strong synergistic effect was observed between carboplatin and gemcitabine against platinum-resistant OCa cells, SKOV-3 and A2780/CDPP, in vitro. The coadministration of carboplatin and gemcitabine in the NCP led to prolonged blood circulation half-life (11.8 ± 4.8 h) and improved tumor uptake of the drugs (10.2 ± 4.4% ID/g at 24 h), resulting in 71% regression and 80% growth inhibition of SKOV-3 and A2780/CDDP tumors, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that NCP particles provide great potential for the codelivery of multiple chemotherapeutics for treating drug-resistant cancer.

  6. Clinical observational study of conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, P; Zhang, Z H; Li, L; Du, X L; Shan, C P; Sheng, X G

    2015-04-22

    This retrospective study aimed to observe the cura-tive effect and adverse reactions of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The chemoradiotherapy group (N = 22) received 15 mv X-rays with 1.8 to 2.0 Gy/f/d radiation, 5 times per week. The total dose was 45 to 65 Gy; the median dose was 52.5 Gy. Topotecan chemotherapy (2.0 mg/m(2)) was administered after the first week of radiotherapy on days 1, 8, and 15; it was repeated every 28 days. The only che-motherapy group (N = 20) received topotecan chemotherapy (4.0 mg/m(2)) in the first week, and the dose was administered on days 1, 8, and 15; it was repeated every 28 days. The median follow-up times were 18.5 months (2 to 37.7) and 10.8 months (1.5 to 29.6) in the chemoradiotherapy and in the only chemotherapy groups, respectively. The total response rates were 42.1% (8/19) and 11.1% (2/18), respectively. The clinical benefit rates were 68.4% (13/19) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.05). The median disease progression-free periods were 9.8 and 6.6 months, respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.001). The median survival times were 19.7 and 12.5 months, respective-ly, with significant difference (P < 0.05). The degrees of digestive tract reaction rates were 26.3% (5/19) and 16.7% (3/18), whereas the hematology toxicity rates were 21.1% (4/19) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). As three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan che-motherapy had good curative effect on platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, with mild adverse reactions, this tech-nique can be used as a remedial measure.

  7. Nivolumab effectively inhibit platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells via induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of ADAM17 expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, L-M; Liu, Y-C; Li, W; Liu, S; Liu, H-X; Li, L-W; Ma, R

    2017-03-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed death-1) monoclonal antibody. It has achieved an overall response rate of 17% in Phase 1 clinical trial for patient with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC). However, its underlying mechanism has not been fully explored yet. The aim of the study is to investigate the efficiency of nivolumab to inhibit PROC cells and its possible mechanism. Firstly, methylthiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to determine the IC50 values of cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. The results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of cisplatin were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner in A2780, A2780/DDP, SKOV3, and SKOV3/DDP cells. Secondly, MMT assay was used once again to measure anti-tumor effects of nivolumab in A2780/DDP cells. The results showed that anti-tumor effects of nivolumab increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thirdly, A2780/DDP cells were treated with nivolumab in combination with cisplatin for 48 h. The results demonstrated that nivolumab increased the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin in A2780/DDP cells. Notably, the combined treatment effectively reversed cisplatin resistance in PROC cells. Also, nivolumab induced cell apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase in PROC cells. FACS and Western blot were performed to measure cell apoptosis and Bcl-2 and Bax expression respectively. The results showed that combined treatment significantly increased cell apoptosis rate, down-regulated Bcl-2, and unregulated Bax expression in PROC cells. Additionally, the expression levels of ADAM17 were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in PROC cells, which were treated with nivolumab. Therefore, all the results demonstrated that the combined treatment with nivolumab and cisplatin effectively inhibited PROC cells via induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of ADAM17 expression.

  8. Paragon (ANZGOG-0903): Phase 2 Study of Anastrozole in Women With Estrogen or Progesterone Receptor-Positive Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Anthony; OʼConnell, Rachel L; Mapagu, Cristina; Beale, Philip J; McNally, Orla M; Mileshkin, Linda R; Grant, Peter T; Hadley, Alison M; Goh, Jeffery C H; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Martyn, Julie; DeFazio, Anna; Scurry, James; Friedlander, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    There is some evidence that a subset of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer may benefit from antiestrogen therapy. The Paragon study is a basket protocol that includes a series of phase 2 trials investigating the activity of anastrozole in patients with estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive recurrent gynecological cancers. We report the results of treatment in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Postmenopausal women who had estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory recurrent ovarian cancer and disease measurable by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 or GCIG (Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup) CA-125 criteria were eligible. Patients received anastrozole 1 mg daily until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study was prospectively registered (ACTRN12610000796088). There were 49 evaluable patients, and clinical benefit was observed in 13 (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-40%). There were no complete or partial RECIST version 1.1 responses. Clinical benefit was associated with higher global quality-of-life scores. Median progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% CI, 2.0-2.8 months). The median duration of clinical benefit was 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.6-5.7 months). Most patients (83%) progressed within 6 months. Seven patients continued on treatment for longer than 6 months. Anastrozole was well tolerated in most patients. Subgroup analysis suggested greater clinical benefit in patients with tumors with estrogen-receptor histoscore of more than 200, but this difference was not statistically significant. A subset of patients with estrogen- or progesterone-positive platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers derives clinical benefit from anastrozole, with acceptable toxicity. The challenge remains how to identify them.

  9. Dual mTORC1/2 Inhibition as a Novel Strategy for the Resensitization and Treatment of Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Musa, Fernanda; Alard, Amandine; David-West, Gizelka; Curtin, John P; Blank, Stephanie V; Schneider, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the clinical development of inhibitors of mTOR complexes mTORC1 and 2. Because mTORC1 and its downstream mRNA translation effectors may protect against genotoxic DNA damage, we investigated the inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC1/2 in the ability to reverse platinum resistance in tissue culture and in animal tumor models of serous ovarian cancer. Cell survival, tumor growth, PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway signaling, DNA damage and repair response (DDR) gene expression, and translational control were all investigated. We show that platinum-resistant OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells are resensitized to low levels of carboplatin in culture by mTOR inhibition, demonstrating reduced survival after treatment with either mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus or mTORC1/2 inhibitor PP242. Platinum resistance is shown to be associated with activating phosphorylation of AKT and CHK1, inactivating phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, the negative regulator of eIF4E, which promotes increased cap-dependent mRNA translation and increased levels of CHK1 and BRCA1 proteins. Animals with platinum-resistant OVCAR-3 tumors treated with carboplatin plus mTORC1/2 inhibition had significantly longer median survival and strikingly reduced metastasis compared with animals treated with carboplatin plus everolimus, which inhibits only mTORC1. Reduced tumor growth, metastasis, and increased survival by mTORC1/2 inhibition with carboplatin treatment was associated with reduced AKT-activating phosphorylation and increased 4E-BP1 hypophosphorylation (activation). We conclude that mTORC1/2 inhibition is superior to mTORC1 inhibition in reversing platinum resistance in tumors and strongly impairs AKT activation, DNA repair responses, and translation, promoting improved survival in the background of platinum resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1557-67. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Oxidative metabolism drives inflammation-induced platinum resistance in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Matassa, D S; Amoroso, M R; Lu, H; Avolio, R; Arzeni, D; Procaccini, C; Faicchia, D; Maddalena, F; Simeon, V; Agliarulo, I; Zanini, E; Mazzoccoli, C; Recchi, C; Stronach, E; Marone, G; Gabra, H; Matarese, G; Landriscina, M; Esposito, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumour cells have long been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration and mostly dependent on glycolytic metabolism. However, this assumption is currently challenged by several lines of evidence in a growing number of tumours. Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, but it continues to be a poorly understood disease and its metabolic features are far to be elucidated. In this context, we investigated the role of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), which is found upregulated in several cancer types and is a key modulator of tumour cell metabolism. Surprisingly, we found that TRAP1 expression inversely correlated with grade, stage and lower survival in a large cohort of OC patients. Accordingly, TRAP1 silencing induced resistance to cisplatin, resistant cells showed increased oxidative metabolism compared with their sensitive counterpart, and the bioenergetics cellular index of higher grade tumours indicated increased mitochondrial respiration. Strikingly, cisplatin resistance was reversible upon pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by metformin/oligomycin. At molecular level, increased oxidative metabolism in low TRAP1-expressing OC cells and tissues enhanced production of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Mechanistically, we identified members of the multidrug resistance complex (MDR) as key mediators of such metabolism-driven, inflammation-induced process. Indeed, treatment of OC cell lines with TNFα and IL6 induced a selective increase in the expression of TAP1 and multidrug resistance protein 1, whereas TAP1 silencing sensitized cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our results unveil a novel role for TRAP1 and oxidative metabolism in cancer progression and suggest the targeting of mitochondrial bioenergetics to increase cisplatin efficacy in human OC.

  11. Oxidative metabolism drives inflammation-induced platinum resistance in human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matassa, D S; Amoroso, M R; Lu, H; Avolio, R; Arzeni, D; Procaccini, C; Faicchia, D; Maddalena, F; Simeon, V; Agliarulo, I; Zanini, E; Mazzoccoli, C; Recchi, C; Stronach, E; Marone, G; Gabra, H; Matarese, G; Landriscina, M; Esposito, F

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cells have long been considered defective in mitochondrial respiration and mostly dependent on glycolytic metabolism. However, this assumption is currently challenged by several lines of evidence in a growing number of tumours. Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, but it continues to be a poorly understood disease and its metabolic features are far to be elucidated. In this context, we investigated the role of tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), which is found upregulated in several cancer types and is a key modulator of tumour cell metabolism. Surprisingly, we found that TRAP1 expression inversely correlated with grade, stage and lower survival in a large cohort of OC patients. Accordingly, TRAP1 silencing induced resistance to cisplatin, resistant cells showed increased oxidative metabolism compared with their sensitive counterpart, and the bioenergetics cellular index of higher grade tumours indicated increased mitochondrial respiration. Strikingly, cisplatin resistance was reversible upon pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by metformin/oligomycin. At molecular level, increased oxidative metabolism in low TRAP1-expressing OC cells and tissues enhanced production of inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Mechanistically, we identified members of the multidrug resistance complex (MDR) as key mediators of such metabolism-driven, inflammation-induced process. Indeed, treatment of OC cell lines with TNFα and IL6 induced a selective increase in the expression of TAP1 and multidrug resistance protein 1, whereas TAP1 silencing sensitized cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Our results unveil a novel role for TRAP1 and oxidative metabolism in cancer progression and suggest the targeting of mitochondrial bioenergetics to increase cisplatin efficacy in human OC. PMID:27206315

  12. Resistance to glucose starvation as metabolic trait of platinum-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pastò, Anna; Pagotto, Anna; Pilotto, Giorgia; De Paoli, Angela; De Salvo, Gian Luca; Baldoni, Alessandra; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Ricci, Francesca; Damia, Giovanna; Bellio, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated glucose metabolism is observed in cancer but whether this metabolic trait influences response to or is modulated by cytotoxic drugs is unknown. We show here that tumor cells from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients can be categorized, according to their in vitro viability under glucose starvation, into glucose deprivation-sensitive (glucose-addicted, GA) and glucose deprivation-resistant (glucose non-addicted, GNA). When EOC cells were cultured in the absence of glucose, all samples from platinum (PLT)-sensitive patients felt into the GA group; they disclosed higher expression of glucose metabolism enzymes, higher proliferation rates and in vitro sensitivity to PLT. Moreover, GA patients showed reduced multi-drug resistance pump expression and autophagy, compared to GNA samples. The close association between PLT sensitivity and glucose metabolic profile was confirmed in a xenograft model, where a stringent parallelism between PLT sensitivity/resistance and glucose metabolism was identified. Finally, in a cohort of naïve EOC patients categorized as GA or GNA at diagnosis, Kaplan Meier curves showed that the GA phenotype was associated with significantly better progression-free survival, compared to GNA patients. PMID:28031535

  13. Long-term results of weekly paclitaxel carboplatin induction therapy: an effective and well-tolerated treatment in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    van der Burg, M E L; Vergote, I; Onstenk, W; Boere, I A; Leunen, K; van Montfort, C A G M; van Doorn, H C

    2013-04-01

    Weekly paclitaxel/cisplatin is effective in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To reduce toxicity, paclitaxel/cisplatin was replaced by paclitaxel/carboplatin. Patients with progressive EOC after prior 3-weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin were treated with six cycles weekly paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 4 mg/ml/min, followed by six cycles 3-weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin. End-points were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), response rate (RR) and toxicity. Median progression free interval after last platinum was 9 (0-81) months in 108 patients; 43 were platinum-resistant, of whom 13 started weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin <6 months after progression. During 633 weekly cycles grade 3/4 toxicity included; thrombocytopenia 8%, neutropenia 30%, febrile neutropenia 0.5%. Non-haematologic toxicity was low. Treatment was delayed in 16%, and dose reduced in 2% of cycles. RR was 58% for platinum-resistant and 76% for platinum-sensitive patients, median PFS were 8 (range 1-21) and 13 (1-46) months, median OS 15 (1-69) and 26 (4-93) months, respectively. The 13 platinum-resistant patients with a platinum-therapy free interval <6 months had a significant shorter PFS (4 versus 10 months, p=0.035) and OS (9 versus 15 months, p=0.002). Six cycles weekly paclitaxel/carboplatin followed by six 3-weekly cycles is well-tolerated and highly active in platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Capecitabine for Primary Platinum-Resistant or Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results of a Retrospective, Single-Institution Study.

    PubMed

    Sayal, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Basu, Bristi; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penny; Hosking, Karen; Iddawela, Mahesh; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Abraham, Jean; Brenton, James; Hatcher, Helen; Earl, Helena; Parkinson, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Primary platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an area of unmet medical need. There is limited evidence from small studies that platinum-based combinations can overcome "resistance" in a proportion of patients. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in the platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory setting. Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) combination chemotherapy was used at our institution for the treatment of relapsed EOC. From the institutional database, we identified all patients with primary platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant relapse treated with ECX as second-line therapy between 2001 and 2012. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used logistic and Cox regression models to identify predictors of response and survival respectively. Thirty-four 34 patients (8 refractory, 26 resistant) were treated with ECX. Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) response rate was 45%, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 months, and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months. Platinum-resistant patients had better outcomes than did platinum-refractory patients (response rate, 54% vs 0%, P = 0.047; PFS 7.2 vs 1.8 months, P < 0.0001; OS 14.4 vs 3 months, P < 0.001). In regression models, time to progression after first-line treatment and platinum-refractory status were the strongest predictors of response and PFS or OS, respectively. Patients with time to progression after first-line treatment longer than 3 months showed PFS and OS of 7.9 and 14.7 months, respectively. Toxicity was manageable, with only 13% of cycles administered at reduced doses. Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine seems to be active in platinum-resistant relapsed EOC with manageable toxicity. Further prospective investigation of platinum-anthracycline combinations is warranted in patients who relapse 3 to 6 months after first-line platinum-taxane treatment.

  15. High ERCC1 expression is associated with platinum-resistance, but not survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei; Wang, Yifeng; Chen, Liquan; Gan, Yaping; Wu, Qinian

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression and clinical resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy or clinical characteristics, including survival time, in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). ERCC1 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining in 92 tumor specimens from patients with EOC. The effect of ERCC1 expression on progression-free survival time (PFS) or overall survival time (OS), and its association with clinical resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and the χ(2) test. Of 92 patients with EOC, 89.13% (82/92) had ERCC1-positive tumors. The positive rate was significantly higher in platinum-resistant patients compared with those who were platinum-responding (P<0.05). The PFS and median OS were 12 and 30 months, respectively, in ERCC1 high expression patients, and 17 and 39 months, respectively, in ERCC1 low expression patients. However, there was no statistically significant difference in PFS (P=0.099) or OS (P=0.103) between the high and low expression groups. Furthermore, it was identified that ERCC1 was not an independent factor affecting the prognosis of patients with EOC based on Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. These results demonstrate that high ERCC1 expression is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy, but not with survival time, and ERCC1 protein expression is not an independent factor or the only factor affecting the prognosis of patients with EOC.

  16. Intraperitoneal treatment with the trifunctional bispecific antibody Catumaxomab in patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer: a phase IIa study of the AGO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Baumann, K; Pfisterer, J; Wimberger, P; Burchardi, N; Kurzeder, C; du Bois, A; Loibl, S; Sehouli, J; Huober, J; Schmalfeldt, B; Vergote, I; Lück, H J; Wagner, U

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to select the best catumaxomab regimen for further investigation in ovarian cancer based on confirmed tumour response. Randomised open-label phase IIa study in women with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Catumaxomab (6-hour intraperitoneal infusion on days 0, 3, 7 and 10) was administered at a low (10, 10, 10 and 10 μg) or high dose (10, 20, 50 and 100 μg). Responders were patients with either a complete (CR) or partial (PR) response. Forty-five patients were randomised to receive either low dose (23) or high dose (22). There were no responders in the low-dose versus one patient (5%) in the high-dose group with a PR. In the low-dose group, two patients (9%) had stable disease compared with five patients (23%) in the high-dose group. Catumaxomab was well tolerated and there was no difference between the dose groups in the incidence of treatment-induced adverse events, the most common of which were gastrointestinal and injection-site reactions. Catumaxomab had modest activity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. The high-dose regimen was associated with a slightly better therapeutic index than the low dose regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salvage therapy of gemcitabine plus endostar significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, An; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Zhan-He; Zhou, Qi-Ming; Lv, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic agents have played crucial roles in the treatment of ovarian cancer in recent years, but potential benefits of endostatin have been largely unexplored. The present retrospective study evaluated its efficacy and toxicity with two cohorts of patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. One cohort received gemcitabine plus endostar (rh-endostatin), and the second cohort received gemcitabine regimen alone, with totals of 31 and 27 patients, respectively. The main endpoints were disease control rate (DCR), PFS, overall survival (OS) and safety. There were statistically significant differences in DCR (70.9% vs. 40.7%; P = 0.02) and PFS (6.3 months vs. 3.2 months, P = 0.001) between the two cohorts. Though the endostar cohort also improved median OS by 2.1 months, there was no statistically significant difference compared with gemcitabine alone cohort in this case (12.5 months vs. 10.4 months, P = 0.201). Treatment was well tolerated for most patients, and toxicity of endostar was negligible. Gemcitabine plus endostar significantly improved the prognosis in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, especially in those with malignant effusion. The endostar- containing regimen is recommended in this setting.

  18. Adding bevacizumab to single agent chemotherapy for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: A cost effectiveness analysis of the AURELIA trial.

    PubMed

    Wysham, Weiya Z; Schaffer, Elisabeth M; Coles, Theresa; Roque, Dario R; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kim, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    AURELIA, a randomized phase III trial of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, demonstrated improved progression free survival (PFS) in the B+CT arm compared to CT alone. We aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding B to CT in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. A decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) based on the arms of the AURELIA trial. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and progression free survival (PFS) were modeled over fifteen months. Model inputs were extracted from published literature and public sources. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained and ICERs per progression free life year saved (PF-LYS) were calculated. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of results. The ICER associated with B+CT is $410,455 per QALY gained and $217,080 per PF-LYS. At a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY, adding B to single agent CT is not cost effective for this patient population. Even at a WTP threshold of $100,000/QALY, B+CT is not cost effective. These findings are robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite gains in QALY and PFS, the addition of B to single agent CT for treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer is not cost effective. Benefits, risks, and costs associated with treatment should be taken into consideration when prescribing chemotherapy for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic impact of human leukocyte antigen class I expression and association of platinum resistance with immunologic profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mariya, Tasuku; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Kuroda, Takafumi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Sonoda, Tomoko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most deadly carcinomas in females. Immune systems can recognize EOCs; however, a defect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is known to be a major mechanism for escape from immune systems, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to identify novel correlations between immunologic responses and other clinical factors. We investigated the expression of immunologic components in 122 cases of EOCs for which surgical operations were performed between 2001 and 2011. We immunohistochemically stained EOC specimens using an anti-pan HLA class I monoclonal antibody (EMR8-5) and anti-CD3, -CD4, and -CD8 antibodies, and we analyzed correlations between immunologic parameters and clinical factors. In multivariate analysis that used the Cox proportional hazards model, independent prognostic factors for overall survival in advanced EOCs included low expression level of HLA class I [risk ratio (RR), 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.83; P = 0.046] and loss of intraepithelial cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06-4.20; P = 0.033). Interestingly, almost all platinum-resistant cases showed a significantly low rate of intraepithelial CTL infiltration in the χ(2) test (positive vs. negative: 9.0% vs. 97.7%; P < 0.001). Results from a logistic regression model revealed that low CTL infiltration rate was an independent factor of platinum resistance in multivariate analysis (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.08-13.12; P = 0.037). Platinum-resistant EOCs show poor immunologic responses. The immune escape system of EOCs may be one of the mechanisms of platinum resistance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Phase I clinical trial of alternating belotecan and oral etoposide in patients with platinum-resistant or heavily treated ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong Ha; Yoo, Heon Jong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kang, Sokbom

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity profile of belotecan in combination with oral etoposide in patients with platinum-resistant or heavily treated ovarian cancer, fallopian tubal cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer. Belotecan (0.5 mg/m/day) was administered daily (days 1-5) followed by etoposide (50, 75 mg/day) for up to 5 days (days 6-10) every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were defined as follows: grade 4 neutropenia less than 1 week; either neutropenic fever less than 24 h or sepsis; grade 4 thrombocytopenia; and grade of at least 3 nonhematologic toxicity except alopecia. At the first dose level (50 mg) of etoposide, none of the three patients developed DLT, whereas DLT was observed in two of three patients at the next dose level. Thus, the dose level was reduced to 50 mg, and another three patients were enrolled. DLT was found in one of six patients who received etoposide at the dose level of 50 mg/m. Thus, the maximum tolerated dose was reached (50 mg of oral etoposide) and the trial was terminated. The response was evaluable in nine patients and an objective response was observed in four patients (44%) including two complete responses. The combined regimen of belotecan followed by oral etoposide showed promising activity in platinum-resistant or heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patients at the dose level of 50 mg of oral etoposide.

  1. Pazopanib (GW786034) and cyclophosphamide in patients with platinum-resistant, recurrent, pre-treated ovarian cancer - Results of the PACOVAR-trial.

    PubMed

    Dinkic, C; Eichbaum, M; Schmidt, M; Grischke, E M; Gebauer, G; Fricke, H C; Lenz, F; Wallwiener, M; Marme, F; Schneeweiss, A; Sohn, C; Rom, J

    2017-08-01

    The prognosis is poor for patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Evidence suggests that antiangiogenic treatment modalities could play a major role in EOC. A combined therapy consisting of the investigational oral antiangiogenic agent pazopanib and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide may offer a well-tolerable treatment option to patients with recurrent, previously treated EOC. This study was designed as a multicenter phase I trial evaluating the optimal dose as well as activity and tolerability of pazopanib with metronomic cyclophosphamide in the treatment of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant, previously treated ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. Here, 50mg cyclophosphamide were combined with 400 to 800mg pazopanib daily. Sixteen patients were treated; mean age was 66years. At dose levels (DL) I and II, one instance of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen in one of 6 patients. At DL III, two of four patients showed a DLT, leading to a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 600mg pazopanib daily. Median number of administered cycles was 6 (2-13), with three patients being treated for at least 13months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.35months and 24.95months, respectively. 155 adverse events (AE) occurred, most frequently elevation of liver enzymes, leukopenia, diarrhea and fatigue. Altogether, five serious adverse events (SAE) developed in four patients. Pazopanib 600mg daily p.o. and metronomic cyclophosphamide 50mg daily p.o. is a feasible regimen for patients with recurrent platinum-resistant EOC and showed promising activity in this previously treated patient population. Clin.trial.gov registry no.: NCT01238770. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Phase I and Pharmacodynamic Study of Decitabine in Combination with Carboplatin in Patients with Recurrent, Platinum-Resistant, Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Balch, Curt; Schilder, Jeanne; Breen, Timothy; Zhang, Shu; Shen, Changyu; Li, Lang; Kulesavage, Carol; Synder, Anthony J.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy in hematologic malignancies. Based on preclinical studies indicating that hypomethylating agents can reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer cells, we conducted a phase I trial of low dose decitabine combined with carboplatin, in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Methods: Decitabine was administered i.v. daily for five days, prior to carboplatin (AUC 5) on day 8 of a 28-day cycle. Using a standard 3+3 dose escalation decitabine was tested at two dose levels: 10 mg/m2 (seven patients) or 20 mg/m2 (three patients). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma collected on days 1 (pre-treatment), 5, 8, and 15, were utilized to assess global (LINE-1 repetitive element) and gene-specific DNA methylation. Results: Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at the 20 mg/m2 dose was grade 4 neutropenia (2 patients) and no DLTs were observed at 10 mg/m2. Most common toxicities were nausea, allergic reactions, neutropenia, fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, and abdominal pain, the majority being grades 1-2. One complete response was observed, and three additional patients had stable disease for ≥ six months. LINE-1 hypomethylation on days 8 and 15 was detected in DNA from PBMCs. Of five ovarian cancer-associated methylated genes, HOXA11 and BRCA1 were demethylated in plasma on days 8 and 15. Conclusions: Repetitive low-dose decitabine is tolerated when combined with carboplatin in ovarian cancer patients, and demonstrates biological (i.e., DNA-hypomethylating) activity justifying further testing for clinical efficacy. PMID:20564122

  3. Hope, quality of life, and benefit from treatment in women having chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian cancer: the gynecologic cancer intergroup symptom benefit study.

    PubMed

    Sjoquist, Katrin M; Friedlander, Michael L; O'Connell, Rachel L; Voysey, Merryn; King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Martyn, Julie K; Butow, Phyllis N

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy for platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer is motivated by the hope of benefit. We sought to determine the relationships between: (a) trait hope, expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy, and anxiety and depression; (b) hope and perceived efficacy of chemotherapy; and (c) unfulfilled hope (where expectations for benefit are not fulfilled) and depression. Methods. Adult patients enrolled within stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study were included. Patient. Reported outcomes were collected from 126 women with predominantly platinum-resistant ovarian cancer at baseline, prior to the first four treatment cycles (12-16 weeks), and four weeks after completing chemotherapy or at disease progression, whichever came first. Associations were assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) and odds ratio. Results. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy were weakly correlated with each other (r = 0.25). Trait hope, but not expectation of symptom benefit, was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.43) and depression (r = -0.50). The smaller the discrepancy between perceived and expected symptom benefit, the less likely the patient was to have scores indicative of depression (odds ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.96; p = .026). Conclusion. Trait hope and expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy appear to be distinct and independent of the aspects of quality of life and scores for depression. Hope did not appear to affect perceived efficacy of chemotherapy in alleviating symptoms, but women whose expectation of symptom benefit from chemotherapy was not fulfilled were more likely to have scores indicative of depression. It may be preferable to encourage hope toward achievable goals rather than toward benefits from chemotherapy.

  4. Activity of Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) with cisplatin and doxorubicin in women with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Tempfer, Clemens B; Celik, Ilknur; Solass, Wiebke; Buerkle, Bernd; Pabst, Urs G; Zieren, Juergen; Strumberg, Dirk; Reymond, Marc-André

    2014-02-01

    To assess the activity of laparoscopic Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) in women with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Prospective case series using repeated courses q 28-42 days of PIPAC containing cisplatin 7.5 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin 1.5 mg/m(2) at 12 mmHg and 37°C for 30 min. Objective tumor response was defined as tumor regression on histology and peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) improvement on repeated video-laparoscopy. 34 PIPAC procedures were performed in 18 women, in 8 instances combined with cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Eight women had repeated PIPAC and objective tumor response was observed in 6 (complete remission: 1; partial remission: 2; stable disease: 3). Five adverse events WHO grade ≥ 2 were noted, 3 of them after combined CRS. No perioperative mortality occurred. Median follow-up was 192 days (min. 13-max. 639). Cumulative survival after 400 days was 62% and mean actuarial survival time was 442 days. In a multivariable regression analysis with objective tumor response (yes vs. no) as the dependent variable and PIPAC (1 vs.>1), patient age (<75 vs.≥75 years), serum CA-125 (<1000 vs.>1000 U/mL), and the presence of ascites (yes vs. no) as independent variables, PIPAC independently predicted objective tumor response. PIPAC has activity in women with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and should be investigated in prospective clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The PACOVAR-trial: A phase I/II study of pazopanib (GW786034) and cyclophosphamide in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent, pre-treated ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is poor. There is no standard treatment available. Emerging evidence suggests a major role for antiangiogenic treatment modalities in EOC, in particular in combination with the metronomic application of low dose chemotherapy. The novel, investigational oral antiangiogenic agent pazopanib targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-kit is currently being studied in different tumour types and is already used as first line therapy in recurrent renal cell carcinoma. A combined therapy consisting of pazopanib and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide may offer a well-tolerable treatment option to patients with recurrent, pretreated EOC. Methods/design This study is designed as a multicenter phase I/II trial evaluating the optimal dose for pazopanib (phase I) as well as activity and tolerability of a combination regimen consisting of pazopanib and metronomic cyclophosphamide in the palliative treatment of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant, pre-treated ovarian cancer (phase II). The patient population includes patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of EOC, cancer of the fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer which is platinumresistant or -refractory. Patients must have measurable disease according to RECIST criteria and must have failed available standard chemotherapy. Primary objectives are determination of the optimal doses for pazopanib (phase I) and the overall response rate according to RECIST criteria (phase II). Secondary objectives are time to progression, overall survival, safety and tolerability. The treatment duration is until disease progression or intolerability of study drug regimen (with a maximum of 13 cycles up to 52 weeks per subject). Discussion The current phase I/II trial shall clarify the potential of the multitargeting antiangiogenic

  6. The PACOVAR-trial: a phase I/II study of pazopanib (GW786034) and cyclophosphamide in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent, pre-treated ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Michael; Mayer, Christine; Eickhoff, Regina; Bischofs, Esther; Gebauer, Gerhard; Fehm, Tanja; Lenz, Florian; Fricke, Hans-Christian; Solomayer, Erich; Fersis, Nikos; Schmidt, Marcus; Wallwiener, Markus; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof

    2011-10-20

    The prognosis of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is poor. There is no standard treatment available. Emerging evidence suggests a major role for antiangiogenic treatment modalities in EOC, in particular in combination with the metronomic application of low dose chemotherapy. The novel, investigational oral antiangiogenic agent pazopanib targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-kit is currently being studied in different tumour types and is already used as first line therapy in recurrent renal cell carcinoma. A combined therapy consisting of pazopanib and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide may offer a well-tolerable treatment option to patients with recurrent, pretreated EOC. This study is designed as a multicenter phase I/II trial evaluating the optimal dose for pazopanib (phase I) as well as activity and tolerability of a combination regimen consisting of pazopanib and metronomic cyclophosphamide in the palliative treatment of patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant, pre-treated ovarian cancer (phase II). The patient population includes patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of EOC, cancer of the fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer which is platinumresistant or -refractory. Patients must have measurable disease according to RECIST criteria and must have failed available standard chemotherapy. Primary objectives are determination of the optimal doses for pazopanib (phase I) and the overall response rate according to RECIST criteria (phase II). Secondary objectives are time to progression, overall survival, safety and tolerability. The treatment duration is until disease progression or intolerability of study drug regimen (with a maximum of 13 cycles up to 52 weeks per subject). The current phase I/II trial shall clarify the potential of the multitargeting antiangiogenic tyrosinkinaseinhibitor GW 786034 (pazopanib) in

  7. Salvage chemotherapy in recurrent platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer with Carboplatin and distearoylphosphatidylcholine pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin (lipo-dox®).

    PubMed

    Khemapech, Nipon; Oranratanaphan, S; Termrungruanglert, W; Lertkhachonsuk, R; Vasurattana, A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of distearoylphosphatidylcholine pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DPLD) combined with carboplatin for the treatment of platinum resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or fallopian tube cancer. A retrospective analysis of women who received DPLD with carboplatin for recurrent EOC or fallopian tube cancer in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Thailand from January 2006 to August 2011 was conducted. Patients were identified from the medical records and data on demographic factors, stage, histology, surgical findings, cytoreduction status, and prior chemotherapies were abstracted. The efficacy and toxicity of DPLD/carboplatin were evaluated. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 65 patients, 64 with platinum resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer and 1 with fallopian tube cancer, were enrolled. DPLD and carboplatin were given for an average of 4.46 cycles per patient with a total of 273 cycles. Among the 65 evaluable patients, 0% achieved CR, 7.69% PR, 15.4% SD and 76.% PD. The overall response rate was 23.1%. With a median follow-up of 27.4 months, the median progression-free and median overall survival in the 36 patients was 4.46 months and 8.76 months respectively. In the aspect of side effects, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) occurred in 33.3% (Grade I 22.2%, Grade II 11.1%) and mucositis in 41.7% (Grade I 27.8%, Grade II 13.9%) of all treatment cycles, all Grade 1 or 2. Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 58.3% (Grade I 41.7%, Grade II 16.7%), 66.7% (Grade I 47.2%, Grade II 19.4%), and 22.2% (Grade I 16.6%, Grade II 5.56%) of cycle respectively, and were mostly Grade 1 or 2. DPLD, the second-generation PLD drug combined with carboplatin every 4 weeks, is effective and has low toxicity for treatment of patients with recurrent platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. PRECEDENT: a randomized phase II trial comparing vintafolide (EC145) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in combination versus PLD alone in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L; Burger, Robert A; Sausville, Edward A; Kutarska, Elzbieta; Ghamande, Sharad A; Gabrail, Nashat Y; Depasquale, Stephen E; Nowara, Elzbieta; Gilbert, Lucy; Gersh, Robert H; Teneriello, Michael G; Harb, Wael A; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Penson, Richard T; Symanowski, James T; Lovejoy, Chandra D; Leamon, Christopher P; Morgenstern, David E; Messmann, Richard A

    2013-12-10

    Vintafolide (EC145) is a folic acid-desacetylvinblastine conjugate that binds to the folate receptor (FR), which is expressed on the majority of epithelial ovarian cancers. This randomized phase II trial evaluated vintafolide combined with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) compared with PLD alone. The utility of an FR-targeted imaging agent, (99m)Tc-etarfolatide (EC20), in selecting patients likely to benefit from vintafolide was also examined. Women with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer who had undergone ≤ two prior cytotoxic regimens were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to PLD (50 mg/m(2) intravenously [IV] once every 28 days) with or without vintafolide (2.5 mg IV three times per week during weeks 1 and 3). Etarfolatide scanning was optional. The primary objective was to compare progression-free survival (PFS) between the groups. The intent-to-treat population comprised 149 patients. Median PFS was 5.0 and 2.7 months for the vintafolide plus PLD and PLD-alone arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.96; P = .031). The greatest benefit was observed in patients with 100% of lesions positive for FR, with median PFS of 5.5 compared with 1.5 months for PLD alone (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.85; P = .013). The group of patients with FR-positive disease (10% to 90%) experienced some PFS improvement (HR, 0.873), whereas patients with disease that did not express FR experienced no PFS benefit (HR, 1.806). Vintafolide plus PLD is the first combination to demonstrate an improvement over standard therapy in a randomized trial of patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Etarfolatide can identify patients likely to benefit from vintafolide.

  9. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Ascites and Plasma in Patients with Platinum-Sensitive, Platinum-Resistant, and Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Romero, Juan Carlos; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina; Bañuelos-Ramírez, Jose Luis; Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Diverse proinflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress are strongly associated with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Objective. To determine the behavior of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in plasma and ascites fluid in patients with platinum-sensitive, platinum-resistant, and platinum-refractory EOC. Methods. A prospective cohort study. The colorimetric method was used to determine levels of the markers 8-isoprostanes (8-IP), lipid peroxidation products (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma and ascites fluid; and with ELISA, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in patients with EOC. Results. In ascites fluid, a significant increase in 8-IP versus baseline plasma levels was found (p = 0.002). There was an important leakage of the TAC levels in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p < 0.001). The IL-6 was elevated in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p = 0.003), and there were diminished levels of TNF-α in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p = 0.001). Discussion. We hypothesize that the ascites fluid influences the behavior and dissemination of the tumor. Deregulation between oxidants, antioxidants, and the proinflammatory cytokines was found to vary among platinum-sensitive, platinum-resistant, and platinum-refractory patients.

