Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi
Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.
Girardi, Graziele S; Giménez, Rosana A; Braga, Márcia R
The hardwood of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood, Pernambuco, ibirapitanga) is currently the most profitable material used for violin bow due to the unique vibrational properties and dimensional stability. Although this species is resistant to the wood decay caused by termites and rot fungi, an experimental plantation in Southeastern Brazil has been attacked by the ambrosia beetle Platypus mutatus Chapuis (= Megaplatypus mutatus and P. sulcatus). This species invaded ca. 3% of the individuals, mainly in the central part of the plantation. Infestation by larvae and adults was higher during the dry season (winter) when compared to the rainy period (spring and summer).
Bellahirech, A; Inácio, M L; Nóbrega, F; Henriques, J; Bonifácio, L; Sousa, E; Ben Jamâa, M L
Platypus cylindrus is an important wood borer of cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in the Mediterranean region, namely Portugal, Morocco and Algeria where its presence has drastically increased in the past few decades. On the contrary, the insect is not a relevant pest in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to analyze morphological and genetic differences among Tunisian and Portuguese populations in order to understand their role in the diverse population dynamics (e.g., aggressiveness) of the insect. The information could be used as a novel tool to implement protective measures. Insects were collected from cork oak stands in Tunisia (Ain Beya, Babouch and Mzara) and Portugal (Chamusca and Crato). Morphological traits of female and male mycangial pits were determined, using scanning electron microscopy but no significant differences were found. Genetic differences were analyzed using nuclear (internal simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I (COI)) molecular markers. The results showed a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism and genetic diversity. The alignment of COI sequences showed high percentage of identical sites (99%) indicating a very low variation in nucleotide composition. Other variables related with the ecology of the insect and its associated fungi must be studied for a better understanding of the differences in the insect population's dynamic in Mediterranean countries.
Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il
The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first.
O'Brien, Stephen J
The genome of the platypus has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated by an international genomics team. Like the animal itself the platypus genome contains an amalgam of mammal, reptile, and bird-like features.
For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance.
Mammal sex determination depends on an XY chromosome system, a gene for testis development and a means of activating the X chromosome. The duckbill platypus challenges these dogmas.(1,2) Gutzner et al.(1) find no recognizable SRY sequence and question whether the mammalian X was even the original sex chromosome in the platypus. Instead they suggest that the original platypus sex chromosomes were derived from the ZW chromosome system of birds and reptiles. Unraveling the puzzles of sex determination and dosage compensation in the platypus has been complicated by the fact that it has a surplus of sex chromosomes. Rather than a single X and Y chromosome, the male platypus has five Xs and five Ys.
Murchison, Elizabeth P; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J
Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense.
Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J.
Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense. PMID:18463306
Zeiss, Caroline J; Schwab, Ivan R; Murphy, Christopher J; Dubielzig, Richard W
The purpose of this study is to identify evolutionary origin and fate of anatomic features of the duck-billed platypus eye. Eyes from the duck-billed platypus and four key evolutionary basal vertebrates (Pacific hagfish, north hemisphere sea lamprey, and Australian and South American lungfishes) were prepared for light microscopy. In addition to a standard panel of stains, tissues were immunostained against a variety of rod and cone opsins. Finally, published opsin sequences of platypus and several other vertebrate species were aligned and compared with immunohistochemical results. A complete scleral cartilage similar to that seen in birds, reptiles and amphibians encloses the platypus eye. This feature is present in sharks and rays, and in extant relatives of tetrapods, the lungfishes. The choroid lacks a tapetum. The retina is largely avascular and is rod-dominated, with a minority of red- and blue- cone immunoreactive photoreceptors. Like marsupials and many nonmammalian vertebrates, cones contain clear inner segment droplets. Double cones were present, a feature not found in eutherian mammals or marsupials. Evaluation of opsins indicates that red and blue immunoreactive cone opsins, but not rhodopsin, are present in the most basal of the extant species examined, the Pacific hagfish. Rhodopsin appears in the Australian and South American lungfishes, establishing emergence of this pigment in an extant relative of tetrapods. Unlike eyes of eutherian mammals, the platypus eye has retained morphologic features present in early tetrapods such as amphibians and their evolutionarily basal sister group, the lungfishes. These include scleral cartilage, double cones and cone droplets. In the platypus, as in other mammals, rod rhodopsin is the predominant photoreceptor pigment, at expense of the cone system.
Warren, Wesley C; Hillier, LaDeana W; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Eichler, Evan E; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Wakefield, Matthew J; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A; Smit, Arian F A; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Harris, Robert S; Whittington, Camilla M; Wong, Emily S W; Gemmell, Neil J; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Ray, David A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N; Pohl, Craig S; Smith, Scott M; Hou, Shunfeng; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K
We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation.
Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.
We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734
Hughes, R L; Hall, L S
Information on the pre-hatching development of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is reliant on a small number of specimens, whose precise age is unknown. Material collected for J. P. Hill and now housed in the Hubrecht International Embryological Laboratory, Utrecht, contributes a major source of specimens. This paper presents new observations on developmental stages from the Hill collection, which allow for a more complete description of pre-hatching development. A feature of the pre-embryonic development of the platypus is the incomplete meroblastic cleavage. A column of fine yolk spheres extends from beneath the embryonic blastodisc towards the centre of a yolky vitellus, as seen in birds. The major expansion of extra-embryonic membranes occurs after the formation of the primitive streak. The primitive streak develops within an embryonal area as part of the superficial wall of the yolk-sac, a feature also shared with marsupials, birds and reptiles. The full-term, subspheroidal, intrauterine egg of the platypus has a major axis of about 17 mm and contains a flat, 19-20 somite, neurula-stage embryo which has prominent trigeminal ganglion primordia. The embryo at this stage is in a period of rapid modelling of the major early organ primordia of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, excretory system, and somite-derived components of the body wall. Soon after laying, five primary brain vesicles are present, the trigeminal ganglia CN5 as well as CN7, CN8, CN9, CN10, CN11 and CN12 are well developed. The alimentary system has an expanded stomach, pancreatic primordia and a gall bladder. Mesonephric tubules are associated with patent mesonephric ducts, which empty laterally into the cloaca. Extra-embryonic membranes at this stage show an extensive chorioamniotic connection that extends through the greater part of the caudal half of fused amniotic folds. The vascularized yolk-sac consists of a superficial yolk-sac omphalopleura and a deep yolk
Rowe, Timothy; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Springer, Mark; Woodburne, Michael O
Monotremes have left a poor fossil record, and paleontology has been virtually mute during two decades of discussion about molecular clock estimates of the timing of divergence between the platypus and echidna clades. We describe evidence from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography indicating that Teinolophos, an Early Cretaceous fossil from Australia's Flat Rocks locality (121-112.5 Ma), lies within the crown clade Monotremata, as a basal platypus. Strict molecular clock estimates of the divergence between platypus and echidnas range from 17 to 80 Ma, but Teinolophos suggests that the two monotreme clades were already distinct in the Early Cretaceous, and that their divergence may predate even the oldest strict molecular estimates by at least 50%. We generated relaxed molecular clock models using three different data sets, but only one yielded a date overlapping with the age of Teinolophos. Morphology suggests that Teinolophos is a platypus in both phylogenetic and ecological aspects, and tends to contradict the popular view of rapid Cenozoic monotreme diversification. Whereas the monotreme fossil record is still sparse and open to interpretation, the new data are consistent with much slower ecological, morphological, and taxonomic diversification rates for monotremes than in their sister taxon, the therian mammals. This alternative view of a deep geological history for monotremes suggests that rate heterogeneities may have affected mammalian evolution in such a way as to defeat strict molecular clock models and to challenge even relaxed molecular clock models when applied to mammalian history at a deep temporal scale.
Ferguson-Smith, M A; Rens, W
A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing relationships of the chain often sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna. Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both, but the order of the remainder are different and, in each species, a different autosome replaces one of the five X chromosomes. As the therian X is homologous mainly to platypus autosome 6 and echidna 16, and as SRY is absent in both, the sex determination mechanism in monotremes is currently unknown. Several of the X and Y chromosomes contain genes orthologous to those in the avian Z but the significance of this is also unknown. It seems likely that a novel testis determinant is carried by a Y chromosome common to platypus and echidna. We have searched for candidates for this determinant among the many genes known to be involved in vertebrate sex differentiation. So far fourteen such genes have been mapped, eleven are autosomal in platypus, two map to the differential regions of X chromosomes, and one maps to a pairing segment and is likewise excluded. Search for the platypus testis-determining gene continues, and the extension of comparative mapping between platypus and birds and reptiles may shed light on the ancestral origin of monotreme sex chromosomes.
McMillan, Daniel; Miethke, Pat; Alsop, Amber E; Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia; Trifonov, Vladimir; Veyrunes, Frederic; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley; Grützner, Frank; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall
Like the unique platypus itself, the platypus genome is extraordinary because of its complex sex chromosome system, and is controversial because of difficulties in identification of small autosomes and sex chromosomes. A 6-fold shotgun sequence of the platypus genome is now available and is being assembled with the help of physical mapping. It is therefore essential to characterize the chromosomes and resolve the ambiguities and inconsistencies in identifying autosomes and sex chromosomes. We have used chromosome paints and DAPI banding to identify and classify pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes. We have established an agreed nomenclature and identified anchor BAC clones for each chromosome that will ensure unambiguous gene localizations.
Ashwell, Ken W S
The two groups of living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) have remarkably different olfactory structures in the adult. The layers of the main olfactory bulb of the short-beaked echidna are extensively folded, whereas those of the platypus are not. Similarly, the surface area of the piriform cortex of the echidna is large and its lamination complex, whereas in the platypus it is small and simple. It has been argued that the modern echidnas are derived from a platypus-like ancestor, in which case the extensive olfactory specializations of the modern echidnas would have developed relatively recently in monotreme evolution. In this study, the development of the constituent structures of the olfactory pathway was studied in sectioned platypus and echidna embryos and post-hatchlings at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. The aim was to determine whether the olfactory structures follow a similar maturational path in the two monotremes during embryonic and early post-hatching ages or whether they show very different developmental paths from the outset. The findings indicate that anatomical differences in the central olfactory system between the short-beaked echidna and the platypus begin to develop immediately before hatching, although details of differences in nasal cavity architecture emerge progressively during late post-hatching life. These findings are most consistent with the proposition that the two modern monotreme lineages have followed independent evolutionary paths from a less olfaction-specialized ancestor. The monotreme olfactory pathway does not appear to be sufficiently structurally mature at birth to allow olfaction-mediated behaviour, because central components of both the main and accessory olfactory system have not differentiated at the time of hatching.
Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S
Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families.
Connolly, J H; Stodart, B J; Ash, G J
Mucor amphibiorum is the only pathogen known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the free-living platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Tasmania. Infection has also been reported in free-ranging cane toads (Bufo marinus) and green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from mainland Australia but has not been confirmed in platypuses from the mainland. To date, there has been little genotyping specifically conducted on M. amphibiorum. A collection of 21 Mucor isolates representing isolates from the platypus, frogs and toads, and environmental samples were obtained for genotypic analysis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and GenBank comparison confirmed the identity of most of the isolates. Representative isolates from infected platypuses formed a clade containing the reference isolates of M. amphibiorum from the Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures repository. The M. amphibiorum isolates showed a close sequence identity with Mucor indicus and consisted of two haplotypes, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. With the exception of isolate 96-4049, all isolates from platypuses were in one haplotype. Multilocus fingerprinting via the use of intersimple sequence repeats polymerase chain reaction identified 19 genotypes. Two major clusters were evident: 1) M. amphibiorum and Mucor racemosus; and 2) Mucor circinelloides, Mucor ramosissimus, and Mucor fragilis. Seven M. amphibiorum isolates from platypuses were present in two subclusters, with isolate 96-4053 appearing genetically distinct from all other isolates. Isolates classified as M. circinelloides by sequence analysis formed a separate subcluster, distinct from other Mucor spp. The combination of sequencing and multilocus fingerprinting has the potential to provide the tools for rapid identification of M. amphibiorum. Data presented on the diversity of the pathogen and further work in linking genetic diversity to functional diversity will provide
Krause, W J
The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria.
Wallis, M C; Delbridge, M L; Pask, A J; Alsop, A E; Grutzner, F; O'Brien, P C M; Rens, W; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Graves, J A M
In the absence of an SRY orthologue the platypus sex determining gene is unknown, so genes in the human testis determining pathway are of particular interest as candidates. SOX9 is an attractive choice because SOX9 deletions cause male-to-female sex reversal in humans and mice, and SOX9 duplications cause female-to-male sex reversal. We have localized platypus SOX9, as well as the related SOX10, to platypus chromosomes 15 and 10, respectively, the first assignments to these platypus chromosomes, and the first comparative mapping markers from human chromosomes 17 and 22. The autosomal localization of platypus SOX9 in this study contradicts the hypothesis that SOX9 acts as the sex determining switch in platypus.
Whittington, Camilla M; Koh, Jennifer M S; Warren, Wesley C; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W; Belov, Katherine
Only five mammalian species are known to be venomous, and while a large amount of research has been carried out on reptile venom, mammalian venom has been poorly studied to date. Here we describe the status of current research into the venom of the platypus, a semi-aquatic egg-laying Australian mammal, and discuss our approach to platypus venom transcriptomics. We propose that such construction and analysis of mammalian venom transcriptomes from small samples of venom gland, in tandem with proteomics studies, will allow the identification of the full range of mammalian venom components. Functional studies and pharmacological evaluation of the identified toxins will then lay the foundations for the future development of novel biomedical substances. A large range of useful molecules have already been identified in snake venom, and many of these are currently in use in human medicine. It is therefore hoped that this basic research to identify the constituents of platypus venom will eventually yield novel drugs and new targets for painkillers.
Munday, B L; Whittington, R J; Stewart, N J
Before the arrival of European settlers in Australia, the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, probably suffered from little disease. Among other things, European settlement has involved substantial environmental perturbation, introduction of large predators, introduction of motor vehicles and translocation of potential pathogens. As a result, platypuses are now killed by motor vehicles, dogs, foxes and discarded plastic litter. Information programmes targeting appropriate segments of the public would help reduce these unnecessary deaths. The enigmatic disease, ulcerative mycosis, caused by Mucor amphibiorum, has been the subject of scientific investigation in Tasmania for the past 15 years. The apparent recent acceleration in its spread has sounded a warning and more intensive investigation is warranted. The possibility that this pathogen has been translocated from subtropical to temperate Tasmania, Australia, with green free frogs in banana shipments further emphasizes the role of humans in threatening the welfare of the platypus. Recommendations are made in relation to appropriate measures that could be taken to ameliorate disease and trauma in this species. PMID:9720107
Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Bansal, Paramjit; Torres, Allan M; Wong, Emily S W; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Tina; Alsop, Amber; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin; Ponting, Chris P; Temple-Smith, Peter; Warren, Wesley C; Kuchel, Philip W; Belov, Katherine
When the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) was first discovered, it was thought to be a taxidermist's hoax, as it has a blend of mammalian and reptilian features. It is a most remarkable mammal, not only because it lays eggs but also because it is venomous. Rather than delivering venom through a bite, as do snakes and shrews, male platypuses have venomous spurs on each hind leg. The platypus genome sequence provides a unique opportunity to unravel the evolutionary history of many of these interesting features. While searching the platypus genome for the sequences of antimicrobial defensin genes, we identified three Ornithorhynchus venom defensin-like peptide (OvDLP) genes, which produce the major components of platypus venom. We show that gene duplication and subsequent functional diversification of beta-defensins gave rise to these platypus OvDLPs. The OvDLP genes are located adjacent to the beta-defensins and share similar gene organization and peptide structures. Intriguingly, some species of snakes and lizards also produce venoms containing similar molecules called crotamines and crotamine-like peptides. This led us to trace the evolutionary origins of other components of platypus and reptile venom. Here we show that several venom components have evolved separately in the platypus and reptiles. Convergent evolution has repeatedly selected genes coding for proteins containing specific structural motifs as templates for venom molecules.
Wronski, Eileen V; Woods, Gregory M; Munday, Barry L
There is limited information regarding the kinetics of antibody responses exhibited by the platypus and the echidna in response to a T cell dependent antigen. In this preliminary study a platypus, an echidna and a rabbit were inoculated with sheep red blood cells to compare their antibody responses and kinetics. The antibody titres, produced by the platypus and echidna, were less than those elicited in the rabbit. Furthermore, the echidna and platypus exhibited a weak secondary response. This was most likely due to a failure of the platypus and echidna to undergo the characteristic IgM to IgG isotype switch following second antigen exposure. The conformational structure of these antibodies may differ from eutherian antibodies. This was further supported by a heat sensitivity experiment that indicated that these antibodies are more labile than rabbit immunoglobulins and therefore structurally less stable.
Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D
Both lineages of the modern monotremes have distinctive features in the cerebral cortex, but the developmental mechanisms that produce such different adult cortical architecture remain unknown. Similarly, nothing is known about the differences and/or similarities between monotreme and therian cortical development. We have used material from the Hill embryological collection to try to answer key questions concerning cortical development in monotremes. Our findings indicate that gyrencephaly begins to emerge in the echidna brain shortly before birth (crown-rump length 12.5 mm), whereas the cortex of the platypus remains lissencephalic throughout development. The cortices of both monotremes are very immature at the time of hatching, much like that seen in marsupials, and both have a subventricular zone (SubV) within both the striatum and pallium during post-hatching development. It is particularly striking that in the platypus, this region has an extension from the palliostriatal angle beneath the developing trigeminoreceptive part of the somatosensory cortex of the lateral cortex. The putative SubV beneath the trigeminal part of S1 appears to accommodate at least two distinct types of cell and many mitotic figures and (particularly in the platypus) appears to be traversed by large numbers of thalamocortical axons as these grow in. The association with putative thalamocortical fibres suggests that this region may also serve functions similar to the subplate zone of Eutheria. These findings suggest that cortical development in each monotreme follows distinct paths from at least the time of birth, consistent with a long period of independent and divergent cortical evolution.
Yamashita, Teruhito; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Thirukonda, Gnanasagar Janardhanan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Yamauchi, Hirose; Suzuki, Nobuo; Li, Feng; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki
In mammalian assay systems, calcitonin peptides of non-mammalian species exhibit stronger activity than those of mammals. Recently, comparative analyses of a wide-range of species revealed that platypus and opossum, which diverged early from other mammals, possess calcitonins that are more similar in amino acid sequence to those of non-mammals than mammals. We herein determined whether platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibit similar biological activities to those of non-mammalian calcitonins using an assay of actin ring formation in mouse osteoclasts. We also compared the dose-dependent effects of each calcitonin on cAMP production in osteoclasts. Consistent with the strong similarities in their primary amino acid sequences, platypus and opossum calcitonins disrupted actin rings with similar efficacies to that of salmon calcitonin. Human calcitonin exhibited the weakest inhibitory potency and required a 100-fold higher concentration (EC50=3×10(-11)M) than that of salmon calcitonin (EC50=2×10(-13)M). Platypus and opossum calcitonins also induced cAMP production in osteoclast cultures with the same efficacies as that of salmon calcitonin. Thus, platypus and opossum calcitonins exhibited strong biological activities, similar to those of the salmon. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that platypus and opossum calcitonins clustered with the salmon-type group but not human- or porcine-type group. These results suggest that platypus and opossum calcitonins are classified into the salmon-type group, in terms of the biological activities and amino acid sequences.
Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Dacheux, Francoise; Labas, Valerie; Ecroyd, Heath; Nixon, Brett; Jones, Russell C
The platypus epididymal proteome is being studied because epididymal proteins are essential for male fertility in mammals and it is considered that knowledge of the epididymal proteome in an early mammal would be informative in assessing the convergence and divergence of proteins that are important in the function of the mammalian epididymis. Few of the epididymal proteins that have been identified in eutherian mammals were found in platypus caudal epididymal fluid, and the major epididymal proteins in the platypus (PXN-FBPL, SPARC and E-OR20) have never been identified in the epididymis of any other mammal.
Stewart, N J; Munday, B L
Platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the north of the island state of Tasmania, Australia, suffer from a serious disease called ulcerative mycosis, which is responsible for high morbidity and, presumably, mortality rates in areas where it occurs. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Mucor amphibiorum, which is also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. However, it does not cause disease in platypuses in those states. It has been previously reported that a closely related fungus, Mucor circinelloides, may also be capable of causing this disease. This paper describes pathogenicity trials involving cane toads (Bufo marinus) as the experimental model. The toads were infected with either Tasmanian, platypus-derived M. amphibiorum, West Australian, frog-derived M. amphibiorum, Queensland cane-toad-derived M. amphibiorum or Tasmanian platypus-derived M. circinelloides. The Tasmanian isolates of M. amphibiorum were more likely to cause a serious, long-term infection than were Queensland or West Australian isolates, and (+) mating types caused a more serious infection than the (-) mating type. The isolate of M. circinelloides was incapable of infecting the toads, lending further weight to the theory that it represents an environmental contaminant. The results suggest that an endemic strain of M. amphibiorum has mutated and become pathogenic to platypuses. Alternatively, a pathogenic strain of M. amphibiorum may have been introduced into Tasmania, where it is infecting a naïve population.
The unusual sex chromosomes of platypus are not homologous to the human X and Y chromosomes, implying that the sex chromosomes of placental mammals evolved after the monotreme and placental mammal lineages split about 165 million years ago.
El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; Wakefield, Matthew; Deakin, Janine E; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank; Alsop, Amber; Ezaz, Tariq; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A
We isolated and characterized a cluster of platypus DMRT genes and compared their arrangement, location, and sequence across vertebrates. The DMRT gene cluster on human 9p24.3 harbors, in order, DMRT1, DMRT3, and DMRT2, which share a DM domain. DMRT1 is highly conserved and involved in sexual development in vertebrates, and deletions in this region cause sex reversal in humans. Sequence comparisons of DMRT genes between species have been valuable in identifying exons, control regions, and conserved nongenic regions (CNGs). The addition of platypus sequences is expected to be particularly valuable, since monotremes fill a gap in the vertebrate genome coverage. We therefore isolated and fully sequenced platypus BAC clones containing DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1 and then generated multispecies alignments and ran prediction programs followed by experimental verification to annotate this gene cluster. We found that the three genes have 58-66% identity to their human orthologues, lie in the same order as in other vertebrates, and colocate on 1 of the 10 platypus sex chromosomes, X5. We also predict that optimal annotation of the newly sequenced platypus genome will be challenging. The analysis of platypus sequence revealed differences in structure and sequence of the DMRT gene cluster. Multispecies comparison was particularly effective for detecting CNGs, revealing several novel potential regulatory regions within DMRT3 and DMRT2 as well as DMRT1. RT-PCR indicated that platypus DMRT1 and DMRT3 are expressed specifically in the adult testis (and not ovary), but DMRT2 has a wider expression profile, as it does for other mammals. The platypus DMRT1 expression pattern, and its location on an X chromosome, suggests an involvement in monotreme sexual development.
Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D
Both lineages of the modern monotremes have been reported to be capable of electroreception using the trigeminal pathways and it has been argued that electroreception arose in an aquatic platypus-like ancestor of both modern monotreme groups. On the other hand, the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the platypus is highly modified for processing tactile and electrosensory information from the bill, whereas the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is not particularly specialized. If the common ancestor for both platypus and echidna were an electroreceptively and trigeminally specialized aquatic feeder, one would expect the early stages of development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in both species to show evidence of structural specialization from the outset. To determine whether this is the case, we examined the development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the platypus and short-beaked echidna using the Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections. We found that the highly specialized features of the platypus trigeminal sensory nuclei (i.e. the large size of the principal nucleus and oral part of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, and the presence of a dorsolateral parvicellular segment in the principal nucleus) appear around the time of hatching in the platypus, but are never seen at any stage in the echidna. Our findings support the proposition that the modern echidna and platypus are derived from a common ancestor with only minimal trigeminal specialization and that the peculiar anatomy of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the modern platypus emerged in the ornithorhynchids after divergence from the tachyglossids.
Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho
Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem.
Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D; Paxinos, George
We have examined the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the trigeminal nuclei of two monotremes using Nissl staining, enzyme reactivity for cytochrome oxidase, immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins and non-phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-32 antibody) and lectin histochemistry (Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4). The principal trigeminal nucleus and the oralis and interpolaris spinal trigeminal nuclei were substantially larger in the platypus than in either the echidna or rat, but the caudalis subnucleus was similar in size in both monotremes and the rat. The numerical density of Nissl stained neurons was higher in the principal, oralis and interpolaris nuclei of the platypus relative to the echidna, but similar to that in the rat. Neuropil immunoreactivity for parvalbumin was particularly intense in the principal trigeminal, oralis and interpolaris subnuclei of the platypus, but the numerical density of parvalbumin immunoreactive neurons was not particularly high in these nuclei of the platypus. Neuropil immunoreactivity for calbindin and calretinin was relatively weak in both monotremes, although calretinin immunoreactive somata made up a large proportion of neurons in the principal, oralis and interpolaris subnuclei of the echidna. Distribution of calretinin immunoreactivity and Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin reactivity suggested that the caudalis subnucleus of the echidna does not have a clearly defined gelatinosus region. Our findings indicate that the trigeminal nuclei of the echidna do not appear to be highly specialized, but that the principal, oralis and interpolaris subnuclei of the platypus trigeminal complex are highly differentiated, presumably for processing of tactile and electrosensory information from the bill.