  10. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Ascites and Plasma in Patients with Platinum-Sensitive, Platinum-Resistant, and Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cantón-Romero, Juan Carlos; Bañuelos-Ramírez, Jose Luis; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia; Castellanos-González, José Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Diverse proinflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress are strongly associated with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Objective. To determine the behavior of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in plasma and ascites fluid in patients with platinum-sensitive, platinum-resistant, and platinum-refractory EOC. Methods. A prospective cohort study. The colorimetric method was used to determine levels of the markers 8-isoprostanes (8-IP), lipid peroxidation products (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma and ascites fluid; and with ELISA, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in patients with EOC. Results. In ascites fluid, a significant increase in 8-IP versus baseline plasma levels was found (p = 0.002). There was an important leakage of the TAC levels in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p < 0.001). The IL-6 was elevated in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p = 0.003), and there were diminished levels of TNF-α in ascites fluid versus baseline plasma levels (p = 0.001). Discussion. We hypothesize that the ascites fluid influences the behavior and dissemination of the tumor. Deregulation between oxidants, antioxidants, and the proinflammatory cytokines was found to vary among platinum-sensitive, platinum-resistant, and platinum-refractory patients. PMID:28848618

  11. A personalized paradigm in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer - A cost utility analysis of genomic-based versus cytotoxic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wallbillich, J J; Forde, B; Havrilesky, L J; Cohn, D E

    2016-07-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a strategy employing genomic-based tumor testing to guide therapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. A decision model was created to compare standard of care (SOC) cytotoxic chemotherapy to a genomic-based treatment strategy. The genomic arm included tumor testing with treatment directed at targets identified. Overall survival was assumed to be similar between strategies; quality of life (QOL) was assumed superior during targeted therapy compared to chemotherapy. Pertinent uncertainties (cost of targeted therapy and genomic testing, response to targeted therapy, probability of a tumor having a targetable alteration, and impact on QOL) were evaluated in a series of one-and two-way sensitivity analyses. The genomic testing strategy was more expensive ($90,271 vs. $74,926) per patient than SOC. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the genomic strategy was $479,303 per quality-adjusted life year saved (QALY). Model results were insensitive to the cost of genomic testing, differences in QOL, and the probability of identifying a targetable alteration. However, the model was sensitive to the cost of targeted therapy. For example, when the cost of targeted therapy was reduced to 56% of its current cost (or $6400/cycle), the genomic strategy became more cost-effective with an ICER of $96,612/QALY. Genomic-based tumor testing and targeted therapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer is not cost-effective compared with SOC. However, reducing the cost of targeted therapy (independently, or in combination with reducing the cost of the genomic test) provides opportunities for improved value in cancer care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient-reported outcome results from the open-label phase III AURELIA trial evaluating bevacizumab-containing therapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Stockler, Martin R; Hilpert, Felix; Friedlander, Michael; King, Madeleine T; Wenzel, Lari; Lee, Chee Khoon; Joly, Florence; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Arranz, José Angel; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sorio, Roberto; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Sneller, Vesna; Hales, Gill; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2014-05-01

    To determine the effects of bevacizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs; secondary end point) in the AURELIA trial. Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone (CT) or with bevacizumab (BEV-CT). PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Ovarian Cancer Module 28 (EORTC QLQ-OV28) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian Cancer symptom index (FOSI) at baseline and every two or three cycles (8/9 weeks) until disease progression. The primary PRO hypothesis was that more patients receiving BEV-CT than CT would achieve at least a 15% (≥ 15-point) absolute improvement on the QLQ-OV28 abdominal/GI symptom subscale (items 31-36) at week 8/9. Patients with missing week 8/9 questionnaires were included as unimproved. Questionnaires from all assessments until disease progression were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effects of differing assumptions and methods for missing data. Baseline questionnaires were available from 89% of 361 randomly assigned patients. More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved a ≥ 15% improvement in abdominal/GI symptoms at week 8/9 (primary PRO end point, 21.9% v 9.3%; difference, 12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4 to 20.9; P = .002). MMRM analysis covering all time points also favored BEV-CT (difference, 6.4 points; 95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; P = .015). More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved ≥ 15% improvement in FOSI at week 8/9 (12.2% v 3.1%; difference, 9.0%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 15.2%; P = .003). Sensitivity analyses gave similar results and conclusions. Bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a 15% improvement in patient-reported abdominal/GI symptoms during chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  13. Patient-Reported Outcome Results From the Open-Label Phase III AURELIA Trial Evaluating Bevacizumab-Containing Therapy for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stockler, Martin R.; Hilpert, Felix; Friedlander, Michael; King, Madeleine T.; Wenzel, Lari; Lee, Chee Khoon; Joly, Florence; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Arranz, José Angel; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sorio, Roberto; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Sneller, Vesna; Hales, Gill; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of bevacizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs; secondary end point) in the AURELIA trial. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone (CT) or with bevacizumab (BEV-CT). PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Ovarian Cancer Module 28 (EORTC QLQ-OV28) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Ovarian Cancer symptom index (FOSI) at baseline and every two or three cycles (8/9 weeks) until disease progression. The primary PRO hypothesis was that more patients receiving BEV-CT than CT would achieve at least a 15% (≥ 15-point) absolute improvement on the QLQ-OV28 abdominal/GI symptom subscale (items 31-36) at week 8/9. Patients with missing week 8/9 questionnaires were included as unimproved. Questionnaires from all assessments until disease progression were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effects of differing assumptions and methods for missing data. Results Baseline questionnaires were available from 89% of 361 randomly assigned patients. More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved a ≥ 15% improvement in abdominal/GI symptoms at week 8/9 (primary PRO end point, 21.9% v 9.3%; difference, 12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4 to 20.9; P = .002). MMRM analysis covering all time points also favored BEV-CT (difference, 6.4 points; 95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; P = .015). More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved ≥ 15% improvement in FOSI at week 8/9 (12.2% v 3.1%; difference, 9.0%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 15.2%; P = .003). Sensitivity analyses gave similar results and conclusions. Conclusion Bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a 15% improvement in patient-reported abdominal/GI symptoms during chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24687829

  14. Combined weekly topotecan and biweekly bevacizumab in women with platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer: results of a phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Kathryn F; Muntz, Howard G; Vuky, Jacqueline; Paley, Pamela J; Veljovich, Dan S; Greer, Benjamin E; Goff, Barbara A; Gray, Heidi J; Malpass, Thomas W

    2011-08-15

    A phase 2 trial was conducted to determine the toxicity and efficacy of combined weekly topotecan and biweekly bevacizumab in patients with primary or secondary platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer (OC). Patients were treated with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 and topotecan 4 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle until progressive disease (PD) or excessive toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), objective response, and toxicity. Patients (N = 40) received a median of 8 treatment cycles. Toxicity was generally mild or moderate, with neutropenia (18%), hypertension (20%), gastrointestinal toxicity (18%), pain (13%), metabolic toxicity (15%), bowel obstruction (10%), and cardiotoxicity (8%) being the most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events. No bowel perforations, febrile neutropenia, or treatment-related deaths occurred. Median PFS and OS were 7.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-9.4) and 16.6 months (95% CI, 12.8-22.9), with 22 (55%) patients progression-free for ≥6 months. Ten (25%) patients had partial response (PR), 14 (35%) had stable disease (SD), and 16 (40%) had PD. Patients treated with 2 prior regimens received greater benefit than patients treated with 1: PR/SD, 78.9% versus 42.9% (P = .03); median PFS, 10.9 versus 2.8 months (P = .08); median OS, 22.9 versus 12.8 months (P = .02). A weekly topotecan and biweekly bevacizumab combination demonstrates acceptable toxicity and encouraging efficacy in patients with platinum-resistant OC; further study is warranted. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  15. A phase II study of irinotecan and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer (Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit 104 study).

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tadahiro; Takatori, Eriko; Omi, Hideo; Kagabu, Masahiro; Honda, Tatsuya; Futagami, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Kaiho, Michiko; Tokunaga, Hideki; Otsuki, Takeo; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kojimahara, Takanobu; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Nagase, Satoru; Soeda, Shu; Watanebe, Takafumi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-08-01

    We report a phase II clinical study of the combination of irinotecan (CPT-11) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in platinum- and taxane-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, based on the recommended doses determined in a phase I trial. PLD was administered intravenously at a dose of 30 mg/m(2) on day 3. CPT-11 was administered intravenously at a dose of 80 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15, according to the recommendations of the phase I study. A single course of chemotherapy lasted 28 days, and patients underwent at least 2 courses until disease progression. The primary endpoint was antitumor efficacy, and the secondary endpoints were adverse events, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The response rate was 32.3% and the disease control rate was 64.5%. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia, anemia, and a decrease in platelet count were observed in 17 (54.9%), 3 (9.7%), and 1 patient (3.2%), respectively. In terms of grade 3 or higher non-hematologic toxicities, grade 3 nausea occurred in 1 patient (3.2%), vomiting in 3 patients (9.7%), and grade 3 diarrhea and fatigue in 1 patient (3.2%). The median PFS and OS rates were 2 months and not reached, respectively. Of the 11 patients with a treatment-free interval (TFI) of ≥3 months, the response rate was 63.3%, and the median PFS was 7 months. The treatment outcomes for the 31 patients enrolled in this study were unsatisfactory. However, sub-analysis suggested that patients with a TFI of ≥3 months had a good response rate and PFS. This suggests that CPT-11/PLD combination therapy may be a chemotherapy option for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.

  16. Randomized Multicenter Phase II Trial Comparing Two Schedules of Etirinotecan Pegol (NKTR-102) in Women With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant/Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vergote, Ignace B.; Garcia, Agustin; Micha, John; Pippitt, Charles; Bendell, Johanna; Spitz, Daniel; Reed, Nicholas; Dark, Graham; Fracasso, Paula M.; Ibrahim, Emad N.; Armenio, Vincent A.; Duska, Linda; Poole, Chris; Gennigens, Christine; Dirix, Luc Y.; Leung, Abraham C.F.; Zhao, Carol; Soufi-Mahjoubi, Raoudha; Rustin, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is a unique, long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor with prolonged systemic exposure to SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of irinotecan. This randomized phase II trial investigated two dosing schedules of etirinotecan pegol in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian carcinoma. Patients and Methods A total of 71 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 every 14 or 21 days until progression or unacceptable adverse events (AEs). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST (version 1.0). Secondary end points included response by Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria, duration of ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results The overall confirmed ORR was 20% (95% CI, 10% to 30%): 20% for once every 14 days, and 19% for once every 21 days. Median response duration was 4.1 months for once every 14 days and 4.0 months for once every 21 days. Median PFS for every 14 and every 21 days was 4.1 and 5.3 months, respectively, and median OS was 10.0 and 11.7 months, respectively. Etirinotecan pegol was well tolerated, with the most common grade 3 to 4 AEs being dehydration (24%) and diarrhea (23%). Diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, and neutropenia were less frequent with the schedule of once every 21 days than with that of once every 14 days. Conclusion Both schedules of etirinotecan pegol showed activity in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, with encouraging ORR and PFS rates. The schedule of once every 21 days was better tolerated and had slightly longer PFS and OS rates. The treatment schedule of etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m2 once every 21 days was selected for the expanded phase II study and is preferred for future phase III studies. These findings provide support to directly compare etirinotecan pegol versus one of the approved drugs (eg, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan) in platinum-resistant

  17. Randomized multicenter phase II trial comparing two schedules of etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) in women with recurrent platinum-resistant/refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vergote, Ignace B; Garcia, Agustin; Micha, John; Pippitt, Charles; Bendell, Johanna; Spitz, Daniel; Reed, Nicholas; Dark, Graham; Fracasso, Paula M; Ibrahim, Emad N; Armenio, Vincent A; Duska, Linda; Poole, Chris; Gennigens, Christine; Dirix, Luc Y; Leung, Abraham C F; Zhao, Carol; Soufi-Mahjoubi, Raoudha; Rustin, Gordon

    2013-11-10

    Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is a unique, long-acting topoisomerase-I inhibitor with prolonged systemic exposure to SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of irinotecan. This randomized phase II trial investigated two dosing schedules of etirinotecan pegol in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian carcinoma. A total of 71 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m(2) every 14 or 21 days until progression or unacceptable adverse events (AEs). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST (version 1.0). Secondary end points included response by Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria, duration of ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The overall confirmed ORR was 20% (95% CI, 10% to 30%): 20% for once every 14 days, and 19% for once every 21 days. Median response duration was 4.1 months for once every 14 days and 4.0 months for once every 21 days. Median PFS for every 14 and every 21 days was 4.1 and 5.3 months, respectively, and median OS was 10.0 and 11.7 months, respectively. Etirinotecan pegol was well tolerated, with the most common grade 3 to 4 AEs being dehydration (24%) and diarrhea (23%). Diarrhea, dehydration, nausea, and neutropenia were less frequent with the schedule of once every 21 days than with that of once every 14 days. Both schedules of etirinotecan pegol showed activity in patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, with encouraging ORR and PFS rates. The schedule of once every 21 days was better tolerated and had slightly longer PFS and OS rates. The treatment schedule of etirinotecan pegol 145 mg/m(2) once every 21 days was selected for the expanded phase II study and is preferred for future phase III studies. These findings provide support to directly compare etirinotecan pegol versus one of the approved drugs (eg, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  18. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies between Best Supportive Care and Second-line Chemotherapy for Platinum-resistant or Refractory Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Luealon, Phanida; Khempech, Nipon; Vasuratna, Apichai; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Havanond, Piyalamporn

    2016-01-01

    There is no standard treatment for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Single agent chemotherapies have evidence of more efficacy and less toxicity than combination therapy. Most are very expensive, with appreciable toxicity and minimal survival. Since it is difficult to make comparison between outcomes, economic analysis of single-agent chemotherapy regimens and best supportive care may help to make decisions about an appropriate management for the affected patients. To evaluate the cost effectiveness of second-line chemotherapy compared with best supportive care for patients with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. A Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and total costs associated with treatments. The hypothetical patient population comprised women aged 55 with platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Four types of alternative treatment options were evaluated: 1) gemcitabine followed by BSC; 2) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) followed by BSC; 3) gemcitabine followed by topotecan; and 4) PLD followed by topotecan. Baseline comparator of alternative treatments was BSC. Time horizon of the analysis was 2 years. Health care provider perspective and 3% discount rate were used to determine the costs of medical treatment in this study. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were used to measure the treatment effectiveness. Treatment effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Costs were calculated from unit cost treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer patients at various stages of disease in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH) in the year 2011. Parameter uncertainty was tested in probabilistic sensitivity analysis by using Monte Carlo simulation. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore each variable's impact on the uncertainty of the results. Approximated life expectancy of best supportive care was 0.182 years and its total cost was 26,862 Baht. All

  19. Second-line treatment with intravenous gemcitabine and oral etoposide in platinum-resistant advanced ovarian cancer patients: results of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, M; Centurioni, M G; Giglione, P; Gualco, M; Merlo, D F; Miglietta, L; Cosso, M; Giannelli, F; Cristoforoni, P; Ferrarini, M

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of advanced ovarian cancer patients has not significantly improved since the introduction of platinum. One of the major reasons for this failure is the lack of an effective second-line treatment. In this phase II trial we tested the combination of gemcitabine and etoposide in 2 different groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of patients showing disease progression or relapse within 6 months of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Group 2 comprised heavily pretreated patients showing progression during the last chemotherapy attempt. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. Gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and etoposide was administered orally at 100 mg/day on days 8-12 for 6 courses. Eighteen patients (52.9%) had an objective response and the median duration of the response was 10.3 months. Our chemotherapy regimen showed a low toxicity and good patient compliance. In 5 patients the treatment had to be delayed and in only 2 patients it was discontinued. The combination of gemcitabine and oral etoposide seems to be a safe and effective second-line treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients. Additional data on larger series are warranted to better define the activity of this combination regimen. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Triptolide avoids cisplatin resistance and induces apoptosis via the reactive oxygen species/nuclear factor-κB pathway in SKOV3(PT) platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan-Ying; Chen, He-Ping; Tan, Bu-Zhen; Yu, Hai-Hong; Huang, Xiao-Shan

    2013-10-01

    An acquired resistance to platinum-based drugs has emerged as a significant impediment to effective ovarian cancer therapy. The present study explored the anticancer mechanisms of triptolide (TPL) in SKOV3(PT) platinum-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and observed that TPL activated caspase 3 and induced the dose-dependent apoptosis of the SKOV3(PT) cells. Furthermore, TPL inhibited complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) followed by an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and resulted in the downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Notably, the pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) abolished the TPL-induced ROS generation, NF-κB inhibition and cell apoptosis, but did not affect the inhibitory effect of TPL on complex I activity. These results suggested that TPL negatively regulated the NF-κB pathway through mitochondria-derived ROS accumulation, promoting the apoptosis of the SKOV3(PT) cells. Furthermore, TPL synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin against platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that TPL is able to overcome chemoresistance and that it may be an effective treatment for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, either alone or as an adjuvant therapy.

  1. A phase II trial of fixed-dosed rate gemcitabine in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a GEICO (Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Ovario) Trial.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Gonzalez, Belen; Gonzalez Martin, Antonio; Bover Barcelo, Isabel; Fabregat i Mayol, Xavier; Mellado, Begoña; Rubio Perez, María Jesus; Alonso Carrion, Lorenzo; Casado Herraez, Antonio; Calvo Garcia, Elisa; Churruca Galaz, Cristina; Arcusa Lanza, Angels; Herrero Ibañez, Ana; Adrover Cebrian, Encarna; Poveda Velasco, Andres

    2008-10-01

    Gemcitabine has well-recognized activity in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Fixed-dose rate (FDR) delivery has been proposed as a more rationale way to administer gemcitabine, to avoid saturation of the enzyme that catalyzes its intracellular transformation into the active metabolites, difluorodeoxycitidine biphosphate, and triphosphate. Our aim was to assess clinical activity of gemcitabine delivered by FDR infusion in patients with platinum resistant ovarian cancer. Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) over 120 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each cycle. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks, and up to 6 cycles were delivered. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Among 41 patients evaluable for response, 9 clinical responses (1 complete response and 8 partial responses) were observed, achieving a global response rate of 22%. Grade 3 to 4 hematological toxicity consisted of anemia (15% of patients), neutropenia (24%), and thrombopenia (10%). One patient died due to septic shock. The main grade 3 to 4 nonhematological toxicity was asthenia (7 patients, 17%). Activity of gemcitabine administered by FDR infusion in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer seems similar to that achieved using 30-minute infusions, with higher toxicity.

  2. Phase II trial of albumin-bound paclitaxel and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as an immune modulator in recurrent platinum resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, John B; Swensen, Ron E; Ovenell, Kelsie J; Hitchcock-Bernhardt, Katie M; Reichow, Jessica L; Apodaca, Minjun C; D'Amico, Leonard; Childs, Jennifer S; Higgins, Doreen M; Buening, Barbara J; Goff, Barbara A; Disis, Mary L

    2017-03-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates immunity via recruitment of antigen presenting cells and tumor specific T-cell stimulation. Albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) followed by GM-CSF may enhance antitumor responses and prolong remissions in ovarian cancer. Immune phenotypes present before treatment may identify responders to chemo-immunotherapy. Recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer patients received nab-paclitaxel, 100mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15 followed by GM-CSF 250μg days 16-26 every 28days for 6 planned cycles. The primary endpoint was remission duration compared to immediate prior remission. Peripheral blood was evaluated by flow cytometry and interferon-γ ELISPOT. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Six patients (29%) achieved a biochemical complete response and 9 (43%) a partial response for an overall response rate of 72%. Median time to progression was 4months and 10% of patients achieved longer remissions than the immediate prior regimen. Median overall survival (OS) was 16.8months. Fewer myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) at enrollment significantly associated with complete response (p=0.05). T-cell responses to IGF1R-p1332-1346 (r=0.827, p=0.0003) and IGF1R-p1242-1256 (r=0.850, p=0.0001) during treatment correlated with time to progression. Nab-paclitaxel combined with GM-CSF demonstrated biochemical responses in a majority of patients, although responses were not sustained. This combination did not demonstrate an advantage in OS over prior studies of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy. Agents that modulate MDSC should be studied as potential adjuvants to therapy. Strategies to expand T cells recognizing tumor-associated antigens biologically significant in ovarian cancer should also continue to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized Phase II Trial of Seribantumab in Combination With Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joyce F; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Selle, Frederic; Poveda, Andrés M; Cibula, David; Hirte, Hal; Hilpert, Felix; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Gladieff, Laurence; Harter, Philipp; Siena, Salvatore; Del Campo, Josep Maria; Tabah-Fisch, Isabelle; Pearlberg, Joseph; Moyo, Victor; Riahi, Kaveh; Nering, Rachel; Kubasek, William; Adiwijaya, Bambang; Czibere, Akos; Naumann, R Wendel; Coleman, Robert L; Vergote, Ignace; MacBeath, Gavin; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Seribantumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 3 (ErbB3), blocking heregulin (HRG) -mediated ErbB3 signaling and inducing ErbB3 receptor downregulation. This open-label randomized phase II study evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) with seribantumab in combination with once-per-week paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer. A key secondary objective was to determine if any of five prespecified biomarkers predicted benefit from seribantumab. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer were randomly assigned at a ratio of two to one to receive seribantumab plus paclitaxel or paclitaxel alone. Patients underwent pretreatment core needle biopsy; archival tumor samples were also obtained to support biomarker analyses. Results A total of 223 patients were randomly assigned (seribantumab plus paclitaxel, n = 140; paclitaxel alone, n = 83). Median PFS in the unselected intent-to-treat population was 3.75 months with seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with 3.68 months with paclitaxel alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.027; 95% CI, 0.741 to 1.425; P = .864). Among patients whose tumors had detectable HRG mRNA and low HER2 (n = 57 [38%] of 151 with available biomarker data), increased treatment benefit was observed in those receiving seribantumab plus paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone (PFS HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76; P = .007). The HR in patients not meeting these criteria was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.98; P = .023). Conclusion The addition of seribantumab to paclitaxel did not result in improved PFS in unselected patients. Exploratory analyses suggest that detectable HRG and low HER2, biomarkers that link directly to the mechanism of action of seribantumab, identified patients who might benefit from this combination. Future

  4. Poor concordance between CA-125 and RECIST at the time of disease progression in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: analysis of the AURELIA trial.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, K; Kristensen, G; Mirza, M R; Davies, L; Hilpert, F; Romero, I; Ayhan, A; Burges, A; Rubio, M J; Raspagliesi, F; Huizing, M; Creemers, G-J; Lykka, M; Lee, C K; Gebski, V; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2016-08-01

    Data on CA-125 as a predictor of disease progression (PD) in ovarian cancer come predominantly from patients with platinum-sensitive disease receiving chemotherapy alone. We assessed concordance between CA-125-defined and RECIST-defined PD using data from the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) randomized phase III AURELIA trial in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC). Patients with PROC were randomized to receive single-agent chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. PD by CA-125 was defined according to GCIG criteria (except that confirmatory CA-125 measurement was not required). This exploratory analysis included patients with RECIST PD and a CA-125 reading ≤28 days before and ≤21 days after RECIST-defined PD. Of 218 eligible patients, only 94 (43%, 95% confidence interval 36% to 50%) had concordant RECIST and CA-125 PD status (42% in the chemotherapy-alone arm; 45% in the bevacizumab combination arm, P = 0.6). There was no evidence of CA-125-defined PD in the remaining 124 patients despite PD according to imaging. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients with PD defined by both RECIST and CA-125 and those with RECIST-only PD. CA-125 was even less sensitive in detecting PD in patients with early (<8 weeks after randomization) compared with later RECIST-defined PD (69% versus 53%, respectively, not meeting CA-125 criteria; P = 0.053). There was no significant difference in survival after PD in patients with concordant PD by RECIST and CA-125 versus those with PD only by RECIST. We validated our findings in an independent study population of PROC. In this platinum-resistant population, PD was typically detected earlier by imaging than by CA-125, irrespective of bevacizumab treatment. Disease status by CA-125 at the time of PD was not prognostic for overall survival. Regular radiologic assessment as well as symptom benefit assessment should be considered during PROC follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by

  5. InFlo: a novel systems biology framework identifies cAMP-CREB1 axis as a key modulator of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, N; Nagaraj, A B; Razi, A; Singh, S; Kamalakaran, S; Banerjee, N; Joseph, P; Mankovich, A; Mittal, P; DiFeo, A; Varadan, V

    2017-04-27

    Characterizing the complex interplay of cellular processes in cancer would enable the discovery of key mechanisms underlying its development and progression. Published approaches to decipher driver mechanisms do not explicitly model tissue-specific changes in pathway networks and the regulatory disruptions related to genomic aberrations in cancers. We therefore developed InFlo, a novel systems biology approach for characterizing complex biological processes using a unique multidimensional framework integrating transcriptomic, genomic and/or epigenomic profiles for any given cancer sample. We show that InFlo robustly characterizes tissue-specific differences in activities of signalling networks on a genome scale using unique probabilistic models of molecular interactions on a per-sample basis. Using large-scale multi-omics cancer datasets, we show that InFlo exhibits higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting pathway networks associated with specific disease states when compared to published pathway network modelling approaches. Furthermore, InFlo's ability to infer the activity of unmeasured signalling network components was also validated using orthogonal gene expression signatures. We then evaluated multi-omics profiles of primary high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumours (N=357) to delineate mechanisms underlying resistance to frontline platinum-based chemotherapy. InFlo was the only algorithm to identify hyperactivation of the cAMP-CREB1 axis as a key mechanism associated with resistance to platinum-based therapy, a finding that we subsequently experimentally validated. We confirmed that inhibition of CREB1 phosphorylation potently sensitized resistant cells to platinum therapy and was effective in killing ovarian cancer stem cells that contribute to both platinum-resistance and tumour recurrence. Thus, we propose InFlo to be a scalable and widely applicable and robust integrative network modelling framework for the discovery of evidence-based biomarkers

  6. Reducing Uncertainty: Predictors of Stopping Chemotherapy Early and Shortened Survival Time in Platinum Resistant/Refractory Ovarian Cancer-The GCIG Symptom Benefit Study.

    PubMed

    Roncolato, Felicia T; Joly, Florence; O'Connell, Rachel; Lanceley, Anne; Hilpert, Felix; Buizen, Luke; Okamoto, Aikou; Aotani, Eriko; Pignata, Sandro; Donnellan, Paul; Oza, Amit; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Berek, Jonathan S; Heitz, Florian; Feeney, Amanda; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Stockler, Martin R; King, Madeleine; Friedlander, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Clinicians and patients often overestimate the benefits of chemotherapy, and overall survival (OS), in platinum resistant/refractory ovarian cancer (PRROC). This study sought to determine aspects of health-related quality of life and clinicopathological characteristics before starting chemotherapy that were associated with stopping chemotherapy early, shortened survival, and death within 30 days of chemotherapy. This study enrolled women with PRROC before starting palliative chemotherapy. Health-related quality of life was measured with EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-OV28. Chemotherapy stopped within 8 weeks of starting was defined as stopping early. Logistic regression was used to assess univariable and multivariable associations with stopping chemotherapy early and death within 30 days of chemotherapy; Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations with progression-free and OS. Low baseline global health status (GHS), role function (RF), physical function (PF), and high abdominal/gastrointestinal symptom (AGIS) were associated with stopping chemotherapy early (all p < .007); low PF and RF remained significant after adjusting for clinicopathological factors (both p < .0401). Most who stopped chemotherapy early had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score 0-1 at baseline (79%); PF, RF, and GHS remained independently significant predictors of stopping chemotherapy early in this subgroup. Death within 30 days of chemotherapy occurred in 14%. Low GHS, RF, and PF remained significantly associated with death within 30 days of chemotherapy after adjusting for clinicopathological factors (all p < .012). Women with low GHS, RF, or PF before starting chemotherapy were more likely to stop chemotherapy early, with short OS. Self-ratings of GHS, RF, and PF could improve patient-clinician communication regarding prognosis and help decision-making in women considering chemotherapy for PRROC. Measuring aspects of health-related quality of life when

  7. Toll-like receptor 8: augmentation of innate immunity in platinum resistant ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brueseke, Taylor J; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic cancer, with 15,000 anticipated deaths within the United States alone in 2012, and new treatment strategies are needed. Ovarian cancer tumors are known to host an immunosuppressive microenvironment. This suppression may be reversible via activation of the innate immune response. Toll-like receptor 8 activates innate immunity while simultaneously inhibiting the effects of regulatory T cells within the ovarian cancer tumors. VTX-2337 is a novel small molecule ligand of Toll-like receptor 8 and is currently the subject of a Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG)-3003 for patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. We look forward to the results of this trial as support for the paradigm of process therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:23723721

  8. Safety and Activity of Mirvetuximab Soravtansine (IMGN853), a Folate Receptor Alpha-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer: A Phase I Expansion Study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kathleen N; Martin, Lainie P; O'Malley, David M; Matulonis, Ursula A; Konner, Jason A; Perez, Raymond P; Bauer, Todd M; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Birrer, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Purpose This phase I expansion cohort study evaluated the safety and clinical activity of mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853), an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a humanized anti-folate receptor alpha (FRα) monoclonal antibody linked to the tubulin-disrupting maytansinoid DM4, in a population of patients with FRα-positive and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer received IMGN853 at 6.0 mg/kg (adjusted ideal body weight) once every 3 weeks. Eligibility included a minimum requirement of FRα positivity by immunohistochemistry (≥ 25% of tumor cells with at least 2+ staining intensity). Adverse events, tumor response (via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1), and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined. Results Forty-six patients were enrolled. Adverse events were generally mild (≤ grade 2), with diarrhea (44%), blurred vision (41%), nausea (37%), and fatigue (30%) being the most commonly observed treatment-related toxicities. Grade 3 fatigue and hypotension were reported in two patients each (4%). For all evaluable patients, the confirmed objective response rate was 26%, including one complete and 11 partial responses, and the median PFS was 4.8 months. The median duration of response was 19.1 weeks. Notably, in the subset of patients who had received three or fewer prior lines of therapy (n = 23), an objective response rate of 39%, PFS of 6.7 months, and duration of response of 19.6 weeks were observed. Conclusion IMGN853 exhibited a manageable safety profile and was active in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, with the strongest signals of efficacy observed in less heavily pretreated individuals. On the basis of these findings, the dose, schedule, and target population were identified for a phase III trial of IMGN853 monotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant disease.

  9. A phase II study of single-agent RO4929097, a gamma-secretase inhibitor of Notch signaling, in patients with recurrent platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer: A study of the Princess Margaret, Chicago and California phase II consortia.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Padilla, Ivan; Wilson, Michelle K; Clarke, Blaise A; Hirte, Hal W; Welch, Stephen A; Mackay, Helen J; Biagi, Jim J; Reedijk, Michael; Weberpals, Johanne I; Fleming, Gini F; Wang, Lisa; Liu, Geoffrey; Zhou, Chen; Blattler, Chantale; Ivy, S Percy; Oza, Amit M

    2015-05-01

    A phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-agent RO4929097 (a gamma-secretase inhibitor) in patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Women with progressive platinum-resistant ovarian cancer treated with ≤2 chemotherapy regimens for recurrent disease were enrolled in this trial. Patients received oral RO4929097 at 20 mg once daily, 3 days on/4 days off each week in a three week cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) rate at the end of 4 cycles. Secondary objectives included assessment of the safety of RO4929097 and exploration of molecular correlates of outcome in archival tumor tissue and serum. Of 45 patients enrolled, 40 were evaluable for response. Thirty-seven (82%) patients had high-grade ovarian cancer. No objective responses were observed. Fifteen patients (33%) had stable disease as their best response, with a median duration of 3.1 months. The median PFS for the whole group was 1.3 months (1.2-2.5). Treatment was generally well tolerated with 10% of patients discontinuing treatment due to an adverse event. In high grade serous ovarian cancer patients, the median PFS trended higher when the expression of intracellular Notch (NICD) protein by immunohistochemistry was high versus low (3.3 versus 1.3 months, p=0.09). No clear relationship between circulating angiogenic factors and PFS was found despite a suggestion of an improved outcome with higher baseline VEGFA levels. RO4929097 has insufficient activity as a single-agent in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer to warrant further study as monotherapy. Future studies are needed to explore the potential for cohort enrichment using NICD expression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Association between in vitro platinum resistance in the EDR assay and clinical outcomes for ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Robert W; Mehta, Rita S; Finkler, Neil J; Li, Kuo-Tung; McLaren, Christine E; Parker, Ricardo J; Fruehauf, John P

    2002-10-01

    The initial clinical response to platinum is a major determinant of outcome for patients with ovarian cancer. This retrospective study was undertaken to correlate the response and survival of newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer patients who received platinum-based therapy with in vitro drug response to cisplatin or carboplatin measured as percentage cell inhibition (PCI) in the in vitro Extreme Drug Resistance (EDR) assay. Outcomes for newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients with tumor specimens submitted in a serial fashion for the EDR assay were studied. EDR assay results for cisplatin and carboplatin were correlated with clinical outcome for 79 evaluable chemotherapy nai;ve cases who presented with advanced (stages IIC, III, and IV) ovarian cancer. Stage IV and suboptimally debulked stage IIIc accounted for 16 cases, while 63 cases were optimally debulked Stage III/IIc. All patients were treated with platinum-based combination chemotherapy at a single institution. In vitro results for patient tumors were classified as low drug resistance (PCI > median), intermediate drug resistance [PCI between the median and 1 standard deviation (SD) below the median], or extreme drug resistance (PCI more than 1 SD below the median). For the purpose of this analysis, in vitro EDR to either cisplatin or carboplatin was considered to represent extreme resistance to platinum (EDRP), while the absence of EDR to either cisplatin or carboplatin was considered to represent low resistance to platinum (LDRP). Patients demonstrating relative in vitro resistance to paclitaxel and non-cross-resistance to cyclophosphamide and/or doxorubicin received cyclophosphamide plus platinum (CP); cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and platinum (CAP); or platinum alone in place of paclitaxel plus platinum (TP). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated with EDR assay results. Median PFS was 6 months for the 17 cases exhibiting EDRP, compared to 24 months for the 62 cases

  11. Evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose- and 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography as biomarkers of therapy response in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Meg; Stronach, Euan A; Gabra, Hani; Aboagye, Eric O

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated whether 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) could be used as imaging biomarkers of platinum resensitization in ovarian cancer. Paired platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells from the same patient, PEO1 and PEO4, grown as tumor xenografts in nude mice, were assessed by PET. The AKT inhibitor, API-2, resensitized platinum-resistant PEO4 tumors to cisplatin, leading to a markedly lower Ki67 labeling index (p ≤ 0.006, n = 6 per group). [(18)F]FDG-PET and [(18)F]FLT-PET imaging variables were lower after combination treatment compared with vehicle treatment (p ≤ 0.006, n = 6 per group). No changes were seen with either drug alone. PRAS40 phosphorylation status was a sensitive biochemical marker of pathway inhibition, whereas reductions thymidine kinase 1 expression defined the [(18)F]FLT response. Therapeutic inhibition of AKT activation in acquired platinum-resistant disease can be imaged noninvasively by [(18)F]FDG-PET and [(18)F]FLT-PET warranting further assessment.

  12. A phase II trial (AGO 2.11) in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a randomized multicenter trial with sunitinib (SU11248) to evaluate dosage, schedule, tolerability, toxicity and effectiveness of a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baumann, K H; du Bois, A; Meier, W; Rau, J; Wimberger, P; Sehouli, J; Kurzeder, C; Hilpert, F; Hasenburg, A; Canzler, U; Hanker, L C; Hillemanns, P; Richter, B; Wollschlaeger, K; Dewitz, T; Bauerschlag, D; Wagner, U

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer usually has a poor outcome with conventional chemotherapeutic therapy and new treatment modalities are warranted. This phase II study was conducted to evaluate sunitinib, an oral antiangiogenic multitargeted tyrosin kinase inhibitor, in this setting. The primary end point of this randomized phase II trial was the objective response rate according to RECIST criteria and/or Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup CA125 response criteria to sunitinib in patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer who were pretreated with up to three chemotherapies. A selection design was employed to compare two schedules of sunitinib (arm 1: 50 mg sunitinib daily orally for 28 days followed by 14 days off drug; and arm 2: 37.5 mg sunitinib administered daily continuously). Of 73 patients enrolled, 36 patients were randomly allocated to the noncontinuous treatment arm (arm 1) and 37 patients were randomly allocated to the continuous treatment arm (arm 2). The mean age was 58.8 and 58.5 years, respectively. We observed six responders (complete response + partial response) in arm 1 (16.7%) and 2 responders in arm 2 (5.4%). The median progression-free survival (arm 1: 4.8 [2.9-8.1] months; arm 2: 2.9 [2.9-5.1] months) and the median overall survival (arm 1: 13.6 [7.0-23.2] months; arm 2: 13.7 [8.4-25.6] months) revealed no significant difference. Adverse events included fatigue as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and abdominal symptoms, hematologic and hepatic laboratory abnormalities. Pattern and frequency of adverse events revealed no substantial differences between both treatment groups. Sunitinib treatment is feasible and moderately active in relapsed platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. The noncontinuous treatment schedule should be chosen for further studies in ovarian cancer.

  13. Phase II trial of oral etoposide plus intravenous irinotecan in patients with platinum-resistant and taxane-pretreated ovarian cancer (JCOG0503).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Koji; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Shibata, Taro; Satoh, Toyomi; Saitou, Motoaki; Yunokawa, Mayu; Takano, Tadao; Nakamura, Kenichi; Kamura, Toshiharu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-02-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of oral etoposide and intravenous irinotecan in patients with platinum-resistant and taxane-pretreated ovarian cancer. Eligible patients (age, 20-75years; platinum-free interval, ≤28weeks) with an adequate organ function received oral etoposide (50mg/m(2) once a day) from day 1 to day 21 and intravenous irinotecan (70mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 15. The regimen was repeated every 28days up to 6cycles. The primary endpoint was the response rate (RR) with a threshold of 20%. The response was evaluated according to RECIST 1.0 and Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup CA-125 Response Definition, and toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 3.0. This trial was registered at UMIN-CTR as UMIN000001837. Between April 1, 2009 and January 20, 2012, 61 patients were enrolled. Sixty patients were eligible. 1 CR and 12 PRs were confirmed; RR was 21.7% (p=0.42, the exact binomial test). PFS and OS were 4.1 and 11.9months, respectively. Major toxicities of ≥grade 3 were neutropenia (60%), anemia (36.7%), thrombocytopenia (11.7%), febrile neutropenia (18.3%), fatigue (13.3%), anorexia (11.7%), and nausea (11.7%). Three patients died from treatment related death (interstitial pneumonia, a pulmonary embolism, and DIC due to infection). Two of these patients were aged ≥65years. Oral etoposide and intravenous irinotecan had a moderate RR but did not meet the primary endpoint. Because of toxicity, we do not recommend this regimen outside of clinical trials. In particular, when considering this regimen for elderly patients, extreme caution is advised. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A phase 1/2 study combining gemcitabine, Pegintron and p53 SLP vaccine in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dijkgraaf, Eveline M; Santegoets, Saskia J A M; Reyners, An K L; Goedemans, Renske; Nijman, Hans W; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte I E; van Erkel, Arien R; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Daemen, Toos A H H; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Melief, Cornelis J M; Welters, Marij J P; Kroep, Judith R; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-10-13

    Preclinical tumor models show that chemotherapy has immune modulatory properties which can be exploited in the context of immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and immunogenicity of combinations of such an immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent with immunotherapy, p53 synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine and Pegintron (IFN-α) in patients with platinum-resistant p53-positive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This is a phase 1/2 trial in which patients sequential 6 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/kg2 iv; n = 3), gemcitabine with Pegintron before and after the first gemcitabine cycle (Pegintron 1 μg/kg sc; n = 6), and gemcitabine and Pegintron combined with p53 SLP vaccine (0.3 mg/peptide, 9 peptides; n = 6). At baseline, 22 days after the 2nd and 6th cycle, blood was collected for immunomonitoring. Toxicity, CA-125, and radiologic response were evaluated after 3 and 6 cycles of chemotherapy. None of the patients enrolled experienced dose-limiting toxicity. Predominant grade 3/4 toxicities were nausea/vomiting and dyspnea. Grade 1/2 toxicities consisted of fatigue (78%) and Pegintron-related flu-like symptoms (72%). Gemcitabine reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (p = 0.0005) and increased immune-supportive M1 macrophages (p = 0.04). Combination of gemcitabine and Pegintron stimulated higher frequencies of circulating proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells but not regulatory T-cells. All vaccinated patients showed strong vaccine-induced p53-specific T-cell responses. Combination of gemcitabine, the immune modulator Pegintron and therapeutic peptide vaccination is a viable approach in the development of combined chemo-immunotherapeutic regimens to treat cancer.

  15. Improved survival trends in platinum-resistant patients with advanced ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal cancer treated with first-line paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy: the impact of novel agents.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Aristotle; Bamia, Christine; Zagouri, Flora; Kostouros, Efthimios; Kakoyianni, Konstantina; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Vlahos, George; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Antsaklis, Aris; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with platinum-resistant advanced ovarian cancer remains poor. The impact of approved agents on survival has not been clarified during the last decade. We studied survival trends during the last 15 years in platinum-resistant patients treated with cytoreductive surgery followed by paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy. Patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian or peritoneal cancer, stages III/IV and platinum-resistant disease after first-line chemotherapy with paclitaxel/platinum were included. They were grouped according to the period of chemotherapy: group A 31/3/1995-31/12/2001 (n = 56) and Group B 1/1/2002-24/12/2008 (n = 57). In order to compensate for the difference in follow-up between the 2 groups, we performed minimum follow-up (MFU) analyses by considering as cases only women who had an event within 3 years of follow-up. Patients with no events for up to 3 years were censored at that time. MFU analyses showed that median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in group B: 12.3 vs. 17.5 months (p = 0.012). This was due to a doubling of the median OS after relapse: 5.7 vs. 10.9 months (p = 0.0180). Multivariate Cox regression indicated group and histology as factors statistically significantly associated with OS. Following relapse, patients in group B were predominantly treated with liposomal doxorubicin and gemcitabine, and patients in group A were treated with platinum compounds, docetaxel and oral etoposide (p < 0.001). The introduction of novel agents without cross-resistance to platinum or taxanes has improved the prognosis of platinum-resistant patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Weekly AUC2 carboplatin in acquired platinum-resistant ovarian cancer with or without oral phenoxodiol, a sensitizer of platinum cytotoxicity: the phase III OVATURE multicenter randomized study.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, C; Vergote, I; Mainwaring, P; Bidzinski, M; Vermorken, J B; Ghamande, S A; Harnett, P; Del Prete, S A; Green, J A; Spaczynski, M; Blagden, S; Gore, M; Ledermann, J; Kaye, S; Gabra, H

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) constitutes a therapeutic dilemma with limited efficacy from traditional cytotoxic agents. Based on prior data suggesting that scheduling alterations of platinum would increase activity, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential therapeutic benefit of phenoxodiol (PXD), a novel biomodulator shown to have chemoresistance reversing potential, when combined with weekly AUC2-carboplatin in PROC patients. A multicenter randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase-III-study was conducted to compare oral PXD plus AUC2-carboplatin (group 1) versus placebo plus AUC2-carboplatin (group 2) weekly in PROC patients. The primary end point was progression-free-survival (PFS). Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), response rates, duration of response and quality of life. The study was terminated early 14 April 2009, after recruitment of 142 patients due to feasibility and recruitment challenges. A total of 142 patients were randomized. The groups were well balanced in terms of important baseline characteristics. The median PFS for group 1 was 15.4 weeks [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-21.0] versus 20.1 weeks for group 2 (95% CI = 13.1-33.4); P = 0.3. The objective response rate and median survival in group 1 versus group 2 was 0% versus 1% and 38.3 weeks (95% CI 32.0-45.3) versus 45.7 weeks (95% CI 35.6-58.0), respectively. PXD appeared to be well tolerated. The main reason for dose modification in both groups was hematologic toxicity. Orally delivered PXD showed no evidence of clinical activity, when combined with weekly AUC2-carboplatin in PROC. In addition, single-agent weekly AUC2-carboplatin appeared to be inactive by response criteria in a homogenously defined population of PROC. This has implications for the design of future studies.

  17. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type: the PaLiDo study, a phase II nonrandomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels; Lund, Bente; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Wihl, Jessica; Keldsen, Nina; Marth, Christian; Vergote, Ignace; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild-type. Patients were treated with panitumumab 6 mg/kg day 1 and day 15 and with PLD 40 mg/m2 day 1, every 4 weeks. Forty-six patients were enrolled by 6 study sites in this multi-institutional phase II trial. The response rate in the intention-to-treat population (n = 43) was 18.6%. Progression-free and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population was 2.7 months (2.5-3.2 months, 95% confidence interval) and 8.1 months (5.6-11.7 months, 95% confidence interval), respectively. The most common treatment-related grade 3 toxicities included skin toxicity (42%), fatigue (19%), and vomiting (12%). The combination of PLD and panitumumab demonstrates efficacy in platinum refractory/resistant patients but the skin toxicity was considerable.

  18. Adverse Event Profile by Folate Receptor Status for Vintafolide and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Combination, Versus Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Alone, in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer: Exploratory Analysis of the Phase II PRECEDENT Trial.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Thomas J; Kutarska, Elżbieta; Bidzińsk, Mariusz; Symanowski, Jim; Nguyen, Binh; Rangwala, Reshma A; Naumann, R Wendel

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory analysis evaluated the incidence of adverse events (AEs) by folate receptor (FR) status in the randomized, multicenter, open-label PRECEDENT study in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer receiving pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) ± the small-molecule drug conjugate vintafolide. Women 18 years or older with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomized 2:1 to vintafolide (2.5 mg intravenously, 3 times per week, weeks 1 and 3, every 28 days) + PLD (50 mg/m intravenously, day 1, every 28 days) or PLD alone (same dose/schedule). The expression of functionally active FR was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography with etarfolatide. Patients were categorized according to FR positivity: patients with all target lesions positive for FR expression (FR 100%), patients with 1 or more but not all target lesions positive for FR expression (FR 10%-90%), and patients with all lesions negative for FR expression (FR 0%). Data on FR status were available for 94 patients: 38 were FR 100%, 36 were FR 10% to 90%, and 20 were FR 0%. Across all FR subgroups, the duration of treatment was longer, and the number of cycles was higher in combination-therapy arms than PLD-alone arms. Although the frequency of AEs was relatively consistent across subgroups, the FR 100% subgroup had a higher incidence of patients with at least 1 AE for combination therapy versus PLD alone. No surprising safety signals were shown according to FR status. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent drug-related AEs was generally low across all FR subgroups and treatment arms. This exploratory analysis suggests that FR status does not influence the AE profile of vintafolide + PLD combination therapy or PLD alone in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Future a priori analyses in larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Intravenous aflibercept in patients with platinum-resistant, advanced ovarian cancer: results of a randomized, double-blind, phase 2, parallel-arm study.

    PubMed

    Tew, William P; Colombo, Nicoletta; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Del Campo, Josep M; Oza, Amit; Pereira, Deolinda; Mammoliti, Serafina; Matei, Daniela; Scambia, Giovanni; Tonkin, Katia; Shun, Zhenming; Sternas, Lars; Spriggs, David R

    2014-02-01

    In this randomized phase 2 study, the authors assessed the efficacy and safety of intravenous aflibercept at 2 different doses (2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) in patients with recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who developed disease progression after receiving topotecan and/or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous aflibercept at a dose of either 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks until they developed disease progression or significant toxicity. The primary endpoint was to evaluate Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor response rates (overall response rate [ORR] = complete responses plus partial responses) and to test the null hypothesis (ORR, >5%). Secondary endpoints included time to tumor progression, safety, progression-free survival/overall survival, drug pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. In total, 67 evaluable patients per cohort were planned based on a Simon 2-stage design, and, if those patients responded, then enrollment could extend to 200 patients. Tumor radiographic response was assessed by investigators and by an independent review committee. After the first 84 evaluable patients, 8 unconfirmed partial responders were noted (ORR, 10%) across both arms; the Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended continuing blinded accrual. At study completion, 215 evaluable patients were accrued, including 1 responder of 106 patients (0.9%) in the 2-mg/kg cohort and 5 responders of 109 patients (4.6%) in the 4-mg/kg cohort according to the independent review committee. The clinical benefit rate (ORR plus stable disease >6 months) was 12.3% and 11% in the 2-mg/kg and 4-mg/kg cohorts, respectively. Treatment-related grade 3 and 4 adverse events included hypertension (25.5% and 27.5% in the 2-mg/kg and 4-mg/kg cohorts, respectively), proteinuria (9.4% and 7.3%, respectively), and fatigue (5.7% and 3.7%, respectively). The gastrointestinal perforation rate was low (3 patients; 1

  20. Pazopanib plus weekly paclitaxel versus weekly paclitaxel alone for platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory advanced ovarian cancer (MITO 11): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Pignata, Sandro; Lorusso, Domenica; Scambia, Giovanni; Sambataro, Daniela; Tamberi, Stefano; Cinieri, Saverio; Mosconi, Anna M; Orditura, Michele; Brandes, Alba A; Arcangeli, Valentina; Panici, Pierluigi Beneditti; Pisano, Carmela; Cecere, Sabrina C; Di Napoli, Marilena; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Maltese, Giuseppa; Salutari, Vanda; Ricci, Caterina; Daniele, Gennaro; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Di Maio, Massimo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is a valuable treatment strategy for ovarian cancer. Pazopanib is an anti-angiogenic drug active in ovarian cancer. We assessed the effect of adding pazopanib to paclitaxel for patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory advanced ovarian cancer. We did this open-label, randomised phase 2 trial at 11 hospitals in Italy. We included patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer previously treated with a maximum of two lines of chemotherapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, and no residual peripheral neurotoxicity. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) with or without pazopanib 800 mg daily, and stratified by centre, number of previous lines of chemotherapy, and platinum-free interval status. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01644825. This report is the final analysis; the trial is completed. Between Dec 15, 2010, and Feb 8, 2013, we enrolled 74 patients: 37 were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel and pazopanib and 37 were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel only. One patient, in the paclitaxel only group, withdrew from the study and was excluded from analyses. Median follow-up was 16·1 months (IQR 12·5-20·8). Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the pazopanib plus paclitaxel group than in the paclitaxel only group (median 6·35 months [95% CI 5·36-11·02] vs 3·49 months [2·01-5·66]; hazard ratio 0·42 [95% CI 0·25-0·69]; p=0·0002). We recorded no unexpected toxic effects or deaths from toxic effects. Adverse events were more common in the pazopanib and paclitaxel group than in the paclitaxel only group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (11 [30%] in the pazopanib group vs one [3%] in the paclitaxel group), fatigue (four [11%] vs two [6

  1. Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System.

    PubMed

    Wiedemeyer, W Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A; Karlan, Beth Y

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR.

  2. Inhibition of Notch Signaling in Combination with Paclitaxel Reduces Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, Jolijn W.; DiGloria, Celeste M.; Yuan, Jing; Richardson, William S.; Growdon, Whitfield B.; Sathyanarayanan, Sriram; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the United States because of chemoresistant recurrent disease. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of inhibiting the Notch pathway with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) in an OvCa patient-derived xenograft model as a single agent therapy and in combination with standard chemotherapy. Methods: Immunocompromised mice bearing xenografts derived from clinically platinum-sensitive human ovarian serous carcinomas were treated with vehicle, GSI (MRK-003) alone, paclitaxel and carboplatin (P/C) alone, or the combination of GSI and P/C. Mice bearing platinum-resistant xenografts were given GSI with or without paclitaxel. Gene transcript levels of the Notch pathway target Hes1 were analyzed using RT-PCR. Notch1 and Notch3 protein levels were evaluated. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to assess significance between the different treatment groups. Results: Expression of Notch1 and 3 was variable. GSI alone decreased tumor growth in two of three platinum-sensitive ovarian tumors (p < 0.05), as well as in one of three platinum-sensitive tumors (p = 0.04). The combination of GSI and paclitaxel was significantly more effective than GSI alone and paclitaxel alone in all platinum-resistant ovarian tumors (all p < 0.05). The addition of GSI did not alter the effect of P/C in platinum-sensitive tumors. Interestingly, although the response of each tumor to chronic GSI exposure did not correlate with its endogenous level of Notch expression, GSI did negatively affect Notch signaling in an acute setting. Conclusion: Inhibiting the Notch signaling cascade with a GSI reduces primary human xenograft growth in vivo. GSI synergized with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy only in the platinum-resistant OvCa models with single agent paclitaxel. These findings suggest inhibition of the Notch pathway in concert with taxane therapy may hold promise for treatment of platinum-resistant Ov

  3. Veliparib Monotherapy to Patients With BRCA Germ Line Mutation and Platinum-Resistant or Partially Platinum-Sensitive Relapse of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Phase I/II Study.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Adimi, Parvin; Jakobsen, Anders

    2017-08-01

    A new treatment principle, which seems to radically change the treatment approach in ovarian cancer (OC), has developed over the past few years. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors work by interfering with mechanisms important to DNA damage repair. Cancer cells that already have defects in the BRCA genes are particularly sensitive to treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of veliparib in patients with known BRCA1/2 mutations and with a platinum-resistant or intermediate sensitive relapse of OC. Major eligibility criteria were primary epithelial ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with a platinum-resistant or intermediate sensitive relapse of OC and with evaluable disease by either Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors or Gynecological Cancer Intergroup CA-125 criteria. Patients were treated with oral veliparib twice daily on days 1 to 28. Sixteen patients were enrolled in the phase I part, and a maximum tolerable dose of 300 mg twice daily was established. The phase II part enrolled 32 patients with a median of 4 previous treatment regimens. The overall response rate combining Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors and CA-125 response was 65% (6% complete response and 59% partial response). Progression-free and overall survival rates of the intention-to-treat population were 5.6 months (95% confidence interval, 5.2-7.3 months) and 13.7 months (95% confidence interval, 10.2-17.3 months), respectively. The most common phase II treatment-related grade 2 toxicities included fatigue (22%), nausea (22%), and vomiting (9%). Treatment with veliparib in heavily pretreated patients with relapse of OC demonstrates a considerable efficacy with an acceptable toxicity profile.

  4. A phase 1b study of trebananib in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan in women with recurrent platinum-resistant or partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vergote, Ignace; Schilder, Russell J; Pippitt, Charles H; Wong, Shirley; Gordon, Alan N; Scudder, Sidney; Kridelka, Frederic; Dirix, Luc; Leach, Joseph W; Ananda, Sumitra; Nanayakkara, Nuwan; Melara, Rebeca; Bass, Michael B; Litten, Jason; Adewoye, Henry; Wenham, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the tolerability and antitumor activity of trebananib plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or topotecan in recurrent platinum-resistant or partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. In this open-label phase 1b study, patients received trebananib 10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg IV QW plus PLD 50 mg/m(2) (cohorts A1 and A3, respectively) or topotecan 4 mg/m(2) (cohorts B1 and B3, respectively). Endpoints were dose-limiting toxicity (DLT; primary); treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), overall response rate, anti-trebananib antibodies, and pharmacokinetics (secondary). 103 patients were enrolled. One patient in A1 and B1 had DLTs. Across all cohorts, the most common AEs were nausea, fatigue, and peripheral edema. Across both trebananib plus PLD cohorts (A1/A3), grade 4 AEs were pulmonary embolism, disease progression, and anemia. Two patients had grade 5 intestinal perforation (n=1) and sudden death (n=1). Across both trebananib plus topotecan cohorts (B1/B3), grade 4 AEs were neutropenia, hypokalemia, decreased granulocyte count, chest pain, dyspnea, decreased neutrophil count, and pulmonary embolism. Two patients had grade 5 disease progression. One patient had grade 5 pleural effusion associated with progressive disease. Confirmed objective response rates were 36.0% (A1), 34.8% (A3), 16.7% (B1), and 0.0% (B3). Median progression-free survival duration (months) was 7.4 (A1), 7.1 (A3), 3.5 (B1), and 3.1 (B3), respectively. No drug-drug interactions were apparent. Trebananib 10mg/kg and 15 mg/kg IV QW plus PLD or topotecan appear to have acceptable toxicity profiles in recurrent platinum-resistant or partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Antitumor activity was evident across all cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. A Novel Indole Ethyl Isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) with Anti-proliferative and Pro-apoptotic Effects on Platinum-resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh K.; Lange, Thilo S.; Kim, Kyu Kwang; Shaw, Sunil K.; Brard, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Objective A novel indole-ethyl isothiocyanate derivative (7Me-IEITC) was defined as a potent growth-suppressing agent to cell lines derived from ovarian cancers. Key mechanisms of the cellular response in vitro were studied and suggest a potential of 7Me-IEITC as a therapeutic drug. Methods The viability of ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, OVCAR-3) in comparison to pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines, primary fibroblast and immortalized trophoblasts after treatment with 7Me-IEITC was analyzed. Morphological and apoptotic responses of SKOV-3 were studied by fluorescence microscopy (DAPI staining, TUNEL assay). SKOV-3 proliferation was estimated by a standardized BrdU incorporation assay. The phosphorylation of MAP-Kinases, pro-survival factors and the activation of caspases and PARP-1 were analyzed by western blotting. Changes of the mitochondrial transmembrane-potential and in cell cycle progression were studied by FACS analysis. MAP-Kinase and caspase inhibitors were employed in cytotoxicity studies. Results 7Me-IEITC selectively reduced the viability of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, BXPC-3 and PC-3 cells (IC50 values ≤5μM), while the viability of fibroblasts or trophoblasts remained unaffected at concentrations below 20μM. 7Me-IEITC treatment down-regulated pro-survival kinases and transcription factors (STAT-3, IKKα and NF-κB), caused rapid loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane-potential and inactivation of PARP-1 along with activation of caspases. The use of p38 MAP-Kinase- and caspase- inhibitors suppressed the cytotoxicity of the drug. 7Me-IEITC acted as an anti-proliferative agent and arrested the cell-cycle progression of SKOV-3 in G2/M phase. Conclusion 7Me-IEITC is a potent and growth-suppressing agent to cell lines derived from ovarian cancers by causing de-activation of survival signals, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest. PMID:18329084

  7. Phase II study of gemcitabine and vinorelbine as second- or third-line therapy in patients with primary refractory or platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian and primary peritoneal cancer by the Korean Cancer Study Group (KCSG)_KCSG GY10-10.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Soohyeon; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Lee, Hyo Jin; Jung, Kyung Hae; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Na-Ri; Yun, Jina; Woo, In Sook; Park, Kyong Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Ha; Kim, Ho Young; Rha, Sun Young; Byun, Jae Ho

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity and safety of vinorelbine and gemcitabine combination chemotherapy in patients with primary refractory or recurrent platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal cancers. Patients with platinum-resistant or primary refractory disease were eligible. Patients were allowed one prior chemotherapy for the treatment of platinum-resistant or refractory disease. Vinorelbine 25mg/m(2), followed by gemcitabine 1000mg/m(2), was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 3weeks. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 and cancer antigen 125 test (CA-125 criteria) were adopted to classify responses. 44 patients received the median of 4 (range, 1-24) treatments with fifteen (34.1%) receiving six or more cycles. The overall objective response rate was 22.7%. One patient (2.3%) had complete while 9 patients (20.4%) had partial responses with median duration of response of 5.9months. 17 patients (38.6%) had stable disease for a median of 3.3months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.4months and overall survival (OS) was 14.5months. Four (9.1%) patients were not assessable. Neutropenia was the most frequently encountered toxicity, with grade 3 or 4 observed in 22 patients (50.0%). Fifteen patients (34.1%) needed immediate dose reduction. No treatment related death was reported. The combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and vinorelbine achieved the primary end point of our clinical trial in management of platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. However, further sophisticated dosing and scheduling of combination chemotherapy are needed because of a significant proportion of dose reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Phase III Trial Evaluating Pertuzumab Combined With Chemotherapy for Low Tumor Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 3 mRNA-Expressing Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer (PENELOPE).

    PubMed

    Kurzeder, Christian; Bover, Isabel; Marmé, Frederik; Rau, Joern; Pautier, Patricia; Colombo, Nicoletta; Lorusso, Domenica; Ottevanger, Petronella; Bjurberg, Maria; Marth, Christian; Barretina-Ginesta, Pilar; Vergote, Ignace; Floquet, Anne; Del Campo, Josep M; Mahner, Sven; Bastière-Truchot, Lydie; Martin, Nicolas; Oestergaard, Mikkel Z; Kiermaier, Astrid; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Polleis, Sandra; du Bois, Andreas; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio

    2016-07-20

    The AGO-OVAR 2.29/ENGOT-ov14/PENELOPE prospectively randomized phase III trial evaluated the addition of pertuzumab to chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma with low tumor human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) mRNA expression. We report the results of the primary efficacy analysis. Eligible patients had ovarian carcinoma that progressed during or within 6 months of completing four or more platinum cycles, centrally tested low tumor HER3 mRNA expression (concentration ratio ≤ 2.81 by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cobas z480 [Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA]), and no more than two prior lines of chemotherapy. After investigators' selection of the chemotherapy backbone (single-agent topotecan, weekly paclitaxel, or gemcitabine), patients were randomly assigned to also receive either placebo or pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose followed by 420 mg every 3 weeks). Stratification factors were selected chemotherapy, prior antiangiogenic therapy, and platinum-free interval. The primary end point was independent review committee-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Additional end points included overall survival, investigator-assessed PFS, objective response rate, safety, patient-reported outcomes, and translational research. Overall, 156 patients were randomly assigned. Adding pertuzumab to chemotherapy did not significantly improve independent review committee-assessed PFS for the primary analysis (stratified hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.11; P = .14; median PFS, 4.3 months for pertuzumab plus chemotherapy v 2.6 months for placebo plus chemotherapy). Sensitivity analyses and secondary efficacy end point results were consistent with the primary analysis. The effect on PFS favoring pertuzumab was more pronounced in the gemcitabine and paclitaxel cohorts. No new safety signals were seen. Although the primary objective was not met, subgroup analyses showed trends in PFS favoring

  9. Phase I Study of DMOT4039A, an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting Mesothelin, in Patients with Unresectable Pancreatic or Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Weekes, Colin D; Lamberts, Laetitia E; Borad, Mitesh J; Voortman, Johannes; McWilliams, Robert R; Diamond, Jennifer R; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Verheul, Henk M; Lieu, Christopher H; Kim, George P; Wang, Yulei; Scales, Suzie J; Samineni, Divya; Brunstein, Flavia; Choi, YounJeong; Maslyar, Daniel J; Colon-Otero, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    DMOT4039A, a humanized anti-mesothelin mAb conjugated to the antimitotic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), was given to patients with pancreatic and ovarian cancer every 3 weeks (0.2-2.8 mg/kg; q3w) or weekly (0.8-1.2 mg/kg). A 3+3 design was used for dose escalation followed by expansion at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics. Antitumor response was evaluated per RECIST 1.1 and serum CA19-9 or CA125 declines. Tumor mesothelin expression was determined by IHC. Seventy-one patients (40 pancreatic cancer; 31 ovarian cancer) were treated with DMOT4039A. For the q3w schedule (n = 54), the MTD and RP2D was 2.4 mg/kg, with dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 hyperglycemia and grade 3 hypophosphatemia at 2.8 mg/kg. For the weekly schedule (n = 17), the maximum assessed dose was 1.2 mg/kg, with further dose escalations deferred because of toxicities limiting scheduled retreatment in later cycles, and therefore the RP2D level for the weekly regimen was determined to be 1 mg/kg. Across both schedules, the most common toxicities were gastrointestinal and constitutional. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 6 patients; 4 patients continued treatment following dose reductions. Drug exposure as measured by antibody-conjugated MMAE and total antibody was generally dose proportional over all dose levels on both schedules. A total of 6 patients had confirmed partial responses (4 ovarian; 2 pancreatic) with DMOT4039A at 2.4 to 2.8 mg/kg i.v. q3w. DMOT4039A administered at doses up to 2.4 mg/kg q3w and 1.0 mg/kg weekly has a tolerable safety profile and antitumor activity in both pancreatic and ovarian cancer. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. A phase II, single-arm study of the anti-α5β1 integrin antibody volociximab as monotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant advanced epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bell-McGuinn, Katherine M.; Matthews, Carolyn M.; Ho, Steffan N.; Barve, Minal; Gilbert, Lucy; Penson, Richard T.; Lengyel, Ernst; Palaparthy, Rameshraja; Gilder, Kye; Vassos, Artemios; McAuliffe, William; Weymer, Sara; Barton, Jeremy; Schilder, Russell J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This phase II, multicenter, single-arm, two-stage study in platinum-resistant, advanced epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of weekly single-agent volociximab. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies were also performed. Methods Sixteen patients were enrolled in Stage 1. Volociximab was administered at 15 mg/kg IV qwk until progression of disease or drug intolerability. Tumor response was assessed every 8 weeks. Serum samples for PK or whole blood for the evaluation of circulating tumor cells, endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells were obtained on Days 1, 8, 15, 29, and 50. Ascites from one patient was collected for volociximab concentration analysis. Archived tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for α5 integrin expression. Results Safety data are available on all 16 patients; 14 were evaluable for efficacy. One patient had stable disease at 8 weeks. The remaining 13 progressed on treatment. Twelve patients (75%) experienced study-related adverse events (AEs); the most common (≥20%) were headache and fatigue. Three patients experienced possible study-related serious AEs (SAEs): reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and hyponatremia. Peak serum concentrations of volociximab increased 2–3 fold from Day 1 to Day 50. Clinically relevant trough levels were achieved (>150 µg/mL). IHC analysis of archived tumor sections showed low-to-moderate expression of α5 integrin on all ovarian cancer tissue evaluated. Conclusion Despite insufficient clinical activity in this refractory patient population to continue the study, weekly volociximab was well tolerated, and the gained understanding of the mechanism of action of volociximab will inform future development efforts. PMID:21276608

  11. Pharmacodynamic markers and clinical results from the phase 2 study of the SMAC mimetic birinapant in women with relapsed platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Anne M; Bunch, Kristen P; Chen, Jin-Qiu; Herrmann, Michelle A; Lee, Jung-Min; Kohn, Elise C; O'Sullivan, Ciara C; Jordan, Elizabeth; Houston, Nicole; Takebe, Naoko; Kinders, Robert J; Cao, Liang; Peer, Cody J; Figg, W Douglas; Annunziata, Christina M

    2016-02-15

    Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key regulators of apoptosis and are frequently dysregulated in ovarian cancer. It was hypothesized that blocking IAPs with birinapant would increase tumor cell death and result in objective responses for women with platinum-refractory and -resistant ovarian cancer. In this phase 2, Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program-sponsored study, patients received birinapant at 47 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics were obtained during cycle 1. Plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and percutaneous tumor biopsy samples were collected before cycle 1 and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was an objective response or progression-free survival lasting greater than 6 months in a mini-max design. Eleven patients received birinapant; after this, accrual was terminated for lack of a clinical benefit. Birinapant was well tolerated, with predominantly grade 2 adverse events and 1 case of grade 3 lymphopenia. Pretreatment biopsy samples and PBMCs were collected; paired posttreatment biopsy samples and PBMCs were collected from 7 and 10 patients, respectively. There was consistent downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 in tumors (P = .016) and PBMCs (P < .01). Procaspase 3 also decreased in tumors (P = .031) and PBMCs (P < .01); cleaved caspase 3 colocalized with H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX) in tumors after birinapant exposure. Peripheral T and B cells decreased significantly after treatment, but natural killer cells did not (P = .04, P = .05, and P = .43, respectively). Birinapant shows consistent target suppression in vivo without single-agent antitumor activity in this small population. Single-agent pharmacodynamics are necessary to understand the drug's mechanism of action and set the stage for rational combination therapy. Preclinical studies are ongoing to identify optimal synergistic combinations for future clinical trials. © 2015

  12. Volasertib Versus Chemotherapy in Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized Phase II Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers de l'Ovaire Study.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Selle, Frédéric; Weber, Béatrice; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle-Laure; Vergote, Ignace; Sufliarsky, Jozef; Del Campo, Josep Maria; Lortholary, Alain; Lesoin, Anne; Follana, Philippe; Freyer, Gilles; Pardo, Beatriz; Vidal, Laura; Tholander, Bengt; Gladieff, Laurence; Sassi, Mouna; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Nazabadioko, Serge; Marzin, Kristell; Pilz, Korinna; Joly, Florence

    2016-03-01

    Volasertib is a potent and selective cell-cycle kinase inhibitor that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis by targeting Polo-like kinase. This phase II trial evaluated volasertib or single-agent chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory ovarian cancer who experienced failure after treatment with two or three therapy lines. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either volasertib 300 mg by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks or an investigator's choice of single-agent, nonplatinum, cytotoxic chemotherapy. The primary end point was 24-week disease control rate. Secondary end points included best overall response, progression-free survival (PFS), safety, quality of life, and exploratory biomarker analyses. Of the 109 patients receiving treatment, 54 received volasertib and 55 received chemotherapy; demographics were well balanced. The 24-week disease control rates for volasertib and chemotherapy were 30.6% (95% CI, 18.0% to 43.2%) and 43.1% (95% CI, 29.6% to 56.7%), respectively, with partial responses in seven (13.0%) and eight (14.5%) patients, respectively. Median PFS was 13.1 weeks and 20.6 weeks for volasertib and chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.53). Six patients (11%) receiving volasertib achieved PFS fore more than 1 year, whereas no patient receiving chemotherapy achieved PFS greater than 1 year. No relationship between the expression of the biomarkers tested and their response was determined. Patients treated with volasertib experienced more grade 3 and 4 drug-related hematologic adverse events (AEs) and fewer nonhematologic AEs than did patients receiving chemotherapy. Discontinuation resulting from AEs occurred in seven (13.0%) and 15 (27.3%) patients in the volasertib and chemotherapy arms, respectively. Both arms showed similar effects on quality of life. Single-agent volasertib showed antitumor activity in patients with ovarian cancer. AEs in patients receiving volasertib were mainly hematologic and manageable

  13. Oxaliplatin-based combination chemotherapy is still effective for the treatment of recurrent and platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer: results from a single center.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Li, Xiao-ping; Liu, Bing-jie; Wang, Jian-liu; Wang, Shi-jun; Cui, Heng; Wei, Li-hui

    2013-12-01

    Combination paclitaxel and carboplatin is currently a first-line regimen for ovarian cancer. However, many patients develop tumor recurrence or drug resistance to this regimen. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness and safety of an oxaliplatin + epirubicin + ifosfamide regimen for the treatment of recurrent and drug-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. A retrospective analysis of 73 patients with recurrent and drug-resistant ovarian cancer was performed; 38 cases of them received oxaliplatin + epirubicin + ifosfamide regimens (IAP group), 35 patients received non-oxaliplatinbased chemotherapy regimens (control group). The therapeutic effects and side effects of the oxaliplatin + epirubicin + ifosfamide regimen were analyzed and summarized. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare progression-free and overall survival between the two groups. Of the 38 patients in the IAP group, 14 patients (36.84%) achieved complete remission, 12 (31.58%) achieved partial remission, 2 (5.26%) achieved stable disease and 10 (26.32%) developed progressive disease. The overall effective rate (complete or partial remission) of the IAP regime was 68.42%. While, of the 35 patients in the control group, 12 patients (34.29%) achieved complete remission, 3 (8.57%) achieved partial remission, 5 (14.29%) achieved stable disease and 15 (42.86%) developed progressive disease. The overall effective rate was 42.86%, which was lower than that in the IAP group (P = 0.035, χ(2) = 4.836). Progression-free survival was 9.5 months (0-64 months) in the IAP group vs. 3 months (0-74 months) in the non-oxaliplatin group (P = 0.014 by Kaplan-Meier survival curves; HR = 2.260; 95%CI 1.117-4.573; P = 0.023 by Cox proportional hazards regression). Median overall survival was 46 months (9-124 months) in the IAP group vs. 35 months (9-108 months) in non-oxaliplatin group (P = 0.018 by Kaplan-Meier survival curves; HR = 2.272; 95%CI 1.123-4.598; P = 0

  14. Pharmacodynamic markers and clinical results from the Phase II Study of the SMAC-Mimetic Birinapant in Women with Relapsed Platinum-Resistant or Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Herrmann, Michelle A.; Lee, Jung-min; Kohn, Elise C.; O’Sullivan, Ciara C.; Jordan, Elizabeth; Houston, Nicole; Takebe, Naoko; Kinders, Robert J.; Cao, Liang; Peer, Cody J.; Figg, W. Douglas; Annunziata, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are key regulators of apoptosis, and are frequently dysregulated in ovarian cancer. We hypothesized that blocking IAPs with birinapant would increase tumor cell death resulting in objective response for women with platinum-refractory and resistant ovarian cancer. Methods In this phase II CTEP-sponsored study, patients received birinapant 47mg/m2 on days 1, 8, 15 of 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics were obtained in cycle 1. Plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and percutaneous tumor biopsies were collected prior to cycle 1, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response or progression-free survival lasting greater than 6 months in a mini-max design. Results Eleven patients received birinapant, after which accrual was terminated for lack of clinical benefit. Birinapant was well-tolerated, with predominantly grade 2 adverse events (AE) and one grade 3 lymphopenia. Pre-treatment biopsies and PBMCs were collected; paired post-treatment biopsies and PBMC were collected from 7 and 10 patients, respectively. There was consistent downregulation of cIAP1 in tumor (P=0.016) and PBMC (P<0.01). Pro-caspase3 also decreased in tumors (P=0.031) and PBMC (P<0.01); cleaved caspase3 co-localized with gamma-H2AX in tumors after birinapant exposure. Peripheral T- and B-cells decreased significantly post-treatment, but NK-cells did not (P=0.04, P=0.05, P=0.43 respectively). Conclusion Birinapant shows consistent target suppression in vivo, without single agent anti-tumor activity in this small population. Single agent pharmacodynamics were necessary to understand drug mechanism of action and set the stage for rational combination therapy. Preclinical studies are ongoing to identify optimal synergistic combinations for future clinical trials. PMID:26566079

  15. Phase I study of safety and pharmacokinetics of the anti-MUC16 antibody-drug conjugate DMUC5754A in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer or unresectable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, J F; Moore, K N; Birrer, M J; Berlin, S; Matulonis, U A; Infante, J R; Wolpin, B; Poon, K A; Firestein, R; Xu, J; Kahn, R; Wang, Y; Wood, K; Darbonne, W C; Lackner, M R; Kelley, S K; Lu, X; Choi, Y J; Maslyar, D; Humke, E W; Burris, H A

    2016-11-01

    MUC16 is a tumor-specific antigen overexpressed in ovarian (OC) and pancreatic (PC) cancers. The antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), DMUC5754A, contains the humanized anti-MUC16 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). This phase I study evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of DMUC5754A given every 3 weeks (Q3W, 0.3-3.2 mg/kg) or weekly (Q1W, 0.8-1.6 mg/kg) to patients with advanced recurrent platinum-resistant OC or unresectable PC. Biomarker studies were also undertaken. Patients (66 OC, 11 PC) were treated with DMUC5754A (54 Q3W, 23 Q1W). Common related adverse events (AEs) in >20% of patients (all grades) over all dose levels were fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, alopecia, and pyrexia in Q3W patents, and nausea, vomiting, anemia, fatigue, neutropenia, alopecia, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and hypomagnesemia in Q1W patients. Grade ≥3-related AE in ≥5% of patients included neutropenia (9%) and fatigue (7%) in Q3W patients, and neutropenia (17%), diarrhea (9%), and hyponatremia (9%) in Q1W patients. Plasma antibody-conjugated MMAE (acMMAE) and serum total antibody exhibited non-linear PK across tested doses. Minimal accumulation of acMMAE, total antibody, or unconjugated MMAE was observed. Confirmed responses (1 CR, 6 PRs) occurred in OC patients whose tumors were MUC16-positive by IHC (2+ or 3+). Two OC patients had unconfirmed PRs; six OC patients had stable disease lasting >6 months. For CA125, a cut-off of ≥70% reduction was more suitable for monitoring treatment response due to the binding and clearance of serum CA125 by MUC16 ADC. We identified circulating HE4 as a potential novel surrogate biomarker for monitoring treatment response of MUC16 ADC and other anti-MUC16 therapies in OC. DMUC5754A has an acceptable safety profile and evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with MUC16-expressing tumors. Objective responses were

  16. Safety and efficacy of single-agent bevacizumab-containing therapy in elderly patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: Subgroup analysis of the randomised phase III AURELIA trial.

    PubMed

    Sorio, Roberto; Roemer-Becuwe, Célia; Hilpert, Felix; Gibbs, Emma; García, Yolanda; Kaern, Janne; Huizing, Manon; Witteveen, Petronella; Zagouri, Flora; Coeffic, David; Lück, Hans-Joachim; González-Martín, Antonio; Kristensen, Gunnar; Levaché, Charles-Briac; Lee, Chee Khoon; Gebski, Val; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The AURELIA trial demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) with bevacizumab added to chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC). Patients with PROC were randomised to receive investigator-selected single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab. Post-hoc exploratory analyses assessed efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes according to age <65 versus ≥65years. In the 133 patients (37%) aged ≥65years, baseline hypertension was more frequent and ascites was less common than in patients <65years. The magnitude of PFS benefit from bevacizumab was similar in patients ≥65 versus <65years (hazard ratio 0.44 [95% CI, 0.31-0.64] versus 0.49 [95% CI, 0.37-0.64], respectively, treatment-age interaction p=0.58), with similar improvements in response rates. Grade≥3 hypertension was more common with bevacizumab than chemotherapy alone in both subgroups, and more common in older than younger patients irrespective of treatment. However, there was no excess of other adverse events of specific interest for bevacizumab, including venous thromboembolic events, in older patients. More patients receiving bevacizumab in the younger but not the older subgroup showed improved gastrointestinal/abdominal symptoms. In exploratory analyses, PFS and response rate improvement with bevacizumab were consistent in older and younger patients. Grade≥3 hypertension was more common in elderly bevacizumab-treated patients; careful monitoring is recommended. Overall, bevacizumab-containing therapy was well tolerated in a selected population aged ≥65years, suggesting a favourable benefit:risk profile. However, geriatric assessments are needed to improve selection of elderly patients potentially gaining symptom and quality of life improvements from bevacizumab-containing therapy. ClinicalTrials.govNCT00976911. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aurora Kinase A expression predicts platinum-resistance and adverse outcome in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Chiara; Staropoli, Nicoletta; Botta, Cirino; De Marco, Carmela; Rizzuto, Antonia; Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Franco, Renato; Camastra, Caterina; Presta, Ivan; Malara, Natalia; Salvino, Angela; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Barni, Tullio; Donato, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Anna

    2016-05-21

    High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma (HGSOC) is the predominant histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis, frequent TP53 mutation, rapid progression, and high responsiveness to platinum-based-chemotherapy. To date, standard first-line-chemotherapy in advanced EOC includes platinum salts and paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab. The major prognostic factor is the response duration from the end of the platinum-based treatment (platinum-free interval) and about 10-0 % of EOC patients bear a platinum-refractory disease or develop early resistance (platinum-free interval shorter than 6 months). On these bases, a careful selection of patients who could benefit from chemotherapy is recommended to avoid unnecessary side effects and for a better disease outcome. In this retrospective study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) was performed on 41 cases of HGSOC according to platinum-status. Taking into account the number and intensity of AURKA positive cells we built a predictive score able to discriminate with high accuracy platinum-sensitive patients from platinum-resistant patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed that AURKA overexpression correlates to worse overall survival (p = 0.001; HR 0.14). We here suggest AURKA as new effective tool to predict the biological behavior of HGSOC. Particularly, our results indicate that AURKA has a role both as predictor of platinum-resistance and as prognostic factor, that deserves further investigation in prospective clinical trials. Indeed, in the era of personalized medicine, AURKA could assist the clinicians in selecting the best treatment and represent, at the same time, a promising new therapeutic target in EOC treatment.