Lin, M; Jones, R C
Spermatogenesis in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is of considerable biological interest as the structure of its gametes more closely resemble that of reptiles and birds than marsupial or eutherian mammals. The ultrastructure of 16 steps of spermatid development is described and provides a basis for determining the kinetics of spermatogenesis. Steps 1-3 correspond to the Golgi phase of spermatid development, steps 4-8 correspond to the cap phase, steps 9-12 are the acrosomal phase, and steps 13-16 are the maturation phase. Acrosomal development follows the reptilian model and no acrosomal granule is formed. Most other features of spermiogenesis are similar to processes in reptiles and birds. However, some are unique to mammals. For example, a thin, lateral margin of the acrosome of platypus sperm expands over the nucleus as in other mammals, and more than in reptiles and birds. Also, a tubulobulbar complex develops around the spermatid head, a feature which appears to be unique to mammals. Further, during spermiation the residual body is released from the caudal end of the nucleus of platypus sperm leaving a cytoplasmic droplet located at the proximal end of the middle piece as in marsupial and eutherian mammals. Other features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be unique to monotremes. For example, nuclear condensation involves the formation of a layer of chromatin granules under the nucleolemma, and development of the fibrous sheath of the principal piece starts much later in the platypus than in birds or eutherian mammals.
LIN, MINJIE; JONES, RUSSELL C.
Spermatogenesis in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is of considerable biological interest as the structure of its gametes more closely resemble that of reptiles and birds than marsupial or eutherian mammals. The ultrastructure of 16 steps of spermatid development is described and provides a basis for determining the kinetics of spermatogenesis. Steps 1–3 correspond to the Golgi phase of spermatid development, steps 4–8 correspond to the cap phase, steps 9–12 are the acrosomal phase, and steps 13–16 are the maturation phase. Acrosomal development follows the reptilian model and no acrosomal granule is formed. Most other features of spermiogenesis are similar to processes in reptiles and birds. However, some are unique to mammals. For example, a thin, lateral margin of the acrosome of platypus sperm expands over the nucleus as in other mammals, and more than in reptiles and birds. Also, a tubulobulbar complex develops around the spermatid head, a feature which appears to be unique to mammals. Further, during spermiation the residual body is released from the caudal end of the nucleus of platypus sperm leaving a cytoplasmic droplet located at the proximal end of the middle piece as in marsupial and eutherian mammals. Other features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be unique to monotremes. For example, nuclear condensation involves the formation of a layer of chromatin granules under the nucleolemma, and development of the fibrous sheath of the principal piece starts much later in the platypus than in birds or eutherian mammals. PMID:10739018
Wang, Xinxin; Parra, Zuly E; Miller, Robert D
TCRμ is an unconventional TCR that was first discovered in marsupials and appears to be absent from placental mammals and nonmammals. In this study, we show that TCRμ is also present in the duckbill platypus, an egg-laying monotreme, consistent with TCRμ being ancient and present in the last common ancestor of all extant mammals. As in marsupials, platypus TCRμ is expressed in a form containing double V domains. These V domains more closely resemble Ab V than that of conventional TCR. Platypus TCRμ differs from its marsupial homolog by requiring two rounds of somatic DNA recombination to assemble both V exons and has a genomic organization resembling the likely ancestral form of the receptor genes. These results demonstrate that the ancestors of placental mammals would have had TCRμ but it has been lost from this lineage.
Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Tian-Qi; Wan, Tao; Perdices, Anabel; Yang, Jin-Quan; Tang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Huang, Li-Qun; Huang, Song; He, Shun-Ping
Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus.
ZHENG, Xin; ZHOU, Tian-Qi; WAN, Tao; PERDICES, Anabel; YANG, Jin-Quan; TANG, Xin-Sheng; WANG, Zheng-Ping; HUANG, Li-Qun; HUANG, Song; HE, Shun-Ping
Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868
Manger, P R; Hall, L S; Pettigrew, J D
The present study describes the post-hatching development of the external features of the platypus. Specimens range in age from the day of hatching through to 6 months old, and provide the first comprehensive view of the developmental sequence of these features. Various features, those specific to the platypus, those specific to monotremes and those shared with marsupials and eutherians, are described. Features specific to the platypus, including the bill and webbing of the forefeet, are seen to develop precociously. Many features show similarities to marsupials, although marsupials show differential development both in timing and in morphology. The developmental progression is related to the age, in days, although the exact age of the specimens is unclear, and relies on ages given to the specimens at the time of collection, sometimes as long as 70 years ago. Despite this, the progression of development of these features suggests that the ageing given is relatively accurate. PMID:9720109
Vázquez-Baeza, Y.; Pettengill, J. B.; Ottesen, A.; McDonald, D.; Knight, R.
ABSTRACT Metagenomics is increasingly used not just to show patterns of microbial diversity but also as a culture-independent method to detect individual organisms of intense clinical, epidemiological, conservation, forensic, or regulatory interest. A widely reported metagenomic study of the New York subway suggested that the pathogens Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis were part of the “normal subway microbiome.” In their article in mSystems, Hsu and collaborators (mSystems 1(3):e00018-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00018-16) showed that microbial communities on transit surfaces in the Boston subway system are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists and that reanalysis of the New York subway data with appropriate methods did not detect the pathogens. We note that commonly used software pipelines can produce results that lack prima facie validity (e.g., reporting widespread distribution of notorious endemic species such as the platypus or the presence of pathogens) but that appropriate use of inclusion and exclusion sets can avoid this issue. PMID:27832215
Fjällbrant, T T; Manger, P R; Pettigrew, J D
This paper focuses on how the electric field from the prey of the platypus is detected with respect to the questions of threshold determination and how the platypus might localize its prey. A new behaviour in response to electrical stimuli below the thresholds previously reported is presented. The platypus shows a voluntary exploratory behaviour that results from a temporal integration of a number of consecutive stimulus pulses. A theoretical analysis is given, which includes the threshold dependence on the number of receptors and temporal integration of consecutive stimuli pulses, the close relationships between electrical field decay across the bill, electroreceptive thresholds and directionality of the platypus bill acting as an antenna. It is shown that a lobe shape, similar to that which has been measured, can be obtained by combining responses in a specific way from receptors sensing the electric field decay across the bill. Two possible methods for such combinations are discussed and analysed with respect to measurements and observed behaviour of the platypus. A number of factors are described which need to be considered when electroreceptive thresholds are to be determined. It is shown that some information about the distance to the source is theoretically available from the pattern of field decay across the platypus's bill. The paper includes a comparative analysis of radar target tracking and platypus prey localization. PMID:9720116
Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A
Endocrine regulation of milk protein gene expression in marsupials and eutherians is well studied. However, the evolution of this complex regulation that began with monotremes is unknown. Monotremes represent the oldest lineage of extant mammals and the endocrine regulation of lactation in these mammals has not been investigated. Here we characterised the proximal promoter and hormonal regulation of two platypus milk protein genes, Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein and monotreme lactation protein (MLP), a monotreme specific milk protein, using in vitro reporter assays and a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1). Insulin and dexamethasone alone provided partial induction of MLP, while the combination of insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin was required for maximal induction. Partial induction of BLG was achieved by insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin alone, with maximal induction using all three hormones. Platypus MLP and BLG core promoter regions comprised transcription factor binding sites (e.g. STAT5, NF-1 and C/EBPα) that were conserved in marsupial and eutherian lineages that regulate caseins and whey protein gene expression. Our analysis suggests that insulin, dexamethasone and/or prolactin alone can regulate the platypus MLP and BLG gene expression, unlike those of therian lineage. The induction of platypus milk protein genes by lactogenic hormones suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupial and eutherians.
Lillie, Mette; Woodward, Rachael E; Sanderson, Claire E; Eldridge, Mark D B; Belov, Katherine
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is the sole survivor of a previously widely distributed and diverse lineage of ornithorhynchid monotremes. Its dependence on healthy water systems imposes an inherent sensitivity to habitat degradation and climate change. Here, we compare genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II-DZB gene and 3 MHC-associated microsatellite markers with diversity at 6 neutral microsatellite markers in 70 platypuses from across their range, including the mainland of Australia and the isolated populations of Tasmania, King Island, and Kangaroo Island. Overall, high DZB diversity was observed in the platypus, with 57 DZB β1 alleles characterized. Significant positive selection was detected within the DZB peptide-binding region, promoting variation in this domain. Low levels of genetic diversity were detected at all markers in the 2 island populations, King Island (endemic) and Kangaroo Island (introduced), with the King Island platypuses monomorphic at the DZB locus. Loss of MHC diversity on King Island is of concern, as the population may have compromised immunological fitness and reduced ability to resist changing environmental conditions.
Pettigrew, John D
Bi-sensory striped arrays are described in owl and platypus that share some similarities with the other variant of bi-sensory striped array found in primate and carnivore striate cortex: ocular dominance columns. Like ocular dominance columns, the owl and platypus striped systems each involve two different topographic arrays that are cut into parallel stripes, and interdigitated, so that higher-order neurons can integrate across both arrays. Unlike ocular dominance stripes, which have a separate array for each eye, the striped array in the middle third of the owl tectum has a separate array for each cerebral hemisphere. Binocular neurons send outputs from both hemispheres to the striped array where they are segregated into parallel stripes according to hemisphere of origin. In platypus primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the two arrays of interdigitated stripes are derived from separate sensory systems in the bill, 40,000 electroreceptors and 60,000 mechanoreceptors. The stripes in platypus S1 cortex produce bimodal electrosensory-mechanosensory neurons with specificity for the time-of-arrival difference between the two systems. This "thunder-and-lightning" system would allow the platypus to estimate the distance of the prey using time disparities generated at the bill between the earlier electrical wave and the later mechanical wave caused by the motion of benthic prey. The functional significance of parallel, striped arrays is not clear, even for the highly-studied ocular dominance system, but a general strategy is proposed here that is based on the detection of temporal disparities between the two arrays that can be used to estimate distance.
Peter, Annette; Khandekar, Shaunak; Deakin, Janine E; Stick, Reimer
Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) holds a unique phylogenetic position at the base of the mammalian lineage due to an amalgamation of mammalian and sauropsid-like features. Here we describe the set of four lamin genes for platypus. Lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina, which constitutes a main component of the nucleoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of nuclear functions. Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by an increase in the number of lamin genes from a single gene in their closest relatives, the tunicates and cephalochordates, to four genes in the vertebrate lineage. Of the four genes the LIII gene is characterized by the presence of two alternatively spliced CaaX-encoding exons. In amphibians and fish LIII is the major lamin protein in oocytes and early embryos. The LIII gene is conserved throughout the vertebrate lineage, with the notable exception of marsupials and placental mammals, which have lost the LIII gene. Here we show that platypus has retained an LIII gene, albeit with a significantly altered structure and with a radically different expression pattern. The platypus LIII gene contains only a single CaaX-encoding exon and the head domain together with coil 1a and part of coil1b of the platypus LIII protein is replaced by a novel short non-helical N-terminus. It is expressed exclusively in the testis. These features resemble those of male germ cell-specific lamins in placental mammals, in particular those of lamin C2. Our data suggest (i) that the specific functions of LIII, which it fulfills in all other vertebrates, is no longer required in mammals and (ii) once it had been freed from these functions has undergone structural alterations and has adopted a new functionality in monotremes.
Veyrunes, Frédéric; Waters, Paul D; Miethke, Pat; Rens, Willem; McMillan, Daniel; Alsop, Amber E; Grützner, Frank; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Warren, Wes; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A
In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex chromosomes, in which dosage of a Z-borne gene (possibly DMRT1) affects male determination. As the most basal mammal group, the egg-laying monotremes are ideal for determining how the therian XY system evolved. The platypus has an extraordinary sex chromosome complex, in which five X and five Y chromosomes pair in a translocation chain of alternating X and Y chromosomes. We used physical mapping to identify genes on the pairing regions between adjacent X and Y chromosomes. Most significantly, comparative mapping shows that, contrary to earlier reports, there is no homology between the platypus and therian X chromosomes. Orthologs of genes in the conserved region of the human X (including SOX3, the gene from which SRY evolved) all map to platypus chromosome 6, which therefore represents the ancestral autosome from which the therian X and Y pair derived. Rather, the platypus X chromosomes have substantial homology with the bird Z chromosome (including DMRT1) and to segments syntenic with this region in the human genome. Thus, platypus sex chromosomes have strong homology with bird, but not to therian sex chromosomes, implying that the therian X and Y chromosomes (and the SRY gene) evolved from an autosomal pair after the divergence of monotremes only 166 million years ago. Therefore, the therian X and Y are more than 145 million years younger than previously thought.
Koh, Jennifer M S; Chow, Stephanie J P; Crossett, Ben; Kuchel, Philip W
Male platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom has a peptidyl aminoacyl L/D-isomerase (hereafter called peptide isomerase) that converts the second amino acid residue in from the N-terminus from the L- to the D-form, and vice versa. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay has been developed to monitor the interconversion using synthetic hexapeptides derived from defensin-like peptide-2 (DLP-2) and DLP-4 as substrates. It was hypothesised that animals other than the platypus would have peptide isomerase with the same substrate specificity. Accordingly, eight mouse tissues were tested and heart was shown to have the activity. This is notable for being the first evidence of a peptide isomerase being present in a higher mammal and heralds finding the activity in man.
Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C
Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect a wide range of vertebrates and have diversified into multiple genetic types, some of which have serious consequences for human health. Although PVs have to date only been characterized as exogenous viral forms, here we report the observation of an endogenous viral element (EPVLoa) in the genome of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) that is related to PVs. Further data mining for endogenous PV-like elements is therefore warranted.
Schmitz, Jürgen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kuhl, Heiner; Grützner, Frank; Reinhardt, Richard; Brosius, Jürgen
Diversification of mammalian species began more than 160 million years ago when the egg-laying monotremes diverged from live bearing mammals. The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidnas are the only potential contemporary witnesses of this period and, thereby, provide a unique insight into mammalian genome evolution. It has become clear that small RNAs are major regulatory agents in eukaryotic cells, and the significant role of non-protein-coding (npc) RNAs in transcription, processing, and translation is now well accepted. Here we show that the platypus genome contains more than 200 small nucleolar (sno) RNAs among hundreds of other diverse npcRNAs. Their comparison among key mammalian groups and other vertebrates enabled us to reconstruct a complete temporal pathway of acquisition and loss of these snoRNAs. In platypus we found cis- and trans-duplication distribution patterns for snoRNAs, which have not been described in any other vertebrates but are known to occur in nematodes. An exciting novelty in platypus is a snoRNA-derived retroposon (termed snoRTE) that facilitates a very effective dispersal of an H/ACA snoRNA via RTE-mediated retroposition. From more than 40,000 detected full-length and truncated genomic copies of this snoRTE, at least 21 are processed into mature snoRNAs. High-copy retroposition via multiple host gene-promoted transcription units is a novel pathway for combining housekeeping function and SINE-like dispersal and reveals a new dimension in the evolution of novel snoRNA function.
Wong, Emily S W; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Whittington, Camilla M; Warren, Wesley C; Belov, Katherine
Gene duplication followed by adaptive selection is believed to be the primary driver of venom evolution. However, to date, no studies have evaluated the importance of gene duplications for venom evolution using a genomic approach. The availability of a sequenced genome and a venom gland transcriptome for the enigmatic platypus provides a unique opportunity to explore the role that gene duplication plays in venom evolution. Here, we identify gene duplication events and correlate them with expressed transcripts in an in-season venom gland. Gene duplicates (1,508) were identified. These duplicated pairs (421), including genes that have undergone multiple rounds of gene duplications, were expressed in the venom gland. The majority of these genes are involved in metabolism and protein synthesis not toxin functions. Twelve secretory genes including serine proteases, metalloproteinases, and protease inhibitors likely to produce symptoms of envenomation such as vasodilation and pain were detected. Only 16 of 107 platypus genes with high similarity to known toxins evolved through gene duplication. Platypus venom C-type natriuretic peptides and nerve growth factor do not possess lineage-specific gene duplicates. Extensive duplications, believed to increase the potency of toxic content and promote toxin diversification, were not found. This is the first study to take a genome-wide approach in order to examine the impact of gene duplication on venom evolution. Our findings support the idea that adaptive selection acts on gene duplicates to drive the independent evolution and functional diversification of similar venom genes in venomous species. However, gene duplications alone do not explain the "venome" of the platypus. Other mechanisms, such as alternative splicing and mutation, may be important in venom innovation.
Ashwell, Ken W S
The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished from therians as well as each other in part by the unusual structure of the thalamus in each. In particular, the platypus has an enlarged ventral posterior (VP) nucleus reflecting the great behavioural importance of trigeminosensation and electroreception. The embryological collections of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin were used to analyse the development of the dorsal thalamus and ventral thalamus (prethalamus) in both species. Prosomeric organization of the forebrain emerged at 6 mm crown-rump length (CRL), but thalamic neurogenesis did not commence until about 8-9 mm CRL. Distinctive features of the dorsal thalamus in the two species began to emerge after hatching (about 14-15 mm CRL). During the first post-hatching week, dense clusters of granular cells aggregated to form the VP of the platypus, whereas the VP complex of the echidna remained smaller and divided into distinct medial and lateral divisions. At the end of the first post-hatching week, the thalamocortical tract was much larger in the platypus than the echidna. The dorsal thalamus of the platypus is essentially adult-like by the sixth week of post-hatching life. The similar appearance of the dorsal thalamus in the two species until the time of hatching, followed by the rapid expansion of the VP in the platypus, is most consistent with ancestral platypuses having undergone changes in the genetic control of thalamic neurogenesis to produce a large VP for trigeminal electroreception after the divergence of the two lineages of monotreme.
Renfree, Marilyn B; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Shaw, Geoff; Pask, Andrew J
Genomic imprinting is widespread in eutherian and marsupial mammals. Although there have been many hypotheses to explain why genomic imprinting evolved in mammals, few have examined how it arose. The host defence hypothesis suggests that imprinting evolved from existing mechanisms within the cell that act to silence foreign DNA elements that insert into the genome. However, the changes to the mammalian genome that accompanied the evolution of imprinting have been hard to define due to the absence of large-scale genomic resources from all extant classes. The recent release of the platypus genome sequence has provided the first opportunity to make comparisons between prototherian (monotreme, which show no signs of imprinting) and therian (marsupial and eutherian, which have imprinting) mammals. We compared the distribution of repeat elements known to attract epigenetic silencing across the genome from monotremes and therian mammals, particularly focusing on the orthologous imprinted regions. Our analyses show that the platypus has significantly fewer repeats of certain classes in the regions of the genome that have become imprinted in therian mammals. The accumulation of repeats, especially long-terminal repeats and DNA elements, in therian imprinted genes and gene clusters therefore appears to be coincident with, and may have been a potential driving force in, the development of mammalian genomic imprinting. Comparative platypus genome analyses of orthologous imprinted regions have provided strong support for the host defence hypothesis to explain the origin of imprinting.
Ho, Kristen K K; Deakin, Janine E; Wright, Megan L; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank
A common theme in the evolution of sex chromosomes is the massive loss of genes on the sex-specific chromosome (Y or W), leading to a gene imbalance between males (XY) and females (XX) in a male heterogametic species, or between ZZ and ZW in a female heterogametic species. Different mechanisms have evolved to compensate for this difference in dosage of X-borne genes between sexes. In therian mammals, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated, whereas bird dosage compensation is partial and gene-specific. In therian mammals, hallmarks of the inactive X are monoallelic gene expression, late DNA replication and chromatin condensation. Platypuses have five pairs of X chromosomes in females and five X and five Y chromosomes in males. Gene expression analysis suggests a more bird-like partial and gene-specific dosage compensation mechanism. We investigated replication timing and chromosome condensation of three of the five X chromosomes in female platypus. Our data suggest asynchronous replication of X-specific regions on X(1), X(3) and X(5) but show significantly different condensation between homologues for X(3) only, and not for X(1) or X(5). We discuss these results in relation to recent gene expression analysis of X-linked genes, which together give us insights into possible mechanisms of dosage compensation in platypus.
Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi
Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.
Zhao, Yaofeng; Cui, Huiting; Whittington, Camilla M; Wei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Ziding; Yu, Li; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Hellman, Lars; Belov, Katherine; Li, Ning; Hammarström, Lennart
The evolutionary origins of mammalian immunoglobulin H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA) are still incompletely understood as these isotypes differ considerably in structure and number from their counterparts in nonmammalian tetrapods. We report in this study that the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) Ig H chain constant region gene locus contains eight Ig encoding genes, which are arranged in an mu-delta-omicron-gamma2-gamma1-alpha1-epsilon-alpha2 order, spanning a total of approximately 200 kb DNA, encoding six distinct isotypes. The omicron (omicron for Ornithorhynchus) gene encodes a novel Ig H chain isotype that consists of four constant region domains and a hinge, and is structurally different from any of the five known mammalian Ig classes. This gene is phylogenetically related to upsilon (epsilon) and gamma, and thus appears to be a structural intermediate between these two genes. The platypus delta gene encodes ten heavy chain constant region domains, lacks a hinge region and is similar to IgD in amphibians and fish, but strikingly different from that in eutherian mammals. The platypus Ig H chain isotype repertoire thus shows a unique combination of genes that share similarity both to those of nonmammalian tetrapods and eutherian animals and demonstrates how phylogenetically informative species can be used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of functionally important genes.
Kortschak, R Daniel; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank
Monotremes feature an extraordinary sex-chromosome system that consists of five X and five Y chromosomes in males. These sex chromosomes share homology with bird sex chromosomes but no homology with the therian X. The genome of a female platypus was recently completed, providing unique insights into sequence and gene content of autosomes and X chromosomes, but no Y-specific sequence has so far been analysed. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and analysis of approximately 700 kb of sequence of the non-recombining regions of Y2, Y3 and Y5, which revealed differences in base composition and repeat content between autosomes and sex chromosomes, and within the sex chromosomes themselves. This provides the first insights into repeat content of Y chromosomes in platypus, which overall show similar patterns of repeat composition to Y chromosomes in other species. Interestingly, we also observed differences between the various Y chromosomes, and in combination with timing and activity patterns we provide an approach that can be used to examine the evolutionary history of the platypus sex-chromosome chain.
In February 1943, in the midst of the Second World War, Prime Minister Winston Churchill demanded that a live duck-billed platypus be sent from Australia to Britain. A vigorous male was shipped off but died shortly before arrival in Britain. This request can only be understood if placed in the context of Churchill's passion for exotic pets as well as the rich history of aristocratic menageries and live diplomatic gifts. Obtaining an animal hitherto unseen alive in Europe would have been a great zoological achievement for London Zoo and secured British authority in heated historical taxonomical debates. This zoological triumph, coupled with accomplishing an extravagant enterprise in the middle of war-time austerity would have boosted public morale. Most importantly, despite its death, the platypus, served as a token for mediating the soured relations between Australia and Britain. Churchill's platypus provides a unique case of animal collecting that incorporates effects on international diplomacy and public relations along with a great private eccentricity and passion.
Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Dodge, Natasha; Mohr, Julia; Casey, Aaron; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Kremitzki, Colin L; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Grützner, Frank
In mammals, chromosomes occupy defined positions in sperm, whereas previous work in chicken showed random chromosome distribution. Monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are the most basal group of living mammals. They have elongated sperm like chicken and a complex sex chromosome system with homology to chicken sex chromosomes. We used platypus and chicken genomic clones to investigate genome organization in sperm. In chicken sperm, about half of the chromosomes investigated are organized non-randomly, whereas in platypus chromosome organization in sperm is almost entirely non-random. The use of genomic clones allowed us to determine chromosome orientation and chromatin compaction in sperm. We found that in both species chromosomes maintain orientation of chromosomes in sperm independent of random or non-random positioning along the sperm nucleus. The distance of loci correlated with the total length of sperm nuclei, suggesting that chromatin extension depends on sperm elongation. In platypus, most sex chromosomes cluster in the posterior region of the sperm nucleus, presumably the result of postmeiotic association of sex chromosomes. Chicken and platypus autosomes sharing homology with the human X chromosome located centrally in both species suggesting that this is the ancestral position. This suggests that in some therian mammals a more anterior position of the X chromosome has evolved independently.
Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Dodge, Natasha; Mohr, Julia; Casey, Aaron; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Kremitzki, Colin L.; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C.