  18. HERV-K hypomethylation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Iramaneerat, Kanokwan; Rattanatunyong, Prakasit; Khemapech, Nipon; Triratanachat, Surang; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2011-01-01

    In general, ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) has a history of poor response to standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, and advanced cases have short survival periods. Therefore, the discovery of a biomarker for the pretreatment prediction of OCCC is crucial. Loss of methylation of a retrotransposable sequence, such as long interspersed repetitive sequence 1 (LINE-1), frequently occurs in cancers, including ovarian cancer, and it has been proven to be associated with poor survival. The expressions of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K and E were found to be increased in tissues from patients with OCCC. Here, we propose that methylation levels of HERV are associated with treatment response and prognosis of OCCC. Twenty-nine patients with OCCC were enrolled. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 were measured from microdissected cancer and normal ovarian tissues. The methylation levels were correlated with stage, treatment response, and prognosis. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 were decreased in tissues from patients with advanced stage cancer (P = 0.0179, P = 0.0021, and P = 0.0307, respectively). Human endogenous retrovirus K demonstrated significantly lower methylation levels in the platinum-resistant group (P = 0.0004). Patients with lower levels of methylated (hypomethylated) HERV-K had a shorter mean overall survival (P = 0.006). In advanced OCCC cases, patients with hypomethylated HERV-K had shorter mean progression-free survival (P = 0.018) and mean overall survival (P = 0.018) than did patients with higher methylation levels of HERV-K. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 are decreased during OCCC multistep carcinogenesis. Moreover, HERV-K hypomethylation is a promising biomarker for predicting OCCC treatment response and prognosis.

  19. Is the current concept of recurrent ovarian carcinoma as a chronic disease also applicable in platinum resistant patients?

    PubMed

    Güth, Uwe; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Schötzau, Andreas; Wight, Edward

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of recurrent ovarian carcinoma (ROC) has become increasingly oriented according to the therapy principles of a chronic disease. We evaluated whether it is justifiable to also apply this concept to the treatment of platinum resistant patients with their known poor prognosis and short overall survival (OS). We analyzed the overall courses of 85 unselected ROC patients and defined the following groups: A, platinum resistant patients (n=39); subgroup A.1, those who received no or at maximum one line of palliative chemotherapy (n=15, 38.5%); subgroup A.2, those who received>or=two therapy lines (n=24, 61.5%); B, platinum sensitive patients, n=46. Group A had significantly lower OS than group B (median: 16 vs. 25 months; p=0.019). Group A.1 had significantly worse outcome compared to group A.2 (median: 5 vs. 21.5 months; p<0.001). The comparison between study group A.2 and group B showed comparable survival rates (p=0.738). Considering only the patients who had completed treatment courses, the median number of therapy lines administered was higher in group A.2 than in group B (4 vs. 3; p=0.008). There is not only the known dichotomy between platinum sensitive and resistant ROC patients, but rather also within the platinum resistant subgroup itself. There is a considerably large subgroup of platinum resistant patients who will subsequently enter a phase where multiple treatment programs will be considered and administered. These patients have similar survival rates compared to those from the platinum sensitive patient group and the therapy principles of a chronic disease are applicable.

  20. PKC-alpha modulation by miR-483-3p in platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arrighetti, Noemi; Cossa, Giacomo; De Cecco, Loris; Stucchi, Simone; Carenini, Nives; Corna, Elisabetta; Gandellini, Paolo; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Perego, Paola; Gatti, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of drug resistance limits the efficacy of platinum compounds in the cure of ovarian carcinoma. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this phenomenon by regulating different aspects of tumor cell response, the aim of this study was to exploit the analysis of expression of miRNAs in platinum sensitive/resistant cells in an attempt to identify potential regulators of drug response. MiR-483-3p, which may participate in apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation, was found up-regulated in 4 platinum resistant variants, particularly in the IGROV-1/Pt1 subline, versus parental cells. Transfection of a synthetic precursor of miR-483-3p in IGROV-1 parental cells elicited a marked up-regulation of the miRNA levels. Growth-inhibition and colony-forming assays indicated that miR-483-3p over-expression reduced cell growth and conferred mild levels of cisplatin resistance in IGROV-1 cells, by interference with their proliferative potential. Predicted targets of miR-483-3p included PRKCA (encoding PKC-alpha), previously reported to be associated to platinum-resistance in ovarian carcinoma. We found that miR-483-3p directly targeted PRKCA in IGROV-1 cells. In keeping with this finding, cisplatin sensitivity of IGROV-1 cells decreased upon molecular/pharmacological inhibition of PKC-alpha. Overall, our results suggest that overexpression of miR-483-3p by ovarian carcinoma platinum-resistant cells may interfere with their proliferation, thus protecting them from DNA damage induced by platinum compounds and ultimately representing a drug-resistance mechanism. The impairment of cell growth may account for low levels of drug resistance that could be relevant in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A randomised, placebo-controlled trial of weekly paclitaxel and saracatinib (AZD0530) in platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer†.

    PubMed

    McNeish, I A; Ledermann, J A; Webber, L; James, L; Kaye, S B; Hall, M; Hall, G; Clamp, A; Earl, H; Banerjee, S; Kristeleit, R; Raja, F; Feeney, A; Lawrence, C; Dawson-Athey, L; Persic, M; Khan, I

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether the Src inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) improved efficacy of weekly paclitaxel in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer were randomised 2 : 1 to receive 8-week cycles of weekly paclitaxel (wPxl; 80 mg/m(2)/week ×6 with 2-week break) plus saracatinib (S; 175 mg o.d.) or placebo (P) continuously, starting 1 week before wPxl, until disease progression. Patients were stratified by taxane-free interval (<6 versus ≥6 months/no prior taxane). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and response rate (RR). A total of 107 patients, median age 63 years, were randomised. Forty-three (40%) had received >2 lines of prior chemotherapy. The 6-month PFS rate was 29% (wPxl + S) versus 34% (wPxl + P) (P = 0.582). Median PFS was 4.7 versus 5.3 months (hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.54; P = 0.99). RR (complete + partial) was 29% (wPxl + S) versus 43% (wPxl + P), P value = 0.158. Grade 3/4 adverse events were 36% versus 31% (P = 0.624); the most frequent G3/4 toxicities were vomiting (5.8% saracatinib versus 8.6% placebo), abdominal pain (5.8% versus 0%) and diarrhoea (4.3% versus 5.7%). Febrile neutropenia was more common in the saracatinib arm (4.3%) than placebo (0%). Response, PFS and OS were all significantly (P < 0.05) better in patients with taxane interval ≥6 months/no prior taxane (n = 85) than those <6 months (n = 22), regardless of randomisation. Saracatinib does not improve activity of weekly paclitaxel in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Taxane-free interval of ≥6 months/no prior taxane was associated with better outcome in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196741; ISRCTN 32163062. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  2. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, CT scan Ovarian cancer dangers Ovarian growth worries Uterus Ovarian cancer Ovarian cancer metastasis References Coleman ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  3. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Kovalenko O, Singh S, Resnick K, Zanotti K, Waggoner S, DiFeo A Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer . Oncotarget. 2015... cancer , we found that high expression of miR-181a correlates with decreased patient survival and this miRNA is enriched in platinum - resistant recurrent... platinum - resistant cell lines. Additionally, we found that miR-181a was also correlated with several clinical parameters in a cohort of ovarian tumor

  4. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    OVARIAN CANCER Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a ... rare fallopian tube cancer.) This fact sheet about ovarian cancer is part of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. Phase II study of MLN8237 (alisertib), an investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor, in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matulonis, Ursula A; Sharma, Sudarshan; Ghamande, Sharad; Gordon, Michael S; Del Prete, Salvatore A; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Kutarska, Elzbieta; Liu, Hua; Fingert, Howard; Zhou, Xiaofei; Danaee, Hadi; Schilder, Russell J

    2012-10-01

    Aurora A kinase (AAK), a key mitotic regulator, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several tumors, including ovarian cancer. This single-arm phase II study assessed single-agent efficacy and safety of the investigational AAK inhibitor MLN8237 (alisertib), in patients with platinum-refractory or -resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Adult women with malignant, platinum-treated disease received MLN8237 50mg orally twice daily for 7 days plus 14 days' rest (21-day cycles). The primary endpoint was combined objective tumor response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and/or CA-125 criteria. Secondary endpoints included response duration, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP), and safety. Thirty-one patients with epithelial ovarian (n=25), primary peritoneal (n=5), and fallopian tube carcinomas (n=1) were enrolled. Responses of 6.9-11.1 month duration were observed in 3 (10%) patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sixteen (52%) patients achieved stable disease with a mean duration of response of 2.86 months and which was durable for ≥3 months in 6 (19%). Median PFS and TTP were 1.9 months. Most common drug-related grade≥3 adverse events were neutropenia (42%), leukopenia (23%), stomatitis, and thrombocytopenia (each 19%); 6% reported febrile neutropenia. These data suggest that MLN8237 has modest single-agent antitumor activity and may produce responses and durable disease control in some patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MLN8237 is currently undergoing evaluation in a phase I/II trial with paclitaxel in recurrent ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The role of copper transporter ATP7A in platinum-resistance of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang-Hua; Zheng, Rongjie; Chen, Jing-Tang; Jia, Jun; Qiu, Miaozhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Platinum derivatives, such as cisplatin (DDP), carboplatin and oxaliplatin, are widely used components of modern cancer chemotherapy including esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). However, their roles are limited by the impact of intrinsic/acquired resistance mechanisms on tumor responses. Recent studies have shown that the mammalian copper transporters CTR1, ATP7A and ATP7B are involved in cisplatin-resistance to some cancers. Methods: The cytotoxicities of DDP in different cell lines were determined using the MTT assay. To determine whether knockdown the expression of ATP7A could reverse the platinum-resistance of EC109/DDP cells or not, we used RNA interference system to explore the role of ATP7A in platinum resistance. Results: We found that DDP-resistant cell sublines EC109/DDP (8.490 folds) showed cross-resistance to carboplatin (5.27 folds) and oxaliplatin (4.12 folds). ATP7A expressions in DDP-resistant cell sublines (EC109/DDP) were much higher than DDP-sensitive cell lines (EC109) at both mRNA and protein levels. ATP7A targeted small interfering RNA duplex at 100nM final concentration added into DDP-resistant cancer cells (EC109/DDP) markedly inhibited the expression of ATP7A as determined by Western blot (83.0%) and partially reversed DDP-resistance (37.09%), moreover, it also increased cell apoptosis at different DDP concentrations. Conclusions: These findings indicate that ATP7A high expression plays an important role in platinum-resistance of ESCC. This study sheds light on platinum resistance in ESCC patients and may have implications for therapeutic reversal of drug resistance.

  8. ATP11B Mediates Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    rather than cations) from the outer and inner leaf- let of membrane bilayers (13, 17–23). Although the putative role of ATP11B, based on its protein... membrane protein 4 is implicated in trans-Golgi network vesicle traf- ficking. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10(6):1957–1972. 29. Ohmichi M, Hayakawa J, Tasaka K...isolation and character- ization of cholesterol-rich membrane domains from trans-Golgi network vesicles . J Lipid Res. 2011; 52(3):582–589.

  9. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer. There's no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But certain factors are associated with lower risk: Use of oral contraceptives, especially for more than 10 years Previous ...

  10. Birinapant sensitizes platinum-resistant carcinomas with high levels of cIAP to carboplatin therapy

    PubMed Central

    La, V.; Fujikawa, R.; Janzen, D. M.; Nunez, M.; Bainvoll, L.; Hwang, L.; Faull, K.; Lawson, G.; Memarzadeh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Platinum drugs are the frontline therapy in many carcinomas, including high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Clinically, high-grade serous carcinomas have an apparent complete response to carboplatin, but tumors invariably recur and response to platinum drugs diminishes over time. Standard of care prohibits re-administration of platinum drugs to these patients who are labeled as having platinum-resistant disease. In this stage patients are treated with non-platinum agents and outcomes are often poor. In vivo and in vitro data presented here demonstrate that this clinical dogma should be challenged. Platinum drugs can be an effective therapy even for platinum-resistant carcinomas as long as they are combined with an agent that specifically targets mechanisms of platinum resistance exploited by the therapy-resistant tumor subpopulations. High levels of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins cIAP1 and 2 (cIAP) were detected in up to 50% of high-grade serous and non-high-grade serous platinum-resistant carcinomas. cIAP proteins can induce platinum resistance and they are effectively degraded with the drug birinapant. In platinum-resistant tumors with ≥22.4 ng of cIAP per 20 μg of tumor lysate, the combination of birinapant with carboplatin was effective in eliminating the cancer. Our findings provide a new personalized therapeutic option for patients with platinum-resistant carcinomas. The efficacy of birinapant in combination with carboplatin should be tested in high-grade serous carcinoma patients in a clinical trial. PMID:28804784

  11. Retrospective comparative study of irinotecan and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Ryoko; Torii, Yutaka; Oe, Shuko; Kawamura, Kyoko; Kato, Rina; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Udagawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to retrospectively compare the efficacy and safety of irinotecan (CPT-11) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma. Nineteen patients who received CPT-11 and eleven patients who received PLD were enrolled. CPT-11 was intravenously administered at a starting dose of 60-100 mg/m(2) on day 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days, and PLD was administered at a starting dose of 40-50 mg/m(2) on day 1 every 28 days. Primary outcomes were overall response rate (complete response [CR] + partial response [PR]), disease control rate (CR + PR + stable disease), and progression-free survival (PFS) in each group. Clinical response was evaluated every two or three cycles using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria; CA125 analysis was not performed. The overall response rate was 21.1 % (PR, four cases) and 0 % (p = 0.10) in the CPT-11 and PLD groups, respectively, and the disease control rate was 73.7 and 45.5 % (p = 0.12), respectively. Median PFS was 25.3 (range 5.4-69.9) weeks and 12.7 (range 4.0-43.1) weeks in the CPT-11 and PLD groups, respectively; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.064). Major adverse events in the CPT-11 group were neutropenia, nausea, and diarrhea, whereas those in the PLD group included thrombocytopenia, anemia, stomatitis, and hand-foot syndrome. This retrospective study demonstrated comparable efficacy outcomes for CPT-11 and PLD. The overall response rate, disease control rate, and median PFS were more favorable in the CPT-11 group compared to the PLD group, although the difference was not significant. The adverse event profiles were different between groups. These results suggest that CPT-11 might be a feasible choice as single-agent salvage chemotherapy for platinum-resistant or -refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma beside established

  12. Interferon regulatory factor 1 is an independent predictor of platinum resistance and survival in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Samantha; Mosig, Rebecca; Moshier, Erin; Pereira, Elena; Rahaman, Jamal; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Halpert, Richard; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A

    2014-09-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy has a particularly poor prognosis. Response to platinum has both prognostic survival value and dictates secondary treatment strategies. Using transcriptome analysis, we sought to identify differentially expressed genes/pathways based on a tumor's platinum response for discovering novel predictive biomarkers. Seven primary HGSOC tumor samples, representing two extremes of platinum sensitivity/timing of disease recurrence, were analyzed by RNA-Seq, Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and Upstream Regulator Analysis (URA), and used to explore differentially expressed genes and prevalent molecular and cellular processes. Progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method in two different sample sets including GEO and TCGA data sets. IPA and URA highlighted an IRF1-driven transcriptional program (P=0.0017; z-score of 3.091) in the platinum sensitive improved PFS group. QRT-PCR analysis of 31 HGSOC samples demonstrated a significant difference in PFS between low and high IRF1 expression groups (P=0.048) and between groups that were platinum sensitive versus not (P=0.016). In a larger validation data set, increased levels of IRF1 were associated with both increased PFS (P=0.043) and OS (P=0.019) and the effect on OS was independent of debulking status (optimal debulking, P=0.025; suboptimal, P=0.041). Transcriptome analysis identifies IRF1, a transcription factor that functions both in immune regulation and as a tumor suppressor, as being associated with platinum sensitivity and an independent predictor of both PFS and OS in HGSOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiestrogen therapy in recurrent ovarian cancer resulting in 28 months of stable disease: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Rajul; Argenta, Peter; Fowler, Jeffrey; Carter, Jori; Shimp, William

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Hormonal therapy for adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer may provide a low toxicity option in some patients with refractory disease. A 53 year-old patient with stage IIIC papillary serous ovarian cancer previously treated with multiple chemotherapy regimens with platinum-resistant disease was treated with antiestrogen therapy for 28 months before requiring reinstitution of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hormonal therapy may be effective in a subset of epithelial ovarian cancer patients with endocrine sensitivity and should be considered in the treatment of platinum-resistant patients. PMID:21814300

  14. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  15. The prognostic significance of specific HOX gene expression patterns in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoe; Moller-Levet, Carla; McGrath, Sophie; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Kavitha Madhuri, Thumuluru; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Pandha, Hardev; Morgan, Richard; Michael, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    HOX genes are vital for all aspects of mammalian growth and differentiation, and their dysregulated expression is related to ovarian carcinogenesis. The aim of the current study was to establish the prognostic value of HOX dysregulation as well as its role in platinum resistance. The potential to target HOX proteins through the HOX/PBX interaction was also explored in the context of platinum resistance. HOX gene expression was determined in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary EOCs by QPCR, and compared to expression in normal ovarian epithelium and fallopian tube tissue samples. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA and t-tests, using statistical software R and GraphPad. The analysis identified 36 of the 39 HOX genes as being overexpressed in high grade serous EOC compared to normal tissue. We detected a molecular HOX gene-signature that predicted poor outcome. Overexpression of HOXB4 and HOXB9 was identified in high grade serous cell lines after platinum resistance developed. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer with the HXR9 peptide enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. In conclusion, this study has shown the HOX genes are highly dysregulated in ovarian cancer with high expression of HOXA13, B6, C13, D1 and D13 being predictive of poor clinical outcome. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer in platinum-resistant cancer represents a potentially new therapeutic option that should be further developed and tested in clinical trials. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  16. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be similar to widespread ovarian cancer. Fallopian tube cancer This is another rare cancer that is ... to epithelial ovarian cancer. It begins in the tube that carries an egg from the ovary to ...

  17. ALDH1A1 Maintains Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Altered Regulation of Cell Cycle Checkpoint and DNA Repair Network Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Mitra, Aparna; Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Finan, Michael A.; Scalici, Jennifer; McClellan, Steve; da Silva, Luciana Madeira; Reed, Eddie; Shevde, Lalita A.; Palle, Komaraiah; Rocconi, Rodney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. Methods Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780) and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70) as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. Results ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01). ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ) and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1) were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling. PMID:25216266

  18. Overcoming platinum resistance through the use of a copper-lowering agent.

    PubMed

    Fu, Siqing; Naing, Aung; Fu, Caroline; Kuo, Macus Tien; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-06-01

    Low levels of human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) mRNA are associated with a shorter progression-free survival after platinum-based therapy. Pretreatment with a copper-lowering agent such as trientine enhanced hCtr1-mediated platinum uptake. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study (NCT01178112) of carboplatin and trientine with the goal of resensitizing patients with advanced cancer to platinum chemotherapy. This case report reviews the outcomes of 5 patients with platinum-resistant high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer enrolled on the study to date. Overall, they tolerated treatment well. Severe adverse events that occurred in 2 patients were myelosuppression, notably anemia requiring transfusion. Dose-limiting toxicity was not observed within the first 28 days (cycle 1). After 2 cycles of therapy, partial remission was achieved in 1 patient (10+ months), stable disease in 3 patients (2, 3.5+, and 5 months, respectively), and 1 patient had progressive disease. These cases provide preliminary clinical evidence that the role of decreasing copper levels in reversing platinum resistance merits additional clinical investigation. Evaluation of this novel strategy is warranted in larger studies to assess the efficacy of this approach for treating platinum-resistant advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in patients with high copper levels. ©2012 AACR

  19. Overcoming Platinum Resistance through the Use of a Copper-Lowering Agent

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Siqing; Naing, Aung; Fu, Caroline; Kuo, Macus Tien; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2013-01-01

    Low levels of human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) mRNA are associated with a shorter progression-free survival after platinum-based therapy. Pretreatment with a copper-lowering agent such as trientine enhanced hCtr1-mediated platinum uptake. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study (NCT01178112) of carboplatin and trientine with the goal of resensitizing patients with advanced cancer to platinum chemotherapy. This case report reviews the outcomes of 5 patients with platinum-resistant high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer enrolled on the study to date. Overall, they tolerated treatment well. Severe adverse events that occurred in 2 patients were myelosuppression, notably anemia requiring transfusion. Dose-limiting toxicity was not observed within the first 28 days (cycle 1). After 2 cycles of therapy, partial remission was achieved in 1 patient (10+ months), stable disease in 3 patients (2, 3.5+, and 5 months, respectively), and 1 patient had progressive disease. These cases provide preliminary clinical evidence that the role of decreasing copper levels in reversing platinum resistance merits additional clinical investigation. Evaluation of this novel strategy is warranted in larger studies to assess the efficacy of this approach for treating platinum-resistant advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in patients with high copper levels. PMID:22491798

  20. Palliative systemic therapy for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: current options

    PubMed Central

    Elit, Laurie; Hirte, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the available systemic treatments for women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods A literature review was conducted for recurrent ovarian cancer articles in English, including randomized trials, Phase II trials, or reviews. Results We discuss the efficacy and toxicity outcomes associated with systemic therapy for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Clearly, platinum-based combination systemic therapy shows a prolonged progression-free interval compared with single-agent chemotherapy with a low toxicity profile. No clear superior management strategy exists for platinum-resistant/refractory disease. Novel targeted antiangiogenic agents (eg, bevacizumab), angiopoeitin inhibitors (eg, AMG 386), and poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (eg, olaparib) are reviewed. Conclusion Although combination platinum-based chemotherapy has shown benefits for women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, the optimal treatment strategy for those with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory disease is not clear. Molecular and genetic targeted therapies may provide opportunities for those women with tumor profiles that show sensitivity for specific agents. PMID:23459506

  1. Gemcitabine in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Standard first-line treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) consists of platinum-taxane combined chemotherapy. However, this regimen only cures about 25% of women with OC. Phase II studies have shown that platinum-gemcitabine doublet and platinum-taxane-gemcitabine triplet regimens are active first-line chemotherapy in advanced OC, with overall response rates (ORR) above 55%. Several phase III studies of gemcitabine-based doublet and triplet chemotherapy in OC are currently underway. Preliminary data show that these regimens are well-tolerated, with manageable haematological toxicity, and the efficacy results are eagerly awaited. Gemcitabine is also active as second-line monotherapy in women with recurrent OC, and studies combining gemcitabine with paclitaxel, docetaxel, liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan resulted in higher ORR than gemcitabine alone. Gemcitabine-cisplatin and gemcitabine-carboplatin are active in women with platinum-resistant recurrent OC suggesting in vivo synergy between these two classes of drug. These studies show that gemcitabine-based chemotherapy may have an important role as second-line treatment in women with platinum-resistant OC. Gemcitabine combinations are also highly recommended as they avoid the problems of neurotoxicity and alopecia seen with other regimens. In order to respect the quality of life of women with recurrent OC, assessment of prognostic factors is recommended so that the most appropriate chemotherapy can be administered.

  2. Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coward, Jermaine; Kulbe, Hagen; Chakravarty, Probir; Leader, David; Vassileva, Vessela; Leinster, D. Andrew; Thompson, Richard; Schioppa, Tiziana; Nemeth, Jeffery; Vermeulen, Jessica; Singh, Naveena; Avril, Norbert; Cummings, Jeff; Rexhepaj, Elton; Jirström, Karin; Gallagher, William M; Brennan, Donal J.; McNeish, Iain A.; Balkwill, Fran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether inhibition of IL-6 has therapeutic activity in ovarian cancer via abrogation of a tumor-promoting cytokine network. Experimental Design We combined pre-clinical and in silico experiments with a phase II clinical trial of the anti-IL-6 antibody siltuximab in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Results Automated immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 221 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated that intensity of IL-6 staining in malignant cells significantly associated with poor prognosis. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with siltuximab reduced constitutive cytokine and chemokine production and also inhibited IL-6 signalling, tumor growth, the tumor-associated macrophage infiltrate and angiogenesis in IL-6-producing intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenografts. In the clinical trial, the primary endpoint was response rate as assessed by combined RECIST and CA125 criteria. One patient of eighteen evaluable had a partial response, whilst seven others had periods of disease stabilization. In patients treated for six months, there was a significant decline in plasma levels of IL-6-regulated CCL2, CXCL12 and VEGF. Gene expression levels of factors that were reduced by siltuximab treatment in the patients significantly correlated with high IL-6 pathway gene expression and macrophage markers in microarray analyses of ovarian cancer biopsies. Conclusions IL-6 stimulates inflammatory cytokine production, tumor angiogenesis and the tumor macrophage infiltrate in ovarian cancer and these actions can be inhibited by a neutralising anti-IL-6 antibody in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:21795409

  3. Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Coward, Jermaine; Kulbe, Hagen; Chakravarty, Probir; Leader, David; Vassileva, Vessela; Leinster, D Andrew; Thompson, Richard; Schioppa, Tiziana; Nemeth, Jeffery; Vermeulen, Jessica; Singh, Naveena; Avril, Norbert; Cummings, Jeff; Rexhepaj, Elton; Jirström, Karin; Gallagher, William M; Brennan, Donal J; McNeish, Iain A; Balkwill, Frances R

    2011-09-15

    We investigated whether inhibition of interleukin 6 (IL-6) has therapeutic activity in ovarian cancer via abrogation of a tumor-promoting cytokine network. We combined preclinical and in silico experiments with a phase 2 clinical trial of the anti-IL-6 antibody siltuximab in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Automated immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 221 ovarian cancer cases showed that intensity of IL-6 staining in malignant cells significantly associated with poor prognosis. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with siltuximab reduced constitutive cytokine and chemokine production and also inhibited IL-6 signaling, tumor growth, the tumor-associated macrophage infiltrate and angiogenesis in IL-6-producing intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenografts. In the clinical trial, the primary endpoint was response rate as assessed by combined RECIST and CA125 criteria. One patient of eighteen evaluable had a partial response, while seven others had periods of disease stabilization. In patients treated for 6 months, there was a significant decline in plasma levels of IL-6-regulated CCL2, CXCL12, and VEGF. Gene expression levels of factors that were reduced by siltuximab treatment in the patients significantly correlated with high IL-6 pathway gene expression and macrophage markers in microarray analyses of ovarian cancer biopsies. IL-6 stimulates inflammatory cytokine production, tumor angiogenesis, and the tumor macrophage infiltrate in ovarian cancer and these actions can be inhibited by a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody in preclinical and clinical studies. ©2011 AACR.

  4. Familial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Elit, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist family physicians in evaluating patients' risk for hereditary ovarian cancer and to review strategies for preventing ovarian cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and CINAHL databases were searched from 1970 to 1999 using key words related to hereditary ovarian cancer, screening, oral contraceptives, prophylactic oophorectomy, cancer worriers, satisfaction, and perceived risk. Recommendations in this paper are based on evidence from case-control and cohort studies and, where appropriate, consensus conferences. MAIN MESSAGE: Of all women who present with ovarian cancer, 20% have a family history of ovarian cancer and 8% carry a BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutation. Women who carry a BRCA 1 mutation have a 63% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, and women who carry a BRCA 2 mutation have a 27% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. Preventive strategies include screening (level 3 evidence for postmenopausal women and level 5 evidence for women with a family history of ovarian cancer), use of oral contraceptives (level 3 evidence for the general population and for mutation carriers), and prophylactic oophorectomy (level 3 evidence in first-degree relatives of patients with breast or ovarian cancer). CONCLUSION: Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer should be offered genetic counseling and discussion of various preventive strategies for minimizing their risk. PMID:11340759

  5. FAU regulates carboplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Esther L; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Pickard, Mark R; Redman, Charles W; Williams, Gwyn T

    2010-01-01

    The development of chemotherapy resistance by cancer cells is complex, using different mechanisms and pathways. The gene FAU (Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV)-associated ubiquitously expressed gene) was identified through functional expression cloning and previous data have shown that overexpression enhances apoptosis in several cell types. We demonstrate that the expression of FAU was reduced in the A2780cis (cisplatin resistant subclone of A2780) cell line compared with the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line, and was directly related to the cell line's sensitivity to carboplatin. Downregulation of FAU in the A2780 cell line by transfection with two predesigned short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to FAU resulted in a significant increase in resistance to carboplatin-induced cell death. Downregulation resulted in increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis after 72 hr of drug treatment compared with the negative controls (Kruskal-Wallis P = 0.0002). Transfection of the A2780cis cell line with the pcDNA3 plasmid containing FAU was associated with increased sensitivity to carboplatin-induced apoptosis, with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis (Mann Whitney P < 0.0001). The expression of FAU was examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in normal and malignant ovarian tissue. A significant reduction in the expression of FAU was seen in the malignant compared with normal ovarian samples (Kruskal-Wallis P = 0.0261). These data support a role for FAU in the regulation of platinum-resistance in ovarian cancer. Further research is needed into the apoptotic pathway containing FAU to investigate the potential for targeted therapies to increase or restore the platinum sensitivity of ovarian cancer.

  6. Copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7A) is associated with platinum-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper export protein ATP7A is important for maintaining copper homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that copper transporters are also involved in the transport of platinum. The goal of this study was to determine the role of ATP7A in the platinum-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Sensitivities to platinums were detected by MTT assay and drug-resistance related genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting between DDP-sensitive A549 and the corresponding DDP-resistant cell subline (A549/DDP). ATP7A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues of unresectable NSCLC patients who received cisplatin-basing chemotherapy. Results The expression of ATP7A was significantly higher in A549/DDP cell subline than in A549 cells at both mRNA and protein levels. The silencing of ATP7A expression in A549/DDP by siRNA partially reversed DDP-resistance (29.62%) and increased cell apoptosis. ATP7A expression was detected in 41.6%of NSCLC patients, but not in adjacent stroma nor normal lung tissues. ATP7A-positive patients had a significantly poorer histological grade (p = 0.039) and poorer response to platinum-basing chemotherapy (p = 0.001) compared with ATP7A-negative patients. Cox's proportional hazards analysis showed that ATP7A expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.045). Conclusions ATP7A overexpression played an important role in platinum-resistance of NSCLC, and was a negative prognostic factor of NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:22304828

  7. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. T-Type Ca2+ Channel Inhibition Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer to Carboplatin.

    PubMed

    Dziegielewska, Barbara; Casarez, Eli V; Yang, Wesley Z; Gray, Lloyd S; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Slack-Davis, Jill K

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer, due in large part to the diagnosis of advanced stage disease, the development of platinum resistance, and inadequate treatment alternatives. Recent studies by our group and others have shown that T-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels play a reinforcing role in cancer cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis evasion. Therefore, we investigated whether T-type Ca(2+) channels affect ovarian tumor growth and response to platinum agents. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channels with mibefradil or by silencing expression resulted in growth suppression in ovarian cancer cells with a simultaneous increase in apoptosis, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the antiapoptotic gene survivin (BIRC5). Analysis of intracellular signaling revealed mibefradil reduced AKT phosphorylation, increased the levels and nuclear retention of FOXO transcription factors that repress BIRC5 expression, and decreased the expression of FOXM1, which promotes BIRC5 expression. Combining carboplatin with mibefradil synergistically increased apoptosis in vitro. Importantly, mibefradil rendered platinum-resistant ovarian tumors sensitive to carboplatin in a mouse model of peritoneal metastasis. Together, the data provide rationale for future use of T-type channel antagonists together with platinum agents for the treatment of ovarian cancer. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  13. Stonin 2 Overexpression is Correlated with Unfavorable Prognosis and Tumor Invasion in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Ou, Yulan; Song, Libing

    2017-01-01

    Stonin 2 (STON2), which functions in adjusting endocytotic complexes, is probably involved in the monitoring of the internalization of dopamine D2 receptors which have an inhibitory action of dopamine on tumor progression. However, its clinical significance in tumor progression and prognosis remains unclear. We explored the association between STON2 and the clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The STON2 levels in ovarian cancer and normal cell lines and tissues were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. STON2 protein expression was also detected by an immunohistochemical analysis. The clinical significance of STON2 expression in ovarian cancer was statistically analyzed. STON2 significantly increased in the ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues compared to the normal ones. In the 89 EOC samples tested, STON2 expression was significantly correlated with intraperitoneal metastasis, intestinal metastasis, intraperitoneal recurrence, ascites containing tumor cells, and CA153 level. Moreover, patients with STON2 protein overexpression were more likely to exhibit platinum resistance and to have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with high STON2 protein expression had a tendency to have a shorter overall survival and a poor prognosis. A multivariate analysis showed that STON2 was an independent prognostic predictor for EOC patients. In conclusion, STON2 plays an important role in the progression and prognosis of ovarian carcinoma, especially in platinum resistance, intraperitoneal metastasis, and recurrence. STON2 can be a novel antitumor drug target and biomarker which predicts an unfavorable prognosis for EOC patients. PMID:28758939

  14. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of ovarian carcinoma cells: toward a reorientation of biosynthesis pathways associated with acquired platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Lincet, Hubert; Guével, Blandine; Pineau, Charles; Allouche, Stéphane; Lemoisson, Edwige; Poulain, Laurent; Gauduchon, Pascal

    2012-02-02

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women. Emergence of chemoresistance in the course of treatments with platinum drugs is in part responsible for therapeutic failures. In order to improve the understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in acquired platinum chemoresistance, we decided to compare the basal protein expression profile of the platinum-sensitive cell line OAW42 and that of its resistant counterpart OAW42-R by a proteomic approach. Reversed-phase HPLC pre-fractionated extracts from both cell lines were subjected to 2D-DIGE coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Forty eight differentially expressed proteins were identified, 39 being up-regulated and 19 down-regulated in OAW42-R versus OAW42 cells. From the current knowledge on biological activities of most differentially expressed proteins, it can be inferred that the acquisition of resistance was associated with a global reorganization of biochemical pathways favoring the production of precursors for biosynthesis, and with the mobilization of macromolecule quality control mechanisms, preserving RNA and protein integrity under damage-inducing conditions.

  15. DNA-PK Mediates AKT Activation and Apoptosis Inhibition in Clinically Acquired Platinum Resistance12

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  16. Nintedanib in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Khalique, Saira; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer remains an unmet clinical need. Angiogenesis is considered a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer, with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, being the first drug to show a progression-free survival benefit. Nintedanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGF receptor 1-3, FGFR 1-3 and PDGFR α and β, which has entered phase III trial development in ovarian cancer. Areas covered: This article reviews the preclinical and clinical efficacy of nintedanib in ovarian cancer, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profile, safety issues, together with an overview of clinical trials carried out so far. A literature search was made in PubMed for nintedanib, ovarian cancer, angiogenesis, and on ClinicalTrials.gov site for clinical trials with nintedanib. Expert opinion: An ongoing phase III trial investigating nintedanib combined with first-line chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown a statistically significant progression free survival benefit, although there were toxicity issues. The true clinical benefit of nintedanib in ovarian cancer including its optimal treatment setting and dosage still need to be addressed.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF predicts response to platinum based chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, G K; Maclean, A B; Elmasry, K; Wong te Fong, A; Morris, R W; Rashid, M; Begent, R H J; Boxer, G M

    2011-05-01

    For patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cytoreduction, with a combination of taxane and platinum, is the standard of care. Despite this, approximately 50% of patients with advanced disease will relapse and moreover 15-20% of cases of EOC are resistant to platinum based chemotherapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, is associated with poor prognosis. This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between VEGF-A expression in the tumour of EOC patients and their response to platinum based chemotherapy. The study cohort consisted of 66 patients with advanced stage EOC (FIGO III-IV). Ovarian cancer tissue was analysed for VEGF-A expression immunohistochemically. Protein expression was measured and correlated, with platinum sensitivity and overall patient survival. Median age of patients was 53 years, 45 patients had platinum sensitive disease (68%), the remaining patients being platinum resistant (32%). Of the platinum resistant group, 18 (86%) patients had high VEGF score compared to only 1 (2%) with high VEGF score in the platinum sensitive group. Median survival was 11 months in the patient group with high VEGF score versus 32 months in that cohort with low VEGF score. VEGF expression was significantly inversely correlated with overall survival (P < 0.0001). We demonstrated that tumours of patients with platinum resistant EOC exhibit higher levels of VEGF expression compared to the platinum sensitive group. VEGF in EOC, may be of clinical and therapeutic relevance and suggests a role for first line anti-angiogenic therapy.

  18. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... and phytochemicals. High fiber intakes may have a positive benefit by altering hormonal actions of ovarian and other hormonal-dependent cancers. Daily fiber intake should be 25-35 grams of insoluble and soluble fiber. Important Plant Sources ...

  19. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  20. Suppression of ABHD2, identified through a functional genomics screen, causes anoikis resistance, chemoresistance and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoi, Koji; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murphy, Susan K.; Baba, Tsukasa; Abiko, Kaoru; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Konishi, Ikuo; Mandai, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of cancer, and relates to malignant phenotypes, including chemoresistance, cancer stem like phenotypes and dissemination. The aim of this study was to identify key factors contributing to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. A library of 81 000 shRNAs targeting 15 000 genes was transduced into OVCA420 cells, followed by incubation in soft agar and colony selection. We found shRNAs directed to ABHD2, ELAC2 and CYB5R3 caused reproducible anoikis resistance. These three genes are deleted in many serous ovarian cancers according to The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Suppression of ABHD2 in OVCA420 cells increased phosphorylated p38 and ERK, platinum resistance, and side population cells (p<0.01, respectively). Conversely, overexpression of ABHD2 decreased resistance to anoikis (p<0.05) and the amount of phosphorylated p38 and ERK in OVCA420 and SKOV3 cells. In clinical serous ovarian cancer specimens, low expression of ABHD2 was associated with platinum resistance and poor prognosis (p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we found three novel genes relevant to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. Suppression of ABHD2 may promote a malignant phenotype and poor prognosis for women with serous ovarian cancer. PMID:27323405

  1. Hereditary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Antonio; Calò, Valentina; Bruno, Loredana; Rizzo, Sergio; Bazan, Viviana; Di Fede, Gaetana

    2009-01-01

    At least 10% of ovarian tumors are hereditary and associated with highly penetrant, autosomal, dominant genetic predisposition. Three clinical manifestations of hereditary ovarian cancer have been identified: site-specific ovarian cancer, hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndromes. BRCA germline mutations account for more than 90% of all hereditary epithelial ovarian tumors whereas most of the remaining 10% are caused by MLH1 and MSH2 mutations, which are susceptibility genes of HNPCC. Genetic testing is available for each of the three hereditary syndromes above mentioned. The recommendations for OC surveillance in high-risk women having a strong family history or BRCA mutation carriers include transvaginal pelvic ultrasound with color Doppler and serum CA125 every 6 months. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy appears to be effective to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. Hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy should be considered in HNPCC women who undergo surgery for colorectal carcinoma.

  2. Survival outcomes of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: experience from a Thailand northern tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Jansaka, Natpat; Suprasert, Prapaporn

    2014-01-01

    To assess survival outcomes in a retrospective study, recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer patients were divided into three groups according to the platinum free interval as follows: platinum refractory that included the patients with tumor progression during treatment; platinum resistant and platinum sensitive that included the patients with tumor progression less than or more than six months, respectively. Clinical data for tumor progression in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January, 2006 and December, 2010 were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were in the platinum refractory group while 27 were in the platinum resistant group and 75 in the platinum sensitive group. The mean age, the parity, the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the serous type did not significantly different across groups while the mean total number of chemotherapy regimens, the early stage patients, the patients with complete surgery and the surviving patients were significant more frequent in the platinum sensitive group. Regarding subsequent treatment after tumor recurrence, 87.2% underwent chemotherapy. With the median follow up time at 29 months, the median overall survival rates were 20 months, 14 months and 42 months in platinum refractory, platinum resistant and platinum sensitive groups, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, when the platinum sensitive patients developed the next episode of tumor progression, the median progression free interval time was only three to four months. In conclusion, the outcomes for platinum refractory the and platinum resistant groups was poorer than the platinum sensitive group. However, subsequent progression in the platinum sensitive group was also associated with a poor outcome.

  3. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  4. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Ovarian Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What Can ... Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links Uterine Cancer Basic Information What Are the Risk Factors? What Can ...

  5. Screening for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2002-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the prospect of early detection of ovarian cancer through screening asymptomatic women, in both the general and 'high-risk' populations. Over the last decade screening strategies using the serum marker CA126 and transvaginal ultrasound have been refined and encouraging data have emerged on the impact of screening on ovarian cancer survival rates. Two randomized controlled trials are now underway in the general population to establish the impact of screening on ovarian cancer mortality while comprehensively tackling the issues of compliance, health economics and physical and psychological morbidity. In addition, trials in the high-risk population aimed at optimizing the current strategy have commenced in both the USA and the UK.

  6. Long noncoding RNA expression signature to predict platinum-based chemotherapeutic sensitivity of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Fang; Wang, Ying; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential markers of several tumor prognoses. This study aimed to develop a lncRNA expression signature that can predict chemotherapeutic sensitivity for patients with advanced stage and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The lncRNA expression profiles of 258 HGS-OvCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Results revealed that an eight-lncRNA signature was significantly associated with chemosensitivity in the multivariate logistic regression model, which can accurately predict the chemosensitivity of patients [Area under curve (AUC) = 0.83]. The association of a chemosensitivity predictor with molecular subtypes indicated the excellent prognosis performance of this marker in differentiated, mesenchymal, and immunoreactive subtypes (AUC > 0.8). The significant correlation between ZFAS1 expression and chemosensitivity was confirmed in 233 HGS-OvCa patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus datasets (GSE9891, GSE63885, and GSE51373). In vitro experiments demonstrated that the ZFAS1 expression was upregulated by cisplatin in A2008, HeyA8, and HeyC2 cell lines. This finding suggested that ZFAS1 may participate in platinum resistance. Therefore, the evaluation of the eight-lncRNA signature may be clinically implicated in the selection of platinum-resistant HGS-OvCa patients. The role of ZFAS1 in platinum resistance should be further investigated.

  7. Molecular Dissection of Induced Platinum Resistance through Functional and Gene Expression Analysis in a Cell Culture Model of Bladder Cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sisi; Zhang, Hongyong; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Here, we report the development, functional and molecular characterization of an isogenic, paired bladder cancer cell culture model system for studying platinum drug resistance. The 5637 human bladder cancer cell line was cultured over ten months with stepwise increases in oxaliplatin concentration to generate a drug resistant 5637R sub cell line. The MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity of several bladder cancer drugs. Liquid scintillation counting allowed quantification of cellular drug uptake and efflux of radiolabeled oxaliplatin and carboplatin. The impact of intracellular drug inactivation was assessed by chemical modulation of glutathione levels. Oxaliplatin- and carboplatin-DNA adduct formationmore » and repair was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Resistance factors including apoptosis, growth factor signaling and others were assessed with RNAseq of both cell lines and included confirmation of selected transcripts by RT-PCR. Oxaliplatin, carboplatin, cisplatin and gemcitabine were significantly less cytotoxic to 5637R cells compared to the 5637 cells. In contrast, doxorubicin, methotrexate and vinblastine had no cell line dependent difference in cytotoxicity. Upon exposure to therapeutically relevant doses of oxaliplatin, 5637R cells had lower drug-DNA adduct levels than 5637 cells. This difference was partially accounted for by pre-DNA damage mechanisms such as drug uptake and intracellular inactivation by glutathione, as well as faster oxaliplatin-DNA adduct repair. In contrast, both cell lines had no significant differences in carboplatin cell uptake, efflux and drug-DNA adduct formation and repair, suggesting distinct resistance mechanisms for these two closely related drugs. The functional studies were augmented by RNAseq analysis, which demonstrated a significant change in expression of 83 transcripts, including 50 known genes and 22 novel transcripts. Most of the transcripts were not previously associated with bladder cancer

  8. Molecular Dissection of Induced Platinum Resistance through Functional and Gene Expression Analysis in a Cell Culture Model of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sisi; Zhang, Hongyong; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Zimmermann, Maike; Hu, Bin; Pan, Amy Wang; Vinall, Ruth; Lin, Tzu-yin; Cimino, George; Chain, Patrick; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gleasner, Cheryl; Mcmurry, Kim; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; de Vere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-xian; Henderson, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    We report herein the development, functional and molecular characterization of an isogenic, paired bladder cancer cell culture model system for studying platinum drug resistance. The 5637 human bladder cancer cell line was cultured over ten months with stepwise increases in oxaliplatin concentration to generate a drug resistant 5637R sub cell line. The MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity of several bladder cancer drugs. Liquid scintillation counting allowed quantification of cellular drug uptake and efflux of radiolabeled oxaliplatin and carboplatin. The impact of intracellular drug inactivation was assessed by chemical modulation of glutathione levels. Oxaliplatin- and carboplatin-DNA adduct formation and repair was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Resistance factors including apoptosis, growth factor signaling and others were assessed with RNAseq of both cell lines and included confirmation of selected transcripts by RT-PCR. Oxaliplatin, carboplatin, cisplatin and gemcitabine were significantly less cytotoxic to 5637R cells compared to the 5637 cells. In contrast, doxorubicin, methotrexate and vinblastine had no cell line dependent difference in cytotoxicity. Upon exposure to therapeutically relevant doses of oxaliplatin, 5637R cells had lower drug-DNA adduct levels than 5637 cells. This difference was partially accounted for by pre-DNA damage mechanisms such as drug uptake and intracellular inactivation by glutathione, as well as faster oxaliplatin-DNA adduct repair. In contrast, both cell lines had no significant differences in carboplatin cell uptake, efflux and drug-DNA adduct formation and repair, suggesting distinct resistance mechanisms for these two closely related drugs. The functional studies were augmented by RNAseq analysis, which demonstrated a significant change in expression of 83 transcripts, including 50 known genes and 22 novel transcripts. Most of the transcripts were not previously associated with bladder cancer

  9. Molecular Dissection of Induced Platinum Resistance through Functional and Gene Expression Analysis in a Cell Culture Model of Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sisi; Zhang, Hongyong; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Zimmermann, Maike; Hu, Bin; Pan, Amy Wang; Vinall, Ruth; Lin, Tzu-yin; Cimino, George; Chain, Patrick; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gleasner, Cheryl; Mcmurry, Kim; Malfatti, Michael; Turteltaub, Kenneth; de Vere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-xian; Henderson, Paul T.; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-01-22

    Here, we report the development, functional and molecular characterization of an isogenic, paired bladder cancer cell culture model system for studying platinum drug resistance. The 5637 human bladder cancer cell line was cultured over ten months with stepwise increases in oxaliplatin concentration to generate a drug resistant 5637R sub cell line. The MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxicity of several bladder cancer drugs. Liquid scintillation counting allowed quantification of cellular drug uptake and efflux of radiolabeled oxaliplatin and carboplatin. The impact of intracellular drug inactivation was assessed by chemical modulation of glutathione levels. Oxaliplatin- and carboplatin-DNA adduct formation and repair was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Resistance factors including apoptosis, growth factor signaling and others were assessed with RNAseq of both cell lines and included confirmation of selected transcripts by RT-PCR. Oxaliplatin, carboplatin, cisplatin and gemcitabine were significantly less cytotoxic to 5637R cells compared to the 5637 cells. In contrast, doxorubicin, methotrexate and vinblastine had no cell line dependent difference in cytotoxicity. Upon exposure to therapeutically relevant doses of oxaliplatin, 5637R cells had lower drug-DNA adduct levels than 5637 cells. This difference was partially accounted for by pre-DNA damage mechanisms such as drug uptake and intracellular inactivation by glutathione, as well as faster oxaliplatin-DNA adduct repair. In contrast, both cell lines had no significant differences in carboplatin cell uptake, efflux and drug-DNA adduct formation and repair, suggesting distinct resistance mechanisms for these two closely related drugs. The functional studies were augmented by RNAseq analysis, which demonstrated a significant change in expression of 83 transcripts, including 50 known genes and 22 novel transcripts. Most of the transcripts were not previously associated with bladder cancer

  10. Genetics Home Reference: ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body are called metastatic cancers. Some ovarian cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary ... during a person's lifetime, and they do not cluster in families. A predisposition to cancer caused by ...

  11. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    ovarian adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol, 2007; 104: 192-198. 506 25. Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A...Ultrasound Med 2010, 29:173-182. 479 (19) Hales DB, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Ansenberger K, Mahon C, Barua A et al: 480 Cyclooxygenases expression and...adenocarcinomas from laying hens. Gynecol Oncol 2007, 507 104:192-198. 508 (30) Ansenberger K, Zhuge Y, Lagman JA, Richards C, Barua A, Bahr JM

  13. Potential application of curcumin and its analogues in the treatment strategy of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna M; Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Malgorzata E; Dobrzycka, Bozena; Terlikowski, Slawomir J

    2014-11-25

    Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin-A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies.

  14. Potential Application of Curcumin and Its Analogues in the Treatment Strategy of Patients with Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Malgorzata E.; Dobrzycka, Bozena; Terlikowski, Slawomir J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin—A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies. PMID:25429431

  15. ERCC1 expression as a predictor of resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Braicu, Ioana; Nassir, Mani; Richter, Rolf; Sehouli, Jalid; Arsenic, Ruza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible association between Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) score and platinum resistance in first-line chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. ERCC1 Expression was determined using immunohisto-chemistry in 68 patients with platinum-responding tumor and 30 with platinum-resistant tumors. The primary end-point of this study was the association between the expression of ERCC1 protein with resistance to standard platinum-based chemotherapy in primary ovarian cancer. In pairwise comparisons, the overall survival (OS) for patients with ovarian cancer, who were non-responders to platinum-based chemotherapy with low or intermediate H-score for ERCC1 was better than that of non-responders with high H-score for ERCC1 [median OS=21 (16.8-25.2 months) and 28 (14.6-41.4 months) vs. 15 months (6.2-23.8 months), p-value=0.048, and p-value=0.017, respectively]. There were no significant differences in the progression-free survival between those with low, intermediate and high H-score for ERCC1. There is no statistically significant relationship between ERCC1 score and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with primary ovarian cancer.

  16. Gemcitabine-oxaliplatin (GEMOX) for epithelial ovarian cancer patients resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Elshebeiny, Mohamed; Almorsy, Walid

    2016-09-01

    Patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) experience poor outcome. Currently, no clearly superior management strategy exists for platinum-resistant EOC patients. Analyze the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine-oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in platinum resistant EOC patients. Thirty-two patients with platinum-based resistant EOC were included. Studied patients had received GEM at the dose of 1000mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and OX 100mg/m(2) on day 1, administered over 2h 30min after GEM infusion of 3week treatment cycle. In the evaluation of tumor response, none of patients had achieved CR while PR, SD, were observed in 7 (21.9%), 9 (28.1%) respectively, clinical benefit (CR+PR+SD) was recorded in 50% of patients while PD was observed in 16 (50%) patients. In regard to survival, the median value of OS was 10.5months (range, 2.2-17.5months). The median value of PFS was 6.37months (range, 1-17.5months). The one-year OS rate was 34.4% and the one-year PFS rate was 12.5%. Concerning hematological toxicity grade 3 neutropenia was recorded in 4 (12.5%) patients while grade 4 febrile neutropenia was recorded in 2 (6.3%) patients and grade 4 anemia was represented by 3.1%. Grade 1-2 fatigue was the most common non-hematological toxicity and represented by 65.6% of patients. Grade 3 non hematological toxicity was recorded with nausea/vomiting and hepatic toxicity represented by 3.1% for both. The GEMOX combination is a regimen with a moderate therapeutic efficacy and tolerable toxic side effects in patients with platinum-resistant EOC. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  18. Evaluation of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation procedure for the characterization of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) for use in the temperature range -120 to 160 C was investigated. This evaluation procedure consisted of calibration, thermal stability and hysteresis testing of four surface measuring PRTs. Five different calibration schemes were investigated for these sensors. The IPTS-68 formulation produced the most accurate result, yielding average sensor systematic error of 0.02 C and random error of 0.1 C. The sensors were checked for thermal stability by successive and thermal cycling between room temperature, 160 C, and boiling point of nitrogen. All the PRTs suffered from instability and hysteresis. The applicability of the self-heating technique as an in situ method for checking the calibration of PRTs located inside wind tunnels was investigated.

  19. Evaluation of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation procedure for the characterization of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) for use in the temperature range -120 to 160 C was investigated. This evaluation procedure consisted of calibration, thermal stability and hysteresis testing of four surface measuring PRTs. Five different calibration schemes were investigated for these sensors. The IPTS-68 formulation produced the most accurate result, yielding average sensor systematic error of 0.02 C and random error of 0.1 C. The sensors were checked for thermal stability by successive and thermal cycling between room temperature, 160 C, and boiling point of nitrogen. All the PRTs suffered from instability and hysteresis. The applicability of the self-heating technique as an in situ method for checking the calibration of PRTs located inside wind tunnels was investigated.

  20. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  1. NF-κB-HOTAIR axis links DNA damage response, chemoresistance and cellular senescence in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Özeş, Ali R.; Miller, David F.; Özeş, Osman N.; Fang, Fang; Liu, Yunlong; Matei, Daniela; Huang, Tim; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense RNA) play diverse functional roles in cancer. In this study, we show that upregulation of HOTAIR induced platinum resistance in ovarian cancer, and increased HOTAIR levels were observed in recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian tumors vs. primary ovarian tumors. To investigate the role of HOTAIR during DNA damage induced by platinum, we monitored double-strand breaks and show that HOTAIR expression results in sustained activation of DNA damage response after platinum treatment. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of HOTAIR induces NF-κB activation during DNA damage response and MMP-9 and IL-6 expression, both key NF-κB target genes. We show that HOTAIR regulates activation of NF-κB by decreasing Iκ-Bα (NF-κB inhibitor) and establish that by inducing prolonged NF-κB activation and expression of NF-κB target genes during DNA damage, HOTAIR plays a critical role in cellular senescence and platinum sensitivity. Our findings suggest that a NF-κB-HOTAIR axis drives a positive-feedback loop cascade during DNA damage response and contributes to cellular senescence and chemotherapy resistance in ovarian and other cancers. PMID:27041570

  2. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-08-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology.

  4. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  5. Ovarian cancer: the neglected diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Barrette, Brigitte A; Wollan, Peter C

    2004-10-01

    To investigate presenting signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer and stage of tumor in a community cohort of women with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of all women who sought primary and specialty care in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1997, to evaluate presenting symptoms, time from first symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer, and stage of tumor at diagnosis. Of 107 women with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the most commonly documented presenting symptom was crampy abdominal pain. Urinary symptoms and abdominal pain were the most commonly documented presenting symptom in patients with stage I and II ovarian cancers, whereas abdominal pain and increased abdominal girth were the most commonly documented symptoms in patients with stage III and IV cancer. Approximately 15% of tumors (n = 15) were found during routine evaluations or during a procedure for another problem. Less than 25% of presenting symptoms (n = 24 women) related directly to the pelvis or were more traditional gynecologic symptoms. Delays in women seeking medical care, health care system issues, competing medical conditions, physicians' failure to follow up, and women not returning for follow-up were associated with longer time to diagnosis. Both stage I and II cancer are associated with symptoms, but few symptoms are directly related to the reproductive pelvic organs or unique to ovarian cancer. A longer interval from first sign or symptom to diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with both patient and health care system factors.

  6. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed. PMID:28257098

  7. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  9. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tortolero-Luna, G; Mitchell, M F

    1995-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female reproductive system and the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. In 1995, 26,600 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the U.S., and 14,500 women will die from the disease. Between 1986-1900, the overall age-adjusted incidence was 14.3/100,000 women; mortality was 7.8/100,000 women. Ovarian cancer, rare before age 40, increases steeply thereafter and peaks at ages 65-75. Incidence and mortality rates are higher among white women than among African-American women. Over the last three decades, ovarian cancer incidence has remained stable in high-risk countries, while an increasing trend has been reported in low-risk countries. Despite recent advancements in treatment, the overall five-year survival rates continues to be low (39%). Over 70% of ovarian tumors are diagnosed when regional or distant involvement has already occurred, causing survival rates to remain stable. The etiology of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology of invasive epithelial ovarian tumors, while few have explored the epidemiology of epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and nonepithelial tumors. Factors associated with an increased risk for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer include age, race, nulliparity, family history of ovarian cancer, and history of endometrial or breast cancer. Factors associated with a reduced risk are history of one or more full-term pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, history of breast feeding, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy. Other factors such as infertility drugs, hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, age at menopause, dietary factors, lactose intolerance, talc use, coffee and alcohol consumption have been suggested, but their role is still inconclusive.

  10. Claudin Proteins in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Patrice J.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins have been found altered in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer. Because claudin-3 and -4 are elevated in the vast majority of ovarian tumors, they may represent useful biomarkers for detection and prognosis, as well as ideal targets for therapy using the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PMID:18057528

  11. Retrospective study comparing irinotecan and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in treatment of recurrent platinum-refractory/resistant epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nomura, H; Tsuda, H; Kataoka, F; Chiyoda, T; Yamagami, W; Tominaga, E; Susumu, N; Aoki, D

    2012-01-01

    The standard regimen for platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains to be determined. In this study, we retrospectively compared the effect of irinotecan (CPT-11) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent EOC. Thirty patients who received salvage chemotherapy with CPT-11 or PLD were included in the study. CPT-11 (100 mg/m2) was administered intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15 every four weeks. PLD (50 mg/m2) was administered on day 1 every four weeks. Treatment was repeated, provided that no disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. Response rate in the CPT-11 group and PLD group showed no difference at 26.7% (p = 0.66) in both, while non-PD rate was 73.3% vs. 33.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. Progression-free survival after CPT-11 treatment and PLD treatment was 28.4 weeks and 16.8 weeks (p = 0.07), respectively. Hand-foot syndrome and mucositis were more common in the PLD group than in the CPT-11 group (p < 0.05). The results indicate that CPT-11 is a promising drug for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent EOC.

  12. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors ... This information eventually is expected to lead to new drugs for preventing and treating familial ovarian cancer. ...

  13. Involved-Field Radiation Therapy for Locoregionally Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aaron P.; Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann H.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of definitive involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) for selected patients with locoregionally-recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of 102 epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with definitive IFRT (≥45 Gy). IFRT was directed to localized nodal (49%) and extranodal (51%) recurrences. Results The median time from diagnosis to IFRT was 36 months (range, 1–311), and the median follow-up after IFRT was 37 months (range, 1–123). Patients received a median of three chemotherapy courses before IFRT (range, 0–9). Five-year overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates after IFRT were 40% and 24% respectively; the 5-year in-field disease control rate was 71%. Thirty-five patients (35%) had no evidence of disease at a median of 38 months after IFRT (range, 7–122), including 25 continuously without disease for a median of 61 months (range, 17–122) and 10 with salvage treatment following disease recurrence, disease-free for a median of 39 months after salvage treatment (range, 7–92). Eight clear cell carcinoma patients had higher 5-year OS (88% versus 37%; p=0.05) and PFS (75% versus 20%; p=0.01) rates than other patients. Patients sensitive to initial platinum chemotherapy had a higher 5-year OS rate than platinum-resistant patients (43% versus 27%, p=0.03). Patients who required chemotherapy for recurrence after IFRT often benefitted from longer chemotherapy-free intervals after than before IFRT. Conclusions Definitive IFRT can yield excellent local control, protracted disease-free intervals, and even cures in carefully selected patients. RT should be considered a tool in the curative management of locoregionally-recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:23648467

  14. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    ovarian cancer, a sizeable proportion of women who carry a deleteriou s mutation will not d evelop this disease . In addition, the findings show that...carriers. Carriers were censored at age of onset of disease for those affected with breast or ovarian cancer and age of last follow up or age at 5...Doerk T, Hillemanns P, Durst M, Runnebaum I, Thompson PJ, Carney ME, Goodman MT, Lurie G, Wang- Gohrke S , Hein R, Chang-Claude J, Rossing MA, Cushing

  15. Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy despite several decades of progress in diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of the robust development of discovery and utility of prognostic biomarkers, clinicians and researchers are developing personalized and targeted treatment strategies. This review encompasses recently discovered biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the utility of published prognostic biomarkers for EOC (especially biomarkers related to angiogenesis and key signaling pathways), and their integration into clinical practice. PMID:22045356

  16. Development of EGFR Targeted Nanoemulsion for Imaging and Novel Platinum Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Srinivas; Singh, Amit; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Cacaccio, Joseph; Rawal, Yashesh H.; Davis, Barbara J.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Coleman, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for malignant epithelial ovarian cancers, but generalized toxicity and platinum resistance limits its use. Theranostic nanoemulsion with a novel platinum prodrug, myrisplatin, and the pro-apoptotic agent, C6-ceramide, were designed to overcome these limitations. Methods The nanoemulsions, including ones with an EGFR binding peptide and gadolinium, were made using generally regarded as safe grade excipients and a high shear microfluidization process. Efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3, A2780 and A2780CP. Results The nanoemulsion with particle size <150 nm were stable in plasma and parenteral fluids for 24 h. Ovarian cancer cells in vitro efficiently took up the non-targeted and EGFR-targeted nanoemulsions; improved cytotoxicity was observed for the these nanoemulsions with the latter showing a 50-fold drop in the IC50 in SKOV3 cells as compared to cisplatin alone. The addition of gadolinium did not affect cell viability in vitro, but showed relaxation times comparable to Magnevist®. Conclusion The myrisplatin/C6-ceramide nanoemulsion synergistically enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity. An EGFR binding peptide addition further increased in vitro cytotoxicity in EGFR positive cancer cells. The diagnostic version showed MR imaging similar to the clinically relevant Magnevist® and may be suitable as a theranostic for ovarian cancer. PMID:24643932

  17. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing ovarian cancer mortality . To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian...Progestins have a potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells and we have shown that levonorgestrel dramatically decreases ovarian cancer incidence...effective chemoprevention strategies that might decrease mortality from this disease.

  18. Haploinsufficiency networks identify targetable patterns of allelic deficiency in low mutation ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joe Ryan; Patel, Chandni B.; Willis, Katelyn McCabe; Haghighiabyaneh, Mina; Axelrod, Joshua; Tancioni, Isabelle; Lu, Dan; Bapat, Jaidev; Young, Shanique; Cadassou, Octavia; Bartakova, Alena; Sheth, Parthiv; Haft, Carley; Hui, Sandra; Saenz, Cheryl; Schlaepfer, David D.; Harismendy, Olivier; Stupack, Dwayne G.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of specific oncogenic gene changes has enabled the modern generation of targeted cancer therapeutics. In high-grade serous ovarian cancer (OV), the bulk of genetic changes is not somatic point mutations, but rather somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs). The impact of SCNAs on tumour biology remains poorly understood. Here we build haploinsufficiency network analyses to identify which SCNA patterns are most disruptive in OV. Of all KEGG pathways (N=187), autophagy is the most significantly disrupted by coincident gene deletions. Compared with 20 other cancer types, OV is most severely disrupted in autophagy and in compensatory proteostasis pathways. Network analysis prioritizes MAP1LC3B (LC3) and BECN1 as most impactful. Knockdown of LC3 and BECN1 expression confers sensitivity to cells undergoing autophagic stress independent of platinum resistance status. The results support the use of pathway network tools to evaluate how the copy-number landscape of a tumour may guide therapy. PMID:28198375

  19. Haploinsufficiency networks identify targetable patterns of allelic deficiency in low mutation ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Joe Ryan; Patel, Chandni B; Willis, Katelyn McCabe; Haghighiabyaneh, Mina; Axelrod, Joshua; Tancioni, Isabelle; Lu, Dan; Bapat, Jaidev; Young, Shanique; Cadassou, Octavia; Bartakova, Alena; Sheth, Parthiv; Haft, Carley; Hui, Sandra; Saenz, Cheryl; Schlaepfer, David D; Harismendy, Olivier; Stupack, Dwayne G

    2017-02-15

    Identification of specific oncogenic gene changes has enabled the modern generation of targeted cancer therapeutics. In high-grade serous ovarian cancer (OV), the bulk of genetic changes is not somatic point mutations, but rather somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs). The impact of SCNAs on tumour biology remains poorly understood. Here we build haploinsufficiency network analyses to identify which SCNA patterns are most disruptive in OV. Of all KEGG pathways (N=187), autophagy is the most significantly disrupted by coincident gene deletions. Compared with 20 other cancer types, OV is most severely disrupted in autophagy and in compensatory proteostasis pathways. Network analysis prioritizes MAP1LC3B (LC3) and BECN1 as most impactful. Knockdown of LC3 and BECN1 expression confers sensitivity to cells undergoing autophagic stress independent of platinum resistance status. The results support the use of pathway network tools to evaluate how the copy-number landscape of a tumour may guide therapy.

  20. Human leukocyte antigen class I expression is an independent prognostic factor in advanced ovarian cancer resistant to first-line platinum chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shehata, M; Mukherjee, A; Deen, S; Al-Attar, A; Durrant, L G; Chan, S

    2009-10-20

    Loss of HLA class I is important in ovarian cancer prognosis but its role as a prognostic indicator in relation to therapy remains unproven. We studied the prognostic potential of this antigen and its significance in relation to platinum therapy. A total of 157 primary ovarian cancers were assessed for HLA class I immunohistochemically and linked to a comprehensive database of clinicopathological variables, treatment details, and platinum sensitivity. Tumours expressing high levels of HLA class I had significantly improved survival (P=0.044). There was a 19-month difference in the median overall survival between tumours with high and low antigen expression. HLA class I antigen expression, stage, and platinum sensitivity were independently predictive of prognosis on multivariate analysis. HLA class I antigen was shown to be expressed at higher levels in patients with good overall survival in platinum-resistant patients (P=0.042). HLA class I significantly correlated with overall survival on multivariate analyses (P=0.034). Low-level HLA class I expression is an independent prognostic indicator of poor clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. The survival advantage of patients with platinum-resistant tumours expressing high levels of HLA class I suggests that immunotherapy may be of use in these ovarian cancers resistant to standard chemotherapy.

  1. Human leukocyte antigen class I expression is an independent prognostic factor in advanced ovarian cancer resistant to first-line platinum chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, M; Mukherjee, A; Deen, S; Al-Attar, A; Durrant, L G; Chan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of HLA class I is important in ovarian cancer prognosis but its role as a prognostic indicator in relation to therapy remains unproven. We studied the prognostic potential of this antigen and its significance in relation to platinum therapy. Methods: A total of 157 primary ovarian cancers were assessed for HLA class I immunohistochemically and linked to a comprehensive database of clinicopathological variables, treatment details, and platinum sensitivity. Results: Tumours expressing high levels of HLA class I had significantly improved survival (P=0.044). There was a 19-month difference in the median overall survival between tumours with high and low antigen expression. HLA class I antigen expression, stage, and platinum sensitivity were independently predictive of prognosis on multivariate analysis. HLA class I antigen was shown to be expressed at higher levels in patients with good overall survival in platinum-resistant patients (P=0.042). HLA class I significantly correlated with overall survival on multivariate analyses (P=0.034). Conclusion: Low-level HLA class I expression is an independent prognostic indicator of poor clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. The survival advantage of patients with platinum-resistant tumours expressing high levels of HLA class I suggests that immunotherapy may be of use in these ovarian cancers resistant to standard chemotherapy. PMID:19755991

  2. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Ovarian Cancer How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged? Survival Rates for Ovarian Cancer, by Stage What Should You Ask Your Doctor ... for Ovarian Cancer How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged? Survival Rates for Ovarian Cancer, by Stage What Should You Ask Your Doctor ...

  3. Ovarian Cancer Development and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    The biology of ovarian carcinoma differs from that of hematogenously metastasizing tumors because ovarian cancer cells primarily disseminate within the peritoneal cavity and are only superficially invasive. However, since the rapidly proliferating tumors compress visceral organs and are only temporarily chemosensitive, ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease, with a cure rate of only 30%. There are a number of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to ovarian carcinoma cell transformation. Ovarian carcinoma could originate from any of three potential sites: the surfaces of the ovary, the fallopian tube, or the mesothelium-lined peritoneal cavity. Ovarian cacinoma tumorigenesis then either progresses along a stepwise mutation process from a slow growing borderline tumor to a well-differentiated carcinoma (type I) or involves a genetically unstable high-grade serous carcinoma that metastasizes rapidly (type II). During initial tumorigenesis, ovarian carcinoma cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which involves a change in cadherin and integrin expression and up-regulation of proteolytic pathways. Carried by the peritoneal fluid, cancer cell spheroids overcome anoikis and attach preferentially on the abdominal peritoneum or omentum, where the cancer cells revert to their epithelial phenotype. The initial steps of metastasis are regulated by a controlled interaction of adhesion receptors and proteases, and late metastasis is characterized by the oncogene-driven fast growth of tumor nodules on mesothelium covered surfaces, causing ascites, bowel obstruction, and tumor cachexia. PMID:20651229

  4. Promoter hypermethylation of FBXO32, a novel TGF-beta/SMAD4 target gene and tumor suppressor, is associated with poor prognosis in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jian-Liang; Su, Her-Young; Chen, Lin-Yu; Liao, Yu-Ping; Hartman-Frey, Corinna; Lai, Yi-Hui; Yang, Hui-Wen; Deatherage, Daniel E; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yan, Pearlly S; Hsiao, Shu-Huei; Tai, Chien-Kuo; Lin, Huey-Jen L; Davuluri, Ramana V; Chao, Tai-Kuang; Nephew, Kenneth P; Huang, Tim H-M; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Chan, Michael W-Y

    2010-03-01

    Resistance to TGF-beta is frequently observed in ovarian cancer, and disrupted TGF-beta/SMAD4 signaling results in the aberrant expression of downstream target genes in the disease. Our previous study showed that ADAM19, a SMAD4 target gene, is downregulated through epigenetic mechanisms in ovarian cancer with aberrant TGF-beta/SMAD4 signaling. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of downregulation of FBXO32, another SMAD4 target gene, and the clinical significance of the loss of FBXO32 expression in ovarian cancer. Expression of FBXO32 was observed in the normal ovarian surface epithelium, but not in ovarian cancer cell lines. FBXO32 methylation was observed in ovarian cancer cell lines displaying constitutive TGF-beta/SMAD4 signaling, and epigenetic drug treatment restored FBXO32 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines regardless of FBXO32 methylation status, suggesting that epigenetic regulation of this gene in ovarian cancer may be a common event. In advanced-stage ovarian tumors, a significant (29.3%; P<0.05) methylation frequency of FBXO32 was observed and the association between FBXO32 methylation and shorter progression-free survival was significant, as determined by both Kaplan-Meier analysis (P<0.05) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio: 1.003, P<0.05). Reexpression of FBXO32 markedly reduced proliferation of a platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo, due to increased apoptosis of the cells, and resensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. In conclusion, the novel tumor suppressor FBXO32 is epigenetically silenced in ovarian cancer cell lines with disrupted TGF-beta/SMAD4 signaling, and FBXO32 methylation status predicts survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

  5. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  6. HOX genes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Zoë L; Michael, Agnieszka; Butler-Manuel, Simon; Pandha, Hardev S; Morgan, Richard Gl

    2011-09-09

    The HOX genes are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cellular identity during development. Here we review a number of recent studies showing that HOX genes are strongly expressed in ovarian cancer, and that in some cases the expression of specific HOX genes is sufficient to confer a particular identity and phenotype upon cancer cells. We also review the recent advances in elucidating the different functions of HOX genes in ovarian cancer. A literature search was performed using the search terms HOX genes (including specific HOX genes), ovarian cancer and oncogenesis. Articles were accessed through searches performed in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Taken together, these studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in the oncogenesis of ovarian cancer and function in the inhibition of apoptosis, DNA repair and enhanced cell motility. The function of HOX genes in ovarian cancer oncogenesis supports their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic markers, and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  7. Combinations of platinums and selected phytochemicals as a means of overcoming resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huq, Fazlul; Yu, Jun Q; Beale, Philip; Chan, Charles; Arzuman, Lalia; Nessa, Meher U; Mazumder, Mohammed E H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are often found to use herbal products along with targeted therapy although not much information (whether beneficial or harmful) is available about the effects of such combinations. In this study, we investigated synergism from the combination of platinum drugs and a number of tumour-active phytochemicals including curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, thymoquinone, genistein, resveratrol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid in three human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R), as a function of concentration and the sequence of administration. Both the dose-effect curves and combination indices show that the binary combinations of platinum drugs with the phytochemicals exert concentration- and sequence-dependent synergism in the cell lines. Generally the degree of synergism is found to be greater in sequenced administration such as 0/2 h, 2/0 h, 0/4 h and 4/0 h than the bolus. The variation in the nature of the combined drug action from being highly synergistic to antagonistic with the change in sequence of administration clearly indicates that the action of one drug modulates that of the other (towards the induction or inhibition of apoptosis). We have also used sequenced combinations of platinum drugs and bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor that prevents cisplatin-induced proteasomal degration of copper transporter CTR1) to enhance cellular platinum accumulation and the level of platinum-DNA binding especially in the resistant human ovarian tumour models. Proteomic studies to identify the key proteins associated with platinum resistance are ongoing. We have identified 59 proteins associated with platinum resistance in ovarian tumor models.

  8. Targeted Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui Jun; Ledger, William

    2016-01-01

    Among female-specific cancers worldwide, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the western world. Despite radical surgery and initial high response rates to first-line chemotherapy, up to 70% of patients experience relapses with a median progression-free survival of 12–18 months. There remains an urgent need for novel targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. This review aims to assess current understanding of targeted therapy in ovarian cancer and evaluate the evidence for targeting growth-dependent mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Of the many targeted therapies currently under evaluation, the most promising strategies developed thus far are antiangiogenic agents and PARP inhibitors. PMID:27215391

  9. Epigenetic Characterization of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    cell lines A549 H1299 H2347 Lung cancer H460 H1993 AGS Gastric cancer HCT116 Colon...tumors. Cancer Res, 2008. 68(11): p. 4311-20. 4. Abecassis, I., et al., Re- expression of DNA methylation-silenced CD44 gene in a resistant NB4 cell line ...reactivate expression (Figure 2B). We examined the level of expression of CDH4 in 43 ovarian cell lines (41 cancer cell

  10. Evaluation of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillontownes, Lawrence A.; Alderfer, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration and stability of four surface temperature measuring industrial platinum resistance thermometers for use in the temperature range -120 C to 160 C was investigated. It was found that the calibration formulation of the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 provided the most accurate calibration. It was also found that all the resistance thermometers suffered from varying degrees of instability and hysteresis.

  11. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  13. Study of ovarian cancer management.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, E; Javaid, T; Cooley, S; Byrne, P; Gaughan, G

    2006-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Many patients present at an advanced stage as the symptoms of early stage disease can be vague. AIM We evaluated the demographics, treatment regimens and survival rates of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital Dublin over a nine year period. A retrospective chart review of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital between 11/10/94 and 30/6/3 was performed. Patients were selected from pathology records. Patients with borderline histology and those who died of unrelated causes were excluded. 31% of individuals presented with distension as their only clinical sign. 20% presented with a mass as their only clinical sign. The most common cell type was papillary serous adenocarcinoma in two thirds of cases. 54% presented with advanced disease [stage IIl-IV]. Treatment involved surgical clearance or debulking +/- chemotherapy. 5 year survival for Stage I was 95% versus 19% for Stage IlI. This highlights the importance of early diagnosis.

  14. Anticancer potential of diarylidenyl piperidone derivatives, HO-4200 and H-4318, in cisplatin resistant primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Saini, Uksha; Naidu, Shan; Wanner, Ross; Sudhakar, Millie; Fowler, John; Nagane, Masaki; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Cohn, David E; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2016-10-02

    We have previously developed a novel class of bi-functional compounds based on a diarylidenyl-piperidone (DAP) backbone conjugated to an N-hydroxypyrroline (-NOH; a nitroxide precursor) group capable of selectively inhibiting STAT3 activation, translocation, and DNA binding activity. HO-4200 and H-4318 are 2 such derivatives capable of inducing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells through this mechanism and demonstrated efficacy in platinum resistant primary ovarian cancer cell populations and tumor tissues. The improved absorption and cellular uptake of HO-4200 by cancer cells was determined using optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with HO-4200 and H-4318 resulted in cleavage of caspase proteins 3, 7, and 9, as well as PARP and inhibition of the pro-survival protein, Bcl-xL, resulting in significantly decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis. HO-4200 and H-4318 significantly inhibit fatty acid synthase (FAS) and pSTAT3 and decreased the expression of STAT3 target proteins: Survivin, c-myc, Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, cyclin D1/D2, and VEGF were suppressed as analyzed using quantitative real time PCR. In addition, HO-4200 and H-4318 significantly inhibited migration/invasion, in primary ovarian cancer cell populations isolated from primary and recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Treatment of freshly collected human ovarian tumor sections with HO-4200 demonstrated significant suppression of pSTAT3 Tyr 705, angiogenesis (VEFG), and markers of proliferation (Ki-67) in ex vivo models. We have shown, for the first time, that the DAP compounds, HO-4200 and H-4318, inhibit cell migration/invasion and induce apoptosis by targeting FAS/STAT3 in human ovarian cancer cells, including primary ovarian cancer cell populations and tumor tissues. Therefore, our results highlight the clinical anti-cancer potential of HO-4200 and H-4318.