In mammals, chromosomes occupy defined positions in sperm, whereas previous work in chicken showed random chromosome distribution. Monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are the most basal group of living mammals. They have elongated sperm like chicken and a complex sex chromosome system with homology to chicken sex chromosomes. We used platypus and chicken genomic clones to investigate genome organization in sperm. In chicken sperm, about half of the chromosomes investigated are organized non-randomly, whereas in platypus chromosome organization in sperm is almost entirely non-random. The use of genomic clones allowed us to determine chromosome orientation and chromatin compaction in sperm. We found that in both species chromosomes maintain orientation of chromosomes in sperm independent of random or non-random positioning along the sperm nucleus. The distance of loci correlated with the total length of sperm nuclei, suggesting that chromatin extension depends on sperm elongation. In platypus, most sex chromosomes cluster in the posterior region of the sperm nucleus, presumably the result of postmeiotic association of sex chromosomes. Chicken and platypus autosomes sharing homology with the human X chromosome located centrally in both species suggesting that this is the ancestral position. This suggests that in some therian mammals a more anterior position of the X chromosome has evolved independently. PMID:18726609
Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D; Giere, Peter
The extant monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are believed to all be capable of electroreception in the trigeminal pathways, although they differ significantly in the number and distribution of electroreceptors. It has been argued by some authors that electroreception was first developed in an aquatic environment and that echidnas are descended from a platypus-like ancestor that invaded an available terrestrial habitat. If this were the case, one would expect the developmental trajectories of the trigeminal pathways to be similar in the early stages of platypus and short-beaked echidna development, with structural divergence occurring later. We examined the development of the peripheral trigeminal pathway from snout skin to trigeminal ganglion in sectioned material in the Hill and Hubrecht collections to test for similarities and differences between the two during the development from egg to adulthood. Each monotreme showed a characteristic and different pattern of distribution of developing epidermal sensory gland specializations (electroreceptor primordia) from the time of hatching. The cross-sectional areas of the trigeminal divisions and the volume of the trigeminal ganglion itself were also very different between the two species at embryonic ages, and remained consistently different throughout post-hatching development. Our findings indicate that the trigeminal pathways in the short-beaked echidna and the platypus follow very different developmental trajectories from the earliest ages. These findings are more consistent with the notion that the platypus and echidna have both diverged from an ancestor with rudimentary electroreception and/or trigeminal specialization, rather than the contention that the echidna is derived from a platypus-like ancestor.
Deakin, Janine E; Hore, Timothy A; Koina, Edda; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A
Dosage compensation has been thought to be a ubiquitous property of sex chromosomes that are represented differently in males and females. The expression of most X-borne genes is equalized between XX females and XY males in therian mammals (marsupials and "placentals") by inactivating one X chromosome in female somatic cells. However, compensation seems not to be strictly required to equalize the expression of most Z-borne genes between ZZ male and ZW female birds. Whether dosage compensation operates in the third mammal lineage, the egg-laying monotremes, is of considerable interest, since the platypus has a complex sex chromosome system in which five X and five Y chromosomes share considerable genetic homology with the chicken ZW sex chromosome pair, but not with therian XY chromosomes. The assignment of genes to four platypus X chromosomes allowed us to examine X dosage compensation in this unique species. Quantitative PCR showed a range of compensation, but SNP analysis of several X-borne genes showed that both alleles are transcribed in a heterozygous female. Transcription of 14 BACs representing 19 X-borne genes was examined by RNA-FISH in female and male fibroblasts. An autosomal control gene was expressed from both alleles in nearly all nuclei, and four pseudoautosomal BACs were usually expressed from both alleles in male as well as female nuclei, showing that their Y loci are active. However, nine X-specific BACs were usually transcribed from only one allele. This suggests that while some genes on the platypus X are not dosage compensated, other genes do show some form of compensation via stochastic transcriptional inhibition, perhaps representing an ancestral system that evolved to be more tightly controlled in placental mammals such as human and mouse.
He, Chuan; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank
Monotremes have undergone remarkable changes to their digestive and metabolic control system; however, the monotreme pancreas remains poorly characterized. Previous work in echidna demonstrated the presence of pancreatic islets, but no information is available for platypus and the fine structure has not been described for either monotreme. Based on our recent finding that monotremes lack the ghrelin gene, which is expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islets, we investigated the structure of monotreme islets in more detail. Generally, as in birds, the islets of monotremes were smaller but greater in number compared with mouse. β-cells were the most abundant endocrine cell population in platypus islets and were located peripherally, while α-cells were observed both in the interior and periphery of the islets. δ-cells and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-cells were mainly found in the islet periphery. Distinct PP-rich (PP-lobe) and PP-poor areas (non-PP-lobe) are present in therian mammals, and we identified these areas in echidna but not platypus pancreas. Interestingly, in some of the echidna islets, α- and β-cells tended to form two poles within the islets, which to our knowledge is the first time this has been observed in any species. Overall, monotreme pancreata share the feature of consisting of distinct PP-poor and PP-rich islets with other mammals. A higher number of islets and α- or β-cell only islets are shared between monotremes and birds. The islets of monotremes were larger than those of birds but smaller compared with therian mammals. This may indicate a trend of having fewer larger islets comprising several endocrine cell types during mammalian evolution.
Ashwell, Ken W S; Lajevardi, Shahab-Eddin; Cheng, Gang; Paxinos, George
The monotremes are an intriguing group of mammals that have major differences in their reproductive physiology and lactation from therian mammals. Monotreme young hatch from leathery skinned eggs and are nourished by milk secreted onto areolae rather than through nipples. Parturition and lactation are in part controlled through the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. We have used Nissl staining, enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, calbindin, oxytocin, neurophysin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and carbocyanine dye tracing techniques to examine the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and the course of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract in two monotremes: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). In both monotremes, the supraoptic nucleus consisted of loosely packed neurons, mainly in the retrochiasmatic position. In the echidna, the paraventricular nucleus was quite small, but had similar chemoarchitectural features to therians. In the platypus, the paraventricular nucleus was larger and appeared to be part of a stream of magnocellular neurons extending from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. Immunohistochemistry for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein and carbocyanine dye tracing suggested that hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract neurons in the echidna lie mainly in the retrochiasmatic supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic regions, but most neurophysin and oxytocin immunoreactive neurons in the echidna were found in the paraventricular, lateral hypothalamus and supraoptic nuclei and most oxytocinergic neurons in the platypus were distributed in a band from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. The small size of the supraoptic nucleus in the two monotremes might reflect functional aspects of monotreme lactation.
Deakin, Janine E.; Hore, Timothy A.; Koina, Edda; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.
Dosage compensation has been thought to be a ubiquitous property of sex chromosomes that are represented differently in males and females. The expression of most X-borne genes is equalized between XX females and XY males in therian mammals (marsupials and “placentals”) by inactivating one X chromosome in female somatic cells. However, compensation seems not to be strictly required to equalize the expression of most Z-borne genes between ZZ male and ZW female birds. Whether dosage compensation operates in the third mammal lineage, the egg-laying monotremes, is of considerable interest, since the platypus has a complex sex chromosome system in which five X and five Y chromosomes share considerable genetic homology with the chicken ZW sex chromosome pair, but not with therian XY chromosomes. The assignment of genes to four platypus X chromosomes allowed us to examine X dosage compensation in this unique species. Quantitative PCR showed a range of compensation, but SNP analysis of several X-borne genes showed that both alleles are transcribed in a heterozygous female. Transcription of 14 BACs representing 19 X-borne genes was examined by RNA-FISH in female and male fibroblasts. An autosomal control gene was expressed from both alleles in nearly all nuclei, and four pseudoautosomal BACs were usually expressed from both alleles in male as well as female nuclei, showing that their Y loci are active. However, nine X-specific BACs were usually transcribed from only one allele. This suggests that while some genes on the platypus X are not dosage compensated, other genes do show some form of compensation via stochastic transcriptional inhibition, perhaps representing an ancestral system that evolved to be more tightly controlled in placental mammals such as human and mouse. PMID:18654631
Wallis, M C; Waters, P D; Delbridge, M L; Kirby, P J; Pask, A J; Grützner, F; Rens, W; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Graves, J A M
In eutherian ('placental') mammals, sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implying that this mechanism is ancestral to therians, the SRY gene having diverged from its X-borne homologue SOX3 at least 180 million years ago. The rare exceptions have clearly lost and replaced the SRY mechanism recently. Other vertebrate classes have a variety of sex-determining mechanisms, but none shares the therian SRY-driven XX female:XY male system. In monotreme mammals (platypus and echidna), which branched from the therian lineage 210 million years ago, no orthologue of SRY has been found. In this study we show that its partner SOX3 is autosomal in platypus and echidna, mapping among human X chromosome orthologues to platypus chromosome 6, and to the homologous chromosome 16 in echidna. The autosomal localization of SOX3 in monotreme mammals, as well as non-mammal vertebrates, implies that SRY is absent in Prototheria and evolved later in the therian lineage 210-180 million years ago. Sex determination in platypus and echidna must therefore depend on another male-determining gene(s) on the Y chromosomes, or on the different dosage of a gene(s) on the X chromosomes.
Schauer, Roland; Srinivasan, G Vinayaga; Coddeville, Bernadette; Zanetta, Jean-Pierre; Guérardel, Yann
The sialic acids of the platypus, birds, and reptiles were investigated with regard to the occurrence of N-glycolylneuraminic (Neu5Gc) acid. They were released from tissues, eggs, or salivary mucin samples by acid hydrolysis, and purified and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. In muscle and liver of the platypus only N-acetylneuraminic (Neu5Ac) acid was found. The nine bird species studied also did not express N-glycolylneuraminic acid with the exception of an egg, but not tissues, from the budgerigar and traces in poultry. Among nine reptiles, including one turtle, N-glycolylneuraminic acid was only found in the egg and an adult basilisk, but not in a freshly hatched animal. BLAST analysis of the genomes of the platypus, the chicken, and zebra finch against the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase did not reveal the existence of a similar protein structure. Apparently monotremes (platypus) and sauropsids (birds and reptiles) cannot synthesize Neu5Gc. The few animals where Neu5Gc was found, especially in eggs, may have acquired this from the diet or by an alternative pathway. Since Neu5Gc is antigenic to man, the observation that this monosaccharide does not or at least only rarely occur in birds and reptiles, may be of nutritional and clinical significance.
Saerbeck, T.; Cortie, D. L.; Brück, S.; Bertinshaw, J.; Holt, S. A.; Nelson, A.; James, M.; Lee, W. T.; Klose, F.
Time-of-flight (ToF) polarized neutron reflectometry enables the detailed investigation of depth-resolved magnetic structures in thin film and multilayer magnetic systems. The general advantage of the time-of-flight mode of operation over monochromatic instruments is a decoupling of spectral shape and polarization of the neutron beam with variable resolution. Thus, a wide Q-range can be investigated using a single angle of incidence, with resolution and flux well-adjusted to the experimental requirement. Our paper reviews the current status of the polarization equipment of the ToF reflectometer PLATYPUS and presents first results obtained on stratified Ni80Fe20/α-Fe2O3 films, revealing the distribution of magnetic moments in an exchange bias system. An outlook on the future development of the PLATYPUS polarization system towards the implementation of a polarized 3He cell is presented and discussed with respect to the efficiency and high Q-coverage up to 1 Å-1 and 0.15 Å-1 in the vertical and lateral momentum transfer, respectively.
Holmes, Roger S; Goldberg, Erwin
Computational methods were used to predict the amino acid sequences and gene locations for mammalian lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) genes and proteins using genome sequence databanks. Human LDHA, LDHC and LDH6A genes were located in tandem on chromosome 11, while LDH6B and LDH6C genes were on chromosomes 15 and 12, respectively. Opossum LDHC and LDH6B genes were located in tandem with the opossum LDHA gene on chromosome 5 and contained 7 (LDHA and LDHC) or 8 (LDH6B) exons. An amino acid sequence prediction for the opossum LDH6B subunit gave an extended N-terminal sequence, similar to the human and mouse LDH6B sequences, which may support the export of this enzyme into mitochondria. The platypus genome contained at least 3 LDH genes encoding LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B subunits. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analyses indicated that LDHA, LDHB and LDH6B genes are present in all mammalian genomes examined, including a monotreme species (platypus), whereas the LDHC gene may have arisen more recently in marsupial mammals.
Parra, Zuly E; Arnold, Tamara; Nowak, Melissa A; Hellman, Lars; Miller, Robert D
TCR gamma (TRG) chain diversity in splenic gammadelta T cells was determined for an egg-laying mammal (or monotreme), the duckbill platypus. Three distinct V subgroups were found in the expressed TRG chains and these three subgroups are members of a clade not found so far in eutherian mammals or birds. Each subgroup contains approximately five V gene segments, and their overall divergence is much less than is found in eutherians and birds, consistent with their recent evolution from an ancestral V gene segment. The platypus TRG locus also contains three C region genes and many of the residues involved in TCR function, such as interactions with CD3, were conserved in the monotreme C regions. All non-eutherian mammals (monotremes and marsupials) lacked the second cysteine residue necessary to form the intradomain disulfide bond in the C region, a loss apparently due to independent mutations in marsupials and monotremes. Monotreme TRGC regions also had among the most variation in the length of the connecting peptide region described for any species due to repeated motifs.
Asahara, Masakazu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Macrini, Thomas E.; Hand, Suzanne J.; Archer, Michael
The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a “sixth sense” associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies. Results indicate that the bill of Obdurodon is more dorsally deflected than that of Ornithorhynchus, suggesting a pelagic foraging behavior in Obdurodon compared to the bottom-feeding behavior in Ornithorhynchus. The infraorbital foramen of Obdurodon, through which the maxillary nerve passes sensory data from the bill to the brain, is relatively less developed than that of Ornithorhynchus. Whereas bill-focused sensory perception was likely shared among Mesozoic monotremes, the highly developed electrosensory system of Ornithorhynchus may represent an adaptation to foraging in cloudy water. Computed tomography imagery indicates that the enlarged infraorbital canal of Ornithorhynchus restricts the space available for maxillary tooth roots. Hence, loss of functional teeth in Ornithorhynchus may possibly have resulted from a shift in foraging behavior and coordinate elaboration of the electroreceptive sensory system. Well-developed electroreceptivity in monotremes is known at least as far back as the early Cretaceous; however, there are differences in the extent of elaboration of the feature among members of the ornithorhynchid lineage. PMID:27757425
Macgregor, J. W.; Holyoake, C.; Fleming, P. A.; Robertson, I. D.; Connolly, J. H.; Warren, K. S.
Health and conservation research on platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) may require anaesthesia to reduce stress and the risk of injury to both the animal and the researcher, as well as to facilitate examination and sample collection. Platypus anaesthesia can be difficult to manage, with reports of periods of apnoea and bradycardia described. This study investigated the conditions around sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia in 163 field-anaesthetized platypuses as part of a health study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane delivered in oxygen by face mask. Sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia was observed in 19% of platypuses, occurring either at induction of anaesthesia, during recovery, or both. At induction, occurrence was more often recorded for adults (P = 0.19) and was correlated with low body temperature (P < 0.001), season (P = 0.06; greater incidence in summer) and longer pre-anaesthetic holding time (P = 0.16). At recovery, sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia occurred only in platypuses that had been placed in dorsal recumbency as part of their examination, and correlated with poor body condition (P = 0.002), time in dorsal recumbency (P = 0.005), adults (P = 0.06), number of fieldworkers (P = 0.06) and females (P = 0.11). The sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia we observed is likely to result from the irritant nature of isoflurane (stimulating the trigeminal nerve via nasal chemoreceptors). We propose that this mechanism is analogous to that of submersion of the face/nasal cavity in cold water during a natural dive response, but that the term ‘nasopharyngeal response’ would more appropriately describe the changes observed under isoflurane anaesthesia. Although we did not record any long-term adverse effects on platypuses that had undergone this response, the nasopharyngeal response could complicate the diagnosis of anaesthetic dose-dependent apnoea and bradycardia. Therefore, we suggest that
Kim, Woo-Keun; Jung, Jinho
The integration of biomarker responses ranging from the molecular to the individual level is of great interest for measuring the toxic effects of hazardous chemicals or effluent mixtures on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus by using multi-level biomarker responses at molecular [mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and metallothionein (MT)], biochemical (enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and concentration of MT), and physiological [condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI)] levels. The mRNA expression levels of GST and MT in Z. platypus from a site downstream of a WWTP significantly increased by 2.2- and 4.5-fold (p<0.05) when compared with those from an upstream site. However, the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in fish from the downstream site significantly decreased by 43%, 98%, and 13%, respectively (p<0.05), except for an increase in MT concentration (41%). In addition, a significant increase in LSI (46%) was observed in Z. platypus from the downstream site (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the liver of Z. platypus were higher (530%, 353%, 800%, and 2,200%, respectively) in fish from a downstream site than in fish from an upstream location, and several multi-level biomarker responses were significantly correlated with the accumulated metals in Z. platypus (p<0.05). Integrated biomarker responses at molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels (multi-level IBR) were much higher (about 4-fold) at the downstream site than at the upstream site. This study suggests that the multi-level IBR approach is very useful for quantifying in situ adverse effects of WWTP effluents.
Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank
Uterine nourishment of embryos by the placenta is a key feature of mammals. Although a variety of placenta types exist, they are all derived from the trophectoderm (TE) cell layer of the developing embryo. Egg-laying mammals (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by a very short intrauterine embryo development, in which a simple placenta forms from TE-like cells. The Pou5f1 gene encodes a class V POU family transcription factor Oct3/4. In mice, Oct3/4 together with the highly conserved caudal-related homeobox transcription factor Cdx2, determines TE fate in pre-implantation development. In contrast to Cdx2, Pou5f1 has only been identified in eutherian mammals and marsupials, whereas, in other vertebrates, pou2 is considered to be the Pou5f1 ortholog. Here, we show that platypus and opossum genomes contain a Pou5f1 and pou2 homolog, pou2-related, indicating that these two genes are paralogues and arose by gene duplication in early mammalian evolution. In a complementation assay, we found that platypus or human Pou5f1, but not opossum or zebrafish pou2, restores self-renewal in Pou5f1-null mouse ES cells, showing that platypus possess a fully functional Pou5f1 gene. Interestingly, we discovered that parts of one of the conserved regions (CR4) is missing from the platypus Pou5f1 promoter, suggesting that the autoregulation and reciprocal inhibition between Pou5f1 and Cdx2 evolved after the divergence of monotremes and may be linked to the development of more elaborate placental types in marsupial and eutherian mammals.
Grant, T R; Temple-Smith, P D
The field biology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, was first studied by a number of expatriate biologists who visited the Australian colonies to collect specimens in the 1800s. Their work was followed in the early to mid-1900s by a group of resident natural historians and later by an increasing number of academic biologists. All of these workers contributed significantly to the current understanding of the field biology of this unique Australian species. The platypus occupies much the same general distribution as it did prior to European occupation of Australia, except for its loss from the state of South Australia. However, local changes and fragmentation of distribution due to human modification of its habitat are documented. The species currently inhabits eastern Australia from around Cooktown in the north to Tasmania in the south. Although not found in the west-flowing rivers of northern Queensland, it inhabits the upper reaches of rivers flowing to the west and north of the dividing ranges in the south of the state and in New South Wales and Victoria. Its current and historical abundance, however, is less well known and it has probably declined in numbers, although still being considered as common over most of its current range. The species was extensively hunted for its fur until around this turn of this century. The platypus is mostly nocturnal in its foraging activities, being predominantly an opportunistic carnivore of benthic invertebrates. The species is homeothermic, maintaining its low body temperature (32 degrees C), even while foraging for hours in water below 5 degrees C. Its major habitat requirements include both riverine and riparian features which maintain a supply of benthic prey species and consolidated banks into which resting and nesting burrows can be excavated. The species exhibits a single breeding season, with mating occurring in late winter or spring and young first emerging into the water after 3-4 months of nurture by the
Manger, P R; Pettigrew, J D
The platypus is presently the only mammal demonstrated to use electroreception to obtain food. The electroreceptive system of the platypus is far more complex than that of its close relative the echidna. This paper presents an anatomical study of the basis of electroreception in the platypus. The innervation of the bill by the trigeminal nerve is described, as are three sensory structures, associated with food gathering, within the bill skin. There are 40,000 mucous gland electroreceptors found in the bill skin of the platypus. The papillary portion of each of these sensory mucous glands is modified to accommodate electrosensory nerve terminals. In contrast to fish electroreceptors, the electrosensory terminals of the platypus are not associated with a sensory cell. These mucous gland electroreceptors are arranged in a series of parasagittal stripes on the bill. This array suggests a basis for the ability of the platypus to quickly and accurately locate the origin of an electrical stimulus. A push-rod mechanoreceptor, similar in morphology to Eimer's organ of the mole, and bill-tip organs in birds, was also found in the bill skin. The slightly differing morphology of these mechanoreceptors when compared to their avian and talpid counterparts suggests that this is another example of convergent evolution, with the common need to provide a solution to increasing tactile sensitivity on bare rhinarial skin. These push-rods are found to be most dense around the labial margins of the bill, with a marked decrease in density towards the middle and caudal portions of the bill. The distribution of the push-rods is similar to the distribution of the third sensory structure found on the bill, the sensory serous gland. Although less numerous than the mechanoreceptors (46,500 mechanoreceptors compared with 13,500 sensory serous glands), these sensory serous glands have a similar distribution and similar changes in density. These concurrent distributions argue for some functional
Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke
The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal.
Torres, Allan M; Bansal, Paramjit; Koh, Jennifer M S; Pagès, Guilhem; Wu, Ming J; Kuchel, Philip W
The three-dimensional structure of a chemically synthesized peptide that we have called 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide (Int-DLP), from the platypus genome, was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. The overall structural fold of Int-DLP was similar to that of the DLPs and β-defensins, however the presence of a third antiparallel β-strand makes its structure more similar to the β-defensins than the DLPs. Int-DLP displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The four arginine residues at the N-terminus of Int-DLP did not affect the overall fold, but were important for its antimicrobial potency.
Saerbeck, T; Klose, F; Le Brun, A P; Füzi, J; Brule, A; Nelson, A; Holt, S A; James, M
This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.
Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.
This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.
Slater, Matthew H
Many astronomers seem to believe that we have discovered that Pluto is not a planet. I contest this assessment. Recent discoveries of trans-Neptunian Pluto-sized objects do not militate for Pluto's expulsion from the planets unless we have prior reason for not simply counting these newly-discovered objects among the planets. I argue that this classificatory controversy - which I compare to the controversy about the classification of the platypus - illustrates how our classificatory practices are laden with normative commitments of a distinctive kind. I conclude with a discussion of the relevance of such "norm-ladenness" to other controversies in the metaphysics of classification, such as the monism/pluralism debate.
Ashwell, Ken W S; Phillips, Jennifer M
The cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex of the short-beaked echidna and platypus were studied to determine: (1) if these areas contain chemically distinct subdivisions, and (2) if the chemoarchitecture of those cortical olfactory regions differs from therians. Nissl and myelin staining were applied in conjunction with enzyme reactivity for NADPH diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase, and immunoreactivity for calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) and tyrosine hydroxylase. Golgi impregnations were also available for the echidna. In the echidna, the anterior olfactory nucleus is negligible in extent and merges at very rostral levels with a four-layered piriform cortex. Several rostrocaudally running subregions of the echidna piriform lobe could be identified on the basis of Nissl staining and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity. Laminar-specific differences in calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity and NADPH-d-reactive neuron distribution were also noted. Neuron types identified in echidna piriform cortex included pyramidal neurons predominating in layers II and III and non-pyramidal neurons (e.g., multipolar profusely spiny and neurogliaform cells) in deeper layers. Horizontal cells were identified in both superficial and deep layers. By contrast, the platypus had a distinct anterior olfactory nucleus and a three-layered piriform cortex with no evidence of chemically distinct subregions within the piriform cortex. Volume of the paleocortex of the echidna was comparable to prosimians of similar body weight and, in absolute volume, exceeded that for eutherian insectivores such as T. ecaudatus and E. europaeus. The piriform cortex of the echidna shows evidence of regional differentiation, which in turn suggests highly specialized olfactory function.
Issa, Samah; Downard, Kevin M
The interaction between alpha-crystallin and upsilon-crystallin, a class recently discovered in the eye of the Australian platypus, has been shown by native shift gel assay and examined by radical probe mass spectrometry in the context of the ability of alpha-crystallin to protect upsilon-crystallin from oxidation and oxidative damage through radical-based oxidative stress mechanisms. Residues 22-41, 132-148, 212-227 and 245-264 of upsilon-crystallin display the greatest protection when interacted with alpha-crystallin at a ratio of 2 : 1 observed for the complex, which is commensurate with their levels measured in the eye of the platypus. Across each domain, a delay in the onset of oxidative damage is observed as the time of exposure to radicals is increased. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of the porcine homologue of upsilon-crystallin.
Grützner, Frank; Rens, Willem; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Jones, Russell C; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A
Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine sex and produce balanced gametes has been controversial for decades. Here we demonstrate that platypus have five male-specific chromosomes (Y chromosomes) and five chromosomes present in one copy in males and two copies in females (X chromosomes). These ten chromosomes form a multivalent chain at male meiosis, adopting an alternating pattern to segregate into XXXXX-bearing and YYYYY-bearing sperm. Which, if any, of these sex chromosomes bears one or more sex-determining genes remains unknown. The largest X chromosome, with homology to the human X chromosome, lies at one end of the chain, and a chromosome with homology to the bird Z chromosome lies near the other end. This suggests an evolutionary link between mammal and bird sex chromosome systems, which were previously thought to have evolved independently.
Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R
Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830
Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L
To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water.
Southcott, R V
The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.