  15. Annexin A4 induces platinum resistance in a chloride-and calcium-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Akiko; Serada, Satoshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kim, Ayako; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Fujimoto, Minoru; Kimura, Tadashi; Naka, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    Platinum resistance has long been a major issue in the treatment of various cancers. We previously reported that enhanced annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression, a Ca2+-regulated phospholipid-binding protein, induces chemoresistance to platinum-based drugs. In this study, we investigated the role of annexin repeats, a conserved structure of all the annexin family, responsible for platinum-resistance as well as the effect of knockdown of ANXA4. ANXA4 knockdown increased sensitivity to platinum-based drugs both in vitro and in vivo. To identify the domain responsible for chemoresistance, ANXA4 deletion mutants were constructed by deleting annexin repeats one by one from the C terminus. Platinum resistance was induced both in vitro and in vivo in cells expressing either full-length ANXA4 or the deletion mutants, containing at least one intact annexin repeat. However, cells expressing the mutant without any calcium-binding sites in the annexin repeated sequence, which is essential for ANXA4 translocation from the cytosol to plasma membrane, failed to acquire platinum resistance. After cisplatin treatment, the intracellular chloride ion concentration, whose channel is partly regulated by ANXA4, significantly increased in the platinum-resistant cells. These findings indicate that the calcium-binding site in the annexin repeat induces chemoresistance to the platinum-based drug by elevating the intracellular chloride concentration. PMID:25277200

  16. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  17. Immunotherapy in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer: State of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Jole; Paciolla, Immacolata; Pisano, Carmela; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Di Napoli, Marilena; Tambaro, Rosa; Califano, Daniela; Losito, Simona; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Arenare, Laura; Pignata, Sandro; Della Pepa, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    The tumors of the female genital tract represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Substantial progresses have been made in ovarian cancer, with the increasing knowledge about BRCA mutated tumors and the recent development of PARP inhibitors, and in cervical cancer, thanks to extensive screening and widespread of vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus. Nevertheless many needs remain unmet, advanced stage diseases are still incurable and cervical and endometrial carcinoma, as well as platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma, can certainly be classifiable among the cancers with poor sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy. Immunotherapy, including a number of approaches, checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cellular transfer, vaccines, has experienced a remarkable growth in the last few years and it is already an available option in melanoma, lung and renal malignancies. We reviewed the main findings about the immune microenvironment in ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer with a special focus on the clinical data, the therapeutic implications and the most promising novel agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tunneling nanotube formation is stimulated by hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel I.; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Wong, Phillip; Teoh, Deanna; Geller, Melissa A.; Steer, Clifford J.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Lou, Emil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that hypoxic conditions stimulated an increase in tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3, C200). We found that suppressing the mTOR pathway using either everolimus or metformin led to suppression of TNT formation in vitro, verifying TNTs as a potential target for cancer-directed therapy. Additionally, TNT formation was detected in co-cultures including between platinum-resistant SKOV3 cells, between SKOV3 cells and platinum-chemosensitive A2780 cells, and between SKOV3 cells cultured with benign ovarian epithelial (IOSE) cells; these findings indicate that TNTs are novel conduits for malignant cell interactions and tumor cell interactions with other cells in the microenvironment. When chemoresistant C200 and parent chemosensitive A2780 cells were co-cultured, chemoresistant cells displayed a higher likelihood of TNT formation to each other than to chemosensitive malignant or benign epithelial cells. Hypoxia-induced TNT formation represents a potential mechanism for intercellular communication in ovarian cancer and other forms of invasive refractory cancers. PMID:27223082

  19. Targeting Notch, a key pathway for ovarian cancer stem cells, sensitizes tumors to platinum therapy.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Shannon M; Morgan, Stefanie L; Wyant, Gregory A; Tran, Lieu T; Muto, Katherine W; Chen, Yu Sarah; Chin, Kenneth T; Partridge, Justin C; Poole, Barish B; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Daggett, John; Cullen, Kristen; Kantoff, Emily; Hasselbatt, Kathleen; Berkowitz, Julia; Muto, Michael G; Berkowitz, Ross S; Aster, Jon C; Matulonis, Ursula A; Dinulescu, Daniela M

    2012-10-23

    Chemoresistance to platinum therapy is a major obstacle that needs to be overcome in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. The high rates and patterns of therapeutic failure seen in patients are consistent with a steady accumulation of drug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study demonstrates that the Notch signaling pathway and Notch3 in particular are critical for the regulation of CSCs and tumor resistance to platinum. We show that Notch3 overexpression in tumor cells results in expansion of CSCs and increased platinum chemoresistance. In contrast, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), a Notch pathway inhibitor, depletes CSCs and increases tumor sensitivity to platinum. Similarly, a Notch3 siRNA knockdown increases the response to platinum therapy, further demonstrating that modulation of tumor chemosensitivity by GSI is Notch specific. Most importantly, the cisplatin/GSI combination is the only treatment that effectively eliminates both CSCs and the bulk of tumor cells, indicating that a dual combination targeting both populations is needed for tumor eradication. In addition, we found that the cisplatin/GSI combination therapy has a synergistic cytotoxic effect in Notch-dependent tumor cells by enhancing the DNA-damage response, G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Based on these results, we conclude that targeting the Notch pathway could significantly increase tumor sensitivity to platinum therapy. Our study suggests important clinical applications for targeting Notch as part of novel treatment strategies upon diagnosis of ovarian cancer and at recurrence. Both platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive relapses may benefit from such an approach as clinical data suggest that all relapses after platinum therapy are increasingly platinum resistant.

  20. Bevacizumab in ovarian cancer: A critical review of phase III studies.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luigi; Verrico, Monica; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Papa, Anselmo; Colonna, Maria; Strudel, Martina; Vici, Patrizia; Bianco, Vincenzo; Tomao, Federica

    2017-02-14

    Bevacizumab (BV) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and it is the first molecular-targeted agent to be used for the treatment of ovarian cancer (OC). Randomized Phase III trials evaluated the combination of BV plus standard chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced OC and for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent OC. These trials reported a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival but not in overall survival. Furthermore, BV effectively improved the quality of life with regard to abdominal symptoms in recurrent OC patients. Bevacizumab is associated with adverse events such as hypertension, bleeding, thromboembolism, proteinuria, delayed wound healing, and gastrointestinal events. However, most of these events can be adequately managed. This review describes the latest evidence for BV treatment of OC and selection of patients for personalized treatment.

  1. MUC1 in endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Anda M; Diaconu, Iulia; Gantt, Kira R

    2006-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, debilitating disease, associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that women with endometriosis are at increased risk for ovarian cancer. Although the causative factors for both endometriosis and ovarian cancer remain largely unknown, several similarities between the proposed etiology of ovarian cancer and the observed pathophysiology of endometriosis have been reported. MUC1 glycoprotein is present in endometriotic lesions and overexpressed in epithelial ovarian tumors. We are currently studying immunity to MUC1 antigen in newly emerging preclinical models for endometriosis and ovarian cancer and exploring the potential for immune therapy/prevention with MUC1 in both diseases.

  2. Efficacy and safety of olaparib monotherapy in germline BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with advanced ovarian cancer and three or more lines of prior therapy.

    PubMed

    Domchek, Susan M; Aghajanian, Carol; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Schmutzler, Rita K; Audeh, M William; Friedlander, Michael; Balmaña, Judith; Mitchell, Gillian; Fried, Georgeta; Stemmer, Salomon M; Hubert, Ayala; Rosengarten, Ora; Loman, Niklas; Robertson, Jane D; Mann, Helen; Kaufman, Bella

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, was investigated in a subgroup of patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutated (gBRCA1/2m) advanced ovarian cancer who had received ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy. Primary data from this Phase II study (Study 42, ClinicalTrials.govNCT01078662) have been reported previously. Eligible patients were treated with oral olaparib 400mg bid capsule monotherapy until disease progression according to RECIST v1.1. Objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DoR) were assessed for patients with measurable disease at baseline. Safety and tolerability were assessed for all patients by adverse event (AE) incidence and changes in laboratory parameters. Platinum resistance status was obtained retrospectively, and responses to olaparib evaluated. In patients with gBRCA1/2m ovarian cancer, 154/193 (80%) had received ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy, of whom 137/154 (89%) had measurable disease at baseline. ORR was 34% (46/137; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26-42) and median DoR was 7.9 (95% CI 5.6-9.6) months. ORR in platinum-resistant tumors was 30%. Median DoR for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant disease was similar: 8.2months (95% CI 5.6-13.5) compared with 8.0months (4.8-14.8), respectively. Six of the 193 (3%) patients had an AE with an outcome of death. None of these AEs at time of occurrence was considered causally related to olaparib. Following ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy, olaparib 400mg bid (capsule form) monotherapy demonstrated notable antitumor activity in patients with gBRCA1/2m advanced ovarian cancer. No new safety signals were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of olaparib monotherapy in germline BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with advanced ovarian cancer and three or more lines of prior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Domchek, Susan M; Aghajanian, Carol; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Schmutzler, Rita K; Audeh, M William; Friedlander, Michael; Balmaña, Judith; Mitchell, Gillian; Fried, Georgeta; Stemmer, Salomon M; Hubert, Ayala; Rosengarten, Ora; Loman, Niklas; Robertson, Jane D; Mann, Helen; Kaufman, Bella

    2016-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, was investigated in a subgroup of patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutated (gBRCA1/2m) advanced ovarian cancer who had received ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy. Primary data from this Phase II study (Study 42, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01078662) have been reported previously. Methods Eligible patients were treated with oral olaparib 400 mg bid capsule monotherapy until disease progression according to RECIST v1.1. Objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DoR) were assessed for patients with measurable disease at baseline. Safety and tolerability were assessed for all patients by adverse event (AE) incidence and changes in laboratory parameters. Platinum resistance status was obtained retrospectively, and responses to olaparib evaluated. Results In patients with gBRCA1/2m ovarian cancer, 154/193 (80%) had received ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy, of whom 137/154 (89%) had measurable disease at baseline. ORR was 34% (46/137; 95% confidence interval [CI] 26–42) and median DoR was 7.9 (95% CI 5.6–9.6) months. ORR in platinum-resistant tumors was 30%. Median DoR for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant disease was similar: 8.2 months (95% CI 5.6–13.5) compared with 8.0 months (4.8–14.8), respectively. Six of the 193 (3%) patients had an AE with an outcome of death. None of these AEs at time of occurrence was considered causally related to olaparib. Conclusion Following ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy, olaparib 400 mg bid (capsule form) monotherapy demonstrated notable antitumor activity in patients with gBRCA1/2m advanced ovarian cancer. No new safety signals were identified. PMID:26723501

  4. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to be removed by the time the woman is 35. Some women who have a high risk of ovarian cancer due to BRCA gene mutations feel that having their ovaries and fallopian tubes removed is not right for them. Often doctors recommend that those women ...

  5. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Since reduction of ovulation is protective against ovarian cancer, prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing mortality . To achieve a...potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women...A chemoprevention trial is ongoing in chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  6. Ovarian cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The present overview of ovarian cancer epidemiology summarizes the main results for a network of case-control studies in Italy and from the Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. There are consistent inverse relations between parity, oral contraceptive use and the risk of ovarian cancer. For other menstrual and hormonal factors (i.e. early age at menarche and late menopause), there are established associations, but of limited impact on ovarian cancer incidence on a population level. Serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers (but not mucinous or clear cell types) are related to current and recent use of hormone replacement therapy in menopause. There are no strong associations with alcohol and tobacco overall, but a direct link for tobacco with (borderline) mucinous cancers, of limited impact, however, on overall ovarian cancer mortality. There are direct associations of ovarian cancer risk with height and BMI, as well as possible relations with selected dietary factors - in the absence, however, of consistent findings - and a possible inverse association with physical activity. There is a strong association with a family history of ovarian cancer (and a few selected other neoplasms, including colorectum and endometrium). Recognized risk factors explain only a limited proportion of ovarian cancer cases on a population level. A key reason for the recent favourable trends of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in several high-income countries is the widespread use of oral contraceptive in the generations born after 1930.

  7. Ovarian cancer: targeting the untargetable.

    PubMed

    Birrer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The premise that all tumors are targetable has been met with some controversy in the approach to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Genomic analysis shows that these tumors (specifically, high-grade serous carcinomas) are genomically unstable and lack actionable driver mutations, much like HER2 in breast and gastric cancers. In this paper, Michael Birrer, MD, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital, argues that the interpretation of genomic data in ovarian cancer requires a more thoughtful approach that necessitates a closer inspection of the data beyond the mere presence or absence of mutations. We must look at the extensive genomic alterations in DNA and, to understand more about the role of those genes affected by these changes, look beyond the tumor to the role of the stroma. As such, Dr. Birrer is arguing for the importance of translational research. This will be the key to precision medicine in ovarian cancer, as we approach drug discovery and improvements in treatment. Dr. Birrer is a world-renowned scientist who has devoted his career to the study of gynecologic cancers. He has published over 200 papers and written over 27 book chapters and reviews, served on numerous leadership positions in gynecologic oncology (including as co-chair of the National Cancer Institute's Gynecologic Cancer Steering Committee), and remains a clinician-scientist with an active lab and an active clinic. His career trajectory has shown me it is possible to be engaged as a researcher and a clinician and the work he has done has already impacted the care of patients with ovarian cancer. Don S. Dizon, MD, ASCO Educational Book Editor.

  8. Cisplatin and Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-06

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  9. F14512, a polyamine-vectorized inhibitor of topoisomerase II, exhibits a marked anti-tumor activity in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Benoît; Clement, Emily; Zorza, Grégoire; Meignan, Samuel; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Couderc, Bettina; Bailly, Christian; Narducci, Fabrice; Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Kruczynski, Anna; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Ferré, Pierre; Annereau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fourth cause of death among cancer-bearing women and frequently associated with carboplatin resistance, underlining the need for more efficient and targeted therapies. F14512 is an epipodophylotoxin-core linked to a spermine chain which enters cells via the polyamine transport system (PTS). Here, we investigate this novel concept of vectorization in ovarian cancer. We compared the effects of etoposide and F14512 on a panel of five carboplatin-sensitive or resistant ovarian cancer models. We assessed the incorporation of F17073, a spermine-linked fluorescent probe, in these cells and in 18 clinical samples. We then showed that F14512 exhibits a high anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity, particularly in cells with high levels of F17073 incorporation. Consistently, F14512 significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to etoposide, in a cisplatin-resistant A2780R subcutaneous model, at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg. In addition, ex vivo analysis indicated that 15 out of 18 patients presented a higher F17073 incorporation into tumor cells compared to normal cells. Overall, our data suggest that F14512, a targeted drug with a potent anti-tumor efficacy, constitutes a potential new therapy for highly PTS-positive and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer-bearing patients.

  10. Olaparib for the treatment of BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Marklie; Kolesar, Jill

    2016-07-15

    The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and role in therapy of olaparib, a first-in-class treatment for advanced treatment-refractory ovarian cancer, are reviewed. Olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca) is an oral inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins that play a key role in DNA repair and genomic stability. Olaparib is indicated for use in treating certain patients with advanced, recurrent ovarian cancer who have mutations of the breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2). In patients with BRCA-mutated cancers, olaparib blocks vital PARP-mediated tumor cell DNA repair mechanisms, leading to "synthetic lethality" and selective tumor cell death. In Phase II clinical trials including patients with platinum-sensitive, platinum-resistant, and platinum-refractory ovarian cancers, olaparib significantly improved progression-free survival, with similar rates of response reported in patients with BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated disease. Olaparib is generally well tolerated; the most commonly reported adverse events in clinical trials were mild nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Severe anemia and severe fatigue can occur in association with olaparib treatment. Concurrent administration of olaparib and strong or moderate inducers or inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 isozyme 3A should be avoided, as use of those agents may alter plasma concentrations of olaparib. Olaparib is a novel PARP inhibitor that is efficacious and well tolerated in patients with BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancers who have received three or more lines of prior treatment. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenomics of Ovarian Cancer and Its Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaping; Hardy, Tabitha M.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major cause of death among gynecological cancers and its etiology is still unclear. Currently, the two principle obstacles in treating this life threatening disease are lack of effective biomarkers for early detection and drug resistance after initial chemotherapy. Similar to other cancers, the initiation and development of ovarian cancer is characterized by disruption of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. While it is well known that it is challenging to treat ovarian cancer through a genetic strategy due in part to its heterogeneity, the reversibility of epigenetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer opens exciting new avenues for treatment. The epigenomics of ovarian cancer has therefore become a rapidly expanding field leading to intense investigation. A review on the current status of the field is thus warranted. In this analysis, we will evaluate the current status of epigenomics of ovarian cancer and will include epigenetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer development such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding microRNA. Development of biomarkers, the epigenetic basis for drug resistance and improved chemotherapy for ovarian cancer will also be assessed. In addition, the potential use of natural compounds as epigenetic modulators in chemotherapy shows promise in moving to the forefront of ovarian cancer treatment strategies. PMID:22303362

  12. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:20146807

  13. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  14. Platelet effects on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ashley N; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    Growing understanding of the role of thrombocytosis, high platelet turnover, and the presence of activated platelets in the circulation in cancer progression and metastasis has brought megakaryocytes into focus. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. However, before megakaryocyte/platelet-directed therapies can be considered for clinical use, understanding of the mechanism and biology of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in malignancy is required. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical implications, biological significance, and mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in the context of ovarian cancer.

  15. Accumulation of ALDH1-positive cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts treatment resistance and prognosticates poor outcome in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Debald, Manuel; Rostamzadeh, Babak; Thiesler, Thore; Schröder, Lars; Barchet, Winfried; Abramian, Alina; Kaiser, Christina; Kristiansen, Glen; Kuhn, Walther; Kübler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although ovarian cancer is a highly chemosensitive disease, it is only infrequently cured. One of the major reasons lies in the presence of drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells, sufficient to fuel recurrence. We phenotyped cancer stem-like cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in 55 matched samples before and after taxane/platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All used markers of stemness (ALDH1, CD24, CD117, CD133) isolated low frequencies of malignant cells. ALDH1 was the most valuable marker for tracking stemness in vivo. The enrichment of ALDH1 expression after treatment was associated with a poor response to chemotherapy, with platinum resistance and independently prognosticated unfavorable outcome. Our results suggest that increased ALDH1 expression after treatment identifies patients with aggressive tumor phenotypes. PMID:25999351

  16. Accumulation of ALDH1-positive cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts treatment resistance and prognosticates poor outcome in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Tiyasha H; Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Debald, Manuel; Rostamzadeh, Babak; Thiesler, Thore; Schröder, Lars; Barchet, Winfried; Abramian, Alina; Kaiser, Christina; Kristiansen, Glen; Kuhn, Walther; Kübler, Kirsten

    2015-06-30

    Although ovarian cancer is a highly chemosensitive disease, it is only infrequently cured. One of the major reasons lies in the presence of drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells, sufficient to fuel recurrence. We phenotyped cancer stem-like cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in 55 matched samples before and after taxane/platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All used markers of stemness (ALDH1, CD24, CD117, CD133) isolated low frequencies of malignant cells. ALDH1 was the most valuable marker for tracking stemness in vivo. The enrichment of ALDH1 expression after treatment was associated with a poor response to chemotherapy, with platinum resistance and independently prognosticated unfavorable outcome. Our results suggest that increased ALDH1 expression after treatment identifies patients with aggressive tumor phenotypes.

  17. Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    platform that could enhance OC diagnosis by integrating PET / CT and fluorescence imaging, and improve OC therapeutic efficacy and specificity by tailoring...Oza) for Phase I clinical trials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ovarian cancer, Folate receptor, Porphysome, Targeting therapy, Fluorescence imaging, PET / CT ...G: Liver. Figure 13. Ovarian cancer metastasis detected by 64 Cu-PLP. a. Representative whole-body PET / CT image of mouse with ovarian cancer

  18. Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0442 TITLE: Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gang Zheng CONTRACTING...Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0442 5b. GRANT NUMBER W91ZSQ9277N522 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Image Guided Surgery; Biodistribution; Ovarian Cancer ; Preclinical Models. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  19. Early Preinvasive Lesions in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chene, Gautier; Lamblin, Gery; Le Bail-Carval, Karine; Chabert, Philippe; Bakrin, Naoual; Mellier, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Faced with the catastrophic prognosis for ovarian cancer due to the fact that it is most often diagnosed late at the peritoneal carcinomatosis stage, screening and early detection could probably reduce the mortality rate. A better understanding of the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subtypes and their specific molecular signatures is indispensable prior to development of new screening strategies. We discuss here the early natural history of ovarian cancer and its origins. PMID:24804229

  20. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  1. Ovarian Cancer: Still Possible After Hysterectomy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Is ovarian cancer still possible after a hysterectomy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Yes, ... primary peritoneal cancer) if you've had a hysterectomy. Your risk depends on the type of hysterectomy ...

  2. Defective hCNT1 transport contributes to gemcitabine chemoresistance in ovarian cancer subtypes: overcoming transport defects using a nanoparticle approach.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sau Wai; Marrache, Sean; Cummins, Shannon; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Mody, Hardik; Hooks, Shelley B; Dhar, Shanta; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2015-04-10

    Nucleoside analogs are used as chemotherapeutic options for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancers. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) is implicated in sensitizing solid tumors to nucleoside analogs although its role in determining drug efficacy in ovarian cancers remains unclear. Here we examined the functional expression of hCNT1 and compared its contributions toward gemcitabine efficacy in histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Radioactivity analysis identified hCNT1-mediated (3)H-gemcitabine transport in ovarian cancer cells to be significantly reduced compared with that of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis identified that unlike normal ovarian cells which expressed high levels of hCNT1 at the apical cell surface, the transporter was either diminished in expression and/or mislocalized in cell lines of various subtypes of ovarian cancer. Retroviral expression of hCNT1 selectively rescued gemcitabine transport in cell lines representing serous, teratocarcinoma, and endometrioid subtypes, but not clear cell carcinoma (CCC). In addition, exogenous hCNT1 predominantly accumulated in intracytoplasmic vesicles in CCC suggesting defective cellular trafficking of hCNT1 as a contributing factor to transport deficiency. Despite diminution of hCNT1 transport in the majority of ovarian cancers and apparent trafficking defects with CCC, the chemotherapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine was broadly enhanced in all subtypes when delivered via engineered nanoparticles (NPs). Additionally, by bypassing the transport requirement, the delivery of a gemcitabine-cisplatin combination in NP formulation increased their synergistic interactions. These findings uncover hCNT1 as a putative determinant for nucleoside analog chemoresistance in ovarian cancer and may help rationalize drug selection and delivery strategies for various histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  3. Defective hCNT1 Transport Contributes to Gemcitabine Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer Subtypes: Overcoming Transport Defects Using a Nanoparticle Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Sau Wai; Marrache, Sean; Cummins, Shannon; Bhutia, Yangzom D.; Mody, Hardik; Hooks, Shelley B.; Dhar, Shanta; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are used as chemotherapeutic options for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancers. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) is implicated in sensitizing solid tumors to nucleoside analogs although its role in determining drug efficacy in ovarian cancers remains unclear. Here we examined the functional expression of hCNT1 and compared its contributions towards gemcitabine efficacy in histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Radioactivity analysis identified hCNT1-mediated 3H-gemcitabine transport in ovarian cancer cells to be significantly reduced compared with that of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis identified that unlike normal ovarian cells which expressed high levels of hCNT1 at the apical cell surface, the transporter was either diminished in expression and/or mislocalized in cell lines of various subtypes of ovarian cancer. Retroviral expression of hCNT1 selectively rescued gemcitabine transport in cell lines representing serous, teratocarcinoma, and endometrioid subtypes, but not clear cell carcinoma (CCC). In addition, exogenous hCNT1 predominantly accumulated in intracytoplasmic vesicles in CCC suggesting defective cellular trafficking of hCNT1 as a contributing factor to transport deficiency. Despite diminution of hCNT1 transport in the majority of ovarian cancers and apparent trafficking defects with CCC, the chemotherapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine was broadly enhanced in all subtypes when delivered via engineered nanoparticles (NPs). Additionally, by bypassing the transport requirement, the delivery of a gemcitabine-cisplatin combination in NP formulation increased their synergistic interactions. These findings uncover hCNT1 as a putative determinant for nucleoside analog chemoresistance in ovarian cancer and may help rationalize drug selection and delivery strategies for various histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. PMID:25600708

  4. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    tissue and 10 blood samples have been collected to date. We are in the process of cross -checking with the local Gynaecology-Oncology register and the...ongoing basis (b) Data will be cleaned using frequency and range checks, implausible values will be cross -checked against the original questionnaires and...Initially, a cross -validated model of gene expression in primary ovarian cancer vs. over 100 other primary tumours was created and applied to LMP

  6. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... other parts of the body. This is called metastasis. Cancer that starts in the ovaries and spreads ... other parts of the body. This is called metastasis (muh-TAS-tuh-sis). Cancer that starts in ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer in Hereditary Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Nakonechny, Quentin B; Gilks, C Blake

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome and Lynch syndrome (LS) are associated with increased risk of developing ovarian carcinoma. Patients with HBOC have a lifetime risk of up to 50% of developing high-grade serous carcinoma of tube or ovary; patients with LS have a 10% lifetime risk of developing endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Testing all patients with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma for mutations associated with HBOC syndrome, and all patients presenting with endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma of the ovary for mutations associated with LS can identify patients with undiagnosed underlying hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 'plunge method' recommended by ASTM has been used to determine the time constant of 100-ohm platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) considered for use in the National Transonic Facility. It is shown that the response time of ventilated PRT can be correlated with the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient in a given field. Universal correlations are established for the 100- and 1000-ohm PRT with uncertainties of 20 and 30 percent, respectively. The correlations are found to be consistent with the uncertainty involved in heat transfer correlations available in the literature and are recommended for use in flowing liquids and gases.

  9. Response time correlations for platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Ash, R. L.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 'plunge method' recommended by ASTM has been used to determine the time constant of 100-ohm platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) considered for use in the National Transonic Facility. It is shown that the response time of ventilated PRT can be correlated with the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient in a given field. Universal correlations are established for the 100- and 1000-ohm PRT with uncertainties of 20 and 30 percent, respectively. The correlations are found to be consistent with the uncertainty involved in heat transfer correlations available in the literature and are recommended for use in flowing liquids and gases.

  10. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup: Recommendations on incorporating patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Joly, Florence; Hilpert, Felix; Okamoto, Aikou; Stuart, Gavin; Ochiai, Kasunori; Friedlander, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Despite the support for including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life in clinical trials, there have been deficiencies in how these have been assessed and reported in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) clinical trials. To redress this, the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference, included a plenary session entitled 'How to include PROs in clinical trials'. The perspective is a summary of the recommendations made by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup unanimously agreed on the importance of PROs and PRO end-points in EOC clinical trials. They recognised that effort must be made to ensure the integrity of collection of PRO data and to avoid missing data. PRO end-points should be based on the PRO hypotheses, be context specific and reflect the patient population and the objectives of treatment (e.g. first line, maintenance therapy, early or late relapse). The PRO end-points inform the choice of PRO measures used in the trial and how the results are analysed and reported. There was agreement that progression-free survival should be supported by PROs among patients with late relapse (platinum sensitive) and that progression-free survival alone was not sufficient as the primary end-point of clinical trials in patients with platinum resistant/refractory EOC and PROs should be included as either the primary/co-primary end-point in this subset of patients. Novel approaches to measure the benefit of palliative chemotherapy such as time until definitive deterioration of Health-Related Quality of Life were recommended. There was consensus to endorse the ISOQOL and CONSORT-PRO guidelines on the inclusion and reporting of PRO endpoints in protocols and that all future EOC Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup trials should adhere to these. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of trials in ovarian cancer by line of therapy and platinum sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shaboodien, Roekshana; Diamantis, Nikolaos; Blagden, Sarah; Gabra, Hani; Agarwal, Roshan

    2013-03-01

    To rapidly evaluate the significant numbers of novel therapies entering clinical development requires maximization of clinical trial capacity. To enable this, we evaluated the profile of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in clinical practice, compared with those targeted in clinical trials. Patients with EOC treated between March-September 2009 (cohort A, n = 115 patients) and January-July 2012 (cohort B, n = 109 patients), in the North West London Cancer Network with a catchment of 1.2 million, were identified. Patient characteristics were compared with phase II/III EOC studies identified using clinicaltrials.gov (85 trials; 54,603 patients). In cohort A, comparing the proportion of patients in clinical practice with those in trials, 40% versus 55% (P = 0.0006) were chemotherapy-naive, 20% versus 9% (P < 0.0001) had platinum-resistant disease (platinum-free interval, <6 months), 16.2% versus 39% (P < 0.0001) were receiving second line, and 43.8% versus 5% (P < 0.0001) third-line chemotherapy or greater, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of treated patients had a performance status of 2 or less. These results were validated in cohort B, U.K. National Cancer Research Network and U.S. Gynecologic Oncology Group trial databases. These results provide the data to enable EOC trial portfolios to be balanced to clinical practice and suggest an increase in emphasis on trials for patients with platinum-resistant disease and third-line chemotherapy or greater, to address an area of clinical need and maximize recruitment.

  12. BAD phosphorylation determines ovarian cancer chemosensitivity and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Marchion, Douglas C; Cottrill, Hope M; Xiong, Yin; Chen, Ning; Bicaku, Elona; Fulp, William J; Bansal, Nisha; Chon, Hye Sook; Stickles, Xiaomang B; Kamath, Siddharth G; Hakam, Ardeshir; Li, Lihua; Su, Dan; Moreno, Carolina; Judson, Patricia L; Berchuck, Andrew; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Bloom, Gregory C; Eschrich, Steven A; Sebti, Said; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2011-10-01

    Despite initial sensitivity to chemotherapy, ovarian cancers (OVCA) often develop drug resistance, which limits patient survival. Using specimens and/or genomic data from 289 patients and a panel of cancer cell lines, we explored genome-wide expression changes that underlie the evolution of OVCA chemoresistance and characterized the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) apoptosis pathway as a determinant of chemosensitivity and patient survival. Serial OVCA cell cisplatin treatments were performed in parallel with measurements of genome-wide expression changes. Pathway analysis was carried out on genes associated with increasing cisplatin resistance (EC(50)). BAD-pathway expression and BAD protein phosphorylation were evaluated in patient samples and cell lines as determinants of chemosensitivity and/or clinical outcome and as therapeutic targets. Induced in vitro OVCA cisplatin resistance was associated with BAD-pathway expression (P < 0.001). In OVCA cell lines and primary specimens, BAD protein phosphorylation was associated with platinum resistance (n = 147, P < 0.0001) and also with overall patient survival (n = 134, P = 0.0007). Targeted modulation of BAD-phosphorylation levels influenced cisplatin sensitivity. A 47-gene BAD-pathway score was associated with in vitro phosphorylated BAD levels and with survival in 142 patients with advanced-stage (III/IV) serous OVCA. Integration of BAD-phosphorylation or BAD-pathway score with OVCA surgical cytoreductive status was significantly associated with overall survival by log-rank test (P = 0.004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The BAD apoptosis pathway influences OVCA chemosensitivity and overall survival, likely via modulation of BAD phosphorylation. The pathway has clinical relevance as a biomarker of therapeutic response, patient survival, and as a promising therapeutic target. ©2011 AACR

  13. Aromatase expression in ovarian epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Cunat, S; Rabenoelina, F; Daurès, J-P; Katsaros, D; Sasano, H; Miller, W R; Maudelonde, T; Pujol, P

    2005-01-01

    Our study focused on aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) expression in ovarian epithelial normal and cancer cells and tissues. Aromatase mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR in ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines, in human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell primary cultures, and in ovarian tissue specimens (n=94), including normal ovaries, ovarian cysts and cancers. Aromatase mRNA was found to be expressed in HOSE cells, in BG1, PEO4 and PEO14, but not in SKOV3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Correlation analysis of aromatase expression was performed according to clinical, histological and biological parameters. Aromatase expression in ovarian tissue specimens was higher in normal ovaries and cysts than in cancers (P<0.0001). Using laser capture microdissection in normal postmenopausal ovaries, aromatase was found to be predominantly expressed in epithelial cells as compared to stromal component. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), aromatase was also detected in the epithelium component. There was an inverse correlation between aromatase and ERalpha expression in ovarian tissues (P<0.001, r=-0.34). In the cancer group, no significant differences in aromatase expression were observed according to tumor histotype, grade, stage and survival. Aromatase activity was evaluated in ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) cell lines by the tritiated water assay and the effects of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on aromatase activity and growth were studied. Letrozole and exemestane were able to completely inhibit aromatase activity in BG1 and PEO14 cell lines. Interestingly, both AI showed an antiproliferative effect on the estrogen responsive BG1 cell line co-expressing aromatase and ERalpha. Aromatase expression was found in ovarian epithelial normal tissues and in some ovarian epithelial cancer cells and tissues. This finding raises the possibility that some tumors may respond to estrogen and provides a basis for ascertaining an antimitogenic

  14. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Prognostic Nutritional Index in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients Treated with Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) used as a prognostic marker for predicting response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with a new diagnosis of EOC receiving postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy were identified. The PNI was calculated as 10 × serum albumin value (g/dl) + 0.005 × peripheral lymphocyte count (per mm3). Patients were divided into a platinum-resistant (P-R) group and a platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to the chemotherapeutic response. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the optimal cut-off value for PNI to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. A total of 344 patients were enrolled. Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of PIN < 45 to predict platinum resistance were: 0.688, 62.50%, and 83.47%, respectively. Patients with a lower PNI (< 45) had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PNI showed a significant association with PFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.890, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.396-2.560; p < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.747, 95% CI 1.293-2.360; p < 0.001). Our results suggest that PNI assessment could assist the identification of patients with a poor prognosis and has potential clinical value in predicting platinum resistance in patients with EOC. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. What Are the Key Statistics about Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of ... For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . About Ovarian Cancer What Is Ovarian Cancer? What ...

  17. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Since reduction of ovulation is protective against ovarian cancer, prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing mortality . To achieve a...cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women. A chernoprevention trial is ongoing in...chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  18. OVARIAN CANCER: INVOLVEMENT OF THE MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alem, Linah; Curry, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Reasons for the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer include a late diagnosis at which time the cancer has metastasized throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cancer metastasis is facilitated by the remodeling of the extracellular tumor matrix by a family of proteolytic enzymes known as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are 23 members in the MMP family, many of which have been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. In the current paradigm, ovarian tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells stimulate the synthesis and/or activation of various MMPs to aid in tumor growth, invasion, and eventual metastasis. This review sheds light on the different MMPs in the various types of ovarian cancer and their impact on the progression of this gynecologic malignancy. PMID:25918438

  19. Ovarian cancer: involvement of the matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Al-Alem, Linah; Curry, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. One of the reasons for the high mortality rate associated with ovarian cancer is its late diagnosis, which often occurs after the cancer has metastasized throughout the peritoneal cavity. Cancer metastasis is facilitated by the remodeling of the extracellular tumor matrix by a family of proteolytic enzymes known as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). There are 23 members of the MMP family, many of which have been reported to be associated with ovarian cancer. In the current paradigm, ovarian tumor cells and the surrounding stromal cells stimulate the synthesis and/or activation of various MMPs to aid in tumor growth, invasion, and eventual metastasis. The present review sheds light on the different MMPs in the various types of ovarian cancer and on their impact on the progression of this gynecologic malignancy.

  20. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, responsive ovarian cancer cells undergo apoptotic cell death . Several groups have shown that the...apoptotic protease, caspase 2 (C2), is an essential activator of cell death in ovarian cancer cells treated with cisplatin and we have found, by knock

  1. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  2. Lectin array and glycogene expression analyses of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant derivate cell line A2780-cp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Qin, Wenjun; Qin, Ruihuan; Han, Jing; Li, Can; Wang, Yisheng; Xu, Congjian

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies, in which platinum resistance is a common cause of its relapse and death. Glycosylation has been reported to be involved in drug resistance, and glycomic analyses of ovarian cancer may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer cell drug resistance and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The serous ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its platinum-resistant counterpart A2780-cp were used in this study. We performed a lectin array analysis to compare the glycosylation patterns of the two cell lines, a gene expression array was employed to probe the differences in glycogenes. Furthermore, the results were verified by lectin blots. A2780-cp cell exhibited stronger intensities of Lens culinaris (LCA) Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and weaker intensities of Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectins. The gene expression array analysis revealed increased expression of Fut8, B3gnt4, B3gnt5, B4galt2 and decreased expression of Fut1 and ST6GalNAc 6 expression were evident in the A2780-cp cells. The lectin blot confirmed the differences in LCA, ConA, SNA and LEL between the A2780 and A2780-cp cells. The combination of the lectin and gene expression analyses showed that the levels of core fucosylation and poly-LacNAc were increased in the A2780-cp cells and the levels of Fuc α1-2(gal β1-4) GlcNAc and α2-6-linked sialic structures were decreased in the A2780-cp cells. These glycans represent potential biomarkers and might be involved in the mechanism of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  3. The novel, small molecule DNA methylation inhibitor SGI-110 as an ovarian cancer chemosensitizer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Munck, Joanne; Tang, Jessica; Taverna, Pietro; Wang, Yinu; Miller, David F.B.; Pilrose, Jay; Choy, Gavin; Azab, Mohammad; Pawelczak, Katherine S.; VanderVere-Carozza, Pamela; Wagner, Michael; Lyons, John; Matei, Daniela; Turchi, John J.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate SGI-110 as a “chemosensitizer” in ovarian cancer (OC) and to assess its effects on tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and chemo-responsiveness associated genes silenced by DNA methylation in OC. Experimental Design Several OC cell lines were used for in vitro and in vivo platinum resensitization studies. Changes in DNA methylation and expression levels of TSG and other cancer-related genes in response to SGI-110 were measured by pyrosequencing and RT-PCR. Results We demonstrate in vitro that SGI-110 resensitized a range of platinum-resistant OC cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and induced significant demethylation and reexpression of TSG, differentiation-associated genes and putative drivers of OC cisplatin resistance. In vivo, SGI-110 alone or in combination with CDDP was well tolerated and induced anti-tumor effects in OC xenografts. Pyrosequencing analyses confirmed that SGI-110 caused both global (LINE1) and gene specific hypomethylation in vivo, including TSGs (RASSF1A), proposed drivers of OC cisplatin resistance (MLH1 and ZIC1), differentiation-associated genes (HOXA10 and HOXA11), and transcription factors (STAT5B). Furthermore, DNA damage induced by CDDP in OC cells was increased by SGI-110, as measured by ICP-mass spectrometry analysis of DNA adduct formation and repair of cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Conclusions These results strongly support further investigation of hypomethylating strategies in platinum-resistant OC. Specifically, SGI-110 in combination with conventional and/or targeted therapeutics warrants further development in this setting. PMID:25316809

  4. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    The organometallic "half-sandwich" compound [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance.