Belov, Katherine; Hellman, Lars
In this paper, we review data on the monotreme immune system focusing on the characterisation of lymphoid tissue and of antibody responses, as well the recent cloning of immunoglobulin genes. It is now known that monotremes utilise immunoglobulin isotypes that are structurally identical to those found in marsupials and eutherians, but which differ to those found in birds and reptiles. Monotremes utilise IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE. They do not use IgY. Their IgG and IgA constant regions contain three domains plus a hinge region. Preliminary analysis of monotreme heavy chain variable region diversity suggests that the platypus primarily uses a single VH clan, while the short-beaked echidna utilises at least 4 distinct VH families which segregate into all three mammalian VH clans. Phylogenetic analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene sequences provides strong support for the Theria hypothesis. The constant region of IgM has proven to be a useful marker for estimating the time of divergence of mammalian lineages.
Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis.
Torres, A M; Wang, X; Fletcher, J I; Alewood, D; Alewood, P F; Smith, R; Simpson, R J; Nicholson, G M; Sutherland, S K; Gallagher, C H; King, G F; Kuchel, P W
Three defensin-like peptides (DLPs) were isolated from platypus venom and sequenced. One of these peptides, DLP-1, was synthesized chemically and its three-dimensional structure was determined using NMR spectroscopy. The main structural elements of this 42-residue peptide were an anti-parallel beta-sheet comprising residues 15-18 and 37-40 and a small 3(10) helix spanning residues 10-12. The overall three-dimensional fold is similar to that of beta-defensin-12, and similar to the sodium-channel neurotoxin ShI (Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I). However, the side chains known to be functionally important in beta-defensin-12 and ShI are not conserved in DLP-1, suggesting that it has a different biological function. Consistent with this contention, we showed that DLP-1 possesses no anti-microbial properties and has no observable activity on rat dorsal-root-ganglion sodium-channel currents. PMID:10417345
Belhoucine, Latifa; Bouhraoua, Rachid T; Prats, Eva; Pulade-Villar, Juli
Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood of the tree. The fine structural aspects of the mouthpart using the field emission scanning electron microscopy are analyzed about 23 adults collected in galleries of infested cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in a littoral forest of northwest Algeria. These adults are preserved in alcohol 70%, cleaned and coated with gold. The mouthparts of this beetle consist commonly of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and the labium but with adapted structure to excavate galleries in the hardwood. In this role is also involved the first pair of legs. The function that present the different structures related to the construction of the tunnels is discussed. Both of maxillary and labial palpi direct the food to the mouth and hold it while the mandibles chew the food. The distal ends of these palpi are flattened and have shovel-like setae. Females have larger maxillary palpi than males and this is related to the particular biology of each sex.
Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R; Kingsford, Richard T
Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia's iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973-2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = -0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution.
Torres, Allan M; Tsampazi, Chryssanthi; Geraghty, Dominic P; Bansal, Paramjit S; Alewood, Paul F; Kuchel, Philip W
The recent discovery that the natriuretic peptide OvCNPb (Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide B) from platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) venom contains a D-amino acid residue suggested that other D-amino-acid-containing peptides might be present in the venom. In the present study, we show that DLP-2 (defensin-like peptide-2), a 42-amino-acid residue polypeptide in the platypus venom, also contains a D-amino acid residue, D-methionine, at position 2, while DLP-4, which has an identical amino acid sequence, has all amino acids in the L-form. These findings were supported further by the detection of isomerase activity in the platypus gland venom extract that converts DLP-4 into DLP-2. In the light of this new information, the tertiary structure of DLP-2 was recalculated using a new structural template with D-Met2. The structure of DLP-4 was also determined in order to evaluate the effect of a D-amino acid at position 2 on the structure and possibly to explain the large retention time difference observed for the two molecules in reverse-phase HPLC. The solution structures of the DLP-2 and DLP-4 are very similar to each other and to the earlier reported structure of DLP-2, which assumed that all amino acids were in the L-form. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the D-amino acid at position 2 has minimal effect on the overall fold in solution.
Torres, A M; de Plater, G M; Doverskog, M; Birinyi-Strachan, L C; Nicholson, G M; Gallagher, C H; Kuchel, P W
The venom of the male Australian duck-billed platypus contains a family of four polypeptides of appox. 5 kDa, which are referred to as defensin-like peptides (DLPs). They are unique in that their amino acid sequences have no significant similarities to those of any known peptides; however, the tertiary structure of one of them, DLP-1, has recently been shown to be similar to beta-defensin-12 and to the sodium neurotoxin peptide ShI (Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I). Although DLPs are the major peptides in the platypus venom, little is known about their biological roles. In this study, we determined the three-dimensional structure of DLP-2 by NMR spectroscopy, with the aim of gaining insights into the natural function of the DLPs in platypus venom. The DLP-2 structure was found to incorporate a short helix that spans residues 9-12, and an antiparallel beta-sheet defined by residues 15-18 and 37-40. The overall fold and cysteine-pairing pattern of DLP-2 were found to be similar to those of DLP-1, and hence beta-defensin-12; however, the sequence similarities between the three molecules are relatively small. The distinct structural fold of the DLP-1, DLP-2, and beta-defensin-12 is based upon several key residues that include six cysteines. DLP-3 and DLP-4 are also likely to be folded similarly since they have high sequence similarity with DLP-2. The DLPs, and beta-defensin-12 may thus be grouped together into a class of polypeptide molecules which have a common or very similar global fold. The fact that the DLPs did not display antimicrobial, myotoxic, or cell-growth-promoting activities implies that the nature of the side chains in this group of peptides is likely to play an important role in defining the biological function(s). PMID:10839998
Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R.; Kingsford, Richard T.
Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia’s iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973–2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = −0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution. PMID:26536832
Bansal, Paramjit S; Torres, Allan M; Crossett, Ben; Wong, Karen K Y; Koh, Jennifer M S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Kuchel, Philip W
The L-to-D-peptide isomerase from the venom of the platypus (Ornithorhyncus anatinus) is the first such enzyme to be reported for a mammal. In delineating its catalytic mechanism and broader roles in the animal, its substrate specificity was explored. We used N-terminal segments of defensin-like peptides DLP-2 and DLP-4 and natriuretic peptide OvCNP from the venom as substrates. The DLP analogues IMFsrs and ImFsrs (srs is a solubilizing chain; lowercase letters denote D-amino acid) were effective substrates for the isomerase; it appears to recognize the N-terminal tripeptide sequence Ile-Xaa-Phe-. A suite of 26 mutants of these hexapeptides was synthesized by replacing the second residue (Met) with another amino acid, viz. Ala, alpha-aminobutyric acid, Ile, Leu, Lys, norleucine, Phe, Tyr, and Val. It was shown that mutant peptides incorporating norleucine and Phe are substrates and exhibit L- or D-amino acid isomerization, but mutant peptides that contain residues with shorter, beta-branched or long side chains with polar terminal groups, viz. Ala, alpha-aminobutyric acid, Ile, Val, Leu, Lys, and Tyr, respectively, are not substrates. It was demonstrated that at least three N-terminal amino acid residues are absolutely essential for L-to-D-isomerization; furthermore, the third amino acid must be a Phe residue. None of the hexapeptides based on LLH, the first three residues of OvCNP, were substrates. A consistent 2-base mechanism is proposed for the isomerization; abstraction of a proton by 1 base is concomitant with delivery of a proton by the conjugate acid of a second base.
Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Lim, Shu Ly; Pask, Andrew J; Hamdan, Diana Demiyah Mohd; Renfree, Marilyn B; Grützner, Frank
One of the most puzzling aspects of monotreme reproductive biology is how they determine sex in the absence of the SRY gene that triggers testis development in most other mammals. Although monotremes share a XX female/XY male sex chromosome system with other mammals, their sex chromosomes show homology to the chicken Z chromosome, including the DMRT1 gene, which is a dosage-dependent sex determination gene in birds. In addition, monotremes feature an extraordinary multiple sex chromosome system. However, no sex determination gene has been identified as yet on any of the five X or five Y chromosomes and there is very little knowledge about the conservation and function of other known genes in the monotreme sex determination and differentiation pathway. We have analysed the expression pattern of four evolutionarily conserved genes that are important at different stages of sexual development in therian mammals. DMRT1 is a conserved sex-determination gene that is upregulated in the male developing gonad in vertebrates, while DMRT7 is a mammal-specific spermatogenesis gene. ATRX, a chromatin remodelling protein, lies on the therian X but there is a testis-expressed Y-copy in marsupials. However, in monotremes, the ATRX orthologue is autosomal. WT1 is an evolutionarily conserved gene essential for early gonadal formation in both sexes and later in testis development. We show that these four genes in the adult platypus have the same expression pattern as in other mammals, suggesting that they have a conserved role in sexual development independent of genomic location.
Takano, Yu; Nakata, Kazuto; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Nakamura, Haruki
A massively parallel program for quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation, called Platypus (PLATform for dYnamic Protein Unified Simulation), was developed to elucidate protein functions. The speedup and the parallelization ratio of Platypus in the QM and QM/MM calculations were assessed for a bacteriochlorophyll dimer in the photosynthetic reaction center (DIMER) on the K computer, a massively parallel computer achieving 10 PetaFLOPs with 705,024 cores. Platypus exhibited the increase in speedup up to 20,000 core processors at the HF/cc-pVDZ and B3LYP/cc-pVDZ, and up to 10,000 core processors by the CASCI(16,16)/6-31G** calculations. We also performed excited QM/MM-MD simulations on the chromophore of Sirius (SIRIUS) in water. Sirius is a pH-insensitive and photo-stable ultramarine fluorescent protein. Platypus accelerated on-the-fly excited-state QM/MM-MD simulations for SIRIUS in water, using over 4000 core processors. In addition, it also succeeded in 50-ps (200,000-step) on-the-fly excited-state QM/MM-MD simulations for the SIRIUS in water.
Wong, Emily S W; Morgenstern, David; Mofiz, Ehtesham; Gombert, Sara; Morris, Katrina M; Temple-Smith, Peter; Renfree, Marilyn B; Whittington, Camilla M; King, Glenn F; Warren, Wesley C; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine
The platypus is a venomous monotreme. Male platypuses possess a spur on their hind legs that is connected to glands in the pelvic region. They produce venom only during the breeding season, presumably to fight off conspecifics. We have taken advantage of this unique seasonal production of venom to compare the transcriptomes of in- and out-of-season venom glands, in conjunction with proteomic analysis, to identify previously undiscovered venom genes. Comparison of the venom glands revealed distinct gene expression profiles that are consistent with changes in venom gland morphology and venom volumes in and out of the breeding season. Venom proteins were identified through shot-gun sequenced venom proteomes of three animals using RNA-seq-derived transcripts for peptide-spectral matching. 5,157 genes were expressed in the venom glands, 1,821 genes were up-regulated in the in-season gland, and 10 proteins were identified in the venom. New classes of platypus-venom proteins identified included antimicrobials, amide oxidase, serpin protease inhibitor, proteins associated with the mammalian stress response pathway, cytokines, and other immune molecules. Five putative toxins have only been identified in platypus venom: growth differentiation factor 15, nucleobindin-2, CD55, a CXC-chemokine, and corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein. These novel venom proteins have potential biomedical and therapeutic applications and provide insights into venom evolution.
Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Cox, Guy C; Kuchel, Philip W
As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from an aquatic monotreme, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and an aquatic reptile, saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) were studied. The mean diameter of platypus RBCs was estimated by light microscopy and found to be approximately 6.3 microm. Pd was measured by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technique. The Pd (cm/s) values were relatively low: approximately 2.1 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 2.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 3.4 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 4.5 at 42 degrees C for the platypus RBCs and approximately 2.8 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 3.2 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 4.5 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 5.7 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C for the crocodile RBCs. In parallel with the low water permeability, the Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was relatively high, approximately 35 kJ/mol. These results suggest that "conventional" WCPs (water channel proteins), or AQPs (aquaporins), are probably absent from the plasma membranes of RBCs from both the platypus and the saltwater crocodile.
Wong, Emily S W; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine
Natural killer (NK) cell receptors belong to two unrelated, but functionally analogous gene families: the immunoglobulin superfamily, situated in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the C-type lectin superfamily, located in the natural killer complex (NKC). Here, we describe the largest NK receptor gene expansion seen to date. We identified 213 putative C-type lectin NK receptor homologs in the genome of the platypus. Many have arisen as the result of a lineage-specific expansion. Orthologs of OLR1, CD69, KLRE, CLEC12B, and CLEC16p genes were also identified. The NKC is split into at least two regions of the genome: 34 genes map to chromosome 7, two map to a small autosome, and the remainder are unanchored in the current genome assembly. No NK receptor genes from the LRC were identified. The massive C-type lectin expansion and lack of Ig-domain-containing NK receptors represents the most extreme polarization of NK receptors found to date. We have used this new data from platypus to trace the possible evolutionary history of the NK receptor clusters.
Daish, Tasman; Casey, Aaron; Grützner, Frank
Monotremes are phylogenetically and phenotypically unique animals with an unusually complex sex chromosome system that is composed of ten chromosomes in platypus and nine in echidna. These chromosomes are alternately linked (X1Y1, X2Y2, ...) at meiosis via pseudoautosomal regions and segregate to form spermatozoa containing either X or Y chromosomes. The physical and epigenetic mechanisms involved in pairing and assembly of the complex sex chromosome chain in early meiotic prophase I are completely unknown. We have analysed the pairing dynamics of specific sex chromosome pseudoautosomal regions in platypus spermatocytes during prophase of meiosis I. Our data show a highly coordinated pairing process that begins at the terminal Y5 chromosome and completes with the union of sex chromosomes X1Y1. The consistency of this ordered assembly of the chain is remarkable and raises questions about the mechanisms and factors that regulate the differential pairing of sex chromosomes and how this relates to potential meiotic silencing mechanisms and alternate segregation.
The duck-billed platypus, or Ornithorhynchus, was the subject of an intense debate among natural historians in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Its paradoxical mixture of mammalian, avian and reptilian characteristics made it something of a taxonomic conundrum. In the early 1820s Robert Jameson (1774-1854), the professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and the curator of the University's natural history museum, was able to acquire three valuable specimens of this species. He passed one of these on to the anatomist Robert Knox (1791-1862), who dissected the animal and presented his results in a series of papers to the Wernerian Natural History Society, which later published them in its Memoirs. This paper takes Jameson's platypus as a case study on how natural history specimens were used to create and contest knowledge of the natural world in the early nineteenth century, at a time when interpretations of the relationships between animal taxa were in a state of flux. It shows how Jameson used his possession of this interesting specimen to provide a valuable opportunity for his protégé Knox while also helping to consolidate his own position as a key figure in early nineteenth-century natural history.
SUMMARY The duck-billed platypus, or Ornithorhynchus, was the subject of an intense debate among natural historians in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Its paradoxical mixture of mammalian, avian and reptilian characteristics made it something of a taxonomic conundrum. In the early 1820s Robert Jameson (1774–1854), the professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and the curator of the University's natural history museum, was able to acquire three valuable specimens of this species. He passed one of these on to the anatomist Robert Knox (1791–1862), who dissected the animal and presented his results in a series of papers to the Wernerian Natural History Society, which later published them in its Memoirs. This paper takes Jameson's platypus as a case study on how natural history specimens were used to create and contest knowledge of the natural world in the early nineteenth century, at a time when interpretations of the relationships between animal taxa were in a state of flux. It shows how Jameson used his possession of this interesting specimen to provide a valuable opportunity for his protégé Knox while also helping to consolidate his own position as a key figure in early nineteenth-century natural history. PMID:27671001
Babin, Patrick J
Vitellogenin (Vtg) derivatives are the main egg-yolk proteins in most oviparous animal species, and are, therefore, key players in reproduction and embryo development. Conserved synteny and phylogeny were used to identify a Vtg gene cluster (VGC) that had been evolutionarily conserved in most oviparous vertebrates, encompassing the three linked Vtgs on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 8. Tandem arranged homologs to chicken VtgII and VtgIII were retrieved in similar locations in Xenopus (Xenopus tropicalis) and homologous transcribed inverted genes were found in medaka (Oryzias latipes), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), and Tetrahodon (Tetraodon nigroviridis), while zebrafish (Danio rerio) Vtg3 may represent a residual trace of VGC in this genome. Vtgs were not conserved in the paralogous chromosomal segment attributed to a whole-genome duplication event in the ancestor of teleosts, while tandem duplicated forms have survived the recent African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) tetraploidization. Orthologs to chicken VtgI were found in similar locations in teleost fish, as well as in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Additional Vtg fragments found suggested that VGC had been conserved in this egg-laying mammal. A low ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution values and the paucity of pseudogene features suggest functional platypus Vtg products. Genomic identification of Vtgs, Apob, and Mtp in this genome, together with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses, support the existence of these three large lipid transfer protein superfamily members at the base of the mammalian lineage. In conclusion, the establishment of a VGC in the vertebrate lineage predates the divergence of ray-finned fish and tetrapods and the shift in reproductive and developmental strategy observed between prototherians and therians may be associated with its loss, as shown by its absence from the genomic resources currently
Musser, A M; Archer, M
A reconstruction of the skull, dentary and dentition of the middle Miocene ornithorhynchid Obdurodon dicksoni has been made possible by acquisition of nearly complete cranial and dental material. Access to new anatomical work on the living platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the present comparative study of the cranial foramina of Ob. dicksoni and Or. anatinus have provided new insights into the evolution of the ornithorhynchid skull. The hypertrophied bill in Ob. dicksoni is seen here as possibly apomorphic, although evidence from ontogenetic studies of Or. anatinus suggests that the basic form of the bill in Ob. dicksoni (where the rostral crura meet at the midline) may be ancestral to the form of the bill in Or. anatinus (where the rostral crura meet at the midline in the embryonic platypus but diverge in the adult). Differences in the relative positions of cranial structures, and in the relationships of certain cranial foramina, indicate that the cranium may have become secondarily shortened in Or. anatinus, possibly evolving from a more elongate skull type such as that of Ob. dicksoni. The plesiomorphic dentary of Ob. dicksoni, with well-developed coronoid and angular processes, contrasts with the dentary of Or. anatinus, in which the processes are almost vestigial, as well as with the dentary of the late Oligocene, congeneric Ob. insignis, in which the angular process appears to be reduced (the coronoid process is missing). In this regard the dentary of Ob. insignis seems to be morphologically closer to Or. anatinus than is the dentary of the younger Ob. dicksoni. Phylogenetic conclusions differ from previous analyses in viewing the northern Australian Ob. dicksoni as possibly derived in possessing a hypertrophied bill and dorsoventrally flattened skull and dentary, perhaps being a specialized branch of the Obdurodon line rather than ancestral to species of Ornithorhynchus. The presence of functional teeth and the robust, flattened skull and dentary in Ob
Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Kuchel, Philip W; Belov, Katherine
The platypus, as an egg-laying mammal, displays an unusual mixture of reptilian and mammalian characteristics. It is also venomous, and further investigations into its little-studied venom may lead to the development of novel pharmaceuticals and drug targets and provide insights into the origins of mammalian venom. Here we investigate the expression patterns of antimicrobial genes called defensins, and also the venom peptides called defensin-like peptides (OvDLPs). We show, in the first expression study on any platypus venom gene, that the OvDLPs are expressed in a greater range of tissues than would be expected for genes with specific venom function, and thus that they may have a wider role than previously suspected.
Macrini, Thomas E; Rowe, Timothy; Archer, Michael
A digital cranial endocast of the Miocene platypus Obdurodon dicksoni was extracted from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans. This endocast represents the oldest from an unequivocal member of either extant monotreme lineage and is therefore important for inferring character support for Monotremata, a clade that is not well diagnosed. We describe the Obdurodon endocast with reference to endocasts extracted from skulls of the three species of extant monotremes, particularly Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the duckbill platypus. We consulted published descriptions and illustrations of whole and sectioned brains of monotremes to determine which external features of the nervous system are represented on the endocasts. Similar to Ornithorhynchus, well-developed parafloccular casts and reduced olfactory bulb casts are present in the Obdurodon endocast. Reduction of the olfactory bulbs in comparison with tachyglossids and therian mammals is a potential apomorphy for Ornithorhynchidae. The trigeminal nuclei, ganglia, and nerves (i.e., trigeminal complex) are enlarged in Obdurodon, as evidenced by their casts on the endocast, as is the case in the extant platypus. The visibility of enlarged trigeminal nucleus casts on the endocasts of Obdurodon and Ornithorhynchus is a possible synapomorphy of Ornithorhynchidae. Electroreception and enlargement of the trigeminal complex are possible synapomorphies for Monotremata.
Gruetzner, Frank; Ashley, Terry; Rowell, David M; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A
The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).
Grafodatskaya, Daria; Rens, Willem; Wallis, Mary C; Trifonov, Vladimir; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Clarke, Oliver; Graves, Jennifer A M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A
The duck-billed platypus has five pairs of sex chromosomes, but there is no information about the primary sex-determining switch in this species. As there is no apparent SRY orthologue in platypus, another gene must acquire the function of a key regulator of the gonadal male or female fate. SOX9 was ruled out from being this key regulator as it maps to an autosome in platypus. To check whether other genes in mammalian gonadogenesis could be the primary switch in monotremes, we have mapped a number of candidates in platypus. We report here the autosomal location of WT1, SF1, LHX1, LHX9, FGF9, WNT4 and RSPO1 in platypus, thus excluding these from being key regulators of sex determination in this species. We found that GATA4 maps to sex chromosomes Y1 and X2; however, it lies in the pairing region shown by chromosome painting to be homologous, so is unlikely to be either male-specific or differentially dosed in male and female.
Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P
Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.
Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p < 0.01) after 4 days of exposure in 100 μg/L BaP. These results indicate that the only use of mRNA expression level of CYP system as a biomarker make us underestimate prolonged toxicity (4-14 days) of BaP and the only use of protein expression level of CYP system make us underestimate acute toxicity (1-2 days) of BaP. Therefore, we suggests that a combinational use of the mRNA expression level and protein expression level of CYP system, hepatosomatic index is a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure. In addition, DNA adduct formation was a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure at 4 days. CYP1A was a more sensitive biomarker than CYP reductase for BaP exposure when considering both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, our results show that Z. platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure.
Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T
Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are
The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...
Ashwell, Ken W S
The modern monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are characterized by development of their young in a leathery egg that is laid into a nest or abdominal pouch. At hatching, the young are externally immature, with forelimbs capable of digitopalmar prehension, but hindlimbs little advanced beyond limb buds. The embryological collections at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin were used to examine the development of the spinal cord and early peripheral nervous system in developing monotremes and to correlate this with known behavioural development. Ventral root outgrowth to the bases of both the fore- and hindlimbs occurs at 6.0 mm crown-rump length (CRL), but invasion of both limbs does not happen until about 8.0-8.5 mm CRL. Differentiation of the ventral horn precedes the dorsal horn during incubation and separate medial and lateral motor columns can be distinguished before hatching. Rexed's laminae begin to appear in the dorsal horn in the first week after hatching, and gracile and cuneate fasciculi emerge during the first two post-hatching months. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the structure of the cervicothoracic junction spinal cord in the two monotremes with that in a diprotodont marsupial (the brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula) of similar size at birth, did not reveal any significant structural differences between the monotremes and the marsupial. The precocious development of motor systems in the monotreme spinal cord is consistent with the behavioural requirements of the peri-hatching period, that is, rupture of embryonic membranes and egg, and digitopalmar prehension to grasp maternal hair or nest material.
Ashwell, Ken W S
The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by the development of their young in a leathery-shelled egg, a low and variable body temperature and a primitive teat-less mammary gland. Their young are hatched in an immature state and must deal with the external environment, with all its challenges of hypothermia and stress, as well as sourcing nutrients from the maternal mammary gland. The Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections have been used to follow the structural development of the monotreme hypothalamus and its connections with the pituitary gland both in the period leading up to hatching and during the lactational phase of development, and to relate this structural maturation to behavioural development. In the incubation phase, development of the hypothalamus proceeds from closure of the anterior neuropore to formation of the lateral hypothalamic zone and putative medial forebrain bundle. Some medial zone hypothalamic nuclei are emerging at the time of hatching, but these are poorly differentiated and periventricular zone nuclei do not appear until the first week of post-hatching life. Differentiation of the pituitary is also incomplete at hatching, epithelial cords do not develop in the pars anterior until the first week, and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract does not appear until the second week of post-hatching life. In many respects, the structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary of the newly hatched monotreme is similar to that seen in newborn marsupials, suggesting that both groups rely solely on lateral hypothalamic zone nuclei for whatever homeostatic mechanisms they are capable of at birth/hatching.
Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G
We have examined the organization of the pretectal area in two monotremes (the short beaked echidna-Tachyglossus aculeatus, and the platypus-Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and compared it to that in the Wistar strain rat, using Nissl staining in conjunction with enzyme histochemistry (acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase) and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). We were able to identify distinct anterior, medial, posterior (now called tectal gray) and olivary pretectal nuclei as well as a nucleus of the optic tract, all with largely similar topographical and chemoarchitectonic features to the homologous regions in therian mammals. The positions of these pretectal nuclei correspond to the distributions of retinofugal terminals identified by other authors. The overall size of the pretectum in both monotremes was found to be at least comparable in size, if not larger than, the pretectum of representative therian mammals of similar brain and body size. Our findings suggest that the pretectum of these two monotreme species is comparable in both size and organization to that of eutherian mammals, and is more than just an undifferentiated area pretectalis. The presence of a differentiated pretectum with similar chemoarchitecture to therians in both living monotremes lends support to the idea that the stem mammal for both prototherian and therian lineages also had a differentiated pretectum. This in turn indicates that a differentiated pretectum appeared at least 125 million years ago in the mammalian lineage and that the stem mammal for proto- and eutherian lineages probably had similar pretectal nuclei to those identified in its descendants.
Noyes, H A; Stevens, J R; Teixeira, M; Phelan, J; Holz, P
Trypanosome infections in their natural hosts are frequently difficult to detect by microscopy, and culture methods are unreliable and not suitable for all species of Trypanosoma. A nested PCR strategy for detecting and identifying Trypanosoma species, suitable for detecting both known and unknown trypanosomes, is presented. Thirty-two blood samples from 23 species of Australian birds and mammals were screened by a nested PCR for the presence of Trypanosoma sp. ssrRNA. Three infections were detected, one in an eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), one in a common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) and one in a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The kangaroo and wombat are new host records for Trypanosoma sp.; the platypus parasite was Trypanosoma hinneyi. The three parasites could be distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the amplified fragment of the ssrRNA gene. The kangaroo and wombat parasites were also isolated in a semi-solid blood agar medium. The culture forms of the kangaroo trypanosome had an expanded flagellar sheath in which structures similar to hemidesmosomes were detected by EM. The nested PCR was at least as sensitive as culture, and analysis of the PCR products gave parasite-specific fingerprints. Therefore this method could be suitable for rapidly screening host animals for the presence of trypanosomes and identifying the infecting strain.
Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Bernard, Pascal; Lim, Shu Ly; Ryan, Janelle; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Borodina, Tatiana; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Harley, Vincent R; Grützner, Frank
The basal lineage of monotremes features an extraordinarily complex sex chromosome system which has provided novel insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. Recently, sequence information from autosomes, X chromosomes, and XY-shared pseudoautosomal regions has become available. However, no gene has so far been described on any of the Y chromosome-specific regions. We analyzed sequences derived from Y-specific BAC clones to identify genes with potentially male-specific function. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the mediator complex protein gametologs on platypus Y5 (Crspy). We also identified the X-chromosomal copy which unexpectedly maps to X1 (Crspx). Sequence comparison shows extensive divergence between the X and Y copy, but we found no significant positive selection on either gametolog. Expression analysis shows widespread expression of Crspx. Crspy is expressed exclusively in males with particularly strong expression in testis and kidney. Reporter gene assays to investigate whether Crspx/y can act on the recently discovered mouse Sox9 testis-specific enhancer element did reveal a modest effect together with mouse Sox9 + Sf1, but showed overall no significant upregulation of the reporter gene. This is the first report of a differentiated functional male-specific gene on platypus Y chromosomes, providing new insights into sex chromosome evolution and a candidate gene for male-specific function in monotremes.
Wu, Xing; Wang, Shaofeng; Chen, Hongxing; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Hongwei; Gao, Mi; Bi, Ran; Klerks, Paul L; Wang, He; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian
The Hun River is a major tributary of the Liao River in the northeast area of China and provides drinking water for 23 million local residents. This study was designed to assess the severity of metal contamination in the Hun River and the potential use of indigenous organisms (the fish Zacco platypus and the snail Radix swinhoei) as biomonitors of metal contamination. Water, sediment, and the native fish and snails were collected at four sampling sites that differed in their physicochemical characteristics and their contamination levels. The samples were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-MS. The results showed that although the overall potential ecological risks of the metals were low at our sampling sites, Cd posed a noteworthy ecological risk. Strong correlations were obtained between Cd concentrations in the organisms and in the environment. The results indicated that Z. platypus and R. swinhoei can be useful biomonitoring species for assessing Cd contamination. Biomonitoring with the snail may be most effective when focused on the gonad/digestive tissue (because of the high metal accumulation there), but further work is needed to confirm this.
Miska, Katarzyna B; Hellman, Lars; Miller, Robert D
To further characterize genes of immunological importance from non-placental mammals, cDNAs encoding beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) were isolated from two prototherians, the platypus and an echidna, and one metatherian, a grey short-tailed opossum. In addition, a second allele of beta(2)m was identified in another metatherian species, the brushtail possum. Analysis of the deduced translations revealed conservation of key residues in these molecules over a long evolutionary history. The types of nucleotide substitutions present among the various taxa are also consistent with purifying selection at this conserved locus. An evolutionary tree of beta(2)m was constructed that supports the classic view of evolution with prototherians as the basal mammalian group.
Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....
The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...
Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...
Morphological and histochemical observations on the crural gland-spur apparatus of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) together with comparative observations on the femoral gland-spur apparatus of the duckbilled platypus (Ornithorhyncus anatinus).
Krause, William J
The echidna and platypus have a crural/femoral gland that is linked by a large duct to a canalized, keratinous spur located on the medial side of the ankle. The echidna crural gland, like the femoral gland of the platypus, exhibits cyclic activity, being prominent in both monotremes when they are sexually active. In the present study, we compared the structure and histochemistry of these glands. During the active phase, the secretory epithelium forming the respective glands of both species increased in height and became packed with secretory granules that differed markedly in structure. Secretory granules of the echidna crural gland were electron dense and characterized by cores or areas of increased electron density. Those of the platypus were initially electron dense, but then became less dense and coalesced into irregular complexes of secretory material. Large cytoplasmic blebs extended from epithelial cell apices and appeared to be shed into the lumen, resulting in an apocrine mode of secretion. Exocytosis was also observed. A similar form of release of secretory product was not observed in the echidna. Secretory granules of both species were periodic acid-Schiff positive and stained for protein, suggesting that much of the secretory product was glycoprotein. Myoepithelial cells enveloped the secretory tubules of the platypus femoral gland, whereas they were not observed surrounding tubules comprising the echidna crural gland. During the quiescent phase, the epithelial cells of both species lost their secretory granules and decreased in height. As a result, the secretory tubules became smaller, intralobular connective tissue increased and the glands decreased in overall size.
de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; zu Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer
The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821530
Belov, Katherine; Lam, Mary K P; Hellman, Lars; Colgan, Donald J
Extant mammals are composed of three lineages: the eutherians, the marsupials and the monotremes. The majority of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) data is based on the eutherian mammals, which generally have three classical MHC class II beta chain gene clusters - DRB, DQB and DPB, as well as the non-classical DMB and DOB. Marsupial DMB, DAB and DBB have been characterised. Confusion still surrounds the relationship of the marsupial DAB and DBB genes with the classical eutherian class II clusters. Here we present the first monotreme MHC class II beta chain sequences. Four MHC class II beta chain sequences were isolated from a spleen cDNA library from the short-beaked echidna, and one from a spleen cDNA library from platypus using a brushtail possum DAB probe. Given the non-orthologous relationship of the monotreme sequences with marsupial and eutherian beta chain clusters, we recommend that the five new monotreme sequences be assigned the nomenclature 'DZB', signifying the description of a new mammalian beta chain cluster. Our analysis suggests that all mammalian beta chain sequences (except DMB) evolved from a common ancestor. Maximum likelihood analysis places the monotreme beta chain sequences at the base of the mammalian clade, indicating their ancestral status. However, within the mammalian clade, monophyletic clades are not robust, and elucidation of the order of gene duplication that gave rise to the present-day gene clusters is not yet possible.
Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C
The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.
Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.
Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...
Rens, Willem; Grützner, Frank; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Fairclough, Helen; Graves, Jennifer A. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.
The platypus (2n = 52) has a complex karyotype that has been controversial over the last three decades. The presence of unpaired chromosomes and an unknown sex-determining system especially has defied attempts at conventional analysis. This article reports on the preparation of chromosome-specific probes from flow-sorted chromosomes and their application in the identification and classification of all platypus chromosomes. This work reveals that the male karyotype has 21 pairs of chromosomes and 10 unpaired chromosomes (E1-E10), which are linked by short regions of homology to form a multivalent chain in meiosis. The female karyotype differs in that five of these unpaired elements (E1, E3, E5, E7, and E9) are each present in duplicate, whereas the remaining five unpaired elements (E2, E4, E6, E8, and E10) are absent. This finding indicates that sex is determined by the alternate segregation of the chain of 10 during spermatogenesis so that equal numbers of sperm bear either one of the two groups of five elements, i.e., five X and five Y chromosomes. Chromosome painting reveals that these X and Y chromosomes contain pairing (XY shared) and differential (X- or Y-specific) segments. Y differential regions must contain male-determining genes, and X differential regions should be dosage-compensated in the female. Two models for the evolution of the sex-determining system are presented. The resolution of the longstanding debate over the platypus karyotype is an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of sex determination, dosage compensation, and karyotype evolution. PMID:15534209
Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A
Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.
Paulsen, M J
Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson.
Webster, Reginald P.
Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...
Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan
A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country.
Parra, Zuly E; Lillie, Mette; Miller, Robert D
The specific recognition of antigen by T cells is critical to the generation of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. T cells recognize antigen using a somatically diversified T-cell receptor (TCR). All jawed vertebrates use four TCR chains called α, β, γ, and δ, which are expressed as either a αβ or γδ heterodimer. Nonplacental mammals (monotremes and marsupials) are unusual in that their genomes encode a fifth TCR chain, called TCRµ, whose function is not known but is also somatically diversified like the conventional chains. The origins of TCRµ are also unclear, although it appears distantly related to TCRδ. Recent analysis of avian and amphibian genomes has provided insight into a model for understanding the evolution of the TCRδ genes in tetrapods that was not evident from humans, mice, or other commonly studied placental (eutherian) mammals. An analysis of the genes encoding the TCRδ chains in the duckbill platypus revealed the presence of a highly divergent variable (V) gene, indistinguishable from immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain V genes (VH) and related to V genes used in TCRµ. They are expressed as part of TCRδ repertoire (VHδ) and similar to what has been found in frogs and birds. This, however, is the first time a VHδ has been found in a mammal and provides a critical link in reconstructing the evolutionary history of TCRµ. The current structure of TCRδ and TCRµ genes in tetrapods suggests ancient and possibly recurring translocations of gene segments between the IgH and TCRδ genes, as well as translocations of TCRδ genes out of the TCRα/δ locus early in mammals, creating the TCRµ locus.
Daly, Benjamin; Long, W Christopher
Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the wild, but the degree of inter-cohort cannibalism is unknown for early benthic phase blue king crabs. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of habitat type (sand and shell) on the predator functional response and foraging behavior of year-1 blue king crabs as predators of year-0 conspecifics and examined the effects of predator presence on crypsis of prey crabs. In sand, consumption rates increased with predator size and prey density until satiation, while predation rates in shell were low regardless of predator size or prey density. These differential predation rates yielded a type III functional response in sand but a type I functional response in shell habitat. Crypsis of prey crabs was generally high and did not change in the presence of predators. Predator foraging activity was reduced in shell and may be an adaptive behavior to balance foraging efficiency and susceptibility to larger predators. Our results demonstrate that early benthic phase blue king crabs are cannibalistic between cohorts in the laboratory and that shell material is extremely effective for reducing encounter rates with conspecific predators. The distribution and abundance of such habitat may be important for recruitment success in some populations. Future studies should compare benthic habitat and species assemblages in areas with variable abundances, such as the Pribilof Islands and Saint Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea, to better understand possible mechanisms for recruitment variability.
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
A self-contained Fortran-90 program based on a three-dimensional classical dynamical reaction model with stochastic breakup is presented, which is a useful tool for quantifying complete and incomplete fusion, and breakup in reactions induced by weakly-bound two-body projectiles near the Coulomb barrier. The code calculates (i) integrated complete and incomplete fusion cross sections and their angular momentum distribution, (ii) the excitation energy distribution of the primary incomplete-fusion products, (iii) the asymptotic angular distribution of the incomplete-fusion products and the surviving breakup fragments, and (iv) breakup observables, such as angle, kinetic energy and relative energy distributions. Program summaryProgram title: PLATYPUS Catalogue identifier: AEIG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 332 342 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 344 124 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-90 Computer: Any Unix/Linux workstation or PC with a Fortran-90 compiler Operating system: Linux or Unix RAM: 10 MB Classification: 16.9, 17.7, 17.8, 17.11 Nature of problem: The program calculates a wide range of observables in reactions induced by weakly-bound two-body nuclei near the Coulomb barrier. These include integrated complete and incomplete fusion cross sections and their spin distribution, as well as breakup observables (e.g. the angle, kinetic energy, and relative energy distributions of the fragments). Solution method: All the observables are calculated using a three-dimensional classical dynamical model combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of probability-density distributions. See Refs. [1,2] for further details. Restrictions: The
Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele
An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.
Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon
The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI.
Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.
Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes
Population size estimates of arthropod predators and parasitoids may paradoxically increase following insecticide applications. Previous research with ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) suggests such unusual results reflect increased arthropod movement and capture in traps rather than real chang...
Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.
Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.
Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575
The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...
The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...
The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...
Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...
Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan
A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.
He, Li; Liu, Bin; Wang, Cheng-Bin
Abstract Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini) is described from Sichuan, China. Relevant morphological characters are illustrated by colour plates and a differential diagnosis of the new species from its relatives is provided. PMID:28331404
The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...
The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Cave, Ronald D; Amat-García, Germán
An updated and annotated checklist of the Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of the New World is presented. The tribe is composed of 32 genera and 151 species, including the introduced species Heteronychus arator (Fabricius).
Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...
Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Abstract Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehni sp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis. PMID:27853400
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehnisp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis.
Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola
Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584
Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.
Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590
The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided.
Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C
We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.
Abstract The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided. PMID:24146587
Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman
In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.
Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L
An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species.
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Khormizi, Mehdi Zare; Nicolas, Vincent; Canepari, Claudio; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Fürsch, Helmut
The Iranian species of the tribe Hyperaspidini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reviewed. The current list includes 12 species, all placed in a single genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836. Hyperapsis asiatica Lewis, 1896 and H. pumila Mulsant, 1850 are excluded from the Iranian list of Coccinellidae. Diagnoses of the tribe Hyperaspidini and the genus Hyperaspis are given. Images of adult beetles and diagnostic characters of the male genitalia of all species distributed in Iran are shown. A key to identification of the species is presented. Distribution records are provided for each species along with information on host plants and prey species when available.
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M; Schachtner, Joachim
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system.
Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296
Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia
B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....
Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A
Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.
Muths, Erin Louise
Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.
Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.
Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080
Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907
Higginbotham, Ryan W; Froese, Paul S; Carter, Arron H
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae), the subterranean larval stage of the click beetle, are becoming more prevalent in many cropping systems and posing an increasing economic threat to wheat growers in the Pacific Northwest following the cancellation of the insecticide lindane in 2006. Current insecticide seed treatments alone are not adequate for wireworm control. The objective of this study was to evaluate a diverse set of 163 wheat genotypes for tolerance to wireworm feeding. Entries were planted in replicated field trials over 3 yr and evaluated for their performance when grown in the presence of wireworms. Entries were rated based on survival and given a tolerance score. Results indicated that differences exist among wheat genotypes in their level of tolerance to wireworm feeding. In particular, consistently high-ranking genotypes of interest may be 'BR 18', 'Sonalika', 'Safed Lerma', and 'Hollis'. These genotypes, used in conjunction with other cultural or chemical control methods, may help provide an economic means of controlling wireworms.
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M.
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system. PMID:27973569
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric
Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.
Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.
The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.
Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....
Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...
Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...
Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...
Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchusaffinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchusatomarius L., 1761, Bruchusloti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinuskergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.
Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in ...
Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...
With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...
Valois, M; Silva, F
Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.
Jäch, Manfred A.; Delgado, Juan A.
Abstract Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented. PMID:27843389
Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is the most important stored-product insect pest infesting rice mills in the U.S. Due to the phasing out of methyl bromide in accordance with the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the efficacy of alternative fumigants in controlli...
Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option for stored products pests. Dose response tests were conducted to identify a postharvest radiation treatment that would control rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rice. Rice infested with adult or immature weevils was treate...
In June and July 2011 traps were deployed in Tuskegee National Forest, Macon County, Alabama to test the influence of chemical and visual cues on for the capture of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). \\using chemical and visual cues. The first experiment investigated t...
A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...
Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805
A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...
Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R
Cephalobellus cyclocephalae n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the cuticle striated at the anterior end in both sexes, with 15 annules, buccal cavity short and not armed, and the male with 4 pairs of genital papillae, 1 pair of preanal papillae, 3 pairs of postanal papillae.
Jäch, Manfred A; Delgado, Juan A
Hydraena matyotisp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.
The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.
Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...
Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu
The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.
This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...
Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit dise...
The non-native shot-hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), was discovered in Florida’s avocado production area in Homestead in 2010. It is a highly polyphagous ambrosia beetle that carries Fusarium fungal symbionts. In susceptible host trees, the fung...
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...
Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...
A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....
Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...
Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...
Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...
Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc
A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.
Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...
Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W
We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point.
Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.
Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola
The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated.
Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.
Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347
Shao, L L; Huang, D Y; Sun, X Y; Hao, J S; Cheng, C H; Zhang, W; Yang, Q
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Cheirotonus jansoni (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), an endangered insect species from Southeast Asia. This long legged scarab is widely collected and reared for sale, although it is rare and protected in the wild. The circular genome is 17,249 bp long and contains a typical gene complement: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 putative tRNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. As with all other sequenced coleopteran species, a 5-bp long TAGTA motif was detected in the intergenic space sequence located between trnS(UCN) and nad1. The atypical cox1 start codon is AAC, and the putative initiation codon for the atp8 gene appears to be GTC, instead of the frequently found ATN. By sequence comparison, the 2590-bp long non-coding AT-rich region is the second longest among the coleopterans, with two tandem repeat regions: one is 10 copies of an 88-bp sequence and the other is 2 copies of a 153-bp sequence. Additionally, the A+T content (64%) of the 13 protein-coding genes is the lowest among all sequenced coleopteran species. This newly sequenced genome aids in our understanding of the comparative biology of the mitogenomes of coleopteran species and supplies important data for the conservation of this species.
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.
Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104
Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.
Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C
Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D
Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to
Mahroof, Rizana M; Edde, Peter A; Robertson, Barrett; Puckette, J Andrew; Phillips, Thomas W
The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), a serious pest of stored cereal grains, is widely distributed and has been collected in different habitats in North America, such as those from agricultural and nonagricultural settings. Our objective was to study the dispersal distances and direction of dispersal by R. dominica after external marking using fluorescent powder, releasing marked beetles, and recapturing adults using pheromone traps in distinctively different ecological habitats, wooded sites and open grasslands, for 2 consecutive yr. The recapture rate of marked beetles ranged from 6 to 26% in both sites and was generally higher in the wooded site than the open field site for both years. There was a significant difference in dispersal distances between wooded and open sites. Mean dispersal distances in the wooded site ranged from 337 to 375 m, whereas in the open site, they varied from 261 to 333 m. Trap captures for both marked and feral beetles were related to the ambient temperature such that increase in trap captures occurred with increasing temperature. Significant differences were observed for directional movement of R. dominica in both sites and indicated that most beetles dispersed in the northwest direction. Correlation analyses showed that the relationship between numbers of marked-released-recaptured beetles significantly decreased with increasing trap distances. Understanding dispersal distances and directions provide insight to flight behavior of R. dominica and to the relationship between ecologically diverse breeding habitats. Knowledge of R. dominica habitat ecology outside of grain storage facilities may be useful in designing suitable management tactics to minimize the onset of infestations in grain storages.
Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.
Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361
Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir
Members of family Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) are a dominant group of terrestrial predators. National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) has a good collection of carabids rich in type material. Here we report the details of the type specimens of 139 species included in 49 genera, 24 tribes and 14 subfamilies. Colour automontaged photographs of each type along with its original labels are also included.
Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799
Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M
The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.
Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko
Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271
Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru
Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1  and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 . PMID:26543883
Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru
Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1  and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 .
Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.
Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia
Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study
Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.
Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.
Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq
Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958
Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes scattered literature to determine the patterns in ant host use. Some degr...
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...
Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...
The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. To date, all confirmed U.S. hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Laurac...
Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in the U.S. near Savannah, ...
Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...
Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baite...
A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...
The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U. S.-controlled Marianas Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic ...
Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) caeca n. sp. is described from Zimbabwe, a small and completely blind species. A second known species, however with completely developed eyes, and originally described as Uloma minuscula Ardoin, 1969, was also placed in the new genus. Microcenoscelis n. gen. seems to be mostly related to the genera Cenoscelis Wollaston, 1867, and Cneocnemis Gebien, 1914.
Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...
Insect growth regulators are promising alternatives to traditional pesticides in stored grain. The efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene was evaluated as a layer treatment in a laboratory experiment for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat, rice and...
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...
This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...
The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).
Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...
From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...
The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...
Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza
We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.
Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...
The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...
Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
A new Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) species is described from western Colombia. The new species is compared with Tomarus laevicollis (Bates, 1888) from Central America. An identification key is also provided to the species occurring in the country.
Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...
A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...
An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...
The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...
Bukejs, Andris; Nadein, Konstantin
In the current paper the first fossil representatives of leaf-beetles from the subfamily Lamprosomatinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from Upper Eocene Baltic amber: Succinoomorphus warchalowskii gen. et sp. nov., Archelamprosomius balticus gen. et sp. nov., and Archelamprosomius kirejtshuki sp. nov. A key to fossil Lamprosomatinae is provided.
Prado e Castro, Catarina; García, María Dolores; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Faria e Silva, Israel; Serrano, Artur
Some Coleoptera are recognised as being forensically important as post-mortem interval (PMI) indicators, especially in the later stages of cadaver decomposition. Because insect species and their timings of appearance in cadavers vary according to geographic location, it is important to know their succession patterns, as well as seasonality at a regional level. In this study, we aimed to contribute to broaden this knowledge by surveying beetle communities from the Lisbon area during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognised during the decomposition process and they could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Coleoptera collected. Decay stages in general recorded higher abundance and richness of beetle species. A total of 82 species were identified, belonging to 28 families, in a total of 1968 adult Coleoptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species abundance and richness, while the lowest values were recorded during winter. Staphylinidae was the most abundant family in all seasons, although in spring and summer Dermestidae was also quite dominant. In general, most species were related to the decay stages, particularly Margarinotus brunneus (Histeridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae), and also Saprinus detersus (Histeridae) and Thanatophilus sinuatus (Silphidae), while only few were related to the dry stage, namely Oligota pusillima (Staphylinidae) and Dermestidae spp. larvae. On the other hand, Anotylus complanatus and Atheta pertyi (Staphylinidae) were apparently more associated with the fresh and bloated stages, respectively. The presence of some species was markedly seasonal, allowing a season characterisation based on the occurrence of certain taxa, which can be useful for forensic purposes.
Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.
Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde
Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin
The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.
Filippini, Valentina; Onore, Giovanni; Guidolin, Laura
The third instars are described and illustrated for five Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador: Anomala balzapambae Ohaus, 1897, A. popayana Ohaus, 1897, A. valida Burmeister, 1844, Callistethus buchwaldianus (Ohaus, 1908), and C. levii (Blanchard, 1851). The pupae of three Ecuadorian species are also described and illustrated: A. discoidalis Bates, 1888, A. popayana, and C. levii. Diagnostic characters of the species are provided. A key to the known larvae of Anomalini from the New World is provided, which now includes five genera and 31 species.
Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B
All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851.
Poinar, George; Poinar, Roberta
Hastisetae are extremely elaborate and intricate insect setae that occur solely on dermestid larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The present work characterizes hastisetae found in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and compares them to hastisetae found on extant dermestid larvae. The presence of hastisetae in Myanmar amber shows that lineages of dermestid beetles had already developed hastisetae by the mid-Cretaceous and their presence allows us to follow the evolutionary development of this particular arthropod structure over the past 100 million years. Hastisetae attached to a parasitic wasp in the same piece of amber indicates that ancient dermestid beetles used their hastisetae for defense, similar to their function today.
Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.
This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.
Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós
In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.
Penchenier, L; Mouchet, J; Cros, B; Legall, P; Cosnefroy, J Y; Quézédé, P; Chandenier, J
In May 1993, at the end of the rainy season, outbreaks of Paederus sabaeus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) were recorded in Brazzaville (Congo), Kinshasa (Zaire), Franceville and Libreville (Gabon) and even in Bangui (CAR) at the North of the equator. A short review of previous outbreaks in Africa and on vesicant substances is given by the authors. These beetles are attracted to neon lights and they rest on the walls or on the skin of the occupants. When the insects are crushed on the bare skin their haemolymph liberate pederine and related vesicant components which provocate dermatitis. The insects disappeared spontaneously after three to four weeks.
Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan
The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.
The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.
Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A
Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna.