  6. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system . Cancer Cell 1, 53-62. Quartuccio, S.M., Lantvit, D.D., Bosland, M.C., and

  7. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    subjective risk status, their knowledge of ovarian cancer and risk factors, uncertainty about ovarian cancer, levels of anxiety and depression ...behaviors, anxiety, depression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...their subjective risk status, their knowledge of ovarian cancer and risk factors, uncertainty about ovarian cancer, levels of anxiety and depression

  8. Natural history of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations; until the death of the patient.

  9. Natural history of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations; until the death of the patient. PMID:25371706

  10. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    coupled device camera . The interrogated tissue area was 2 mm in diameter. Fluorescence emission spectra ranging from 320 to 850 nm were collected...properties of normal and neoplastic human cervical tissue," Laser Surg. Med. 13, 646-655 (1993). 48. K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton , T. J...undergo apoptosis in response to certain physio- in mitochondrial finction in both normal and cancer cells. In logical stimuli and cytotoxic agents

  11. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  12. [Update on current care guidelines: ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Leminen, Arto; Auranen, Annika; Bützow, Ralf; Hietanen, Sakari; Komulainen, Marja; Kuoppala, Tapio; Mäenpää, Johanna; Puistola, Ulla; Vuento, Maarit; Vuorela, Piia; Yliskoski, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer. It appears that seemingly ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinomas, in fact, originate from fimbriae. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended for the removal of ovaries and fimbriae, to reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is based on the combination of surgery and chemotherapy. The residual tumour volume at the primary operation is the most important predictive factor of survival. The best response at the primary treatment is observed with combination chemotherapy with taxane and platinum. Adding bevacitzumab to first line chemotherapy may improve survival.

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. Reproductive history Women who have been pregnant and carried it ... for women taking both estrogen and progesterone. Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer: Opportunity for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Tomoko; Morgan, Robert; Yen, Yun; Mortimer, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a common cause of cancer mortality in women with limited treatment effectiveness in advanced stages. The limitation to treatment is largely the result of high rates of cancer recurrence despite chemotherapy and eventual resistance to existing chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this paper is to review current concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis. We will review existing hypotheses of tumor origin from ovarian epithelial cells, Fallopian tube, and endometrium. We will also review the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer which results in two specific pathways of carcinogenesis: (1) type I low-grade tumor and (2) type II high-grade tumor. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinogenesis has opened new opportunities for targeted therapy. This paper will also review these potential therapeutic targets and will explore new agents that are currently being investigated. PMID:22235203

  15. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  16. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  17. Mesothelium expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Scalici, Jennifer M; Arapovic, Sanja; Saks, Erin J; Atkins, Kristen A; Petroni, Gina; Duska, Linda R; Slack-Davis, Jill K

    2017-05-15

    Mesothelium vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in the metastatic epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) microenvironment is induced by tumor and mediates tumor cell invasion. VCAM-1 imaging suggests expression during treatment is an indicator of platinum resistance. Here, we assess the potential prognostic significance of mesothelium VCAM-1 expression and prospectively evaluate whether soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) is a surrogate for mesothelium expression. A retrospective review of EOC patients was performed to evaluate outcomes with mesothelium VCAM-1 expression determined by immunohistochemistry of peritoneum or omentum specimens. A prospective cohort of EOC patients was identified and followed through primary treatment. Serum for sVCAM-1 evaluation, which was performed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was collected before surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and at each treatment cycle. Peritoneal specimens were obtained during debulking to assess mesothelial VCAM-1 expression. A retrospective review identified 54 advanced-stage EOC patients. Patients expressing mesothelium VCAM-1 had shortened overall survival (44 vs 79 months, P = 0.035) and progression-free survival (18 vs 67 months, P = 0.010); the median time to platinum resistance was 36 months for VCAM-1-expressing patients and not yet determined for the VCAM-1-negative group. In our prospective observational cohort, 18 EOC patients completed primary treatment; 3 were negative for mesothelium VCAM-1 expression, and sVCAM-1 did not vary between groups. Mesothelium VCAM-1 expression is negatively associated with progression-free and overall survival in EOC. This is especially compelling in light of previous data suggesting that persistent VCAM-1 expression during treatment is an indicator of platinum resistance. Our pilot study had insufficient cases to determine whether sVCAM-1 would substitute for mesothelium expression. Cancer 2017;123:977-84. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016

  18. Baseline clinical predictors of antitumor response to the PARP inhibitor olaparib in germline BRCA1/2 mutated patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Saeed; Gourley, Charlie; Kumar, Rajiv; Geuna, Elena; Ern Ang, Joo; Rye, Tzyvia; Chen, Lee-May; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Friedlander, Michael; Matulonis, Ursula; De Greve, Jacques; Oza, Amit M; Banerjee, Susana; Molife, L Rhoda; Gore, Martin E; Kaye, Stan B; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-07-18

    The PARP inhibitor olaparib was recently granted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accelerated approval in patients with advanced BRCA1/2 mutation ovarian cancer. However, antitumor responses are observed in only approximately 40% of patients and the impact of baseline clinical factors on response to treatment remains unclear. Although platinum sensitivity has been suggested as a marker of response to PARP inhibitors, patients with platinum-resistant disease still respond to olaparib. 108 patients with advanced BRCA1/2 mutation ovarian cancers were included. The interval between the end of the most recent platinum chemotherapy and PARPi (PTPI) was used to predict response to olaparib independent of conventional definition of platinum sensitivity. RECIST complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) rates were 35% in patients with platinum-sensitive versus 13% in platinum-resistant (p<0.005). Independent of platinum sensitivity status, the RECIST CR/PR rates were 42% in patients with PTPI greater than 52 weeks and 18% in patients with PTPI less than 52 weeks (p=0.016). No association was found between baseline clinical factors such as FIGO staging, debulking surgery, BRCA1 versus BRCA2 mutations, prior history of breast cancer and prior chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the response to olaparib. We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study to investigate the association between baseline clinical characteristics of patients with advanced BRCA1/2 mutation ovarian cancers from eight different cancer centers and their antitumor response to olaparib. PTPI may be used to refine the prediction of response to PARP inhibition based on the conventional categorization of platinum sensitivity.

  19. Ovarian Cancer Incidence Corrected for Oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Lauren A.; Chen, Quan; Tucker, Thomas C.; White, Connie G.; Ore, Robert N.; Huang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Current reported incidence rates for ovarian cancer may significantly underestimate the true rate because of the inclusion of women in the calculations who are not at risk for ovarian cancer due to prior benign salpingo-oophorectomy (SO). We have considered prior SO to more realistically estimate risk for ovarian cancer. Kentucky Health Claims Data, International Classification of Disease 9 (ICD-9) codes, Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes, and Kentucky Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Data were used to identify women who have undergone SO in Kentucky, and these women were removed from the at-risk pool in order to re-assess incidence rates to more accurately represent ovarian cancer risk. The protective effect of SO on the population was determined on an annual basis for ages 5–80+ using data from the years 2009–2013. The corrected age-adjusted rates of ovarian cancer that considered SO ranged from 33% to 67% higher than age-adjusted rates from the standard population. Correction of incidence rates for ovarian cancer by accounting for women with prior SO gives a better understanding of risk for this disease faced by women. The rates of ovarian cancer were substantially higher when SO was taken into consideration than estimates from the standard population. PMID:28368298

  20. Functional Proteomics-Based Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    tissue , then incubating the samples at various time points to see the effect on RPPA –determined protein levels had already been done using breast tissue ...1985): 131. 27  Cao, Liyun, et al. " Tissue transglutaminase protects epithelial ovarian cancer cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis by promoting...Dabholkar, Meenakshi, et al. "ERCC1 and ERCC2 expression in malignant tissues from ovarian cancer patients." Journal of the National Cancer Institute

  1. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine (IMGN853), a Folate Receptor Alpha-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Potentiates the Activity of Standard of Care Therapeutics in Ovarian Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Jose F; Ab, Olga; Lanieri, Leanne; Lee, Jenny; Coccia, Jennifer; Bartle, Laura M; Themeles, Marian; Zhou, Yinghui; Pinkas, Jan; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Elevated folate receptor alpha (FRα) expression is characteristic of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), thus establishing this receptor as a candidate target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat this disease. Mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets FRα for tumor-directed delivery of the maytansinoid DM4, a potent agent that induces mitotic arrest by suppressing microtubule dynamics. Here, combinations of IMGN853 with approved therapeutics were evaluated in preclinical models of EOC. Combinations of IMGN853 with carboplatin or doxorubicin resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects in the IGROV-1 ovarian cancer cell line in vitro. IMGN853 potentiated the cytotoxic activity of carboplatin via growth arrest and augmented DNA damage; cell cycle perturbations were also observed in cells treated with the IMGN853/doxorubicin combination. These benefits translated into improved antitumor activity in patient-derived xenograft models in vivo in both the platinum-sensitive (IMGN853/carboplatin) and platinum-resistant (IMGN853/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) settings. IMGN853 co-treatment also improved the in vivo efficacy of bevacizumab in platinum-resistant EOC models, with combination regimens causing significant regressions and complete responses in the majority of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of OV-90 ovarian xenograft tumors revealed that concurrent administration of IMGN853 and bevacizumab caused rapid disruption of tumor microvasculature and extensive necrosis, underscoring the superior bioactivity profile of the combination regimen. Overall, these demonstrations of combinatorial benefit conferred by the addition of the first FRα-targeting ADC to established therapies provide a compelling framework for the potential application of IMGN853 in the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

  2. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-21

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bowtell, David D.; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C.; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S.; Birrer, Michael J.; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A.; Brenton, James; Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G.; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Karen H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steve A.; Nelson, Brad H.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J.; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L.; Scott, Clare L.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  4. Mechanisms of Ovarian Cancer Metastasis: Biochemical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Kentaro; Nakayama, Naomi; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite advances in chemotherapy, the five-year survival rate of advanced ovarian cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis remains around 30%. The most significant prognostic factor is stage, and most patients present at an advanced stage with peritoneal dissemination. There is often no clearly identifiable precursor lesion; therefore, the events leading to metastatic disease are poorly understood. This article reviews metastatic suppressor genes, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the tumor microenvironment as they relate to ovarian cancer metastasis. Additionally, novel chemotherapeutic agents targeting the metastasis-related biochemical pathways are discussed. PMID:23109879

  5. Integrating bevacizumab into the management of epithelial ovarian cancer: the controversy of front-line versus recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Monk, B J; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Burger, R A

    2013-12-01

    Angiogenesis plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression has been associated with the development of malignant ascites and tumor progression. Bevacizumab (Avastin(®); Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA), a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, is the most widely studied antiangiogenesis agent across tumor types and specifically in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). With the recent reporting of four consecutive positive randomized trials adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the treatment of both front-line (GOG 218 and ICON7) and recurrent EOC ['platinum-resistant' (AURELIA Trial) or 'platinum-sensitive' (OCEANS Trial)], the most debatable question today is thus not IF we should treat ovarian cancer patients with bevacizumab, but WHEN. As bevacizumab is active in both settings, it seems appropriate to carefully consider this clinical controversy: 'what is the optimal setting for bevacizumab treatment?' A fine balance of efficacy, toxicity, quality of life, and symptom control is the main crux of this controversy. The cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in EOC is also controversial.

  6. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  7. Ovarian cancer stroma: pathophysiology and the roles in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  8. Genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a

  9. A Phase II study of trabectedin single agent in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, C N; McMeekin, D S; Chan, S; Braly, P S; Renshaw, F G; Kaye, S; Provencher, D M; Campos, S; Gore, M E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the objective response rate in patients with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer to treatment with trabectedin (Yondelis®) administered as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. We carried out a multicentre Phase II trial of trabectedin in patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer. Trabectedin (0.58 mg m−2) was administered via a central line, after premedication with dexamethasone, to 147 patients as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1-week rest. Major eligibility criteria included measurable relapsed advanced ovarian cancer and not more than two prior platinum-containing regimens. Patients were stratified according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) between having either platinum-sensitive (⩾6 months TFI) or platinum-resistant disease (<6 months TFI)/platinum-refractory disease (progression during first line therapy). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 62 evaluable patients with measurable disease had an overall response rate (ORR) of 29.0% (95% CI: 18.2–41.9%) and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–6.2). Four patients with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. In the platinum-resistant/refractory cohort, 79 patients were evaluable with an ORR of 6.3% (95% CI: 2.1–14.2%). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.7–3.5 months). Two patients with measurable disease per RECIST criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. The most frequent (⩾2% of patients) drug-related treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible liver alanine transferase elevation (10%), neutropaenia (8%), nausea, vomiting, and fatigue (5% each). Trabectedin is an active treatment, with documented responses in patients with platinum sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer, and has a manageable toxicity profile. PMID

  10. Therapeutic strategies in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. It appears that the vast majority of what seem to be primary epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinomas is, in fact, secondary from the fimbria, the most distal part of the fallopian tube. Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is based on the combination of cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy using taxane and platinum. Although clear cell type is categorized in indolent type, it is known to show relatively strong resistance to carboplatin and paclitaxel regimen and thus poor prognosis compared to serous adenocarcinoma, especially in advanced stages. Irinotecan plus cisplatin therapy may effective for the clear cell adenocarcinoma. The larger expectation for improved prognosis in ovarian carcinoma is related to the use of the new biological agents. One of the most investigated and promising molecular targeted drugs in ovarian cancer is bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against VEGF. PARP inhibitor is another one. A few recent studies demonstrated positive results of bevacizumab on progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients, however, investigation of molecular targeting drugs in patients with ovarian cancer are still underway. PMID:22330607

  11. The Inner Workings of Ovarian Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rodland, Karin

    2016-06-29

    New research identifies critical proteins present in the tumors of women with ovarian cancer. Karin Rodland discusses the work led by PNNL and Johns Hopkins researchers, working with collaborators across the nation.

  12. The Inner Workings of Ovarian Cancer

    ScienceCinema

    Rodland, Karin

    2016-11-02

    New research identifies critical proteins present in the tumors of women with ovarian cancer. Karin Rodland discusses the work led by PNNL and Johns Hopkins researchers, working with collaborators across the nation.

  13. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  14. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H; Cannioto, Rikki A; Friel, Grace; Szender, J Brian; Segal, Brahm; Odunsi, Kunle; Mayor, Paul; Diergaarde, Brenda; Zsiros, Emese; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; deFazio, Anna; Jordan, Susan J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goodman, Marc T; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Karlan, Beth Y; Goode, Ellen L; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Jensen, Allan; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic diseases were not associated with ovarian cancer overall or progression-free survival.Impact: These previously diagnosed chronic diseases do not appear to affect ovarian cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1470-3. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ore, Robert M.; Baldwin, Lauren; Woolum, Dylan; Elliott, Erika; Wijers, Christiaan; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Miller, Rachel W.; DeSimone, Christopher P.; Ueland, Frederick R.; Kryscio, Richard J.; van Nagell, John R.; Pavlik, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS). Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073%) for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3%) decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p < 0.0001). Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2%) than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%), p < 0.0001. Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89). The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported. PMID:28335512

  16. Unbalanced Estrogen Metabolism in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Muhammad; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Hall, James B.; LeVan, Tricia; Cavalieri, Ercole L.; Rogan, Eleanor G.

    2013-01-01

    Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p<0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:24170413

  17. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  18. Studying platinum sensitivity and resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: Different models for different questions.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Nicolette G; Wisman, G Bea A; van der Zee, Ate G J; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; de Jong, Steven

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) has the highest mortality rate among all gynecological cancers. Patients are generally diagnosed in an advanced stage with the majority of cases displaying platinum resistant relapses. Recent genomic interrogation of large numbers of HGSOC patient samples indicated high complexity in terms of genetic aberrations, intra- and intertumor heterogeneity and underscored their lack of targetable oncogenic mutations. Sub-classifications of HGSOC based on expression profiles, termed 'differentiated', 'immunoreactive', 'mesenchymal' and 'proliferative', were shown to have prognostic value. In addition, in almost half of all HGSOC patients, a deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) was found that potentially can be targeted using PARP inhibitors. Developing precision medicine requires advanced experimental models. In the current review, we discuss experimental HGSOC models in which resistance to platinum therapy and the use of novel therapeutics can be carefully studied. Panels of better-defined primary cell lines need to be established to capture the full spectrum of HGSOC subtypes. Further refinement of cell lines is obtained with a 3-dimensional culture model mimicking the tumor microenvironment. Alternatively, ex vivo ovarian tumor tissue slices are used. For in vivo studies, larger panels of ovarian cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are being established, encompassing all expression subtypes. Ovarian cancer PDXs grossly retain tumor heterogeneity and clinical response to platinum therapy is preserved. PDXs are currently used in drug screens and as avatars for patient response. The role of the immune system in tumor responses can be assessed using humanized PDXs and immunocompetent genetically engineered mouse models. Dynamic tracking of genetic alterations in PDXs as well as patients during treatment and after relapse is feasible by sequencing circulating cell-free tumor DNA and analyzing circulating tumor cells. We

  19. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jovana Y; Urban, Renata R; Liao, John B; Goff, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m². More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration.

  20. SEOM Clinical Guideline in ovarian cancer (2016).

    PubMed

    Santaballa, A; Barretina, P; Casado, A; García, Y; González-Martín, A; Guerra, E; Laínez, N; Martinez, J; Redondo, A; Romero, I

    2016-12-01

    Despite remarkable advances in the knowledge of molecular biology and treatment, ovarian cancer (OC) is the first cause of death due to gynecological cancer and the fifth cause of death for cancer in women in Spain. The aim of this guideline is to summarize the current evidence and to give evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice.

  1. Molecular Pathogenesis of Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Melissa A.; Cramer, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and oral contraceptive pill use interrupt menstrual cycles and reduce endometrial and ovarian cancer risk. This suggests the importance of turnover within Mullerian tissues, where the accumulation of mutations in p53 and PTEN has been correlated with number of cycles. The most common type of endometrial cancer (Type I) is endometrioid and molecular abnormalities include mutations in PTEN, KRAS and β-catenin. The Type I precursor is Endometrial lntraepithelial Neoplasia which displays PTEN defects. Type II endometrial cancer (whose precursors are less clear) includes serous and clear cell tumors and the most common alteration is p53 mutation. For ovarian cancer, histopathologic types parallel endometrial cancer and include serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell; some molecular features are also shared. The most frequent type of ovarian cancer is high grade serous that often displays p53 mutation and its precursor lesions may originate from normal-appearing fallopian tube epithelium that contains a p53 “signature”. Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PTEN are described in mucinous, endometrioid and low grade serous cancers and these may originate from ovarian cortical inclusion cysts. A consideration of molecular and other pathogenetic features, like epidemiology and histopathology, may provide a bener understanding of endometrial and ovarian cancer. PMID:22112481

  2. The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, D.; Easton, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    A number of genes are known to be involved in inherited susceptibility to breast and/or ovarian cancer. In the context of high-risk families the most important genes are BRCA1 on chromosome 17q, which is associated with a high penetrance of both breast and ovarian cancer, and BRCA2 on chromosome 13q, which causes a high risk of breast cancer but a lower risk of ovarian cancer. Other high-risk cancer genes that confer increased risks of breast or ovarian cancer in addition to other cancers include the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer genes and the TP53 gene, which causes breast cancer as part of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The predisposing mutations in these genes are relatively rare in the population. More common genes which are associated with an increased, but lower, risk of breast cancer are the ataxiatelangiectasia gene and the HRAS1 gene. This paper reviews recent progress in mapping and cloning of these susceptibility genes, and provides estimates of the cancer risks associated with each gene and the frequency of predisposing mutations. PMID:7547224

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of breast-ovarian cancer revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.; Ford, D.; Easton, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have recently reported the results of a linkage analysis of 145 breast-ovarian cancer families. Each family has three or more cases of early-onset breast cancer (age {le}60) or of ovarian cancer, and all families have at least one case of ovarian cancer (there were nine site-specific ovarian cancer families). Overall, we estimated that 76% of the families were linked to the BRCA1 locus. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  4. 75 FR 54451 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... family history of ovarian cancer or breast cancer, and those over age 55--to protect their health by... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8551 of August 31, 2010 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the... against ovarian cancer, this disease continues to claim more lives than any other gynecologic...

  5. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ..., who have a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, or who have had certain cancers in the past are... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8853 of August 31, 2012 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the... their lives to ovarian cancer. They are mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers,...

  6. 78 FR 54741 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9008 of August 30, 2013 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the... Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our support to everyone touched by this disease, we remember those we... ovarian cancer. Because ovarian cancer often goes undetected until advanced stages, increasing...

  7. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. DOXIL when combined with Withaferin A (WFA) targets ALDH1 positive cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Sham S; Worth, Christopher A; Wang, Zhenglong; Carter, Kelsey; Ratajczak, Mariusz; Gunjal, Pranesh

    Ovarian cancer is a highly aggressive and deadly disease. Currently, the treatment for ovarian cancer entails cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy, mainly cisplatin or carboplatin combined with paclitaxel. Although this regimen is initially effective in a high percentage of cases, unfortunately, after few months of initial treatment, tumor relapse occurs due to platinum-resistance. DOXIL (liposomal preparation of doxorubicin) is a choice of drug for recurrent ovarian cancer. However, its response rate is very low and is accompanied by myocardial toxicity. Resistance to chemotherapy and recurrence of cancer is primarily attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cells present in cancer. Effect of DOXIL and withaferin A (WFA), both alone and in combination, was investigated on cell proliferation of ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and tumor growth in SCID mice bearing i.p. ovarian tumors. ALDH1 cells were isolated from A2780 using cell sorter, and effect of DOXIL and WFA both alone and in combination on tumorigenic function of ALDH1 was studied using spheroids formation assays in vitro. Western blots were performed to examine the expression of ALDH1 and Notch 1 genes. In our studies, we showed, for the first time, that DOXIL when combined with withaferin A (WFA) elicits synergistic effect on inhibition of cell proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and inhibits the expression of ALDH1 protein, a marker for ALDH1 positive cancer stem cells (CSCs), and Notch1, a signaling pathway gene required for self-renewal of CSCs. Inhibition of expression of both ALDH1 and Notch1 genes by WFA was found to be dose dependent, whereas DOXIL (200 nM) was found to be ineffective. SCID mice, bearing i.p. ovarian tumors, were treated with a small dose of DOXIL (2 mg/kg) in combination with a sub-optimal dose of WFA (2 mg/kg) which resulted in a highly significant (60% to 70%) reduction in tumor growth, and complete inhibition of metastasis

  9. Erlotinib or gefitinib for the treatment of relapsed platinum pretreated non-small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mark; Stordal, Britta

    2011-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to platinum agents invariably develops. Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have great potential here as they exert their anti-tumour effect via alternative mechanisms to platinum-based drugs and as such may remain unaffected by emergent resistance to platinum. A systematic review was conducted to investigate whether two EGFR-TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, have efficacy in the platinum-resistance setting. Preclinical studies of platinum-resistant cancer cell lines, which had been subsequently treated with EGFR-TKIs, were sought to establish proof-of-concept. Clinical trials reporting administration of EGFR-TKIs to ovarian cancer and NSCLC patients relapsed after therapy with platinum drugs were investigated to determine sensitivity of these cohorts to EGFR-TKI treatment. The role of EGFR mutation, copy number and protein expression on response to EGFR-TKIs after failure of platinum chemotherapy were also investigated. Preclinical models of platinum-resistant cancer were found which display a spectrum of cross-resistance profiles to EGFR-TKIs. Sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs is dependent on the activation of the EGFR pathway or EGFR interacting proteins such as HER-2. EGFR-TKIs show favourable response rates in platinum-pretreated NSCLC, 11.14% and 15.25% for 150mg/day erlotinib and 250mg/day gefitinib, respectively. These response rates significantly improve in patients of Asian descent (28.3% and 29.17%, respectively) and patients with EGFR activation mutations (41.6% and 63.89%, respectively) or increased copy number (33.3% and 45.45%, respectively). Gefitinib significantly outperformed erlotinib and should therefore be the EGFR-TKI of choice in platinum-pretreated relapsed NSCLC. In contrast, response rates are very poor to both erlotinib and gefitinib in platinum pretreated ovarian cancer, 0-5.9% and they should

  10. Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Topotecan With or Without Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III or Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  11. Circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments as a novel diagnostic tool for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Jan Dominik; Baraniskin, Alexander; Hahn, Stephan A; Mosel, Frank; Bredemeier, Maren; Wimberger, Pauline; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among malignancies in women. Despite advances in treatment, >50% of patients relapse. For disease monitoring, the identification of a blood-based biomarker would be of prime interest. In this regard, noncoding RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA), have been suggested as biomarkers for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to identify differentially expressed miRNA/snRNA in sera of ovarian cancer patients and investigate their potential to aid in therapy monitoring. miRNA/snRNA abundance was investigated in serum (n = 10) by microarray analysis and validated in an extended serum set (n = 119) by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. Abundance of U2-1 snRNA fragment (RNU2-1f) was significantly increased in sera of ovarian cancer patients (P < 0.0001) and paralleled International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage as well as residual tumor burden after surgery (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.011, respectively). Moreover, for patients with suboptimal debulking, preoperative RNU2-1f concentration was associated with radiographic response after chemotherapy and with platinum resistance (P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0015, respectively). Interestingly, according to the RNU2-1f abundance dynamics, persistent RNU2-1f positivity before surgery and after chemotherapy identified a subgroup of patients with high risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. This is the first report to suggest that a circulating snRNA can serve as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for monitoring tumor dynamics in ovarian cancer. Our results provide a rationale to further investigate whether this high-risk patient group may benefit from additional therapies that are directly applied after chemotherapy.

  12. Colon resection for ovarian cancer: intraoperative decisions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Zervose, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    To discuss the benefits and morbidity of and indications for colon resection during cytoreductive operations for ovarian cancer. The history of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is discussed, with special attention to the incorporation of colon resection. Literature regarding cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is then reviewed, again with attention to the role of colon resection. The focus of the review is directed at broad technical considerations and rationales, for both primary and secondary cytoreduction. Over the past 15 to 20 years the standard cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer has shifted from an abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy to an en bloc radical resection of the pelvic tumor and an omentectomy, and more recently to include increasing use of extensive upper abdominal surgery. En bloc pelvic resection frequently includes rectosigmoid resection, almost always accompanied by a primary anastomosis. Other portions of the colon are at risk for metastatic involvement and sometimes require resection in order to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The data regarding colon resection for the purpose of surgical cytoreduction of ovarian cancer are conflicting (in terms of benefit) and all retrospective. However, the preponderance of information supports a benefit in terms of survival when cytoreduction is clearly optimal. Similar to primary surgery, benefit from secondary cytoreduction of ovarian cancer occurs when only a small volume of disease is left behind. The preponderance of data suggests that colon resection to achieve optimal cytoreduction has a positive impact on survival. In order to better understand the role of colon resection as well as other extensive cytoreductive procedures for ovarian cancer, it will be important to continue to improve our understanding of prognostic variables such as the nuances of metastatic bowel involvement in order to better guide appropriate surgical management.

  13. Mathematical models of ovarian cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Bernard A; Colditz, Graham A; Webb, Penny M; Hankinson, Susan E

    2005-07-01

    Pike has proposed "protected time" as one summary method for modeling reproductive risk factors in relation to ovarian cancer incidence. We evaluate this and other approaches to summarizing risk for ovarian cancer. We identified 472 incident cases of ovarian cancer during 2,298,068 person-years of follow-up of 24- to 55-year-old premenopausal women at cohort inception. Reproductive exposures, use of oral contraceptives, and history of tubal ligation were evaluated. Age at menopause is directly related to cumulative risk of ovarian cancer up to age 70 years (age 55 vs. age 45, risk increase = 62%; 95% confidence interval = 36 to 96%) and age at menarche is inversely related to risk (age 15 vs. 11, risk reduction = 31%; 27-34%). Use of oral contraceptives for 5 years before age 30 decreases risk of ovarian cancer to age 70 by 37% (32 to 41%). Tubal ligation reduces risk up to age 70 by 21% (-2 to 38%). Parity reduces risk, independent of age at first birth and age at last birth. A model summarizing years of ovulation offers a fit comparable to a more complex modeling of reproductive variables. The model fit is good, with a concordance statistic of 0.60 (0.57 to 0.62) indicating reasonable ability to differentiate those who will develop ovarian cancer from those who will remain disease free. This model may be applied in the identification of women at high risk for ovarian cancer, for example, in selecting candidates for prevention trials.

  14. Veliparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bogliolo, Stefano; Cassani, Chiara; Dominoni, Mattia; Musacchi, Valentina; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Spinillo, Arsenio; Ferrero, Simone; Gardella, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, with an incidence of 6.1 cases per 100.000 women and a cumulative lifetime risk of 0.5%. Treatment is based on debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, with the potential combination with taxane. However, the recently available data on the genetic basis and aetiology of ovarian cancer has led to the development of new anticancer drugs. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are one of the most promising new classes of targeted agents currently under investigation for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Veliparib is a small molecule that inhibits both PARP-1 and PARP-2 and was originally shown to be efficacious in BRCA-associated tumors. This manuscript reviews the Phase I and II studies investigating the use of veliparib in ovarian cancer. This article also provides and discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of veliparib. It is still being discussed whether PARP inhibitors should be used in a front-line or relapsed setting, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy or as maintenance treatment. In terms of veliparib, further investigations are needed to explore its full potential in ovarian cancer. It is hoped that the ongoing phase 3 trials will help to further elucidate it potential as a treatment option.

  15. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed the Block 98.2 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in addition to reporting on potential risk factors for ovarian cancer. FFQ data were then utilized to calculate the HEI score, and cup, ounce, gram, or caloric equivalents for the 12 different food groups comprising the index. In multivariate models the OR for the highest tertile of the HEI score compared to the lowest (reflecting a better diet compared to a worse diet) was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.55–1.47). There was limited evidence for a statistically significant association between any of the 12 individual food components and ovarian cancer risk. Based on this study’s results, neither individual food groups nor dietary quality showed potential for preventing ovarian cancer. PMID:21286802

  16. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Diseases Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and Women of ...

  17. Most Women Should Forgo Ovarian Cancer Screening: Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_167271.html Most Women Should Forgo Ovarian Cancer Screening: Panel Test isn't accurate enough to justify ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The potential harms of ovarian cancer screening outweigh the benefits, so only very specific groups ...

  18. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-02

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Epigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  20. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio are predictive of chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Yan, Qin; Li, Shuangdi; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-06-07

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) used as prognostic markers for predicting chemotherapeutic response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 344 patients diagnosed with EOC who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy from 2005 to 2010 in the hospital were enrolled. NLR and PLR were calculated from complete blood cell count taken before operation. The patients were divided into platinum-resistant (P-R) group and platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to chemotherapeutic response. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimal cut-off values for NLR and PLR to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity of NLR > 3.02 to predict platinum resistance were 0.819, 75.0% and 81.45%, respectively. The corresponding values of PLR > 207 were 0.727, 60.42% and 85.48%, respectively. Patients with lower value of NLR (NLR < 3.02) or PLR (PLR < 207) had a longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, NLR and PLR showed a significant association with PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.733; 95%CI, 1.225-2.453, P = 0.002 and HR, 1.952; 95%CI, 1.430-2.662, P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 1.616; 95%CI, 1.138-2.297, P = 0.007, and HR, 2.167; 95%CI, 1.565-3.000, P < 0.001). These results suggest that the assessment of NLR and PLR could assist the identification of patients with poor prognosis and had potential clinical value in predicting platinum resistance in patients with EOC.

  1. Ovarian cancer screening in menopausal females with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tiffany; Kessel, Bruce; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Terada, Keith Y

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether annual screening reduces ovarian cancer mortality in women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Data was obtained from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer trial, a randomized multi-center trial conducted to determine if screening could reduce mortality in these cancers. The trial enrolled 78,216 women, randomized into either a screening arm with annual serum cancer antigen 125 and pelvic ultrasounds, or usual care arm. This study identified a subgroup that reported a first degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer. Analysis was performed to compare overall mortality and disease specific mortality in the screening versus usual care arm. In patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer, stage distribution, and survival were analyzed as a secondary endpoint. There was no significant difference in overall mortality or disease specific mortality between the two arms. Ovarian cancer was diagnosed in 48 patients in the screening arm and 44 patients in the usual care arm. Screened patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage than usual care patients. Patients in the screening arm diagnosed with ovarian cancer experienced a significantly improved survival compared to patients in the usual care arm; relative risk 0.66 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.93). Screening did not appear to decrease ovarian cancer mortality in participants with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Secondary endpoints, however, showed notable differences. Significantly fewer patients were diagnosed with advanced stage disease in the screening arm; and survival was significantly improved. Further investigation is warranted to assess screening efficacy in women at increased risk.

  2. Olaparib in the management of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bixel, Kristin; Hays, John L

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the homologous repair pathway are thought to occur in 30%–50% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Cells deficient in homologous recombination rely on alternative pathways for DNA repair in order to survive, thereby providing a potential target for therapy. Olaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, capitalizes on this concept and is the first drug in its class approved for patients with ovarian cancer. This review article will provide an overview of the BRCA genes and homologous recombination, the role of PARP in DNA repair and the biological rationale for the use of PARP inhibitors as cancer therapy, and ultimately will focus on the use of olaparib in the management of ovarian cancer. PMID:26309417

  3. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew E; Rose, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a formulation of doxorubicin in which the molecule itself is packaged in a liposome made of various lipids with an outer coating of polyethylene glycol. Liposomal technology is being used in increasing amounts in the therapy of a variety of cancers, including ovarian cancers. This article reviews the mechanistic actions of this formulation, the Phase II and Phase III data that helped define the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent ovarian cancer, as well as a discussion of some of the side-effects and their management. PMID:17717964

  4. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  5. Trials show delayed recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Phase I trials of 2 treatments for recurrent ovarian cancer-a 2-step immunotherapy treatment and an antibody-drug conjugate-demonstrated promising early results in delaying recurrence, in work presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2013.

  6. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  7. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  8. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0493 TITLE: Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and...SUBTITLE Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perceived Stress...SUBJECT TERMS ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, depression, anxiety, social support, metabolomics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  9. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Francis, Prudence A; Regan, Meredith M; Fleming, Gini F; Láng, István; Ciruelos, Eva; Bellet, Meritxell; Bonnefoi, Hervé R; Climent, Miguel A; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Burstein, Harold J; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Geyer, Charles E; Walley, Barbara A; Coleman, Robert; Kerbrat, Pierre; Buchholz, Stefan; Ingle, James N; Winer, Eric P; Rabaglio-Poretti, Manuela; Maibach, Rudolf; Ruepp, Barbara; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Colleoni, Marco; Viale, Giuseppe; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D

    2015-01-29

    Suppression of ovarian estrogen production reduces the recurrence of hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer in premenopausal women, but its value when added to tamoxifen is uncertain. We randomly assigned 3066 premenopausal women, stratified according to prior receipt or nonreceipt of chemotherapy, to receive 5 years of tamoxifen, tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression, or exemestane plus ovarian suppression. The primary analysis tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression would improve disease-free survival, as compared with tamoxifen alone. In the primary analysis, 46.7% of the patients had not received chemotherapy previously, and 53.3% had received chemotherapy and remained premenopausal. After a median follow-up of 67 months, the estimated disease-free survival rate at 5 years was 86.6% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 84.7% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, second invasive cancer, or death, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.04; P=0.10). Multivariable allowance for prognostic factors suggested a greater treatment effect with tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression than with tamoxifen alone (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98). Most recurrences occurred in patients who had received prior chemotherapy, among whom the rate of freedom from breast cancer at 5 years was 82.5% in the tamoxifen-ovarian suppression group and 78.0% in the tamoxifen group (hazard ratio for recurrence, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.02). At 5 years, the rate of freedom from breast cancer was 85.7% in the exemestane-ovarian suppression group (hazard ratio for recurrence vs. tamoxifen, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.87). Adding ovarian suppression to tamoxifen did not provide a significant benefit in the overall study population. However, for women who were at sufficient risk for recurrence to warrant adjuvant chemotherapy and who remained premenopausal, the addition of ovarian suppression improved disease outcomes. Further

  11. The epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    This review highlights similarities in the epidemiology of endometrial and ovarian cancer, including highly correlated incidence rates and similar risk factor profiles. Factors that decrease risk for both cancers include a late menarche, early age at first birth, giving birth and breastfeeding, and use of oral contraceptives. Short or irregular cycles and late menopause are associated with increased risk for both. Other risk factors that appear to operate in a similar direction include decreased risk associated with IUD use or a tubal ligation, and increased risk associated with obesity, lack of exercise, and use of talc powders in genital hygiene. Estrogen excess is proposed as the underlying mechanism for most endometrial cancers, whereas incessant ovulation has been suggested as the explanation for ovarian cancer. However, an increased number of estimated ovulatory cycles correlates directly with risk for both endometrial and ovarian cancer, suggesting that reproductive tissue turnover with an accumulation of PTEN or p53 mutations represents a possible common mechanism. An immune-based explanation involving mucin proteins represents another common mechanism that could explain additional risk factors. Maintenance of ideal weight, breastfeeding children, use of oral contraceptives, and avoidance of talc powders in genital hygiene are measures that could lower the risk for both types of cancer. Careful selection of patients for prophylactic oophorectomy for those women who are coming to hysterectomy for benign disease is an additional measure to consider for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Withaferin A Alone and in Combination with Cisplatin Suppresses Growth and Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer by Targeting Putative Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kakar, Sham S.; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Powell, Karen S.; Moghadamfalahi, Mana; Miller, Donald M.; Batra, Surinder K.; Singh, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the treatment for ovarian cancer entails cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy, mainly, carboplatin combined with paclitaxel. Although this regimen is initially effective in a high percentage of cases, unfortunately within few months of initial treatment, tumor relapse occurs because of platinum-resistance. This is attributed to chemo-resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Herein we show for the first time that withaferin A (WFA), a bioactive compound isolated from the plant Withania somnifera, when used alone or in combination with cisplatin (CIS) targets putative CSCs. Treatment of nude mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors generated by injecting human ovarian epithelial cancer cell line (A2780) with WFA and cisplatin (WFA) alone or in combination resulted in a 70 to 80% reduction in tumor growth and complete inhibition of metastasis to other organs compared to untreated controls. Histochemical and Western blot analysis of the tumors revealed that inclusion of WFA (2 mg/kg) resulted in a highly significant elimination of cells expressing CSC markers - CD44, CD24, CD34, CD117 and Oct4 and downregulation of Notch1, Hes1 and Hey1 genes. In contrast treatment of mice with CIS alone (6 mg/kg) had opposite effect on those cells. Increase in cells expressing CSC markers and Notch1 signaling pathway in tumors exposed to CIS may explain recurrence of cancer in patients treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Since, WFA alone or in combination with CIS eliminates putative CSCs, we conclude that WFA in combination with CIS may present more efficacious therapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:25264898

  13. Dietary factors and epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shu, X. O.; Gao, Y. T.; Yuan, J. M.; Ziegler, R. G.; Brinton, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary data from a population-based case-control study of 172 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 172 controls were analysed. A significant (P less than 0.01) dose-response relationship was found between intake of fat from animal sources and risk of ovarian cancer, but plant fat was not associated. Although the effect of animal fat was confounded by education, an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 persisted for those in the upper quartile compared to the lower quartile of consumption (P for trend = 0.03). After adjustment for animal fat intake, calorific and protein intake had minimal effects on risk. Total vegetables were found to be somewhat protective, but the mechanism of action was unclear. Weight, height and relative weight (weight/height2) were not related to risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:2757927

  14. Olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, E; Jimeno, A

    2016-01-01

    Olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, is the first FDA-approved drug in its class for patients with ovarian cancer, specifically in a subset of patients with BRCA mutations and prior chemotherapy treatments. PARP inhibitors have had other implications in different solid tumor types including breast, gastric and pancreatic malignancies. In light of the recent FDA approval of olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer, this article aims to outline the mechanisms and implications of the drug. With a favorable adverse event profile and improved outcomes, including progression-free survival, olaparib has demonstrated augmentation to therapeutic options in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Notch3 Interactome Analysis Identified WWP2 as a Negative Regulator of Notch3 Signaling in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Bin; Wu, Ren-Chin; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2014-01-01

    The Notch3 signaling pathway is thought to play a critical role in cancer development, as evidenced by the Notch3 amplification and rearrangement observed in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism by which Notch3 signaling contributes to tumorigenesis is largely unknown. In an effort to identify the molecular modulators of the Notch3 signaling pathway, we screened for Notch3-intracellular domain (N3-ICD) interacting proteins using a human proteome microarray. Pathway analysis of the Notch3 interactome demonstrated that ubiquitin C was the molecular hub of the top functional network, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitination in modulating Notch3 signaling. Thereby, we focused on functional characterization of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, WWP2, a top candidate in the Notch3 interactome list. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that WWP2 interacted with N3-ICD but not with intracellular domains from other Notch receptors. Wild-type WWP2 but not ligase-deficient mutant WWP2 increases mono-ubiquitination of the membrane-tethered Notch3 fragment, therefore attenuating Notch3 pathway activity in cancer cells and leading to cell cycle arrest. The mono-ubiquitination by WWP2 may target an endosomal/lysosomal degradation fate for Notch3 as suggested by the fact that the process could be suppressed by the endosomal/lysosomal inhibitor. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that the majority of ovarian carcinomas harbored homozygous or heterozygous deletions in WWP2 locus, and there was an inverse correlation in the expression levels between WWP2 and Notch3 in ovarian carcinomas. Furthermore, ectopic expression of WWP2 decreased tumor development in a mouse xenograft model and suppressed the Notch3-induced phenotypes including increase in cancer stem cell-like cell population and platinum resistance. Taken together, our results provide evidence that WWP2 serves as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Notch3 signaling in ovarian cancer

  16. Chemotherapeutic management of advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Alan N; Butler, Julie

    2003-08-01

    To review current treatment strategies for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Factors for treatment selection are discussed. Research articles and textbooks. Research efforts continue to identify novel agents and/or combination therapies that can effect a cure or prolong survival. Several agents offer similar efficacy outcomes but vary in safety aspects and administration requirements. Numerous clinical trials have defined the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer. Oncology nurses can prepare patients to make treatment decisions; educate them about treatment-related side effects; and develop an ongoing relationship as patient advocates to ensure quality of life.