Yu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Zhen-Kai; Chen, Chong; Wen, Junbao
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the two most important pests of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun in China. They are also considered potential biological control agents for tree-of-heaven in North America. In this study, the external morphologies and antennal sensilla of both species were examined using scanning electron microscopy to better understand their host-finding mechanisms. Eleven morphological sensilla types were recorded, that is, Böhm bristles, six types of sensilla chaetica (Sch. 1-6), two types of sensilla basiconica (Sb. 1-2), and two types of sensilla trichodea (St. 1-2). Sch. 5 were absent from the antennae of E. chinensis, while Sch. 2 were absent from the antennae of E. brandti. Abundant cuticular pores were present on the antennae of both species. Three types of sensilla on the antennae of E. chinensis that were not found in a previous study, and ten different types of sensilla on the antennae of E. brandti were identified for the first time. The possible functions of the sensilla types are discussed based on a comparison with previous studies. Four types of sensilla (Sb. 1, Sb. 2, St. 2, and Sch. 6) on the antennae of both species indicate chemoreception may play a significant role in host location.
Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji
Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage.
Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.
Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin
The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.
Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin
Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607
Miller, D R; Allison, J D; Crowe, C M; Dickinson, D M; Eglitis, A; Hofstetter, R W; Munson, A S; Poland, T M; Reid, L S; Steed, B E; Sweeney, J D
Detection tools are needed for Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) because they are known to introduce pine wilt disease by vectoring nematodes in Asia, Europe, and North America. In 2012-2014, we examined the effects of the semiochemicals monochamol and ipsenol on the flight responses of the sawyer beetles Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus mutator LeConte, Monochamus notatus (Drury), Monochamus obtusus Casey, Monochamus scutellatus (Say), and Monochamus titillator (F.) complex (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to traps baited with α-pinene. Experiments were set in pine forests in New Brunswick and Ontario (Canada), and Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington (United States). In brief, 40 traps were placed in 10 blocks of 4 traps per block per location. Traps were baited with: 1) α-pinene; 2) α-pinene + monochamol; 3) α-pinene + ipsenol; and 4) α-pinene + monochamol + ipsenol. Monochamol increased catches of six species and one species complex of Monochamus with an additive effect of ipsenol for five species and one species complex. There was no evidence of synergy between monochamol and ipsenol on beetle catches. Monochamol had no effect on catches of other Cerambycidae or on any associated species of bark beetles, weevils, or bark beetle predators. We present a robust data set suggesting that the combination of α-pinene, ipsenol, and monochamol may be a useful lure for detecting Monochamus species.
Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the
Vitturi, R; Colomba, M S; Barbieri, R; Zunino, M
Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of the scarab beetle Thorectes intermedius (Costa) (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae) were analyzed using various banding methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with a ribosomal probe. The results obtained indicate that silver and CMA3 staining are unable to localize the chromosome sites of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). Such an inadequacy is a consequence of the extensive silver and CMA3 stainability of both constitutive heterochromatin and heterochromatin associated to the NORs.
Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D
A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.
Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin
Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232
Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela
Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526
Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L
Immatures of Mesomphalia gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and Mesomphalia turrita (Illiger, 1801) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Mesomphaliini) are described based on specimen collections from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The last-instar larva and pupal exuviae of M. gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and the eggs, first-instar larva, and pupa of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801) are described, photographed and illustrated, with emphasis on chaetotaxy. Additional notes on their biology are presented.
Ferreira, Vinicius S
While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America.
McElrath, Thomas C.; Boyd, Olivia F.; McHugh, Joseph V.
Abstract A matrix-based LucidTM key is presented for the twelve genera of Monotomidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) represented in the New World. A general overview is given for the features and technical specifications of an original interactive key for the identification of these genera. The list of terminal taxa included with the key provides a current summary of monotomid generic diversity for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. PMID:27917049
Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A
Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of
Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka
Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8-10 beetles per minute.
Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia
The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below.
Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia
Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body.
A morphological association between genitalia and ejaculates could provide insight into the function and evolution of genitalia. In this study, the morphologies of the ejaculates and male genitalia of 15 species of Pterostichini and two species of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described. All the species examined formed a spermatophore, the morphology of which could be classified into three types based on its relative volume in the female vaginal cavity and the presence or absence of a pluglike conformation. Male genital morphology could be divided into two types by the direction of the endophallus and gonopore. Species with a strongly bent endophallus invariably formed a pluglike spermatophore. The results suggest that the peculiar shape of endophallus found in some species of Pterostichini may function in forming the pluglike structure of the spermatophore.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Inoda, Toshio; Tajima, Fumitada; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saeki, Motoyuki; Numakura, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Masami; Kamimura, Shinji
The effects of temperature on the mating behavior, gonad development, germ cell maturation, and egg spawning of the predaceous diving beetle Dytiscus sharpi (Coleoptera; Dytiscidae), were investigated. By field observations, we found that mating behavior started in October and occurred more frequently from November to December. Under our laboratory breeding conditions, we observed almost the same seasonal variation in mating behavior. We found that temperatures lower than 20 degrees C were required to trigger mating behavior. We also found the same temperature threshold triggered gonadogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. Furthermore, for females, exposure to lower temperatures (<8 degrees C) during the winter was required for egg maturation and spawning in spring; that is, there was a second threshold for successful female reproduction. We conclude that the termination of summer reproductive diapause of D. sharpi is regulated in a temperature-dependent manner, thus effecting the adaptation of D. sharpi to southern warm habitats.
Jacobs, Carmen T; Scholtz, Clarke H; Strümpher, Werner P
Three new species of the Cape high-mountain stag beetle genus, Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), from South Africa are described. They are C. deschodti new species, C. switalae new species, and C. struempheri new species. The new taxa fall within a species complex of geographically disjunct entities related to Colophon stokoei Barnard. Furthermore, the mitochondrial COI gene shows a high degree of sequence divergence, with pairwise genetic distances between the species ranging between 7.4-10.7%. The new species are illustrated by photographs. Colophon eastmani nagaii Mizukami is raised to species level on the basis of geographic range and molecular differences between it and the nominate subspecies. This brings the total number of described species in the genus to 21. An updated checklist of the South African species of Colophon is also provided.
Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties.
Grzymala, Traci L.; Will, Kipling W.
Abstract A diagnosis of the South and Central American genus Cratocerus Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and a key to all species is provided. Eight species are recognized including six species that are newly described: Cratocerus sinesetosus sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; Cratocerus multisetosus sp. n. from Costa Rica and Panama; Cratocerus tanyae sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico; Cratocerus indupalmensis sp. n. a species widely distributed throughout Central and South America; Cratocerus kavanaughi sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; and Cratocerus culpepperi sp. n. from Peru. A lectotype for Cratocerus sulcatus Chaudoir is designated. Habitus images are provided along with illustrations and images of male genitalia, female genitalia, and diagnostic morphological characters. PMID:25061348
Janovy, J; Detwiler, J; Schwank, S; Bolek, M G; Knipes, A K; Langford, G J
The following new gregarine taxa are described from larvae of flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Awrygregarina billmani, n. gen., n. sp., from Tribolium brevicornis; Gregarina cloptoni, n. sp., from Tribolium freemani; Gregarina confusa, n. sp., from Tribolilum confusum; and Gregarina palori, n. sp., from Palorus subdepressus. In addition, the description of Gregarina minuta Ishii, 1914, from Tribolium castaneum, is emended. Scanning electron micrograph studies of these species' oocysts reveal differences in surface architecture. The Gregarina species have oocysts with longitudinal ridges, visible with SEM, whereas Awrygregarina billmani oocysts have fine circumferential striations; surface architecture is the main feature distinguishing the 2 gregarine genera. Although parasites from adult beetles are not included in the descriptions, adults of all host species can be infected experimentally using oocysts from the new taxa.
Li, Fengbo; Zhang, Huixian; Wang, Wei; Weng, Hongbiao; Meng, Zhiqi
We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is a major forest pest in Asia. The genome is 15,874 bp in length containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. Its gene content and order are typical of other coleopteran mitochondrial genomes described to date. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons. Eight PCGs use complete stop codons TAG or TAA, whereas other PCGs end with a single T. All tRNA genes show typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The large non-coding A+T-rich region of 1249 bp contains a 14 bp-long poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (AT)(TA)7 and (TA)8 elements.
Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A
An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.
Jiao, Hengwu; Ding, Minghui; Zhao, Huabin
The firefly Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) is widely distributed in China. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the first complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly from the subfamily Luciolinae. The circular genome of 16,856 bp in length contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Overall base composition of the genome is 42.28% A, 34.80% T, 13.91% C and 9.01% G, with an AT bias of 77.08%. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon, and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA, TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region is unusually long (2239 bp), containing six 113 bp tandem repeats and a microsatellite-like (TA)7 element. The genome sequence is useful for studying the evolution of sexual signaling and many ecological specializations in fireflies.
Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří
Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed.
McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.
Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.
Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J
The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.
Audisio, Paolo; Cline, Andrew R; Lasoń, Andrzej; Jelínek, Josef; Sabatelli, Simone; Serri, Sayeh
During recent expeditions in North and Southwest Iran, 10 species of Kateretidae and Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) were found. One species of Kateretidae, Brachyleptus bicoloratus Reitter, 1896, and three nitidulid species, Afrogethes schilskyi (Reitter, 1897), Stachygethes khnzoriani (Kirejtshuk, 1979), and S. nigerrimus (Rosenhauer, 1856) are recorded for the first time for the Iranian fauna (the latter is also a new record for Asia). Thymogethes ahriman (Jelínek, 1981) is herein resurrected to species rank, and two species, Thymogethes kassites sp. nov. and T. khorasanicus sp. nov., are described as new. An updated key to the known Near East and Afghan species of the genus Thymogethes Audisio & Cline, 2009 is also provided. Available and recently collected biological and distributional data, as well as short taxonomic comments, are given for the discussed species.
Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I
Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia.
Chang, Hong; Liu, Qun; Hao, Dejun; Liu, Yong; An, Yulin; Qian, Lu; Yang, Xiaojun
Members of the large and complex genus Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) are the most commonly intercepted beetles associated with solid wood-packing materials at ports of entry in China. The accurate identification of species is critical in preventing the invasion of exotic insects. Considering the difficulties in morphological identification, genetic divergences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes have been used in insect species identification. In this study, 32 Xyleborus and 2 outgroup species were collected from Jiangsu ports and selected to evaluate the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for Xyleborus species. The results showed that the mean interspecific divergence values (23.6%) were 15-fold higher than the observed intraspecific divergence (1.6%), except Xyleborus affinis. The results supported the inference that the barcode variation within species of insects is somewhat higher than interspecific ones. Thus, this study validated the effectiveness of barcoding for the identification of Xyleborus species.
Cao, Yan-Kun; Huang, Min
There are direct relationships between the behavioral mechanisms and sensilla. To obtain a better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms in Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), we investigated the types, quantities, and distribution of sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts of O. colon by scanning electron microscopy. The clavate antenna comprised the scape, pedicel, and nine segment flagellomeres and had six types of sensilla, including two subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SC), three subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SB) and sensilla trichodea (ST), and one type of sensilla cavity, sensilla styloconica, and Böhm bristles (BB). The chewing mouthparts of O. colon consist of the labrum, mandible, maxillae, labium, and hypopharynx and had seven types sensilla, including two subtypes of SC and sensilla placodea, seven subtypes of SB, and one type of BB, ST, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla campaniformia. In this research, we also deduced the relationships between the sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts and their functions.
Vega, Fernando E; Kramer, Matthew; Jaramillo, Juliana
Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), females (one, two, or five) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our results demonstrated that increasing female density from one to two or five individuals did not result in the expected two- or five-fold increase in progeny, despite ample food resources available. Instead, decreased fecundity was observed with increasing density for all experiments. The mechanism reducing fecundity was not identified, but possibly, volatiles are being produced (e.g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field.
Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra
Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894
Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P
Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees.
Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.
Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679
Dodds, Kevin J
Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of habitat selection and trap placement on catches of Scolytidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern U.S. forests. In a nonreplicated case study, four habitat types--closed canopy hardwood stand, closed canopy conifer stand, a low-intensity thinned Pinus strobus L. stand, and a high-intensity thinned P. strobus stand--were surveyed using alpha-pinene, ethanol, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone. Average trap catches, species richness, and the number of unique species captured were all highest in at least one of the thinned habitats. A second experiment that was replicated evaluated the placement of traps in relation to habitat patches. Semiochemical-baited traps (alpha-pinene and ethanol) were placed under a closed canopy forest, along an edge, and in a clearing and tested for effects on Scolytidae and Cerambycidae trap catches. Abundance and species richness were generally higher in the closed canopy and edge placements compared with traps in the open area. The highest number of unique species were captured in the edge and clearing.
Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...
A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...
A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...
Khaustov, Alexander A; Sazhnev, Alexey S
In this paper we describe a new monotypic genus Protoallopygmephorus gen. nov. and two new species of the genus Allopygmephorus Cross, 1965, A. spinisetus sp. nov. and A. punctatus sp. nov. Specimens were collected phoretic on beetles of the family Heteroceridae (Coleoptera) in Russia and Kazakhstan. Scutacarus sphaeroideus Karafiat, 1959 (Acari: Scutacaridae) is recorded on Heteroceridae for the first time.
Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...
The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch) in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (e...
1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...
The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...
Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive beetle species from Asia that has caused extensive mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since arriving in the U.S. in 2002. Especially hard hit are green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), a...
Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was first detected in the state of Hawaii at a commercial Okinawan sweetpotato farm in Waipio, Oahu, on 14 November 2008. Reported here is, the first detection of this pest in sweetpotato fields on the island of Hawaii (...
Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana
Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...
The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...
Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...
Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...
Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I
Microscapha andrzeji sp. nov., the first fossil representative of the genus is described from Eocene Baltic amber. An updated list of fossil Melandryidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) is provided. The presence of Microscapha within Baltic amber suggests some potential for palaeoenvironmental inferences based on the melandryid assemblage within the deposit.
Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.
Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.
Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla
Abstract Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae) is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, by having a similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species by having the body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This species constitutes the first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian passalid. PMID:21594186
Andujar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; Linard, Benjamin; Kundrata, Robin; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P
The complete mitochondrial genome of the recently discovered beetle family Iberobaeniidae is described and compared with known coleopteran mitogenomes. The mitochondrial sequence was obtained by shotgun metagenomic sequencing using the Illumina Miseq technology and resulted in an average coverage of 130 × and a minimum coverage of 35×. The mitochondrial genome of Iberobaeniidae includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs genes, and 1 putative control region, and showed a unique rearrangement of protein-coding genes. This is the first rearrangement affecting the relative position of protein-coding and ribosomal genes reported for the order Coleoptera.
Androcioli, H G; Hoshino, A T; Pastório, M A; Cardoso, P C; de Araújo, P M; Fernandes, T A P; Menezes, A O
We present the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance. Between September and October 2013-2015 in Paraná State, we observed E. lurida adults feeding on safflower plants from the inception of flower head formation onwards, over an area of approximately 400 m(2). Losses in the productivity of infested plants were estimated between 15 and 50%. The damage was characterized by perforations in the upper portion and at the base of the developing flower heads or open flowers, resulting in withering and abortion of the reproductive structures.
Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza
Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.
Loghmani, Amir; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Talebi, Ali Asghar
Pavania setiformis Loghmani & Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Dolichocybidae) associated with Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vitulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is described from northeastern Iran. This remarkable new species represents a new setiformis species group characterized by seta-like sc(1), instead of capitate trichobothria. The genus Pavania is thus divided into three species groups: the fusiformis group (15 species), the gymnopleuri group (3 species) and the setiformis group (1 species). We also found P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 phoretic on Gymnopleurus mopsus (Pallas) and Onthophagus (Euonthophagus) amyntas alces (Fabricius), respectively.
Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910
Miller, Kelly B; Montano, Elizabeth T
The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American.
Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.
Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458
Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.
Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393
Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539894
Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter
Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.
Skvarla, Michael J.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese–Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families. In a previous publication, we reported new state records and the number of specimens collected per species. In this publication, we used these data to determine the most effective collection method for four beetle groups: Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea (excluding Scolytinae), and Buprestidae. We found that the combination of pitfall and Malaise traps was most effective for Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea, but that the combination of Malaise and green Lindgren funnel traps was most effective at collecting Buprestidae. Species accumulation curves did not become asymptotic and extrapolated rarefaction curves did not become asymptotic until 350–1,000 samples, suggesting that much more effort is required to completely inventory even a small site. Additionally, seasonal activity is presented for each species and the similarity and overlap between collecting dates and seasons is discussed for each family. PMID:28042105
Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming
Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594
Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli
Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.
Robbins, Paul S; Alm, Steven R; Armstrong, Charlesd; Averill, Anne L; Baker, Thomas C; Bauernfiend, Robert J; Baxendale, Frederick P; Braman, S Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cash, Daniel B; Couch, Gary J; Cowles, Richard S; Crocker, Robert L; DeLamar, Zandra D; Dittl, Timothy G; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Flanders, Kathy L; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J; Gill, Bruce D; Gilrein, Daniel O; Gorsuch, Clyde S; Hammond, Abner M; Hastings, Patricia D; Held, David W; Heller, Paul R; Hiskes, Rose T; Holliman, James L; Hudson, William G; Klein, Michael G; Krischik, Vera L; Lee, David J; Linn, Charles E; Luce, Nancy J; MacKenzie, Kenna E; Mannion, Catherine M; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A; Roelofs, Wendell L; Royals, Brian M; Salsbury, Glenn A; Schiff, Nathan M; Shetlar, David J; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L; Sutschek, Jessica A; Sutschek, Timothy P; Swier, Stanley R; Sylvia, Martha M; Vickers, Neil J; Vittum, Patricia J; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C; Williamson, R Chris; Villani, Michael G
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.
Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W
Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.
Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Yang, Jian
This paper studied the occurrence of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the forest edge, the adjacent forest interior, and the surrounding grassland in southwestern China. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps along five replicated transects. Forest species rarely penetrated into the grassland from the forest interior, and the grassland specialists were not found in the forest interior. The forest edge hosted additional species from the adjacent grassland that increased its overall species richness. Nearly all forest species (23 of 24 species) and grassland species (13 of 15 species) can be found in the forest edge. Carabids of the forest edge were more similar to those of the forest interior than to those of the grassland by ordination and cluster analysis. Based on the specificity and fidelity, carabids can be distinguished into five species groups: habitat generalists, grassland-associated species, forest generalists, forest specialists, and edge-associated species. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that canopy cover and/or shrub cover were the most important factors in determining the richness, abundance, and diversity of carabids. The forest edge may serve as a transition zone for dispersal and re-colonization of carabid beetles from adjacent habitats and therefore is important for natural conservation.
Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D
Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal.
Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav
The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).
Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed
The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females.
Barden, S Addison; Held, David W; Graham, L C Fudd
Insecticides are widely used to manage turfgrass pest such as white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren) are important predators and pests in managed turfgrass. We tested the susceptibility of white grub life stages (adults, egg, and larvae) to predation by S. invicta and determined if insecticides applied for control of S. invicta would result in locally greater white grub populations. Field trials over 2 yr evaluated bifenthrin, fipronil, and hydramethylnon applied to large and small scale turfgrass plots for impacts on fire ant foraging and white grub populations. Coincident with these trials, adults, larvae, and eggs of common scarab species were evaluated for susceptibility to predation by S. invicta under field conditions. Field trials with insecticides failed to show a significant increase in white grub populations resulting from treatment of turfgrass for fire ants. This, in part, may be because of a lack of predation of S. invicta on adult and larval scarabs. Egg predation was greatest at 70% but < 20% of adults and larvae were attacked in a 24 h test. Contrary to other studies, results presented here suggest that fire ants and fire ant control products applied to turfgrass have a minimal impact on white grub populations.
Kulkarni, Sharavari S; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Spence, John R; Willenborg, Christian J
Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.
Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.
Storer, Caroline G; Breinholt, Jesse W; Hulcr, Jiri
Euwallacea Hopkins and Wallacellus Hulcr & Cognato are ambrosia beetle genera within the tribe Xyleborini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Several species have recently received attention due to their establishment in non-native regions with serious ecological and economic consequences. To clarify generic placement of these species, we tested reciprocal monophyly of the two genera and the placement of several species using molecular phylogenetics. We sequenced, or re-used published sequences of, three markers (COI mtDNA, 28S nuclear rDNA and ArgK single-copy nuclear) from representatives of Euwallacea, Wallacellus, the Ambrosiodmus clade, and the clade containing Xyleborus s. str., and inferred their relationships with a Bayesian approach. We also tested explicit alternative topologies, and examined taxonomic utility of characters used for the delimitation of the genera. All species of Euwallacea, Wallacellus, and two species of Xyleborus were monophyletic with high phylogenetic support. Based on the analysis and shared morphological characters, we transferred the following species to Euwallacea: Xyleborus declivispinatus (Schedl), Wallacellus piceus (Motschulsky), Xyleborus posticus (Eichhoff), Wallacellus similis (Ferrari), and Wallacellus striatulus (Browne). The genus Wallacellus was made a junior synonym of Euwallacea and morphological diagnosis of Euwallacea was updated. The results demonstrated that Euwallacea has a pantropical distribution.
Leys, Remko; Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steve J B; Humphreys, William F
Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification.
Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Wagner, Bálint M A; Axelsson, Anna; Bjerselius, Rickard; Olsén, K Håkan
In this study we tested the hypothesis that the presence of chemical stimuli from a hungry predator would initiate anti-predator responses, while stimuli from a satiated predator would not. We used chemical stimuli released from starved perch (Perca fluviatilis) and from satiated perch (predator). As prey we used adult Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The reaction of the beetles to different predator conditions was tested during daytime. We also tested the reaction to starved perch during the night. A. sulcatus activity decreased when it was exposed to stimuli released from starved perch during daytime when visibility was poor, due to the presence of artificial vegetation. There was, however, no reaction to satiated perch under the same experimental conditions. These results indicate that A. sulcatus can discriminate between chemical cues from hungry and satiated fish predators. When visibility was good and the concentration of chemical cues was constant, the beetles did not react to starved perch in the daytime, but their activity decreased at night in response to stimuli released from starved perch. Visual as well as chemical cues seem to be important for detecting a potential predator. When visibility is good, beetles seem to rely on visual stimuli, while in darkness they seem to use chemical stimuli to detect the presence of predators.
Sbita, Sarah J; Morgan, Randy C; Buschbeck, Elke K
Nearly nothing is known about the transition that visual brain regions undergo during metamorphosis, except for Drosophila in which larval eyes and the underlying neural structure are strongly reduced. We have studied the larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), which are sophisticated visually oriented predators characterized by six elaborate stemmata on each side of the head and an associated large optic lobe. We used general neurohistological staining and 3D reconstruction to determine how the eyes and optic lobe of T. marmoratus change morphologically during metamorphosis. We find that in third (last) instar larvae, the adult neuropils are already forming de novo dorsally and slightly anteriorly to the larval neuropils, while the latter rapidly degenerate. Larval eyes are eventually reduced to distinct areas with dark pigmentation. This complete reorganization, which may be an evolutionarily conserved trait in holometabolous insects, occurs despite the considerable costs that must apply to such a visually complex animal. Our findings are consistent with the concept that stemmata are homologous to the most posterior ommatidia of hemimetabolous insects, an idea also recently supported by molecular data.
Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism.
Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav
Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550
Maddison, D. R.; Moore, W.; Baker, M. D.; Ellis, T.M.; Ober, K.A.; Cannone, J.J.; Gutell, R.R.
The beetle suborder Adephaga is traditionally divided into two sections on the basis of habitat, terrestrial Geadephaga and aquatic Hydradephaga. Monophyly of both groups is uncertain, and the relationship of the two groups has implications for inferring habitat transitions within Adephaga. Here we examine phylogenetic relationships of these groups using evidence provided by DNA sequences from all four suborders of beetles, including 60 species of Adephaga, four Archostemata, three Myxophaga, and ten Polyphaga. We studied 18S ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA, aligned with consideration of secondary structure, as well as the nuclear protein-coding gene wingless. Independent and combined Bayesian, likelihood, and parsimony analyses of all three genes supported placement of Trachypachidae in a monophyletic Geadephaga, although for analyses of 28S rDNA and some parsimony analyses only if Coleoptera is constrained to be monophyletic. Most analyses showed limited support for the monophyly of Hydradephaga. Outside of Adephaga, there is support from the ribosomal genes for a sister group relationship between Adephaga and Polyphaga. Within the small number of sampled Polyphaga, analyses of 18S rDNA, wingless, and the combined matrix supports monophyly of Polyphaga exclusive of Scirtoidea. Unconstrained analyses of the evolution of habitat suggest that Adephaga was ancestrally aquatic with one transition to terrestrial. However, in analyses constrained to disallow changes from aquatic to terrestrial habitat, the phylogenies imply two origins of aquatic habit within Adephaga. PMID:19789725
Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A
Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.
Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556
Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace
ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.
Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371
Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.
Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang
We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor.
Halffter, Gonzalo; Pineda, Eduardo; Arellano, Lucrecia; Escobar, Federico
We analyzed changes over time in species composition and functional guild structure (temporal beta diversity) for natural assemblages and those modified by humans in a fragmented, tropical mountain landscape. The assemblages belong to cloud forests (the original vegetation type), secondary forests, traditional shaded coffee plantations, commercial shaded coffee plantations, and a cattle pasture. Copronecrophagous beetles, subfamily Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were used as the indicator group. This group has been used in previous studies and other tropical forests and has been found to be a good indicator of the effects of anthropogenic change. For each assemblage, we compared samples that were collected several years apart. Changes were found in species composition, order of abundance, and in the proportion that a given species is present in the different functional groups. The changes that occurred between samplings affected the less abundant species in the cloud forest and in the pasture. In the other vegetation types, both abundant and less abundant species were affected. Their order of abundance and proportion in the different guilds also changed. This study shows that, although landscape richness remains relatively constant, richness at the local level (alpha diversity) changes notably even over short lapses of time. This could be a characteristic of landscapes with intermediate degrees of disturbance (such as those that have been partially modified for human use), where assemblage composition is very fluid.
Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.
Ren, Li-Li; Wu, Ying; Shi, Juan; Zhang, Lu; Luo, You-Qing
We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the typology, morphology, distributions, and ultrastructures of the antennal sensilla of Tetrigus lewisi Candèze, a predatory click beetle that feeds on longhorned beetles, such as, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We observed eight types of sensilla on the antennae, including sensilla chaetica (with three subtypes: ch.1, ch.2, ch.3), sensilla basiconica (subtypes: ba.1, ba.2, ba.3), sensilla trichodea (subtypes: tr.1, tr.2), as well as sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla styloconica and Böhm's bristles. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in the antenna morphology, as well as in the density of type 2 sensilla trichodea and type 1 sensilla basiconica. We observed thick cuticular walls on sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia; clear pore structures on sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica; and double walls with spoke-channels on sensilla coeloconica. The chemoreception, mechanoreception and thermo-/hygro-reception functions were deduced from fine structures on the cuticular walls and the dendrites of the different sensilla types. We suggest that all these sensilla have important roles in the host location, mating and predatory behavior of T. lewisi.
Kölsch, Gregor; Synefiaridou, Dimitra
When symbioses between insects and bacteria are discussed, the origin of a given association is regularly of interest. We examined the evolution of the symbiosis between reed beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and intracellular symbionts belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. We analyzed the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA to assess the phylogenetic relationships with bacteria we found in other beetle groups (Cerambycidae, Anobiidae, other Chrysomelidae). We discuss the ecology of each association in the context of the phylogenetic analysis. The bacteria in Sagra femorata (Chrysomelidae, Sagrinae) are very closely related to those in the Donaciinae and are located in similar mycetomes. The Sagrinae build a cocoon for pupation like the Donaciinae, in which the bacteria produce the material required for the cocoon. These aspects support the close relationship between Sagrinae and Donaciinae derived in earlier studies and make a common ancestry of the symbioses likely. Using PCR primers specific for fungi, we found Candida sp. in the mycetomes of a cerambycid beetle along with the bacteria. PMID:26466539
Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael
Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.
Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965
Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong
The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.
Merrill, Scott C; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa; Armstrong, J Scott; Peairs, Frank B
The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree-day models, are an integral tool for development of C. adspersus management strategies. Using data collected in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, we sought for predictable variation between C. adspersus pupation, adult eclosion, and emergence and accumulated degree-days Celsius (DD) by using a temperature threshold of 5 degrees C. Accurate phenological models can be used to time scouting efforts and pesticide applications. The relationship between phenological data and accumulated DD fit nonlinear, Gaussian distributions better than uniform distributions. Phenological models were developed to describe these distributions for pupation, adult presence within the stalk and adult emergence. The pupation model predicts 50% pupation at 197 DD and 90% at 307 DD. Model results predict that 50% of adult eclosion within the stalks will have transpired at 396 DD and 90% at 529 DD. A model-averaged result from two data sets predicts 5% adult emergence from stalks at 262 DD, 50% emergence at 540 DD, 75% emergence at 657 DD, and 90% at 777 DD. Scouting for adults thus can be initiated at 262 DD. Current chemical controls target adults to prevent oviposition. Thus, applications therefore should not be made before this point.
Vayias, B J; Athanassiou, C G; Kavallieratos, N G; Buchelos, C Th
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of seven populations (strains) of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to five commercially available diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations: Insecto, Protect-It, Protector, PyriSec, and SilicoSec. These DEs were applied on wheat, Triticum durum Desf., at two dose rates, 500 and 1000 ppm. The six beetle strains were obtained from Denmark, United Kingdom, Greece, Germany, Italy, and Portugal, whereas a seventh strain came from the Greek strain after laboratory selection with SilicoSec-treated wheat for six generations. Adults of the above-mentioned strains were exposed for 7 d to wheat treated with each DE formulation, and mortality was assessed after exposure. For all DE-dose combinations, significant differences were noted in mortality levels among strains. Generally, the strains from Denmark, United Kingdom, and Germany were the most susceptible to the DEs used, whereas the strain from Portugal was the least susceptible. No significant differences were noted in susceptibility level between the initial Greek strain and the laboratory-selected Greek strain, with the exception of Protector, where the selected strain was significantly more tolerant than the initial strain for both dose rates tested.
Hough-Goldstein, J; Stout, A R; Schoenstein, J A
Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, has been mass reared with no infusion of new genetic material for 8-9 yr (at least 24-36 generations), while insects from the same genetic stock have been subject to field conditions in North America for that same period of time. Our main objective was to compare the laboratory population with the field population (and in 1 yr with a Chinese field population) to determine whether genetic changes had occurred, especially ones that may reduce the effectiveness of the laboratory population when released in the field. The laboratory insects laid more eggs and had reduced survival compared with field weevils in several comparisons, and had reduced responsiveness to cues that induce reproductive diapause. Exposure to older plants had the greatest effect on induction of reproductive diapause in both laboratory and field weevils, with effects of daylength and temperature less pronounced. At least a portion of the laboratory weevil population overwintered successfully. Results suggest that it is not necessary to add wild-type genetic material to the rearing colony at this time.
Guillermina Socías, María; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Murúa, María Gabriela; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo Gustavo
The soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus Boheman 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a very serious soybean pest in the Neotropical region. Both adults and larvae feed on soybean, causing significant yield losses. Adult survival was evaluated during three soybean growing seasons under controlled environmental conditions. A survival analysis was performed using a parametric survival fit approach in order to generate survival curves and obtain information that could help optimize integrated management strategies for this weevil pest. Sex of the weevils, crop season, fortnight in which weevils emerged, and their interaction were studied regarding their effect on adult survival. The results showed that females lived longer than males, but both genders were actually long-lived, reaching 224 and 176 d, respectively. Mean lifetime (l50) was 121.88±4.56 d for females and 89.58±2.72 d for males. Although variations were observed in adult longevities among emergence fortnights and soybean seasons, only in December and January fortnights of the 2007–2008 season and December fortnights of 2009–2010 did the statistically longest and shortest longevities occur, respectively. Survivorship data (lx) of adult females and males were fitted to the Weibull frequency distribution model. The survival curve was type I for both sexes, which indicated that mortality corresponded mostly to old individuals.
Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.
We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248
Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus
In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.
Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia
Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910
Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin
In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.
Ju, Qian; Guo, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Xiang-Guo; Ni, Wan-Li; Qu, Ming-Jing
Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) is a notorious pest of many crops. To improve the effectiveness of its female-produced sex pheromone (L-isoleucine methyl ester:(R)-(-)-linalool = 6:1), 14 plant volatiles, including dodecanoic acid, dodecanal, farnesol, α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ocimene, methyl benzoate, and benzaldehyde, were individually evaluated using electroantennography and olfactometer assays. (E)-2-Hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were found to elicit the strongest responses in both males and females. Further testing of these two compounds in mixtures with the sex pheromone indicated that (E)-2-hexenyl acetate had a stronger synergistic effect than (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Field evaluations showed that mixtures of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and the sex pheromone resulted in significantly higher catches than the sex pheromone alone. Using a 5:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, the maximum number of females per trap per day was 14, showing a synergistic effect of a factor of four. For males, a 3:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate yielded a maximum number of 310 individuals per trap per day, equivalent to a synergistic effect of 175%. These results may provide the basis for the development of efficient pest management systems against H. parallela using plant volatiles and insect sex pheromones.
Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad
An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata. PMID:20334592
Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E
Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations.
Sousa, A H; Faroni, L R A; Silva, G N; Guedes, R N C
Ozone is a recognized alternative to the fumigants methyl bromide and phosphine for the control of stored product insects. However, as with fumigants in general, the potential sublethal effects of ozone on targeted insect species may compromise its efficacy and has yet to be investigated. Here, we determined ozone toxicity of 30 field-collected populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and assessed the walking response of adult insects from these populations to sublethal ozone exposure. Time-mortality toxicity to ozone at 50 ppm concentration in a continuous 2 liter/min flow indicated uniform susceptibility among the populations studied without any indication of ozone resistance (toxicity ratios [at LT50] > two-fold). In contrast, there was significant variation in walking activity among the maize weevil populations, which was not correlated with ozone susceptibility. This was not surprising because of the relatively uniform susceptibility to ozone among the maize weevil populations. Respiration rate affected ozone toxicity but not walking activity, whereas body mass was negatively correlated with walking activity but was not correlated with ozone toxicity. Based on our data, lower respiration rates may potentially lead to reduced ozone uptake whereas larger body mass limits walking activity. Ozone seems a promising alternative fumigant with low short-term risk of resistance development because of the high susceptibility and low variability of response to this compound. Furthermore, ozone reduces walking activity of S. zeamais that implies it likely reduces the chances of insects escaping exposure at the early stages of fumigation.
Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz
Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.
Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948
Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.
Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.
Guo, W; Yan, X; Zhao, C; Han, R
The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against the white grub Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields was evaluated. In the first experiment with a high initial white grub population (24.65 +/- 2.44 larvae per m2) in the field, Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 at 10,000 and 5,000 infective juveniles (IJs) per plant contributed to significantly higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae, lower percentage of the injured legume, and higher peanut yield compared with chlorpyrifos and other treatments. The peanut yields harvested from the plots treated with EPNs at 5,000 IJs per plant were at least 70% higher than that from the untreated control (water) and at least 30% higher than that from chlorpyrifos-treated plots. In the second experiment with a low initial white grub population (8.07 +/- 1.29 larvae per m2) in the field, EPN treatment did not increase peanut yield compared with the other treatments. But both S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 gained higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae and lower percentage of the injured legume than Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All and the control. The cost-benefit of using EPNs for white grub control was estimated to be comparable with that of using chemicals. S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 showed promise for white grub control in peanut fields.
Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D
Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.
Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang
Edge effects resulting from logging on the distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied across ecotones between regenerating and mature forests established after harvesting of old-growth forests 20 yr prior to this study in southwestern China. Using pitfall traps, beetles were collected along five ecotone transects using nine samples with a distance interval of 25 m each. Although no significant differences were found in species richness and abundance of carabids among all three habitats, i.e., mature forest, young regenerating stand, and edge habitat, rarefaction estimates of species richness indicated that traps in young regenerating stands accumulated species faster than those on mature forest interiors and forest edges. Carabid species composition of the forest edges was more similar to those of the mature forest interiors than to those of the young regenerating stands. Variability in species composition was significantly reduced in young stands, suggesting that the carabid community from young stands is more homogeneous than the one from mature forests. Although most species occurred in all habitats, some species were significantly more abundant in mature forests and/or edges than in young stands. Results indicated that edge effects on forest carabids may persist for at least 20 yr after disturbance.
Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.
Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791
Coleman, Tom W; Smith, Sheri L; Jones, Michael I; Graves, Andrew D; Strom, Brian L
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was linked in 2008 to ongoing tree mortality in oak woodlands of southern California. Mortality of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, and California black oak, Q. kelloggii Newb., continues as this exotic phloem borer spreads in southern California. Management options are needed to preserve high-value oaks and maintain management objectives. From 2009 to 2012, we tested four contact insecticide formulations in four experiments against A auroguttatus in California. The impact of contact insecticides was evaluated ∼<1, 8, and 12 mo postapplication against A auroguttatus adults in no-choice leaf-feeding or walking bioassays. At <1 mo postapplication, bifenthrin, carbaryl, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin all reduced adult survival and feeding in leaf-feeding and walking bioassays. At 8 mo postapplication, only bifenthrin reduced adult feeding, but had no effect on survivorship. At 12 mo postapplication, adult A auroguttatus survived fewer days and fed less in leaf-feeding bioassays with bifenthrin, carbaryl, and permerthin. These results support the annual application of contact insecticides prior to A auroguttatus' flight period to reduce adult leaf maturation feeding and activity on the bark surface (e.g., oviposition), but additional studies are needed to show these contact treatments can prevent tree mortality from this invasive species.
Lopez, Vanessa M; McClanahan, Michael N; Graham, Laurie; Hoddle, Mark S
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to southern Arizona and is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has caused considerable mortality to native oak species in southern California. Assessing the dispersal capabilities of this woodborer may help to determine its potential environmental and economic risk within the invaded region, and possibly assist with the development of species-specific management strategies. The flight performance of A. auroguttatus adults under different age, mating, and nutritional status was assessed by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, number and duration of flight bouts, and postflight weight. The nutritional status and body size (i.e., elytron length) of A. auroguttatus adults had a significant influence on overall flight performance. Mating status and gender had no significant influence on total flight distance, duration, velocity, and flight bout time. Significant interactions between nutritional status and age were observed in the overall flight performance of A. auroguttatus, with decreased flight activity in old (approximately 6 d of age) starved individuals during a 24-h trial period. Overall, results of these flight mill assays indicate that A. auroguttatus is unable to disperse long distances across habitats that lack suitable oak hosts. This work supports the hypothesis that human-aided transportation via infested oak firewood from southern Arizona across the Sonoran desert likely caused the initial introduction, and subsequent satellite infestations of A. auroguttatus within southern California's native oak woodlands.
Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana
Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005
Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species. PMID:28107464
Ray, Ann M; Ginzel, Matthew D; Hanks, Lawrence M
Adult male Megacyllene robiniae (Förster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that are paired with a female often are challenged by conspecific males that attempt to displace them. In staged laboratory bouts, challenging males used seven distinct tactics to displace defending males, including wedging their head between the defender and the female (termed wedging), straddling the mated pair and pulling the defender off (prying), pulling it with the mandibles, batting it with the antennae, or pushing, biting, or kicking the defender. Individual challengers attempted as many as six different tactics in a single bout, repeating certain tactics multiple times. They often attempted tactics that were not very effective. For example, prying was one of the most common attempted tactics but was rarely effective. However, few challengers attempted to push defenders off the female, even though that tactic often was effective. Challengers apparently were influenced by context in their choice of particular tactics. For example, males that approached the mated pair from the side were likely to use wedging, whereas those approaching head on were more likely to bat with the antennae. Choice of tactic apparently was not influenced by absolute size of challengers, nor was it strongly influenced by relative size of defenders. However, the effectiveness of tactics varied significantly with relative body size: larger challengers were most successful when prying or pushing, while smaller challengers were most successful when biting and kicking. By using different tactics, relatively small males were as adept as larger males at displacing rivals.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D
The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm. All developmental stages of D. maculatus and exuviae were positive for fluoxetine. We also quantified the drug and no significant differences were found either between the days or the stages in the general model, but at 277nm a tendency of the concentration to decrease with time was observed. Concentrations of fluoxetine at 277nm were almost equal or greater than those at 270nm. This is the first study to detect and quantify fluoxetine from entomological samples and, in particular, from D. maculatus beetles.
Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C
Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity.
Greco, E B; Wright, M G
The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels.
Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817
Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón
The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.
Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D
The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.
Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M
Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.
Whipple, Sean D; Hoback, W Wyatt
Although the preference of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) for specific types and conditions of dung has been given substantial attention, little has been done to investigate the potential effects of exotic mammal introduction for game farms or rewilding projects. We used pitfall traps baited with various native and exotic herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore dung to evaluate dung beetle preference in the Great Plains of North America. Additionally, we analyzed of the nutrient quality of each dung type. In total, 9,089 dung beetles from 15 species were captured in 2 yr of sampling. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean dung beetle capture among omnivore, herbivore, and carnivore dung, as well as differences in individual species preference for dung type. Omnivore dung was the most attractive with chimpanzee and human dung having the highest mean capture (291.1 ± 27.6 and 287.5 ± 28.5 respectively). Carrion also was highly attractive with a mean of 231.9 ± 20.6 beetles per trap (N = 8). Our results suggest definitive local preference of carrion in Phanaeus vindex Macleay and Onthophagus hecate (Panzer), while the congener, O. pennsylvanicus (Harold), was rarely captured in carrion and highly preferred omnivore dung. Preference for a specific bait type does not appear to be correlated with dung quality, mammalian diet, or origin of mammal. Results suggest niche segregation by dung type among dung beetle species.
Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A
Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control.
Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R
The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.
Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.
Loha, Kumelachew Mulu; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra
In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed β-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 1500 (3c) and PEG - 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC(50) values (2.2 and 1.58 mg L(-1) respectively). Also, release from the commercial SC formulation was faster than developed formulations as the commercial formulation had the lowest EC(50) value on the first day (0.51 mg L(-1)). The mean EC(50) of the commercial formulation against C. maculatus was quite high as compared to those of developed formulations. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of β-cyfluthrin can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. The results described in this paper are promising and provide a comparison of developed formulations with the commercial one showing an earlier degradation of β-cyfluthrin in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former.
Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H
The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.
Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack
Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.
Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M
Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures.
Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad
Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.
O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E
Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.
Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.
Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J
The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.
Myers, Clayton T; Leskey, Tracy C; Forsline, Philip L
Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important apple, Malus domestica Borkh., pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple germplasm has never been rigorously evaluated. Thus, studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of a number of exotic and domestic Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) "core" collection in Geneva, NY. Contrary to earlier published reports and promising data from a field assessment in 2005, these results suggest that there is probably little potential for genetic resistance to plum curculio among the Malus germplasm collection evaluated. More specifically, four Malus hybrid selections that have previously been released with claims of plum curculio resistance were shown to be susceptible to plum curculio attack. Because there are additional accessions housed at PGRU outside of the core collection that are currently classified as resistant, further studies are necessary to evaluate the true resistance qualities of these releases. It is also important to clarify such discrepancies in both the USDA online Germplasm Resources Information Network and in the horticultural literature. Although other Malus species exhibited some variability in fruit susceptibility, none could be classified as being truly resistant to plum curculio attack by any definition that would have relevance to commercial production and sale of apples.
Mullins, Patricia L; Riley, Edward G; Oswald, John D
The carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas are surveyed. Thirteen of the 14 species, and five of the six genera, of this ecologically and forensically important group of scavengers that have previously been reported from Texas are confirmed here based on a study of 3,732 adult specimens. The one reported, but unconfirmed, species, Oxelytrum discicolle, was probably based on erroneous label data and is excluded from the Texas fauna. Two additional species, Nicrophorus sayi and N. investigator are discussed as possible, but unconfirmed, components of the fauna. Taxonomic diagnoses, Texas distribution range maps, seasonality profiles, and biological notes are presented for each confirmed species. The confirmed Texas silphid fauna of 13 species comprises 43% of the 30 species of this family that are known from America north of Mexico. The highest richness (11 species) is found in the combined Austroriparian and Texan biotic provinces of eastern Texas. Phenologically, three species (Necrophila americana, O. rugulosum and Nicrophorus tomentosus) exhibit bimodal adult temporal occurrence patterns with peaks in the spring and late summer or fall; four species (Oiceoptoma noveboracense, Necrodes surinamensis, Nicrophorus carolinus, and N. orbicollis) exhibit unimodal occurrence patterns with a single peak in late spring or early summer; one species (Oiceoptonia inaequale) exhibits a unimodal occurrence pattern with a single peak in early spring; and five species (Thanatophilus truncatus, Nicrophorus americanus, N. marginatus, N. mexicanus and N. pustulatus) display unimodal occurrence patterns with peaks in late summer or early fall.
Germain, Jean-François; Chatot, Catherine; Meusnier, Isabelle; Artige, Emmanuelle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid
Epitrix species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed mostly on plants from the family Solanaceae and some of them are major pests of potato crops. All Epitrix species are morphologically highly similar, which makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. Identification of species is mostly based on the observation of the genitalia and requires a high level of expertise. Here, we propose a tool to reliably identify all developmental stages of the most economically important Epitrix species feeding on potato in Europe and North America (Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix similaris, Epitrix tuberis, Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix hirtipennis). We first sequenced two DNA markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) to test their effectiveness in differentiating among six Epitrix species (126 specimens). Morphospecies of Epitrix were well-differentiated by both DNA barcodes and no mitochondrial introgression was detected. Then, we developed an RFLP-based diagnostic method and showed that unambiguous species discrimination can be achieved by using the sole restriction enzyme TaqI on COI polymerase chain reaction products. The tool proposed here should improve our knowledge about Epitrix species biology, distribution and host range, three capacities that are particularly important in the detection and management of these pest species. Specifically, this tool should help prevent the introduction of E. tuberis and E. subcrinita in Europe and limit the spread of the recently introduced E. cucumeris and E. similaris, with minimal disruption to Solanaceae trade.
Gillett, Conrad P.D.T.; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J.T.N.; Jordal, Bjarte H.; Emerson, Brent C.; Vogler, Alfried P.
Complete mitochondrial genomes have been shown to be reliable markers for phylogeny reconstruction among diverse animal groups. However, the relative difficulty and high cost associated with obtaining de novo full mitogenomes have frequently led to conspicuously low taxon sampling in ensuing studies. Here, we report the successful use of an economical and accessible method for assembling complete or near-complete mitogenomes through shot-gun next-generation sequencing of a single library made from pooled total DNA extracts of numerous target species. To avoid the use of separate indexed libraries for each specimen, and an associated increase in cost, we incorporate standard polymerase chain reaction-based “bait” sequences to identify the assembled mitogenomes. The method was applied to study the higher level phylogenetic relationships in the weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), producing 92 newly assembled mitogenomes obtained in a single Illumina MiSeq run. The analysis supported a separate origin of wood-boring behavior by the subfamilies Scolytinae, Platypodinae, and Cossoninae. This finding contradicts morphological hypotheses proposing a close relationship between the first two of these but is congruent with previous molecular studies, reinforcing the utility of mitogenomes in phylogeny reconstruction. Our methodology provides a technically simple procedure for generating densely sampled trees from whole mitogenomes and is widely applicable to groups of animals for which bait sequences are the only required prior genome knowledge. PMID:24803639
Johnson, T A; Williamson, R C
The linden borer, Saperda vestita Say (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a native insect species that is common throughout north central and northeastern North America. Over the past decade, increasing occurrence of damage associated with the linden borer has been reported on Tilia spp. in city street trees and nurseries throughout Wisconsin, probably because of increased use of these trees. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of the seasonal biology and potential management strategies for this important pest. We evaluated the effectiveness of three systemic insecticides, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and disulfoton, and a mechanical control method of chipping linden borer-infested wood as a means of reducing S. vestita larval survival, subsequent emergence, and oviposition. Autumn and spring soil injections of imidacloprid to linden borer-infested Tilia cordata'Greenspire' nursery stock (< 11.4 cm in diameter at breast height [dbh]) provided >90% control. Autumn soil injections of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and a spring granular soil application treatment of disulfoton applied to larger (>22 cm dbh) Tilia spp. did not effectively control linden borer at the application rates tested. Chipping infested Tilia spp. effectively destroyed linden borer larvae, pupae, and adults. Arborists and landscape managers should consider chipping felled Tilia spp. trees infested with S. vestita to prevent adults from potentially attacking nearby susceptible trees.
Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.
Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171
Webster, Reginald P; Webster, Vincent L; Alderson, Chantelle A; Hughes, Cory C; Sweeney, Jon D
This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick.
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Campbell, James F
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in laboratory conditions. The effect of trap seeding, adding adults of the same or different species, was evaluated in order to determine possible effects of prior captures in the trap on each species' behavioral responses. The presence of seeded beetles of the same species resulted in an increase in beetle captures for both T. castaneum and T. confusum, but when traps were seeded with the opposite species, there was no increase in beetle captures for either species, and for T. castaneum overall captures in both seeded and unseeded traps was reduced. Overall, T. castaneum tended to have greater captures than T. confusum regardless of the treatment. When the two species were released together, this negated the increased response to seeded traps observed in the single-species treatments. These findings suggest the potential that the presence of beetles in a trap may be influencing the response of beetles in a nearby trap and that T. castaneum and T. confusum when they occur together may influence each other's response to traps.
Gómez, A; Sáenz-Aponte, A
Strategus aloeus L (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), known as "Little bull" or oil palm "chiza" is a limiting pest in palm plantation in Cesar Colombia. Its management is based on pesticide use or old palm removal in renewal lots. Therefore, other alternatives are being sought out. Entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from the Colombian Andean region were evaluated. Under laboratory conditions S. aloeus third instar larvae exposure to 160 infective juveniles (IJs) per/cm(2) Steinernema sp3 JCL027, S. feltiae SCT125, S. websteri JCL006, S. colombiense SNI0198, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HNI0100, H. bacteriophora HASA702, H. indica SL0708 (n = 20) was evaluated under a completely randomized design. The experiment was repeated three times on different dates. Significant differences were observed (F = 11.127, df = 7. 24, p = 0.0054), registering mortality between 3 and 14 days. Steinernema sp3 JCL027 was the strain producing the highest mortality rate (19.3 ± 8 %), followed by H. bacteriophora HNI0100 (5.2 ± 9 %). Thus, we evaluated Steinernema sp3 JCL0270 using a randomized design at 0, 160, 290, 420, 550, 680, 810 IJs/cm(2) (n = 12). The experiment was repeated three times on different dates. Significant differences were found among treatments (44 ± 5 %, F = 14.676; df = 6. 21, p = 0.001), with 680 IJs/cm(2) producing the highest mortality followed by 810 IJs/cm(2) (22 ± 5 %). In conclusion, this alternative must be further explored in search of pesticide use and cost reduction, in addition to young palm loss in a plantation.