  17. Ovarian cancer treatment: The end of empiricism?

    PubMed

    Lheureux, Stephanie; Karakasis, Katherine; Kohn, Elise C; Oza, Amit M

    2015-09-15

    The diagnosis, investigation, and management of ovarian cancer are in a state of flux-balancing ever rapid advances in our understanding of its biology with 3 decades of clinical trials. Clinical trials that started with empirically driven selections have evolved in an evidence-informed manner to gradually improve outcome. Has this improved understanding of the biology and associated calls to action led to appropriate changes in therapy? In this review, the authors discuss incorporating emerging data on biology, combinations, dose, and scheduling of new and existing agents with patient preferences in the management of women with ovarian cancer.

  18. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrena Medel, Nicanor I.; Wright, Jason D.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains a major women's health problem due to its high lethality. Despite great efforts to develop effective prevention and early detection strategies, most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This pattern of late presentation has resulted in significant challenges in terms of designing effective therapies to achieve long-term cure. One potential promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review examines three of the most provocative targeted therapies with current or future applicability in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:20111741

  19. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  20. An open-label phase 2 study of twice-weekly bortezomib and intermittent pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with ovarian cancer failing platinum-containing regimens.

    PubMed

    Parma, Gabriella; Mancari, Rosanna; Del Conte, Gianluca; Scambia, Giovanni; Gadducci, Angiolo; Hess, Dagmar; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Sessa, Cristiana; Rinaldi, Andrea; Bertoni, Francesco; Vitali, Andrea; Catapano, Carlo Vittorio; Marsoni, Silvia; van de Velde, Helgi; Colombo, Nicoletta

    2012-06-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is an established treatment for relapsed ovarian cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidences in other tumor types suggest that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can act synergistically with PLD. Patients with relapsed ovarian cancer (N = 58), previously treated with platinum (100%) and taxane (95%), received bortezomib, 1.3 mg/m intravenous (days 1, 4, 8, and 11), and PLD, 30 mg/m intravenous (day 1), every 3 weeks. Tumor responses were assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors and Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup criteria. An optimal 2-stage design was implemented. Gene expression profiling in peripheral blood was characterized before and during treatment in 10 platinum-sensitive patients enrolled in stage 2 of the study. Median number of bortezomib-PLD cycles was 3.5. Of 38 patients in the platinum-sensitive group, 9 responses were observed (median duration, 4.8 months). The platinum-resistant group was closed at stage 1 owing to lack of response. Toxicity was moderate and mainly consisted of hematologic, gastrointestinal, and mucositis events. Of the total 58 patients, peripheral neuropathy was reported in 9 patients (none were grade 3). Transcription profiling identified the prevalence of genes associated with ribonucleoprotein complexes, RNA processing, and protein translation. The gene expression changes were more robust in patients who responded or had stable disease compared with patients who had progressive disease. The combination of bortezomib and PLD was well tolerated, but the antitumor activity is insufficient to warrant further investigation in ovarian cancer.

  1. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Evidence of a genetic link between endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice W; Templeman, Claire; Stram, Douglas A; Beesley, Jonathan; Tyrer, Jonathan; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether endometriosis-associated genetic variation affects risk of ovarian cancer. Pooled genetic analysis. University hospital. Genetic data from 46,176 participants (15,361 ovarian cancer cases and 30,815 controls) from 41 ovarian cancer studies. None. Endometriosis-associated genetic variation and ovarian cancer. There was significant evidence of an association between endometriosis-related genetic variation and ovarian cancer risk, especially for the high-grade serous and clear cell histotypes. Overall we observed 15 significant burden statistics, which was three times more than expected. By focusing on candidate regions from a phenotype associated with ovarian cancer, we have shown a clear genetic link between endometriosis and ovarian cancer that warrants further follow-up. The functional significance of the identified regions and SNPs is presently uncertain, though future fine mapping and histotype-specific functional analyses may shed light on the etiologies of both gynecologic conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Epigenetic Targeting of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cell (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC towards a differentiated phenotype, by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH+ OC cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH+ cells, including their tumor initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced re-expression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by re-programming residual cancer stem-like cells. Further, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25035395

  4. Mathematical Models of Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Lee, Jung-Min; Levy, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute the majority of the aging United States (US) population, and this has substantial implications on cancer population patterns and management practices. Breast cancer is the most common women's malignancy, while ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecological malignancy in the US. In this review we focus on these subsets of women's cancers, seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women. In order to systematically investigate the complexity of cancer progression and response to treatment in breast and ovarian malignancies, we assert that integrated mathematical modeling frameworks viewed from a systems biology perspective are needed. Such integrated frameworks could offer innovative contributions to the clinical women's cancers community, since answers to clinical questions cannot always be reached with contemporary clinical and experimental tools. Here, we recapitulate clinically known data regarding the progression and treatment of the breast and ovarian cancers. We compare and contrast the two malignancies whenever possible, in order to emphasize areas where substantial contributions could be made by clinically inspired and validated mathematical modeling. We show how current paradigms in the mathematical oncology community focusing on the two malignancies do not make comprehensive use of, nor substantially reflect existing clinical data, and we highlight the modeling areas in most critical need of clinical data integration. We emphasize that the primary goal of any mathematical study of women's cancers should be to address clinically relevant questions. PMID:27259061

  5. RING domain–deficient BRCA1 promotes PARP inhibitor and platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Krais, John J.; Bernhardy, Andrea J.; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Cai, Kathy Q.; Harrell, Maria I.; Kim, Hyoung H.; George, Erin; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Simpkins, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancers that harbor breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) mutations initially respond well to platinum and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy; however, resistance invariably arises in these patients and is a major clinical problem. The BRCA1185delAG allele is a common inherited mutation located close to the protein translation start site that is thought to produce a shortened, nonfunctional peptide. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that lead to PARPi and platinum resistance in the SUM1315MO2 breast cancer cell line, which harbors a hemizygous BRCA1185delAG mutation. SUM1315MO2 cells were initially sensitive to PARPi and cisplatin but readily acquired resistance. PARPi- and cisplatin-resistant clones did not harbor secondary reversion mutations; rather, PARPi and platinum resistance required increased expression of a really interesting gene (RING) domain–deficient BRCA1 protein (Rdd-BRCA1). Initiation of translation occurred downstream of the frameshift mutation, probably at the BRCA1-Met-297 codon. In contrast to full-length BRCA1, Rdd-BRCA1 did not require BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1) interaction for stability. Functionally, Rdd-BRCA1 formed irradiation-induced foci and supported RAD51 foci formation. Ectopic overexpression of Rdd-BRCA1 promoted partial PARPi and cisplatin resistance. Furthermore, Rdd-BRCA1 protein expression was detected in recurrent carcinomas from patients who carried germline BRCA1185delAG mutations. Taken together, these results indicate that RING-deficient BRCA1 proteins are hypomorphic and capable of contributing to PARPi and platinum resistance when expressed at high levels. PMID:27454289

  6. Effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry.

    PubMed

    Goldratt, E; Yeshurun, Y; Greenfield, A J

    1980-03-01

    The effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry is analyzed. An experimental method is proposed for estimating the magnitude of this effect. Results are reported for the measurement of the temperature of a hot, solid body under different heat-leak configurations. Design criteria for thermometers are presented which minimize the effect of such heat leaks.

  7. Effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldratt, E.; Yeshurun, Y.; Greenfield, A. J.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry is analyzed. An experimental method is proposed for estimating the magnitude of this effect. Results are reported for the measurement of the temperature of a hot, solid body under different heat-leak configurations. Design criteria for thermometers are presented which minimize the effect of such heat leaks.

  8. Epithelial ovarian cancer: testing the 'androgens hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Green, Adèle C; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Whiteman, David C; Bain, Christopher J; Webb, Penelope M

    2008-12-01

    In 1998, Risch proposed a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer relating to the role of androgens in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation. Although this hypothesis has been widely discussed, direct evidence to support it is scant. To address this issue, we have conducted a detailed analysis of factors possibly associated with high circulating levels of androgens, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hirsutism and acne (all clinically associated with hyperandrogenism) using the data collected in an Australia-wide, population-based case-control study. Cases aged 18-79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (n=1276) or borderline malignant tumour (n=315) were identified through a network of clinics and cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1508) were selected from the National Electoral Roll. Women self-reported a history of PCOS, acne, hirsutism and also use of testosterone supplements or the androgenic medication Danazol. We found no evidence that a history of PCOS, acne or hirsutism was associated with ovarian cancer overall, or with specific subtypes, with the exception of serous borderline tumours that were positively associated with a history of PCOS (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.1). Women who had ever used testosterone supplements had an increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.0); however, use of the androgenic medication Danazol did not increase risk (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.4-2.9). Overall, our results do not support the hypothesis that androgen-related disorders increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

  9. Targeted Immune Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Keith L.; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Lamichhane, Purushottam; Preston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as recurrence free survival and overall survival, in ovarian cancer are quite variable, independent of common characteristics such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration and therapeutic targeting into the interaction between the tumor and host. One compelling host characteristic that contributes both to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer is the immune system. Hundreds of studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune regulatory cells present in the tumor microenvironment. Regulatory immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathologic network. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological targets that influence ovarian cancer outcome as well as include an update on newer immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25544369

  10. Targeted immune therapy of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Keith L; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Lamichhane, Purushottam; Preston, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as recurrence-free survival and overall survival, in ovarian cancer are quite variable, independent of common characteristics such as stage, response to therapy, and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration and therapeutic targeting into the interaction between the tumor and host. One compelling host characteristic that contributes both to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer is the immune system. Hundreds of studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune regulatory cells present in the tumor microenvironment. Regulatory immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathological network. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological targets that influence ovarian cancer outcome as well as include an update on newer immunotherapeutic strategies.

  11. Ovarian Cancer, Stem Cells, and Bioreactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    produced by the tumor cells and released in the blood stream. CEA serum level is a clinical screening test for colon cancer, but some types of ovarian...Development of a hybrid liver support system: a review. Int J Artif Organs 19, 645-654 (1996). 12. Kusumbe, A.P., Mali, A.M. & Bapat, S.A. CD133-Expressing

  12. Phase II study of bevacizumab with liposomal doxorubicin for patients with platinum- and taxane-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Verschraegen, C F; Czok, S; Muller, C Y; Boyd, L; Lee, S J; Rutledge, T; Blank, S; Pothuri, B; Eberhardt, S; Muggia, F

    2012-12-01

    Suppression of neoangiogenesis and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) each contribute to the management of platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to test the combination of bevacizumab and PLD in women with resistant or refractory ovarian cancer. Eligibility criteria were no more than two prior treatments with platinum-containing regimens and one additional regimen, without anthracyclines. Treatment was administered every 3 weeks (bevacizumab 15 mg/kg beginning on cycle 2 and PLD 30 mg/m(2)). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months; the secondary end points included side-effects, overall response rates (ORR) and survival (OS). Forty-six patients were enrolled. The average number of courses administered was 7. The median PFS was 6.6 months (range 1-24.6 months) according to Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Committee (GCIC) criteria and 7.8 months (range 2-13.3 months) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). The median OS was 33.2 months (range 3-37.5+ months). The ORR was 30.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.2-46.1] and the clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 86.1% (95% CI 72.1-94.7). Adverse events included mucosal and dermal erosions (30% grade 3) and asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction. Additional toxic effects included hypertension, headache, renal dysfunction and proteinuria, wound healing delay, and one episode each of central nervous system (CNS) ischemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome. PLD with bevacizumab has improved activity in recurrent ovarian cancer with increased toxicity.

  13. Management of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adan; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in women. The overall survival rate at five years is 50% and its treatment is still poor. We need new treatments for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who are incurable with current management. We review the effectiveness of new biological agents and morbidity and mortality of cytoreductive surgery. Since the hyperthermic increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy and the chance of survival, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been proven to be a promising option, however it still requires further study to be the standard treatment. PMID:25207212

  14. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  15. Coping with ovarian cancer: do coping styles affect outcomes?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M Laura; McDowell, Ian; Le, Tien; Fung, Michael Fung Kee

    2005-05-01

    The majority of patients with ovarian cancer face a long road of persistent hardship and strain. Treatment of this disease is intense, involving aggressive debulking surgery and multiple chemotherapy regimens. Coping with the disease and its treatment challenges patients on many levels. This review was developed to summarize the evidence concerning the impact of coping strategies on outcomes in patients with ovarian cancer. A comprehensive search of the literature in the field of coping and ovarian cancer was undertaken. Using the Ovid interface, 3 electronic databases, including Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO, were searched using the search terms "coping," "cancer," and "ovarian cancer." In addition, a critical appraisal of the 2 most widely used scales to assess coping strategies was a component of this work. This review highlights the relative lack of knowledge on coping in ovarian cancer, the methodologic challenges to its study, and the need to develop an instrument that is tailored to evaluate coping strategies used by patients with ovarian cancer. A validated instrument to assess coping strategies used by patients with ovarian cancer is needed. Identification of strategies that are maladaptive or destructive in patients with ovarian cancer could be used to improve quality of care for patients burdened by this disease. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader should be able to list the potential coping strategies for patients with ovarian cancer, to explain the various coping assessment scales, and to summarize the evidence concerning the impact of coping strategies on outcomes in ovarian cancer patients.

  16. Cisplatin induces stemness in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, Praveena S.; Rao, Vinay S.; Hale, James S.; Gupta, Nikhil; Hitomi, Masahiro; Nagaraj, Anil Belur; DiFeo, Analisa; Lathia, Justin D.; Reizes, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The mainstay of treatment for ovarian cancer is platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, therapeutic resistance and recurrence is a common eventuality for nearly all ovarian cancer patients, resulting in poor median survival. Recurrence is postulated to be driven by a population of self-renewing, therapeutically resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). A current limitation in CSC studies is the inability to interrogate their dynamic changes in real time. Here we utilized a GFP reporter driven by the NANOG-promoter to enrich and track ovarian CSCs. Using this approach, we identified a population of cells with CSC properties including enhanced expression of stem cell transcription factors, self-renewal, and tumor initiation. We also observed elevations in CSC properties in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells as compared to cisplatin-naïve ovarian cancer cells. CD49f, a marker for CSCs in other solid tumors, enriched CSCs in cisplatin-resistant and -naïve cells. NANOG-GFP enriched CSCs (GFP+ cells) were more resistant to cisplatin as compared to GFP-negative cells. Moreover, upon cisplatin treatment, the GFP signal intensity and NANOG expression increased in GFP-negative cells, indicating that cisplatin was able to induce the CSC state. Taken together, we describe a reporter-based strategy that allows for determination of the CSC state in real time and can be used to detect the induction of the CSC state upon cisplatin treatment. As cisplatin may provide an inductive stress for the stem cell state, future efforts should focus on combining cytotoxic chemotherapy with a CSC targeted therapy for greater clinical utility. PMID:27105520

  17. Hawaii natural compounds are promising to reduce ovarian cancer deaths.

    PubMed

    Fei-Zhang, David J; Li, Chunshun; Cao, Shugeng

    2016-07-02

    The low survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer largely results from the advanced ovarian tumors as well as tumor resistance to chemotherapy, leading to metastasis and recurrence. However, it is missing as to an effective therapeutic approach that focuses on these aspects to prolong progression-free survival and to decrease mortality in ovarian cancer patients. Here, based on our cancer drug discovery studies, we provide prospective insights into the development of a future line of drugs to effectively reduce ovarian cancer deaths. Pathways that increase the probability of cancer, such as the defective Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, may render cancer cells more sensitive to new drug targeting.

  18. Risk of Subsequent Ovarian Cancer After Ovarian Conservation in Young Women With Stage I Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Stone, Rebecca L; Soliman, Pamela T; Thaker, Premal H; Roman, Lynda D; Wright, Jason D

    2017-08-01

    To examine the cumulative incidence of subsequent ovarian cancer among young women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer who had ovarian conservation at surgical treatment. This retrospective study examined the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify women aged younger than 50 years who underwent hysterectomy with ovarian conservation for stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer between 1983 and 2013. Time-dependent risk of ovarian cancer diagnosed during the follow-up after endometrial cancer diagnosis was examined. Among 1,322 women in the study cohort, 16 women developed subsequent ovarian cancer with 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Median time to develop subsequent ovarian cancer was 2.4 years, and the majority of subsequent ovarian cancer was diagnosed within the first 3 years from the diagnosis of endometrial cancer (68.8%). The majority of subsequent ovarian cancer was endometrioid type (81.3%) and stage I disease (75.0%). With a median follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were no ovarian cancer deaths. Younger age at endometrial cancer diagnosis was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent ovarian cancer (10-year cumulative incidences: age younger than 40 compared with 40-49 years, 2.6% compared with 0.4%, hazard ratio 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-15.7, P=.002). Young women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer have an approximately 1% risk of developing subsequent ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy that was associated with favorable tumor factors resulting in good ovarian cancer-specific survival. Our results endorse the importance of genetic testing and close follow-up when counseling about this procedure, especially for those who are younger than 40 years.

  19. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-05

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  1. The pro-inflammatory effect of obesity on high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Camille C; Ding, Kai; Dvorak, Justin; Moore, Kathleen N; McMeekin, D Scott; Benbrook, Doris M

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a known generator of chronic inflammation but has an uncertain role in ovarian carcinogenesis and survival. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have previously been associated with poor outcomes. Given the established links, we sought to determine whether obesity and pro-inflammatory cytokines affect platinum sensitivity. A retrospective review was performed of patients undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS) for high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) who had available pre-operative serum. Oncologic and treatment characteristics were recorded and analyzed using SAS version 9.3. Bioplex reagent kit was used to measure serum cytokine concentrations. 86 patients met study criteria. Most were Caucasian (88%) and non-diabetic (92%). All patients had advanced stage (III/IV) disease and received chemotherapy after PDS. In univariate analysis, lower VEGF (p=0.013) was associated with longer overall survival (OS). Low IL-8 level (p=0.053) was marginally associated with platinum resistant disease. After adjusting for covariates including residual disease and maintenance therapy, IL-8 was no longer associated with platinum sensitive status (p=0.13), VEGF remained associated with OS (low vs. high HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8, p=0.018), and higher IL-12 was associated with longer PFS (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.031). In HGSC, pro-inflammatory cytokines are influenced by obesity, as differing inter-cytokine correlations were observed based on BMI, possibly due to dysregulation between cytokines in the setting of obesity. Differences in survival and platinum sensitivity were not noted. Future studies are warranted to determine whether obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for poorer outcomes due to differing immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Advances in Understanding, Diagnosing, and Treating Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kathryn; Fuh, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, a term that encompasses ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancers, is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer mortality. To improve patient outcomes, the field is currently focused on defining the mechanisms of cancer formation and spread, early diagnosis and prevention, and developing novel therapeutic options. This review summarizes recent advances in these areas. PMID:28184293

  3. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  4. BRCA1 founder mutations compared to ovarian cancer in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Savanevich, Alena; Oszurek, Oleg; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    In Belarus and other Slavic countries, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases, but the data on contribution of these mutations to ovarian cancers are limited. To estimate the proportion of ovarian cancers in Belarus, which are dependent on BRCA1 Slavic founder mutations, we sought the presence of three most frequent mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, C61G and, 4153delA) in 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer. One of the three founder mutations was present in 25 of 158 unselected cases of ovarian cancer (15.8 %). We recommend that all cases of ovarian cancer in Belarus be offered genetic testing for these founder mutations. Furthermore, genetic testing of the Belarusian population will provide the opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of ovarian cancer.

  5. Unraveling the etiology of ovarian cancer racial disparity in the deep south: Is it nature or nurture?

    PubMed

    Ross, Jerlinda; Braswell, Katelyn V; Madeira da Silva, Luciana; Mujica, Frances; Stutsman, Sam; Finan, Michael A; Nicolson, William; Harmon, Mary Danner; Missanelli, Megan; Cohen, Alex; Singh, Ajay; Scalici, Jennifer M; Rocconi, Rodney P

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate racial treatment and survival disparities in black women with ovarian cancer in the Deep South and to determine how environmental factors / socioeconomic status (SES) influence survival. A retrospective study of ovarian cancer patients from 2007 to 2014 was performed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was obtained though U.S. Census block data and compared using Yost scores. Comparisons were performed using standard statistical approaches. A total of 393 patients were evaluated, 325 (83%) white and 68 (17%) black. Demographic information and surgical approach were similar in each racial group. However, compared to whites, black patients had lower rates of optimal debulking [89% vs. 71%, respectively (p=0.001)] and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (19% vs. 11%, p=0.01). Black women had lower SES parameters including education, income, and poverty. As a result, more black patients had the lowest SES (SES-1) when compared to white patients (17% vs. 41%, p<0.001). When controlling for these factors by cox regression analysis, a survival disadvantage was seen in black women for both progression free survival (16 vs. 27months, p=0.003) and overall survival (42 vs. 88months, p<0.001). Despite controlling for clinical and environmental factors, a survival disadvantage was still observed in black patients with ovarian cancer in the Deep South. Black women had lower optimal debulking rates and more platinum resistant disease. These data suggest other factors like tumor biology may play a role in racial survival differences, however, more research is needed to determine this causation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oncogenic pathways implicated in ovarian epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong; Cheng, Jin Q; Coppola, Domenico; Kruk, Patricia A

    2003-08-01

    Characterization of intracellular signaling pathways should lead to a better understanding of ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis and provide an opportunity to interfere with signal transduction targets involved in ovarian tumor cell growth, survival, and progression. Challenges toward such an effort are significant because many of these signals are part of cascades within an intricate and likely redundant intracellular signaling network (Fig.1). For instance, a given signal may activate a dual intracellular pathway (ie, MEK1-MAPK and PI3K/Akt required for fibronectin-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9). A single pathway also may transduce more than one biologic or oncogenic signal (ie, PI3K signaling in epithelial and endothelial cell growth and sprouting of neovessels). Despite these challenges, evidence for therapeutic targeting of signal transduction pathways is accumulating in human cancer. For instance, the EGF-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839 (Iressa) may have a beneficial therapeutic effect on ovarian epithelial cancer. Therapy of this cancer may include inhibitors of PI kinase (quercetin), ezrin and PIP kinase (genistein). The G protein-coupled family of receptors, including LPA, also is an attractive target to drugs, although their frequent pleiotropic functions may be at times toxic and lack specificity. Because of the lack of notable toxicity, PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors such as FTIs are a promising targeted therapy of ovarian epithelial cancer. Increasing insight into the oncogenic pathways involved in ovarian epithelial cancer also is helping clinicians to understand better the phenomenon of chemoresistance in this malignancy. Oncogenic activation of gamma-synuclein promotes cell survival and provides resistance to paclitaxel, but such a resistance is partially overcome by an MEK inhibitor that suppresses ERK activity. Ovarian epithelial cancer is a complex group of neoplasms with an overall poor prognosis. Comprehension of

  7. How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Risk? Written by References The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team Our team is ... 2014 Last Revised: March 20, 2017 American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. For reprint requests, ...

  8. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m2. More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). Conclusion The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration. PMID:27329195

  9. [Olaparib in ovarian cancer with BRCA mutation].

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Combe, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    With 4500 new cases and 3200 death each year, ovarian cancer is the first cause of mortality for gynecological cancer in France. Without any efficient screening, it is usually diagnosed around the age of 60 years at an advanced stage. The emergence of olaparib, a new targeted therapy, represents a major opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Société Françise du Cancer. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Inherited Determinants of Ovarian Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Ellen L.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Armasu, Sebastian M.; White, Kristin L.; Keeney, Gary L.; Cliby, William A.; Rider, David N.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Jones, Monica B.; Peethambaram, Prema P.; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Olson, Janet E.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Hartmann, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Due to variation of outcome among cases, we sought to examine whether overall survival in ovarian cancer was associated with common inherited variants in 227 candidate genes from ovarian cancer-related pathways including angiogenesis, inflammation, detoxification, glycosylation, one-carbon transfer, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence. Experimental Design Blood samples were obtained from 325 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic from 1999 to 2006. During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (range, 0.1 – 8.6 years), 157 deaths were observed. Germline DNA was analyzed at 1,416 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). For all patients, and for 203 with serous subtype, we assessed the overall significance of each gene and pathway, and estimated risk of death via hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results Variation within angiogenesis was most strongly associated with survival time overall (p=0.03) and among patients with serous cancer (p=0.05), particularly for EIF2B5 rs4912474 (all patients HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, p=0.004), VEGFC rs17697305 (serous subtype HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.34-3.92, p=0.003), and four SNPs in VHL. Variation within the inflammation pathway was borderline significant (all patients, p=0.09), and SNPs in CCR3, IL1B, IL18, CCL2, and ALOX5 which correlated with survival time are worthy of follow-up. Conclusion An extensive multiple-pathway assessment found evidence that inherited differences may play a role in outcome of ovarian cancer patients, particularly in genes within the angiogenesis and inflammation pathways. Our work supports efforts to target such mediators for therapeutic gain. PMID:20103664

  11. Targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sameer; Odunsi, Kunle

    2005-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies and overall survival for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor. The majority of patients recur after initial treatment. A strategy for improving outcome is to minimise recurrence via targeted therapy in patients after front-line therapy, or more appropriately as consolidation therapy. EOC represents an attractive target because of the biology of the disease and that the bulk of disease occurs in the peritoneal cavity. To initiate targeted therapy, a candidate target must be identified. Innovative approaches via targeted therapy to control metastatic residual EOC are currently under investigation. The targets are molecules and pathways, on which cancer cells depend to proliferate, invade, metastasise and prevent apoptosis. Potential targeted therapies include: proapoptototic therapy, suicide gene therapy, signal transduction, antiangiogenesis, immunotherapy and cytokine therapy. The utilisation of these targets in the clinic demands carefully conducted, well-coordinated but discovery-oriented translational research in the form of clinical trials that can quickly assess alternative strategies or combination of strategies that could result in clinical benefit. Therefore, targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, especially after complete response to standard regimens, represents a paradigm whose time has come to be nurtured.

  12. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Contributor to Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bo R. Rueda, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0192 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...to that of primary human ovarian cancer . We have also successfully introduced in human oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in

  13. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    protect these women from developing ovarian cancer. In addition, oral contraceptives , which reduce the frequency of ovulation, have been shown to be...effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer (1). However, neither of these approaches is without concern. Oral contraceptive use...Hermon C, Peto R, Reeves G. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives : collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257

  14. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0566 TITLE: Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dipanjan...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM...resistance to platinum, management of CCNE1- amplified ovarian cancers is challenging. In this research, we evaluate three novel strategies against CCNE1

  15. Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Squires, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Although ovarian cancer remains a leading cause of gynecologic cancer death, targeted therapies are improving patient outcomes. Anal fissures are a side effect of targeted therapies that can disrupt or stop treatment regimens. Diagnosis and management of anal fissures by advanced practice nurses are crucial for maintaining the quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer.

  16. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C; Ness, Roberta; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C; Rossing, Mary Anne; Terry, Kathryn L; Wu, Anna H; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Matsuno, Rayna K; Lurie, Galina; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Estrid; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen; Hoyo, Cathrine; Moorman, Patricia; Weber, Rachel P; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; King, Melony; Brinton, Louise A; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Webb, Penelope M

    2013-04-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case-control studies (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk. This was most pronounced for borderline serous (recent BMI: pooled OR=1.24 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI 1.18-1.30), invasive endometrioid (1.17; 1.11-1.23) and invasive mucinous (1.19; 1.06-1.32) tumours. There was no association with serous invasive cancer overall (0.98; 0.94-1.02), but increased risks for low-grade serous invasive tumours (1.13, 1.03-1.25) and in pre-menopausal women (1.11; 1.04-1.18). Among post-menopausal women, the associations did not differ between hormone replacement therapy users and non-users. Whilst obesity appears to increase risk of the less common histological subtypes of ovarian cancer, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.

  18. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, M.; Beral, V.; Smith, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infertility and late age at menopause were associated with an increase in risk. While these factors were related, they were each found to be independently associated with ovarian cancer risk after adjusting for the effect of the other factors. PMID:2679848

  19. Validating a mouse model of ovarian cancer for early detection through imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite advances in treatment strategies, ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the 5th largest cancer killer in women. Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening technique, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat. Ovarian cancer is almost always discovered at an advanced stage. |

  20. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  1. Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolic Regulation of Ovarian Cancer cell death 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1...Introduction 3 2. Keywords 3 3. Overall Project Summary 3-6 4 . Key Research Accomplishments 6-7 5. Conclusion 7 6. Publications, Abstracts, and...synthase inhibitors Fig. 4 ). We were slightly delayed in submitting this work for publication as the first author had to finish his PhD thesis and

  2. 'Genetic profiling' and ovarian cancer therapy (review).

    PubMed

    Vella, Nadia; Aiello, Marco; Russo, Alessia Erika; Scalisi, Aurora; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Sorio, Roberto; Libra, Massimo; Stivala, Franca

    2011-01-01

    High variability observed among ovarian cancer patients in response to the same therapy and the related toxicity may be correlated to gene polymorphisms and genetic alterations affecting the metabolism of drugs commonly used to treat this tumor. Recent studies have shown a correlation between the polymorphisms characterizing GSTM1-T1 detoxifying enzymes and poor outcome in advanced ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. Multidrug resistance 1 (mdr-1) polymorphisms were found to be associated with resistance to paclitaxel treatment. Polymorphisms of MRP2, a protein involved in methotrexate, cisplatin and irinotecan active metabolite glucuronide transport, negatively affect platinum-based chemotherapy response. A similar occurrence has been observed with CYP1A1 Ile462Val and ercc1 C118T polymorphisms while patients who were carriers of MTHFR C677T polymorphism had a better response to methotrexate therapy, but an elevated risk of toxicity. Biological therapy with Bevacizumab, the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor has been shown to be less efficient in ovarian cancer patients carrying the polymorphism of the Interleukin-8 gene. Instead, polymorphisms in the XPD gene (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn), a member of the nucleotide excision repair pathway, positively affects the response to therapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel. Therefore, the study of 'genetic profiling' is crucial to improving the clinician's ability to tailor effective therapy to the molecular profile of the patient while minimizing toxicities. This review describes clinical applications of the above genetic polymorphisms in ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy.

  3. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-25

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  4. Ovarian Cancer Biomarker Discovery Based on Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Hee Seung; Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in more than 75% of patients. Early detection has great promise to improve clinical outcomes. Although the advancing proteomic technologies led to the discovery of numerous ovarian cancer biomarkers, no screening method has been recommended for early detection of ovarian cancer. Complexity and heterogeneity of ovarian carcinogenesis is a major obstacle to discover biomarkers. As cancer arises due to accumulation of genetic change, understanding the close connection between genetic changes and ovarian carcinogenesis would provide the opportunity to find novel gene-level ovarian cancer biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the various gene-based biomarkers by genomic technologies, including inherited gene mutations, epigenetic changes, and differential gene expression. In addition, we suggest the strategy to discover novel gene-based biomarkers with recently introduced next generation sequencing. PMID:25337559

  5. Salpingectomy as a Means to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Mary B.; Dresher, Charles W.; Yates, Melinda S.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Alberts, David S.; Lu, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) has become the standard of care for risk reduction in women at hereditary risk of ovarian cancer. While this procedure significantly decreases both the incidence of and mortality from ovarian cancer, it impacts quality of life, and the premature cessation of ovarian function may have long term health hazards. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways of ovarian cancer point to the fallopian tube epithelium as the origin of most high grade serous cancers (HGSC). This evolving appreciation of the role of the fallopian tube in HGSC has led to the consideration of salpingectomy alone as an option for risk management, especially in premenopausal women. In addition, it is postulated that bilateral salpingectomy with ovarian retention (BSOR), may have a public health benefit for women undergoing benign gynecologic surgery. In this review we provide the rationale for salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer risk reduction strategy. PMID:25586903

  6. YAP Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Tumorigenesis and Is Indicative of a Poor Prognosis for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Liu, Yixiong; Li, Wenhui; Li, Ming; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    YAP is a key component of the Hippo signaling pathway and plays a critical role in the development and progression of multiple cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, the effects of YAP on ovarian cancer development in vivo and its downstream effectors remain uncertain. In this study we found that strong YAP expression was associated with poor ovarian cancer patient survival. Specifically, we showed for the first time that high YAP expression levels were positively correlated with TEAD4 gene expression, and their co-expression was a prognostic marker for poor ovarian cancer survival. Hyperactivation of YAP by mutating its five inhibitory phosphorylation sites (YAP-5SA) increased ovarian cancer cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, cell migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, expression of a dominant negative YAP mutant reversed these phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggested that YAP caused these effects by promoting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Thus, YAP promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, high YAP and TEAD4 expression is a prognostic marker for ovarian cancer progression and a potential target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:24622501

  7. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-28

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  8. Whence High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Elise C; Ivy, S Percy

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of epithelial ovarian cancer has blossomed, and we now recognize that it is a collection of varied histologic and molecularly different malignancies, many of which may not derive from a true ovarian anatomic precursor. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is a unique type of epithelial cancer. It is characterized by nearly universal mutation in and dysfunction of p53, genomic instability rather than driver mutations, advanced stage at onset, and probable fallopian tube epithelium origin, with a serous tubal in situ carcinoma precursor. Germline deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, as well as other less prevalent genes involved in DNA repair, such as PALB2 and RAD51c, are associated with its carcinogenesis and may predict susceptibility to classes of treatment agents, including DNA-damaging agents and DNA repair inhibitors. Loss of function of these genes is associated with homologous recombination dysfunction (HRD). It is now recognized that there may be HGSOC with wild-type BRCA1 and BRCA2 with an identifiable HRD phenotype. Such HRD tumors also may be more susceptible to certain classes of treatments and may be phenotypically detectable with a composite molecular biomarker that has been shown to be predictive for response to PARP inhibitors. Use of this new knowledge of the anatomic and molecular background of HGSOC has led to the rational design of novel combinations of treatment classes to create an HRD-like cellular environment and thus drive treatment benefits.

  9. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. Methods: We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Results: Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30–34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99–1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01–1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m−2) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m−2), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m−2) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Conclusions: Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26151456

  10. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-09-01

    Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30-34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99-1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m(-2)) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m(-2)), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m(-2)) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer.

  11. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells for chemoresistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junli; Wang, Li; Chen, Hongmin; Hao, Jingli; Ni, Jie; Chang, Lei; Duan, Wei; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main challenge for the recurrent ovarian cancer therapy and responsible for treatment failure and unfavorable clinical outcome. Understanding mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer would help to predict disease progression, develop new therapies and personalize systemic therapy. In the last decade, accumulating evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells play important roles in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and metastasis. Treatment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells holds promise for improving current ovarian cancer therapies and prolonging the survival of recurrent ovarian cancer patients in the future. In this review, we focus on the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and explore the therapeutic implications for developing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells associated therapies for future ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27304054

  12. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-08-20

    An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approac