The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle's coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.
Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin
Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont ('Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri') that amounts to 52.4-98.7% of the adult beetles' entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4-87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae's carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host's nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized.
Ulyshen, Michael D; Duan, Jian J; Bauer, Leah S; Fraser, Ivich
Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endo-parasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi involves presenting the wasps with artificially infested ash sticks made by placing field-collected larvae into shallow grooves beneath flaps of bark. Although third and fourth instars are readily accepted by T. planipennisi in these exposures, the suitability of younger or older developmental stages, which are often more readily available in the field, has not been tested. In this study, we used both artificially infested ash sticks and naturally infested ash logs to test which emerald ash borer developmental stages (second to fourth instars, J larvae [preprepupae], prepupae, and pupae) are most suitable for rearing T. planipennisi. T. planipennisi parasitized all stages except for pupae, but parasitized fewer J larvae and prepupae in naturally infested logs than in artificially infested ash sticks. This is probably because, in naturally infested ash logs, these stages were confined to pupal chambers excavated in the sapwood and may have been largely beyond the reach of ovipositing T. planipennisi. The number of T. planipennisi progeny produced was positively correlated (logarithmic) with host weight, but this relationship was stronger when J larvae and prepupae were excluded from the data set. Fourth instars yielded the most parasitoid progeny, followed by, in approximately equal numbers, J larvae, prepupae, and third instars. Second instars yielded too few parasitoid progeny to benefit rearing efforts.
Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver
The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.
Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun
Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots. PMID:23209398
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J
Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 10(4)-10(6) living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae.
Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.
Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities
Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin
Background The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest. PMID:22384206
Peterson, Merrill A; Larson, Erica L; Brassil, Margaret; Buckingham, Kati J; Juárez, Danielle; Deas, Joseph; Mangloña, Donna; White, Michael A; Maslan, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Andrew; Monsen, Kirsten J
Most species pairs are isolated through the collective action of a suite of barriers. Recent work has shown that cryptic barriers such as conspecific sperm precedence can be quite strong, suggesting that they evolve quickly. However, because the strength of multiple barriers has been formally quantified in very few systems, the relative speed with which conspecific sperm precedence evolves remains unclear. Here, we measure the strength of both conspecific sperm precedence and cryptic non-competitive isolation between the hybridizing sister species, Chrysochus auratus and C. cobaltinus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and compare the strength of those barriers to the strength of other known reproductive barriers in this system. Overall, cryptic barriers in this system are weaker than other barriers, indicating that they have not evolved rapidly. Furthermore, their evolution has been asymmetric. Non-competitive barriers substantially reduce the production of hybrid offspring by C. auratus females but not by C. cobaltinus females. In multiply-mated C. cobaltinus females, heterospecific sperm outcompete conspecific sperm, as evidenced by the fact that heterospecific males sired disproportionately more offspring than predicted from the results for singly-mated females. In C. auratus females, neither sperm type has a competitive advantage. Such asymmetries explain why nearly all F1 hybrids in the field are from crosses between C. cobaltinus females and C. auratus males. We discuss these findings in terms of understanding the cost of mating 'mistakes' in the Chrysochus hybrid zone. In addition, our discovery that 95% confidence intervals for commonly-used isolation statistics can be very wide has important implications for speciation research. Specifically, to avoid biases in the interpretation of such isolation metrics, we suggest that studies should routinely include error estimates in their analyses of reproductive isolation.
Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.
Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587
De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Rinderer, Thomas E; Arbogast, Richard T
Olfactory cues released by adult bees, brood, pollen, and honey from a honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colony are the primary stimuli that guide the beetle Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to host colonies. To investigate the response of adult A. tumida to visual stimuli, we tested the influence of color and height on trap efficiency. Two pole trap colors (black and white) were evaluated at three heights (46 cm, 1 m, and 3m) from October 2008 to December 2009. A. tumida were trapped in the greatest numbers between 17 April and 15 May 2009. The lowest numbers were captured during the winter and fall. The trapping results showed that both color and trap height significantly influenced capture. The average catch in the white traps (mean +/- SE, 2.47 +/- 0.30) was significantly higher than that of the black traps (1.53 +/- 0.29) probably because white is more reflective than black. Among the heights evaluated, there were more beetles caught when traps were positioned at 46 cm (the same height as the entrance of the hives) with 3.07 +/- 0.51 beetles compared with beetles captured at 1 m (1.88 +/- 0.30) or 3 m (1.06 +/- 0.18) high. Male and female beetles exhibited similar responses to trap color and height. The relationship between the numbers of beetles in colonies and capture rates in traps was very poor and did not provide a basis to evaluate trap efficiency. In addition, because capture rates seemed generally low in relationship to the number of beetles in the apiary, substantial improvements to the trap may be necessary.
Bartelt, R J; James, D G
A male-produced aggregation pheromone was identified for the Australian sap beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni Dobson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), by bioassay-guided fractionation of volatiles collected from feeding beetles. The most abundant components were: (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2,4,6-nonatriene, (3E,5E,7E)-6-ethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7-decatriene, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene. The relative abundance of these components in collections from individual males feeding on artificial diet was 100:7:9:31, respectively. Pheromone production began within several days after males were placed onto diet medium and continued for at least 20 weeks. Peak production was >3 µg total pheromone per male per day. Males in groups of 50-60 emitted less pheromone (the peak level was 0.09 µg per beetle per day), and the emissions from groups contained relatively little tetraene (proportions of the components listed above were 100:7:2:7, respectively). Three additional trienes and one additional tetraene were identified in minor amounts; the entire eight-component male-specific blend is qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar to that of the North American sibling species,C. freemani Dobson. A synthetic blend of the four major components on rubber septa, prepared to emit in the same proportions as from individual males, was highly attractive in the field when synergized with fermenting whole-wheat bread dough. Cross-attraction was observed in the field involving the pheromones ofC. davidsoni, C. hemipterus (L.), andC. mutilatus Erichson. Potential uses of the pheromones in pest management are discussed.
Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe
Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed.
Yu, Daojian; Barak, Alan V; Jiao, Yi; Chen, Zhinan; Zhang, Guiming; Chen, Zhilin; Kang, Lin; Yang, Weidong
Bamboo (genera Bambusa and Phyllstachys) is one of the fastest growing and economically important plants in the world, and it is cultivated widely throughout southern China. China annually exports to the United States significant quantities of bamboo garden stakes (Bambusa spp.). In recent years, Plant Protection and Quarantine officers of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have made numerous interceptions of the bamboo borer, Chlorophorus annularis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in bamboo products from China. This species is considered to have high pest risk potential in the trade of bamboo products. As a fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (SF) would be a practical alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Here, we report the results of SF fumigation tests for C. annularis in bamboo poles at three doses--96 g/m3 at 15.9 degrees C, 80 g/m3 at 21.5 degrees C, and 64 g/m3 at 26.0 degrees C--in glass test chambers. Commercial standard fumigations were also conducted in a standard 6.1-m-long, 33.2-m3 (standard height, 20-feet) marine general cargo container loaded to 80% (vol:vol) with similar bamboo poles, and sufficient levels of SF were obtained during the 24-h fumigations. During the course of these tests, 2424 larvae, 90 pupae, and 23 adults in total were killed, with no survivors. A treatment schedule using SF is proposed for bamboo as an alternative to MeBr at several temperatures tested.
Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin
Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont (‘Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri’) that amounts to 52.4–98.7% of the adult beetles’ entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4–87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae’s carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host’s nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized. PMID:27713733
Xu, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Li; Lv, Xian-Zhen; Yao, Shi-Tong; Chen, Xue-Xin
Cionus latefasciatus Voss (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important insect pests on Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariales: Scrophuhrhceae), which is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine plant in southeast China. The biological characteristics and effects of temperature on the growth and development of C. latefasciatus were studied in nature, in the greenhouse, and in the laboratory. In the area studied, 9-12 generations of this weevil occurred per year depending on climatic conditions. The overwintered adults migrated to the plant-seeding fields in the earlier days of March, and adults of the last generation began to overwinter in early October. Female adults lived for 50-75 d and male adults for 50-65 d at 28 degrees C. Adults fed on leaves, buds, tender stems, and flower stalks during the entire developmental phase of the plant. Female adults began to lay eggs 2-4 d after emergence and laid an average of 330-390 eggs per female at 28 degrees C. The eggs were usually laid on the surface of the leaves or into the leaves. The larvae have four instars judging from the width of the cephalic capsule of the larvae. The larvae fed on leaves and buds of the plant. Under constant temperatures (17, 20, 25, 28, and 30 degrees C) and fixed humidity (75%), the development periods from egg to adult emergence were 36.91, 29.25, 19.11, 17.26, and 15.36 d, respectively, and 346.31 degree-days, in total, above a lower threshold of 7.7 degrees C was required; the survival rates from egg to adult emergence were 49.1, 62.5, 72.0, 78.7, and 50.0%, respectively. Laboratory experiments showed that the optimum temperature for the development from egg to adult emergence was 28 degrees C.
Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S
Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.
Sandoval-Gómez, Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Lawrence, John F.
Abstract We designate lectotypes and propose nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) based on type specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (USA), Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the Natural History Museum (UK), Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Genève (Switzerland), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (France), Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Sweden) and Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Austria). We designate lectotypes for the following species: Cis fultoni Broun, 1886, Xylographus anthracinus Mellié, 1849, X. bicolor Pic, 1916, X. brasiliensis Pic, 1916, X. ceylonicus Ancey, 1876, X. contractus Mellié, 1849, X. corpulentus Mellié, 1849, X. dentatus Pic, 1922, X. gibbus Mellié, 1849, X. hypocritus Mellié, 1849, X. javanus Pic, 1937, X. lemoulti Pic, 1916, X. longicollis Pic, 1922, X. madagascariensis Mellié, 1849, X. nitidissimus Pic, 1916, X. perforatus Gerstaecker, 1871, X. porcus Gorham, 1886, X. punctatus Mellié, 1849, X. ritsemai Pic, 1921, X. rufescens Pic, 1921, X. rufipennis Pic, 1934, X. rufipes Pic, 1930, X. seychellensis Scott, 1926, X. subopacus Pic, 1929, X. subsinuatus Pic, 1916, X. suillus Gorham, 1886, X. testaceitarsis Pic, 1916 and X. tomicoides Reitter, 1902. We propose the following syn. n. (senior synonym listed first): X. anthracinus = X. testaceitarsis, X. brasiliensis = X. lucasi Lopes-Andrade & Zacaro, X. corpulentus = X. lemoulti and X. richardi Mellié, X. madagascariensis = X. eichelbaumi Reitter, X. rufipennis, X. seychellensis Scott and X. tarsalis Fåhraeus, X. nitidissimus = X. longicollis, X. subsinuatus = X. rufescens. We exclude three species from Xylographus: Cis renominatus, nom. n. (for X. dentatus Pic, 1922, not C. dentatus Mellié, 1849), Paratrichapus fultoni (Broun, 1886), comb. n. and P. javanus (Pic, 1937), comb. n. PMID:24493963
Haavik, Laurel J; Crook, Damon J; Fierke, Melissa K; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M
We used life table analyses to investigate age specific mortality and to better understand the population dynamics of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We continually sampled populations within 177 trees at primarily two sites in the Ozark National Forest in Arkansas throughout three (2-yr) generations. The first cohort (adults emerged in 2003) was sampled during a severe population outbreak, whereas the second and third (2005 and 2007) were sampled during the population crash that followed. Generation mortality was 94% in 2003 and 99% in both 2005 and 2007. Estimates of apparent mortality indicated that the E. rufulus population crash likely occurred during or before the first overwintering period (2003-2004) of the generation that emerged as adults in 2005. We found limited evidence for density dependent mortality, which suggest that intraspecific competition after the first active feeding period was apparently not an important mortality factor during E. rufulus development. Life tables revealed that E. rufulus larvae generally experienced the greatest apparent mortality during the second summer of active feeding (80-94%) when larvae were feeding in, and moving between phloem and sapwood. The least apparent mortality was incurred during the following spring and early summer (26-67%) when late stage larvae and pupae were deepest and most protected within sapwood or heartwood tunnels. We found very little evidence for mortality from associated species. Scarring of vascular tissue in response to E. rufulus feeding occurred during early life stages and may be an important tree resistance mechanism and E. rufulus mortality factor.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J.
Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum. Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella. Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 104–106 living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353
Moreno, Benjamín; Macías, Jorge; Sullivan, Brian T; Clarke, Stephen R
Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus spp.) in Mexico. Conspecifics are attracted to trees undergoing colonization by the aggregation pheromone frontalin, which is synergized by odors of pine oleoresin released from beetle-damaged host tissue. Synthetic racemic frontalin combined with turpentine has been the operational bait used in traps for monitoring populations of D. frontalis in Mexico as well as the United States. Recently, racemic endo-brevicomin has been reported to be a synergist of the frontalin/turpentine bait and as an important component of the aggregation pheromone for D. frontalis populations in the United States. To determine whether racemic endo-brevicomin also might function as an aggregation synergist for the geographically isolated D. frontalis populations of Central America and Mexico, we performed a field trapping trial in Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, Mexico, during July and August 2007. The combination of endo-brevicomin (placed either directly on the trap or 4 m away) plus racemic frontalin and turpentine caught at least 5 times more D. frontalis of both sexes than did turpentine either alone or in combination with either frontalin or endo-brevicomin. The addition of endo-brevicomin to the frontalin/turpentine bait also increased the proportion of females trapped. We conclude that the addition of endo-brevicomin might substantially improve the efficiency of the frontalin/turpentine bait for monitoring of D. frontalis in Central America and Mexico. We discuss factors that reconcile our results with previous studies that reported endo-brevicomin to be an attractant antagonist for populations of D. frontalis in Mexico and Honduras.
Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I
In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae
Siegert, N W; McCullough, D G; Williams, D W; Fraser, I; Poland, T M; Pierce, S J
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, has become one of the most destructive forest pests in North America. Since it was first identified in 2002 in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, dozens of isolated A. planipennis populations have been discovered throughout Michigan and Ontario, and in 12 other states and the province of Quebec. We assessed realized A. planipennis dispersal at two discrete outlier sites that originated 1 yr and 3 yr earlier from infested nursery trees. We systematically sampled ash trees within an 800 m radius of the origin of each infestation to locate galleries constructed by the progeny of dispersing A. planipennis adults. Our sampling identified eight trees at the 1 yr site infested with a mean +/- SE of 11.6 +/- 8.4 A. planipennis larvae and 12 trees at the 3 yr site with 25.8 +/- 11.1 larvae per meter squared. Dendroentomological analysis indicated that A. planipennis populations were predominantly undergoing a 2 yr (semivoltine) life cycle at both sites. Colonized trees were found out to 638 and 540 m from the epicenters at the 1 yr and 3 yr sites, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the likelihood of A. planipennis colonization was affected by wind direction, ash phloem abundance, distance from the epicenter, or land-use type (i.e., wooded, residential, agricultural, or urban). Results show that the probability of A. planipennis colonization was significantly affected by ash phloem abundance and decreased with distance from the epicenter.
Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M
Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult.
Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes
The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence
Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun
Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.
Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.
Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum
Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology.
Abstract Background Using syntactic and semantic conventions of the taxonomic concept approach (Franz et al. 2015), we describe three newly recognized fossil broad-nosed weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) preserved in Early Miocene amber (ca. 20.4-16.0 mya) from the Dominican Republic: Scelianoma compacta sp. n. sec. Franz & Zhang (2017) (henceforth abbreviated as [FZ2017]), Tropirhinus palpebratus sp. n. [FZ2017], and Diaprepes anticus sp. n. [FZ2017]. The taxonomic assignment of the amber inclusions is grounded in a preceding phylogenetic analysis by Franz (2012). As many as 88 of the 143 therein identified characters were coded for the fossils, whose traits are largely congruent with those present in extant congeners while also differing in ways that justify their new nomenclatural and taxonomic status. New information We present detailed images, descriptions, and phylogenetically informed diagnoses for the three new species-level entities, along with logically consistent Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) alignments of the amended genus-level classifications for Scelianoma Franz and Girón 2009 [FZ2017], Tropirhinus Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017], and Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017] - in relation to 2-4 preceding classifications published in 1982-2012. The description of Scelianoma compacta [FZ2017] from Hispaniola is indicative of a more widespread historical range of Scelianoma [FZ2017] than reflected in the extant, southwestern Puerto Rican Scelianoma elydimorpha Franz and Girón 2009 sec. Franz and Girón (2009). The presence of Diaprepes anticus [FZ2017] in Hispaniola during the Early Miocene suggests an eastward directed process of island colonization and likely speciation of members of Diaprepes [FZ2017], given that most extant relatives occur throughout the Lesser Antilles. The herein presented data will facilitate more reliable reconstructions of historical biographic processes thought to have played a prominent role in the diversification of
The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.
Anton, Eric; Yavorskaya, Margarita I; Beutel, Rolf G
External and internal structures of the head of adults of Clambus are described and illustrated in detail. The results are compared with structural features found in the clambid genus Calyptomerus, in representatives of other scirtoid families, and also in species of other coleopteran suborders, notably Myxophaga. The results tentatively support the monophyly of Scirtoidea and a close relationship between Clambidae and Eucinetidae is suggested by one shared derived feature of the mandible, a long and slender apical tooth with a serrate edge. The monophyly of Clambidae is very strongly supported and Acalyptomerus is probably the sistergroup of a clade Calyptomerus + Clambinae. Potential scirtoid autapomorphies are the loss of the dorsal tentorial arms, a bulging gula, a strongly transverse labrum, and a ridge separating the mediostipes from the lacinia. However, all these features are homoplasious. The monophyly of Clambidae is supported by modifications of the head capsule which is strongly flattened and broadened, by a deep clypeofrontal incision enabling vertical antennal movements, and a series of antennal features. Synapomorphies of Clambinae + Calyptomerus (Clambidae excluding Acalyptomerus) are the conglobate body form with the ventral side of the head capsule in contact with the mesocoxae, and compound eyes integrated in the contour of the head. The completely subdivided eye is an autapomorphy of Clambus. An entire series of features is shared by Clambidae (or Scirtoidea) and Myxophaga. Most of them are apomorphies that apparently evolved independently in both groups. However, the presence of well-developed maxillary and labial glands is arguably a retained groundplan feature of Coleoptera, with parallel loss in Archostemata, Adephaga and various groups of Polyphaga.
Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J
A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.
Geisert, Ryan W; Meinke, Lance J
The frequency of extended diapause in populations of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was measured in eastern Nebraska. Adult collections were made during late summer in 2008 and 2009 from eight sites each year (seven sites were consistent over years). Eggs were obtained from 12 to 20 females per site and were held on moist soil under appropriate temperature profiles to facilitate egg survival, diapause development, and diapause termination. Percentage egg hatch was recorded after the first and second year for the 2008 and 2009 collections. Additional extended diapause expression was estimated for the 2008 and 2009 collections by counting remaining live eggs after the second-year egg hatch was completed. These data also were used to estimate each site's maximum egg viability. Results collectively indicate that the extended diapause trait was present in all eastern Nebraska populations; however, significant variation in the frequency of extended diapause was observed within and among D. barberi populations (first-year mean percentage egg hatch range: 2008 collections: 4.5-38.6%; 2009 collections: 10.7-42.5%). Geographically, the highest incidence of extended diapause was found along a north-south transect in eastern counties of Nebraska that parallels the Missouri River. In general, the frequency of extended diapause was lower in sites found west of the north-south transect. This study contributes to the knowledge base needed to develop appropriate D. barberi management strategies in Nebraska. These data can be used to pinpoint areas of Nebraska that may have the greatest risk of economic injury in first-year corn (Zea mays L.) when D. barberi densities are high.
Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J
A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making.
Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion.
Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R
The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.
Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S
Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).
Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui
Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631
Luna, J M; Xue, L
Aggregation behavior of adult western spotted cucumber beetles (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was examined in six snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) fields adjacent to corn fields in western Oregon in 2004-2006. In the 2004 and 2005 studies, sweep net sampling was used to estimate beetle numbers along transect lines running perpendicular to the edges of the bean fields next to sweet corn fields. Beetles were collected from the fields and dissected to determine sex and egg development. Beetles were highly aggregated along the edge of the snap bean field next to the sweet corn, with the highest number of beetles occurring within the first meter next to the edge. Beetles in the aggregation areas were mostly females (average female to male ratio of 8.4 to 1), whereas beetles in the field section away from the edges were mostly male (female to male ratio of 0.6 to 1). Of the females collected in the aggregation areas, an average of 53% contained developing or fully developed eggs. In the 2006 study, beetle densities in the field edges were compared with densities within the fields in 40 bean fields with adjacent corn fields. Linear regression analysis showed that, across fields, nearly two times as many beetles were found in the field borders as in the rest of the field. These data suggest modifying traditional field scouting protocol to include field margins when a bean field is adjacent to or near a sweet corn field. A pest management strategy of only spraying the edges of bean fields containing beetle aggregations shows potential for significant pesticide reduction, as well as reducing risk of economic loss from crops harvested from the highly aggregated areas.
Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T
Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest.
Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J
The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.
Mausel, D L; Salom, S M; Kok, L T; Davis, G A
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), native to western North America and Asia, was accidentally introduced from Japan to the eastern United States. To potentially establish biological control of A. tsugae, we released a predator endemic to western North America, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), from 2003 to 2005, in 22 localities from Georgia to Massachusetts. Release sites spanned the invasive range of the adelgid across five United States Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones (5a to 7a). Release sizes were 75, 150, 300, 600, or 1,200 adult L. nigrinus per site in the fall, winter, early spring, or sequentially (i.e., fall or winter and early spring). We monitored establishment by annual sampling for L. nigrinus adults with beat sheets and for L. nigrinus larvae by branch clipping. At the end of 3 yr, L. nigrinus was established in 13 of the 22 sites. The following variables were evaluated for their correlation with the numbers of L. nigrinus larvae and adults recovered and for their effect on establishment (scored as F(3) presence/absence): (1) Minimum winter temperature at the release site, (2) A. tsugae density at the time of release, (3) release size, and (4) release season. Only minimum winter temperature was correlated with larval recoveries and no variables were correlated with adult recoveries. Logistic regression modeling found that establishment was positively related to minimum winter temperature and release size. We recommend smaller release sizes in warm areas where establishment probability was high (i.e., zones 7a, 6b, and 6a) and larger release sizes in cold areas where establishment probability was low (i.e., zones 5b and 5a). Releases during fall-early spring and across the range of A. tsugae densities tested were successful.
Gramig, Greta G; Burns, Erin E; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A
Predictions of phenological development for insect biological control agents may facilitate post-release monitoring efforts by allowing land managers to optimize the timing of monitoring activities. A logistic thermal time model was tested to predict phenology of immature stem-mining weevils, Hadroplontus litura F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent for Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense L. (Asterales: Asteraceae). Weevil eggs and larvae were collected weekly from Canada thistle stems in eastern North Dakota from May through July during 2010 and 2011. Head capsule widths of sampled larvae were measured at the widest point and plotted on a frequency histogram to establish ranges of head capsule widths associated with each instar. We found head capsule width ranges for first-, second-, and third-instar H. litura larvae were 165-324 µm, 346-490 µm, and 506-736 µm, respectively. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the proportions of H. litura eggs, first-, and second-instar larvae in the weevil population as a function of thermal time. Model estimates of median development time for eggs, first instars, and second instars ranged from 219 ± 23 degree-days (DD) to 255 ± 27 DD, 556 ± 77 DD to 595 ± 81 DD, and 595 ± 109 DD to 653 ± 108 DD, respectively. Based on model validation statistics, model estimates for development timing were the most accurate for eggs and first instars and somewhat less accurate for second instars. These model predictions will help biological control practitioners obtain more accurate estimates of weevil population densities during post-release monitoring.
Richards, Karen; Spencer, Chris P
The stag beetle (Coleoptera: Lucaindae) genus Hoplogonus Parry is endemic to northeastern Tasmania and contains three recognised species. Descriptions of the imagines have been published previously, but not the larvae. Descriptions of the larvae of the three Hoplogonus species and the sympatric Lissotes rudis Lea (also Lucanidae) are presented and discussed, and a key to aid identification of Hoplogonus larvae is included. The classification of Hoplogonus within the tribe Platycerini is proposed, alongside Lissotes.
Jia, Fenglong; van Vondel, Bernhard
Abstract A revised checklist of Haliplidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of China is presented. A new species Haliplus (Haliplus) latreillei sp. n. is described from Guizhou, China. Three species, Haliplus (Haliplidius) confinis Stephens, Haliplus (Haliplus) ruficollis (De Geer) and Haliplus (Haliplus) sibricus Motschulsky are reported from China for the first time. Haliplus dalmatinus Müller is excluded from the list of Chinese species. A number of new provincial records from China is presented. PMID:22140336